Science.gov

Sample records for assessments iaea initiatives

  1. Assessment of Alternative Funding Mechanisms for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2012-06-15

    While the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is growing concern that global demographic trends, advances in technology and the trend towards austerity in Member State budgets will stretch the Agency’s resources to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As part of an ongoing effort by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to evaluate the IAEA’s long-term budgetary concerns , this paper proposes a series of alternate funding mechanisms that have the potential to sustain the IAEA in the long-term, including endowment, charity, and fee-for-service funding models.

  2. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Phase I Status and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-10-01

    required confidence level. In order to address uncertainty propagation in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) that officially started in 2013. Although this project focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements, many lessons can be learned from the LWR community and the significant progress already made towards a consistent methodology uncertainty analysis. In the case of LWRs the NRC has already in 1988 amended 10 CFR 50.46 to allow best-estimate (plus uncertainties) calculations of emergency core cooling system performance. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) also established an Expert Group on "Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling" which finally led to the definition of the "Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) for Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs". The CRP on HTGR UAM will follow as far as possible the on-going OECD Light Water Reactor UAM benchmark activity.

  3. IAEA regulatory initiatives for the air transport of large quantities of radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, Robert E.; Wangler, Michael W.; Selling, Hendrik A.

    1992-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been laboring since 1988 over a far reaching change to its model regulations (IAEA, 1990) for the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). This change could impact the manner in which certain classes of radioactive materials are shipped by air and change some of the basic tenets of radioactive material transport regulations around the world. This report discusses issues associated with air transport regulations.

  4. Pantak Therapax SXT 150: performance assessment and dose determination using IAEA TRS-398 protocol.

    PubMed

    Jurado, D; Eudaldo, T; Carrasco, P; Jornet, N; Ruiz, A; Ribas, M

    2005-08-01

    The performance assessment and beam characteristics of the Therapax SXT 150 unit, which encompass both low and medium-energy beams, were evaluated. Dose determination was carried out by implementing the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) TRS-398 protocol and measuring all the dosimetric parameters in order to have a solid, consistent and reliable data set for the unit. Mechanical movements, interlocks and applicator characteristics agreed with specifications. The timer exhibited good accuracy and linearity. The output was very stable, with good repeatability, long-term reproducibility and no dependence on tube head orientation. The measured dosimetric parameters included beam first and second half-value layers (HVLs), absorbed dose rate to water under reference conditions, central axis depth dose distributions, output factors and beam profiles. Measured first HVLs agreed with comparable published data, but the homogeneity coefficients were low in comparison with typical values found in the literature. The timer error was significant for all filters and should be taken into consideration for the absorbed dose rate determination under reference conditions as well as for the calculation of treatment times. Percentage depth-dose (PDD) measurements are strongly recommended for each filter-applicator combination. The output factor definition of the IAEA TRS-398 protocol for medium-energy X-ray qualities involves the use of data that is difficult to measure. Beam profiles had small penumbras and good symmetry and flatness except for the lowest energy beam, for which a heel effect was observed. PMID:16046424

  5. Health-related monitoring and assessment of airborne particulate matter. An overview of recent IAEA programs.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Smodis, B

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been promoting studies of air pollution using a standard design of air sampler that provides separation on filters into two size fractions with cutoffs of 2.5 and 10 microns (approximately). These are the size ranges presently considered to have the most important health consequences. Such filter samples are highly amenable to analysis using nuclear and related techniques. After reviewing some of the health effects of airborne particulate matter and current air quality standards and guidelines, this article provides an overview of current and recent IAEA programs in this area, which involve collaborative activities with participants in more than 40 countries.

  6. Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.; Haase, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; McNutt, P.

    2011-04-01

    Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's (DOI) Office of Insular Affairs (OIA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the island of Guam by conducting an island initial technical assessment that would lay out energy consumption and production data and establish a baseline. This assessment will be used to conduct future analysis and studies by NREL that will estimate energy efficiency and renewable energy potential for the island of Guam.

  7. Results of an IAEA inter-comparison exercise to assess 137Cs and total 210Pb analytical performance in soil.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Mabit, L

    2009-01-01

    Fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as (210)Pb and (137)Cs have been widely used to assess soil erosion and sedimentation processes. It is of major importance to obtain accurate analytical results of FRNs by gamma analysis before any data treatment through conversion model and to allow subsequent comparison of erosion and sedimentation rates from different case studies. Therefore, IAEA organized an inter-comparison exercise to assess the validity and reliability of the analytical results of (137)Cs and total (210)Pb using gamma-spectrometry in the various laboratories participating in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on "Assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management using fallout radionuclides". Reference materials were distributed to 14 participating laboratories and, using a rating system, their analytical results were compared to the reference values assigned. In the case of (137)Cs, the analytical results were satisfactory with 66% of the laboratories producing acceptable results. Only the sample with low (137)Cs activity (2.6+/-0.2Bqkg(-1)) gave less accurate results with more than 25% not acceptable results. The total (210)Pb analysis indicated a clear need for corrective actions in the analysis process as only 36% of the laboratories involved in the proficiency test was able to access total (210)Pb with occurrence (bias 10%). This inter-laboratory test underlines that further inter-comparison exercises should be organized by IAEA or regional laboratories to ensure the quality of the analytical data produced in Member States. As a result of the above-mentioned proficiency test, some recommendations have been provided to improve accurate gamma measurement of both (137)Cs and total (210)Pb. PMID:18760612

  8. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  9. Use of Data Libraries for IAEA Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) [section 5.4

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, D.; Lane, M.

    2015-06-23

    Data libraries are essential for the characterization of the facility and provide the documented input which enables the facility assessment results and subsequent conclusions. Data Libraries are historical, verifiable, quantified, and applicable collections of testing data on different types of barriers, sensors, cameras, procedures, and/or personnel. Data libraries are developed and maintained as part of any assessment program or process. Data is collected during the initial stages of facility characterization to aid in the model and/or simulation development process. Data library values may also be developed through the use of state testing centers and/or site resources by testing different types of barriers, sensors, cameras, procedures, and/or personnel. If no data exists, subject matter expert opinion and manufacturer's specifications/ testing values can be the basis for initially assigning values, but are generally less reliable and lack appropriate confidence measures. The use of existing data libraries that have been developed by a state testing organization reduces the assessment costs by establishing standard delay, detection and assessment values for use by multiple sites or facilities where common barriers and alarms systems exist.

  10. Initial Performance Assessment of CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David; Hunt, Bill; McGill, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP, pronounced the same as "calliope") is a spaceborne two-wavelength polarizatio n lidar that has been acquiring global data since June 2006. CALIOP p rovides high resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols, and has been designed with a very large linear dynamic range to encompas s the full range of signal returns from aerosols and clouds. CALIOP is the primary instrument carried by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrar ed Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite, which was l aunched on April, 28 2006. CALIPSO was developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and the French space agency, CNES. I nitial data analysis and validation intercomparisons indicate the qua lity of data from CALIOP meets or exceeds expectations. This paper presents a description of the CALIPSO mission, the CALIOP instrument, an d an initial assessment of on-orbit measurement performance.

  11. Improving Initial Assessment: Guide to Good Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knasel, Eddy; Meed, John; Rossetti, Anna; Read, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    This guide is aimed at anyone in work-based training who is responsible for learners during their first few weeks. Readers will (1) understand the value and purpose of initial assessment in key skills and Skills for Life; (2) become familiar with a range of techniques for the initial assessment; (3) plan an initial assessment system that is…

  12. IAEA TECDOC 055 Outline

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-07-13

    An outline of suggestions for updating a version of IAEA-TECDOC-1276 is provided. This update will become IAEA-TECDOC-055, titled ''IAEA handbook for designing and implementing physical protection systems for nuclear material and nuclear facilities.''

  13. Initiating a Programmatic Assessment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkaliev, Zaur; Devi, Shavila; Fasshauer, Gregory E.; Hickernell, Fred J.; Kartal, Ozgul; Li, Xiaofan; McCray, Patrick; Whitney, Stephanie; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of a department of applied mathematics, a program assessment was conducted to assess the departmental goal of enabling undergraduate students to recognize, appreciate, and apply the power of computational tools in solving mathematical problems that cannot be solved by hand, or would require extensive and tedious hand computation. A…

  14. Annex C. Data Libraries for IAEA Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, D.; Lane, M.

    2015-06-23

    Data Libraries are a collection of experimental data for PP elements based on specific defeat mechanisms. The data can de related to probability of detection, assessment, or barrier delay times. The data libraries can be a manually tabulated list or an electronic menu values enbedded in a stand-alone database or in an assessment software program such as SAVI or EASI. Data library values are usually based on years of historical testing data for many forms of common and sometimes unique PPS systems. Most useful testing libraries include data from the most basic alarm sensors, doors, walls, and barriers to very sophisticated PP elements. Each PP element is tested using increasing levels of defeat techniques from hand tools, power tools, breaching tools, explosives, and vehicles, as applicable.

  15. Assessment of actinide decay data evaluations: findings of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    PubMed

    Kellett, M A

    2012-09-01

    Organised under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, comprehensive decay scheme evaluations for over eighty actinides and their decay products have been completed on the basis of detailed assessments of the available experimental data. However, despite the application of sound evaluation procedures, such work cannot replace the need to perform and access good quality measurements for adoption. This evaluation programme provided a means of quantifying the quality of the underlying data to ensure that well-focused recommendations could be made for future experimental decay-data studies.

  16. Application of IDEAS guidelines: the IDEAS/IAEA intercomparison exercise on internal dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Hurtgen, C; Andrasi, A; Bailey, M R; Birchall, A; Blanchardon, E; Berkovski, V; Castellani, C M; Cruz-Suarez, R; Davis, K; Doerfel, H; Leguen, B; Malatova, I; Marsh, J; Zeger, J

    2007-01-01

    As part of the EU Fifth Framework Programme IDEAS project 'General Guidelines for the Evaluation of Incorporation Monitoring Data', and in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, a new intercomparison exercise for the assessment of doses from intakes of radionuclides was organised. Several cases were selected, to cover a wide range of practices in the nuclear fuel cycle and medical applications. The cases were: (1) acute intake of HTO, (2) acute inhalation of the fission products 137Cs and 90Sr, (3) acute inhalation of 60Co, (4) repeated intakes of 131I, (5) intake of enriched uranium and (6) single intake of Pu isotopes and 241Am. This intercomparison exercise especially focused on the effect of the Guidelines proposed by the IDEAS project for harmonisation of internal dosimetry.

  17. American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Conrad, M.; Funk, K.; Kandt, A.; McNutt, P.

    2011-09-01

    This document is an initial energy assessment for American Samoa, the first of many steps in developing a comprehensive energy strategy. On March 1, 2010, Assistant Secretary of the Interior Tony Babauta invited governors and their staff from the Interior Insular Areas to meet with senior principals at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Meeting discussions focused on ways to improve energy efficiency and increase the deployment of renewable energy technologies in the U.S. Pacific Territories. In attendance were Governors Felix Camacho (Guam), Benigno Fitial (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), and Togiola Tulafono, (American Samoa). This meeting brought together major stakeholders to learn and understand the importance of developing a comprehensive strategic plan for implementing energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies. For several decades, dependence on fossil fuels and the burden of high oil prices have been a major concern but never more at the forefront as today. With unstable oil prices, the volatility of fuel supply and the economic instability in American Samoa, energy issues are a high priority. In short, energy security is critical to American Samoa's future economic development and sustainability. Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's Office of Insular Affairs, NREL was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the islands of American Samoa. Technical assistance included conducting an initial technical assessment to define energy consumption and production data, establish an energy consumption baseline, and assist with the development of a strategic plan. The assessment and strategic plan will be used to assist with the transition to a cleaner energy economy. NREL provided an interdisciplinary team to cover each relevant technical area for the initial energy assessments. Experts in the following disciplines traveled to American Samoa for on-island site assessments: (1) Energy

  18. Modeling and assessment of electricity market initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrian, Pedram

    This body of work is dedicated to the modeling and assessment of initiatives within electricity markets using the underlying hourly market dynamics. The dissertation presents two separate frameworks that take a bottom-up approach for assessing benefits associated with various demand-side initiatives and other emerging interventions in power markets. Models in support of each framework are presented, and numerical results are used to highlight some impacts based on hourly dynamics. The first framework uses stochastic optimization models to explore the economic feasibility of grid-scale energy storage from the perspective of a price taking, profit maximizing firm facing uncertain market dynamics. This model is then extended to incorporate intermittent wind generation, demonstrating how storage can be used as a potential substitute for transmission capacity. The second framework uses a new dynamic market equilibrium simulation model to address broader economic and environmental impacts of various demand-side initiatives including: energy efficiency, distributed generation, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The general model is calibrated for the California electricity market. The model is used to estimate impacts of the various interventions, taking into account varying market adoption levels and natural gas prices.

  19. TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPPING FOR IAEA SEALS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFFHEINS,B.; ANNESE,C.; GOODMAN,M.; OCONNOR,W.; GUSHUE,S.; PEPPER,S.

    2003-07-13

    In the fall of 2002, the U.S. Support Program (USSP) initiated an effort to define a strategy or ''roadmap'' for future seals technologies and to develop a generalized process for planning safeguards equipment development, which includes seals and other safeguards equipment. The underlying objectives of the USSP include becoming more proactive than reactive in addressing safeguards equipment needs, helping the IAEA to maintain an inventory of cost-effective, reliable, and effective safeguards equipment, establishing a long-term planning horizon, and securing IAEA ownership in the process of effective requirements definition and timely transitioning of new or improved systems for IAEA use. At an initial workshop, seals, their functions, performance issues, and future embodiments were discussed in the following order: adhesive seals, metal seals, passive and active loop seals, ultrasonic seals, tamper indicating enclosures (including sample containers, equipment enclosures, and conduits). Suggested improvements to these technologies focused largely on a few themes: (1) The seals must be applied quickly, easily, and correctly; (2) Seals and their associated equipment should not unduly add bulk or weight to the inspectors load; (3) Rapid, in-situ verifiability of seals is desirable; and (4) Seal systems for high risk or high value applications should have two-way, remote communications. Based upon these observations and other insights, the participants constructed a skeletal approach for seals technology planning. The process begins with a top-level review of the fundamental safeguards requirements and extraction of required system features, which is followed by analysis of suitable technologies and identification of technology gaps, and finally by development of a planning schedule for system improvements and new technology integration. Development of a comprehensive procedure will require the partnership and participation of the IAEA. The presentation will include a

  20. Polarization masks: concept and initial assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Michael; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2002-07-01

    Polarization from photomasks can be used as a new lever to improve lithographic performance in both binary and phase-shifting masks (PSMs). While PSMs manipulate the phase of light to control the temporal addition of electric field vectors, polarization masks manipulate the vector direction of electric field vectors to control the spatial addition of electric field components. This paper explores the theoretical possibilities of polarization masks, showing that it is possible to use bar structures within openings on the mask itself to polarize incident radiation. Rigorous electromagnetic scattering simulations using TEMPEST and imaging with SPLAT are used to give an initial assessment on the functionality of polarization masks, discussing the polarization quality and throughputs achieved with the masks. Openings between 1/8 and 1/3 of a wavelength provide both a low polarization ratio and good transmission. A final overall throughput of 33% - 40% is achievable, corresponding to a dose hit of 2.5x - 3x.

  1. A brief history of NDA at the IAEA.

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J. K.; Sinkule, B. J.; Hsue, S.-T.; Abhold, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, the first portable nondestructive assay instrument, a SAM-II, was brought to Vienna for IAEA consideration. This initial foray into the usage of nondestructive assay (NDA) as an independent assessment tool has materialized into one of the important tools for IAEA inspections. NDA instruments have several inherent advantages for inspectors; their measurements generate no radioactive waste, provide immediate answers, do not require specialized operators, and can be either taken to the items to be measured (portable instruments), or the items for measurement can be brought to the instruments, such as can be applied in on-site IAEA laboratories or off-site IAEA lab at Siebersdorf. The SAM-II was a small, lightweight, battery-powered, gamma-ray instrument used for uranium enrichment measurements. It was also found to be usehl for locating nuclear material, distinguishing between uranium and plutonium, and determining the active length of items like fuel pins. However it was not well suited for determining the amount of bulk material present, except for small containers of low-density materials. A 6-sided neutron coincidence counter, easily disassembled so it could be shipped and carried by airplane, was developed for bulk measurements of plutonium. The HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) was immediately useful for quantitative measurements of pure plutonium oxide. However, the IAEA had to make a trade-off between the ease of use of NDA instruments on-site, and the problems of obtaining small samples for shipment to an independent lab for more accurate analysis. NDA does not create radioactive waste, so as waste handling has become more cautious and more regulated, NDA looks better and better. After acceptance of NDA by the IAEA for routine use, the follow-up question was naturally, 'How much better can this measurement be made?' The Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) supported multiple and varied efforts in this

  2. Initial assessments of ignition spherical torus

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Borowski, S.K.; Bussell, G.T.; Dalton, G.R.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hamilton, W.R.; Kalsi, S.S.; Lee, V.D.; Miller, J.B.

    1985-12-01

    Initial assessments of ignition spherical tori suggest that they can be highly cost effective and exceptionally small in unit size. Assuming advanced methods of current drive to ramp up the plasma current (e.g., via lower hybrid wave at modest plasma densities and temperatures), the inductive solenoid can largely be eliminated. Given the uncertainties in plasma energy confinement times and the effects of strong paramagnetism on plasma pressure, and allowing for the possible use of high-strength copper alloys (e.g., C-17510, Cu-Ni-Be alloy), ignition spherical tori with a 50-s burn are estimated to have major radii ranging from 1.0 to 1.6 m, aspect ratios from 1.4 to 1.7, vacuum toroidal fields from 2 to 3 T, plasma currents from 10 to 19 MA, and fusion power from 50 to 300 MW. Because of its modest field strength and simple poloidal field coil configuration, only conventional engineering approaches are needed in the design. A free-standing toroidal field coil/vacuum vessel structure is assessed to be feasible and relatively independent of the shield structure and the poloidal field coils. This exceptionally simple configuration depends significantly, however, on practical fabrication approaches of the center conductor post, about which there is presently little experience. 19 refs.

  3. Silent Aircraft Initiative Concept Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    A risk assessment of the Silent Aircraft Initiative's SAX-40 concept design for extremely low noise has been performed. A NASA team developed a list of 27 risk items, and evaluated the level of risk for each item in terms of the likelihood that the risk would occur and the consequences of the occurrence. The following risk items were identified as high risk, meaning that the combination of likelihood and consequence put them into the top one-fourth of the risk matrix: structures and weight prediction; boundary-layer ingestion (BLI) and inlet design; variable-area exhaust and thrust vectoring; displaced-threshold and continuous descent approach (CDA) operational concepts; cost; human factors; and overall noise performance. Several advanced-technology baseline concepts were created to serve as a basis for comparison to the SAX-40 concept. These comparisons indicate that the SAX-40 would have significantly greater research, development, test, and engineering (RDT&E) and production costs than a conventional aircraft with similar technology levels. Therefore, the cost of obtaining the extremely low noise capability that has been estimated for the SAX-40 is significant. The SAX-40 concept design proved successful in focusing attention toward low noise technologies and in raising public awareness of the issue.

  4. Taking Initiative in the Age of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Josh; Morgan, Melanie; Ortiz, Anna Victoria; Anderson, Lindsey B.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is an increasingly important part of communication pedagogy, not just for periodic accreditation reviews but for ongoing justifications for resources and course design. This project relates the story of how another college at our university prompted us to prove that our Science Writing and Presentation course really delivered what it…

  5. Provincially and Locally Initiated Curriculum Program Assessment, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This report is an independent assessment of the Provincially Initiated Curriculum (PIC) and Locally Initiated Curriculum (LIC) for British Columbia's Centre for Curriculum, Transfer and Technology (C2T2), which manages both PIC and LIC projects. The report makes four recommendations for C2T2's consideration: (1) a renewed emphasis on communication…

  6. Guiding Principles to Impact an Institution-Wide Assessment Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinerichs, Scott; Bernotsky, R. Lorraine; Danner, Loretta Rieser

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are faced with challenges when implementing an assessment initiative. These challenges include constraints on time and resources, the demands of specialized accreditation, and faculty motivation to comply. In addition, the communication of the expectations around assessment must be clear to all constituents in…

  7. Formative Assessment Jump-Starts a Middle Grades Differentiation Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.

    2012-01-01

    A rural middle level school had stalled in its third year of a district-wide differentiation initiative. This article describes the way teachers and the leadership team engaged in collaborative practices to put a spotlight on formative assessment. Teachers learned to systematically gather formative assessment data from their students and to use…

  8. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial notice of assessment. 92.15 Section 92.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance UNITED STATES MINT... a written response under § 92.16 and to seek judicial review under § 92.18: (i) By electronic...

  9. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-01-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…

  10. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.15 Initial notice of... other evidence that the United States Mint compiled and relied on in determining to issue the...

  11. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.15 Initial notice of... other evidence that the United States Mint compiled and relied on in determining to issue the...

  12. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.15 Initial notice of... other evidence that the United States Mint compiled and relied on in determining to issue the...

  13. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.15 Initial notice of... other evidence that the United States Mint compiled and relied on in determining to issue the...

  14. 20 CFR 726.304 - Notice of initial assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of initial assessment. 726.304 Section 726.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE...

  15. 20 CFR 726.304 - Notice of initial assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of initial assessment. 726.304 Section 726.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE...

  16. 20 CFR 726.304 - Notice of initial assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of initial assessment. 726.304 Section 726.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE...

  17. Customized Assessment Group Initiative: A Complementary Approach to Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akindayomi, Akinloye

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in a US setting, examines the importance of group dynamics that emphasize cooperative team building through the proposed grouping strategy called Customized Assessment Group Initiative (CAGI). CAGI is a student grouping strategy designed to operationalize the mutual accountability concept central to the definition of teams by…

  18. The Kuwait Oil Fire Health Risk Assessment Biological Surveillance Initiative.

    PubMed

    Deeter, David P

    2011-07-01

    An important environmental concern during the first Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) was assessing exposures and potential health effects in U.S. forces exposed to the Kuwait oil fires. With only 3 weeks for planning, a Biological Surveillance Initiative (BSI) was developed and implemented for a U.S. Army unit. The BSI included blood and urine collections, questionnaire administration, and other elements during the predeployment, deployment, and post-deployment phases. Many BSI objectives were accomplished. Difficulties encountered included planning failures, loss of data and information, and difficulty in interpreting laboratory results. In order for biological surveillance initiatives to provide useful information for future deployments where environmental exposures may be a concern, meaningful, detailed, and realistic planning and preparation must occur long before the deployment is initiated. PMID:21916331

  19. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  20. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    PubMed

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  1. Reliability assessment of germanium gate stacks with promising initial characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cimang; Lee, Choong Hyun; Nishimura, Tomonori; Nagashio, Kosuke; Toriumi, Akira

    2015-02-01

    This work reports on the reliability assessment of germanium (Ge) gate stacks with promising initial electrical properties, with focus on trap generation under a constant electric stress field (Estress). Initial Ge gate stack properties do not necessarily mean highly robust reliability when it is considered that traps are newly generated under high Estress. A small amount of yttrium- or scandium oxide-doped GeO2 (Y-GeO2 or Sc-GeO2, respectively) significantly reduces trap generation in Ge gate stacks without deterioration of the interface. This is explained by the increase in the average coordination number (Nav) of the modified GeO2 network that results from the doping.

  2. IAEA safeguards and classified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.; Kratzer, M.

    1997-11-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has suggested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilize its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials, some of which are classified, under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring classified materials. A traditional safeguards approach, based on nuclear material accountancy, would seem unavoidably to reveal classified information. However, further analysis of the IAEA`s safeguards approaches is warranted in order to understand fully the scope and nature of any problems. The issues are complex and difficult, and it is expected that common technical understandings will be essential for their resolution. Accordingly, this paper examines and compares traditional safeguards item accounting of fuel at a nuclear power station (especially spent fuel) with the challenges presented by inspections of classified materials. This analysis is intended to delineate more clearly the problems as well as reveal possible approaches, techniques, and technologies that could allow the adaptation of safeguards to the unprecedented task of inspecting classified materials. It is also hoped that a discussion of these issues can advance ongoing political-technical debates on international inspections of excess classified materials.

  3. USSP-IAEA WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED SENSORS FOR SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.; QUEIROLO, A.; ZENDEL, M.; WHICHELLO, J.; ANNESE, C.; GRIEBE, J.; GRIEBE, R.

    2007-11-13

    The IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2006-2011) defines a number of specific goals in respect to the IAEA's ability to provide assurances to the international community regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy through States adherences to their respective non-proliferation treaty commitments. The IAEA has long used and still needs the best possible sensors to detect and measure nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards, recognizing the importance of safeguards-oriented R&D, especially targeting improved detection capabilities for undeclared facilities, materials and activities, initiated a number of activities in early 2005. The initiatives included letters to Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), personal contacts with known technology holders, topical meetings, consultant reviews of safeguards technology, and special workshops to identify new and novel technologies and methodologies. In support of this objective, the United States Support Program to IAEA Safeguards hosted a workshop on ''Advanced Sensors for Safeguards'' in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 23-27, 2007. The Organizational Analysis Corporation, a U.S.-based management consulting firm, organized and facilitated the workshop. The workshop's goal was to help the IAEA identify and plan for new sensors for safeguards implementation. The workshop, which was attended by representatives of seven member states and international organizations, included presentations by technology holders and developers on new technologies thought to have relevance to international safeguards, but not yet in use by the IAEA. The presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions where the participants considered two scenarios typical of what IAEA inspectors might face in the field. One scenario focused on an enrichment plant; the other scenario focused on a research reactor. The participants brainstormed using the technologies presented by the participants and other technologies known to them to propose

  4. k0-NAA quality assessment in an Algerian laboratory by analysis of SMELS and four IAEA reference materials using Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidatou, L. A.; Dekar, S.; Boukari, S.

    2012-08-01

    Different types of synthetic multi-element standard material (SMELS) and four IAEA reference materials, 140, Sl-1, Soil-7 and Lichen-336 were analyzed for validation and QC/QA of the k0-standardised Neutron Activation Analysis (k0-NAA). The samples of SMELS and RMs were irradiated at Es-Salam research reactor and measured on an absolutely calibrated HPGe detector with 35% relative efficiency connected to a Canberra Genie 2k inspector. Concentrations of 33 elements such as As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Tm, U, Yb, Zn, and Zr were determined in SMELS and RMs. The analytical results agreed well with the assigned values of SMELS and certified values of RMs. In the case of RMs, concentrations of a few elements, whose certified values are not available, could be determined. The comparison between experimental values and assigned/certified data for SMELS and RMs was made by means of the results from Relative Bias, Z-score and U-score. The relatives bias of the elements determined in SMELS with respect to the assigned values were all within±4.6%. For RMs with respect to certified values were within±10% except for few elements for which RB varied from -28.6% to +12.8%. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level for most of the elements in both the materials were within ±1. The U-scores for most of the elements were lower than 1.

  5. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, Bo; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to

  6. Initial assessment of an airborne Ku-band polarimetric SAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been used for a variety of dual-use research applications since the 1940s. By measuring the direction of the electric field vector from radar echoes, polarimetry may enhance an analysts understanding of scattering effects for both earth monitoring and tactical surveillance missions. Polarimetry may provide insight into surface types, materials, or orientations for natural and man-made targets. Polarimetric measurements may also be used to enhance the contrast between scattering surfaces such as man-made objects and their surroundings. This report represents an initial assessment of the utility of, and applications for, polarimetric SAR at Ku-band for airborne or unmanned aerial systems.

  7. Initial Readability Assessment of Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tian; Elhadad, Noémie; Weng, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Various search engines are available to clinical trial seekers. However, it remains unknown how comprehensible clinical trial eligibility criteria used for recruitment are to a lay audience. This study initially investigated this problem. Readability of eligibility criteria was assessed according to (i) shallow and lexical characteristics through the use of an established, generic readability metric; (ii) syntactic characteristics through natural language processing techniques; and (iii) health terminological characteristics through an automated comparison to technical and lay health texts. We further stratified clinical trials according to various study characteristics (e.g., source country or study type) to understand potential factors influencing readability. Mainly caused by frequent use of technical jargons, a college reading level was found to be necessary to understand eligibility criteria text, a level much higher than the average literacy level of the general American population. The use of technical jargons should be minimized to simplify eligibility criteria text. PMID:26958204

  8. Microplastics in the Solent estuarine complex, UK: An initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Anthony; Rees, Aldous; Rowe, Rob; Stevens, John; Wright, Paul

    2016-01-30

    Microplastics are known to be an increasing component found within both marine sediments and the water column. This study carried out an initial assessment of the levels of microplastics present within the Solent estuarine complex, focusing specifically on the water column. A plankton net trawl survey was carried out, with samples analysed using visual observation and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The study identified significant quantities of plastics, ranging in shape, with hot spots found at confluence points within the estuary. Though the FT-IR analysis was inconclusive, the nature of the samples indicates the effect of oceanographic conditions on the prevalent types of microplastics found, which in turn identifies key local sources such as wastewater treatment plants and the plastics industry as being the dominant inputs.

  9. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  10. IAEA reorganizes nuclear information services

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.

    2012-08-15

    As part of an overall restructuring of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Department of Nuclear Energy, the agency has established the Nuclear Information Section (NIS). The restructuring, recently announced by IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, also includes the creation of a separate Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) Section, as demand for assistance in this area is growing among member countries. According to the NIS Web site, 'This restructuring and the creation of the NIS provides an opportunity for further enhancing existing information products and services and introducing new ones-all with an eye towards advancing higher organizational efficiency and effectiveness.'

  11. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  12. Laptop Initiative Impact: Assessed Using Student, Parent and Teacher Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Diane M.; King, Frederick B.; Brown, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Several university researchers were invited to assist in the implementation and study of a Laptop Initiative for high school students. This initiative provided laptop computers for 247 students and 24 teachers who were grouped into ninth grade learning clusters at three schools. The research on the program's impact focused on student, teacher, and…

  13. A Collaborative Partnership Evaluation Project: Assessing a Middle School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, James E.; Witte, Maria Martinez; Saltiel, Iris; Hackett, Paul T.; Hesler, Kathy; Johnson, Mike

    2005-01-01

    A collaborative partnership provides school administrators and university researchers an opportunity to evaluate a school-based initiative. Richards Middle School (RMS) in Columbus, Georgia identified school improvement goals and involved university researchers in a collaborative evaluation with implications for strengthening leadership, training,…

  14. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM HEAT SETTING CARPET YARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives initial results of a project to determine the nature of emissions resulting from the heat setting of carpet yarn and to identify possible control options. To collect the necessary technical information, two manufacturing facilities were visited: World Carpets in ...

  15. Initial assessment of energy beets in the Southeast Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy beets as a non-food biofuel feedstock can help the U.S. achieve its renewable fuel goals, but with current emphasis on cellulosic feedstocks, there has been minimal research and development effort for energy beets in commercial bioconversion operations. Research was initiated to examine and ...

  16. Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; delaTorre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Fisk, M.; Freissenet, C.; Franz, H.; Glavin, D. P.; Gomez, F.; Haberle, R.; Hamilton, V.; Jones, J.; Kah, L.; Leshin, L.; Mahaffy, M.; McAdam, A.; McKay, C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Stern, J.; Treiman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory has made measurements that contribute to our assessment of habitability potential at Gale Crater. Campaign organization into a consistent set of measurable parameters allows us to rank the relative habitability potential of sites we study, ultimately laying a foundation for a global context inclusive of past and future Mars mission observations. Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape environments. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. Metrics for habitability assessment based on field work at sites sharing features analogous to Mars have previously been suggested. Grouping these metrics helps us to develop an index for their application to habitability assessment. The index is comprised of the weighted values for four groups of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.

  17. Assessing Precollege Science Education Outreach Initiatives: A Funder's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Debra A.; Hertle, Mark D.; Conley, Jill G.; Washington, Lori B.; Bruns, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an assessment of the collective impact of 35 grants that the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) made to biomedical research institutions in 1999 to support precollege science education outreach programs. Data collected from funded institutions were compared with data from a control group of institutions that had advanced to the…

  18. The Role of Needs Assessment for Faculty Development Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Garvan, Cynthia W.; Catalanotto, Frank A.; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the need for faculty development among faculty in one dental school by determining their highest priorities in teaching, scholarship, and administrative and leadership skills; the relationships among their knowledge and priorities for additional training; their satisfaction with current faculty development…

  19. Initial Findings Using an Alternative Assessment of Body Shape Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryujin, Donald H.; And Others

    Due to concerns that body shape preferences contribute to eating disorders among women, a new method to assess observer preferences for female body shapes was devised. In prior studies women have preferred thin models, but men have preferred models of average weight. In Experiment 1, an underweight female model was photographed in a white top and…

  20. Initial Reliability of The Standardized Orthopedic Assessment Tool (SOAT)

    PubMed Central

    Lafave, Mark R; Katz, Larry; Donnon, Tyrone; Butterwick, Dale J

    2008-01-01

    Context: Orthopaedic assessment skills are critical to the success of athletic therapists and trainers. The Standardized Orthopedic Assessment Tool (SOAT) has been content validated. Objective: To establish interrater reliability of the SOAT. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-two college students, 10 raters, and 2 standardized patients (SPs) from Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Design: Randomized observational study. Intervention(s): Students were allowed 30 minutes to complete a mock orthopaedic assessment of an SP with an injury specific to a region of the body (shoulder, knee, or ankle). Using the region-specific SOAT, raters and SPs evaluated students' orthopaedic assessment skills. Main Outcome Measure(s): The sum totals of the SOAT for 2 raters and 1 SP were used to calculate each student's performance scores for respective scenarios. Scale reliability analysis (Cronbach α) was completed on the SOAT for each of the 3 body-region examinations. Results: The mean overall reliability of 3 SOATs (ie, ankle, knee, and shoulder) was positive: α  =  .85 with the SP scores factored into the equation and α  =  .86 without the SP scores factored into the equation. Reliability for the ankle region was highest (α  =  .91), followed by the knee (α  =  .83) and the shoulder (α  =  .82). Conclusions: The study sample size was small, but the results will enable further study with generalization to a broader audience of athletic therapists and athletic trainers. Because a baseline measure of reliability was established using a robust statistical analysis, future researchers can employ more stringent statistical analysis and focus on the effects of various pedagogical techniques to teach and learn the underlying construct of clinical competence in orthopaedic assessment. PMID:18833311

  1. Hazard classification assessment for the High Voltage Initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Cogan, J.D.

    1994-04-19

    An investigation was conducted to determine whether the High Voltage Initiator (Sandia p number 395710; Navy NAVSEA No. 6237177) could be assigned a Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325`` under Code of Federal Regulations, 49 CFR 173.101, when packaged per Mound drawing NXB911442. A hazard classification test was performed, and the test data led to a recommended hazard classification of ``IGNITERS, 1.4G, UN0325,`` based on guidance outlined in DOE Order 1540.2 and 49 CFR 173.56.

  2. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special inspection at a facility: (1) Ship material accountancy samples taken for the IAEA's use, in... U.S. Government; (3) Use radiation detection and measurement devices; (4) Apply seals and...

  3. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... special inspection at a facility: (1) Ship material accountancy samples taken for the IAEA's use, in... U.S. Government; (3) Use radiation detection and measurement devices; (4) Apply seals and...

  4. Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

    2009-10-06

    Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to

  5. The IAEA: Neutralizing Iraq's nuclear weapons potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zifferero, M.

    1993-04-01

    With support from UNSCOM and staff members from several countries, the IAEA has succeeded in identifying and destroying most of Iraq's nuclear weapons potential. IAEA activities in Iraq have also established a sound basis for long-term monitoring of Iraq. This will involve several procedures and techniques, including the periodic monitoring of Iraq's main bodies of water and unannounced visits of resident inspectors to plants, factories, and research centers.

  6. Initial assessment of CryoSat-2 Performance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingham, D.; Galin, N.; Ridout, A.; Cullen, R.; Giles, K. A.; Laxon, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Following the launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, we have examined the performance of the CryoSat-2 SAR Interferometer over the continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, the Artic Ocean, and, for the purposes of calibration, over the oceans. Our aim has been to provide confirmation of the engineering performance of the radar interferometer, and to provide an initial geophysical validation of the resulting elevation measurements. We have confirmed the engineering performance at system level of the interferometer through performing a sequence of satellite rolls over the oceans, which provide a surface of known behavior and surface gradient. The activity has identified some errors in the SARIN L1b data products presently issued by ESA. Once corrected, the ocean calibration has demonstrated that the interferometer measures across-track surface slopes with a precision of 25 micro-radians and an accuracy of 10 micro-radians, which may be compared with a pre-launch estimation of 100 micro-radians; in short, the engineering performance greatly its the specification. The elevation measurement over the ice sheets combines the interferometer measurement of across track slope with the range measurement deduced from the SAR echoes. We have examined the performance of the range estimation, and determined the range precision to be 19 cm RMS at 20 Hz. We have examined the retrieval of the phase information over the ice sheets, and found the phase estimates to be robust and little affected by the uncertain ice sheet topography. Based on the calibration of the interferometer, the contribution of the across track slope error is, at 0.4 mm, negligible. While the quantity of data available to us that contains the corrections identified by the interferometer is limited, we have been able to confirm the range precision values from a limited cross-over analysis. Over marine sea ice, we have verified the discrimination of sea ice and ocean lead returns using contemporaneous SAR

  7. Assessing regression to the mean effects in health care initiatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions targeting individuals classified as “high-risk” have become common-place in health care. High-risk may represent outlier values on utilization, cost, or clinical measures. Typically, such individuals are invited to participate in an intervention intended to reduce their level of risk, and after a period of time, a follow-up measurement is taken. However, individuals initially identified by their outlier values will likely have lower values on re-measurement in the absence of an intervention. This statistical phenomenon is known as “regression to the mean” (RTM) and often leads to an inaccurate conclusion that the intervention caused the effect. Concerns about RTM are rarely raised in connection with most health care interventions, and it is uncommon to find evaluators who estimate its effect. This may be due to lack of awareness, cognitive biases that may cause people to systematically misinterpret RTM effects by creating (erroneous) explanations to account for it, or by design. Methods In this paper, the author fully describes the RTM phenomenon, and tests the accuracy of the traditional approach in calculating RTM assuming normality, using normally distributed data from a Monte Carlo simulation and skewed data from a control group in a pre-post evaluation of a health intervention. Confidence intervals are generated around the traditional RTM calculation to provide more insight into the potential magnitude of the bias introduced by RTM. Finally, suggestions are offered for designing interventions and evaluations to mitigate the effects of RTM. Results On multivariate normal data, the calculated RTM estimates are identical to true estimates. As expected, when using skewed data the calculated method underestimated the true RTM effect. Confidence intervals provide helpful guidance on the magnitude of the RTM effect. Conclusion Decision-makers should always consider RTM to be a viable explanation of the observed change in an outcome in

  8. Assessing Precollege Science Education Outreach Initiatives: A Funder's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We describe an assessment of the collective impact of 35 grants that the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) made to biomedical research institutions in 1999 to support precollege science education outreach programs. Data collected from funded institutions were compared with data from a control group of institutions that had advanced to the last stage of review but had not been funded. The survey instrument and the results reveal outcomes and impacts that HHMI considers relevant for these programs. The following attributes are considered: ability to secure additional, non-HHMI funding; institution buy-in as measured by gains in dedicated space and staff; enhancement of the program director's career; number and adoption of educational products developed; number of related publications and awards; percentage of programs for which teachers received course credit; increase in science content knowledge; and increase in student motivation to study science. PMID:15526066

  9. Assessing precollege science education outreach initiatives: a funder's perspective.

    PubMed

    Felix, Debra A; Hertle, Mark D; Conley, Jill G; Washington, Lori B; Bruns, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    We describe an assessment of the collective impact of 35 grants that the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) made to biomedical research institutions in 1999 to support precollege science education outreach programs. Data collected from funded institutions were compared with data from a control group of institutions that had advanced to the last stage of review but had not been funded. The survey instrument and the results reveal outcomes and impacts that HHMI considers relevant for these programs. The following attributes are considered: ability to secure additional, non-HHMI funding; institution buy-in as measured by gains in dedicated space and staff; enhancement of the program director's career; number and adoption of educational products developed; number of related publications and awards; percentage of programs for which teachers received course credit; increase in science content knowledge; and increase in student motivation to study science.

  10. Competencies for public health finance: an initial assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Kathleen N; Kurz, Richard S; McBride, Timothy; Schmitz, Homer H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study in this article was to identify The needs of public health managers with regard to public health finance. A survey of public health practitioners regarding competencies was conducted and a review of course offerings in finance among schools of public health was performed. Most public health practitioners surveyed believe that a broad array of management competencies are required to administer the finances of a public health facility or department. Respondents added 35 competencies to those initially given to them for review. Most added competencies that were more specific than the original competencies or could be viewed as subpoints of the original competencies. Many schools offered no courses specifically addressing public health care finance, with a few offering at most only one public health finance course. All schools offered at least one corporate finance course, and the majority offered two or more courses. We conclude with a number of recommendations for education and competency development, suggesting several next steps that can advance the field of public health's understanding of what managers need to master in public health finance to effectively function as public health managers.

  11. Competencies for public health finance: an initial assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Kathleen N; Kurz, Richard S; McBride, Timothy; Schmitz, Homer H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study in this article was to identify The needs of public health managers with regard to public health finance. A survey of public health practitioners regarding competencies was conducted and a review of course offerings in finance among schools of public health was performed. Most public health practitioners surveyed believe that a broad array of management competencies are required to administer the finances of a public health facility or department. Respondents added 35 competencies to those initially given to them for review. Most added competencies that were more specific than the original competencies or could be viewed as subpoints of the original competencies. Many schools offered no courses specifically addressing public health care finance, with a few offering at most only one public health finance course. All schools offered at least one corporate finance course, and the majority offered two or more courses. We conclude with a number of recommendations for education and competency development, suggesting several next steps that can advance the field of public health's understanding of what managers need to master in public health finance to effectively function as public health managers. PMID:15552772

  12. Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  13. Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-04-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  14. Can initial clinical assessment exclude thoracolumbar vertebral injury?

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Dinendra Singh; Mitra, Biswadev; Reeves, Fairleigh; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Liew, Susan; Varma, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that all blunt trauma patients, presenting with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of 15, without intoxication or neurological deficit, and no pain or tenderness on log-roll can have any thoracolumbar fracture excluded without imaging. Materials and Methods All patients diagnosed with a thoracolumbar fracture presenting to the emergency department of a major trauma centre and having an initial GCS score of 15 were included in the study. Variables collected included type of fracture, mechanism of injury, the presence of pain or tenderness on log-roll, ethanol levels and prehospital opioid analgesia. Results There were 536 patients with thoracolumbar fractures, of which 508 (94.8%) patients had either pain, tenderness or had received prehospital opioid analgesia. A small subgroup of 28 (5.2%) patients who received no prehospital opioid analgesia, did not complain of pain and had no tenderness to the thoracolumbar spine elicited on log-roll. This subgroup was significantly older (p=0.033) and a high proportion of patients (64.3%) had a concurrent fracture of the cervical spine. Within this subgroup, a clinically significant unstable thoracic fracture was present in three patients, with all three patients exhibiting symptoms and signs of neurological injury or having a concurrent cervical vertebral fracture. Conclusions In this population of blunt trauma patients with a GCS score of 15, not under the influence of alcohol or prehospital morphine administration, the absence of pain or tenderness on log-roll can exclude a clinically significant lumbar vertebral fracture, but does not exclude a thoracic fracture. PMID:22915226

  15. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-08-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels.

  16. Initial assessment of children's ability to climb stair guarding.

    PubMed

    Riley, J E; Roys, M S; Cayless, S M

    1998-12-01

    This study examined the ability of children aged between four and six years to climb stair guarding set at the minimum height for domestic handrails recommended in the guidance given in Approved Document K that supports the Building Regulations in England and Wales. The purpose was to assess the adequacy of such safety guidance. Simulated guarding was set up at an indoor play centre and behaviours examined in two groups of children. Observations were made during free play and during solicited climbing. Results indicate that the majority of children aged between four and six years can climb onto or over stair guarding unassisted. Younger children are influenced and frequently abetted by their elders in climbing, behaviour which may be replicated in the home environment. Three distinct climbing strategies are observed: the body hoisted in a semi-prone position onto the top of the guarding; the body lifted by arms above the height of the guarding enabling a kneeling position on the top of the guarding; and, the knee bent against the side of the guarding to gain the added height required to make the climb. It was noted that older or taller children tend to rely on height, leg length or each whilst climbing whereas younger children appear to depend more on strength. A re-examination of safety guidance in relation to barrier climbability by children is recommended, and has started at BRE.

  17. Assessment of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative: Year 2 Report, Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokher, Christine; Jacobson, Lou

    2014-01-01

    The Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative (FCCRI) is a statewide program designed to assess the college readiness of high school students in 11th grade, and for those assessed as not college-ready, to provide instruction in the 12th grade that will lead to their college success. The assessment used is the Postsecondary Education…

  18. Initial Assessment of NPP/VIIRS Aerosol Environmental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, I.; Kondragunta, S.; Remer, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    The aerosol environment data records (EDR) derived from the measurements of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the recently launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite are the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), aerosol particle size parameter (APSP, characterized in terms of the Angstrom Exponent, AE), and suspended matter (SM). These EDRs go through various evaluations to assess their level of maturity, which are defined by a set of criteria. This presentation provides an overview of the work and results the NPP/JPSS Calibration/Validation Team has performed for the first of the maturity levels, Beta. For this level, the VIIRS AOT and APSP products have been compared with aerosol products derived from MODIS observations onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite (Aqua), and with AERONET products and observations. SM has been compared with CALIPSO products. All comparisons have been applied to a uniform time sample (2 May 2012 to 2 June 2012). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the VIIRS aerosol EDRs indicate that AOT both over land and ocean, and APSP over ocean have reached Beta maturity. However, neither APSP over land, nor SM qualifies for Beta level at this time. Qualitatively, one standard deviation of VIIRS AOT EDR products fall within ±0.09 ±10% of collocated MODIS retrievals over land and ±0.02 ±10% over ocean. The same VIIRS product falls within ±0.13 ±15% of collocated AERONET over land and ±0.04 ±5% over ocean. In all cases, the VIIRS AOT over land product is biased high (0.07 to 0.15) against comparable products in a global sense. The VIIRS Angstrom Exponent EDR product over ocean shows correlation when compared with MODIS, but is biased high. Preliminary AERONET analysis at coastal stations shows APSP falling within approximately ±0.40 of AERONET. Preliminary AERONET analysis at coastal stations shows APSP falling within approximately ±0.40 of AERONET. VIIRS Angstrom Exponent

  19. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz,R.A.

    2008-06-13

    The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

  20. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  1. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  2. From ''Star Wars'' to strategic defensive initiative. European perceptions and assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Brauch, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) debate. The implications of SDI for the Wests' nuclear strategy are assessed and the implications of SDI for treaties and for arms control are discussed.

  3. Reading and Writing Assessment Kit. An ESL Assessment Kit for the Classroom. Stage One: Initial Learner Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Sue; Solomon, Nicky

    This English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) assessment kit was designed for use by teachers and program managers who are involved in the initial interview, assessment, and referral of students and who are responsible for placement of learners in programs and classes. Its aims are to help the interviewer to: (1) identify the relative priority of…

  4. IAEA Safeguards: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A.; Hypes, Philip A.

    2012-06-14

    This talk will present an overview of the International Atomic Energy Agency with a specific focus on its international safeguards mission and activities. The talk will first present a brief history of the IAEA and discuss its current governing structure. It will then focus on the Safeguards Department and its role in providing assurance that nuclear materials are being used for peaceful purposes. It will then look at how the IAEA is currently evolving the way in which it executes its safeguards mission with a focus on the idea of a state-level approach.

  5. MANAGING UNCERTAINTIES ASSOCIATED WITH RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL: TASK GROUP 4 OF THE IAEA PRISM PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2011-03-02

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  6. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

  7. Early Assessment: Using a University-Wide Student Support Initiative to Effect Real Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schalkwyk, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a university-wide initiative aimed at providing a holistic view of a student's academic standing by conducting early, formative assessment for all first-year students. It tracks the Early Assessment System as a student support intervention at Stellenbosch University and suggests that the system has been…

  8. The Development of the Manchester Motor Skills Assessment (MMSA): An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, C.; Cole, M.; Crook, H.; Fletcher, J.; Lucanz, J.; Noble, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article is an initial evaluation of a motor skills assessment for primary aged children. The Manchester Motor Skills Assessment (MMSA) is designed to be quick and easy for teaching assistants to complete, with the dual purposes of informing group programme planning and demonstrating an individual child's progress following a period of…

  9. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online

  10. Nonproliferation, Disarmament and the IAEA in Tomorrow's World

    SciTech Connect

    Jill Cooley

    2008-09-09

    Jill Cooley, Director of the Division of Concepts and Planning in the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards, gives an overview of the IAEA safeguards system and describe current verification challenges and potential new roles for the agency.

  11. Management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: initial assessment, management outside specialised centres and referral pathways.

    PubMed

    Perros, Petros; Dayan, Colin M; Dickinson, A Jane; Ezra, Daniel; Estcourt, Stephanie; Foley, Peter; Hickey, Janis; Lazarus, John H; MacEwen, Caroline J; McLaren, Julie; Rose, Geoffrey E; Uddin, Jimmy; Vaidya, Bijay

    2015-04-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is uncommon, but responsible for considerable morbidity. A coordinated approach between healthcare professionals is required in order to meet the needs of patients. Early diagnosis can be achieved by a simple clinical assessment. Low-cost effective interventions can be initiated by generalists, which may improve outcomes. Moderate-to-severe GO should be referred to specialised centres. Recommendations for clinical diagnosis, initial management and referral pathways are highlighted.

  12. Management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: initial assessment, management outside specialised centres and referral pathways.

    PubMed

    Perros, Petros; Dayan, Colin M; Dickinson, A Jane; Ezra, Daniel; Estcourt, Stephanie; Foley, Peter; Hickey, Janis; Lazarus, John H; MacEwen, Caroline J; McLaren, Julie; Rose, Geoffrey E; Uddin, Jimmy; Vaidya, Bijay

    2015-04-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is uncommon, but responsible for considerable morbidity. A coordinated approach between healthcare professionals is required in order to meet the needs of patients. Early diagnosis can be achieved by a simple clinical assessment. Low-cost effective interventions can be initiated by generalists, which may improve outcomes. Moderate-to-severe GO should be referred to specialised centres. Recommendations for clinical diagnosis, initial management and referral pathways are highlighted. PMID:25824071

  13. Outpatient management without initial assessment for febrile patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Kosei; Tanaka, Satoru; Iwamoto, Mitsuhiko; Fujioka, Hiroya; Sato, Nayuko; Terasawa, Risa; Kawaguchi, Kanako; Matsuda, Junna; Umezaki, Nodoka; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the feasibility of outpatient management without initial assessment for febrile patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. A total of 131 consecutive patients with breast cancer treated with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 2011 to 2013 at Osaka Medical College Hospital (Osaka, Japan) were retrospectively reviewed. In the case of developing a fever (body temperature, ≥38°C), the outpatients had been instructed to take previously prescribed oral antibiotics for 3 days without any initial assessment, and if no improvement had occurred by then, they were required to visit the hospital for examination and to undergo treatment based on the results of a risk assessment for complications. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the outcome of febrile episodes, while the secondary aim was to assess the incidence of febrile episodes, hospitalizations, and the type of chemotherapy. The 131 patients received 840 chemotherapy administrations. Fifty-five patients (42.0%) had a total of 75 febrile episodes after 840 chemotherapy administrations (8.9%). Treatment failure occurred in 12 of the 75 episodes (16.0%) in 11 of the 55 patients (20.0%). Only four episodes required hospitalization. Treatment success was achieved in 63 episodes (84.0%). In conclusion, the feasibility of outpatient management without initial assessment was evaluated in the present study for febrile patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, and the outpatient strategy regimen may be safe and convenient for these patients. PMID:27699031

  14. Outpatient management without initial assessment for febrile patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Kosei; Tanaka, Satoru; Iwamoto, Mitsuhiko; Fujioka, Hiroya; Sato, Nayuko; Terasawa, Risa; Kawaguchi, Kanako; Matsuda, Junna; Umezaki, Nodoka; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the feasibility of outpatient management without initial assessment for febrile patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. A total of 131 consecutive patients with breast cancer treated with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 2011 to 2013 at Osaka Medical College Hospital (Osaka, Japan) were retrospectively reviewed. In the case of developing a fever (body temperature, ≥38°C), the outpatients had been instructed to take previously prescribed oral antibiotics for 3 days without any initial assessment, and if no improvement had occurred by then, they were required to visit the hospital for examination and to undergo treatment based on the results of a risk assessment for complications. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the outcome of febrile episodes, while the secondary aim was to assess the incidence of febrile episodes, hospitalizations, and the type of chemotherapy. The 131 patients received 840 chemotherapy administrations. Fifty-five patients (42.0%) had a total of 75 febrile episodes after 840 chemotherapy administrations (8.9%). Treatment failure occurred in 12 of the 75 episodes (16.0%) in 11 of the 55 patients (20.0%). Only four episodes required hospitalization. Treatment success was achieved in 63 episodes (84.0%). In conclusion, the feasibility of outpatient management without initial assessment was evaluated in the present study for febrile patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, and the outpatient strategy regimen may be safe and convenient for these patients.

  15. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ``Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards.

  16. Assessing personal initiative among vocational training students: development and validation of a new measure.

    PubMed

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Ulacia, Imanol

    2014-11-14

    Personal initiative characterizes people who are proactive, persistent and self-starting when facing the difficulties that arise in achieving goals. Despite its importance in the educational field there is a scarcity of measures to assess students' personal initiative. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess this variable in the academic environment and to validate it for adolescents and young adults. The sample comprised 244 vocational training students. The questionnaire showed a factor structure including three factors (Proactivity-Prosocial behavior, Persistence and Self-Starting) with acceptable indices of internal consistency (ranging between α = .57 and α =.73) and good convergent validity with respect to the Self-Reported Initiative scale. Evidence of external validity was also obtained based on the relationships between personal initiative and variables such as self-efficacy, enterprising attitude, responsibility and control aspirations, conscientiousness, and academic achievement. The results indicate that this new measure is very useful for assessing personal initiative among vocational training students.

  17. A Needs Assessment to Develop Community Partnerships: Initial Steps Working with a Major Agricultural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ashley; Bezyak, Jill; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Trice, April

    2011-01-01

    Background: "Healthy People 2010" identified community partnership as one of the most effective strategies in eliminating health disparities and considered it a critical element in improving an individual's quality of life. To be effective at engaging communities in partnerships, an initial community based needs assessment is recommended. Purpose:…

  18. Development and Initial Validation of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Benjamin D.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Zhao, Yu; Lei, Pui-Wa; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Li, Hongli; Tate, Robin; Lin, Yu-Chu

    2012-01-01

    A short version of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) was created via three studies. The final short version (CCAPS-34), which contains 34 items and 7 subscales, demonstrated good discrimination power, support for the proposed factor structure, strong initial convergent validity, and adequate test-retest…

  19. Initial Opposition--Won't Portfolio Assessment Take Away Teacher Autonomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Marcia

    Unacknowledged and untended opposition can lead the "resistance" to destroy even the best planned of portfolio systems. The greatest cause of initial resistance to portfolio assessment is the fear that teachers will lose their autonomy and/or authority in the classroom. Writing instructors need to ask themselves about issues of control and…

  20. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  1. Risk Assessment supporting the decision on the initial selection of supplemental ILAW technologies

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-09-29

    A risk assessment on the long-term environmental impact of various potential waste forms was conducted at the request of the Hanford Site's Mission Acceleration Initiative Team. These potential waste forms (bulk vitrification, cast stone, and steam reformer) may treat some of the low-activity waste currently planned to be treated at the Waste Treatment Plant.

  2. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Drug Master Files Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  3. Systems scale assessment of the sustainability implications of emerging green initiatives.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Namdeo, Anil; Fuentes, Jose; Dore, Anthony; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Bell, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a systems framework for assessment of environmental impacts from 'green initiatives', through a case study of meso-scale, anthropogenic-biogenic interactions. The following cross-sectoral green initiatives, combining the emerging trends in the North East region of the United Kingdom, have been considered - increasing the vegetation cover; decarbonising road transport; decentralising energy production through biomass plants. Two future scenarios are assessed - Baseline_2020 (projected emissions from realisation of policy instruments); Aggressive_2020 (additional emissions from realisation of green initiatives). Resulting trends from the Aggressive_2020 scenario suggest an increase in emissions of pollutant precursors, including biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide over the base case by up to 20% and 5% respectively. This has implications for enhanced daytime ozone and secondary aerosols formation by up to 15% and over 5% respectively. Associated land cover changes show marginal decrease of ambient temperature but modest reductions in ammonia and ambient particulates.

  4. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS No. 472

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, F.; Pellizzoni, M.; Giosuè, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the approach taken to present the information on fruits in the IAEA report TRS No. 472, supported by the IAEA-TECDOC-1616, which describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight.

  5. Development of an IAEA Training Course for Future U.S. Inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Savannah Avgerinos Fitzwater; Amanda R. Rynes; David S. Bracken; Richard R. M. Metcalf; James D. West

    2011-07-01

    U.S. citizens currently make up only 12% of the positions held in the IAEA’s Department of Safeguards. While the United States has maintained a high level of support for the Agency over the duration of its history, the number of American inspectors currently in the field does not reflect this level of involvement. As a result, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of International Relations, as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) mission, has tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to develop a rigorous two week hands-on training program to encourage and operationally acclimatize U.S. Citizens who are interested in applying for IAEA inspector positions using IAEA authorized equipment at INL. Idaho National Laboratory is one-of-a-kind in its ability to train IAEA inspectors by including training at nuclear facilities on site and includes, for example, direct measurement of an active spent fuel storage cooling pond. This accredited course will introduce and train attendees on the major IAEA systems used in collecting nuclear safeguards data and performing safeguards inspections. Unique in the United States, these classes will give attendees direct hands-on training and will address equipment purpose, function, operating principles, application, and troubleshooting, based upon what would be expected of an IAEA Safeguards Inspector in the field and in the office. Upon completion, U.S. applicants will be better qualified to pursue a position in the IAEA Department of Safeguards Operational Divisions. In support, INL has recently established a new laboratory space to house state of the art nuclear safeguards instrumentation. Currently, equipment installed in the laboratory space includes attended systems: 3DLR (3-D Imaging Laser) for design information verification, a Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device for measurement of spent fuel, HM-5 handheld radiation detectors, quantitative neutron and gamma systems; unattended monitoring

  6. Legal and institutional framework of environmental impact assessment in Nigeria: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Olokesusi, F.

    1998-03-01

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has high rates of urbanization and industrialization. Until recently, decisions on most large-scale projects such as expressways, harbors, industries, dams, and irrigation were considered with an emphasis on traditional technical and cost-benefit analysis. Spurred by massive environmental degradation and persistent community agitation in oil producing areas, environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation was passed in late 1992. The main purpose of this article is to review and assess the content of this legislation and the guidelines produced by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), the institution responsible for EIA administration. Some EIA reports have been prepared and reviewed by FEPA since 1994. There are some positive outcomes and expectations, but some problems have been identified as well, including: deliberate restriction of public involvement and participation by proponents and/or their consultants, interagency conflict leading to high cost and project delays especially in the oil industry, and restriction of public access to final EIA reports. These are discussed, and recommendations for improving the process are made.

  7. Incorporating Preliminary Mental Health Assessment in the Initial Healthcare for Refugees in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, AbdulKareem; West, Bernadette; Fox, Anne; Savin, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to assess the feasibility of introducing a mental health screening tool into the initial health care assessment for refugees in New Jersey, US. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of professionals providing refugee health care in New Jersey and in a number of other states. There is a widespread appreciation of the need to consider the mental and emotional issues of the refugees as a priority in healthcare services. A mental health screening tool is required for practice in NJ. Community resources should be coupled with early screening for better refugee mental health outcomes. PMID:25821926

  8. Incorporating Preliminary Mental Health Assessment in the Initial Healthcare for Refugees in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, AbdulKareem; West, Bernadette; Fox, Anne; Savin, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to assess the feasibility of introducing a mental health screening tool into the initial health care assessment for refugees in New Jersey, US. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of professionals providing refugee health care in New Jersey and in a number of other states. There is a widespread appreciation of the need to consider the mental and emotional issues of the refugees as a priority in healthcare services. A mental health screening tool is required for practice in NJ. Community resources should be coupled with early screening for better refugee mental health outcomes.

  9. Initial Assessment of Open Rotor Propulsion Applied to an Advanced Single-Aisle Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or propfans, to subsonic transport aircraft received significant attention and research in the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Recent volatility in fuel prices and concern for aviation s environmental impact have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion, and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Unfortunately, in the two decades that have passed since open rotor concepts were thoroughly investigated, NASA has lost experience and expertise in this technology area. This paper describes initial efforts to re-establish NASA s capability to assess aircraft designs with open rotor propulsion. Specifically, methodologies for aircraft-level sizing, performance analysis, and system-level noise analysis are described. Propulsion modeling techniques have been described in a previous paper. Initial results from application of these methods to an advanced single-aisle aircraft using open rotor engines based on historical blade designs are presented. These results indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide large reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. Initial noise analysis indicates that current noise regulations can be met with old blade designs and modern, noiseoptimized blade designs are expected to result in even lower noise levels. Although an initial capability has been established and initial results obtained, additional development work is necessary to make NASA s open rotor system analysis capability on par with existing turbofan analysis capabilities.

  10. Multi-Functional Sandwich Composites for Spacecraft Applications: An Initial Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel O.; Webb, Nicholas Jason; Yarger, Cody B.; Hunter, Abigail; Oborn, Kelli D.

    2007-01-01

    Current spacecraft implement relatively uncoupled material and structural systems to address a variety of design requirements, including structural integrity, damage tolerance, radiation protection, debris shielding and thermal insulation. This investigation provided an initial assessment of multi-functional sandwich composites to integrate these diverse requirements. The need for radiation shielding was addressed through the selection of polymeric constituents with high hydrogen content. To provide increased damage tolerance and debris shielding, manufacturing techniques were developed to incorporate transverse stitching reinforcement, internal layers, and a self-healing ionomer membrane. To assess the effects of a space environment, thermal expansion behavior of the candidate foam materials was investigated under a vacuum and increasing temperature. Finally, a thermal expansion model was developed for foam under vacuum conditions and its predictive capability assessed.

  11. Technologies for pre-screening IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Steeb, Jennifer L.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, many samples are taken for the purpose of verifying the declared facility activities and identifying any possible undeclared activities. One of these sampling techniques is the environmental swipe sample. Due to the large number of samples collected, and the amount of time that is required to analyze them, prioritizing these swipes in the field or upon receipt at the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) will allow sensitive or mission-critical analyses to be performed sooner. As a result of this study, technologies were placed into one of three categories: recommended, promising, or not recommended. Both neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are recommended for further study and possible field deployment. These techniques performed the best in initial trials for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. We learned that for NAA more characterization of cold elements (such as calcium and magnesium) would need to be emphasized, and for XRF it may be appropriate to move towards a benchtop XRF versus a handheld XRF due to the increased range of elements available on benchtop equipment. Promising techniques that will require additional research and development include confocal Raman microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and infrared (IR) microscopy. These techniques showed substantive responses to uranium compounds, but expensive instrumentation upgrades (confocal Raman) or university engagement (fluorescence microscopy) may be necessary to investigate the utility of the techniques completely. Point-and-shoot (handheld) Raman and attenuated total reflectance–infrared (ATR-IR) measurements are not recommended, as they have not shown enough promise to continue investigations.

  12. [Initial patient assessment of infectious diseases and diagnostic steps with fever].

    PubMed

    Schibli, A; Weisser, M; Bingisser, R; Widmer, A F; Battegay, M

    2013-08-01

    The initial assessment of patients with infectious diseases is challenging because of the extremely broad differential diagnosis as well as different host pathogen interactions influenced by a different immune status. The formal initial assessment, including the present and past medical history, thorough physical examination, clinical first impressions as well as routine laboratory analyses, is the basis of every preliminary diagnosis. Specific chief complaints have to be recognized in order to narrow down the differential diagnosis. In cases of life-threatening illnesses, such as septicemia, endocarditis, bacterial meningitis and severe pneumonia, the first diagnostic and therapeutic steps should be performed in a rapid sequence: bacterial blood samples, sputum and/or liquor samples are required and the initial antibiotic therapy has to be chosen empirically as the relevant bacterial spectrum related to the suspected illness must be covered. In less urgent cases it is recommended that a multi-step diagnostic approach be carried out which takes the differential diagnosis into account and prioritizes the probabilities. In the latter situation antibiotic treatment should be delayed to diagnose the infection correctly. Importantly, atypical courses must necessitate careful and critical reassessment of the diagnosis.

  13. Strengthened IAEA Safeguards-Imagery Analysis: Geospatial Tools for Nonproliferation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pabian, Frank V

    2012-08-14

    This slide presentation focuses on the growing role and importance of imagery analysis for IAEA safeguards applications and how commercial satellite imagery, together with the newly available geospatial tools, can be used to promote 'all-source synergy.' As additional sources of openly available information, satellite imagery in conjunction with the geospatial tools can be used to significantly augment and enhance existing information gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection and assessment of nonproliferation relevant activities, facilities, and programs. Foremost of the geospatial tools are the 'Digital Virtual Globes' (i.e., GoogleEarth, Virtual Earth, etc.) that are far better than previously used simple 2-D plan-view line drawings for visualization of known and suspected facilities of interest which can be critical to: (1) Site familiarization and true geospatial context awareness; (2) Pre-inspection planning; (3) Onsite orientation and navigation; (4) Post-inspection reporting; (5) Site monitoring over time for changes; (6) Verification of states site declarations and for input to State Evaluation reports; and (7) A common basis for discussions among all interested parties (Member States). Additionally, as an 'open-source', such virtual globes can also provide a new, essentially free, means to conduct broad area search for undeclared nuclear sites and activities - either alleged through open source leads; identified on internet BLOGS and WIKI Layers, with input from a 'free' cadre of global browsers and/or by knowledgeable local citizens (a.k.a.: 'crowdsourcing'), that can include ground photos and maps; or by other initiatives based on existing information and in-house country knowledge. They also provide a means to acquire ground photography taken by locals, hobbyists, and tourists of the surrounding locales that can be useful in identifying and discriminating between relevant and non-relevant facilities and their associated

  14. Defining molecular initiating events in the adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Timothy E H; Goodman, Jonathan M; Gutsell, Steve; Russell, Paul J

    2014-12-15

    Consumer and environmental safety decisions are based on exposure and hazard data, interpreted using risk assessment approaches. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) conceptual framework has been presented as a logical sequence of events or processes within biological systems which can be used to understand adverse effects and refine current risk assessment practices in ecotoxicology. This framework can also be applied to human toxicology and is explored on the basis of investigating the molecular initiating events (MIEs) of compounds. The precise definition of the MIE has yet to reach general acceptance. In this work we present a unified MIE definition: an MIE is the initial interaction between a molecule and a biomolecule or biosystem that can be causally linked to an outcome via a pathway. Case studies are presented, and issues with current definitions are addressed. With the development of a unified MIE definition, the field can look toward defining, classifying, and characterizing more MIEs and using knowledge of the chemistry of these processes to aid AOP research and toxicity risk assessment. We also present the role of MIE research in the development of in vitro and in silico toxicology and suggest how, by using a combination of biological and chemical approaches, MIEs can be identified and characterized despite a lack of detailed reports, even for some of the most studied molecules in toxicology.

  15. Comparative assessment of techniques for initial pose estimation using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumant; D`Amico, Simone

    2016-06-01

    This work addresses the comparative assessment of initial pose estimation techniques for monocular navigation to enable formation-flying and on-orbit servicing missions. Monocular navigation relies on finding an initial pose, i.e., a coarse estimate of the attitude and position of the space resident object with respect to the camera, based on a minimum number of features from a three dimensional computer model and a single two dimensional image. The initial pose is estimated without the use of fiducial markers, without any range measurements or any apriori relative motion information. Prior work has been done to compare different pose estimators for terrestrial applications, but there is a lack of functional and performance characterization of such algorithms in the context of missions involving rendezvous operations in the space environment. Use of state-of-the-art pose estimation algorithms designed for terrestrial applications is challenging in space due to factors such as limited on-board processing power, low carrier to noise ratio, and high image contrasts. This paper focuses on performance characterization of three initial pose estimation algorithms in the context of such missions and suggests improvements.

  16. Using fish communities to assess streams in Romania: Initial development of an index of biotic integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, P.L.; Davideanu, G.

    2004-01-01

    Multimetric biotic indices increasingly are used to complement physicochemical data in assessments of stream quality. We initiated development of multimetric indices, based on fish communities, to assess biotic integrity of streams in two physiographic regions of central Romania. Unlike previous efforts to develop such indices for European streams, our metrics and scoring criteria were selected largely on the basis of empirical relations in the regions of interest. We categorised 54 fish species with respect to ten natural-history attributes, then used this information to compute 32 candidate metrics of five types (taxonomic, tolerance, abundance, reproductive, and feeding) for each of 35 sites. We assessed the utility of candidate metrics for detecting anthropogenic impact based on three criteria: (a) range of values taken, (b) relation to a site-quality index (SQI), which incorporated information on hydrologic alteration, channel alteration, land-use intensity, and water chemistry, and (c) metric redundancy. We chose seven metrics from each region to include in preliminary multimetric indices (PMIs). Both PMIs included taxonomic, tolerance, and feeding metrics, but only two metrics were common to both PMIs. Although we could not validate our PMIs, their strong association with the SQI in each region suggests that such indices would be valuable tools for assessing stream quality and could provide more comprehensive assessments than the traditional approaches based solely on water chemistry.

  17. Assessing Patients’ Cognitive Therapy Skills: Initial Evaluation of the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale

    PubMed Central

    Strunk, Daniel R.; Hollars, Shannon N.; Adler, Abby D.; Goldstein, Lizabeth A.; Braun, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    In Cognitive Therapy (CT), therapists work to help patients develop skills to cope with negative affect. Most current methods of assessing patients’ skills are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To address this issue, we developed and conducted an initial psychometric evaluation of self and therapist reported versions of a new measure of CT skills: the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale (CCTS). We evaluated the CCTS at intake and post-treatment in a sample of 67 patients participating in CT. The CCTS correlated with a preexisting measure of CT skills (the Ways of Responding Questionnaire) and was also related to concurrent depressive symptoms. Across CT, self-reported improvements in CT competencies were associated with greater changes in depressive symptoms. These findings offer initial evidence for the validity of the CCTS. We discuss the CCTS in comparison with other measures of CT skills and suggest future research directions. PMID:25408560

  18. Assessing Patients' Cognitive Therapy Skills: Initial Evaluation of the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Daniel R; Hollars, Shannon N; Adler, Abby D; Goldstein, Lizabeth A; Braun, Justin D

    2014-10-01

    In Cognitive Therapy (CT), therapists work to help patients develop skills to cope with negative affect. Most current methods of assessing patients' skills are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To address this issue, we developed and conducted an initial psychometric evaluation of self and therapist reported versions of a new measure of CT skills: the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale (CCTS). We evaluated the CCTS at intake and post-treatment in a sample of 67 patients participating in CT. The CCTS correlated with a preexisting measure of CT skills (the Ways of Responding Questionnaire) and was also related to concurrent depressive symptoms. Across CT, self-reported improvements in CT competencies were associated with greater changes in depressive symptoms. These findings offer initial evidence for the validity of the CCTS. We discuss the CCTS in comparison with other measures of CT skills and suggest future research directions.

  19. Assessing Extreme Models of the Stober Synthesis Using Transients under a Range of Initial Composition

    PubMed

    Lee; Look; Harris; McCormick

    1997-10-01

    29Si-NMR, conductimetry, and photon correlation spectroscopy are used to monitor the temporal profile of intermediate concentrations in Stober synthesis (i.e., ammonia-catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane in a batch reactor). Extreme models of the process are assessed by examining the effect of initial composition on these transients (over a wider range of composition than attempted previously). The trends with initial composition suggest that the nucleation is rate-limited by the hydrolysis of the singly hydrolyzed monomer, the product of which probably phase separates. Moreover, the trends are consistent with the aggregation model discussed by G. H. Bogush and C. F. Zukoski (J. Colloid Interface Sci. 142, 1, 19 (1991) and by M. T. Harris (Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Tennessee, 1992). The trends are not consistent with a growth model without aggregation. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  20. A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

  1. Assessment of light water reactor fuel damage during a reactivity initiated accident

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Seiffert, S.L.; Martinson, Z.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Owen, D.E.; Fukuda, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of LWR fuel damage during a reactivity initiated accident and comments on the adequacy of the present USNRC design requirements. Results from early SPERT tests are reviewed and compared with results from recent computer simulations and PBF tests. A progression of fuel rod and cladding damage events is presented. High strain rate deformation of relatively cool irradiated cladding early in the transient may result in fracture at a radial average peak fuel enthalpy of approximately 140 cal/g UO/sub 2/. Volume expansion of previously irradiated fuel upon melting may cause deformation and rupture of the cladding, and coolant channel blockage at higher peak enthalpies.

  2. Assessment of Safety and Long-Term Outcomes of Initial Treatment With Placebo in TADS

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Silva, Susan G.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Rohde, Paul; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Curry, John F.; Emslie, Graham J.; Reinecke, Mark A.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The authors examined whether initial assignment to receive placebo for 12 weeks followed by open active treatment as clinically indicated was associated with different levels of benefit and risk of harm across 36 weeks as compared with initial assignment to receive active treatments. Method Adolescents with major depressive disorder (N=439) were randomly assigned to receive an initial 12 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment with fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with placebo; those assigned to placebo received open active treatment as clinically indicated after 12 weeks of placebo. Assessments were conducted every 6 weeks for 36 weeks. The primary outcome measures were response and remission based on scores on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised and the Clinical Global Impression improvement subscale. Results At week 36, the response rate was 82% in the placebo/open group and 83% in the active treatment groups. The remission rate was 48% in the placebo/open group and 59% in the active treatment groups, a difference that approached statistical significance. Patients who responded to placebo generally retained their response. Those who did not respond to placebo subsequently responded to active treatment at the same rate as those initially assigned to active treatments. There were no differences between groups in rates of suicidal events, study retention, or symptom worsening. Conclusions Remission rates at 9 months were lower in patients treated initially with placebo, but 3 months of placebo treatment was not associated with any harm or diminished response to subsequent treatment. PMID:19147693

  3. Reference dosimeter system of the iaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    1995-09-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation processing facilities to satisfy national and international Standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit.

  4. Papers arising from IAEA Coordinated Research Project "Utilization of ion accelerators for studying and modelling of radiation induced defects in semiconductors and insulators" (F11016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittone, Ettore; Breese, Mark; Simon, Aliz

    2016-04-01

    Within the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, activities are carried out to assist and advise IAEA Member States in assessing their needs for capacity building, research and development in nuclear sciences. Support is also provided to Member States' activities geared towards deriving benefits in fields such as (i) advanced materials for nuclear applications, (ii) application of accelerators and associated instrumentation, and (iii) nuclear, atomic and molecular data. One of the means that the IAEA uses to deliver its programme is Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) which are very effective in stimulating international research and scientific interaction among the Member States.

  5. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Francesca; Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Murray, Leigh Margareth Anne; Canali, Elisabetta; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper aims to present the first outcomes of data collected using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys in 20 EU donkey facilities. Three assessors evaluated 278 donkeys. The authors found recurrent issues: tendency to obesity, lack of hoof care and irregular positive interactions with humans. The protocol proved to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude. Abstract This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom) were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2–45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude. PMID:26761034

  6. Scrutinising the Final Judging Role in Assessment of Practicum in Early Childhood Initial Teacher Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qilong; Cown, Paula; Hayes, Joanne; Werry, Sue; Barnes, Ruth; France, Lois; TeHau-Grant, Rawhia

    2015-01-01

    Practicum is the cornerstone of teacher education. Triadic assessment of practicum is an established model in early childhood initial teacher education in New Zealand. Based on a phenomenographic study on assessment of practicum, this paper presents a new perspective on triadic assessment. Interview data are collected from 35 participants (20…

  7. An assessment of technology alternatives for telecommunications and information management for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.

    1991-04-01

    On the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President Bush set forth ambitious goals for expanding human presence in the solar system. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) addresses these goals beginning with Space Station Freedom, followed by a permanent return to the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars. A well designed, adaptive Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) infrastructure is vital to the success of these missions. Utilizing initial projections of user requirements, a team under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Operations developed overall architectures and point designs to implement the TNIM functions for the Lunar and Mars mission scenarios. Based on these designs, an assessment of technology alternatives for the telecommunications and information management functions was performed. This technology assessment identifies technology developments necessary to meet the telecommunications and information management system requirements for SEI. Technology requirements, technology needs and alternatives, the present level of technology readiness in each area, and a schedule for development are presented.

  8. An assessment of technology alternatives for telecommunications and information management for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.

    1991-01-01

    On the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President Bush set forth ambitious goals for expanding human presence in the solar system. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) addresses these goals beginning with Space Station Freedom, followed by a permanent return to the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars. A well designed, adaptive Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) infrastructure is vital to the success of these missions. Utilizing initial projections of user requirements, a team under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Operations developed overall architectures and point designs to implement the TNIM functions for the Lunar and Mars mission scenarios. Based on these designs, an assessment of technology alternatives for the telecommunications and information management functions was performed. This technology assessment identifies technology developments necessary to meet the telecommunications and information management system requirements for SEI. Technology requirements, technology needs and alternatives, the present level of technology readiness in each area, and a schedule for development are presented.

  9. Probabilistic assessment of fatigue initiation data on highly crosslinked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Pascual, F J; Przybilla, C; Gracia-Villa, L; Puértolas, J A; Fernández-Canteli, A

    2012-11-01

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPE) showing wear resistance, oxidative stability and good mechanical performance go on being a relevant research area in biomaterials for total joint replacements, where fatigue happens to be a recurrent damage mode that needs to be investigated. While crack propagation lifetime has been extensively studied, fatigue initiation data are scarcely offered in the literature, often due to the higher costs implied in the experimental programs. Moreover, their analysis is not always suitable to obtain reliable guidance. Different deterministic and probabilistic methods, generally resting on empirical bases have been previously used to analyze the fatigue initiation data. In this work, the probabilistic Weibull regression model of Castillo et al., based on both physical and statistical conditions, such as weakest link principle and the necessary compatibility between life-time and stress range distributions, is applied for the first time in the assessment of fatigue results of polymers, particularly to highly crosslinked UHMWPEs (HXLPEs). Accordingly, different published experimental data corresponding to HXLPE stabilized by thermal treatments and with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) are re-analyzed. Additional data are incorporated to assess the influence of notched HXLPE on fatigue performance. New conclusions are drawn from this revision.

  10. Structured Benefit-risk assessment: a review of key publications and initiatives on frameworks and methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Ouwens, Mario; Robert, Veronique; Gebel, Martin; Schacht, Alexander; Hirsch, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The conduct of structured benefit-risk assessment (BRA) of pharmaceutical products is a key area of interest for regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. However, the acceptance of a standardized approach and implementation are slow. Statisticians play major roles in these organizations, and have a great opportunity to be involved and drive the shaping of future BRA. Method We performed a literature search of recent reviews and initiatives assessing BRA methodologies, and grouped them to assist those new to BRA in learning, understanding, and choosing methodologies. We summarized the key points and discussed the impact of this emerging field on various stakeholders, particularly statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. Results We provide introductory, essential, special interest, and further information and initiatives materials that direct readers to the most relevant materials, which were published between 2000 and 2013.  Based on recommendations in these materials we supply a toolkit of advocated BRA methodologies. Discussion Despite initiatives promoting these methodologies, there are still barriers, one of which being the lack of a consensus on the most appropriate methodologies among stakeholders. However, this opens up opportunities, for statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry especially, to champion appropriate BRA methodology use throughout the pharmaceutical product lifecycle. Conclusions This article may serve as a starting point for discussions and to reach a mutual consensus for methodology selection in a particular situation. Regulators and pharmaceutical industry should continue to collaborate to develop and take forward BRA methodologies, and by clear communication develop a mutual understanding of the key issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25981683

  11. Structured Benefit-risk assessment: a review of key publications and initiatives on frameworks and methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Ouwens, Mario; Robert, Veronique; Gebel, Martin; Schacht, Alexander; Hirsch, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The conduct of structured benefit-risk assessment (BRA) of pharmaceutical products is a key area of interest for regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. However, the acceptance of a standardized approach and implementation are slow. Statisticians play major roles in these organizations, and have a great opportunity to be involved and drive the shaping of future BRA. Method We performed a literature search of recent reviews and initiatives assessing BRA methodologies, and grouped them to assist those new to BRA in learning, understanding, and choosing methodologies. We summarized the key points and discussed the impact of this emerging field on various stakeholders, particularly statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. Results We provide introductory, essential, special interest, and further information and initiatives materials that direct readers to the most relevant materials, which were published between 2000 and 2013.  Based on recommendations in these materials we supply a toolkit of advocated BRA methodologies. Discussion Despite initiatives promoting these methodologies, there are still barriers, one of which being the lack of a consensus on the most appropriate methodologies among stakeholders. However, this opens up opportunities, for statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry especially, to champion appropriate BRA methodology use throughout the pharmaceutical product lifecycle. Conclusions This article may serve as a starting point for discussions and to reach a mutual consensus for methodology selection in a particular situation. Regulators and pharmaceutical industry should continue to collaborate to develop and take forward BRA methodologies, and by clear communication develop a mutual understanding of the key issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

    2013-05-01

    Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants

  13. Aeronautical System Center's environmental compliance assessment and management program's cost-saving initiatives support the Air Force's acquisition reform initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Meanor, T.

    1999-07-01

    The Environmental Management directorate of ASC (ASC/EM) has the responsibility of providing government oversight for the Government Owned Contractor Operated Aircraft and Missile plants (GOCOs). This oversight is manifested as a landlord role where Air Force provides the funding required to maintain the plant facilities including buildings and utilities as well as environmental systems. By agreement the companies operating the plants are required to operate them in accordance with environmental law. Presently the GOCOs include Air Force Plant (AFP) 6 in Marietta Ga., AFP 4 in Fort Worth, Tx., AFP 44 in Tucson, Az., AFP 42 in Palmdale, Ca., and AFP PJKS in Denver, Co. Lockheed Martin corporation operates AFPs 4,6, PJKS and a portion of AFP 42 while AFP 44 is operated by Raytheon Missile Systems Company. Other GOCOs at AFP 42 are Northrup-Grumman, Boeing, and Cabaco, the facilities engineer. Since 1992 the Environmental Management division has conducted its Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program assessments (ECAMP) annually at each of the plants. Using DOD's ECAMP Team Guide and teams comprised of both Air Force and consultant engineering personnel, each plant is assessed for its environmental compliance well being. In the face of rising operational costs and diminishing budgets ASC/EM performed a comprehensive review of its ECAMP. As a result, the basic ECAMP program was improved to reduce costs without compromising on quality of the effort. The program retained its emphasis in providing a snap-shot evaluation of each Air Force plant's environmental compliance health supported by complete but tailored protocol assessments.

  14. Assay of scrap plutonium oxide by thermal neutron multiplicity counting for IAEA verification of excess materials from nuclear weapons production

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Krick, M.S.; Xiao, J.; LeMaire, R.J.; Fotin, V.; McRae, L.; Scott, D.; Westsik, G.

    1996-09-01

    The US Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy commits the US to placing under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards excess nuclear materials no longer needed for the US nuclear deterrent. As of January 1,1996, the IAEA has completed Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant, and a plutonium storage vault at Rock Flats. Two IPIVs were performed at Hanford . This paper reports the results of thermal neutron multiplicity assay of plutonium residues during the second IPIV at Hanford. Using the Three Ring Multiplicity Counter (3RMC), measurements were performed on 69 individual cans of plutonium residues, each containing approximately 1 kg of material. Of the 69 items, 67 passed the IAEA acceptance criteria and two were selected for destructive analysis.

  15. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dai, Francesca; Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Murray, Leigh Margareth Anne; Canali, Elisabetta; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom) were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2-45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude.

  16. Do Community Based Initiatives foster sustainability transitions? Towards a unique Environmental Impact Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellozzo, Federico; Hendrickson, Cary; Gozdowska, Iga; Groß, Helge; Henderson, Charles; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The active participation in Community Based Initiatives (CBI) is a spreading phenomenon that has reached a significant magnitude and - in some cases - CBIs are also supposed to have catalysed social and technological innovation, thus contributing to global transition into low-carbon economy. Generally speaking, CBIs are grassroots initiatives with broad sustainability foci that promote a plethora of activities such as alternative transportation, urban gardening, renewable energy implementation, waste regeneration/reduction, etc. Some advocate that such practices fostered by bottom-up activities, rather than top-down policies, represent a proficient countermeasure to alleviate global environmental change and effectively foster a societal transition towards sustainability. However, thus far most empirical research grounds mainly on anecdotal evidence and little work has been done to quantitatively assess CBIs' "environmental impacts" (EI) or their carbon footprints using comparative methodologies. This research main aim is to frame a methodology to assess univocally CBIs' EIs which are crucial to understanding their role in societal sustainability transition. However, to do so, three main caveats need to be addressed: first, some CBIs do not directly produce tangible measurable outputs, nor have an intelligibly defined set of inputs (e.g. CBIs focusing on environmental education and awareness rising). Thus, calculating their "indirect" EI may represent an intricate puzzle that is very much open to subjective interpretation. Second, CBIs' practices are heterogenic and therefore existing methodologies to make comparisons of their EIs are neither straightforward nor proficient, also given the lack of available data. Third, another issue closely related to the one previously mentioned, is a general lack of consensus among already existing impact-assessment frameworks for certain practices (e.g. composting). A potential way of estimating a CBI's EI is a standard Carbon

  17. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation.

  18. Initial assessment of facial nerve paralysis based on motion analysis using an optical flow method.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Wan Syahirah W; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, Amirozi; Salleh, Hasriah

    2016-01-01

    An initial assessment method that can classify as well as categorize the severity of paralysis into one of six levels according to the House-Brackmann (HB) system based on facial landmarks motion using an Optical Flow (OF) algorithm is proposed. The desired landmarks were obtained from the video recordings of 5 normal and 3 Bell's Palsy subjects and tracked using the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) method. A new scoring system based on the motion analysis using area measurement is proposed. This scoring system uses the individual scores from the facial exercises and grades the paralysis based on the HB system. The proposed method has obtained promising results and may play a pivotal role towards improved rehabilitation programs for patients. PMID:26578273

  19. Initial distribution assessment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Barcelona, Spain, area.

    PubMed

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Molina, R; Melero-Alcibar, R; Lucientes, J

    2008-05-01

    The invasive species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1894) (Diptera: Culicidae) has reached several European countries, including Albania, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and recently Spain (Med. Vet. Entomol. 20: 150-152, 2006). Here, we present the initial characterization of the distribution of Ae. albopictus in the municipality of Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain, where it was found for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula. An ovitrap sampling campaign was developed from September to December 2004 to assess the spatial distribution and abundance of Ae. albopictus to evaluate the potential of an eradication attempt. The population of Ae. albopictus in the whole area was shown to be widespread within the municipality, and it included at least another one neighboring town, so authorities were advised to develop large-scale control measures. Some indirect evidence was collected on the introduction means and date. PMID:18533426

  20. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee D.; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Divisions 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet-optical-infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for bio-signatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exo-planets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV-Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  1. Initial technology assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  2. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  3. Initial assessment of facial nerve paralysis based on motion analysis using an optical flow method.

    PubMed

    Samsudin, Wan Syahirah W; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahmad, Amirozi; Salleh, Hasriah

    2016-01-01

    An initial assessment method that can classify as well as categorize the severity of paralysis into one of six levels according to the House-Brackmann (HB) system based on facial landmarks motion using an Optical Flow (OF) algorithm is proposed. The desired landmarks were obtained from the video recordings of 5 normal and 3 Bell's Palsy subjects and tracked using the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) method. A new scoring system based on the motion analysis using area measurement is proposed. This scoring system uses the individual scores from the facial exercises and grades the paralysis based on the HB system. The proposed method has obtained promising results and may play a pivotal role towards improved rehabilitation programs for patients.

  4. Real time assistance for stent positioning and assessment by self-initialized tracking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Terrence; Wang, Yu; Durlak, Peter; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2012-01-01

    Detailed visualization of stents during their positioning and deployment is critical for the success of an interventional procedure. This paper presents a novel method that relies on balloon markers to enable real-time enhanced visualization and assessment of the stent positioning and expansion, together with the blood flow over the lesion area. The key novelty is an automatic tracking framework that includes a self-initialization phase based on the Viterbi algorithm and an online tracking phase implementing the Bayesian fusion of multiple cues. The resulting motion compensation stabilizes the image of the stent and by compounding multiple frames we obtain a much better stent contrast. Robust results are obtained from more than 350 clinical data sets. PMID:23285577

  5. To Receive or Not to Receive Analgesics in the Emergency Department: The Importance of the Pain Intensity Assessment and Initial Nursing Assessment.

    PubMed

    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Carlsson, Marianne; Gunningberg, Lena

    2015-10-01

    Patients seeking emergency care for abdominal pain still experience poor pain management. Pain intensity is not always seen as a mandatory parameter in the initial nurse assessment. Despite the development of nurse-initiated analgesic protocols, many patients do not receive analgesics in the emergency department. The aim of this study was to describe initial nursing assessment related to pain management and to identify predictors for receiving or not receiving analgesics in the emergency department. The sample consists of 100 patients from an intervention group in a previously undertaken Swedish intervention study. The main findings were that the registered nurses assessed 62 patients as being in need of analgesics, and that 52 of these obtained analgesics. The majority of the patients assessed as not being in need of analgesics did not receive analgesics because they did not want medication. Median value for pain intensity at initial assessment was 6 on the numerical rating scale. The results for the logistic regression (n = 80) showed significant differences between receiving analgesics/not receiving analgesics and the predictor pain intensity (measured at initial nurse assessment). Nurses in emergency departments play a crucial role, in that their initial assessment is of specific importance for the patient's further care and whether the patient may or may not receive analgesics. However, more attention has to be paid to patients' experiences and their expectations regarding the pain management in the emergency department. These complex questions have to be studied further in a more systematic way. PMID:26028609

  6. Insights from an Evaluability Assessment of the U.S. Forest Service "More Kids in the Woods" Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zint, Michaela T.; Covitt, Beth A.; Dowd, Patrick F.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an evaluability assessment of the U.S. Forest Service's "More Kids in the Woods" internal grant initiative based on a review of 26 funded proposals, the creation of logic models, and a survey of project leaders. Evaluations of the initiative are warranted because it has clear outcome objectives, is implemented as intended, and results…

  7. 76 FR 68769 - Bridging the Idea Development Evaluation Assessment and Long-Term Initiative and Total Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...-Term Initiative and Total Product Life Cycle Approaches for Evidence Development for Surgical Medical... Evaluation Assessment and Long-Term (IDEAL) initiative and Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) frameworks related... device life cycle; and Integrating innovation, evaluation, and dissemination pathways for medical...

  8. Development of transient initiating event frequencies for use in probabilistic risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackowiak, D.P.; Gentillon, C.D.; Smith, K.L.

    1985-05-01

    Transient initiating event frequencies are an essential input to the analysis process of a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment. These frequencies describe events causing or requiring scrams. This report documents an effort to validate and update from other sources a computer-based data file developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) describing such events at 52 United States commercial nuclear power plants. Operating information from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on 24 additional plants from their date of commercial operation has been combined with the EPRI data, and the entire data base has been updated to add 1980 through 1983 events for all 76 plants. The validity of the EPRI data and data analysis methodology and the adequacy of the EPRI transient categories are examined. New transient initiating event frequencies are derived from the expanded data base using the EPRI transient categories and data display methods. Upper bounds for these frequencies are also provided. Additional analyses explore changes in the dominant transients, changes in transient outage times and their impact on plant operation, and the effects of power level and scheduled scrams on transient event frequencies. A more rigorous data analysis methodology is developed to encourage further refinement of the transient initiating event frequencies derived herein. Updating the transient event data base resulted in approx.2400 events being added to EPRI's approx.3000-event data file. The resulting frequency estimates were in most cases lower than those reported by EPRI, but no significant order-of-magnitude changes were noted. The average number of transients per year for the combined data base is 8.5 for pressurized water reactors and 7.4 for boiling water reactors.

  9. Progresses in tritium accident modelling in the frame of IAEA EMRAS II

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.

    2015-03-15

    The assessment of the environmental impact of tritium release from nuclear facilities is a topic of interest in many countries. In the IAEA's Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS I) programme, progresses for routine releases were done and in the EMRAS II programme a dedicated working group (WG 7 - Tritium Accidents) focused on the potential accidental releases (liquid and atmospheric pathways). The progresses achieved in WG 7 were included in a complex report - a technical document of IAEA covering both liquid and atmospheric accidental release consequences. A brief description of the progresses achieved in the frame of EMRAS II WG 7 is presented. Important results have been obtained concerning washout rate, the deposition on the soil of HTO and HT, the HTO uptake by leaves and the subsequent conversion to OBT (organically bound tritium) during daylight. Further needs of the processes understanding and the experimental efforts are emphasised.

  10. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  11. The Global Modeling Initiative Assessment Model: Model Description, Integration and Testing of the Transport Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.A.; Tannahill, J.R.; Kinnison, D.E.; Connell, P.S.; Bergmann, D.; Proctor, D.; Rodriquez, J.M.; Lin, S.J.; Rood, R.B.; Prather, M.J.; Rasch, P.J.; Considine, D.B.; Ramaroson, R.; Kawa, S.R.

    2000-04-25

    We describe the three dimensional global stratospheric chemistry model developed under the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) to assess the possible environmental consequences from the emissions of a fleet of proposed high speed civil transport aircraft. This model was developed through a unique collaboration of the members of the GMI team. Team members provided computational modules representing various physical and chemical processes, and analysis of simulation results through extensive comparison to observation. The team members' modules were integrated within a computational framework that allowed transportability and simulations on massively parallel computers. A unique aspect of this model framework is the ability to interchange and intercompare different submodules to assess the sensitivity of numerical algorithms and model assumptions to simulation results. In this paper, we discuss the important attributes of the GMI effort, describe the GMI model computational framework and the numerical modules representing physical and chemical processes. As an application of the concept, we illustrate an analysis of the impact of advection algorithms on the dispersion of a NO{sub y}-like source in the stratosphere which mimics that of a fleet of commercial supersonic transports (High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)) flying between 17 and 20 kilometers.

  12. Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC) Prediction Assessment and Initial Comparisons with Tram Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Charles, Bruce D.; McCluer, Megan

    1999-01-01

    A prediction sensitivity assessment to inputs and blade modeling is presented for the TiltRotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC). For this study, the non-CFD prediction system option in TRAC is used. Here, the comprehensive rotorcraft code, CAMRAD.Mod1, coupled with the high-resolution sectional loads code HIRES, predicts unsteady blade loads to be used in the noise prediction code WOPWOP. The sensitivity of the predicted blade motions, blade airloads, wake geometry, and acoustics is examined with respect to rotor rpm, blade twist and chord, and to blade dynamic modeling. To accomplish this assessment, an interim input-deck for the TRAM test model and an input-deck for a reference test model are utilized in both rigid and elastic modes. Both of these test models are regarded as near scale models of the V-22 proprotor (tiltrotor). With basic TRAC sensitivities established, initial TRAC predictions are compared to results of an extensive test of an isolated model proprotor. The test was that of the TiltRotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) conducted in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). Predictions are compared to measured noise for the proprotor operating over an extensive range of conditions. The variation of predictions demonstrates the great care that must be taken in defining the blade motion. However, even with this variability, the predictions using the different blade modeling successfully capture (bracket) the levels and trends of the noise for conditions ranging from descent to ascent.

  13. Assessing the benefits of stereoscopic displays to visual search: methodology and initial findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Holliman, Nick S.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Liversedge, Simon P.; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Visual search is a task that is carried out in a number of important security and health related scenarios (e.g., X-ray baggage screening, radiography). With recent and ongoing developments in the technology available to present images to observers in stereoscopic depth, there has been increasing interest in assessing whether depth information can be used in complex search tasks to improve search performance. Here we outline the methodology that we developed, along with both software and hardware information, in order to assess visual search performance in complex, overlapping stimuli that also contained depth information. In doing so, our goal is to foster further research along these lines in the future. We also provide an overview with initial results of the experiments that we have conducted involving participants searching stimuli that contain overlapping objects presented on different depth planes to one another. Thus far, we have found that depth information does improve the speed (but not accuracy) of search, but only when the stimuli are highly complex and contain a significant degree of overlap. Depth information may therefore aid real-world search tasks that involve the examination of complex, overlapping stimuli.

  14. Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubenrauch, C. J.; Rossow, W. B.; Kinne, S.; Ackerman, S.; Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Getzewich, B.; Di Girolamo, L.; Guignard, A.; Heidinger, A.; Maddux, B.; Menzel, P.; Minnis, P.; Pearl, C.; Platnick, S.; Riedi, J.; Sun-Mack, S.; Walther, A.; Winker, D.; Zeng, S.; Zhao, G.

    2012-01-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the whole globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years in length. However, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provided the first coordinated intercomparison of publically available, standard global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multiangle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. A monthly, gridded database, in common format, facilitates further assessments, climate studies and the evaluation of climate models.

  15. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands

  16. Identification of phototransformation products of the antiepileptic drug gabapentin: Biodegradability and initial assessment of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Manuel; Menz, Jakob; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-11-15

    The anticonvulsant drug Gabapentin (GAB) is used for the treatment of various diseases (e.g. epilepsy, bipolar disorder, neuropathic pain) and is being consumed in high amounts. As GAB is not metabolized and shows a weak elimination in sewage treatment plants (STPs), it has been detected in surface water and even in raw potable water. Moreover, the confirmed teratogenic effects of GAB indicate the need for further investigations regarding options for the elimination of GAB in the water cycle. Little is known about the behavior of GAB during treatment with UV light, which is normally used for the disinfection of potable water and discussed for advanced wastewater treatment. In this study, GAB was exposed to polychromatic UV irradiation at different initial concentrations in aqueous solution. Afterwards the structures of the resulting phototransformation products (PTPs) were identified and elucidated by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry. GAB and photolytic mixtures were submitted to the Closed Bottle Test (CBT; OECD 301 D) to assess biodegradability. Furthermore, the toxicity of GAB and its photolytic mixtures was initially addressed on screening level using a modified luminescent bacteria test (LBT) and the umu-test (ISO/FDIS 13829). Environmentally realistic concentrations of GAB were disclosed by predicting STP influent concentrations (24.3 and 23.2 μg L(-1)). GAB with initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) was eliminated by 80% after 128 min of direct UV irradiation, but just 9% of non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC) was removed indicating the formation of dead-end transformation products (TPs). Structures of different PTPs were elucidated and several identical PTPs could also be identified at lower initial treatment concentrations (20 mg L(-1), 5 mg L(-1), 1 mg L(-1) and 0.1 mg L(-1)). GAB was classified as not readily biodegradable. Moreover, photo treatment did not result in better biodegradable PTPs. With increasing UV treatment duration, photolytic

  17. Nonproliferation, Disarmament, and the IAEA in Tomorrow's World

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Jill

    2008-09-08

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards have evolved considerably during the last five decades and have become an integral part of the international non-proliferation regime and the global security system. To carry on serving well the international community, they need to continue to move with the times -- especially in light of the renewed interest in nuclear energy and its projected expansion in the coming years, which could bring additional nuclear facilities, material and activities under IAEA safeguards. The projected nuclear ˜renaissance" may pose increased proliferation risks as nuclear material, technology and know-how spread in an increasingly globalized world. The presentation will provide an overview of the IAEA safeguards system and describe current verification challenges and potential new IAEA roles.

  18. A new large initial condition ensemble to assess avoided impacts in a climate mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, B. M.; Tebaldi, C.; Knutti, R.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that when considering timescales of up to 50 years, natural variability may play an equal role to anthropogenic forcing on subcontinental trends for a variety of climate indicators. Thus, for many questions assessing climate impacts on such time and spatial scales, it has become clear that a significant number of ensemble members may be required to produce robust statistics (and especially so for extreme events). However, large ensemble experiments to date have considered the role of variability in a single scenario, leaving uncertain the relationship between the forced climate trajectory and the variability about that path. To address this issue, we present a new, publicly available, 15 member initial condition ensemble of 21st century climate projections for the RCP 4.5 scenario using the CESM1.1 Earth System Model, which we propose as a companion project to the existing 40 member CESM large ensemble which uses the higher greenhouse gas emission future of RCP8.5. This provides a valuable data set for assessing what societal and ecological impacts might be avoided through a moderate mitigation strategy in contrast to a fossil fuel intensive future. We present some early analyses of these combined ensembles to assess to what degree the climate variability can be considered to combine linearly with the underlying forced response. In regions where there is no detectable relationship between the mean state and the variability about the mean trajectory, then linear assumptions can be trivially exploited to utilize a single ensemble or control simulation to characterize the variability in any scenario of interest. We highlight regions where there is a detectable nonlinearity in extreme event frequency, how far in the future they will be manifested and propose mechanisms to account for these effects.

  19. Choosing Meteorological Input for the Global Modeling Initiative Assessment of High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, A. R.; Prather, M. P.; Hall, T. M.; Strahan, S. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Sparling, L. C.; Coy, L.; Rodriquez, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) science team is developing a three dimensional chemistry and transport model (CTM) to be used in assessment of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Requirements are that this model be documented, be validated against observations, use a realistic atmospheric circulation, and contain numerical transport and photochemical modules representing atmospheric processes. The model must also retain computational efficiency to be tractable to use for multiple scenarios and sensitivity studies. To meet these requirements, a facility model concept was developed in which the different components of the CTM are evaluated separately. The first use of the GMI model will be to evaluate the impact of the exhaust of supersonic aircraft on the stratosphere. The assessment calculations will depend strongly on the wind and temperature fields used by the CTM. Three meteorological data sets for the stratosphere are available to GMI: the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2), the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GISS). Objective criteria were established by the GMI team to identify the data set which provides the best representation of the stratosphere. Simulations of gases with simple chemical control were chosen to test various aspects of model transport. The three meteorological data sets were evaluated and graded based on their ability to simulate these aspects of stratospheric measurements. This paper describes the criteria used in grading the meteorological fields. The meteorological data set which has the highest score and therefore was selected for GMI is CCM2. This type of objective model evaluation establishes a physical basis for interpretation of differences between models and observations. Further, the method provides a quantitative basis for defining model errors, for discriminating between different

  20. Potential for meeting IAEA safeguards goals for reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Bambas, K.J.

    1980-09-01

    The author concludes that: Safeguards which allow the meeting of IAEA uranium and plutonium diversion detection goals for large-scale reprocessing plants are achievable. Concepts exists for ways in which IAEA inspectors could verify data received from operations of such facilities. Additional work is needed, particularly in the futher development of on-line instruments. Computerized near real-time accounting systems may provide significant operational benefits in addition to being required for safeguards purposes.

  1. Development and initial assessment of a new paradigm for assessing cognitive and motor inhibition: the bimodal virtual-reality Stroop.

    PubMed

    Henry, Mylène; Joyal, Christian C; Nolin, Pierre

    2012-09-30

    Assessing and predicting inhibition in adults is a common assignment for clinicians. However, there is no single measure of inhibition that is complete, sensitive and enjoyable. The main goal of this study was to develop a virtual reality neuropsychological task (the bimodal VR-Stroop) capable of measuring both cognitive (control of internal and external interference) and motor inhibition (a go no-go paradigm with reaction time variation, commission errors and omissions). Preliminary data obtained with 71 healthy adult participants confirmed that the VR-Stroop is capable of eliciting the Stroop effect with bimodal stimuli. Initial validation data also suggested that measures of the VR-Stroop significantly correlate with measures of the Elevator counting with distracters, the Continuous Performance Task (CPT-II), and the Stop-it task. Finally, regression analyses indicated that commission errors and variability of reaction times at the VR-Stroop were significantly predicted by scores of the Elevator task and the CPT-II. These preliminary results suggest that the VR-Stroop is an interesting measure of cognitive and motor inhibition for adults, although confirmatory investigations are warranted.

  2. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper S. E.; .; Worrall, L.; Pickett, C.; Bachner, K.; Queirolo, A.

    2014-08-08

    The U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, the U.S. Department of State, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a a workshop on the subject of ”Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation.” The workshop was held at the Vienna International Centre in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. The workshop participants included software and hardware experts from national laboratories, industry, government, and IAEA member states who were specially selected by the workshop organizers based on their experience with software that is developed for the control and operation of safeguards instrumentation. The workshop included presentations, to orient the participants to the IAEA Department of Safeguards software activities related to instrumentation data collection and processing, and case studies that were designed to inspire discussion of software development, use, maintenance, and upgrades in breakout sessions and to result in recommendations for effective software practices and management. This report summarizes the results of the workshop.

  3. Fostering applications of neutron scattering techniques in developing countries: IAEA's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjpe, Shriniwas K.; Mank, G.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2006-11-01

    Over the last 60 years research reactors have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind. Neutron scattering has been the workhorse for research and development in materials science. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactors have also been involved in using this technique. The reactors and the facilities around them have a large potential for applications, while their under-utilization has been a concern for many member states. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting its member states in the enhancement of utilization of their research reactors. Technical meetings focussing on the area of current interests with potential applications are organized under the project on “effective utilization of research reactors,” e.g. on residual stress measurement, neutron reflectometry. Coordinated research projects (CRPs) bring together scientists from developed and developing countries, build collaborations, and exchange expertise and technology. The CRPs on research reactor utilization include topics like development of small-angle neutron scattering applications and development of sources and imaging systems for neutron radiography. New CRPs on the measurement of residual stress and accelerator-driven neutron sources will be initiated soon. The results from these meetings of CRPs are published as technical documents of the IAEA that would act as guidelines for capacity building for research reactor managers. This paper will present some of the salient features of IAEA activities in promoting research reactor utilization.

  4. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; van Beek, P; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gurriaran, R; Hanley, O; Harms, A V; Herrmann, J; Hult, M; Ikeuchi, Y; Ilchmann, C; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kloster, M; Laubenstein, M; Llaurado, M; Mas, J L; Nakano, M; Nielsen, S P; Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Schikowski, J; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Sýkora, I; Tarjan, S; Varga, B; Vasileva, E; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2016-03-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified radionuclides include: (40)K, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am for IAEA-410 and (40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (239+240)Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes in the analysis of radionuclides in sediments, for development and validation of analytical methods and for staff training.

  5. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; van Beek, P; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gurriaran, R; Hanley, O; Harms, A V; Herrmann, J; Hult, M; Ikeuchi, Y; Ilchmann, C; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kloster, M; Laubenstein, M; Llaurado, M; Mas, J L; Nakano, M; Nielsen, S P; Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Schikowski, J; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Sýkora, I; Tarjan, S; Varga, B; Vasileva, E; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2016-03-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified radionuclides include: (40)K, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am for IAEA-410 and (40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (239+240)Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes in the analysis of radionuclides in sediments, for development and validation of analytical methods and for staff training. PMID:26631455

  6. Assessment of land use impact on hydraulic threshold conditions for gully head cut initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari Samani, Aliakbar; Chen, Qiuwen; Khalighi, Shahram; Wasson, Robert James; Rahdari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-07-01

    A gully as an accelerated erosion process is responsible for land degradation under various environmental conditions and has been known as a threshold phenomenon. Although the effects of gullying processes have been well documented, few soil erosion models have taken into account the threshold condition necessary for gully development. This research was devoted to determining the effects of land use change on hydraulic threshold condition and stream power of water flow through an in situ experimental flume (15 m × 0.4 m). Results indicated that head cut initiation and detachment rates showed a better correlation to stream power indices than shear stress (τcr). The threshold unit stream power value (ωu) for head cut initiation in rangeland, abandoned land, and dry farming land was 0.0276, 0.0149, and 4.5 × 10-5 m s-1, respectively. Moreover, the micro-relief condition of soil surface and surface vegetation affected the flow regime of discharge and velocity. It is seen that the composite hydraulic criteria of Froude number (Fr) and discharge (Q) can clearly discriminate the land uses' threshold. In fact, the remarkable decrease of τcr in dry farming was related to the effect of tillage practice on soil susceptibility and aggregate strength. The findings indicated that using the unit steam power index instead of critical shear stress could increase the models' precision for prediction of head cut development. Compared to the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Model (EGEM) equation for critical shear stress, it is important to point out that for modelling of gully erosion, using single soil attributes can lead to an inaccurate estimation for τcr. In addition, based on the findings of this research, the use of threshold values of τcr = 35 dyne cm-2 and ωu = 0.4 cm s-1 in physically based soil erosion models is susceptible to high uncertainty when assessing gully erosion.

  7. Analytical Quality Control - Quality Assurance Iaea-Ilmr Intercomparison Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.

    The importance of analytical quality control, especially for radionuclide measurements, was recognized at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since it began operations in 1957. Activities at the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity (ILMR) in Monaco focused on radioisotope calibration to resolve measurement differences among laboratories all over the world. To-date, standardization and intercalibration remain key services of the ILMR at Monaco. Quality Assurance (QA) as well as Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) are manifestations of the increased attention being given to quality control. The programme, known as Analical Quality Control Services (AQCS), provides intercomparison studies and reference materials for natural and artificial radionuclides. Since the early 1970's, the ILMR has provided about 30 intercomparison samples and reference materials to laboratories all over the world to enable them to assess and control the quality of their work. Intercomparison and reference samples from the ILMR cover a wide range of materials and analytes in different concentration ranges. Natural matrix standards for radioactivity measurements for marine sediments, algae, and biota are available. The reference Samples produced through the resent intercomparison programmes are believe to play an important role in improving quality control in laboratories engaged in environmental radioactivity measurements.

  8. Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections. Final report: Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    This is the second of two reports prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in {open_quotes}Observational Skills{close_quotes}. The first (Phase 1) report was essentially exploratory. It defined Observational Skills broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. It identified 10 specific Observational Skills components, analyzed their relevance to IAEA safeguards inspections, and reviewed a variety of inspection programs in the public and private sectors that provide training in one or more of these components. The report concluded that while it should be possible to draw upon these other programs in developing Observational Skills training for IAEA inspectors, the approaches utilized in these programs will likely require significant adaption to support the specific job requirements, policies, and practices that define the IAEA inspector`s job. The overall objective of this second (Phase 2) report is to provide a basis for the actual design and delivery of Observational Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The more specific purposes of this report are to convey a fuller understanding of the potential application of Observational Skills to the inspector`s job, describe inspector perspectives on the relevance and importance of particular Observational Skills, identify the specific Observational Skill components that are most important and relevant to enhancing safeguards inspections, and make recommendations as to Observational Skills training for the IAEA`s consideration in further developing its Safeguards training program.

  9. An initial probabilistic hazard assessment of oil dispersants approved by the United States National Contingency Plan.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-07-01

    Dispersants are commonly applied during oil spill mitigation efforts; however, these industrial chemicals may present risks to aquatic organisms individually and when mixed with oil. Fourteen dispersants are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). Availability of environmental effects information for such agents is limited, and individual components of dispersants are largely proprietary. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches including Chemical Toxicity Distributions (CTDs) may be useful as an initial step toward prioritizing environmental hazards from the use of dispersants. In the present study, we applied the CTD approach to two acute toxicity datasets: NCP (the contingency plan dataset) and DHOS (a subset of NCP listed dispersants reevaluated subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill). These datasets contained median lethal concentration (LC50) values for dispersants alone and dispersant:oil mixtures, in two standard marine test species, Menidia beryllina and Mysidopsis bahia. These CTDs suggest that dispersants alone are generally less toxic than oil. In contrast, most dispersant:oil mixtures are more toxic than oil alone. For the two datasets (treated separately because of differing methodologies), CTDs would predict 95% of dispersant:oil mixtures to have acute toxicity values above 0.32 and 0.76 mg/L for Mysidopsis and 0.33 mg/L and 1.06 mg/L for Menidia (for DHOS and NCP, respectively). These findings demonstrate the utility of CTDs as a means to evaluate the comparative ecotoxicity of dispersants alone and in mixture with different oil types. The approaches presented here also provide valuable tools for prioritizing prospective and retrospective environmental assessments of oil dispersants. PMID:21425326

  10. Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Nahra, Henry K.

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA's program requirements.

  11. Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nahra, Henry K.

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA s program requirements.

  12. An initial probabilistic hazard assessment of oil dispersants approved by the United States National Contingency Plan.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-07-01

    Dispersants are commonly applied during oil spill mitigation efforts; however, these industrial chemicals may present risks to aquatic organisms individually and when mixed with oil. Fourteen dispersants are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). Availability of environmental effects information for such agents is limited, and individual components of dispersants are largely proprietary. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches including Chemical Toxicity Distributions (CTDs) may be useful as an initial step toward prioritizing environmental hazards from the use of dispersants. In the present study, we applied the CTD approach to two acute toxicity datasets: NCP (the contingency plan dataset) and DHOS (a subset of NCP listed dispersants reevaluated subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill). These datasets contained median lethal concentration (LC50) values for dispersants alone and dispersant:oil mixtures, in two standard marine test species, Menidia beryllina and Mysidopsis bahia. These CTDs suggest that dispersants alone are generally less toxic than oil. In contrast, most dispersant:oil mixtures are more toxic than oil alone. For the two datasets (treated separately because of differing methodologies), CTDs would predict 95% of dispersant:oil mixtures to have acute toxicity values above 0.32 and 0.76 mg/L for Mysidopsis and 0.33 mg/L and 1.06 mg/L for Menidia (for DHOS and NCP, respectively). These findings demonstrate the utility of CTDs as a means to evaluate the comparative ecotoxicity of dispersants alone and in mixture with different oil types. The approaches presented here also provide valuable tools for prioritizing prospective and retrospective environmental assessments of oil dispersants.

  13. The evolution and impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    The Asia and the Pacific region was within the IAEA program on radiation and tissue banking, the most active region. Most of the tissue banks in the Asia and the Pacific region were developed during the late 1980s and 1990s. The initial number of tissue banks established or supported by the IAEA program in the framework of the RCA Agreement for Asia and the Pacific region was 18. At the end of 2006, the number of tissue banks participating, in one way or another in the IAEA program was 59. Since the beginning of the implementation of the IAEA program in Asia and the Pacific region 63,537 amnion and 44,282 bone allografts were produced and 57,683 amnion and 36,388 bone allografts were used. The main impact of the IAEA program in the region was the following: the establishment or consolidation of at least 59 tissue banks in 15 countries in the region (the IAEA supported directly 16 of these banks); the improvement on the quality and safety of tissues procured and produced in the region reaching international standards; the implementation of eight national projects, two regional projects and two interregional projects; the elaboration of International Standards, a Code of Practice and a Public Awareness Strategies and, the application of quality control and quality assurances programs in all participating tissue banks.

  14. International contributions to IAEA-NEA heat transfer databases for supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, L. K. H.; Yamada, K.

    2012-07-01

    An IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermohydraulics Code Testing for SCWRs' is being conducted to facilitate collaboration and interaction among participants from 15 organizations. While the project covers several key technology areas relevant to the development of SCWR concepts, it focuses mainly on the heat transfer aspect, which has been identified as the most challenging. Through the collaborating effort, large heat-transfer databases have been compiled for supercritical water and surrogate fluids in tubes, annuli, and bundle subassemblies of various orientations over a wide range of flow conditions. Assessments of several supercritical heat-transfer correlations were performed using the complied databases. The assessment results are presented. (authors)

  15. An AeroCom Initial Assessment - Optical Properties in Aerosol Component Modules of Global Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.; Textor, C.; Guibert, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Berglen, T.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, Richard C.; Feichter, H.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Herzog, M.; Horrowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Krol, M.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lesins, G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, U.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, Joyce E.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2006-05-29

    The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment global fields for mass and for mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among aerosol component modules of 21 different global models. There is general agreement among models for the annual global mean of component combined aot. At 0.12 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca 0.14) and space (MODIS-MISR composite ca 0.16). More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture have remained. Of particular concern is the large model diversity for contributions by dust and carbon, because it leads to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab). Since not only aot but also aab influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions) and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks) and space (e.g. correlations between retrieved aerosol and cloud properties).

  16. Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E): mission concept and initial performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, A.; Orphal, J.; Checa-Garcia, R.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.; Knigge, T.; Weise, D.; Sqalli-Houssini, O.; Kemper, D.

    2015-07-01

    The Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a concept for a geostationary satellite sounder that targets at constraining the sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for continental-scale regions. Thereby, its primary focus is on Central Europe. G3E carries a spectrometer system that collects sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Solar absorption spectra allow for spatiotemporally dense observations of the column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4), and carbon monoxide (XCO) including sampling of the diurnal variation with several measurements per day during summer. Here, we present the mission concept and carry out an initial performance assessment of the retrieval capabilities. The radiometric performance of the 4 grating spectrometers is tuned to reconcile small ground-pixel sizes (~ 2 km × 3 km at 50° latitude) with short single-shot exposures (∼ 2.9 s) that allow for sampling continental regions such as Central Europe within 2 h while providing sufficient signal-to-noise. The noise errors to be expected for XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are assessed through retrieval simulations for a European trial ensemble. Generally, single-shot precision for the targeted XCO2 and XCH4 is better than 0.5 % with some exception for scenes with low infrared surface albedo observed under low sun conditions in winter. For XCO, precision is generally better than 10 %. Performance for aerosol and cirrus loaded atmospheres is assessed by mimicking G3E's slant view on Europe for an ensemble of atmospheric scattering properties used previously for evaluating nadir-viewing low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. While retrieval concepts developed for LEO configurations generally succeed in mitigating aerosol and cirrus induced retrieval errors for G3E's setup, residual errors are somewhat greater in geostationary orbit

  17. Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E): mission concept and initial performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, A.; Orphal, J.; Checa-Garcia, R.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.; Knigge, T.; Weise, D.; Sqalli-Houssini, O.; Kemper, D.

    2015-11-01

    The Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a concept for a geostationary satellite sounder that aims to constrain the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for continental-scale regions. Its primary focus is on central Europe. G3E carries a spectrometer system that collects sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Solar absorption spectra allow for spatiotemporally dense observations of the column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4), and carbon monoxide (XCO). The mission concept in particular facilitates sampling of the diurnal variation with several measurements per day during summer. Here, we present the mission concept and carry out an initial performance assessment of the retrieval capabilities. The radiometric performance of the 4 grating spectrometers is tuned to reconcile small ground-pixel sizes (~2 km × 3 km at 50° latitude) with short single-shot exposures (~2.9 s) that allow for sampling continental regions such as central Europe within 2 h while providing a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. The noise errors to be expected for XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are assessed through retrieval simulations for a European trial ensemble. Generally, single-shot precision for the targeted XCO2 and XCH4 is better than 0.5 % with some exception for scenes with low infrared surface albedo observed under low sun conditions in winter. For XCO, precision is generally better than 10 %. Performance for aerosol and cirrus loaded atmospheres is assessed by mimicking G3E's slant view on Europe for an ensemble of atmospheric scattering properties used previously for evaluating nadir-viewing low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. While retrieval concepts developed for LEO configurations generally succeed in mitigating aerosol- and cirrus-induced retrieval errors for G3E's setup, residual errors are somewhat greater in

  18. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identifies the patient's need for hospice care and services, and the patient's need for physical... completion of the comprehensive assessment. The hospice interdisciplinary group, in consultation with the... comprehensive assessment. The comprehensive assessment must identify the physical, psychosocial, emotional,...

  19. Data resources for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, Timothy J.; Garman, Steven L.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this report were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA). The WLCI is a long-term science based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale in southwest Wyoming while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. The IA is an integrated synthesis and analysis of WLCI resource values based on best available data and information collected from multiple agencies and organizations. It is a support tool for landscape-scale conservation planning and evaluation, and a data and analysis resource that can be used for addressing specific management questions. The IA analysis was conducted using a Geographic Information System in a raster (that is, a grid) environment using a cell size of 30 meters. To facilitate the interpretation of the data in a regional context, mean values were summarized and displayed at the subwatershed unit (WLCI subwatersheds were subset from the National Hydrography Dataset, Hydrologic Unit Code 12/Level 6). A dynamic mapping platform, accessed via the WLCI webpage at http://www.wlci.gov is used to display the mapped information, and to access underlying resource values that were combined to produce the final mapped results. The raster data used in the IA are provided here for use by interested parties to conduct additional analyses and can be accessed via the WLCI webpage. This series contains 74 spatial data sets: WLCI subwatersheds (vector) and 73 geotiffs (raster) that are segregated into the major categories of Multicriteria Index (including Resource Index and Condition), Change Agents, and Future Change. The Total Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Multicriteria Index and the Terrestrial Multicriteria Index. The Aquatic Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Resource Index and the Aquatic Condition. The Aquatic Resource Index is composed of the

  20. Quantitative assessment of breast lesion viscoelasticity: initial clinical results using supersonic shear imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanter, Mickael; Bercoff, Jeremy; Athanasiou, Alexandra; Deffieux, Thomas; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Montaldo, Gabriel; Muller, Marie; Tardivon, Anne; Fink, Mathias

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents an initial clinical evaluation of in vivo elastography for breast lesion imaging using the concept of supersonic shear imaging. This technique is based on the combination of a radiation force induced in tissue by an ultrasonic beam and an ultrafast imaging sequence capable of catching in real time the propagation of the resulting shear waves. The local shear wave velocity is recovered using a time-offlight technique and enables the 2-D mapping of shear elasticity. This imaging modality is implemented on a conventional linear probe driven by a dedicated ultrafast echographic device. Consequently, it can be performed during a standard echographic examination. The clinical investigation was performed on 15 patients, which corresponded to 15 lesions (4 cases BI-RADS 3, 7 cases BI-RADS 4 and 4 cases BI-RADS 5). The ability of the supersonic shear imaging technique to provide a quantitative and local estimation of the shear modulus of abnormalities with a millimetric resolution is illustrated on several malignant (invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma) and benign cases (fibrocystic changes and viscous cysts). In the investigated cases, malignant lesions were found to be significantly different from benign solid lesions with respect to their elasticity values. Cystic lesions have shown no shear wave propagate at all in the lesion (because shear waves do not propage in liquid). These preliminary clinical results directly demonstrate the clinical feasibility of this new elastography technique in providing quantitative assessment of relative stiffness of breast tissues. This technique of evaluating tissue elasticity gives valuable information that is complementary to the B-mode morphologic information. More extensive studies are necessary to validate the assumption that this new mode potentially helps the physician in both false-positive and false-negative rejection.

  1. Global Soil Moisture from the Aquarius/SAC-D Satellite: Description and Initial Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas; Cosh, Michael; Zhao, Tianjie; O'Neil, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius satellite observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Although Aquarius was designed for ocean salinity mapping, our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to include the retrieval of surface soil moisture. The soil moisture retrieval algorithm development focused on using only the radiometer data because of the extensive heritage of passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture. The single channel algorithm (SCA) was implemented using the Aquarius observations to estimate surface soil moisture. Aquarius radiometer observations from three beams (after bias/gain modification) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction model forecast surface temperatures were then used to retrieve soil moisture. Ancillary data inputs required for using the SCA are vegetation water content, land surface temperature, and several soil and vegetation parameters based on land cover classes. The resulting global spatial patterns of soil moisture were consistent with the precipitation climatology and with soil moisture from other satellite missions (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity). Initial assessments were performed using in situ observations from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Little Washita and Little River watershed soil moisture networks. Results showed good performance by the algorithm for these land surface conditions for the period of August 2011-June 2013 (rmse = 0.031 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), Bias = -0.007 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), and R = 0.855). This radiometer-only soil moisture product will serve as a baseline for continuing research on both active and combined passive-active soil moisture algorithms. The products are routinely available through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration data archive at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

  2. Initial test of an emotional avoidance model of restriction in anorexia nervosa using ecological momentary assessment.

    PubMed

    Haynos, Ann F; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Mitchell, James E; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that restrictive eating allows individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) to avoid contact with negative emotions; however, this presumption has not been directly tested. In this study, we conducted an initial investigation examining whether restrictive eating serves an emotional avoidance function among individuals with AN. Females with AN (n = 118) reported on negative and positive affect, anxiety/tension, and eating behaviors at multiple time points daily over a 2-week period using ecological momentary assessment methodology. Affective patterns were compared using generalized estimating equation models between days in which participants reported either: (1) relatively high restriction (without binge eating); (2) relatively low restriction (without binge eating); (3) binge eating; or (4) no restriction or binge eating. We hypothesized that, if restriction were functioning to avoid negative affect, average negative affect and anxiety/tension, as well as average negative and positive affect lability, would be lower and average positive affect would be higher on days characterized by high levels of restriction compared to other eating patterns. Contrary to hypotheses: (1) average negative affect, anxiety/tension, and positive affect were not significantly different between days characterized by high restriction and those characterized by low or no restriction; (2) Negative affect and anxiety/tension lability were higher on days characterized by high restriction compared to no restriction or binge eating days; (3) Anxiety/tension lability was higher on days characterized by high versus low levels of restriction. This patterns of findings does not support an avoidance model of restrictive eating for individuals with AN. PMID:26228412

  3. An initial needs assessment of science inquiry curriculum practices at a local level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, Susan M.

    Frequently, students learn in science classes taught like traditional reading courses in which reading texts and answering questions is the main activity. The problem at one southern middle school is that students are not developing an understanding of science concepts and are doing poorly on standardized testing. Students are seldom given the opportunity model scientific inquiry methods that promote experiential learning in the classroom. The purpose of this project was to create a curriculum for inquiry science (IS) instruction at the seventh-grade level to increase student understanding of science concepts after conducting an initial needs assessment to guide deploying the intervention. Research guiding the IS movement at the national level suggests that many teachers use only the textbook and students do not apply what they have learned. Factors affecting this problem include a lack of integrated curricula for IS learning and teacher understanding and confidence in IS skills. A constructivist view of student learning served as the conceptual framework. The needs analysis for the project questioned if teachers were willing to adopt the IS method and prepared to conduct it through a quantitative survey research design. Results indicated that all teachers supported the IS approach, however it was infrequently used in instruction and only two of five teachers were somewhat comfortable with their IS skills. The local IS project draws from empirically tested elements to develop an integrated IS curricula aligned to the state science criterion. The curricula will be supported through a concurrently deployed professional learning community to support teacher professional development and confidence. This project can positively impact social change by increasing science related academic performance, and ultimately, interest in careers in science among middle school students.

  4. Assessment of bird response to the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative using weather-surveillance radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sieges, Mason L.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Randall, Lori A.; Buler, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in spring 2010, the Natural Resources Conservation Service implemented the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI) to provide temporary wetland habitat for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other birds along the northern Gulf of Mexico via managed flooding of agricultural lands. We used weather-surveillance radar to conduct broad regional assessments of bird response to MBHI activities within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Across both regions, birds responded positively to MBHI management by exhibiting greater relative bird densities within sites relative to pre-management conditions in prior years and relative to surrounding non-flooded agricultural lands. Bird density at MBHI sites was generally greatest during winter for both regions. Unusually high flooding in the years prior to implementation of the MBHI confounded detection of overall changes in remotely sensed soil wetness across sites. The magnitude of bird response at MBHI sites compared to prior years and to non-flooded agricultural lands was generally related to the surrounding landscape context: proximity to areas of high bird density, amount of forested wetlands, emergent marsh, non-flooded agriculture, or permanent open water. However, these relationships varied in strength and direction between regions and seasons, a finding which we attribute to differences in seasonal bird composition and broad regional differences in landscape configuration and composition. We detected greater increases in relative bird use at sites in closer proximity to areas of high bird density during winter in both regions. Additionally, bird density was greater during winter at sites with more emergent marsh in the surrounding landscape. Thus, bird use of managed wetlands could be maximized by enrolling lands located near areas of known bird concentration and within a mosaic of existing wetlands. Weather-radar observations

  5. Reducing the risks from radon indoors: an IAEA perspective.

    PubMed

    Boal, T; Colgan, P A

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA has a mandate to develop, in collaboration with other relevant international organisations, 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimisation of danger to life and property', and to provide for the application of these standards. The most recent edition of the International Basic Safety Standards includes, for the first time, requirements to protect the public from exposure due to radon indoors. As a result, the IAEA has already developed guidance material in line with accepted best international practice and an international programme to assist its Member States in identifying and addressing high radon concentrations in buildings is being prepared. This paper overviews the current situation around the world and summarises the management approach advocated by the IAEA. A number of important scientific and policy issues are identified and discussed from the point-of-view of how they may impact on national action plans and strategies. Finally, the assistance and support available through the Agency is described.

  6. The IAEA's WorldAtom Internet site: International news and information services

    SciTech Connect

    Kyd, D.R.

    2000-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides news and public information services via the Internet through its WorldAtom home page. The page is accessible at www.iaea.org/worldatom. Following are brief highlights of the items available on the site by clicking Press Centre, Reference Centre, or other links: Daily Press Review: Summaries of selected news items pertaining to global nuclear developments and the IAEA's work are provided each day, drawing upon a wide range of global media sources. IAEA NewsBriefs: Regularly featured are updates about IAEA activities related to areas of safety, technology transfer, and nuclear safeguards. Meetings and training courses: News about IAEA-sponsored symposia, seminars, and other meetings, as well as information about international meetings on atomic energy sponsored by other organizations, are updated on a daily basis. Press releases and statements: All IAEA press releases and media advisories since 1995 are accessible on the site. Topical and feature pages: In-depth coverage and links to information resources within and outside the IAEA are regularly given to selected topics of high international interest involving the IAEA. IAEA publications: listings and overviews of IAEA technical reports, safety standards, and other publications are updated as they are issued. Scientific and technical information: WorldAtom includes links (Reference Centre) to the International Nuclear Information System, IAEA's extensive bibliographic database of references and resources, to the nuclear database, and to departmental pages at IAEA that focus on IAEA programs and activities. IAEA documents: Electronic versions of official IAEA documents are added as they are issued. These documents include the texts and status lists of international conventions under IAEA auspices; IAEA information circulars to member states; IAEA annual reports (since 1995); and background reports and documents for the IAEA General Conference related to

  7. Report to the President and Congress on the Third Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Joe; Amato, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is the U.S. Government's crosscutting program that coordinates Federal research and development (R&D) activities in nanoscale science, engineering, technology, and related efforts among various participating agencies. The Federal Government launched the NNI in FY 2001 with an initial $500 million budget…

  8. The Agreement of Caregivers' Initial Identification of Children's Developmental Problems with the Professional Assessment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Lee, I-Chin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hui-Mei; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2011-01-01

    Children's developmental problems vary, with some easier to identify than others. The accuracy of caregivers' initial identification of children's developmental problems is important in the timely treatment of those problems by medical professionals. In this study, we investigated the degree to which caregivers' initial identification of…

  9. Assessing Students' Opportunity to Learn the Intended Curriculum Using an Online Teacher Log: Initial Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Yel, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence supporting intended score interpretations for the purpose of assessing opportunity to learn (OTL) via an online teacher log. MyiLOGS yields 5 scores related to instructional time, content, and quality. Based on data from 46 middle school classes, the evidence indicated that (a) MyiLOGS has high usability, (b)…

  10. Initial Psychometric Properties of a Brief Parent-Report Instrument for Assessing Tic Severity in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susanna; Himle, Michael B.; Tucker, Benjamin T. P.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ)--a new measure assessing the number, frequency, and intensity of motor and vocal tics in children and adolescents with Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD). Parents of 40 children with a CTD completed the PTQ as part of a larger assessment…

  11. Using Activity Theory to Evaluate a Professional Learning and Development Initiative in the Use of Narrative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Roseanna; Mentis, Mandia; O'Neill, John

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the impact of professional learning and development (PLD) programmes for educators is complex. This article presents an analysis of a PLD initiative in which classroom teachers learned to use narrative assessment for students with "high" and "very high" learning needs. Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), the analysis…

  12. Development and Initial Validation of the NyTid Test: A Movement Assessment Tool for Compulsory School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidén, Anna; Lundqvist, Carolina; Nyberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the development process and initial validation of the NyTid test, a process-oriented movement assessment tool for compulsory school pupils. A sample of 1,260 (627 girls and 633 boys; mean age of 14.39) Swedish school children participated in the study. In the first step, exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were performed in…

  13. A Preliminary Assessment of the Change Recipients' Perceptions of the "4+4+4 Reform Initiative": Has Anything Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summak, M. Semih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess change recipients' perceptions of 4+4+4 reform initiative put in effect in Turkish education system and to explore if anything has changed within the one-year interval. This research is a qualitative longitudinal case study conducted in 2013 and 2014 in a large city in Southeastern Turkey. Pragmatist…

  14. An initial assessment of calcium and iron isotope systematics in forest ecosystems: clues to possible linkages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullen, T.; Fantle, M.; Aggarwal, J.; Bailey, S.

    2004-05-01

    Calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) are common major constituents of soils in watersheds and are essential nutrients for plants. Ca is potentially a limiting ecosystem nutrient due to its depletion from soil and biomass pools as a result of both anthropogenically-induced and natural leaching processes. In contrast, Fe is rarely limiting due to its typically greater abundance in soils as a result of the immobility of its oxidized weathering products. Although both Ca and Fe play critical roles in the biogeochemical dynamics of forest ecosystems, their differing chemical affinities provide little reason to expect similarities in biogeochemical behavior at the ecosystem level. However, initial assessments of the isotopic systematics of Ca at a watershed developed on granitoid glacial till in New Hampshire (USA) and of Fe at a watershed developed on marine sediments in northern California (USA) have revealed similar patterns of isotopic distribution and thus a potential linkage between their respective biogeochemical cycles. In each case, easily extractable Ca or Fe in the forest floor is isotopically heavier than residual Ca or Fe; in contrast, easily-extractable Ca or Fe in the deepest mineral soils is isotopically lighter than residual Ca or Fe. The development of these depth distributions of isotopic composition is consistent with either transport of relatively light, easily extractable Ca and Fe from deep mineral soils to shallow soils via plant root networks and/or soil water migration, or retention of relatively light Ca and Fe internally by plants with subsequent redistribution to and concentration in the shallow soils. An important role for the latter process is suggested at the New Hampshire site, where detailed analysis of red spruce tissues reveals that relatively light Ca is retained by foliage and bark, probably as a result of Ca-oxalate formation, and subsequently concentrated in the forest floor through litter deposition. We are currently determining the Fe

  15. INITIAL SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives

  16. When the Sky Falls: Performing Initial Assessments of Bright Atmospheric Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; Brown, Peter; Blaauw, Rhiannon; Kingery, Aaron; Moser, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Chelyabinsk super bolide was the first "significant" impact event to occur in the age of social media and 24 hour news. Scientists, used to taking many days or weeks to analyze fireball events, were hard pressed to meet the immediate demands (within hours) for answers from the media, general public, and government officials. Fulfilling these requests forced many researchers to exploit information available from various Internet sources - videos were downloaded from sites like Youtube, geolocated via Google Street View, and quickly analyzed with improvised software; Twitter and Facebook were scoured for eyewitness accounts of the fireball and reports of meteorites. These data, combined with infrasound analyses, enabled a fairly accurate description of the Chelyabinsk event to be formed within a few hours; in particular, any relationship to 2012 DA14 (which passed near Earth later that same day) was eliminated. Results of these analyses were quickly disseminated to members of the NEO community for press conferences and media interviews. Despite a few minor glitches, the rapid initial assessment of Chelyabinsk was a triumph, permitting the timely conveyance of accurate information to the public and the incorporation of social media into fireball analyses. Beginning in 2008, the NASA Meteoroid Environments Office, working in cooperation with Western's Meteor Physics Group, developed processes and software that permit quick characterization - mass, trajectory, and orbital properties - of fireball events. These tools include automated monitoring of Twitter to establish the time of events (the first tweet is usually no more than a few seconds after the fireball), mining of Youtube and all sky camera web archives to locate videos suitable for analyses, use of Google Earth and Street View to geolocate the video locations, and software to determine the fireball trajectory and object orbital parameters, including generation of animations suitable for popular media

  17. IAEA Inspections for Undeclared and Declared Activities: Is a More Robust Approach Needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The United States has long supported a strong international safeguards system and for many years has served as the foremost supplier of technology, equipment, and training to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In doing so, it drew in many instances on DOE sponsored R&D and training that was directed towards domestic safeguards and then adapted for IAEA purposes. This was relatively straightforward because of the strong overlap between the development of nuclear material accountancy measures needed for both domestic and international purposes. Two factors have emerged that have made this strong reliance on domestic measures less and less able to be a source of support for the IAEA. One is the shift by the IAEA safeguards system towards detecting undeclared activities. The second is the shift of domestic attention away from nuclear material accountancy and towards physical protection. As a result, a gap in US sponsored R&D and training relevant to international safeguards has developed. The NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and the DOE NA-22 Safeguards R&D program are intended to help fill this gap and, thereby, permit the U.S. to remain as the pre-eminent supplier of technology for international safeguards purposes. In this context, IAEA challenges have been examined from the perspective of detecting the diversion of nuclear material from declared stocks; detecting undeclared production of nuclear material and activities at locations declared under INFCIRC/153; and detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities elsewhere in a state. Of these, the detection of undeclared nuclear material and activities is, perhaps, the IAEA’s most significant challenge. It is a challenge that even the international community finds difficult to meet because of the scope and the geographic scale of the problem, the technical constraints, the knowledge required, and the significant resources needed to deploy effective systems world-wide (e.g., satellite

  18. Development of an Electronic Role-Play Assessment Initiative in Bioscience for Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Judy; Ainscough, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Devising authentic assessments for subjects with large enrolments is a challenge. This study describes an electronic role-play assessment for approximately 600 first-year nursing students to learn and apply pathophysiology (bioscience) concepts to nursing practice. Students used Microsoft Office PowerPoint[R] to prepare electronic role-plays both…

  19. New Community Schools and Inter-Agency Working: Assessing the Effectiveness of Social Justice Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Tett, Lyn

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the meaning of social justice as reflected by New Communities Schools (NCS). It reviews the role of NCS in the modernisation of welfare, considers the criteria used to judge their effectiveness and assesses the outcomes of the NCS programme. Problems in assessing social justice outcomes are explored in terms of pilot or…

  20. The US Support program to IAEA Safeguards - 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.

    2008-06-09

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) was established in 1977 to provide technical assistance to the IAEA Department of Safeguards. Since that time the U.S. Department of State has provided funding of over $200 million and over 900 tasks have been completed by USSP contractors on behalf of the KEA. The USSP is directed by a U.S. interagency subcommittee known as the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) and is managed by the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In recent years, the SSTS and ISPO have identified priorities to guide the process of determining which IAEA requests are aligned with US. policy and will be funded. The USSP priorities are reviewed and updated prior to the USSP Annual Review Meeting which is hosted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) each spring in Vienna, Austria. This paper will report on the 2008 USSP priorities and be an introduction for a session which will consist of four papers on USSP priorities and four other papers related to USSP activities.

  1. IAEA verification experiment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.M.; Subudhi, M.; Calvert, O.L.; Bonner, T.N.; Adams, J.G.; Cherry, R.C.; Whiting, N.E.

    1998-08-01

    In April 1996, the United States (US) added the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to the list of facilities eligible for the application of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. At that time, the US proposed that the IAEA carry out a Verification Experiment at the plant with respect to the downblending of about 13 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the form of UF{sub 6}. This material is part of the 226 metric tons of fissile material that President Clinton has declared to be excess to US national-security needs and which will be permanently withdrawn from the US nuclear stockpile. In September 1997, the IAEA agreed to carry out this experiment, and during the first three weeks of December 1997, the IAEA verified the design information concerning the downblending process. The plant has been subject to short-notice random inspections since December 17, 1997. This paper provides an overview of the Verification Experiment, the monitoring technologies used in the verification approach, and some of the experience gained to date.

  2. Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Barton, Michael; Mackillop, William; Fidarova, Elena; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Abad, Anthony; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kobachi, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution. PMID:26164776

  3. International Workshops to Foster Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Coates, Cameron W.; Bedke, Michael L.

    2003-07-14

    A country’s adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Additional Protocol is an important statement to the world of that country’s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation. Without the Additional Protocol (AP) it is possible, as demonstrated in Iraq, for a country party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to clandestinely work toward nuclear weapons and be undetected by the IAEA. This is because classical safeguards under the NPT are directed at diversion of nuclear material from declared activities. But a country may instead build undeclared activities to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. The AP is directed at detecting those undeclared activities. As of May 2003, 73 countries had signed the AP, but only 35 have entered into force. To further adherence to the AP, the IAEA has held regional, high-level seminars in Japan, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Peru, Romania, and Malaysia to explain AP provisions. To supplement these policy-level seminars, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken to develop a set of modules of technical competencies required to implement the AP. The intent is to work closely with the IAEA by providing these technical competencies to countries as well as to complement the IAEA’s regional seminars and other outreach efforts. This paper briefly describes the technical competency modules.

  4. Integration of field chemical data in initial risk assessment of forest fire smoke.

    PubMed

    Dokas, I; Statheropoulos, M; Karma, S

    2007-04-15

    A risk assessment framework was used to assess the risks of forest fire smoke (ffs) to the exposed communities, critical infrastructures and the environment. The present work is focused on the planning and problem formulation phases of this risk assessment procedure. Specifically, as part of the problem formulation phase, integration of the available ffs chemical data was carried out by answering critical questions regarding the ffs. In this way, critical factors have been identified, which mostly define and characterize ffs as a cause of problems and possible symptoms. The integrated information can be used in order to determine assessment endpoints, conceptual models, and risk hypotheses, as presented in an indicative example referred to a simple risk scenario. This work, enhanced with additional risk scenarios, can be used for the next phases of the risk assessment procedure, such as risk analysis and risk characterization. Future research needs for adequate evaluation of ffs impacts on communities, infrastructures, and the environment are also discussed.

  5. An assessment of prospects for international cooperation on the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Lynn F. H.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the unique characteristics of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which will have to be taken into account if the Initiative is to become an international one; the technical capabilities offered by prospective international partners; the political and economic prospects for proceeding with the Initiative both in the United States and elsewhere; and the advantages and disadvantages of various possible approaches to international cooperation on SEI. SEI preparatory activities are likely to extend over a several-year period. Such an extended preparatory period should provide the time needed for coordinating studies, for identifing interests and potential contributions, and for resolving the numerous planning, budgeting, organizational and political issues which will have to be dealt with if such a complex undertaking is to be successfully internationalized.

  6. Personal Exposure Monitoring Wearing Protocol Compliance: An Initial Assessment of Quantitative Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure sampling provides the most accurate and representative assessment of exposure to a pollutant, but only if measures are implemented to minimize exposure misclassification and reduce confounders that may cause misinterpretation of the collected data. Poor complian...

  7. Assessment of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative: Year 2 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokher, Christine; Jacobson, Lou

    2014-01-01

    The Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative is a statewide policy that mandates college placement testing of 11th-graders who meet high school graduation criteria but are unlikely to meet college readiness criteria. Students who score below college-ready on the Postsecondary Education Readiness Test (PERT) are required to take math and…

  8. Assessment of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokher, Christine; Jacobson, Louis; Rosenbaum, James; LaLonde, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The intent of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative (FCCRI) is to help students become college-ready by high school graduation, and subsequently to succeed in obtaining college credentials. This is done by testing college readiness in grade 11 and requiring that students testing below college-ready take college readiness and success…

  9. Assessing Students' Development in Learning Approaches According to Initial Learning Profiles: A Person-Oriented Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanthournout, Gert; Coertjens, Liesje; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Research regarding the development of students' learning approaches have at times reported unexpected or lack of expected changes. The current study explores the idea of differential developments in learning approaches according to students' initial learning profiles as a possible explanation for these outcomes. A learning profile is conceived as…

  10. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  11. Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.

    1991-12-10

    The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the author prepare such an assessment. The author provides an estimate of the number of nuclear tests needed to accomplish a variety of specified warhead safety upgrades, then uses the results of this estimate to answer three questions posed by the Senators. These questions concern pit reuse and the number of nuclear tests needed for specified safety upgrades of those ballistic missiles not scheduled for retirement, namely the Minuteman III, C4, and D5 missiles.

  12. Water Footprint Assessment and the Panta Rhei research initiative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    "Panta Rhei - Everything Flows" is the new scientific decade, 2013-2022, of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS). It is dedicated to understanding issues linked with the interactions between hydrology and society in the context of change. The purpose of Panta Rhei is to reach an improved interpretation of the processes governing the water cycle in the Anthropocene, an improved prediction of such systems, and where possible to provide input for policy and practice, aimed at water security, human wellbeing and development. This talk discusses the research initiative, explores the possibility of research innovations offered by the research initiative and how water footprint assessment is a valuable tool to understand and assess human impacts on the water cycle in the Anthropocene.

  13. Are doctors assessing patients with hypertension appropriately at their initial presentation?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siew Lee Stalia; Lee, Ping Yein; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Chia, Yook Chin; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Liew, Su May; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which primary care doctors assessed patients newly diagnosed with hypertension for the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) during the patients’ first clinic visit for hypertension. The study also aimed to examine the trend of assessment for CVD risk factors over a 15-year period. METHODS This retrospective study was conducted between January and May 2012. Data was extracted from the paper-based medical records of patients with hypertension using a 1:4 systematic random sampling method. Data collected included CVD risk factors and a history of target organ damage (TOD), which were identified during the patient’s first visit to the primary care doctor for hypertension, as well as the results of the physical examinations and investigations performed during the same visit. RESULTS A total of 1,060 medical records were reviewed. We found that assessment of CVD risk factors during the first clinic visit for hypertension was poor (5.4%–40.8%). Assessments for a history of TOD were found in only 5.8%–11.8% of the records, and documented physical examinations and investigations for the assessment of TOD and secondary hypertension ranged from 0.1%–63.3%. Over time, there was a decreasing trend in the percentage of documented physical examinations performed, but an increasing trend in the percentage of investigations ordered. CONCLUSION There was poor assessment of the patients’ CVD risk factors, secondary causes of hypertension and TOD at their first clinic visit for hypertension. The trends observed in the assessment suggest an over-reliance on investigations over clinical examinations. PMID:26451055

  14. Biopsychosocial characteristics and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League players: an initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Haase, Richard F

    2008-09-01

    The use of neurocognitive testing in the assessment of professional athletes sustaining sports-related concussions has become widespread over the past decade. Baseline neurocognitive testing is now a requirement for athletes in the National Football League (NFL). We present preliminary normative data on a computer based neurocognitive test (Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing; ImPACT) for 159 NFL athletes. Also included are summary data on basic biopsychosocial characteristics, including medical, psychiatric, chemical dependency, concussion, learning disability/attention deficit disorder, and symptom variables, and the relevance of each to baseline neurocognitive test scores.

  15. Assessing College Student-Athletes' Life Stress: Initial Measurement Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Kao, Kuei-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    College student-athletes have unique life stress that warrants close attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement assessing college student-athletes' life stress. In Study 1, a focus group discussion and Delphi method produced a questionnaire draft, termed the College Student-Athletes' Life Stress Scale. In…

  16. Implementation and Initial Validation of the Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA) at Golden West College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    During spring 1992, the Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA) test was piloted with a sample of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes at Golden West College (GWC) in Huntington Beach, California. The CELSA, which utilizes a cloze format including parts of conversations and short dialogues, combines items from beginning,…

  17. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  18. Initial Validity and Reliability of the SCCAN: Using Tailored Testing to Assess Adult Cognition and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Lisa H.; Holland, Audrey; Kaszniak, Alfred W.; D'Agostino, Jerry; Garrett, Merrill; Rapcsak, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Scales of Cognitive and Communicative Ability for Neurorehabilitation (SCCAN; L. Milman & A. Holland, 2007) was developed in the hospital setting to address changes in assessment practice. The SCCAN was designed to provide an overview of impairment and activity limitations across 8 cognitive scales (Speech Comprehension, Oral…

  19. 78 FR 7785 - Request for Comments and Information on Initiating a Risk Assessment for Establishing Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... (77 FR 74485). In that document, we requested comments relevant to conducting a risk assessment to.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION I. Background In the Federal Register of December 14, 2012 (77 FR 74485), we published... cod), Crustacean shellfish (e.g., crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (e.g., almonds, pecans,...

  20. Lazarus's BASIC ID: Making Initial Client Assessments Using Q-Sorts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents overview of Lazarus's multimodal therapy model and the Q-sort, an observer-evaluation scoring instrument. Outlines feasibility of integrating Q-sort within multimodal model. Describes both a preliminary attempt using expert raters to categorize Q-sort cards within the model and a case study on how to assess client by incorporating Q-sort…

  1. State-Based Case Studies of Assessment Initiatives in Undergraduate Education: Chronology of Critical Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Ewell, Peter T.

    The Education Commission of the States (ECS) together with the American Association for Higher Education recently conducted five case studies of state-based approaches to assessment in undergraduate education in Colorado, Missouri, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Virginia. The case studies, in turn, are part of the Missouri Governor John Ashcroft's…

  2. Global Initiatives for Early Childhood Care and Education: Global Guidelines and Global Guidelines Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trube, Mary Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This report focuses on the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) Global Guidelines (GG) and Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA), which were developed in response to and in keeping with the prominence that the issue of quality early childhood care, development, and education has reached globally. Further, the paper positions the…

  3. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  4. Development and Initial Testing of a Structured Clinical Observation Tool to Assess Pharmacotherapy Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John Q.; Lieu, Sandra; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Tong, Lowell

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed and tested the feasibility and utility of a new direct-observation instrument to assess trainee performance of a medication management session. Methods: The Psychopharmacotherapy-Structured Clinical Observation (P-SCO) instrument was developed based on multiple sources of expertise and then implemented in 4…

  5. Private Sector Initiative Program. Documentation and Assessment of CETA Title VII Implementation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.

    The development and performance, through 1981, of Private Industry Councils (PICs) in 16 study sites are described and assessed in this report. (PICs were set up under Title VII of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) to serve as a hub for attracting increased private sector involvement in employment and training activities for the…

  6. Integrated Guidance and Assessment for Working Women. A Skill Choice Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBell, Diane

    An action research project was designed to test a model for providing integrated guidance and assessment services to adult women in Britain. A network of professional guidance providers were involved in delivering the services. Coordination was separate from delivery but linked into the action research and evaluation. The emphasis throughout…

  7. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    SciTech Connect

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  8. A Qualitative Assessment of Mismatch Between Dialysis Modality Selection and Initiation.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowski, Susan; Liebman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    At our institution, we have noted that end-stage renal disease patients choosing a home dialysis modality after education often initiate renal replacement therapy with in-center hemodialysis (HD) instead. We interviewed 24 such patients (23 choosing peritoneal dialysis [PD], one choosing home HD) to determine reasons for this mismatch. The most common reasons cited for not starting home dialysis were: lack of confidence/concerns about complications, lack of space or home-related issues, a feeling of insufficient education, and perceived medical or social contraindications. We propose several potential strategies to help patients start with their preferred modality.

  9. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  10. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 1. Initialization, operation, and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the first of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of State-Supported Formative Assessment Initiatives in New York and Vermont. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Josephine; Sanchez, Maria Teresa; North, Charlotte; Cazabon, Mary; Melo, Daniel; Kagle, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines two state-supported formative assessment initiatives that promote a consensus definition of formative assessment endorsed by the Council of Chief State School Officers. It describes the primary components of the two initiatives and the strategies that state, district, and school leaders report using to support implementation of…

  12. A Descriptive Analysis of State-Supported Formative Assessment Initiatives in New York and Vermont. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 112

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Josephine; Sanchez, Maria Teresa; North, Charlotte; Cazabon, Mary; Melo, Daniel; Kagle, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines two state-supported formative assessment initiatives that promote a consensus definition of formative assessment endorsed by the Council of Chief State School Officers. It describes the primary components of the two initiatives and the strategies that state, district, and school leaders report using to support implementation of…

  13. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  14. Dynamic balance control in elders: gait initiation assessment as a screening tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.; Krebs, D. E.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether measurements of center of gravity-center of pressure separation (CG-CP moment arm) during gait initiation can differentiate healthy from disabled subjects with sufficient specificity and sensitivity to be useful as a screening test for dynamic balance in elderly patients. SUBJECTS: Three groups of elderly subjects (age, 74.97+/-6.56 yrs): healthy elders (HE, n = 21), disabled elders (DE, n = 20), and elders with vestibular hypofunction (VH, n = 18). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, intact-groups research design. Peak CG-CP moment arm measures how far the subject will tolerate the whole-body CG to deviate from the ground reaction force's CP; it represents dynamic balance control. Screening test cutoff points at 16 to 18 cm peak CG-CP moment arm predicted group membership. RESULTS: The magnitude of peak CG-CP moment arm was significantly greater in HE than in DE and VH subjects (p<.01) and was not different between the DE and VH groups. The peak CG-CP moment arm occurred at the end of single stance phase in all groups. As a screening test, the peak moment arm has greater than 50% sensitivity and specificity to discriminate the HE group from the DE and VH groups with peak CG-CP moment arm cutoff points between 16 and 18 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Examining dynamic balance through the use of the CG-CP moment arm during single stance in gait initiation discriminates between nondisabled and disabled older persons and warrants further investigation as a potential tool to identify people with balance dysfunction.

  15. Assessing gains in teacher knowledge and confidence in a long-duration climate literacy initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, D. B.; Kendall, L.; Yelton, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Literacy: Integrating Modeling & Technology Experiences (CLIMATE) in NC Classrooms, an interdisciplinary, global climate change program for NC high school science teachers is administered by UNC Chapel Hill's Institute for the Environment (IE) with funding from NASA's Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program. Currently in its third year, this year-long program serves 24 teaching fellows annually and combines hands-on climate science investigations with experiential learning in fragile ecosystem environments to achieve the following program goals: increased teacher knowledge of climate change science and predicted impacts; increased teacher knowledge of modeling and technology resources, with an emphasis on those provided by NASA; and increased teacher confidence in using technology to address climate change education. A mixed-methods evaluation approach that includes external evaluation is providing quantitative and qualitative data about the extent to which program goals are being achieved. With regard to increases in teacher knowledge, teachers often self-report an increase in knowledge as a result of a program activity; this session will describe our strategies for assessing actual gains in teacher knowledge which include pre- and post-collaborative concept mapping and pre- and post-open response questionnaires. For each evaluation approach utilized, the process of analyzing these qualitative data will be discussed and results shared. For example, a collaborative concept mapping activity for assessment of learning as a result of the summer institute was utilized to assess gains in content knowledge. Working in small groups, teachers were asked to identify key vocabulary terms and show their relationship to one another via a concept map to answer these questions: What is global climate change? What is/are the: evidence? mechanisms? causes? consequences? Concept maps were constructed at the beginning (pre) and again at the end (post) of the Summer

  16. IAEA Fellowship Program, 1997 report on United States participants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fellowship Program began in April 1958 as a part of the Agency`s Technical Cooperation (TC) Program. Through the TC Program, the IAEA provides technical assistance to meet the needs of recipient countries and to bring about a substantial transfer of technology. This is done by providing experts, equipment, fellowships, and training courses. This report addresses the US component of the fellowship program. These fellowships provide opportunities for research and training of scientists, engineers and physicians from developing countries in the peaceful application of nuclear energy. The fellowships are awarded to persons who are, or soon will be, trusted with responsibilities that are important to the development of their countries. Fellowship awards are classified into two groups, those financed by the IAEA General Fund or the UNDP Fund (Type 1 Fellowships and Scientific Visits), and those offered by Member States (Type 2 Fellowships). In placing individuals, preference is given to applicants from countries that are signatories to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America.

  17. IAEA Fellowship Program, 1996 report on United States participants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fellowship Program began in April 1958 as a part of the Agency`s Technical Cooperation (TC) Program. Through the TC Program, the IAEA provides technical assistance to meet the needs of recipient countries and to bring about a substantial transfer of technology. This is done by providing experts, equipment, fellowships, and training courses. This report addresses the US component of the fellowship program. These fellowships provide opportunities for research and training of scientists, engineers and physicians from developing countries in the peaceful application of nuclear energy. The fellowships are awarded to persons who are, or soon will be, trusted with responsibilities that are important to the development of their countries. Fellowship awards are classified into two groups, those financed by the IAEA General Fund or the UNDP Fund (Type 1 Fellowships and Scientific Visits), and those offered by Member States (Type 2 Fellowships). In placing individuals, preference is given to applicants from countries that are signatories to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America.

  18. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  19. Incident and Emergency Centre of the IAEA.

    PubMed

    Baciu, Florian; Buglova, Elena; Martincic, Rafael; Spiegelberg Planer, Rejane; Stern, Warren; Winkler, Guenther

    2010-06-01

    The Incident and Emergency Centre of the International Atomic Emergency Agency is the global focal point for preparedness, event reporting, and response to nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies irrespective of their cause. The Centre continuously works to develop standards and guidance for strengthening Member States' preparedness; develops practical tools and training programs to assist Member States in promptly applying the standards and guidance; and organizes a variety of training events and exercises. The Centre evaluates national plans and assists in their development; facilitates effective communication between countries; develops response procedures; and supports national exercises. The Centre provides access to multiple information resources; assesses trends that may influence crisis and consequence management plans and response; and develops and continuously enhances methodology for identifying conditions needed for early warning and response. The Centre provides around-the-clock assistance to Member States in dealing with nuclear and radiological events, including security related events through timely and efficient services and the provision of a coordinated international response to such emergencies. PMID:20445379

  20. Initial Development and Preliminary Validation of a New Negative Symptom Measure: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS)

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Courtney; Blanchard, Jack J.; Bennett, Melanie; Horan, William P.; Kring, Ann; Gur, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    As part of an ongoing scale development process, this study provides an initial examination of the psychometric properties and validity of a new interview-based negative symptom instrument, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), in outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 37). The scale was designed to address limitations of existing measures and to comprehensively assess five consensus-based negative symptoms: asociality, avolition, anhedonia (consummatory and anticipatory), affective flattening, and alogia. Results indicated satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the total CAINS scale score and promising inter-rater agreement, with clear areas identified in need of improvement. Convergent validity was evident in general agreement between the CAINS and alternative negative symptom measures. Further, CAINS subscales significantly correlated with relevant self-report emotional experience measures as well as with social functioning. Discriminant validity of the CAINS was strongly supported by its small, non-significant relations with positive symptoms, general psychiatric symptoms, and depression. These preliminary data on an early beta-version of the CAINS provide initial support for this new assessment approach to negative symptoms and suggest directions for further scale development. PMID:20869848

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Update on Spent Fuel Management Activities with Focus on Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Lovasic, Z.

    2008-07-01

    The IAEA continues to give a high priority to safe and effective implementation of spent fuel management. As the options for spent fuel management may in the long term diversify due to evolving requirements and new priorities in strategic criteria, it is worthwhile identifying viable technical options for spent fuel treatment and their applicability to spent fuel management. The IAEA has issued several publications in the past that provide technical information on the global status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing and associated topics. The latest update of this information, collected from the experts in this field, covers currently available spent fuel reprocessing technologies as well as emerging technologies that are being investigated. The information exchange on advanced nuclear fuel cycles is also achieved through the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiated by IAEA. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. Recent initiatives by (IAEA, USA and Russia) are proposing the internationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle. These proposals imply a need for the development of innovative means for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle as advanced reactors (Generations III and IV) are deployed and as the quantities of material in the fuel cycle are set to increase to levels several times larger than at present. Spent fuel treatment/reprocessing options have evolved significantly since the start of nuclear energy application. There is a large body of industrial experience in fuel cycle technologies complemented by research and development programs in several countries. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced

  2. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed. ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology. PMID:21294881

  3. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): outcomes of an IAEA meeting.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Eeva K; Kiel, Krystyna; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Joiner, Michael C; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Wondergem, Jan; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2011-02-04

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed.ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology.

  4. Initial flight test of a ground deployed system for flying qualities assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Mary F.; Koehler, Ruthard; Wilson, Edward M.; Levy, David R.

    1989-01-01

    In order to provide a safe, repeatable, precise, high-gain flying qualities task a ground deployed system was developed and tested at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. This system, the adaptable target lighting array system (ATLAS), is based on the German Aerospace Research Establishment's ground attack test equipment (GRATE). These systems provide a flying-qualities task, emulating the ground-attack task with ground deployed lighted targets. These targets light in an unpredictable sequence and the pilot has to aim the aircraft at whichever target is lighted. Two flight-test programs were used to assess the suitability of ATLAS. The first program used the United States Air Force (USAF) NT-33A variability stability aircraft to establish that ATLAS provided a task suitable for use in flying qualities research. A head-up display (HUD) tracking task was used for comparison. The second program used the X-29A forward-swept wing aircraft to demonstrate that the ATLAS task was suitable for assessing the flying qualities of a specific experimental aircraft. In this program, the ground-attack task was used for comparison. All pilots who used ATLAS found it be highly satisfactory and thought it to be superior to the other tasks used in flying qualities evaluations. It was recommended that ATLAS become a standard for flying qualities evaluations.

  5. The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Moitra, Ethan; Ellenberg, Stacy; Armey, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smartphones). One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population. PMID:26689969

  6. The Promises and Challenges of Ecological Momentary Assessment in Schizophrenia: Development of an Initial Experimental Protocol.

    PubMed

    Gaudiano, Brandon A; Moitra, Ethan; Ellenberg, Stacy; Armey, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia and other psychotic-spectrum disorders, are a major cause of disability worldwide. Although efficacious pharmacological and psychosocial interventions have been developed for treating patients with schizophrenia, relapse rates are high and long-term recovery remains elusive for many individuals. Furthermore, little is still known about the underlying mechanisms of these illnesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to better understand the contextual factors that contribute to psychosis so that they can be better targeted in future interventions. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a dynamic procedure that permits the measurement of variables in natural settings in real-time through the use of brief assessments delivered via mobile electronic devices (i.e., smart phones). One advantage of EMA is that it is less subject to retrospective memory biases and highly sensitive to fluctuating environmental factors. In the current article, we describe the research-to-date using EMA to better understand fluctuating symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and potential applications to treatment. In addition, we describe a novel EMA protocol that we have been employing to study the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia following a hospital discharge. We also report the lessons we have learned thus far using EMA methods in this challenging clinical population. PMID:26689969

  7. Initial Assessment of the Pathogenic Mechanisms of the recently identified Alzheimer Risk Loci

    PubMed Central

    Holton, Patrick; Ryten, Mina; Nalls, Michael; Trabzuni, Daniah; Weale, Michael E.; Hernandez, Dena; Crehan, Helen; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Mayeux, Richard; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Ramirez-Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Myers, Amanda J.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Dillman, Allissa; Cookson, Mark R.; Reiman, Eric M.; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Guerreiro, Rita

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent genome wide association studies have identified CLU, CR1, ABCA7 BIN1, PICALM and MS4A6A/MS4A6E in addition to the long established APOE, as loci for Alzheimer’s disease. We have systematically examined each of these loci to assess whether common coding variability contributes to the risk of disease. We have also assessed the regional expression of all the genes in the brain and whether there is evidence of an eQTL explaining the risk. In agreement with other studies we find that coding variability may explain the ABCA7 association, but common coding variability does not explain any of the other loci. We were not able to show that any of the loci had eQTLs within the power of this study. Furthermore the regional expression of each of the loci did not match the pattern of brain regional distribution in Alzheimer pathology. Although these results are mainly negative, they allow us to start defining more realistic alternative approaches to determine the role of all the genetic loci involved in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23360175

  8. Development of Simplified Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model for Seismic Initiating Event

    SciTech Connect

    S. Khericha; R. Buell; S. Sancaktar; M. Gonzalez; F. Ferrante

    2012-06-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses a simplified method to evaluate seismic risk using a methodology built on dividing the seismic intensity spectrum into multiple discrete bins. The seismic probabilistic risk assessment model uses Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) full power Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) model as the starting point for development. The seismic PRA models are integrated with their respective internal events at-power SPAR model. This is accomplished by combining the modified system fault trees from the full power SPAR model with seismic event tree logic. The peak ground acceleration is divided into five bins. The g-value for each bin is estimated using the geometric mean of lower and upper values of that particular bin and the associated frequency for each bin is estimated by taking the difference between upper and lower values of that bin. The component’s fragilities are calculated for each bin using the plant data, if available, or generic values of median peak ground acceleration and uncertainty values for the components. For human reliability analysis (HRA), the SPAR HRA (SPAR-H) method is used which requires the analysts to complete relatively straight forward worksheets that include the performance shaping factors (PSFs). The results are then used to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) of interest. This work is expected to improve the NRC’s ability to include seismic hazards in risk assessments for operational events in support of the reactor oversight program (e.g., significance determination process).

  9. Identification and initial assessment of candidate BWR late-phase in-vessel accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1991-04-15

    Work sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and perform preliminary assessments of candidate BWR (boiling water reactor) in-vessel accident management strategies was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during fiscal year 1990. Mitigative strategies for containment events have been the subject of a companion study at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The focus of this Oak Ridge effort was the development of new strategies for mitigation of the late phase events, that is, the events that would occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage. The work began with an investigation of the current status of BWR in-vessel accident management procedures and proceeded through a preliminary evaluation of several candidate new strategies. The steps leading to the identification of the candidate strategies are described. The four new candidate late-phase (in-vessel) accident mitigation strategies identified by this study and discussed in the report are: (1) keep the reactor vessel depressurized; (2) restore injection in a controlled manner; (3) inject boron if control blade damage has occurred; and (4) containment flooding to maintain core and structural debris in-vessel. Additional assessments of these strategies are proposed.

  10. Lifetime history of indoor tanning in young people: a retrospective assessment of initiation, persistence, and correlates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite educational and public health campaigns to convey the risks of indoor tanning, many individuals around the world continue to engage in this behavior. Few descriptive studies of indoor tanning have collected information pertaining to the lifetime history of indoor tanning, thereby limiting our ability to understand indoor tanning patterns and potentially target interventions for individuals who not only initiate, but continue to persistently engage in indoor tanning. Methods In-person interviews elicited detailed retrospective information on lifetime history of indoor tanning among white individuals (n = 401) under age 40 seen by a dermatologist for a minor benign skin condition. These individuals were controls in a case-control study of early-onset basal cell carcinoma. Outcomes of interest included ever indoor tanning in both males and females, as well as persistent indoor tanning in females - defined as females over age 31 who tanned indoors at least once in the last three or all four of four specified age periods (ages 11-15, 16-20, 21-30 and 31 or older). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of ever and persistent indoor tanning in females. Results Approximately three-quarters (73.3%) of females and 38.3% of males ever tanned indoors, with a median age of initiation of 17.0 and 21.5, respectively. Among indoor tanners, 39.3% of females and 21.7% of males reported being burned while indoor tanning. Female ever indoor tanners were younger, had darker color eyes, and sunbathed more frequently than females who never tanned indoors. Using unique lifetime exposure data, 24.7% of female indoor tanners 31 and older persistently tanned indoors starting as teenagers. Female persistent indoor tanners drank significantly more alcohol, were less educated, had skin that tanned with prolonged sun exposure, and sunbathed outdoors more frequently than non-persistent tanners. Conclusions Indoor tanning

  11. Implementation of neutron counting techniques at US facilities for IAEA verification of excess materials from nuclear weapons production

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Reilly, T.D.; Theis, W.; Lemaire, R.J.; Xiao, J.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy, announced by President Clinton before the United Nations General Assembly on September 27, 1993, commits the U.S. to placing under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards excess nuclear materials no longer needed for the U.S. nuclear deterrent. As of July 1, 1995, the IAEA had completed Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) at two facilities: a storage vault in the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant containing highly enriched uranium (HOW) metal and another storage vault in the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) containing plutonium oxide and plutonium-bearing residues. Another plutonium- storage vault, located at Rocky Flats, is scheduled for the IPIV in the fall of 1995. Conventional neutron coincidence counting is one of the routinely applied IAEA nondestructive assay (ND) methods for verification of uranium and plutonium. However, at all three facilities mentioned above, neutron ND equipment had to be modified or developed for specific facility needs such as the type and configuration of material placed under safeguards. This document describes those modifications and developments.

  12. Rio Soliette (haiti): AN International Initiative for Flood-Hazard Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, S.; Castellarin, A.; Barbarella, M.; Brath, A.; Domeneghetti, A.; Brandimarte, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2013-01-01

    Natural catastrophic events are one of most critical aspects for health and economy all around the world. However, the impact in a poor region can impact more dramatically than in others countries. Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), one of the poorest regions of the planet, has repeatedly been hit by catastrophic natural disasters that caused incalculable human and economic losses. After the catastrophic flood event occurred in the basin of River Soliette on May 24th, 2004, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded an international cooperation initiative (ICI) coordinated by the University of Bologna, that involved Haitian and Dominican institutions.Main purpose of the ICI was hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures. In this contest, a topographic survey was necessary to realize the hydrological model and to improve the knowledge in some areas candidates to be site for mitigation measures.To overcome the difficulties arising from the narrowness of funds, surveyors and limited time available for the survey, only GPS technique have been used, both for framing aspects (using PPP approach), and for geometrical survey of the river by means of river cross-sections and detailed surveys in two areas (RTK technique). This allowed us to reconstruct both the river geometry and the DTM's of two expansion areas (useful for design hydraulic solutions for mitigate flood-hazard risk).

  13. Assessment of hot-electron microstability in the initial TMX-U experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, T.A.; Chen, Y.J.; Ellis, R.; James, R.; Lasnier, C.

    1983-04-01

    During the initial TMX-U experiments, we investigated the sloshing-ion and hot-electron distributions. We require these components to ultimately construct a thermal barrier for improved tandem mirror confinement. The plasma parameters we achieved approach values required for thermal barrier operation but have been limited by the power available. This report is concerned with the stability of the hot electron distribution formed. Nonthermal microwave emissions near the electron-cyclotron frequency f/sub ce/ of the minimum end-cell magnetic field indicate the presence of electron microinstabilities, which we have tentatively identified by their frequencies. We observed the upper-hybrid loss-cone mode (f/f/sub ce/ approx. 1.1) during high density operation with a relatively small fraction of hot electrons. At lower density operation with a higher hot electron fraction, we observed emissions consistent with the whistler instability. During emission bursts at 12.5 GHz (f/f/sub ce/ approx. 0.9) we observed a rapid rise in the high frequency thermal emissions, indicating a spreading of the distribution. Some of the more violent bursts are correlated with enhanced end loss currents.

  14. Net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs and nitrogen fluxes from Indian watersheds: An initial assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaney, D. P.; Hong, B.; Paneer Selvam, A.; Howarth, R. W.; Ramesh, R.; Purvaja, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply an established methodology for estimating Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) to India and its major watersheds. Our primary goal here is to provide initial estimates of major nitrogen inputs of NANI for India, at the country level and for major Indian watersheds, including data sources and parameter estimates, making some assumptions as needed in areas of limited data availability. Despite data limitations, we believe that it is clear that the main anthropogenic N source is agricultural fertilizer, which is being produced and applied at a growing rate, followed by N fixation associated with rice, leguminous crops, and sugar cane. While India appears to be a net exporter of N in food/feed as reported elsewhere (Lassaletta et al., 2013b), the balance of N associated with exports and imports of protein in food and feedstuffs is sensitive to protein content and somewhat uncertain. While correlating watershed N inputs with riverine N fluxes is problematic due in part to limited available riverine data, we have assembled some data for comparative purposes. We also suggest possible improvements in methods for future studies, and the potential for estimating riverine N fluxes to coastal waters.

  15. Assessment on Integrity of BWR Internals Against Impact Load by Water Hammer Under Conditions of Reactivity Initiated Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Mie; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Hotta, Akitoshi; Ohta, Takeshi

    2005-03-15

    The integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) head and reactor internals was assessed by means of fluid and fluid-structural coupled analyses to evaluate the water hammer phenomenon arising from postulated high burnup fuel failure under reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions. The fluid viscosity effect on the water column burst as well as the complex three-dimensional flow paths caused by a core shroud and standpipes were considered in this study. It is shown that fluid viscosity becomes an influential factor to dissipate impacting kinetic energy. Integrity of the RPV head and the shroud head was ensured with a sufficient level of margin even under these excessively conservative RIA conditions.

  16. Implementation of the Port Hope Area Initiative Biophysical and Socioeconomic Environmental Assessment Follow-up Programs - 13209

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Nina; Friedmann, Karyn; Groulx, Charles

    2013-07-01

    The Port Hope Initiative (PHAI) involves the cleanup of historic low-level radioactive waste in various locations throughout the communities of Port Hope and Clarington, Ontario, as well as the construction of two engineered aboveground mounds for safe long-term management. The PHAI is comprised of two major projects - the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project. An Environmental Assessment (EA) was undertaken for each project and as a result EA Follow-up Programs were developed and are being implemented addressing both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects. This paper provides insight on elements of the EA Follow-up Program development, and its implementation. (authors)

  17. Initial assessment of image quality for low-dose PET: evaluation of lesion detectability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefferkoetter, Joshua D.; Yan, Jianhua; Townsend, David W.; Conti, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    In the context of investigating the potential of low-dose PET imaging for screening applications, we developed methods to assess small lesion detectability as a function of the number of counts in the scan. We present here our methods and preliminary validation using tuberculosis cases. FDG-PET data from seventeen patients presenting diffuse hyper-metabolic lung lesions were selected for the study, to include a wide range of lesion sizes and contrasts. Reduced doses were simulated by randomly discarding events in the PET list mode, and ten realizations at each simulated dose were generated and reconstructed. The data were grouped into 9 categories determined by the number of included true events, from  >40 M to  <250 k counts. The images reconstructed from the original full statistical set were used to identify lung lesions, and each was, at every simulated dose, quantified by 6 parameters: lesion metabolic volume, lesion-to-background contrast, mean lesion tracer uptake, standard deviation of activity measurements (across realizations), lesion signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and Hotelling observer SNR. Additionally, a lesion-detection task including 550 images was presented to several experienced image readers for qualitative assessment. Human observer performances were ranked using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The observer results were correlated with the lesion image measurements and used to train mathematical observer models. Absolute sensitivities and specificities of the human observers, as well as the area under the ROC curve, showed clustering and performance similarities among images produced from 5 million or greater counts. The results presented here are from a clinically realistic but highly constrained experiment, and more work is needed to validate these findings with a larger patient population.

  18. US technical assistance to the IAEA and the chemical weapons convection (CWC) - a review and look to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Indusi, J.; Parsick, R.J.; Reisman, A.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper reviews the Safeguards mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and describes U.S. technical support programs. We also review the mandate of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and speculate on the technical areas where U.S. assistance may prove useful. The IAEA was organized in 1957 in response to President Eisenhower`s {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace{close_quotes} initiative presented to the UN General Assembly on December 8, 1953. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organized by a Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) to prepare for the entry-into-force of this new convention which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The safeguards mandate of the IAEA is to carry out verifications of nuclear material pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other voluntary but legally binding agreements. U.S. technical support programs have provided and continue to provide assistance in the form of Cost-Free Experts (CFE`s), systems studies on new safeguards approaches, training, computerized information systems, and equipment for nuclear materials measurements and containment and surveillance systems. Because the CWC just recently entered into force (April 29, 1997), verification procedures of the OPCW are not yet fully developed. However, it is expected, and can already be seen for many aspects of the technical task, that there are many similarities between the verification activities of the OPCW and those carried out by the IAEA. This paper will discuss potential technical support areas that can help strengthen the OPCW. 9 refs.

  19. Status of Initial Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Graphite Grades for NGNP Appkications

    SciTech Connect

    Strizak, Joe P; Burchell, Timothy D; Windes, Will

    2011-12-01

    Current candidate graphite grades for the core structures of NGNP include grades NBG-17, NBG-18, PCEA and IG-430. Both NBG-17 and NBG-18 are manufactured using pitch coke, and are vibrationally molded. These medium grain products are produced by SGL Carbon SAS (France). Tayo Tanso (Japan) produces IG-430 which is a petroleum coke, isostatically molded, nuclear grade graphite. And PCEA is a medium grain, extruded graphite produced by UCAR Carbon Co. (USA) from petroleum coke. An experimental program has been initiated to develop physical and mechanical properties data for these current candidate graphites. The results will be judged against the requirements for nuclear grade graphites set forth in ASTM standard D 7219-05 "Standard Specification for Isotropic and Near-isotropic Nuclear Graphites". Physical properties data including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion, and mechanical properties data including tensile, compressive and flexural strengths will be obtained using the established test methods covered in D-7219 and ASTM C 781-02 "Standard Practice for Testing Graphite and Boronated Graphite Components for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors". Various factors known to effect the properties of graphites will be investigated. These include specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation (ag and wg) within a billet, and billet-to-billet variations. The current status of the materials characterization program is reported herein. To date billets of the four graphite grades have been procured, and detailed cut up plans for obtaining the various specimens have been prepared. Particular attention has been given to the traceability of each specimen to its spatial location and orientation within a billet.

  20. The Exposure of Children to Deploying Side Air Bags: An Initial Field Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Kallan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been invested in the laboratory to ensure side air bag (SAB) deployments minimize injury metrics in pediatric anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Little is known, however, about the experience of children exposed to this technology in real world crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SAB exposure in children and provide estimates of injury risk among those exposed. This study utilized data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to identify a probability sample of 348 child occupants, age 0–15 years, weighted to represent 6,600 children, in vehicles of model year 1998 and newer, equipped with SABs, in side impact crashes from three large U.S. regions between 1/1/05 and 12/31/06. In the study sample, 27 children per 1000 children in crashes were exposed to a deployed side airbag. Over 75% of these children were seated in the rear seat and 83% were exposed to a head curtain SAB. 65% of those exposed were less than 9 years of age. Of those exposed, 10.6% sustained an AIS2+ injury; all injuries were of the AIS 2 level and limited to the head or upper extremity. This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the exposure of children to SABs. Initial experience suggests that the risk of injury is fairly low with only one in ten sustaining injury – none of which were serious or life threatening. These findings offer assurance that efforts by regulators and the automotive industry to minimize negative consequences from SABs to vulnerable occupants appear to be effective and cause no change in the current recommendation of safe seating for children next to SABs. PMID:18184496

  1. The exposure of children to deploying side air bags: an initial field assessment.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kallan, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous effort has been invested in the laboratory to ensure side air bag (SAB) deployments minimize injury metrics in pediatric anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Little is known, however, about the experience of children exposed to this technology in real world crashes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of SAB exposure in children and provide estimates of injury risk among those exposed. This study utilized data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to identify a probability sample of 348 child occupants, age 0-15 years, weighted to represent 6,600 children, in vehicles of model year 1998 and newer, equipped with SABs, in side impact crashes from three large U.S. regions between 1/1/05 and 12/31/06. In the study sample, 27 children per 1000 children in crashes were exposed to a deployed side air bag. Over 75% of these children were seated in the rear seat and 83% were exposed to a head curtain SAB. 65% of those exposed were less than 9 years of age. Of those exposed, 10.6% sustained an AIS2+ injury; all injuries were of the AIS 2 level and limited to the head or upper extremity. This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the exposure of children to SABs. Initial experience suggests that the risk of injury is fairly low with only one in ten sustaining injury - none of which were serious or life threatening. These findings offer assurance that efforts by regulators and the automotive industry to minimize negative consequences from SABs to vulnerable occupants appear to be effective and cause no change in the current recommendation of safe seating for children next to SABs. PMID:18184496

  2. An assessment of the evidence from ATLAS3D for a variable initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop; Franx, Marijn

    2015-06-01

    The ATLAS3D Survey has reported evidence for a non-universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) for early-type galaxies (ETGs). The IMF was constrained by comparing stellar mass measurements from kinematic data with those from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. Here, we investigate possible effects of scatter in the reported stellar mass measurements and their potential impact on the IMF determination. We find that a trend of the IMF mismatch parameter with the kinematic mass-to-light ratio, comparable to the trend observed by Cappellari et al., could arise if the Gaussian errors of the kinematic mass determination are typically 30 per cent. Without additional data, it is hard to separate between the option that the IMF has a true large intrinsic variation or the option that the errors in the determination are larger than anticipated. A correlation of the IMF with other properties would help to make this distinction, but no strong correlation has been found yet. The strongest correlation is with velocity dispersion. However, it has a large scatter and the correlation depends on sample selection and distance measurements. The correlation with velocity dispersion could be partly caused by the colour-dependent calibration of the surface brightness fluctuation distances of Tonry et al. We find that the K-band luminosity-limited ATLAS3D Survey is incomplete for the highest M/L galaxies below 1010.3 M⊙. There is a significant IMF-velocity dispersion trend for galaxies with SED masses above this limit, but no trend for galaxies with kinematic masses above this limit. We also find an IMF trend with distance, but no correlation between nearest neighbour ETGs, which excludes a large environmental dependence. Our findings do not rule out the reported IMF variations, but they suggest that further study is needed.

  3. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines.

  4. A Quality Improvement Project to Assess Timing of Initial Investigations in Stroke Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sarah; Jones, Rhian

    2016-01-01

    There are several investigations that can be completed in the acute phase of admission for patients with suspected stroke.These include receiving a CT Head scan and also blood tests specific for stroke. The national guidelines regarding CT Head scans detail they should be completed within 12 hours of admission1 and the trust guidelines, local to where this quality improvement project was based, advise a CT Head should be completed within four hours of admission.2 The current national guidelines do not specify exact stroke blood tests, however trust guidelines give a specific set of blood tests that would be appropriate to be taken when a patient presents to A&E with a suspected stroke. These included FBC, U&E, blood glucose, ESR, cholesterol, TFTs, and coagulation screen.2 The aim of this quality improvement project was to assess the timing of CT Head scans and blood tests and to implement a tool to ensure these are done in a timely fashion, within the emergency care setting. The project was completed through three PSDA cycles. The first was undertaken in an A&E department, which was soon to be closed and moved to a different site. The second cycle was then completed at the new site, to assess if there had been any change in timings of these interventions. In the previous site it was found that 97% of patients audited received a CT Head scan within four hours. At the new site it was found 94% patients received a CT Head within four hours, therefore both meeting trust targets on the whole. A full set of stroke blood tests were completed at the old site in 53% of patients and this decreased to 22% of patients at the new site. At this point it was decided an intervention should be implemented to ensure this did not continue. The intervention used was updating a stroke panel on the trust computer system (an easy to use, one-click button entitled “Stroke/TIA”) with the correct blood tests and the use of this was promoted throughout the trust. A post

  5. Remote clinical assessment of gastrointestinal endoscopy (tele-endoscopy): an initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C. Y.; Etemad, B.; Glenn, T. F.; Mackey, H. A.; Viator, G. E.; Wallace, M. B.; Mokhashi, M. S.; Cotton, P. B.; Hawes, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is an effective tool to screen for cancers of the digestive tract. However, access to endoscopy is limited in many parts of South Carolina. This trial is a part of a prospective multi-part study for remote cancer screening in coastal South Carolina. This pilot study was to evaluate the quality of tele-endoscopy for cancer screening. METHODS: 10 patients scheduled for endoscopic procedures were observed simultaneously by the endoscopist and a remote observer connected over a 512 kbps ISDN line. Findings by both were compared for concordance on malignant or premalignant lesions. RESULTS: The image quality was adequate to support remote diagnosis of GI cancer and abnormal lesions by an experienced observer. However, assessment of the esophagogastric junction for Barrett's esophagus was equivocal. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our tele-endoscopy setup shows great promise for remote supervision or observation of endoscopic procedures done by nurse endoscopists. Tele-endoscopy is both adequate and feasible for diagnosis of most gastrointestinal lesions. Subtle lesions still may be missed in our current setup. However, improvements are being made in our setup to address the problem with resolution prior to further evaluation. PMID:11079918

  6. A Statewide Collaboration to Initiate Mental Health Screening and Assess Services for Detained Youths in Indiana

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Katherine; Perkins, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We describe a statewide effort to implement detention-based mental health screening and assess follow-up services offered to detained youths in Indiana. Methods. A total of 25 265 detention stays (15 461 unique youths) occurred between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011, across 16 detention centers participating in the Indiana Juvenile Mental Health Screening Project. We collected screening results and reports of detention-based follow-up mental health services and referrals from justice system records. Results. Approximately 21% of youths screened positive for mental health issues requiring follow-up. A positive screen significantly predicted that youths would receive a follow-up mental health service or referral while detained or upon detention center discharge, compared with youths who did not screen positive (61% vs 39%). Logistic regression models indicated that a positive screen was associated with (1) contact with a mental health clinician within 24 hours of detention center intake and (2) a mental health referral upon discharge. White youths were more likely than minorities to receive both follow-up services. Conclusions. Future statewide efforts to improve the mental health of detained youths should incorporate standards for providing appropriate follow-up services in detention centers. PMID:25121815

  7. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  8. Factors that Affect Science and Mathematics Teachers' Initial Implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment Using a Classroom Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan; Beatty, Ian D.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to uncover and understand the factors that affect secondary science and mathematics teachers' initial implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), a pedagogy developed for teaching with classroom response system (CRS) technology. We sought to identify the most common and strongest factors, and to understand the general process of how teachers adopt TEFA. We identified ten main hindering factors reported by teachers, and found that time limitations and question development difficulties are reported as the most problematic. In this paper we provide five vignettes of teachers' initial implementation experiences, illustrating different courses that TEFA adoption can follow. We classify our ten factors into four groups: contextual factors that directly hinder teachers' attempts to implement TEFA (extrinsic type I); circumstances that affect teachers' teaching in general (extrinsic type 0); gaps that teachers have in the knowledge and skills they need to adopt TEFA (intrinsic type I); and ways of being a teacher that describe teachers' deeper perspectives and beliefs, which may be consonant or dissonant with TEFA (intrinsic type II). Finally, we identify four general categories that describe the teachers' initial TEFA implementation.

  9. 2004 Initial Assessments of Closure for the S-SX Tank Farm: Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z F; Freedman, Vicky L; Waichler, Scott R; White, Mark D

    2004-04-01

    In support of CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.'s (CHG) preparation of a Field Investigative Report (FIR) for the closure of the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) tank farms, a set of numerical simulations of flow and solute transport was executed to investigate different potential contaminant source scenarios that may pose long-term risks to groundwater from the closure of the S-SX Tank Farm. This report documents the simulation of 7 cases (plus two verification) involving two-dimensional cross sections through the S Tank Farm (Tanks S-101, S102, and S-103) and the simulation of one case involving three-dimensional domain of the S Tank Farm. Using a unit release scenario at Tank S-103, three different types of leaks were simulated. These simulations assessed the effect of leaks during retrieval as well as residual wastes and ancillary equipment after closure. Two transported solutes were considered: uranium-238 (U-238) and technetium-99 (Tc 99). To evaluate the effect of sorption on contaminant transport, six different sorption coefficients were simulated for U 238. Overall, simulations results for the S Tank Farm showed that only a small fraction (< 0.4%) of the U-238 with sorption coefficients 0.6 mL/g migrated from the vadose zone in all of the cases. For the conservative solute, Tc-99, results showed that the simulations investigating leaks during retrieval demonstrated the highest peak concentrations and the earliest arrival times due to the high infiltration rate before water was added and surface barriers installed. Residual leaks were investigated with different release rate models, including uniform release, advection-dominated, diffusion-dominated, and saltcake (solubility-controlled) release models. Of the four models, peak concentrations were lowest and arrival times later for the uniform release model due to the lower release rate of the residual tank waste solids; similar high peak concentrations occurred for the advection

  10. Initial assessment of the operability of the VHTR-HTSE nuclear hydrogen plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-11-01

    The generation of hydrogen from nuclear power will need to compete on three fronts: production, operability, and safety to be viable in the energy marketplace of the future. This work addresses the operability of a coupled nuclear and hydrogen-generating plant while referring to other work for progress on production and safety. Operability is a measure of how well a plant can meet time-varying production demands while remaining within equipment limits. It can be characterized in terms of the physical processes that underlie operation of the plant. In this work these include the storage and transport of energy within components as represented by time constants and energy capacitances, the relationship of reactivity to temperature, and the coordination of heat generation and work production for a near-ideal gas working fluid. Criteria for assessing operability are developed and applied to the Very High Temperature Reactor coupled to the High Temperature Steam Electrolysis process, one of two DOE/INL reference plant concepts for hydrogen production. Results of preliminary plant control and stability studies are described. A combination of inventory control in the VHTR plant and flow control in the HTSE plant proved effective for maintaining hot-side temperatures near constant during quasi-static change in hydrogen production rate. Near constant electrolyzer outlet temperature is achieved by varying electrolyzer cell area to control cell joule heating. It was found that rates of temperature change in the HTSE plant for a step change in hydrogen production rate are largely determined by the thermal characteristics of the electrolyzer. It's comparatively large thermal mass and the presence of recuperative heat exchangers result in a tight thermal coupling of HTSE components to the electrolyzer. It was found that thermal transients arising in the chemical plant are strongly damped at the reactor resulting in a stable combined plant. The large Doppler reactivity component

  11. Disordered Eating Behaviors in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Prospective Pilot Assessment Following Initiation of Insulin Pump Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Jessica T.; Alleyn, Cielo A.; Phillips, Roxanne; Muir, Andrew; Young-Hyman, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is risk for disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetes, especially related to insulin manipulation. Implementation of insulin pump therapy may encourage either normalization of eating behaviors or a greater focus on food intake due to renewed emphasis on carbohydrate counting. There is need for prospective studies to assess disordered eating behaviors upon implementation of pump therapy using diabetes-specific measurement tools. Subjects and Methods In a multicenter pilot study, 43 youth with type 1 diabetes, 10–17 years old, were assessed prior to pump initiation and after 1 and 6 months of pump therapy. Youth completed the Diabetes-specific Eating Problems Survey-Revised (DEPS-R), a validated measure of risk for both diabetes-specific and general disordered eating behaviors. Results Youth (45% female), 13.3 years old with diabetes for 2.1 years, had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.3±1.3% (68±14.5 mmol/mol) at baseline. DEPS-R scores decreased over time (P=0.01). Overall rate of high risk for eating disorders was low. Overweight/obese youth endorsed more disordered eating behaviors than normal-weight participants. DEPS-R scores were correlated with z-score for body mass index at all three time points and with hemoglobin A1c after 1 and 6 months. Hemoglobin A1c did not change significantly over the 6 months and was higher in overweight/obese compared with normal-weight participants. Conclusions Initiation of insulin pump therapy was associated with diminished endorsement of disordered eating behaviors in youth with type 1 diabetes. Longer follow-up studies are needed to assess the impact of insulin pump therapy on glycemic control, weight status, and disordered eating behaviors in this vulnerable population. PMID:23550556

  12. The assessment of ionising radiation impact on the cooling pond freshwater ecosystem non-human biota from the Ignalina NPP operation beginning to shut down and initial decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Mazeika, J; Marciulioniene, D; Nedveckaite, T; Jefanova, O

    2016-01-01

    The radiological doses to non-human biota of freshwater ecosystem in the Ignalina NPP cooling pond - Lake Druksiai were evaluated for several cases including the plant's operation period and initial decommissioning activities, using the ERICA 1.2 code with IAEA SRS-19 models integrated approach and tool. Among the Lake Druksiai freshwater ecosystem reference organisms investigated the highest exposure dose rate was determined for bottom fauna - benthic organisms (mollusc-bivalves, crustaceans, mollusc-gastropods, insect larvae), and among the other reference organisms - for vascular plants. The mean and maximum total dose rate values due to anthropogenic radionuclide ionising radiation impact in all investigated cases were lower than the ERICA screening dose rate value of 10 μGy/h. The main exposure of reference organisms as a result of Ignalina NPP former effluent to Lake Druksiai is due to ionizing radiation of radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs, of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai during initial decommissioning period - due to radionuclides (60)Co, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and as a result of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai from low- and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste disposal site in 30-100 year period - due to radionuclides (99)Tc and (3)H. The risk quotient expected values in all investigated cases were <1, and therefore the risk to non-human biota can be considered negligible with the exception of a conservative risk quotient for insect larvae. Radiological protection of non-human biota in Lake Druksiai, the Ignalina NPP cooling pond, is both feasible and acceptable. PMID:26397747

  13. Biological Production of Methane from Lunar Mission Solid Waste: An Initial Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Richard; Garland, Jay; Janine, Captain

    A preliminary assessment was made of the potential for biological production of methane from solid waste generated during an early planetary base mission to the moon. This analysis includes: 1) estimation of the amount of biodegradable solid waste generated, 2) background on the potential biodegradability of plastics given their significance in solid wastes, and 3) calculation of potential methane production from the estimate of biodegradable waste. The completed analysis will also include the feasibility of biological methane production costs associated with the biological processing of the solid waste. NASA workshops and Advanced Life Support documentation have estimated the projected amount of solid wastes generated for specific space missions. From one workshop, waste estimates were made for a 180 day transit mission to Mars. The amount of plastic packaging material was not specified, but our visual examination of trash returned from stocktickerSTS missions indicated a large percentage would be plastic film. This plastic, which is not biodegradable, would amount to 1.526 kgdw crew-1 d-1 or 6.10 kgdw d-1 for a crew of 4. Over a mission of 10 days this would amount to 61 kgdw of plastics and for an 180 day lunar surface habitation it would be nearly 1100 kgdw . Approx. 24 % of this waste estimate would be biodegradable (human fecal waste, food waste, and paper), but if plastic packaging was replaced with biodegradable plastic, then 91% would be biodegradable. Plastics are man-made long chain polymeric molecules, and can be divided into two main groups; thermoplastics and thermoset plastics. Thermoplastics comprise over 90% of total plastic use in the placecountry-regionUnited States and are derived from polymerization of olefins via breakage of the double bond and subsequent formation of additional carbon to carbon bonds. The resulting sole-carbon chain polymers are highly resistant to biodegradation and hydrolytic cleavage. Common thermoplastics include low

  14. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Structural Analyses Supporting the NESC Critical Initial Flaw Size Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the ARES I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. The structural analysis effort for the NESC assessment had three thrusts: shell buckling analyses, detailed stress analyses of the single-bolt joint test; and stress analyses of two-segment 10 degree-wedge models for the peak axial tensile running load. Elasto-plastic, large-deformation simulations were performed. Stress analysis results indicated that the stress levels were well below the material yield stress for the bounding axial tensile design load. This report also summarizes the analyses and results from parametric studies on modeling the shell-to-gusset weld, flange-surface mismatch, bolt preload, and washer-bearing-surface modeling. These analyses models were used to generate the stress levels specified for the fatigue crack growth assessment using the design load with a factor of safety.

  15. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.; Krass, A.; Kratzer, M.; Sanborn, J.; Ward, B.; Wulf, N. A.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field of nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.

  16. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1980-10-01

    Radiation detectors used for personnel dosimetry are examined for use under IAEA Safeguards as monitors to confirm the passage or nonpassage (YES/NO) of plutonium-bearing nuclear material at barrier penetrations declared closed. In this application where backgrounds are ill defined, no advantage is found for a particular detector type because of intrinsic efficiency. Secondary considerations such as complexity, ease of tamper-proofing, and ease of readout are used to recommend specific detector types for routine monitoring and for data-base measurements. Recommendations are made for applications, data acquisition, and instrument development.

  17. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised.

  18. Strengthening IAEA safeguards in an era of nuclear cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, R.

    1995-11-01

    Since the end of the Cold War the world has witnessed a remarkable series of events demonstrating that universal adherence to the principles of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament are no longer utopian dreams. The author reviews the actions of various countries to terminate or reduce nuclear weapons programs and those that are resisting the non-proliferation efforts. The author addresses efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to safeguard declared nuclear material more cost-effectively and deal with the possibility of undeclared nuclear activities.

  19. RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.E.; DECARO,D.; WILLIAMS,G.; CARELLI,J.; ASSUR,M.

    1999-07-25

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is important that persons within and outside the US nuclear and safeguards industries become aware of career opportunities available at the IAEA, and informed about important vacancies. The IAEA has established an impressive web page to advertise opportunities for employment. However, additional effort is necessary to ensure that there is sufficient awareness in the US of these opportunities, and assistance for persons interested in taking positions at the IAEA. In 1998, the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) approved a special task under the US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) for improving US efforts to identify qualified candidates for vacancies in IAEA's Department of Safeguards. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) developed a plan that includes increased advertising, development of a web page to support US recruitment efforts, feedback from the US Mission in Vienna, and interaction with other recruitment services provided by US professional organizations. The main purpose of this effort is to educate US citizens about opportunities at the IAEA so that qualified candidates can be identified for the IAEA's consideration.

  20. The Kaiser Permanente Clinician Cultural and Linguistic Assessment Initiative: research and development in patient-provider language concordance.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gayle; Lanza, Oscar; Rodriguez, Fátima Marinely; Chang, Annie

    2011-02-01

    Patient-clinician language concordance is a critical component of the language access equation and is considered the gold standard for communication. As a result of lack of validated testing standards, measures, and tools, Kaiser Permanente developed the Clinician Cultural and Linguistic Assessment Initiative to ensure verifiable linguistic proficiency in clinical encounters and has established a standard level whereby the clinician is deemed to have a qualifying level of proficiency in communicating directly with patients independent of an interpreter. Our benchmarking efforts in language concordance have been rooted with the key aim to identify talented bilingual and bicultural clinician workforce and to establish the systems foundation to coordinate appropriate language services. We share accomplishments, lessons learned, and promising practices to inform future efforts in language concordance. PMID:21228282

  1. The use of formative evaluation to assess integrated services for children. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Child Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Brindis, C; Hughes, D C; Halfon, N; Newacheck, P W

    1998-03-01

    This article describes the use of formative evaluation in assessing the feasibility of implementing a new service integration effort. The Child Health Initiative, a nine-site, national demonstration project funded in 1991 by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, sought to implement systemic change through the creation of new mechanisms for spending service dollars more flexibly at the local site. The Child Health Initiative called for developing local child health-monitoring systems, a care coordination mechanism, and a program for decategorizing the myriad of restrictive categorical public programs serving children. Most demonstration communities experienced some degree of success in achieving the first two components, but none was able to implement decategorization during the 3- to 5-year funding period. Key lessons for evaluators include the need for (a) a flexible evaluation design that can sequentially adapt to changes in program implementation, (b) repeated longitudinal data collection measures to document changes over time, (c) avoidance of a premature focus on program outcomes, and (d) methods to establish attribution of outcomes.

  2. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  3. Supporting residents’ expression of sexuality: the initial construction of a sexuality assessment tool for residential aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexuality is a key component of quality of life and well-being and a need to express one’s sexuality continues into old age. Staff and families in residential aged care facilities often find expressions of sexuality by residents, particularly those living with dementia, challenging and facilities often struggle to address individuals’ needs in this area. This paper describes the development of an assessment tool which enables residential aged care facilities to identify how supportive their organisation is of all residents’ expression of their sexuality, and thereby improve where required. Methods Multi-phase design using qualitative methods and a Delphi technique. Tool items were derived from the literature and verified by qualitative interviews with aged care facility staff, residents and families. The final item pool was confirmed via a reactive Delphi process. Results A final item pool of sixty-nine items grouped into seven key areas allows facilities to score their compliance with the areas identified as being supportive of older people’s expression of their sexuality in a residential aged care environment. Conclusions The sexuality assessment tool (SexAT) guides practice to support the normalization of sexuality in aged care homes and assists facilities to identify where enhancements to the environment, policies, procedures and practices, information and education/training are required. The tool also enables facilities to monitor initiatives in these areas over time. PMID:24980463

  4. Initial Stability Assessment of S-NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Band Calibration Using Invariant Desert and Deep Convective Cloud Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Rajendra; Doelling, David R.; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Scarino, Benjamin R.; Haney, Conor O.; Gopalan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    The latest CERES FM-5 instrument launched onboard the S-NPP spacecraft will use the VIIRS visible radiances from the NASA Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Elements (PEATE) product for retrieving the cloud properties associated with its TOA flux measurement. In order for CERES to provide climate quality TOA flux datasets, the retrieved cloud properties must be consistent throughout the record, which is dependent on the calibration stability of the VIIRS imager. This paper assesses the NASA calibration stability of the VIIRS reflective solar bands using the Libya-4 desert and deep convective clouds (DCC). The invariant targets are first evaluated for temporal natural variability. It is found for visible (VIS) bands that DCC targets have half of the variability of Libya-4. For the shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, the desert has less variability. The brief VIIRS record and target variability inhibits high confidence in identifying any trends that are less than 0.6yr for most VIS bands, and 2.5yr for SWIR bands. None of the observed invariant target reflective solar band trends exceeded these trend thresholds. Initial assessment results show that the VIIRS data have been consistently calibrated and that the VIIRS instrument stability is similar to or better than the MODIS instrument.

  5. The concordance between nonclinical and phase I clinical cardiovascular assessment from a cross-company data sharing initiative.

    PubMed

    Ewart, Lorna; Aylott, Mike; Deurinck, Mark; Engwall, Mike; Gallacher, David J; Geys, Helena; Jarvis, Philip; Ju, Haisong; Leishman, Derek; Leong, Louise; McMahon, Nick; Mead, Andy; Milliken, Phil; Suter, Willi; Teisman, Ard; Van Ammel, Karel; Vargas, Hugo M; Wallis, Rob; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that more needs to be done to bring new, safe, and efficacious drugs to the market. Cardiovascular toxicity detected both in early drug discovery as well as in the clinic, is a major contributor to the high failure rate of new molecules. The growth of translational safety offers a promising approach to improve the probability of success for new molecules. Here we describe a cross-company initiative to determine the concordance between the conscious telemetered dog and phase I outcome for 3 cardiovascular parameters. The data indicate that, in the context of the methods applied in this analysis, the ability to detect compounds that affect the corrected QT interval (QTc) was good within the 10-30x exposure range but the predictive or detective value for heart rate and diastolic blood pressure was poor. These findings may highlight opportunities to refine both the animal and the clinical study designs, as well as refocusing the assessment of value of dog cardiovascular assessments beyond phase 1. This investigation has also highlighted key considerations for cross-company data sharing and presents a unique learning opportunity to improve future translational projects.

  6. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate cropland carbon flux: model development and initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R César; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Williams, Jimmy R; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)-residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange. We test this new SWAT-C model with daily eddy covariance (EC) observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) and annual crop yield at six sites across the U.S. Midwest. Results show that SWAT-C simulates well multi-year average NEE and ET across the spatially distributed sites and capture the majority of temporal variation of these two variables at a daily time scale at each site. Our analyses also reveal that performance of SWAT-C is influenced by multiple factors, such as crop management practices (irrigated vs. rainfed), completeness and accuracy of input data, crop species, and initialization of state variables. Overall, the new SWAT-C demonstrates favorable performance for simulating land-atmosphere carbon exchange across agricultural sites with different soils, climate, and management practices. SWAT-C is expected to serve as a useful tool for including carbon flux into consideration in sustainable watershed management under a changing climate. We also note that extensive assessment of SWAT-C with field observations is required for further improving the model and understanding potential uncertainties of applying it across large regions with complex landscapes. PMID:23859899

  7. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate cropland carbon flux: model development and initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, R César; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Williams, Jimmy R; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)-residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange. We test this new SWAT-C model with daily eddy covariance (EC) observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) and annual crop yield at six sites across the U.S. Midwest. Results show that SWAT-C simulates well multi-year average NEE and ET across the spatially distributed sites and capture the majority of temporal variation of these two variables at a daily time scale at each site. Our analyses also reveal that performance of SWAT-C is influenced by multiple factors, such as crop management practices (irrigated vs. rainfed), completeness and accuracy of input data, crop species, and initialization of state variables. Overall, the new SWAT-C demonstrates favorable performance for simulating land-atmosphere carbon exchange across agricultural sites with different soils, climate, and management practices. SWAT-C is expected to serve as a useful tool for including carbon flux into consideration in sustainable watershed management under a changing climate. We also note that extensive assessment of SWAT-C with field observations is required for further improving the model and understanding potential uncertainties of applying it across large regions with complex landscapes.

  8. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  9. The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards - Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins,B.

    2008-07-13

    The U.S. Support Program (USSP) to IAEA Safeguards priority of destructive analysis is aimed at strengthening the IAEA's ability to use destructive analysis as a safeguards tool. IAEA inspectors bring back nuclear and environmental samples from inspections, which are first cataloged by the IAEA and then analyzed by a network of laboratories located in many Member States and the IAEA's own Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Historically, the USSP was instrumental in introducing environmental sampling techniques to the IAEA in order to enhance its understanding of material processing activities conducted at nuclear facilities. The USSP has also worked with the IAEA to improve understanding of measurement uncertainty and measurement quality, incorporate new and improved analytical methods, and purchase analytical and computer equipment. Recent activities include a temporary increase in analysis of environmental samples using secondary ion mass spectrometry and provision of a cost-free expert to restore secondary ion mass spectroscopy laboratory functionality and to modernize the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Information System.

  10. [Health initiatives in Latin America: a historical assessment from the inception of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau to the Mesoamerican Health Initiative].

    PubMed

    Santos Preciado, José Ignacio; Franco Paredes, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Latin America has undergone gradual transformations in public health influenced by historical events locally or at a global level. These epidemiologic transitions have also occurred through the implementation of interventions by public institutions such as the Pan-American Health Organization, by philanthropic foundations, non-governmental organizations, and bilateral or multilateral international donor organizations. These public health initiatives have produced substantial improvements in the heath status of many populations in Latin America. Overall, human development and health have advanced over the past century. However, these public health benefits have not been shared equally among all areas of Latin America. The Mesoamerican Region -the area encompassing from Southern Mexico to Panama- continues to experience profound social inequities focalized to indigenous communities and groups of African-descent living in urban, periurban, or rural areas. The Mesoamerican Health Initiative is a private-public partnership that attempts to close the gap of health inequalities affecting the most vulnerable populations in this region of Latin America.

  11. Assessment of a large break loss of coolant accident scenario requiring operator action to initiate safety injection

    SciTech Connect

    Grendys, R.C.; Nissley, M.E.; Baker, D.C.

    1996-11-01

    As part of the licensing basis for a nuclear power plant, the acceptability of the Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) following a postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) as described in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 10, Chapter 1, Part 50.46, must be verified. The LOCA analysis is performed with an acceptable ECCS Evaluation Model and results must show compliance with the 10 CFR 50.46 acceptance criteria. Westinghouse Electric Corporation performs Large and Small Break LOCA and LOCA-related analyses to support the licensing basis of various nuclear power plants and also performs evaluations against the licensing basis analyses as required. Occasionally, the need arises for the holder of an operating license of a nuclear power plant to submit a Licensee Event Report (LER) to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for any event of the type described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Chapter 1, Part 50.73. To support the LER, a Justification for Past Operation (JPO) may be performed to assess the safety consequences and implications of the event based on previous operating conditions. This paper describes the work performed for the Large Break LOCA to assess the impact of an event discovered by Florida Power and Light and reported in LER-94-005-02. For this event, it was determined that under certain circumstances, operator action would have been required to initiate safety injection (SI), thus challenging the acceptability of the ECCS. This event was specifically addressed for the Large Break LOCA by using an advanced thermal hydraulic analysis methodology with realistic input assumptions.

  12. Evaluation of a programme for ‘Rapid Assessment of Febrile Travelers’ (RAFT): a clinic-based quality improvement initiative

    PubMed Central

    Jazuli, Farah; Lynd, Terence; Mah, Jordan; Klowak, Michael; Jechel, Dale; Klowak, Stefanie; Ovens, Howard; Sabbah, Sam; Boggild, Andrea K

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever in the returned traveller is a potential medical emergency warranting prompt attention to exclude life-threatening illnesses. However, prolonged evaluation in the emergency department (ED) may not be required for all patients. As a quality improvement initiative, we implemented an algorithm for rapid assessment of febrile travelers (RAFT) in an ambulatory setting. Methods Criteria for RAFT referral include: presentation to the ED, reported fever and travel to the tropics or subtropics within the past year. Exclusion criteria include Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and fulfilment of admission criteria such as unstable vital signs or significant laboratory derangements. We performed a time series analysis preimplementation and postimplementation, with primary outcome of wait time to tropical medicine consultation. Secondary outcomes included number of ED visits averted for repeat malaria testing, and algorithm adherence. Results From February 2014 to December 2015, 154 patients were seen in the RAFT clinic: 68 men and 86 women. Median age was 36 years (range 16–78 years). Mean time to RAFT clinic assessment was 1.2±0.07 days (range 0–4 days) postimplementation, compared to 5.4±1.8 days (range 0–26 days) prior to implementation (p<0.0001). The RAFT clinic averted 132 repeat malaria screens in the ED over the study period (average 6 per month). Common diagnoses were: traveller's diarrhoea (n=27, 17.5%), dengue (n=12, 8%), viral upper respiratory tract infection (n=11, 7%), chikungunya (n=10, 6.5%), laboratory-confirmed influenza (n=8, 5%) and lobar pneumonia (n=8, 5%). Conclusions In addition to provision of more timely care to ambulatory febrile returned travellers, we reduced ED bed-usage by providing an alternate setting for follow-up malaria screening, and treatment of infectious diseases manageable in an outpatient setting, but requiring specific therapy. PMID:27473947

  13. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.; Anzelon, G.; Deland, S.; Whiteson, R.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.

  14. Patient exposure tracking: the IAEA smart card project.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M; Frush, Donald P

    2011-09-01

    The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory support to IAEA environmental safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; Dry, Don E; Roensch, Fred R; Kinman, Will S; Roach, Jeff L; La Mont, Stephen P

    2010-12-01

    The nuclear and radiochemistry group provides sample preparation and analysis support to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL). These analyses include both non-destructive (alpha and gamma-ray spectrometry) and destructive (thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) methods. On a bi-annual basis the NWAL laboratories are invited to meet to discuss program evolution and issues. During this meeting each participating laboratory summarizes their efforts over the previous two years. This presentation will present Los Alamos National Laboratories efforts in support of this program. Data showing results from sample and blank analysis will be presented along with capability enhancement and issues that arose over the previous two years.

  16. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W

    2011-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including the ongoing

  17. The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A Methodology for Assessing Atmospheric Correction Processors Based on In-Situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Dagmar; Krasemann, Hajo; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Doerffer, Roland; Fomferra, Norman; Franz, Bryan A.; Grant, Mike G.; Groom, Steve B.; Melin, Frederic; Platt, Trevor; Regner, Peter; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Steinmetz, Francois; Swinton, John

    2015-01-01

    The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative intends to provide a long-term time series of ocean colour data and investigate the detectable climate impact. A reliable and stable atmospheric correction procedure is the basis for ocean colour products of the necessary high quality. In order to guarantee an objective selection from a set of four atmospheric correction processors, the common validation strategy of comparisons between in-situ and satellite derived water leaving reflectance spectra, is extended by a ranking system. In principle, the statistical parameters such as root mean square error, bias, etc. and measures of goodness of fit, are transformed into relative scores, which evaluate the relationship of quality dependent on the algorithms under study. The sensitivity of these scores to the selected database has been assessed by a bootstrapping exercise, which allows identification of the uncertainty in the scoring results. Although the presented methodology is intended to be used in an algorithm selection process, this paper focusses on the scope of the methodology rather than the properties of the individual processors.

  18. Slimhole drilling and directional drilling for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F. E.

    1995-07-01

    On Site-Inspection (OSI), under the Comprehensive Test Ban being negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, may include drilling at the site of a suspected clandestine underground nuclear explosion to recover radioactive samples. It is in the interest of the drilling party to operate as light and compact a system as possible because it is likely that the drilling equipment will first be airlifted to the country being inspected, and then will be carried by air or surface to the inspection site. It will be necessary for the inspection party to have the capability for more than vertical drilling since there may not be a drilling site available vertically above the suspected nuclear cavity location. This means having, the ability to perform directional drilling and to obtain accurate positioning of the drilling tool. Consequently, several directions may be explored from a single surface drilling pad. If the target depth is expected to be at or less than 600 m (2000 ft), slant drilling may be required to a length well in excess of 600 m. Clearly, the operation must be designed with health and safety features to prevent radioactive exposure if the drilling encounters a nuclear source region. The DOE/LLNL community has developed a strong expertise in this regard. In this initial assessment we focus on the portability and directionality of drilling systems.

  19. Development of quantitative and sensitive assessments of physiological and functional outcome during recovery from spinal cord injury: a clinical initiative.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, P H; Kuppuswamy, A; Balasubramaniam, A V; Maksimovic, R; Gall, A; Craggs, M D; Mathias, C J; Bacon, M; Prochazka, A; Kowalczewski, J; Conway, B A; Galen, S; Catton, C J; Allan, D B; Curt, A; Wirth, B; van Hedel, H J A

    2011-03-10

    The ability to detect physiological changes associated with treatments to effect axonal regeneration, or novel rehabilitation strategies, for spinal cord injury will be challenging using the widely employed American Spinal Injuries Association (ASIA) impairment scales (AIS) for sensory and motor function. Despite many revisions to the AIS standard neurological assessment, there remains a perceived need for more sensitive, quantitative and objective outcome measures. The purpose of Stage 1 of the Clinical Initiative was to develop these tools and then, in Stage 2 to test them for reliability against natural recovery and treatments expected to produce functional improvements in those with complete or incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we review aspects of the progress made by four teams involved in Stage 2. The strategies employed by the individual teams were (1) application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the motor cortex in stable (chronic) SCI with intent to induce functional improvement of upper limb function, (2) a tele-rehabilitation approach using functional electrical stimulation to provide hand opening and grip allowing incomplete SCI subjects to deploy an instrumented manipulandum for hand and arm exercises and to play computer games, (3) weight-assisted treadmill walking therapy (WAT) comparing outcomes in acute and chronic groups of incomplete SCI patients receiving robotic assisted treadmill therapy, and (4) longitudinal monitoring of the natural progress of recovery in incomplete SCI subjects using motor tests for the lower extremity to investigate strength and coordination.

  20. An initial assessment of the impact of Australian aerosols on surface ultraviolet radiation and implications for human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, C. Y.; Mills, F. P.

    2010-08-01

    Aerosols can have significant influence on surface radiation, and the intense surface ultraviolet radiation Australia experiences contributes to Australia's high incidence rates for related human diseases. Aerosol properties, such as total column aerosol optical depth, have been measured over several years for varying lengths of time at sites across Australia using sunphotometers. Statistical analysis of the average daily aerosol optical depth over sites near Alice Springs, Canberra, Darwin, and Perth provides one measure of the annual atmospheric loading of aerosols over these sites. The sunphotometers used at these sites do not make measurements in the UV-B spectral region and have only one channel in the UV-A spectral region, the regions of most interest for assessing human health impact. Consequently, model calculations using standard aerosol types have been used to make an initial estimate of the impact of the aerosols found over these four sites on surface ultraviolet radiation. The aerosol loading is at times sufficient to significantly reduce the surface ultraviolet radiation, but few such days occur each year. The annual average effect of aerosols on surface ultraviolet radiation, thus, appears to be small compared to lifestyle factors, such as clothing and use of sunscreen.

  1. Initial development of patient-reported instrument assessing harm, efficacy, and misuse of long-term opioid therapy.

    PubMed

    Becker, William C; Fiellin, David A; Black, Anne C; Kostovich, Carol T; Kerns, Robert D; Fraenkel, Liana

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines on long-term opioid therapy recommend frequent reassessment of harm, efficacy, and misuse of these potentially harmful and sometimes ineffective medications. In primary care, there is a need for a brief, patient-reported instrument. This report details the initial steps in the development of such an instrument. An interdisciplinary team of clinician-scientists performed four discrete steps in this study: (1) conceptualization of the purpose and function of the instrument, (2) assembly of an item pool, (3) expert rating on which items were most important to include in the instrument, and (4) modification of expert-selected items based on a reading level check and cognitive interviews with patients. A diverse panel of 47 subject matter experts was presented with 69 items to rate on a 1-9 scale in terms of importance for inclusion in the instrument. The panel highly rated 37 items: 8 related to harm, 4 related to efficacy, and 25 related to misuse. These 37 items were then tested for patient comprehension and modified as needed. Next steps in development will include further item reduction, testing against a gold standard, and assessment of the instrument's effect on clinical outcomes.

  2. Development and initial validation of a computer-administered health literacy assessment in Spanish and English: FLIGHT/VIDAS

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jacobs, Robin J; Caballero, Joshua; Davenport, Rosemary; Homs, Ana-Maria; Czaja, Sara J; Loewenstein, David

    2013-01-01

    Current measures of health literacy have been criticized on a number of grounds, including use of a limited range of content, development on small and atypical patient groups, and poor psychometric characteristics. In this paper, we report the development and preliminary validation of a new computer-administered and -scored health literacy measure addressing these limitations. Items in the measure reflect a wide range of content related to health promotion and maintenance as well as care for diseases. The development process has focused on creating a measure that will be useful in both Spanish and English, while not requiring substantial time for clinician training and individual administration and scoring. The items incorporate several formats, including questions based on brief videos, which allow for the assessment of listening comprehension and the skills related to obtaining information on the Internet. In this paper, we report the interim analyses detailing the initial development and pilot testing of the items (phase 1 of the project) in groups of Spanish and English speakers. We then describe phase 2, which included a second round of testing of the items, in new groups of Spanish and English speakers, and evaluation of the new measure’s reliability and validity in relation to other measures. Data are presented that show that four scales (general health literacy, numeracy, conceptual knowledge, and listening comprehension), developed through a process of item and factor analyses, have significant relations to existing measures of health literacy. PMID:23990736

  3. Progress and status of the IAEA coordinated research project: production of Mo-99 using LEU fission or neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Ira N.; Adelfang, Pablo E-mail: P.Adelfang@iaea.org; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2008-07-15

    Since late 2004, the IAEA has developed and implemented a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to assist countries interested in initiating indigenous, small-scale production of Mo-99 to meet local nuclear medicine requirements. The objective of the CRP is to provide interested countries with access to non-proprietary technologies and methods to produce Mo-99 using LEU foil or LEU mini-plate targets, or for the utilization of n,gamma neutron activation, e.g. through the use of gel generators. The project has made further progress since the RERTR 2006 meeting, with a Technical Workshop on Operational Aspects of Mo99 Production held 28-30 November 2006 in Vienna and the Second Research Coordination Meeting held in Bucharest, Romania 16-20 April 2007. The paper describes activities carried out as noted above, and as well as the provision of LEU foils to a number of participants, and the progress by a number of groups in preparing for LEU target assembly and disassembly, irradiation, chemical processing, and waste management. The participants' progress in particular on thermal hydraulics computations required for using LEU targets is notable, as also the progress in gel generator plant operations in India and Kazakhstan. Poland has joined as a new research agreement holder and an application by Egypt to be a contract holder is undergoing internal review in the IAEA and is expected to be approved. The IAEA has also participated in several open meetings of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Study on Producing Medical Radioisotopes without HEU, which will also be discussed in the paper. (author)

  4. Parents' Perspectives of School Mental Health Promotion Initiatives Are Related to Parents' Self-Assessed Parenting Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Achieving broad-scale parent engagement with school initiatives has proven elusive. This article reports survey data from 287 Maltese parents about their perceptions of the quality of their child's school's initiatives for promoting students' wellbeing and mental health. Findings indicate that, on average, parents rated school initiatives highly.…

  5. Rhetoric and reality: Congruence between the knowledge and practice of assessment of the classroom science teacher and the reform initiative of the National Science Education Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gummer, Edith S.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the areas of agreement and disagreement between the educational practice of assessment and the policies surrounding assessment that is articulated in the science education reform initiative of the national standards. Assessment in the science classroom is a complex process by which the teacher gathers information needed for educational decisions. The reform initiative in the National Research Council (1996) National Science Education Standards provides the vision of assessment that science educators have determined to support and guide the development of mechanisms that provide assessment information to all of the levels of the educational system. This study was designed to inform the consonance and inconsonance of assessment policy and practice through a case study of the teacher and a document analysis of the national standards. The case study focused on the knowledge and practice of a single, well-experienced high school chemistry teacher. Observations of classroom practice, interviews and analysis of assessment tasks informed the picture of what she knew about assessment and the practices of assessment she carried out in her classroom. The National Research Council standards document was analyzed to determine the key elements of assessment that were then organized into an analytic framework. The framework provided the lens to examine the classroom teacher's assessment knowledge and practice. The chemistry teacher's assessment practice was rich and complex. She used assessment tasks to inform multiple decisions in her classroom. She designed, implemented and analyzed student data from tasks that were closely connected to her instructional practices. Her assessment practice did not reflect many of the traditional elements of quality in assessment, and her perceptions of validity, reliability, and equity were idiosyncratic. She struggled with several important issues of assessment design, including measuring student

  6. An instrument to assess quality of life in relation to nutrition: item generation, item reduction and initial validation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is arguable that modification of diet, given its potential for positive health outcomes, should be widely advocated and adopted. However, food intake, as a basic human need, and its modification may be accompanied by sensations of both pleasure and despondency and may consequently affect to quality of life (QoL). Thus, the feasibility and success of dietary changes will depend, at least partly, on whether potential negative influences on QoL can be avoided. This is of particular importance in the context of dietary intervention studies and in the development of new food products to improve health and well being. Instruments to measure the impact of nutrition on quality of life in the general population, however, are few and far between. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop an instrument for measuring QoL related to nutrition in the general population. Methods and results We recruited participants from the general population and followed standard methodology for quality of life instrument development (identification of population, item selection, n = 24; item reduction, n = 81; item presentation, n = 12; pretesting of questionnaire and initial validation, n = 2576; construct validation n = 128; and test-retest reliability n = 20). Of 187 initial items, 29 were selected for final presentation. Factor analysis revealed an instrument with 5 domains. The instrument demonstrated good cross-sectional divergent and convergent construct validity when correlated with scores of the 8 domains of the SF-36 (ranging from -0.078 to 0.562, 19 out of 40 tested correlations were statistically significant and 24 correlations were predicted correctly) and good test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients from 0.71 for symptoms to 0.90). Conclusions We developed and validated an instrument with 29 items across 5 domains to assess quality of life related to nutrition and other aspects of food intake. The instrument demonstrated good face and

  7. Four Years of Practical Arrangements between IAEA and Moscow SIA 'Radon': Preliminary Results - 13061

    SciTech Connect

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Karlina, O.K.; Neveikin, P.P.

    2013-07-01

    The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon'), in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 15 years. Since 1997, the educational system of the enterprise with the support of the IAEA has acquired an international character: more than 470 experts from 35 countries- IAEA Member States completed the professional development. Training is conducted at various thematic courses or fellowships for individual programs and seminars on IAEA technical projects. In June 2008 a direct agreement (Practical Arrangements) was signed between SIA 'Radon' and the IAEA on cooperation in the field of development of new technologies, expert's advice to IAEA Member States, and, in particular, the training of personnel in the field of radioactive waste management (RWM), which opens up new perspectives for fruitful cooperation of industry professionals. The paper summarizes the current experience of the SIA 'Radon' in the organization and implementation of the IAEA sponsored training and others events and outlines some of strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years. (authors)

  8. A Clinical Prediction Model to Assess Risk for Chemotherapy-Related Hospitalization in Patients Initiating Palliative Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Gabriel A.; Kansagra, Ankit J.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Weitzman, James I.; Linden, Erica A.; Jacobson, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Chemotherapy-related hospitalizations in patients with advanced cancer are common, distressing, and costly. Methods to identify patients at high risk of chemotherapy toxic effects will permit development of targeted strategies to prevent chemotherapy-related hospitalizations. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the feasibility of using readily available clinical data to assess patient-specific risk of chemotherapy-related hospitalization. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Nested case-control study conducted from January 2003 through December 2011 at the Mass General/North Shore Cancer Center, a community-based cancer center in north eastern Massachusetts. The parent cohort included 1579 consecutive patients with advanced solid-tumor cancer receiving palliative-intent chemotherapy. Case patients (n = 146) included all patients from the parent cohort who experienced a chemotherapy-related hospitalization. Controls (n = 292) were randomly selected from 1433 patients who did not experience a chemotherapy-related hospitalization. EXPOSURES Putative risk factors for chemotherapy-related hospitalization—including patient characteristics, treatment characteristics, and pretreatment laboratory values—were abstracted from medical records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the patient-specific risk of chemotherapy-related hospitalization. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Chemotherapy-related hospitalization, as adjudicated by the oncology clinical care team within a systematic quality-assessment program. RESULTS A total of 146 (9.2%) of 1579 patients from the parent cohort experienced a chemotherapy-related hospitalization. In multivariate regression, 7 variables were significantly associated with chemotherapy-related hospitalization: age, Charlson comorbidity score, creatinine clearance, calcium level, below-normal white blood cell and/or platelet count, polychemotherapy (vs monotherapy), and receipt of camptothecin chemotherapy. The median predicted risk of

  9. Full Life-Cycle Defect Management Assessment: Initial Inspection Data Collection Results and Research Questions for Further Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund; Haingaertner, Ralf; Regardie, Myrna; Seaman, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    It is often the case in software projects that when schedule and budget resources are limited, the Verification and Validation (V&V) activities suffer. Fewer V&V activities can be afforded and moreover, short-term challenges can result in V&V activities being scaled back or dropped altogether. As a result, too often the default solution is to save activities for improving software quality until too late in the life-cycle, relying on late-term code inspections followed by thorough testing activities to reduce defect counts to acceptable levels. As many project managers realize, however, this is a resource-intensive way of achieving the required quality for software. The Full Life-cycle Defect Management Assessment Initiative, funded by NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance under the Software Assurance Research Program, aims to address these problems by: Improving the effectiveness of early life-cycle V&V activities to make their benefits more attractive to team leads. Specifically, we focus on software inspection, a proven method that can be applied to any software work product, long before executable code has been developed; Better communicating this effectiveness to software development teams, along with suggestions for parameters to improve in the future to increase effectiveness; Analyzing the impact of early life-cycle V&V on the effectiveness and cost required for late life-cycle V&V activities, such as testing, in order to make the tradeoffs more apparent. This white paper reports on an initial milestone in this work, the development of a preliminary model of inspection effectiveness across multiple NASA Centers. This model contributes toward reaching our project goals by: Allowing an examination of inspection parameters, across different types of projects and different work products, for an analysis of factors that impact defect detection effectiveness. Allowing a comparison of this NASA-specific model to existing recommendations in the literature

  10. Innovation in immediate neonatal care: development of the Bedside Assessment, Stabilisation and Initial Cardiorespiratory Support (BASICS) trolley

    PubMed Central

    Watt, P; Yoxall, C W; Gallagher, A; Burleigh, A; Bewley, S; Heuchan, A M; Duley, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Babies receive oxygen through their umbilical cord while in the uterus and for a few minutes after birth. Currently, if the baby is not breathing well at birth, the cord is cut so as to transfer the newborn to a resuscitation unit. We sought to develop a mobile resuscitation trolley on which newly born babies can be resuscitated while still receiving oxygenated blood and the ‘placental transfusion’ through the umbilical cord. This would also prevent separation of the mother and baby in the first minutes after birth. Design Multidisciplinary iterative product development. Setting Clinical Engineering Department of a University Teaching Hospital. Methods Following an initial design meeting, a series of prototypes were developed. At each stage, the prototype was reviewed by a team of experts in the laboratory and in the hospital delivery suite to determine ease of use and fitness for purpose. A commercial company was identified to collaborate on the trolley's development and secure marking with the Conformité Européenne mark, allowing the trolley to be introduced into clinical practice. Results The trolley is a small mobile resuscitation unit based on the concept of an overbed hospital table. It can be manoeuvred to within 50 cm of the mother's pelvis so that the umbilical cord can remain intact during resuscitation, irrespective of whether the baby is born naturally, by instrumental delivery or by caesarean section. Warmth for the newborn comes from a heated mattress and the trolley has the facility to provide suction, oxygen and air. Conclusions This is the first mobile resuscitation device designed specifically to facilitate newborn resuscitation at the bedside and with an intact cord. The next step is to assess its safety, its acceptability to clinicians and parents, and to determine whether it allows resuscitation with an intact cord. PMID:26191414

  11. Development and assessment of a composite score for memory in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)

    PubMed Central

    Carle, Adam; Gibbons, Laura E.; Insel, Philip; Mackin, R. Scott; Gross, Alden; Jones, Richard N.; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Curtis, S. McKay; Harvey, Danielle; Weiner, Michael; Mungas, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We sought to develop and evaluate a composite memory score from the neuropsychological battery used in the Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We used modern psychometric approaches to analyze longitudinal Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, 2 versions), AD Assessment Schedule - Cognition (ADAS-Cog, 3 versions), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Logical Memory data to develop ADNI-Mem, a composite memory score. We compared RAVLT and ADAS-Cog versions, and compared ADNI-Mem to AVLT recall sum scores, four ADAS-Cog-derived scores, the MMSE, and the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes. We evaluated rates of decline in normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, ability to predict conversion from MCI to AD, strength of association with selected imaging parameters, and ability to differentiate rates of decline between participants with and without AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signatures. The second version of the RAVLT was harder than the first. The ADAS-Cog versions were of similar difficulty. ADNI-Mem was slightly better at detecting change than total RAVLT recall scores. It was as good as or better than all of the other scores at predicting conversion from MCI to AD. It was associated with all our selected imaging parameters for people with MCI and AD. Participants with MCI with an AD CSF signature had somewhat more rapid decline than did those without. This paper illustrates appropriate methods for addressing the different versions of word lists, and demonstrates the additional power to be gleaned with a psychometrically sound composite memory score. PMID:22782295

  12. Sensitivity of aerosol indirect forcing and autoconversion to cloud droplet parameterization: an assessment with the NASA Global Modeling Initiative.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulou, R. P.; Meshkhidze, N.; Nenes, A.

    2006-12-01

    The aerosol indirect forcing is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in assessments of anthropogenic climate change [IPCC, 2001]. Much of this uncertainty arises from the approach used for linking cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) to precursor aerosol. Global Climate Models (GCM) use a wide range of cloud droplet activation mechanisms ranging from empirical [Boucher and Lohmann, 1995] to detailed physically- based formulations [e.g., Abdul-Razzak and Ghan, 2000; Fountoukis and Nenes, 2005]. The objective of this study is to assess the uncertainties in indirect forcing and autoconversion of cloud water to rain caused by the application of different cloud droplet parameterization mechanisms; this is an important step towards constraining the aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Here we estimate the uncertainty in indirect forcing and autoconversion rate using the NASA Global Model Initiative (GMI). The GMI allows easy interchange of meteorological fields, chemical mechanisms and the aerosol microphysical packages. Therefore, it is an ideal tool for assessing the effect of different parameters on aerosol indirect forcing. The aerosol module includes primary emissions, chemical production of sulfate in clear air and in-cloud aqueous phase, gravitational sedimentation, dry deposition, wet scavenging in and below clouds, and hygroscopic growth. Model inputs include SO2 (fossil fuel and natural), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), mineral dust and sea salt. The meteorological data used in this work were taken from the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) and two different GCMs: the NASA GEOS4 finite volume GCM (FVGCM) and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies version II' (GISS II') GCM. Simulations were carried out for "present day" and "preindustrial" emissions using different meteorological fields (i.e. DAO, FVGCM, GISS II'); cloud droplet number concentration is computed from the correlations of Boucher and Lohmann [1995], Abdul-Razzak and Ghan [2000

  13. IAEA Isotope-enabled coupled catchment-lake water balance model, IWBMIso: description and validation.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Dagnachew Legesse; Leavesley, George; David, Olaf; Patterson, Dave; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Terzer, Stefan; Carlson, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Water Balance Model with Isotopes (IWBMIso) is a spatially distributed monthly water balance model that considers water fluxes and storages and their associated isotopic compositions. It is composed of a lake water balance model that is tightly coupled with a catchment water balance model. Measured isotope compositions of precipitation, rivers, lakes, and groundwater provide data that can be used to make an improved estimate of the magnitude of the fluxes among the model components. The model has been developed using the Object Modelling System (OMS). A variety of open source geographic information systems and web-based tools have been combined to provide user support for (1) basin delineation, characterization, and parameterization; (2) data pre-processing; (3) model calibration and application; and (4) visualization and analysis of model results. In regions where measured data are limited, the model can use freely available global data sets of climate, isotopic composition of precipitation, and soils and vegetation characteristics to create input data files and estimate spatially distributed model parameters. The OMS model engine and support functions, and the spatial and web-based tool set are integrated using the Colorado State University Environmental Risk Assessment and Management System (eRAMS) framework. The IWBMIso can be used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of annual and monthly water balance components for input to water planning and management. PMID:26962894

  14. The Early Childhood Cluster Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida. Early Implementation Study and Evaluability Assessment. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Goyette, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the first year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  15. 76 FR 72423 - Bridging the Idea Development Evaluation Assessment and Long-Term Initiative and Total Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...-Term Initiative and Total Product Life Cycle Approaches for Evidence Development for Surgical Medical... Initiative and Total Product Life Cycle Approaches for Evidence Development for Surgical Medical Devices and... notice that appeared in the Federal Register of Monday, November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68769). The...

  16. Technology recommendations for pre-screening of IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Steeb, Jennifer L.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories have prepared an analysis of recommended, possible, and not recommended technologies for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. The analytical techniques listed under the recommended technology list are the most promising techniques available to date. The recommended list is divided into two sections: Argonne’s recommended techniques and Oak Ridge’s recommended techniques. This list was divided based upon the expertise of staff in each subject area and/or the instrumentation available at each laboratory. The following section, titled Possible Techniques, is a list of analytical techniques that could be used for pre-screening and prioritizing swipes if additional instrumentation and effort were provided. These techniques are not necessarily top priority, but should not be discounted for future or expanded efforts. Lastly, a list of not recommended techniques is provided to outline the analytical methods and instrumentation that were investigated by each lab but deemed not suitable for this task. In addition to the recommendation list, a short procedure is provided outlining the steps followed for destructive analysis by the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) for determination of uranium concentrations, isotopic content of sample and swipe. Swipes generated for this project will be given to ORNL’s NWAL laboratory for analysis after analysis by other techniques at both laboratories.

  17. Cues-to-Action in Initiating Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender-Related Policies Among Magnet Hospital Chief Nursing Officers: A Demographic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Klotzbaugh, Ralph; Spencer, Gale

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Magnet Chief Nursing Officers' cues-to-action initiating lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT)-specific policies. Homonegativity has a negative effect on employee recruitment and retention and patient satisfaction. Little has been known about what cues-to-action might initiate LGBT inclusive training. Surveys were mailed to 343 Chief Nursing Officers. Cues-to-action survey was used to assess what inspires initiation of LGBT training. Demographic surveys were used to assess what impact variables might have on cues-to-action. Age, sex, religiosity, location, and region had significant effect on cues-to-action. Developing demographically informed training and policies for LGBT equality in health care is suggestive of greater employee and patient satisfaction.

  18. 2003 Initial Assessments of Closure for the C Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR):Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; White, Mark D.

    2003-07-15

    In support of CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.'s (CHG) preparation of a Field Investigative Report (FIR) for the closure of the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) tank farms, a set of numerical simulations of flow and solute transport was executed to predict the performance of surface barriers for reducing long-term risks from potential groundwater contamination at the C Farm WMA. This report documents the simulation of 14 cases (and two verification cases) involving two-dimensional cross sections through the C Farm WMA tanks C-103 – C-112. Utilizing a unit release scenario at Tank C-112, four different types of leaks were simulated. These simulations assessed the impact of leakage during retrieval, past leaks, and tank residual wastes and tank ancillary equipment following closure activities. . Two transported solutes were considered: uranium-238 (U-238) and technetium-99 (Tc-99). To evaluate the impact of sorption to the subsurface materials, six different retardation coefficients were simulated for U-238. Overall, simulations results for the C Farm WMA showed that only a small fraction of the U-238 with retardation factors greater than 0.6 migrated from the vadose zone in all of the cases. For the conservative solute, Tc-99, results showed that the simulations investigating leakages during retrieval demonstrated the highest WMA peak concentrations and the earliest arrival times due to the high infiltration rate before the use of surface barriers and the addition of water into the system. Simulations investigating past leaks showed similar peaks and arrival times as the retrieval leak cases. Several different release rates were used to investigate contaminant transport from residual tank wastes. All showed similar peak concentrations and arrival times, except for the lowest initial release rate, which was 1,000 times slower than the highest release rate. Past leaks were also investigated with different release rate models, including

  19. An Overview of IAEA Activities to Support Pre-disposal Management of Radioactive Wastes in Member States - 12334

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Samanta, Susanta; Drace, Zoran; Ojovan, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) promotes safe and effective management of radioactive waste and has suitable programmes in place to serve the needs of Member States in this area. These programmes cover the development and use of safety standards, planning, technologies and approaches needed for the management of different types of radioactive waste, resulting both from the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications. In the pre-disposal area, the assistance to Members States covers a wide range of topics, including policy and strategy, inventory assessment, technologies and approaches for waste minimization, selection of technical options for waste processing and storage, improvement in operating practices at nuclear facilities, optimization of waste management capacity, etc. and is delivered through the publication of technical guidance documents, coordinated research projects, networks, technical cooperation projects and organization of training and technical review services. This report presents an overview of recent IAEA accomplishments aiming to support activities in pre-disposal management of radioactive waste with focus on technological aspects. (authors)

  20. Fuel Cycle Analysis Framework Base Cases for the IAEA/INPRO GAINS Collaborative Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative Project GAINS “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle”, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: “Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy” for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth projection and four using a high growth projection for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel cycle strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel cycle strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel cycle strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.

  1. The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative: A Collaborative Approach to Assessing, Evaluating, and Advancing the State of the Field

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative (NDCI) explores the critical aspect of data curation within the development of informatics approaches to understanding nanomaterial behavior. Data repositories and tools for integrating and interrogating complex nanomaterial datasets are...

  2. Present status and strategic plan for the stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will give the overview of the stable isotope reference materials (SI-RMs) under distribution by the IAEA, its stable isotope laboratory and capacities related to material testing & production as well as future plans. Historically, most of the IAEA reference materials were produced and made available via collaborations with expert stable isotope laboratories worldwide. The IAEA plans include several directions as follows: • Maintaining the scale-defining SI-RMs at the highest level and introducing adequate replacements when needed; • Monitoring existing SI-RMs for any potential alteration(s) and of isotopic values assigned; • Identifying and then addressing the needs for new SI-RMs, with the priority to address the most critical applications (environmental and climate related applications, human health, food safety studies) and newly emerging analytical isotope techniques; • Performing all measurements aimed for characterisation of new SI-RMs and the corresponding uncertainty evaluation in accordance to the latest metrological concepts; • Promoting metrological approaches on traceability and uncertainty evaluation in every day practice of stable isotope measurements; • Expanding the IAEA capacities for SI-RMs by (i) planning a renewed laboratory at IAEA; (ii) enlarging collaboration with expert laboratories aimed to help IAEA in production and characterisation of new SI-RMs. These major directions will help to address the increasing demand for Stable Isotope Reference Materials.

  3. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, F.

    2015-09-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The predictive capability of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations for reactor design and safety analysis can be assessed with sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) methods. Uncertainty originates from errors in physical data, manufacturing uncertainties, modelling and computational algorithms. (The interested reader is referred to the large body of published SA and UA literature for a more complete overview of the various types of uncertainties, methodologies and results obtained). SA is helpful for ranking the various sources of uncertainty and error in the results of core analyses. SA and UA are required to address cost, safety, and licensing needs and should be applied to all aspects of reactor multi-physics simulation. SA and UA can guide experimental, modelling, and algorithm research and development. Current SA and UA rely either on derivative-based methods such as stochastic sampling methods or on generalized perturbation theory to obtain sensitivity coefficients. Neither approach addresses all needs. In order to benefit from recent advances in modelling and simulation and the availability of new covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies are needed for quantification of the impact of different sources of uncertainties on the design and safety parameters of HTGRs. Only a parallel effort in advanced simulation and in nuclear data improvement will be able to provide designers with more robust and well validated calculation tools to meet design target accuracies. In February 2009, the Technical Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (TWG-GCR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended that the proposed Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on

  4. Containment and surveillance -- A principal IAEA safeguards measure

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, D.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    The growth of the safeguards inspectorate of the Agency, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a variety of interesting subjects (legal, technical, political, etc.) for recollection, discussion, and study. Although the Agency was established in 1957, the first practical inspections did not occur until the early 1960s. In the early inspections, thee was little C/S equipment available, and no optical surveillance was used. However, by the third decade of the IAEA, the 1980s, many technology advances were made, and the level of C/S equipment activities increased. By the late 1980s, some 200 Twin Minolta film camera systems were deployed by the Agency for safeguards use. At the present time, the Agency is evaluating and beginning to implement remote monitoring as part of the Strengthened Safeguards System. However, adoption of remote monitoring by international agencies cannot occur rapidly because of the many technical and policy issues associated with this activity. A glimpse into the future indicates that an important element of safeguards instrumentation will be the merging of C/S and NDA equipment into integrated systems. The use of modern interior area monitors in International Safeguards also offers a great potential for advancing C/S measures. The research in microsensors is in its infancy, and the opportunities for their reducing the cost, increasing the life time, and increasing the reliability of sensors for safeguards applications are manifold. A period may be approaching in which the terminology of C/S will no longer have its original meaning, as integrated systems combining NDA instruments and C/S instruments are already in use and are expected to be the norm in the near future.

  5. Lessons from UNSCOM/IAEA applicable to nuclear arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, D.W.

    1995-12-05

    In early 1991, the Security Council of the United Nations tasked the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the assistance and cooperation of the United Nations Special Commission, to oversee the destruction, removal or rendering harmless of nuclear weapons material and capabilities in Iraq. The conduct of the nuclear inspections, and the subsequent activities (identification, destruction, removal rendering harmless), have provided a wealth of experience and insight into the inspection and monitoring process as well as into the political realities of such an operation. The early inspections were conducted in an atmosphere of discovery and inexperience on both the part of the Iraqis and the IAEA and UNSCOM. As time went on, the Iraqis became more adept at hiding and obscuring relevant documents and equipment, and the inspection teams became more knowledgeable about inspection and investigative techniques, and the pre-existing Iraqi programs. A continuous monitoring presence in Iraq has now been established and an import/export monitoring regime is being developed. While steps taken to date have proven effective in inhibiting resumption of nuclear weaponization activities, it remains to be seen how effective these measures will be in the future. The external and internal conditions which led the Iraqi leadership to undertake a nuclear weaponization program have not changed, and the prognosis for the long term is uncertain. The entire process in Iraq has shown how fragile are the tools available to the international community, and how a determined proliferator can evade inspection and monitoring measures. Such measures cannot prevent nuclear proliferation, they can only hope to deter it, or, failing in that, detect it.

  6. Assessing Staff Competence at Implementing a Multifaceted Residential Program for Youth: Development and Initial Psychometrics of a Staff Observation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Shaw, Tanya; Thompson, Ron; Griffith, Annette; Farmer, Elizabeth M.; Tierney, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Staff Implementation Observation Form, an instrument to assess staff competence delivering an intervention to youth in group home care with behavioral or emotional disorders. This instrument assesses staff skill at implementing the key treatment components, including building relationships with youth,…

  7. Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score versus Simplified Acute Physiology score to analyze multiple organ dysfunction in infectious diseases in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Remyasri; Bhandary, Nithish M.; D’Souza, Ashton D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). Materials and Methods: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included. Patients with history of chronic illness (renal/hepatic/pulmonary/  cardiovascular), diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, those on immunosuppressive therapy/chemoradiotherapy for malignancy and patients in immunocompromised state were excluded. Blood investigations were obtained. Six organ dysfunctions were assessed using initial SOFA score and graded from 0 to 4. SAPS was calculated as the sum of points assigned to each of the 17 variables (12 physiological, age, type of admission, and three underlying diseases). The outcome measure was survival status at ICU discharge. Results: We categorized infectious diseases into dengue fever, leptospirosis, malaria, respiratory tract infections, and others which included undiagnosed febrile illness, meningitis, urinary tract infection and gastroenteritis. Initial SOFA score was both sensitive and specific; SAPS lacked sensitivity. We found no significant association between age and survival status. Both SAPS and initial SOFA score were found to be statistically significant as mortality predictors. There is significant association of initial SOFA score in analyzing organ dysfunction in infectious diseases (P < 0.001). SAPS showed no statistical significance. There was statistically significant (P = 0.015) percentage of nonsurvivors with moderate and severe dysfunction, based on SOFA score. Nonsurvivors had higher SAPS but was not statistically significant (P

  8. Principles for Large-Scale Classroom-Based Teacher Assessment of English Learners' Language: An Initial Framework from School-Based Assessment in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Davison and Leung (this issue) describe the field of teacher-based English language assessment as having "much variability, a lack of systematic principles and procedures and a dearth of information as to the impact of teacher-based assessments on learning and teaching" (p. 389). In this article, the author briefly explores an example of…

  9. Cottrell Scholars Collaborative New Faculty Workshop: Professional Development for New Chemistry Faculty and Initial Assessment of Its Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lane A.; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Columbus, Linda; Feig, Andrew L.; Jenks, William S.; Pilarz, Matthew; Stains, Marilyne; Waterman, Rory; Wesemann, Jodi L.

    2014-01-01

    The Cottrell Scholars Collaborative New Faculty Workshop (CSC NFW) is a professional development program that was initiated in 2012 to address absences in the preparation of chemistry faculty at research universities as funded researchers and educators (i.e., teacher-scholars). The primary focus of the workshop is an introduction to evidence-based…

  10. IAEA SAFEGUARDS DURING PLUTONIUM STABILIZATION AT HANFORDS PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MCRAE, L.P.

    2004-02-20

    The Vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) became subject to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards beginning in 1994 as part of the US excess fissile material program. The inventory needed to be stabilized and repackaged for long-term storage to comply with Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. In 1998, the United States began negotiations with IAEA to develop methods to maintain safeguards as this material was stabilized and repackaged. The Design Information Questionnaire was revised and submitted to the IAEA in 2002 describing how PFP would be modified to accommodate the stabilization process line. The operation plan for 2003 was submitted describing the proposed schedules for removing materials for stabilization. Stabilization and repackaging activities for the safeguarded plutonium began in January 2003 and were completed in December 2003. The safeguards approach implemented at the Hanford Site was a combination of the original baseline approach augmented by a series of five vault additions of stabilized materials followed by five removals of unstabilized materials. IAEA containment and surveillance measures were maintained until the unstabilized material was removed. Following placement of repackaged material (most from the original safeguarded stock) into the storage vault, the IAEA conducted inventory change verification measurements and then established containment and surveillance. As part of the stabilization campaign, the IAEA developed new measurement methods and calibration standards representative of the materials and packaging. The annual physical inventory verification was conducted on the normal IAEA schedule following the fourth additional/removal phase. Plant activities and the impacts on operations are described.

  11. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2004-07-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using SAPHIRE software. This Study shows that the obtained core damage frequency for Tehran Research Reactor (8.368 E-6 per year) well meets the IAEA criterion for existing nuclear power plants (1E-4). But safety improvement suggestions are offered to decrease the most probable accidents. (authors)

  12. The Effectiveness of the Personality Assessment Inventory With Feigned PTSD: An Initial Investigation of Resnick's Model of Malingering.

    PubMed

    Wooley, Chelsea N; Rogers, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Malingered posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) poses a formidable clinical challenge because of the apparent ease in feigning PTSD. As an additional confound, some patients with genuine PTSD produce elevated profiles on feigning indicators that are difficult to distinguish from feigned PTSD. The current study utilized 109 inpatients from a trauma unit to examine whether the Personality Assessment Inventory and the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress can effectively differentiate between genuine and feigned PTSD. As a primary focus, Resnick's model of malingered PTSD was evaluated with its three subtypes: pure malingering, partial malingering, and false imputation. They were tested on their ability to (a) effectively simulate PTSD and (b) avoid being classified as feigning. The partial malingering group proved to be the best feigning group in achieving these two goals. Overall, the Personality Assessment Inventory Malingering Index and Negative Distortion Scale were the most effective at identifying feigning.

  13. Assessment of an apparent relationship between availability of soluble carbohydrates and reduced nitrogen during floral initiation in tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Thomas, J. F.; Tolley-Henry, L.; Rideout, J. W.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Daily relative accumulation rate of soluble carbohydrates (RARS) and reduced nitrogen (RARN) in the shoot, as estimates of source strength, were compared with daily relative growth rates (RGR) of the shoot, as an estimate of sink demand, during floral transformation in apical meristems of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'NC 2326') grown at day/night temperatures of 18/14, 22/18, 26/22, 30/26, and 34/30 C. Source strength was assumed to exceed sink demand for either carbohydrates or nitrogen when the ratio of RARS/RGR or RARN/RGR was greater than unity, and sink demand was assumed to exceed source strength when the ratio was less than unity. Time of floral initiation, which was delayed up to 21 days with increases in temperature over the experimental range, was associated with intervals in which source strength of either carbohydrate or nitrogen exceeded sink demand, while sink demand for the other exceeded source strength. Floral initiation was not observed during intervals in which source strengths of both carbohydrates and nitrogen were greater than or less than sink demand. These results indicate that floral initiation is responsive to an imbalance in the relative availabilities of carbohydrate and nitrogen.

  14. Competency to stand trial: description and initial evaluation of a new computer-assisted assessment tool (CADCOMP).

    PubMed

    Barnard, G W; Thompson, J W; Freeman, W C; Robbins, L; Gies, D; Hankins, G C

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a Computer-Assisted Determination of Competency to Proceed (CADCOMP), a new instrument that collects data directly from the defendant through an interactive computer program and renders a report covering relevant historical, psychopathological, and legal information. The comprehensive report could be utilized by the clinician to focus the clinician's interview with the defendant on areas requiring further probing, thus reducing the time required to assess competency. Preliminary reliability and validity assessment studies are reported. The results support the predictive validity of CADCOMP used as a screening instrument and found the CADCOMP to be sufficiently reliable to be used for screening purposes.

  15. A suggested approach to applying IAEA safeguards to plutonium in weapons components

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, M.S.; Allentuck, J.

    1998-08-01

    It is the announced policy of the United States to make fissile material removed from its nuclear weapons stockpile subject to the US-IAEA voluntary safeguards agreement. Much of this material is plutonium in the form of pits. The application of traditional IAEA safeguards would reveal Restricted Data to unauthorized persons which is prohibited by US law and international treaties. Prior to the availability of a facility for the conversion of the plutonium in the pits to a non-sensitive form this obvious long-term solution to the problem is foreclosed. An alternative near-term approach to applying IAEA safeguards while preserving the necessary degree of confidentiality is required. This paper identifies such an approach. It presents in detail the form of the US declaration; the safeguards objectives which are met; inspection techniques which are utilized and the conclusion which the IAEA could reach concerning the contents of each item and the aggregate of all items. The approach would reveal the number of containers and the aggregate mass of plutonium in a set of n containers presented to the IAEA for verification while protecting data of the isotopic composition and plutonium mass of individual components. The suggested approach provides for traceability from the time the containers are sealed until the conversion of the plutonium to a non-sensitive form.

  16. Initial Considerations When Applying an Instructional Sensitivity Framework: Partitioning the Variation between and within Classrooms for Two Mathematics Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Drawing inferences about the extent to which student performance reflects instructional opportunities relies on the premise that the measure of student performance is reflective of instructional opportunities. An instructional sensitivity framework suggests that some assessments are more sensitive to detecting differences in instructional…

  17. Thinking beyond Technology: Using the iSkills Assessment as Evidence to Support Institutional ICT Literacy Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Teresa; Katz, Irvin R.

    2007-01-01

    When Educational Testing Service (ETS) was first approached by college librarians, professors, and administrators to develop an assessment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy, there was a resounding concern: incoming students could use technology for entertainment purposes, but many did not have the ICT literacy skills to do…

  18. The Learning and Skills Council and the Institutional Infrastructure for Post-16 Education and Training: An Initial Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsden, Mark; Bennett, Robert; Fuller, Crispian

    2004-01-01

    Using secondary data and new survey evidence from local LSC's, this article assesses the progress of the Learning and Skills Council (LSC). It does so with particular reference to three current policy priorities: to ensure national coherence but with sensitivity to the local context, to increase the demand-led element of education and training,…

  19. Now I'm Ready: The Impact of a Professional Development Initiative on Faculty Concerns with Program Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Don; Shin, Seon-Hi; Turley, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a faculty professional development effort on the understanding, confidence, and attitudes of education faculty related to program assessment activities. We applied literature on the adoption of innovations, institutional effectiveness, and professional development to a case study of a series of workshops on…

  20. The Kuder Skills Assessment-College and Adult Version: Development and Initial Validation in a College Business Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottinghaus, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the Kuder Skills Assessment-College and Adult version (KSA-CA; Rottinghaus, 2006), a new measure incorporating advances in the measurement of self-efficacy across 16 basic occupational domains (e.g., finance, information technology) and the six Kuder Clusters. Similar to the original development sample, all scales of the…

  1. Initial Assessment of Sulfur-Iodine Process Safety Issues and How They May Affect Pilot Plant Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Cherry

    2006-09-01

    The sulfur-iodine process to make hydrogen by the thermochemical splitting of water is under active development as part of a U.S. Department of Energy program. An integrated lab scale system is currently being designed and built. The next planned stage of development is a pilot plant with a thermal input of about 500 kW, equivalent to about 30,000 standard liters per hour of hydrogen production. The sulfur-iodine process contains a variety of hazards, including temperatures up to 850 ºC and hazardous chemical species including SO2, H2SO4, HI, I2, and of course H2. The siting and design of a pilot plant must consider these and other hazards. This report presents an initial analysis of the hazards that might affect pilot plant design and should be considered in the initial planning. The general hazards that have been identified include reactivity, flammability, toxicity, pressure, electrical hazards, and industrial hazards such as lifting and rotating equipment. Personnel exposure to these hazards could occur during normal operations, which includes not only running the process at the design conditions but also initial inventory loading, heatup, startup, shutdown, and system flushing before equipment maintenance. Because of the complexity and severity of the process, these ancillary operations are expected to be performed frequently. In addition, personnel could be exposed to the hazards during various abnormal situations which could include unplanned phase changes of liquids or solids, leaks of process fluids or cooling water into other process streams, unintentional introducion of foreign species into the process, and unexpected side reactions. Design of a pilot plant will also be affected by various codes and regulations such as the International Building Code, the International Fire Code, various National Fire Protection Association Codes, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

  2. Smoke-Free Laws and Direct Democracy Initiatives on Smoking Bans in Germany: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Stefan; Minkner, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Background: Germany’s 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. Methods: We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. Results: The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens’ or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman’s ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04). Conclusions: The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions. PMID:24394216

  3. Modifying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to Simulate Cropland Carbon Flux: Model Development and Initial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Arnold, Jeffrey; Williams, Jimmy R.; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2013-10-01

    Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)- residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange.

  4. A risk assessment of water salinization during the initial impounding period of a proposed reservoir in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqin; Jiang, Cuiling; Wang, Youheng; Peng, Yanmei; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Water salinization of coastal reservoirs seriously threatens the safety of their water supply. To elucidate the mechanism of salinization and to quantitatively analyze the risk in the initial period of the impoundment of a proposed reservoir in Tianjin Binhai New Area, laboratory and field simulation experiments were implemented and integrated with the actual operation of Beitang Reservoir, which is located in the same region and has been operational for many years. The results suggested that water salinization of the proposed reservoir was mainly governed by soil saline release, evaporation and leakage. Saline release was the prevailing factor in the earlier stage of the impoundment, then the evaporation and leakage effects gradually became notable over time. By referring to the actual case of Beitang Reservoir, it was predicted that the chloride ion (Cl(-)) concentration of the water during the initial impounding period of the proposed reservoir would exceed the standard for quality of drinking water from surface water sources (250 mg L(-1)), and that the proposed reservoir had a high risk of water salinization.

  5. A risk assessment of water salinization during the initial impounding period of a proposed reservoir in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqin; Jiang, Cuiling; Wang, Youheng; Peng, Yanmei; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Water salinization of coastal reservoirs seriously threatens the safety of their water supply. To elucidate the mechanism of salinization and to quantitatively analyze the risk in the initial period of the impoundment of a proposed reservoir in Tianjin Binhai New Area, laboratory and field simulation experiments were implemented and integrated with the actual operation of Beitang Reservoir, which is located in the same region and has been operational for many years. The results suggested that water salinization of the proposed reservoir was mainly governed by soil saline release, evaporation and leakage. Saline release was the prevailing factor in the earlier stage of the impoundment, then the evaporation and leakage effects gradually became notable over time. By referring to the actual case of Beitang Reservoir, it was predicted that the chloride ion (Cl(-)) concentration of the water during the initial impounding period of the proposed reservoir would exceed the standard for quality of drinking water from surface water sources (250 mg L(-1)), and that the proposed reservoir had a high risk of water salinization. PMID:23887689

  6. Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome from Infancy to Adulthood: Clinical, Hormonal, and Radiological Assessment According to the Initial Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Céline; Zadro, Charline; Diene, Gwenaelle; Oliver, Isabelle; Pienkowski, Catherine; Jouret, Béatrice; Cartault, Audrey; Ajaltouni, Zeina; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Sevely, Annick; Tauber, Maithé; Edouard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) are initially referred for hypoglycemia during the neonatal period or growth retardation during childhood. PSIS is either isolated (nonsyndromic) or associated with extra-pituitary malformations (syndromic). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and long-term evolution in patients with PSIS according to the initial presentation. Study Design Sixty-seven patients with PSIS were included. Data from subgroups were compared: neonates (n = 10) versus growth retardation patients (n = 47), and syndromic (n = 32) versus nonsyndromic patients (n = 35). Results Neonates displayed a more severe hormonal and radiological phenotype than children referred for growth retardation, with a higher incidence of multiple hormonal deficiencies (100% versus 34%; P = 0.0005) and a nonvisible anterior pituitary lobe (33% versus 2%; P = 0.0017). Regular follow-up of growth might have allowed earlier diagnosis in the children with growth retardation, as decreased growth velocity and growth retardation were present respectively 3 and 2 years before referral. We documented a progressive worsening of endocrine impairment throughout childhood in these patients. Presence of extra-pituitary malformations (found in 48%) was not associated with more severe hormonal and radiological characteristics. Growth under GH treatment was similar in the patient groups and did not vary according to the pituitary MRI findings. Conclusions PSIS diagnosed in the neonatal period has a particularly severe hormonal and radiological phenotype. The progressive worsening of endocrine impairment throughout childhood justifies periodic follow-up to check for additional hormonal deficiencies. PMID:26562670

  7. Initial Results from the Experimental Measurement Campaign (XMC) for Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Instrument Assessment (XPIA) Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, W. A.; Choukulkar, A.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Lundquist, J.; Iungo, V.; Newsom, R.; Delgado, R.

    2016-06-01

    The Experimental Measurement Campaign (XMC) for Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Instrument Assessment (XPIA) is a DOE funded study to develop and validate methods of making three dimensional measurements of wind fields. These techniques are of interest to study wind farm inflows and wake flows using remote sensing instrumentation. The portion of the experiment described in this presentation utilizes observations from multiple Doppler wind lidars, soundings, and an instrumented 300m tower, the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, Colorado.

  8. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  9. Deliver us from evil? The temptation, realities, and neuroethico-legal issues of employing assessment neurotechnologies in public safety initiatives.

    PubMed

    Giordano, James; Kulkarni, Anvita; Farwell, James

    2014-02-01

    In light of the recent events of terrorism and publicized cases of mass slayings and serial killings, there have been calls from the public and policy-makers alike for neuroscience and neurotechnology (neuroS/T) to be employed to intervene in ways that define and assess, if not prevent, such wanton acts of aggression and violence. Ongoing advancements in assessment neuroS/T have enabled heretofore unparalleled capabilities to evaluate the structure and function of the brain, yet each and all are constrained by certain technical and practical limitations. In this paper, we present an overview of the capabilities and constraints of current assessment neuroS/T, address neuro-ethical and legal issues fostered by the use and potential misuse of these approaches, and discuss how neuroethics may inform science and the law to guide right and sound applications of neuroS/T to "deliver us from evil" while not being led into temptations of ampliative claims and inapt use.

  10. Development of Genesis Solar Wind Sample Cleanliness Assessment: Initial Report on Sample 60341 Optical Imagery and Elemental Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, P. J.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005 the Genesis science team has experimented with techniques for removing the contaminant particles and films from the collection surface of the Genesis fragments. A subset of 40 samples have been designated as "cleaning matrix" samples. These are small samples to which various cleaning approaches are applied and then cleanliness is assessed optically, by TRXRF, SEM, ToF-SIMS, XPS, ellipsometry or other means [1-9]. Most of these sam-ples remain available for allocation, with cleanliness assessment data. This assessment allows evaluation of various cleaning techniques and handling or analytical effects. Cleaning techniques investigated by the Genesis community include acid/base etching, acetate replica peels, ion beam, and CO2 snow jet cleaning [10-16]. JSC provides surface cleaning using UV ozone exposure and ultra-pure water (UPW) [17-20]. The UPW rinse is commonly used to clean samples for handling debris between processing by different researchers. Optical microscopic images of the sample taken before and after UPW cleaning show what has been added or removed during the cleaning process.

  11. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included.

  12. JOINT UNITED STATES/IAEA PROPOSED APPROACH FOR SAFEGUARDS DURING PLUTONIUM STABILIZATION, PACKAGING, AND SHIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L. KWEI; B. SMITH; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    For safety reasons, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing to stabilize and package plutonium oxide currently subject to International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) beginning in the year 2001. The Hanford Site will also stabilize and package plutonium materials under IAEA safeguards. The U.S. and the IAEA began consultations in late 1996 to develop an approach to the application of safeguards during stabilization and packaging. With the plans to ship RFETS plutonium to Savannah River for interim storage prior to final disposition, this work has been extended to include safeguards during shipment. This paper will discuss the elements of a joint U.S./IAEA proposal for this task.

  13. Initial validation of a computerized version of the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (C-UPSA) for assessing functioning in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Raeanne C.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Ho, Jennifer; Patterson, Thomas L.; Eyler, Lisa T.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to validate the Computerized UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (C-UPSA), a newly developed scale for assessing functional capacity in patients with schizophrenia. Methods The C-UPSA was administered to 21 middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia and 20 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Schizophrenia participants also completed the original UPSA and a symptom inventory (during a separate visit), and cognitive functioning was assessed in both groups using a brief neuropsychological screening battery. Results The C-UPSA total score was significantly correlated with UPSA total scores, and the magnitude of the correlation was comparable to the test-retest reliability of the original UPSA. The C-UPSA was also significantly correlated with UPSA-Brief scores and neuropsychological status among schizophrenia participants. Furthermore, the schizophrenia group scored significantly lower than the HCs on the C-UPSA. ROC curves were generated to determine the optimal C-UPSA value for discriminating between the two groups, with results indicating an optimal cutoff of 75, which is consistent with the derived cutoff from the original UPSA. The C-UPSA identified persons with schizophrenia with 95% accuracy. Conclusions The C-UPSA appears to be highly related to the original UPSA. It has several advantages over the standard version, including increased portability, decreased administration time, and minimization of examiner impact on participant performance. Future research would benefit from establishing this test as a clinical and research tool to effectively assess functional capacity. PMID:23375625

  14. An initial radiation safety needs assessment of Costa Rica: the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society's strategic planning appraisal for participation in the "Radiation Safety Without Borders" initiative.

    PubMed

    Emery, Robert J; Felknor, S A

    2002-05-01

    In response to the Health Physics Society's recent 'radiation safety without borders" initiative, the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society selected Costa Rica as its partner country of choice. To develop an understanding of the radiation safety needs of this country, the fall 2001 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health Environmental Radiation and Radioactivity class was tasked with the assignment of assessing the possible radiation safety needs and concerns for this country. The assignment culminated in a class presentation to the membership of the South Texas Chapter during its annual fall meeting. Using library and web based resources, tile students reviewed a number of public health and radiation-related topics. Life expectancies were found to be equivalent to the United States, even though significant differences in per capita health expenditures were noted. Costa Rica exhibited lower population mortality rates from major causes such as cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and external sources. Maternal and infant mortality rates were found to be much higher in Costa Rica than in the United States. Naturally occurring radiation sources such as uranium deposits were not identified as apparent major radiation issues of concern, although ultraviolet radiation exposures are consistently high. Several recent events in the country and the region involving patient overexposures suggest that concerns are likely focused on ensuring the proper use and maintenance of healing arts radiation equipment. The lack of available information on radioactive waste disposal suggests that waste handling also may be an issue warranting attention. The exercise proved to be very educational for the students, and the information gathered will serve to focus the Chapter's efforts when technical exchanges are initiated. The importance of linking this initiative to other existing programs within the country is also discussed.

  15. Improved RSA accuracy with DLT and balanced calibration marker distributions with an assessment of initial-calibration.

    PubMed

    Choo, Anthony M T; Oxland, Thomas R

    2003-02-01

    Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) has been used for over 25 years for accurate micromotion measurement in a wide variety of orthopaedic applications. This study investigated two possible improvements to the method. First, direct linear transformation (DLT) was compared to the traditional RSA reconstruction algorithm. The two methods were considered with respect to standard extrapolation and interpolation calibration cages. Matlab simulations showed that reconstruction accuracy was greatly improved (>60%) by combining DLT with an even distribution of enclosing calibration markers. Second, a benchtop study using phantoms translated at 0.0254-mm intervals showed initial-calibration, followed by removal of the interpolation cage for subsequent exposures, was potentially twice as accurate as self-calibration with an extrapolation cage. These results showed optimizations for the application of RSA when unobstructed space is required.

  16. Assessing measurement invariance of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II among Hispanics, African Americans, and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto, Yuki; Thoen, Megan A; Robitschek, Christine; Ashton, Matthew W

    2015-07-01

    This study tested the cross-cultural validity of scores on the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II (PGIS-II; Robitschek et al., 2012) with Hispanic, African American, and European American community samples. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were performed on data from 218 Hispanics, 129 African Americans, and 552 European Americans to examine measurement equivalence among these groups. Measurement invariance of the PGIS-II was established with the original 4 factors of readiness for change, planfulness, using resources, and intentional behavior. These findings suggest the PGIS-II can be administered across these groups and provide meaningful comparisons and interpretations. All samples yielded good internal consistency estimates. The African American sample reported higher means than Hispanic and European American samples for all subscale and total mean scores, and Hispanics scored higher in planfulness, readiness for change, and total score than European Americans, indicating potential cultural factors influencing the scores. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  17. ADHD in managed care: an assessment of the burden of illness and proposed initiatives to improve outcomes.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Neil B

    2009-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often results in persistent problems with attention and impulsivity; these problems, in turn, contribute to impairments in a wide range of functions that affect academic, social, and workplace performance. The chronic and cumulative effects of these difficulties can be overwhelming and outline the significant burden of illness associated with ADHD, which is realized in diminished quality of life for patients and their families and increasing costs or loss of revenue for payers and employers. This burden warrants significant consideration and action from managed care stakeholders to foster sound clinical practice and optimal care. For example, educational interventions and evidence-based tools can be implemented to assist providers with accurate diagnosis and more effective treatment. Furthermore, extensive data documenting the benefits of pharmacotherapy and provider follow-up have demonstrated that initiatives designed to encourage treatment adherence may be the best investment for managed care plans seeking to improve outcomes in patients with ADHD. PMID:19601690

  18. Initial Assessment of the Effects of Nonmetallic Inclusions on Fatigue Life of Powder-Metallurgy-Processed Udimet(TM) 720

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, T. P.; Telesman, J.; Kantzos, P. T.; Bonacuse, P. J.; Barrie, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue lives of modern powder metallurgy (PM) disk alloys are influenced by variabilities in alloy microstructure and mechanical properties. These properties can vary due to the different steps of materials/component processing and machining. One of these variables, the presence of nonmetallic inclusions, has been shown to significantly degrade low-cycle fatigue (LCF) life. Nonmetallic inclusions are inherent defects in powder alloys that are a by-product of powder-processing techniques. Contamination of the powder can occur in the melt, during powder atomization, or during any of the various handling processes through consolidation. In modern nickel disk powder processing facilities, the levels of inclusion contamination have been reduced to less than 1 part per million by weight. Despite the efforts of manufacturers to ensure the cleanliness of their powder production processes, the presence of inclusions remains a source of great concern for the designer. the objective of this study was to investigate the effects on fatigue life of these inclusions. Since natural inclusions occur so infrequently, elevated levels of inclusions were carefully introduced in a nickel-based disk superalloy, Udimet 720 (registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation), produced using PM processing. Multiple strain-controlled fatigue tests were then performed on this material at 650 C. Analyses were performed to compare the LCF lives and failure initiation sites as functions of inclusion content and fatigue conditions. A large majority of the failures in specimens with introduced inclusions occurred at cracks initiating from inclusions at the specimen surface. The inclusions could reduce fatigue life by up to 100 times. These effects were found to be dependent on strain range and strain ratio. Tests at lower strain ranges and higher strain ratios produced larger effects of inclusions on life.

  19. The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative: A collaborative approach to assessing, evaluating, and advancing the state of the field

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M; Hoover, Mark D; Harper, Stacey L

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative (NDCI), a project of the National Cancer Informatics Program Nanotechnology Working Group (NCIP NanoWG), explores the critical aspect of data curation within the development of informatics approaches to understanding nanomaterial behavior. Data repositories and tools for integrating and interrogating complex nanomaterial datasets are gaining widespread interest, with multiple projects now appearing in the US and the EU. Even in these early stages of development, a single common aspect shared across all nanoinformatics resources is that data must be curated into them. Through exploration of sub-topics related to all activities necessary to enable, execute, and improve the curation process, the NDCI will provide a substantive analysis of nanomaterial data curation itself, as well as a platform for multiple other important discussions to advance the field of nanoinformatics. This article outlines the NDCI project and lays the foundation for a series of papers on nanomaterial data curation. The NDCI purpose is to: 1) present and evaluate the current state of nanomaterial data curation across the field on multiple specific data curation topics, 2) propose ways to leverage and advance progress for both individual efforts and the nanomaterial data community as a whole, and 3) provide opportunities for similar publication series on the details of the interactive needs and workflows of data customers, data creators, and data analysts. Initial responses from stakeholder liaisons throughout the nanoinformatics community reveal a shared view that it will be critical to focus on integration of datasets with specific orientation toward the purposes for which the individual resources were created, as well as the purpose for integrating multiple resources. Early acknowledgement and undertaking of complex topics such as uncertainty, reproducibility, and interoperability is proposed as an important path to addressing key challenges

  20. Comprehensive framework for ecological assessment of the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Brian; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Barbour, Philip J.; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) established and funded the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI), with the goal of improving and increasing wetland habitats on private lands to benefit wintering and migrating waterbirds displaced from oil-impacted coastal wetlands. The NRCS and conservation partners provided financial and technical assistance to landowners and managers of sites enrolled in various conservation easement programs, and incorporated approximately 190,000 ha of wetlands and agricultural lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and Gulf Coast regions in the MBHI. In fall 2010, the NRCS worked with scientists and graduate students from three universities and various conservation agencies to design and implement landscape-scale evaluations of (1) the use of MBHI-managed wetlands and comparable non-MBHI wetlands by Charadriiformes(shorebirds), Anseriformes (waterfowl), and other waterbirds; and (2) the relative effectiveness of different MBHI practices for providing habitat and food resources for migrating, resident, and wintering waterbirds. In this paper, we describe the scientific framework designed to evaluate the MBHI in improving waterbird habitats on private lands in the MAV, the Gulf Coast Prairies in Louisiana and Texas, and Gulf coastal wetlands of Mississippi and Alabama. The results of our evaluation will enhance our understanding of the influence of MBHI, other Farm Bill Conservation Initiative managed lands (e.g., Wetland Reserve Program), and selected agricultural working lands (e.g., Oryza sativa L. [Rice] fields in southern Louisiana and Texas) on wintering and migrating waterbirds. A proactive approach that uses science to evaluate governmental conservation programs is relevant and can inform development of meaningful public policy that likely will be needed for effective delivery of future conservation programs and to justify

  1. The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative: A collaborative approach to assessing, evaluating, and advancing the state of the field.

    PubMed

    Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Powers, Christina M; Hoover, Mark D; Harper, Stacey L

    2015-01-01

    The Nanomaterial Data Curation Initiative (NDCI), a project of the National Cancer Informatics Program Nanotechnology Working Group (NCIP NanoWG), explores the critical aspect of data curation within the development of informatics approaches to understanding nanomaterial behavior. Data repositories and tools for integrating and interrogating complex nanomaterial datasets are gaining widespread interest, with multiple projects now appearing in the US and the EU. Even in these early stages of development, a single common aspect shared across all nanoinformatics resources is that data must be curated into them. Through exploration of sub-topics related to all activities necessary to enable, execute, and improve the curation process, the NDCI will provide a substantive analysis of nanomaterial data curation itself, as well as a platform for multiple other important discussions to advance the field of nanoinformatics. This article outlines the NDCI project and lays the foundation for a series of papers on nanomaterial data curation. The NDCI purpose is to: 1) present and evaluate the current state of nanomaterial data curation across the field on multiple specific data curation topics, 2) propose ways to leverage and advance progress for both individual efforts and the nanomaterial data community as a whole, and 3) provide opportunities for similar publication series on the details of the interactive needs and workflows of data customers, data creators, and data analysts. Initial responses from stakeholder liaisons throughout the nanoinformatics community reveal a shared view that it will be critical to focus on integration of datasets with specific orientation toward the purposes for which the individual resources were created, as well as the purpose for integrating multiple resources. Early acknowledgement and undertaking of complex topics such as uncertainty, reproducibility, and interoperability is proposed as an important path to addressing key challenges within

  2. Testing Speech Recognition in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with the Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment (CASPA): Initial Report.

    PubMed

    García, Paula B; Rosado Rogers, Lydia; Nishi, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the English version of Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment (E-CASPA) with Spanish-English bilingual children. E-CASPA has been evaluated with monolingual English speakers ages 5 years and older, but it is unknown whether a separate norm is necessary for bilingual children. Eleven Spanish-English bilingual and 12 English monolingual children (6 to 12 years old) with normal hearing participated. Responses were scored by word, phoneme, consonant, and vowel. Regardless of scores, performance across three signal-to-noise ratio conditions was similar between groups, suggesting that the same norm can be used for both bilingual and monolingual children.

  3. Peripheral venous blood gas analysis: An alternative to arterial blood gas analysis for initial assessment and resuscitation in emergency and intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Shilpi; Rani, Raka; Malviya, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is the gold standard method for assessment of oxygenation and acid base analysis, yielding valuable information about a variety of disease process. This study is aimed to determine the extent of correlation between arterial and peripheral venous samples for blood gases and acid base status in critically ill and emergency department patients and to evaluate if venous sample may be a better alternative for initial assessment and resuscitation. The prospective study was conducted on 45 patients of either sex in the age group of 15-80 years of intensive care unit and emergency ward. Relevant history, presenting complaints, vital signs, and indication for testing were recorded. Arterial and peripheral venous samples were drawn simultaneously in a pre-heparinized syringe and analyzed immediately for blood gases and acid base status. Mean difference and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient was used to compare the result. After statistical evaluation, the present study shows minimal mean difference and good correlation (r > 0.9) between arterial and peripheral venous sample for blood gases and acid base status. Correlation in PO2 measurement was poor (r < 0.3). Thus, venous blood may be a useful alternative to arterial blood during blood gas analysis obviating the need for arterial puncture in difficult clinical situation especially trauma patients, for initial emergency department assessment and early stages of resuscitation.

  4. RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    OCCHIOGROSSO, D.; PEPPER, S.

    2006-07-16

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is likewise important to the U.S. government for U.S. citizens to take positions with the IAEA to contribute to its success. It is important for persons within and outside the U.S. nuclear and safeguards industries to become aware of the job opportunities available at the IAEA and to be informed of important vacancies as they arise. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is tasked by the U.S. government with recruiting candidates for positions within the Department of Safeguards at the IAEA and since 1998, has been actively seeking methods for improving outreach. In addition, ISPO has been working more closely with the IAEA Division of Personnel. ISPO staff members attend trade shows to distribute information about IAEA opportunities. The shows target the nuclear industry as well as shows that are unrelated to the nuclear industry. ISPO developed a web site that provides information for prospective candidates. They have worked with the IAEA to understand its recruitment processes, to make suggestions for improvements, and to understand employment benefits so they can be communicated to potential U.S. applicants. ISPO is also collaborating with a State Department working group that is focused on increasing U.S. representation within the United Nations as a whole. Most recently Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice issued a letter to all Federal Agency heads encouraging details and transfers of their employees to international organizations to the maximum extent feasible and with due regard to their manpower requirements. She urged all federal agencies to review their detail and transfer policies and practices to ensure that employment in international organizations is promoted in a positive and active manner. In addition, she wrote that it is

  5. Implementation of IAEA safeguards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomini, J.J.; Finleon, C.A.; Larsen, R.K.; Lucas, M.; Langner, D.

    1995-07-01

    When President Clinton spoke to the United Nations General Assembly in September 1993, he offered to place US excess defense nuclear material under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, before the next Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. This set in motion a flurry of activities at three DOE facilities, including Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site). With general guidance from DOE Headquarters, the facility selected a suitable storage area, identified appropriate materials, and acquired the necessary instrumentation to implement full-scale IAEA safeguards on excess plutonium oxide.

  6. [Performance assessment of health services in Catalonia (Spain): evaluation of initial results of the Catalan healthcare service project].

    PubMed

    García-Altés, Anna; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Colls, Cristina; Mendivil, Joan; Benet, Josep; Mompart, Anna; Torné, Elvira; Zara, Corinne; Borrell, Carme; Brugulat, Pilar; Guarga, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Performance assessment of healthcare services is receiving greater attention due to increasing health care expenditures, greater expectations among the population, and the need to obtain results from the invested resources. Taking advantage of the existing experience of the Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona and the Consorci Sanitari de Barcelona, which compared the healthcare services of Barcelona and Montreal, a grant from the Agència d'Avaluació de Tecnologia i Recerca Mèdiques, and the health planning interest of the Departament de Salut, the performance assessment of the Catalan healthcare service project was started in Catalonia in 2005. This article aims to present the development of the project, to provide some examples that illustrate the kind of numerical and graphical information that could be obtained and the kind of analysis that could be performed, to provide possible explanations for the results shown, and to discuss some limitations and implications. Currently, the added value of this project is that it identifies the extent to which the healthcare system is achieving its objectives, establishes a set of homogeneous indicators that could be used in the future, and is a key tool in the development of the Central de Resultats del Departament de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya.

  7. Characterization of Digestive Enzymes of Bruchid Parasitoids–Initial Steps for Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Lüthi, Christoph; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) legumes expressing the α-amylase inhibitor 1 (αAI-1) from Phaseolus vulgaris L. or cysteine protease inhibitors are resistant to several bruchid pests (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). In addition, the combination of plant resistance factors together with hymenopteran parasitoids can substantially increase the bruchid control provided by the resistance alone. If the strategy of combining a bruchid-resistant GM legume and biological control is to be effective, the insecticidal trait must not adversely affect bruchid antagonists. The environmental risk assessment of such GM legumes includes the characterization of the targeted enzymes in the beneficial species and the assessment of the in vitro susceptibility to the resistance factor. The digestive physiology of bruchid parasitoids remain relatively unknown, and their susceptibility to αAI-1 has never been investigated. We have detected α-amylase and serine protease activities in all five bruchid parasitoid species tested. Thus, the deployment of GM legumes expressing cysteine protease inhibitors to control bruchids should be compatible with the use of parasitoids. In vitro inhibition studies showed that sensitivity of α-amylase activity to αAI-1 in the parasitoids was comparable to that in the target species. Direct feeding assays revealed that harmful effects of α-amylase inhibitors on bruchid parasitoids cannot be discounted and need further evaluation. PMID:22615826

  8. Development and initial validation of the EDIN scale, a new tool for assessing prolonged pain in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Debillon, T; Zupan, V; Ravault, N; Magny, J; Dehan, M; ABU-SAAD, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To develop and validate a scale suitable for use in clinical practice as a tool for assessing prolonged pain in premature infants.
METHODS—Pain indicators identified by observation of preterm infants and selected by a panel of experts were used to develop the EDIN scale (Échelle Douleur Inconfort Nouveau-Né, neonatal pain and discomfort scale). A cohort of preterm infants was studied prospectively to determine construct validity, inter-rater reliability, and internal consistency of the scale.
RESULTS—The EDIN scale uses five behavioural indicators of prolonged pain: facial activity, body movements, quality of sleep, quality of contact with nurses, and consolability. The validation study included 76 preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 31.5weeks. Inter-rater reliability was acceptable, with a κ coefficient range of 0.59-0.74. Internal consistency was high: Cronbach's α coefficients calculated after deleting each item ranged from 0.86 to 0.94. To establish construct validity, EDIN scores in two extreme situations (pain and no pain) were compared, and a significant difference was observed.
CONCLUSIONS—The validation data suggest that the EDIN is appropriate for assessing prolonged pain in preterm infants. Further studies are warranted to obtain further evidence of construct validity by comparing scores in less extreme situations.

 PMID:11420320

  9. Body-image thought processes: The development and initial validation of the Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions.

    PubMed

    Jakatdar, Tejal A; Cash, Thomas F; Engle, Erin K

    2006-12-01

    No measures exist that specifically assess cognitive distortions related to body image per se, despite their theoretical and clinical significance. Most cognitive-distortion scales pertain to depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. Accordingly, the 37-item Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions (ABCD) was developed and validated in this study with a sample of 263 college women. The ABCD samples eight types of distorted thinking related to how persons process information about their physical appearance. Two 18-item parallel forms of the unidimensional measure were also constructed. All forms were highly internally consistent and relatively free from socially desirable responding. Convergent validity for all ABCD forms was established using several standardized measures of body image and eating attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ABCD was predictable from body-image evaluation, investment, and overweight preoccupation. The ABCD uniquely predicted body-image quality of life and disturbed eating attitudes above and beyond other body-image predictors. Heavier women and White women were more prone to body-image cognitive distortions than were thinner women and Black women. Finally, limitations of this preliminary study, directions for future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. New Organic Stable Isotope Reference Materials for Distribution through the USGS and the IAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping

    2014-05-01

    The widespread adoption of relative stable isotope-ratio measurements in organic matter by diverse scientific disciplines is at odds with the dearth of international organic stable isotopic reference materials (RMs). Only two of the few carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) organic RMs, namely L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 [1], both available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provide an isotopically contrasting pair of organic RMs to enable essential 2-point calibrations for δ-scale normalization [2, 3]. The supply of hydrogen (H) organic RMs is even more limited. Numerous stable isotope laboratories have resorted to questionable practices, for example by using 'CO2, N2, and H2 reference gas pulses' for isotopic calibrations, which violates the principle of identical treatment of sample and standard (i.e., organic unknowns should be calibrated directly against chemically similar organic RMs) [4], or by using only 1 anchor instead of 2 for scale calibration. The absence of international organic RMs frequently serves as an excuse for indefensible calibrations. In 2011, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded an initiative of 10 laboratories from 7 countries to jointly develop much needed new organic RMs for future distribution by the USGS and the IAEA. The selection of targeted RMs attempts to cover various common compound classes of broad technical and scientific interest. We had to accept compromises to approach the ideal of high chemical stability, lack of toxicity, and low price of raw materials. Hazardous gases and flammable liquids were avoided in order to facilitate international shipping of future RMs. With the exception of polyethylene and vacuum pump oil, all organic RMs are individual, chemically-pure substances, which can be used for compound-specific isotopic measurements in conjunction with liquid and gas chromatographic interfaces. The compounds listed below are under isotopic calibration by

  11. Initial evaluation of developmental malformation as an end point in mixture toxicity hazard assessment for aquatic vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, D.A.; Wilke, T.S. )

    1991-04-01

    The joint toxic action of three binary mixtures was determined for the embryo malformation endpoint of the aquatic FETAX (frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus) test system. Osteolathyrogenic compounds and short-chain carboxylic acids, representing separate, distinct modes of action for induction of malformation, were selected for testing in 96-hr, static-renewal tests. Three mixtures were tested for each combination, with each combination being tested on three separate occasions. Using toxic unit analysis, the combination of osteolathyrogens and the combination of carboxylic acids produced strictly additive (concentration addition) rates of malformation, while the combination of an osteolathyrogen and a carboxylic acid was less-than-additive (response addition) for induction of malformation. Therefore, developmental malformation may have value as an endpoint in mixture toxicity hazard assessment.

  12. Initial assessment and follow-up by a physiotherapist of patients with back pain referred to a spinal clinic.

    PubMed

    Hourigan, P G; Weatherley, C R

    1994-04-01

    To reduce waiting times and costs, a specially trained physiotherapist was employed to review 100 patients with back pain referred by general practitioners (GPs) to a spinal clinic; 78% proved to have a spinal disorder. Only 24% of the original referrals needed to see the surgeon, with 76% being successfully managed by the physiotherapist. Six per cent of referrals were deemed inappropriate and 16% of patients failed to attend. To evaluate the physio-therapist's assessments each case was discussed with the consultant surgeon, and the appropriateness of the management of each patient was similarly investigated. With appropriate training and a good working relationship with the surgeon, a chartered physiotherapist can successfully screen patients in a low back pain clinic, such that the efficiency of the unit is improved by improving the throughput whilst maintaining the same standard of care.

  13. Characterizing the Assessment and Management of Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Osteoporosis in Clinical Practice: A Chart Review Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Jonathan D.; Brown, Jacques P.; Ioannidis, George

    2015-01-01

    Though vitamin D is important for bone health, little is known about the monitoring and management of vitamin D levels in patients with osteoporosis in clinical practice—a deficit this chart review initiative aimed to remedy. A total of 52 physicians completed profiles for 983 patients being treated for osteoporosis between November 2008 and April 2009. Information collected included demographics; fracture risk factors; availability and level of serum vitamin D measurements; and information on osteoporosis medications and calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Physicians also evaluated patients' current regimens and detailed proposed changes, if applicable. Nearly 85% of patients were prescribed calcium and vitamin D supplements. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were available for 73% of patients. Of these patients, approximately 50% had levels less than 80 nmol/L, which contrasts with the 37% thought to have “unsatisfactory” vitamin D levels based on physician perceptions. Physicians felt 26% of patients would benefit from additional vitamin D supplementation. However, no changes to the osteoporosis regimen were suggested for 48% of patients perceived to have “unsatisfactory” vitamin D levels. The results underscore the importance of considering vitamin D status when looking to optimize bone health. PMID:25709852

  14. Initial Assessment of the Acceptability of a Push-Pull Aedes aegypti Control Strategy in Iquitos, Peru and Kanchanaburi, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Plasai, Valaikanya; Morrison, Amy C.; Rios-Lopez, Esther J.; Guedez-Gonzales, Shirly; Grieco, John P.; Mundal, Kirk; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger research program evaluating chemical threshold levels for a Push-Pull intervention to reduce man-vector (Aedes aegypti) contact, this qualitative study explored local perceptions and strategies associated with mosquito control within dengue-endemic communities in Peru and Thailand. Focus groups were used to provide preliminary information that would identify possible public acceptance issues to the Push-Pull strategy in each site. Nine focus group discussions (total of 102 individuals) conducted between September 2008 and March 2009 examined several themes: 1) current mosquito control practices; 2) perceptions of spatial repellency and contact irritancy versus killing mosquitoes; and 3) initial perceptions toward mosquito host-seeking traps. Results indicate participants use household-level strategies for insect control that reveal familiarity with the concept of spatial repellent and contact irritant actions of chemicals and that placing traps in the peridomestic environment to remove repelled mosquitoes was acceptable. Preliminary evidence suggests a Push-Pull strategy should be well accepted in these locations. These results will be beneficial for developing future large scale push-pull interventions and are currently being used to guide insecticide application strategies in (entomological) proof-of-concept studies using experimental huts. PMID:21292886

  15. Initial assessment of Ni-base alloy performance in 0.1 MPa and supercritical CO2

    DOE PAGES

    Pint, B. A.; Keiser, J. R.

    2015-09-25

    There is considerable interest in increasing the working temperature of both open and closed supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycles to ≥700 °C. At these temperatures, it is unlikely that any Fe-base alloys have suitable strength and therefore the focus is on Ni-base alloys for this application. To begin addressing the lack of compatibility data under these conditions, initial work exposed a wide range of candidate alloys in 500-h exposures at 20 MPa (200 bar) CO2 at 650 -750 °C in high purity CO2. In general, the reaction products were thin and protective in these exposures. A smaller group of alloy couponsmore » focusing on chromia- and alumina-forming alloys was exposed for 500h in 0.1 MPa (1bar) air, CO2, CO2+O2 and CO2+H2O for comparison. Thus, the thin surface oxides formed were very similar to those formed at high pressure and no clear detrimental effect of CO2 oxidation or O2 or H2O impurities could be observed in these exposures.« less

  16. Initial assessment of the acceptability of a Push-Pull Aedes aegypti control strategy in Iquitos, Peru and Kanchanaburi, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Plasai, Valaikanya; Morrison, Amy C; Rios-Lopez, Esther J; Guedez-Gonzales, Shirly; Grieco, John P; Mundal, Kirk; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole L

    2011-02-01

    As part of a larger research program evaluating chemical threshold levels for a Push-Pull intervention to reduce man-vector (Aedes aegypti) contact, this qualitative study explored local perceptions and strategies associated with mosquito control within dengue-endemic communities in Peru and Thailand. Focus groups were used to provide preliminary information that would identify possible public acceptance issues to the Push-Pull strategy in each site. Nine focus group discussions (total of 102 individuals) conducted between September 2008 and March 2009 examined several themes: 1) current mosquito control practices; 2) perceptions of spatial repellency and contact irritancy versus killing mosquitoes; and 3) initial perceptions toward mosquito host-seeking traps. Results indicate participants use household-level strategies for insect control that reveal familiarity with the concept of spatial repellent and contact irritant actions of chemicals and that placing traps in the peridomestic environment to remove repelled mosquitoes was acceptable. Preliminary evidence suggests a Push-Pull strategy should be well accepted in these locations. These results will be beneficial for developing future large scale push-pull interventions and are currently being used to guide insecticide application strategies in (entomological) proof-of-concept studies using experimental huts.

  17. Recommendations for Initial Evaluation, Staging, and Response Assessment of Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: The Lugano Classification

    PubMed Central

    Cheson, Bruce D.; Fisher, Richard I.; Barrington, Sally F.; Cavalli, Franco; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zucca, Emanuele; Lister, T. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials. PMID:25113753

  18. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification.

    PubMed

    Cheson, Bruce D; Fisher, Richard I; Barrington, Sally F; Cavalli, Franco; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zucca, Emanuele; Lister, T Andrew

    2014-09-20

    The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials.

  19. Recommendations for initial evaluation, staging, and response assessment of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the Lugano classification.

    PubMed

    Cheson, Bruce D; Fisher, Richard I; Barrington, Sally F; Cavalli, Franco; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Zucca, Emanuele; Lister, T Andrew

    2014-09-20

    The purpose of this work was to modernize recommendations for evaluation, staging, and response assessment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A workshop was held at the 11th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma in Lugano, Switzerland, in June 2011, that included leading hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians, representing major international lymphoma clinical trials groups and cancer centers. Clinical and imaging subcommittees presented their conclusions at a subsequent workshop at the 12th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma, leading to revised criteria for staging and of the International Working Group Guidelines of 2007 for response. As a result, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)–computed tomography (CT) was formally incorporated into standard staging for FDG-avid lymphomas. A modification of the Ann Arbor descriptive terminology will be used for anatomic distribution of disease extent, but the suffixes A or B for symptoms will only be included for HL. A bone marrow biopsy is no longer indicated for the routine staging of HL and most diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. However, regardless of stage, general practice is to treat patients based on limited (stages I and II, nonbulky) or advanced (stage III or IV) disease, with stage II bulky disease considered as limited or advanced disease based on histology and a number of prognostic factors. PET-CT will be used to assess response in FDG-avid histologies using the 5-point scale. The product of the perpendicular diameters of a single node can be used to identify progressive disease. Routine surveillance scans are discouraged. These recommendations should improve evaluation of patients with lymphoma and enhance the ability to compare outcomes of clinical trials. PMID:25113753

  20. Spatial and temporal assessment of the initial pattern of phytoplankton population in a newly built coastal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiangyu; Yang, Kai; Che, Yue; Wang, Mingwei; Zhou, Lili; Chen, Liqiao

    2016-09-01

    For decades, the main threat to the water security of a metropolis, such as the city of Shanghai, has been the rapidly growing demand for water and at the same time, the decrease in water quality, including eutrophication. Therefore Shanghai shifted the preferred freshwater source to the Yangtze Estuary and constructed the Qingcaosha Reservoir, which is subject to less eutrophic water from the Yangtze River. To assess the population of phytoplankton for the first time in the newly built reservoir, this study improved an integrated method to assess the phytoplankton pattern in large-water-area reservoirs and lakes, using partial triadic analysis and Geographic Information Systems. Monthly sampling and monitoring from 10 stations in the reservoir from July 2010 to December 2011 were conducted. The study examined the common pattern of the phytoplankton population structure and determined the differences in the specific composition of the phytoplankton community during the transition period of the reservoir. The results suggest that in all but three sampling stations in the upper parts of Qingcaosha Reservoir, there was a strong common compromise in 2011. The two most important periods occurred from late summer to autumn and from winter to early spring. The former was characterized by the dominance of cyanobacteria, whereas the latter was characterized by the dominance of both chlorophyta and diatoms. Cyanobacteria ( Microcystis spp. as the main genus) were the monopolistic dominant species in the summer after reservoir operation. The statistical analysis also indicated the necessity for regular monitoring to focus on the stations in the lower parts of the reservoir and on several limited species.

  1. Enhancing Adolescent Reproductive Health Services: Assessment of Health Care Practices in Holyoke and Springfield, MA Engaged in the Youth First Initiative.

    PubMed

    Bhuiya, Nazmim S; Crowley, Jacqueline; Fletcher, Erica; McAdoo, Sarah Perez; Middleton, Dawn; Hallum-Montes, Rachel; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A

    2016-01-01

    Health care practices can play a key role in reducing teen pregnancies, though current health care systems do not adequately meet adolescents' reproductive health needs. To address this gap, Youth First, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded, community-wide initiative in Holyoke and Springfield (Massachusetts) established partnerships with nine local health care practices to increase adolescent access to health services. However, we had limited knowledge about their reproductive health services and policies. To address this gap, assessments were conducted with staff using structured interviews and surveys to inform targeted efforts to enhance the quality and youth friendliness of adolescent reproductive health services. Findings revealed that many of the youth-friendly services best practices recommended by the CDC were not routinely implemented by all health care practices. Findings from this assessment can be used to support health care practices to facilitate widespread adoption of best practices related to meeting adolescents' reproductive health needs. PMID:27180691

  2. Technical Note: Initial assessment of a multi-method approach to spring-flood forecasting in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, J.; Uvo, C. B.; Foster, K.; Yang, W.

    2016-02-01

    Hydropower is a major energy source in Sweden, and proper reservoir management prior to the spring-flood onset is crucial for optimal production. This requires accurate forecasts of the accumulated discharge in the spring-flood period (i.e. the spring-flood volume, SFV). Today's SFV forecasts are generated using a model-based climatological ensemble approach, where time series of precipitation and temperature from historical years are used to force a calibrated and initialized set-up of the HBV model. In this study, a number of new approaches to spring-flood forecasting that reflect the latest developments with respect to analysis and modelling on seasonal timescales are presented and evaluated. Three main approaches, represented by specific methods, are evaluated in SFV hindcasts for the Swedish river Vindelälven over a 10-year period with lead times between 0 and 4 months. In the first approach, historically analogue years with respect to the climate in the period preceding the spring flood are identified and used to compose a reduced ensemble. In the second, seasonal meteorological ensemble forecasts are used to drive the HBV model over the spring-flood period. In the third approach, statistical relationships between SFV and the large-sale atmospheric circulation are used to build forecast models. None of the new approaches consistently outperform the climatological ensemble approach, but for early forecasts improvements of up to 25 % are found. This potential is reasonably well realized in a multi-method system, which over all forecast dates reduced the error in SFV by ˜ 4 %. This improvement is limited but potentially significant for e.g. energy trading.

  3. National-Scale Air Quality Data Assessment: Initial Findings from the Near-Road NO2 Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWinter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to include a primary health-based standard for hourly NO2. NO2 is a reactive gas that is emitted from motor vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and off-road equipment, as well as non-mobile sources, and is known to adversely affect human respiratory health. In conjunction with the NAAQS revision, EPA has mandated air quality monitoring next to selected major roadways throughout the United States that are in large urban areas where peak hourly NO2 concentrations are expected. Monitoring began in phases during 2012-2015 and included nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) at 40 monitoring sites nationwide. We conducted a national-scale review of near-road air pollutant concentrations, identified areas where high concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and CO occurred, and evaluated how concentrations varied by factors such as location, distance to roadway, fleet mix characteristics, and traffic volume. We present the findings from our national near-road data assessment for the 2014 monitoring year.

  4. TSPA 1991: An initial total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.W.; Wilson, M.L.; Dockery, H.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; Eaton, R.R.; Bingham, F.W.; Gauthier, J.H.; Robey, T.H.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term performance of a repository system that contains deeply buried highly radioactive waste; the system is assumed to be located at the potential site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study includes an identification of features, events, and processes that might affect the potential repository, a construction of scenarios based on this identification, a selection of models describing these scenarios (including abstraction of appropriate models from detailed models), a selection of probability distributions for the parameters in the models, a stochastic calculation of radionuclide releases for the scenarios, and a derivation of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for the releases. Releases and CCDFs are calculated for four categories of scenarios: aqueous flow (modeling primarily the existing conditions at the site, with allowances for climate change), gaseous flow, basaltic igneous activity, and human intrusion. The study shows that models of complex processes can be abstracted into more simplified representations that preserve the understanding of the processes and produce results consistent with those of more complex models.

  5. Technology Development, Implementation and Assessment: K-16 Pre-Service, In-Service and Distance Learning Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, William B., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The technologies associated with distance learning are evolving rapidly, giving to educators a potential tool for enhancing the educational experiences of large numbers of students simultaneously. This enhancement, in order to be effective, must take into account the various agendas of teachers, administrators, state systems, and of course students. It must also make use of the latest research on effective pedagogy. This combination, effective pedagogy and robust information technology, is a powerful vehicle for communicating, to a large audience of school children the excitement of mathematics and science--an excitement that for the most part is now well-hidden. This project,"Technology Development, Implementation and Assessment," proposed to bring to bear on the education of learners in grades 3 - 8 in science and mathematics both advances in information technology and in effective pedagogy. Specifically, the project developed components NASA CONNECT video series--problem-based learning modules that focus on the scientific method and that incorporate problem-based learning scenarios tied to national mathematics and science standards. These videos serve two purposes; they engage students in the excitement of hands-on learning and they model for the teachers of these students the problem-based learning practices that are proving to be excellent ways to teach science and mathematics to school students. Another component of NASA CONNECT is the accompanying web-site.

  6. The 12 Step Affiliation and Practices Scale: Development and initial validation of a measure assessing 12 step affiliation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Audrey A.; Slaymaker, Valerie J.; Kelly, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Research on instruments designed to measure endorsement of 12 step beliefs and practices among individuals with substance use disorders is virtually nonexistent. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a novel instrument called the 12 Step Affiliation and Practices Scale (TSAPS) using a sample of young adults receiving 12 step-based residential treatment for alcohol and drug dependence. Method As part of a naturalistic treatment outcome study, 300 young adults receiving residential treatment completed the TSAPS and several other assessments during and after treatment. Analyses of the TSAPS examined its factor structure, internal consistency, sensitivity to change over time, and convergent and predictive validity. Results A maximum likelihood estimation factor analysis using oblique rotation produced 4 factors accounting for 61.16% of the variance. Internal consistency was very high and scores on the TSAPS significantly increased across the course of treatment. Convergent validity was demonstrated by relationships with scales of treatment attitudes, twelve step expectancies and commitment to sobriety. Predictive validity was also found, as evidenced by a relationship between total TSAPS score at 3 months post-treatment and percent of abstinent days at 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions The TSAPS shows promise as a psychometrically sound, internally reliable measure of 12 step affiliation and practices among individuals with substance dependence. PMID:21764222

  7. Sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for fialuridine: initial assessment of pharmacokinetics after single oral doses to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, R R; Compton, J A; Kirkwood, J A; Place, G D; Jones, C D; Mabry, T E; Hyslop, D L; Hatcher, B L; DeSante, K A

    1994-01-01

    Fialuridine (FIAU) is a halogen-substituted analog of thymidine that was undergoing clinical investigation as a drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B viral infection. However, clinical trials of FIAU were terminated after adverse events occurred following chronic oral administration. Prior to the termination of clinical trials, a sensitive assay was needed for the measurement of FIAU because of the anticipated low dose administered to patients. We therefore undertook the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA). A specific antiserum was raised in rabbits following immunization with a 5'-O-hemisuccinate analog of FIAU coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Radiolabeled FIAU was synthesized by a destannylation procedure by using sodium [125I]iodide. We developed a competitive-binding procedure and used precipitation with polyethylene glycol as the method for separating the bound and free forms of FIAU. The RIA is sensitive (0.2 ng/ml), specific (negligible interference from known metabolites and endogenous nucleosides), and reproducible (interassay coefficients of variation range from 5 to 19.7% for serum controls). We used the RIA to assess the pharmacokinetics of FIAU in healthy adult volunteers following administration of a single 5-mg oral dose. The sensitivity of the RIA permitted the detection of a prolonged elimination phase for FIAU in healthy volunteers and dogs, with mean elimination half-lives of 29.3 and 35.3 h, respectively. We conclude the RIA is a valid method for the quantification of FIAU in biological fluids. PMID:7811032

  8. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut

    2016-04-01

    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  9. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R J

    2011-01-05

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  10. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu speaks to the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation

    SciTech Connect

    Secretary Chu

    2009-09-15

    On Sept. 14, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addressed the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation. Chu is the first Cabinet official to discuss President Obama's nuclear security and nonproliferation agenda outside the United States since the President delivered his landmark speech in Prague in April 2009.

  11. Implementation of IAEA /1/INT/054 Project in Nuclear Analytical Techniques Group of Argentina: Current State

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, Resnizky; Rita, Pla; Alba, Zaretzky

    2008-08-14

    This paper presents the implementation of the training received through the IAEA Project 'Preparation of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Tests Rounds' in the Nuclear Analytical (NAT) Group of CNEA. Special emphasis is done on those activities related to the first Proficiency Test being carried out by the NAT Group.

  12. 49 CFR 171.26 - Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations. 171.26 Section 171.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION, REGULATIONS,...

  13. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  14. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Training and Human Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Queirolo,A.

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) priority of training and human resources is aimed at providing the Department of Safeguards with an appropriate mixture of regular staff and extrabudgetary experts who are qualified to meet the IAEA's technical needs and to provide personnel with appropriate instruction to improve the technical basis and specific skills needed to perform their job functions. The equipment and methods used in inspection activities are unique, complex, and evolving. New and experienced safeguards inspectors need timely and effective training to perform required tasks and to learn new skills prescribed by new safeguards policies or agreements. The role of the inspector has changed from that of strictly an accountant to include that of a detective. New safeguards procedures are being instituted, and therefore, experienced inspectors must be educated on these new procedures. The USSP also recognizes the need for training safeguards support staff, particularly those who maintain and service safeguards equipment (SGTS), and those who perform information collection and analysis (SGIM). The USSP is committed to supporting the IAEA with training to ensure the effectiveness of all staff members and will continue to offer its assistance in the development and delivery of basic, refresher, and advanced training courses. This paper will discuss the USSP ongoing support in the area of training and IAEA staffing.

  15. ORNL contribution to the IAEA bcnchmark problem on fission reactor decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.

    1996-05-01

    Recently the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) selected a benchmark problem for calculation of radioactivity inventories and dose estimates necessary for fission reactor decommissioning. Several researchers were invited to participate in the solution of this benchmark problem set. The contribution from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is presented in this paper.

  16. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu speaks to the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation

    ScienceCinema

    Secretary Chu

    2016-07-12

    On Sept. 14, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addressed the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation. Chu is the first Cabinet official to discuss President Obama's nuclear security and nonproliferation agenda outside the United States since the President delivered his landmark speech in Prague in April 2009.

  17. Pesticides in streams of the United States : initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Capel, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples from 58 rivers and streams across the United States were analyzed for pesticides as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The sampling sites represent 37 diverse agricultural basins, 11 urban basins, and 10 basins with mixed land use. Forty-six pesticides and pesticide degradation products were analyzed in approximately 2,200 samples collected from 1992 to 1995. The target compounds account for approximately 70 percent of national agricultural use in terms of the mass of pesticides applied annually. All the target compounds were detected in one or more samples. Herbicides generally were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations than insecticides. Nationally, 11 herbicides, 1 herbicide degradation product, and 3 insecticides were detected in more than 10 percent of samples. The number of target compounds detected at each site ranged from 7 to 37. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected most frequently; among the insecticides, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were detected the most frequently. Distinct differences in pesticide occurrence were observed in streams draining the various agricultural settings. Relatively high levels of several herbicides occurred as seasonal pulses in corn-growing areas. Several insecticides were frequently detected in areas where the dominant crops consist of orchards and vegetables. The number of pesticides detected and their concentrations were lower in wheat-growing areas than in most other agricultural areas. In most urban areas, the herbicides prometon and simazine and the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion were commonly detected. Concentrations of pesticides rarely exceeded standards and criteria established for drinking water, but some pesticides commonly exceeded criteria established for the protection of aquatic life.

  18. Initial assessment of environmental effects on SiC/SiC composites in helium-cooled nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I

    2013-09-01

    This report summarized the information available in the literature on the chemical reactivity of SiC/SiC composites and of their components in contact with the helium coolant used in HTGR, VHTR and GFR designs. In normal operation conditions, ultra-high purity helium will have chemically controlled impurities (water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen) that will create a slightly oxidizing gas environment. Little is known from direct experiments on the reactivity of third generation (nuclear grade) SiC/SiC composites in contact with low concentrations of water or oxygen in inert gas, at high temperature. However, there is ample information about the oxidation in dry and moist air of SiC/SiC composites at high temperatures. This information is reviewed first in the next chapters. The emphasis is places on the improvement in material oxidation, thermal, and mechanical properties during three stages of development of SiC fibers and at least two stages of development of the fiber/matrix interphase. The chemical stability of SiC/SiC composites in contact with oxygen or steam at temperatures that may develop in off-normal reactor conditions supports the conclusion that most advanced composites (also known as nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites) have the chemical resistance that would allow them maintain mechanical properties at temperatures up to 1200 1300 oC in the extreme conditions of an air or water ingress accident scenario. Further research is needed to assess the long-term stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in inert gas (helium) in presence of very low concentrations (traces) of water and oxygen at the temperatures of normal operation of helium-cooled reactors. Another aspect that needs to be investigated is the effect of fast neutron irradiation on the oxidation stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in normal operation conditions.

  19. An Efficient Operant Choice Procedure for Assessing Delay Discounting in Humans: Initial Validation in Cocaine-Dependent and Control Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Delay discounting is the decline in a consequence's control of behavior as a function of its delay, and may be a fundamental behavioral process in drug dependence. Human delay-discounting studies have usually relied on choices between hypothetical rewards. Some human tasks have assessed delay discounting using operant procedures with consequences provided during the task, as in nonhuman animal studies. However, these tasks have limitations such as long duration, potentially indeterminate data, or confounding the effect of delay with probability. A study in 20 cocaine-dependent volunteers and 20 demographically matched non-cocaine-dependent volunteers was designed to investigate a novel operant delay-discounting task providing monetary reinforcement by coin delivery throughout the task (Quick Discounting Operant Task; QDOT). Participants completed a hypothetical delay-discounting procedure, a potentially real reward delay-discounting procedure, and an existing operant delay-discounting task: the Experiential Discounting Task (EDT). The QDOT resulted in complete data for all participants, showed systematic effects of delay that were well described by a hyperbolic function, had a maximum duration of 17 min, and resulted in relatively little variability in session earnings. QDOT performance was significantly, positively correlated with performance on the EDT but not the other tasks. The QDOT resulted in an effect size between the groups that was similar to most other delay discounting tasks examined, and showed the cocaine-dependent participants to delay discount significantly more than the control participants. The QDOT is an efficient operant human delay-discounting task that may be useful in a variety of experimental settings. PMID:22329554

  20. Distribution and volumetric assessment of initial approximal caries lesions in human premolars and permanent molars using computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Gaengler, P; Saeuberlich, E

    2000-12-01

    Serial sections from 21 extracted premolars and permanent molars, divided into three age groups (group 1, 10-19 years; group 2, 20-39 years; group 3, 50-69 years.), were viewed by polarized light microscopy for reconstruction of the caries lesions. The volumes of the lesional body and the transparent zone, and the volumes of early dentinal lesions were calculated; and an enamel demineralization index (EDI) and an enamel-dentine demineralization index (EDDI), representing the volumetric ratio of the body of the lesion to the translucent zone, and the body of the lesion to the volume of the early dentinal lesion, respectively, were determined. The method showed that there are three typical sites of individual initial caries lesions at the approximal surface: within the contact area, in the subcontact area, and in the cervical area. Volumetric assessment demonstrated a larger volume of the body of the lesion in older teeth with a smaller volume of the translucent zone relative to the lesional body. From these results it can be concluded that there are usually more than one individual initial caries lesions at the approximal tooth surface. Calculation of demineralization indices demonstrated different features for small lesions with pronounced transparent zones and for large lesions with small transparent zones. The computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction technique and the volumetric assessment are of value in investigations of the micromorphology and progression of natural caries lesions in permanent teeth.

  1. 2004 Initial Assessments for the T and TX TY Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR): Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.

    2004-09-24

    In support of CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.’s (CHG) preparation of a Field Investigative Report (FIR) for the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) T and TX-TY, a suite of numerical simulations of flow and solute transport was executed using the STOMP code to predict the performance of surface barriers for reducing long-term risks from potential groundwater contamination at the T and TX-TY WMA. The scope and parametric data for these simulations were defined by a modeling data package provided by CHG. This report documents the simulation involving 2-D cross sections through the T Tank and the TX-TY Tank Farm. Eight cases were carried out for the cross sections to simulate the effects of interim barrier, water line leak, inventory distribution, and surface recharge on water flow and the transport of long-lived radionuclides (i.e., technecium-99 and uranium) and chemicals (i.e., nitrate and chromium For simulations with barriers, it is assumed that an interim barrier is in place by the year 2010. It was also assumed that, for all simulations, as part of tank farm closure, a closure barrier was in place by the year 2040. The modeling considers the estimated inventories of contaminants within the vadose zone and calculates the associated risk. It assumes that no tanks will leak in the future. Initial conditions for contaminant concentration are provided as part of inventory estimates for uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and chromium. For moisture flow modeling, Neumann boundary conditions are prescribed at the surface with the flux equal to the recharge rate estimate. For transport modeling, a zero flux boundary is prescribed at the surface for uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and chromium. The western and eastern boundaries are assigned no-flux boundaries for both flow and transport. The water table boundary is prescribed by water table elevations and the unconfined aquifer hydraulic gradient. No-flux boundaries are used for the lower boundary

  2. Occurrence of pesticides in shallow groundwater of the United States: initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The first phase of intensive data collection for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) was completed during 1993−1995 in 20 major hydrologic basins of the United States. Groundwater land-use studies, designed to sample recently recharged groundwater (generally within 10 years) beneath specific land-use and hydrogeologic settings, are a major component of the groundwater quality as sessment for NAWQA. Pesticide results from the 41 land-use studies conducted during 1993−1995 indicate that pesticides were commonly detected in shallow groundwater, having been found at 54.4% of the 1034 sites sampled in agricultural and urban settings across the United States. Pesticide concentrations were generally low, with over 95% of the detections at concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, 39 were detected. The compounds detected most frequently were atrazine (38.2%), deethylatrazine (34.2%), simazine (18.0%), metolachlor (14.6%), and prometon (13.9%). Statistically significant relations were observed between frequencies of detection and the use, mobility, and persistence of these compounds. Pesticides were commonly detected in both agricultural (56.4%; 813 sites) and urban (46.6%; 221 sites) settings. Frequent detections of pesticides in urban areas indicate that, as is the case with agricultural pesticide use in agricultural areas, urban and suburban pesticide use significantly contribute to pesticide occurrence in shallow groundwater. Although pesticides were detected in groundwater sampled in urban areas and all nine of the agricultural land-use categories examined, significant variations in occurrence were observed among these categories. Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water were exceeded for only one pesticide (atrazine, 3 μg/L) at a single location. However, MCLs have been established for only 25 of the 46 pesticide compounds examined, do not cover pesticide

  3. Opportunities to more fully utilize safeguards information reported to the IAEA at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, James R; Whitaker, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase transparency and to strengthen IAEA safeguards, more countries are adopting practices that provide the IAEA with more timely, safeguards-relevant information to confirm nuclear operations are as declared. At Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) potential examples include installing unattended IAEA instruments that transmit selected information back to Vienna, instruments that collect and store measurement information on-site, and daily facility operator submissions of material receipts, shipments, or utilization of key operational systems (e.g., UF6 feed stations) to on-site mail boxes. Recently the IAEA has implemented the use of on-site mailbox systems supplemented with short notice or unannounced inspections to maintain effectiveness without significantly increasing the number of inspection days. While these measures significantly improves the IAEA’s effectiveness, we have identified several opportunities for how the use of this information could be improved and how some additional information would further improve safeguards. This paper presents concepts for how the safeguards information currently collected at GCEPs could be more effectively utilized through enhancing the way that raw data is displayed visually so that it is more intuitive to the inspector and provides for more effective inspection planning and execution, comparing information with previous IAEA inspection activities (lists of previous verified inventory), through comparing data with operator supplied data when inspectors arrive (notional inventory change reports), and through evaluating the data over time to provide even greater confidence in the data and operations as declared in between inspections. This paper will also discuss several potential improvements to the submissions themselves, such as including occupancy information about product and tails stations and including weight information for each station.

  4. Testing the methodology for dosimetry audit of heterogeneity corrections and small MLC-shaped fields: Results of IAEA multi-center studies

    PubMed Central

    Izewska, Joanna; Wesolowska, Paulina; Azangwe, Godfrey; Followill, David S.; Thwaites, David I.; Arib, Mehenna; Stefanic, Amalia; Viegas, Claudio; Suming, Luo; Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulski, Wojciech; Georg, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a long tradition of supporting development of methodologies for national networks providing quality audits in radiotherapy. A series of co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) has been conducted by the IAEA since 1995 assisting national external audit groups developing national audit programs. The CRP ‘Development of Quality Audits for Radiotherapy Dosimetry for Complex Treatment Techniques’ was conducted in 2009–2012 as an extension of previously developed audit programs. Material and methods. The CRP work described in this paper focused on developing and testing two steps of dosimetry audit: verification of heterogeneity corrections, and treatment planning system (TPS) modeling of small MLC fields, which are important for the initial stages of complex radiation treatments, such as IMRT. The project involved development of a new solid slab phantom with heterogeneities containing special measurement inserts for thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic films. The phantom and the audit methodology has been developed at the IAEA and tested in multi-center studies involving the CRP participants. Results. The results of multi-center testing of methodology for two steps of dosimetry audit show that the design of audit procedures is adequate and the methodology is feasible for meeting the audit objectives. A total of 97% TLD results in heterogeneity situations obtained in the study were within 3% and all results within 5% agreement with the TPS predicted doses. In contrast, only 64% small beam profiles were within 3 mm agreement between the TPS calculated and film measured doses. Film dosimetry results have highlighted some limitations in TPS modeling of small beam profiles in the direction of MLC leave movements. Discussion. Through multi-center testing, any challenges or difficulties in the proposed audit methodology were identified, and the methodology improved. Using the experience of these

  5. Effectiveness of Repeat Angiographic Assessment in Patients Designated for Radioembolization Using Yttrium-90 Microspheres With Initial Extrahepatic Accumulation of Technitium-99m Macroaggregated Albumin: A Single Center's Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Dudeck, Oliver Wilhelmsen, Skadi; Ulrich, Gerhard; Loewenthal, David; Pech, Maciej; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a workflow consisting of repeat assessment in patients planned for yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization in case of nontarget visceral technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc)-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) accumulation despite initial prophylactic coil embolization of nonhepatic arteries. Materials and Methods: In 341 patients with primary and secondary liver cancer, pretreatment hepatic angiograms, as well as single-photon emission computed tomography coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans, were obtained. Extrahepatic tracer deposition was identified in 33 patients (9.7%) necessitating repeat assessment. Images were reviewed to correlate the site of MAA accumulation with causative gastrointestinal vessels, and repeat angiograms served as reference standard. Results: At repeat angiography, the source of extrahepatic flow was identified and eliminated in 31 of 33 patients (93.9%). In 20 patients (60.6%), successful embolization of nontarget vessels was achieved, in 13 patients (39.4%), MAA was administered more distally. Afterward, extrahepatic MAA deposition was eliminated in 30 patients (90.9%). Conclusion: The algorithm of repeat assessment in case of extrahepatic MAA accumulation has proven highly effective to eliminate extrahepatic shunting, thus decreasing the risk of postradioembolization complications due to inadvertent visceral microsphere deposition.

  6. Assessing potentially time-dependent treatment effect from clinical trials and observational studies for survival data, with applications to the Women's Health Initiative combined hormone therapy trial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Song; Prentice, Ross L.

    2015-01-01

    For risk and benefit assessment in clinical trials and observational studies with time-to-event data, the Cox model has usually been the model of choice. When the hazards are possibly non-proportional, a piece-wise Cox model over a partition of the time axis may be considered. Here we propose to analyze clinical trials or observational studies with time-to-event data using a certain semiparametric model. The model allows for a time-dependent treatment effect. It includes the important proportional hazards model as a sub-model, and can accommodate various patterns of time-dependence of the hazard ratio. After estimation of the model parameters using a pseudo-likelihood approach, simultaneous confidence intervals for the hazard ratio function are established using a Monte Carlo method to assess the time-varying pattern of the treatment effect. To assess the overall treatment effect, estimated average hazard ratio and its confidence intervals are also obtained. The proposed methods are applied to data from the Women's Health Initiative. To compare the WHI clinical trial and observational study, we use the propensity score in building the regression model. Compared to the piece-wise Cox model, the proposed model yields a better model fit and does not require partitioning of the time axis. PMID:25689356

  7. Approach to IAEA material-balance verification with intermittent inspection at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.

    1984-05-18

    This paper describes a potential approach by which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) might verify the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) for the circumstance in which the IAEA inspections occur on an intermittent basis. The verification approach is a variation of the standard IAEA attributes/variables measurement-verification method. This alternative approach is useful and applicable at the Portsmouth GCEP, which will ship all its product and tails UF/sub 6/ to United States facilities not eligible for IAEA safeguards. The paper reviews some of the relevant results of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), describes the standard IAEA material-balance-verification approach for bulk-handling facilities, and provides the procedures to be followed in handling and processing UF/sub 6/ cylinders at the Portsmouth GCEP. The paper then discusses the assumptions made in the approach, and derives a formula for the probability with which the IAEA could detect the diversion of a significant quantity of uranium (75 kg of U-235 in depleted, normal, and low-enriched uranium) if this method were applied. The paper also provides numerical examples of IAEA detection probability should the operator divert uranium from the feed, product, or tails streams for the Portsmouth GCEP with a capacity of 1100 tonnes of separative work per year.

  8. Calibrated sulfur isotope abundance ratios of three IAEA sulfur isotope reference materials and V-CDT with a reassessment of the atomic weight of sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, T.; Valkiers, S.; Kipphardt, H.; De Bièvre, P.; Taylor, P. D. P.; Gonfiantini, R.; Krouse, R.

    2001-09-01

    Calibrated values have been obtained for sulfur isotope abundance ratios of sulfur isotope reference materials distributed by the IAEA (Vienna). For the calibration of the measurements, a set of synthetic isotope mixtures were prepared gravimetrically from high purity Ag 2S materials enriched in 32S, 33S, and 34S. All materials were converted into SF 6 gas and subsequently, their sulfur isotope ratios were measured on the SF 5+ species using a special gas source mass spectrometer equipped with a molecular flow inlet system (IRMM's Avogadro II amount comparator). Values for the 32S/ 34S abundance ratios are 22.650 4(20), 22.142 4(20), and 23.393 3(17) for IAEA-S-1, IAEA-S-2, and IAEA-S-3, respectively. The calculated 32S/ 34S abundance ratio for V-CDT is 22.643 6(20), which is very close to the calibrated ratio obtained by Ding et al. (1999). In this way, the zero point of the VCDT scale is anchored firmly to the international system of units SI. The 32S/ 33S abundance ratios are 126.942(47), 125.473(55), 129.072(32), and 126.948(47) for IAEA-S-1, IAEA-S-2, IAEA-S-3, and V-CDT, respectively. In this way, the linearity of the V-CDT scale is improved over this range. The values of the sulfur molar mass for IAEA-S-1 and V-CDT were calculated to be 32.063 877(56) and 32.063 911(56), respectively, the values with the smallest combined uncertainty ever reported for the sulfur molar masses (atomic weights).

  9. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  10. [A scale for early assessment of risk of death and myocardial infarction during initial hospitalization of patients with acute coronary syndromes (based on data from the RECORD registry)].

    PubMed

    Érlikh, A D

    2010-01-01

    Independent predictors of death and death or myocardial infarction (MI) during initial hospitalization of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) were determined using database of Russian independent ACS registry RECORD. These predictors (admission Killip class II, ST-segment elevation 1 mm, systolic blood pressure 100 mm Hg, hemoglobin <110 g/L, age 65 years, history of diabetes) were attributed equal weight (1 point) and combined in a prognostic scale for assessment of risk of inhospital death and death or MI. The scale did not include markers of necrosis, and the most time consuming component was measurement of hemoglobin. Sensitivity and specificity of risk scores for prediction of death were 78.5%. The use of GRACE score in this group of patients gave similar results. These preliminary data require confirmation on larger populations of patients with ACS.

  11. Trip report on IAEA Training Workshop on Implementation of Integrated Management Systems for Research Reactors (T3-TR-45496).

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard J.

    2013-11-01

    From 17-21 June 2013, Sandia National Laboratories, Technical Area-V (SNL TA-V) represented the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Training Workshop (T3-TR-45486). This report gives a breakdown of the IAEA regulatory structure for those unfamiliar, and the lessons learned and observations that apply to SNL TA-V that were obtained from the workshop. The Safety Report Series, IAEA workshop final report, and SNL TA-V presentation are included as attachments.

  12. A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joanna M; Watson, Gordon J

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately

  13. A Critical Assessment of Marine Aquarist Biodiversity Data and Commercial Aquaculture: Identifying Gaps in Culture Initiatives to Inform Local Fisheries Managers

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joanna M.; Watson, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry “greenwashing” from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately

  14. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho Department of Fish and Game Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-10-12

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to fund the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon Program (IDFG Program). The IDFG Program is a small-scale research and production initiative designed to increase numbers of three weak but recoverable populations of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Salmon River drainage. This would increase numbers of spring/summer chinook salmon within the Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), and reduce population fragmentation within the ESU. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1301) evaluating the proposed IDFG Program. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. Barriers to Initiating and Continuing Mental Health Treatment Among Soldiers in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Naifeh, James A; Colpe, Lisa J; Aliaga, Pablo A; Sampson, Nancy A; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Fullerton, Carol S; Nock, Matthew K; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2016-09-01

    U.S. Army soldiers with mental disorders report a variety of barriers to initiating and continuing treatment. Improved understanding of these barriers can help direct mental health services to soldiers in need. A representative sample of 5,428 nondeployed Regular Army soldiers participating in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers completed a self-administered questionnaire and consented to linking self-administered questionnaire data with administrative records. We examined reported treatment barriers (perceived need, structural reasons, attitudinal reasons) among respondents with current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, mental disorders who either did not seek treatment in the past year (n = 744) or discontinued treatment (n = 145). About 82.4% of soldiers who did not initiate treatment and 69.5% of those who discontinued treatment endorsed at least two barriers; 69.8% of never-treated soldiers reported no perceived need. Attitudinal reasons were cited more frequently than structural reasons among never-treated soldiers with perceived need (80.7% vs. 62.7%) and those who discontinued treatment (71.0% vs. 37.8%). Multivariate associations with sociodemographic, Army career, and mental health predictors varied across barrier categories. These findings suggest most soldiers with mental disorders do not believe they need treatment and those who do typically face multiple attitudinal and, to a lesser extent, structural barriers.

  16. Barriers to Initiating and Continuing Mental Health Treatment Among Soldiers in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Naifeh, James A; Colpe, Lisa J; Aliaga, Pablo A; Sampson, Nancy A; Heeringa, Steven G; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Fullerton, Carol S; Nock, Matthew K; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2016-09-01

    U.S. Army soldiers with mental disorders report a variety of barriers to initiating and continuing treatment. Improved understanding of these barriers can help direct mental health services to soldiers in need. A representative sample of 5,428 nondeployed Regular Army soldiers participating in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers completed a self-administered questionnaire and consented to linking self-administered questionnaire data with administrative records. We examined reported treatment barriers (perceived need, structural reasons, attitudinal reasons) among respondents with current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, mental disorders who either did not seek treatment in the past year (n = 744) or discontinued treatment (n = 145). About 82.4% of soldiers who did not initiate treatment and 69.5% of those who discontinued treatment endorsed at least two barriers; 69.8% of never-treated soldiers reported no perceived need. Attitudinal reasons were cited more frequently than structural reasons among never-treated soldiers with perceived need (80.7% vs. 62.7%) and those who discontinued treatment (71.0% vs. 37.8%). Multivariate associations with sociodemographic, Army career, and mental health predictors varied across barrier categories. These findings suggest most soldiers with mental disorders do not believe they need treatment and those who do typically face multiple attitudinal and, to a lesser extent, structural barriers. PMID:27612348

  17. IAEA programme on the quality of marine radioactivity data.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P

    2008-10-01

    Society's growing interest in environmental issues requires the production of reliable information for policy-makers, stakeholders and society in general. This information must be based on accurate data produced by qualified laboratories and data need to be comparable between numerous laboratories for joint assessments, e.g. in International Conventions. The Marine Environment Laboratories of the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing Quality Assurance services to laboratories involved in marine radioactivity studies for the past 30 years. This has included training, organization of laboratory intercomparison exercises, production of Reference Materials (RMs) and more recently, production of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) that comply with relevant ISO standards. Here, the overall process of Certification of Reference Materials is reviewed, past work summarized and future needs of marine radioactivity laboratories briefly discussed.

  18. Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport: the Brunel Music Rating Inventory.

    PubMed

    Karageorghis, C I; Terry, P C; Lane, A M

    1999-09-01

    Equivocal results of the psychophysical effects of music have been explained in part by the insensitivity of researchers to important personal and situational variables when selecting music. The aim of the present study was to operationalize a conceptual framework for the prediction of psychophysical responses to music into a music rating inventory to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments. An initial item pool was developed and administered to 334 aerobics instructors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a 13-item, four-factor structure (association, musicality, cultural impact and rhythm response), which accounted for 59.2% of the variance. This model demonstrated acceptable fit indices when tested using confirmatory factor analysis on 314 exercise-to-music participants, and was better than an alternative two-factor model. When cross-validated using multisample confirmatory factor analysis, the model also showed an acceptable fit overall, although some invariance in the rhythm response factor was evident that can be attributed to the exclusive use of synchronous music by aerobics instructors. The Brunel Music Rating Inventory appears to be a valid and reliable tool for both researchers and practitioners to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport environments.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1983-10-01

    Data have been presented for 35 elements determined by INAA for NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and for 38 elements determined by INAA and RNAA for IAEA animal bone (H-5). The experimental data showed excellent agreement with published values wherever the comparison exists. Additional trace-element data in the ppb range have been presented for the elements Sc, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W and Th in NBS oyster tissue. Also, additional trace-element data for IAEA animal bone (H-5) in the ppb range for the elements Al, Sc, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, lu, Hf, Ta and Th have been presented.

  20. Gamma techniques for IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards at centrifuge enrichment cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Aaldijk, J.K.; de Betue, P.A.C.; van der Meer, K.; Harry, R.J.S.

    1987-01-01

    On February 4, 1983, the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP) concluded that the safeguards approach involving limited frequency unannounced access (LFUA) by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors to cascades areas together with inspection activities outside the cascade areas meets the IAEA safeguards objectives in an effective and efficient way. In this way, the risks of revealing sensitive information were also minimized. The approach has been defined clearly and unambiguously, and it should be applied equally to all technology holders. One of the conclusions of the HSP was that a nondestructive assay go/no-go technique should be used during the LFUA inspections in the cascade areas of centrifuge enrichment plants. The purpose is to verify that the enrichment of the product UF{sub 6} gas is in the range of low-enriched uranium (LEU), i.e., the enrichment is below 20%.

  1. Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Emily C.; Rowberry, Ariana N.; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2012-07-12

    In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

  2. Use of IAEA's phase-space files for virtual source model implementation: Extension to large fields.

    PubMed

    Rucci, Alexis; Carletti, Claudia; Cravero, Walter; Strbac, Bojan

    2016-08-01

    In a previous work, phase-space data files (phsp) provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used to develop a hybrid virtual source model (VSM) for clinical photon beams. Very good agreement with dosimetric measurements performed on linear accelerators was obtained for field sizes up to 15×15cm(2). In the present work we extend the VSM to larger field sizes, for which phsp are not available. We incorporate a virtual flattening filter to our model, which can be determined from dose measurements for larger fields. In this way a fully functional VSM can be built, from publicly available IAEA's phsps and standard dose measurements, for fields of any size and tailored to a particular linac. PMID:27423827

  3. The US Support Program Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology, Collection, and Analysis 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Tackentien,J.

    2008-06-12

    One of the United States Support Program's (USSP) priorities for 2008 is to support the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) development of an integrated and efficient safeguards information infrastructure, including reliable and maintainable information systems, and effective tools and resources to collect and analyze safeguards-relevant information. The USSP has provided funding in support of this priority for the ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP), and for human resources support to the design and definition of the enhanced information analysis architecture project (nVision). Assistance for several other information technology efforts is provided. This paper will report on the various ongoing support measures undertaken by the USSP to support the IAEA's information technology enhancements and will provide some insights into activities that the USSP may support in the future.

  4. Treatment of Irradiated Graphite to meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal: A New IAEA Collaborative Research Program - 12443

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, A.J.; Drace, Z.

    2012-07-01

    World-wide, more than 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite have arisen through commercial nuclear-power operations and from military production reactors. Whilst most nations responsible for the generation of this material have in mind repository disposal alongside other radwaste, the lack of progress in this regard has led in some cases to difficulties where, for example, the site of an existing graphite-moderated reactor is required for re-utilisation. In any case, graphite as a radwaste stream has unique chemical and physical properties which may lend itself to more radical and innovative treatment and disposal options, including the recovery of useful isotopes and also recycling within the nuclear industry. Such aspects are important in making the case for future graphite-moderated reactor options (for example, High-Temperature Reactors planned for simultaneous power production and high-grade heat sources for such applications as hydrogen production for road fuel). A number of initiatives have taken place since the mid 1990s aimed at exploring such alternative strategies and, more recently, improving technology offers new options at all stages of the dismantling and disposal process. A new IAEA Collaborative Research Program aims to build upon the work already done and the knowledge achieved, in order to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with alternative options for graphite disposal, along with cost comparisons, thus enabling individual Member States to have the best-available information at their disposal to configure their own programs. (authors)

  5. The Mailbox Computer System for the IAEA verification experiment on HEU downlending at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, A.L.; Gordon, D.M.

    2000-07-31

    IN APRIL 1996, THE UNITED STATES (US) ADDED THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT TO THE LIST OF FACILITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS. AT THAT TIME, THE US PROPOSED THAT THE IAEA CARRY OUT A ''VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT'' AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO DOOWNBLENDING OF ABOUT 13 METRIC TONS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) IN THE FORM OF URANIUM HEXAFLUROIDE (UF6). DURING THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1997 THROUGH JULY 1998, THE IAEA CARRIED OUT THE REQUESTED VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT. THE VERIFICATION APPROACH USED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT INCLUDED, AMONG OTHER MEASURES, THE ENTRY OF PROCESS-OPERATIONAL DATA BY THE FACILITY OPERATOR ON A NEAR-REAL-TIME BASIS INTO A ''MAILBOX'' COMPUTER LOCATED WITHIN A TAMPER-INDICATING ENCLOSURE SEALED BY THE IAEA.

  6. Sections prepared for inclusion in an IAEA technical document handbook on Designing and Implementing a Physical Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark K.

    2015-11-01

    Two major sections were drafted (each with several subsections) for the IAEA dealing with designing and implementing a Physical Protection System (PPS). Areas addressed were Search Systems and the evaluation of PPS effectiveness.

  7. [IAEA Training Course Series TCS-37 Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology].

    PubMed

    Imamura, Kiyonari

    2015-01-01

    Training program IAEA TCS-37 (Training course series No.37) "Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology (2009)" was fixed to practical training syllabus at faculty and graduate course of medical physics of a university. TCS-47 for diagnostic radiology (2010) and TCS-50 for nuclear medicine (2011) were also involved in the syllabus. These training courses had been developed by IAEA RCA RAS6038 project since 2002. In this paper, first, comparison with other training programs in the world was made in terms of (1) Degree of extent of subject or field, (2) Concreteness or specificity, (3) Degree of completion, (4) Method of certification and (5) Practicability. IAEA TCS series got the most points among ten programs such as EMERALD/EMIT, AAPM rpt.No.90 and CAMPEP accredited programs. Second, TCS-37, TCS47 and TCS50 were broken down to 6, 5 and 6 subjects of training course respectively. Third, each subject was further broken down to 15 times of training schedule where every time was composed by 3 hours of training. Totally 45 hours of a subject were assigned to one semester for getting one unit of credit. Seventeen units should be credited up to three years in graduate course to finish the whole program. PMID:26882699

  8. A comparison of the PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes for the analysis of IAEA benchmark transients

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Hanan, N.A.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes are used to analyze the series of benchmark transients specified for the IAEA Research Reactor Core Conversion Guidebook (IAEA-TECDOC-643, Vol. 3). The computed results for these loss-of-flow and reactivity insertion transients with scram are in excellent agreement and agree well with the earlier results reported in the guidebook. Attempts to also compare RELAP5/MOD3 with the SPERT series of experiments are in progress.

  9. Assessing communication quality of consultations in primary care: initial reliability of the Global Consultation Rating Scale, based on the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to the Medical Interview

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Jenni; Abel, Gary; Elmore, Natasha; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; Benson, John; Silverman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate initial reliability of the Global Consultation Rating Scale (GCRS: an instrument to assess the effectiveness of communication across an entire doctor–patient consultation, based on the Calgary-Cambridge guide to the medical interview), in simulated patient consultations. Design Multiple ratings of simulated general practitioner (GP)–patient consultations by trained GP evaluators. Setting UK primary care. Participants 21 GPs and six trained GP evaluators. Outcome measures GCRS score. Methods 6 GP raters used GCRS to rate randomly assigned video recordings of GP consultations with simulated patients. Each of the 42 consultations was rated separately by four raters. We considered whether a fixed difference between scores had the same meaning at all levels of performance. We then examined the reliability of GCRS using mixed linear regression models. We augmented our regression model to also examine whether there were systematic biases between the scores given by different raters and to look for possible order effects. Results Assessing the communication quality of individual consultations, GCRS achieved a reliability of 0.73 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.79) for two raters, 0.80 (0.54 to 0.85) for three and 0.85 (0.61 to 0.88) for four. We found an average difference of 1.65 (on a 0–10 scale) in the scores given by the least and most generous raters: adjusting for this evaluator bias increased reliability to 0.78 (0.53 to 0.83) for two raters; 0.85 (0.63 to 0.88) for three and 0.88 (0.69 to 0.91) for four. There were considerable order effects, with later consultations (after 15–20 ratings) receiving, on average, scores more than one point higher on a 0–10 scale. Conclusions GCRS shows good reliability with three raters assessing each consultation. We are currently developing the scale further by assessing a large sample of real-world consultations. PMID:24604483

  10. PREFACE: Third IAEA Technical Meeting on ECRH Physics and Technology in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirant, S.

    2005-01-01

    This meeting belongs to a series of topical events which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) organizes in a regular basis on crucial aspects of nuclear fusion research, or related in particular to ITER physics or a technological application relevant to the nuclear fusion reactor. Each Technical Meeting series has a specific object; the events are called on a two-three years basis and are recommended by the IAEA advisory body for Fusion, the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) . The object of the IAEA-TM held in Como, Italy, 2-5 May 2005, was the application in ITER of powerful Electron Cyclotron waves in the millimeter wave frequency range for plasma Heating and noninductive Current Drive. The meeting was the third on this subject. There were 42 presentations to an audience of about 60 delegates from 16 countries. The main goal of this series of IAEA-TM is to bring together specialists of the different branches involved in the project, in the effort of the best understanding of the limits and capabilities of each one of the different fields of research and development. Millimeter-wave source developers, millimeter-wave system designers and plasma physicists, theoreticians and experimentalists in all of the fields, exposed their way of addressing the problem in plenary sessions attended by all participants. Discussions on the different topics of gyrotron development, launcher options and physics application were continued in forums following the presentations. The specialist reader will find in this volume in particular the latest developments concerning the frequency, the output power and the efficiency of the gyrotrons which are now being considered the preferred type of high power millimeter wave generators for ECH/ECCD applications in the fusion reactor. The debate on the launcher of the EC waves, in the form of Gaussian beams, is presently very active, with a few options on the table to be merged in one optimized and integrated design

  11. Total skin electron therapy (TSET): A reimplementation using radiochromic films and IAEA TRS-398 code of practice

    SciTech Connect

    Schiapparelli, P.; Zefiro, D.; Massone, F.; Taccini, G.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to present an updated implementation of total skin electron therapy (TSET) using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films. The optimization of quality control tests is also included. Methods: A Varian 2100 C/D linear accelerator equipped with the special procedure HDTSe{sup -} (high dose rate total skin electron mode, E=6 MeV) was employed to perform TSET irradiations using the modified Stanford technique. The commissioning was performed following the AAPM report 23 recommendations. In particular, for dual-field beams irradiation, the optimal tilt angle was investigated and the dose distribution in the treatment plane was measured. For a complete six dual-field beams irradiation, the treatment skin dose on the surface of a cylindrical phantom was evaluated by radiochromic films and the B factor which relates the single dual-field skin dose to the six dual-field skin dose was assessed. Since the TRS-398 reference conditions do not meet the requirements of TSET absolute dosimetry, GafChromic EBT films were also employed to check and validate the application of the protocol. Simplified procedures were studied to verify beam constancy in PMMA phantoms without the more difficult setup of total skin irradiation. Results: The optimized geometrical setup for dual-field beams was: Tilt angle={+-}19 deg., SSD=353 cm, and the beam degrader (200x100x1 cm{sup 3}) placed at 320 cm from the source. As regards to dose homogeneity in the treatment plane, for dual-field beams irradiation, the mean relative dose value was 97%{+-}5% (normalizing to 100% at the calibration point level). For six dual-field beams irradiation, the multiplication factor B was 2.63. In addition, beam quality, dose rate, and bremsstrahlung contribution were also suitable for TSET treatments. The TRS-398 code of practice was used for TSET dosimetry, as dose measurements performed by ionization chamber and

  12. Research Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides detailed information about currently funded RFA initiatives both led by DCCPS, and those led by other NIH Institutes and Centers (I/Cs) that include DCCPS as a partner. Each initiative includes a table of funded grants and a map that shows the location of funded institutions.

  13. EUROANDRILL Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, Fabio; Steering Committee, Euroandrill

    2010-05-01

    EuroANDRILL is a new initiative to create a European network with the goal to increase future involvement of European countries in the ANDRILL [ANtarctic geological DRILLing] Programme. Antarctica has been heavily glaciated for approximately 34 million years, but its ice sheets have fluctuated considerably and are one of the major driving forces for changes in climate throughout the Cenozoic Era. The spatial scale and temporal pattern of these fluctuations is subject to considerable debate. Understanding the response of large ice masses to climatic forcing is of vital importance because ice volume variations drive global sea level changes and also alter the capacity of ice sheets and sea-ice to act as major heat sinks/insulators. It is particularly important to assess the stability of the cryosphere in the face of rising CO2 levels, as modelling of the climate shift from a warm, vegetated Antarctica to a cold, ice-covered state 34 million years ago suggests a powerful greenhouse gas influence. As Antarctica is the major driver of Earth's climate and sea level, much effort has been expended in deriving models of its behaviour. Some of these models have been successfully validated against modern conditions. EuroANDRILL will provide a coherent, integrated platform for European leadership and involvement in the international ANDRILL programme. The coordination and networking provided by EuroANDRILL will seek to expand participation by European nations, institutions, and individual scientists in the study of the geologic history of the polar regions and their paleoclimatic significance. During the IPY, ANDRILL has been a highly visible and successful programme. This programme seeks to expand on this legacy beyond the IPY and make these contributions sustainable in the European Research Area through networking of research projects and future planning efforts, which establish Europe as a key player in future polar sediment and rock drilling. EuroANDRILL is set up under

  14. Status of IAEA CRP on Study of Process-Losses in Separation Processes in Partitioning and Transmutation Systems in View of Minimizing Long-Term Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J.; Bimova, K.C.; Bychkov, A.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Inoue, T.; Koch, L.; Nagarajan, K.; Nawada, H.; Ye, Y.; Yoo, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was initiated in 2002 by IAEA to enable Member States in developing methodologies for reducing radio-toxic discharge to the environment from nuclear fuel cycle activities and in paving the way for sustainability of nuclear energy. In the past three Research Coordination Meetings (RCM), the following areas of research were examined upon: (1)Basic studies to compare dry partitioning process with aqueous partitioning process; (2)Defining proliferation resistance attributes of partitioning processes; (3) Advanced characterization methods for actinides for measuring the possible material holdup;( 4)Minimization of actinides losses in the waste fraction from the partitioning process;(5)Establishment of separation criteria of partitioning process to minimize environmental impact; and (6)Defining environmental impact associated with partitioning processes. The final TECDOC is currently being prepared to summarize the activities of this CRP. (authors)

  15. Reduced uncertainty as a diagnostic benefit: an initial assessment of somatostatic receptor scintigraphy's value in detecting distant metastases of carcinoid liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Woodward, R S; Schnitzler, M A; Kvols, L K

    1998-03-01

    This paper employs classical concepts of diminishing marginal utility to demonstrate that risk-aversion can increase the perceived value of diagnostic procedures and thus raise optimum diagnostic expenditures. The theory is applied to a model in the spirit of Phelps and Mushlin's initial technology assessments. The specific evaluation is the cost-effectiveness of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy used to detect distant metastases of carcinoid liver tumours in a patient otherwise eligible for surgical resection of the liver. Data for the model are taken from published sources and financial databases, when available, and otherwise from a senior clinician's experience (LKK). The quantitative results indicate that receptor scintigraphy may have two beneficial impacts to risk-neutral individuals. First, it may reduce the combined costs of therapy and treatment because the diagnostic procedure costs less than the expected savings generated by avoiding inappropriate surgeries. Second, it may improve the patient's expected health-status-adjusted life years (HSALY) because the information allows physicians to better match treatment to the cancer's stage. Finally the paper demonstrates that risk aversion, as embodied in classical diminishing marginal utility applied to health status, can increase the value of the diagnostic tests and can lead the patient to choose a less beneficial treatment. An illustrative risk-averse utility function changed the optimum treatment from surgery to chemotherapy and increased scintigraphy's benefit by 500%. PMID:9565171

  16. Initial assessment of the benefits of implementing pharmacogenetics into the medical management of patients in a long-term care facility

    PubMed Central

    Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian; Taylor, David; Sugarman, Elaine A; Cullors, Ali; Garces, Jorge A; Oades, Kahuku; Centeno, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The health care costs associated with prescription drugs are enormous, particularly in patients with polypharmacy (taking more than five prescription medications), and they continue to grow annually. The evolution of pharmacogenetics has provided clinicians with a valuable tool that allows for a smarter, more fine-tuned approach to treating patients for a number of clinical conditions. Applying a pharmacogenetics approach to the medical management of patients can provide a significant improvement to their care, result in cost savings by reducing the use of ineffective drugs, and decrease overall health care utilization. AltheaDx has begun a study to look at the benefits associated with incorporating pharmacogenetics into the medical management of patients who are on five or more medications. Applying pharmacogenetic guided PharmD recommendations across this patient population resulted in the elimination and/or replacement of one to three drugs, for 50% of the polypharmacy patient population tested, and an estimated US$621 in annual savings per patient. The initial assessment of this study shows that there is a clear opportunity for concrete health care savings solely from prescription drug management when incorporating pharmacogenetic testing. PMID:26855597

  17. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.; Rosenthal, M.; Fishbone, L.; Occhiogrosso, D.; Carroll, C.; Dreicer, M.; Wallace, R.; Rankhauser, J.

    2008-10-22

    In 2007, the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a yearlong review of the challenges facing the international safeguards system today and over the next 25 years. The study found that without new investment in international safeguards, the U.S. safeguards technology base, and our ability to support International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, will continue to erode and soon may be at risk. To reverse this trend, the then U.S. Secretary of Energy, Samuel Bodman, announced at the 2007 IAEA General Conference that the Department of Energy (DOE) would launch the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). He stated 'IAEA safeguards must be robust and capable of addressing proliferation threats. Full confidence in IAEA safeguards is essential for nuclear power to grow safely and securely. To this end, the U.S. Department of Energy will seek to ensure that modern technology, the best scientific expertise, and adequate resources are available to keep pace with expanding IAEA responsibilities.' To meet this goal, the NGSI objectives include the recruitment of international safeguards experts to work at the U.S. national laboratories and to serve at the IAEA's headquarters. Part of the latter effort will involve enhancing our existing efforts to place well-qualified Americans in a sufficient number of key safeguards positions within the IAEA's Department of Safeguards. Accordingly, the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) hosted a Workshop on Enhanced Recruiting for International Safeguards (ERIS) on October 22 and 23, 2008. The ISPO used a workshop format developed earlier with Sonalysts, Inc., that was followed at the U.S. Support Program's (USSP's) technology road-mapping sessions. ISPO invited participants from the U.S. DOE, the IAEA, the U.S. national laboratories, private industry, academia, and professional societies who either

  18. Comparison of the air kerma standards of the IAEA and the BIPM in mammography x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Czap, L.; Csete, I.; Gomola, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Dosimetry Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Seibersdorf, Austria, calibrates reference standards in mammography x-ray beams for IAEA/WHO SSDL Network members (more than 80 laboratories worldwide). As a signatory of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA), the IAEA laboratory maintains a Quality Management System (QMS) complying with ISO 17025 and requires updated 'supporting evidence' for its dosimetry calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC), first published in Appendix C of the CIPM MRA key comparison database in 2007. For this purpose, an indirect comparison has been made between the air kerma standards of the IAEA and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in the mammography x-ray range from 25 kV to 35 kV, using as transfer instruments two thin-window parallel-plate ionization chambers belonging to the IAEA. The IAEA and BIPM standards for mammography x-rays are shown to be in agreement within the standard uncertainty of the comparison of 5.5 parts in 103. This agreement can be used to support the calibration and measurements capabilities of the IAEA listed in Appendix C of the key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. New initiatives in materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia, G.; Jones, Ph.D.

    2008-07-01

    NRC Mission: To license and regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, promote the common defense and security, and protect the environment. Scope of Responsibility: NRC's regulatory mission covers three main areas: - Reactors: commercial reactors for generating electric power and non-power reactors used for research, testing, and training; - Materials: uses of nuclear materials in medical, industrial, and academic settings and facilities that produce nuclear fuel; - Waste: transportation, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and waste, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities from service. A Changing Environment: - National security is dominant concern; - Obtain appropriate balance between safety and Security initiatives and Operational activities; - Multiple layers of systems, infrastructures for various licensees. Effective Communication: Not easy; Sound bites galore; Nuclear 'phobia'; Acceptability of risk; Balance of cost and benefits; Responsibility of the regulator, licensees and radiation protection professionals. Prioritized Licensee Groups: - High priority: Panoramic irradiators; manufacturers/distributors; - Medium priority: medical and research facilities, radiography, well-logging, broad-scope licenses, self-shielded irradiators, open-field irradiators, and other licensees; - Low priority: Portable gauges. Increased Security Measures: Security Zone; Control Access; Monitor, Detect, Assess, and Respond; Transportation Security; Additional control to secure portable and mobile devices; Liaison with Local Law Enforcement Agencies; Background Investigations and Fingerprinting; License Verification; Document Retention; Information Protection; Orders/Legally binding requirements to more than 3000 licensees. Orders Issued: Large Panoramic Irradiators Security Measures (60 Orders issued 6/03, Inspections done); Manufacturing and Distribution Licensees

  20. Student Teachers Developing a Critical Understanding of Formative Assessment in the Modern Foreign Languages Classroom on an Initial Teacher Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jane

    2014-01-01

    With evidence that formative assessment supports pupils' learning, it follows that that there is a need to develop student teachers' assessment competence. However, in some teacher education programmes, learning about pupil assessment is often relegated to a late stage. This can lead to student teachers' perceptions of assessment as…

  1. Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol in the Philippines: USDOE/PNRI Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Sequis, Julietta E.; Cain, Ronald A.; Burbank, Roberta L.; Hansen, Linda H.; VanSickle, Matthew; Killinger, Mark H.; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2011-07-19

    The Philippines entered into force the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol (AP) in February 2010. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency responsible for implementing the AP. In June 2010 the IAEA invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to help conduct a joint national training seminar on the AP. DOE presented to PNRI its AP international technical assistance program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), which helps partner countries implement the AP. In coordination with the IAEA, DOE established this program in 2008 to complement IAEA AP seminars with long-term country-specific cooperation from the perspective of a Member State. The US version of the AP is the same version as that of non-nuclear weapon states except for the addition of a national security exclusion. Due to this, DOE cooperation with other countries enables the sharing of valuable lessons learned in implementing the AP. DOE/INSEP described to PNRI the various areas of cooperation it offers to interested countries, whether they are preparing for entry into force or already implementing the AP. Even countries that have entered the AP into force are sometimes not fully prepared to implement it well, and welcome cooperation to improve their implementation process. PNRI and DOE/INSEP subsequently agreed to cooperate in several areas to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the Philippines AP implementation. These areas include providing working-level training to PNRI staff and preparing an information document that details that training for future reference, assisting with the development of an outreach program and procedures for AP reporting and complementary access, and identifying Annex II equipment and non-nuclear materials whose export must be reported under the AP. DOE laboratory representatives, funded by INSEP, met again with PNRI in February 2011 to provide training for PNRI AP

  2. Reference Material for Radionuclides in Sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon Sediment)

    SciTech Connect

    Povinec, P; Pham, M; Barci-Funel, G; Bojanawski, R; Boshkova, T; Burnett, W; Carvalho, F; Chapeyron, B; Cunha, I; Dahlgaard, H; Galabov, N; Gastaud, J; Geering, J; Gomez, I; Green, N; Hamilton, T; Ibanez, F; Majah, M I; John, M; Kanisch, G; Kenna, T; Kloster, M; Korun, M; Wee Kwong, L L; La Rosa, J; Lee, S; Levy-Palomo, I; Malatova, M; Maruo, Y; Mitchell, P; Murciano, I; Nelson, R; Oh, J; Oregioni, B; Petit, G L; Pettersson, H; Reineking, A; Smedley, P; Suckow, A; der Struijs, T v; Voors, P; Yoshimizu, K; Wyse, E

    2005-09-23

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's program of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). An important part of the AQCS program has been a production of Reference Materials (RMs) and their provision to radioanalytical laboratories. The RMs have been developed for different marine matrices (sediment, water, biota), with accuracy and precision required for the present state of the art of radiometrics and mass spectrometry methods. The RMs have been produced as the final products of world-wide intercomparison exercises organized during last 30 years. A total of 44 intercomparison exercises were undertaken and 39 RMs were produced for radionuclides in the marine environment. All required matrices (seawater, biota, sediment) have been covered with radionuclide concentrations ranging from typical environmental levels to elevated levels affected by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants. The long-term availability of RMs (over 10 years) requires the use of very specific techniques to collect and pretreat large quantities of material (e.g., in excess of 100 kg) in order to ensure sample stability and homogenization of any analytes of interest. The production of a RM is therefore a long process, covering the identification of needs, sample collection, pre-treatment, homogenization, bottling, distribution to laboratories, evaluation of data, preliminary reporting, additional analyses in expert laboratories, certification of the material, and finally issuing the RM. In this paper we describe a reference material IAEA-384, Fangataufa lagoon sediment, designed for determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in the marine environment. This RM has been prepared with the aim of testing the performance of analytical laboratories to measure the activity of these radionuclides in a sediment sample contaminated

  3. Creation of a Full-Core HTR Benchmark with the Fort St. Vrain Initial Core and Assessment of Uncertainties in the FSV Fuel Composition and Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, William R.; Lee, John C.; baxter, Alan; Wemple, Chuck

    2012-03-31

    Information and measured data from the intial Fort St. Vrain (FSV) high temperature gas reactor core is used to develop a benchmark configuration to validate computational methods for analysis of a full-core, commercial HTR configuration. Large uncertainties in the geometry and composition data for the FSV fuel and core are identified, including: (1) the relative numbers of fuel particles for the four particle types, (2) the distribution of fuel kernel diameters for the four particle types, (3) the Th:U ratio in the initial FSV core, (4) and the buffer thickness for the fissile and fertile particles. Sensitivity studies were performed to assess each of these uncertainties. A number of methods were developed to assist in these studies, including: (1) the automation of MCNP5 input files for FSV using Python scripts, (2) a simple method to verify isotopic loadings in MCNP5 input files, (3) an automated procedure to conduct a coupled MCNP5-RELAP5 analysis for a full-core FSV configuration with thermal-hydraulic feedback, and (4) a methodology for sampling kernel diameters from arbitrary power law and Gaussian PDFs that preserved fuel loading and packing factor constraints. A reference FSV fuel configuration was developed based on having a single diameter kernel for each of the four particle types, preserving known uranium and thorium loadings and packing factor (58%). Three fuel models were developed, based on representing the fuel as a mixture of kernels with two diameters, four diameters, or a continuous range of diameters. The fuel particles were put into a fuel compact using either a lattice-bsed approach or a stochastic packing methodology from RPI, and simulated with MCNP5. The results of the sensitivity studies indicated that the uncertainties in the relative numbers and sizes of fissile and fertile kernels were not important nor were the distributions of kernel diameters within their diameter ranges. The uncertainty in the Th:U ratio in the intial FSV core was

  4. An Initial Assessment of the Surface Reference Technique Applied to Data from the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the GPM Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kim, Hyokyung; Liao, Liang; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Kwiatkowski, John M.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been recognized that path-integrated attenuation (PIA) can be used to improve precipitation estimates from high-frequency weather radar data. One approach that provides an estimate of this quantity from airborne or spaceborne radar data is the surface reference technique (SRT), which uses measurements of the surface cross section in the presence and absence of precipitation. Measurements from the dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite afford the first opportunity to test the method for spaceborne radar data at Ka band as well as for the Ku-band-Ka-band combination. The study begins by reviewing the basis of the single- and dual-frequency SRT. As the performance of the method is closely tied to the behavior of the normalized radar cross section (NRCS or sigma(0)) of the surface, the statistics of sigma(0) derived from DPR measurements are given as a function of incidence angle and frequency for ocean and land backgrounds over a 1-month period. Several independent estimates of the PIA, formed by means of different surface reference datasets, can be used to test the consistency of the method since, in the absence of error, the estimates should be identical. Along with theoretical considerations, the comparisons provide an initial assessment of the performance of the single- and dual-frequency SRT for the DPR. The study finds that the dual-frequency SRT can provide improvement in the accuracy of path attenuation estimates relative to the single-frequency method, particularly at Ku band.

  5. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Upper East River, Tributary to Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  6. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  7. Lost opportunities to identify and treat HIV-positive patients: results from a baseline assessment of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert; Rees, Chris A.; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff; Kazembe, Peter N.; Kim, Maria H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. Methods A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected program data. Results Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5,293/5,615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics, and 49.4% (6,871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71), and inadequate number of HIV counselors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Conclusions Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardized PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure, and human resources. PMID:26806378

  8. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  9. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Eagle Creek, Tributary to Maumee River, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  10. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Upper East River, Tributary to Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  11. Can currently available advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves provide health relevant exposure reductions? Results from initial assessment of select commercial models in India.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Sankar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ghosh, Santu; Sadasivam, Arulselvan; Madhav, Satish; Ramasamy, Rengaraj; Samanta, Maitreya; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Rehman, Hafeez; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-03-01

    Household air pollution from use of solid fuels is a major contributor to the national burden of disease in India. Currently available models of advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves (ACS) report significantly higher efficiencies and lower emissions in the laboratory when compared to traditional cook-stoves, but relatively little is known about household level exposure reductions, achieved under routine conditions of use. We report results from initial field assessments of six commercial ACS models from the states of Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh in India. We monitored 72 households (divided into six arms to each receive an ACS model) for 24-h kitchen area concentrations of PM2.5 and CO before and (1-6 months) after installation of the new stove together with detailed information on fixed and time-varying household characteristics. Detailed surveys collected information on user perceptions regarding acceptability for routine use. While the median percent reductions in 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations ranged from 2 to 71% and 10-66%, respectively, concentrations consistently exceeded WHO air quality guideline values across all models raising questions regarding the health relevance of such reductions. Most models were perceived to be sub-optimally designed for routine use often resulting in inappropriate and inadequate levels of use. Household concentration reductions also run the risk of being compromised by high ambient backgrounds from community level solid-fuel use and contributions from surrounding fossil fuel sources. Results indicate that achieving health relevant exposure reductions in solid-fuel using households will require integration of emissions reductions with ease of use and adoption at community scale, in cook-stove technologies. Imminent efforts are also needed to accelerate the progress towards cleaner fuels. PMID:25293811

  12. PhRMA CPCDC initiative on predictive models of human pharmacokinetics, part 2: comparative assessment of prediction methods of human volume of distribution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rhys Do; Jones, Hannah M; Rowland, Malcolm; Gibson, Christopher R; Yates, James W T; Chien, Jenny Y; Ring, Barbara J; Adkison, Kimberly K; Ku, M Sherry; He, Handan; Vuppugalla, Ragini; Marathe, Punit; Fischer, Volker; Dutta, Sandeep; Sinha, Vikash K; Björnsson, Thorir; Lavé, Thierry; Poulin, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of various empirical, semimechanistic and mechanistic methodologies with and without protein binding corrections for the prediction of human volume of distribution at steady state (Vss ). PhRMA member companies contributed a set of blinded data from preclinical and clinical studies, and 18 drugs with intravenous clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) data were available for the analysis. In vivo and in vitro preclinical data were used to predict Vss by 24 different methods. Various statistical and outlier techniques were employed to assess the predictability of each method. There was not simply one method that predicts Vss accurately for all compounds. Across methods, the maximum success rate in predicting human Vss was 100%, 94%, and 78% of the compounds with predictions falling within tenfold, threefold, and twofold error, respectively, of the observed Vss . Generally, the methods that made use of in vivo preclinical data were more predictive than those methods that relied solely on in vitro data. However, for many compounds, in vivo data from only two species (generally rat and dog) were available and/or the required in vitro data were missing, which meant some methods could not be properly evaluated. It is recommended to initially use the in vitro tissue composition-based equations to predict Vss in preclinical species and humans, putting the assumptions and compound properties into context. As in vivo data become available, these predictions should be reassessed and rationalized to indicate the level of confidence (uncertainty) in the human Vss prediction. The top three methods that perform strongly at integrating in vivo data in this way were the Øie-Tozer, the rat -dog-human proportionality equation, and the lumped-PBPK approach. Overall, the scientific benefit of this study was to obtain greater characterization of predictions of human Vss from several methods available in the literature.

  13. Neuropathologic assessment of participants in two multi-center longitudinal observational studies: the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN).

    PubMed

    Cairns, Nigel J; Perrin, Richard J; Franklin, Erin E; Carter, Deborah; Vincent, Benjamin; Xie, Mingqiang; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brooks, William S; Halliday, Glenda M; McLean, Catriona; Ghetti, Bernardino; Morris, John C

    2015-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that the relatively rare autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) may be a useful model of the more frequent, sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD). Individuals with ADAD have a predictable age at onset and the biomarker profile of ADAD participants in the preclinical stage may be used to predict disease progression and clinical onset. However, the extent to which the pathogenesis and neuropathology of ADAD overlaps with that of LOAD is equivocal. To address this uncertainty, two multicenter longitudinal observational studies, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN), leveraged the expertise and resources of the existing Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA, to establish a Neuropathology Core (NPC). The ADNI/DIAN-NPC is systematically examining the brains of all participants who come to autopsy at the 59 ADNI sites in the USA and Canada and the 14 DIAN sites in the USA (eight), Australia (three), UK (one) and Germany (two). By 2014, 41 ADNI and 24 DIAN autopsies (involving nine participants and 15 family members) had been performed. The autopsy rate in the ADNI cohort in the most recent year was 93% (total since NPC inception: 70%). In summary, the ADNI/DIAN NPC has implemented a standard protocol for all sites to solicit permission for brain autopsy and to send brain tissue to the NPC for a standardized, uniform and state-of-the-art neuropathologic assessment. The benefit to ADNI and DIAN of the implementation of the NPC is very clear. The NPC provides final "gold standard" neuropathological diagnoses and data against which the antecedent observations and measurements of ADNI and DIAN can be compared.

  14. Results of the intercalibration study of laboratories involved in assessing the environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E L; Valkovic, V; Strachnov, V; Dekner, R; Danesi, P R

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Chernobyl Project, the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories organized an intercalibration exercise among some of the laboratories which were involved in assessing the environmental contamination in the USSR due to the accident. The objective was to assess the reliability of the radioanalytical data for food and environmental samples, which were used to assess the doses. In the initial study reference materials from the stocks of the IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) were re-labelled and submitted to 71 laboratories as blind samples. These natural matrix materials included samples of milk (containing 2 different levels of radioactivity), soil, air filters and clover. The concentrations of radionuclides in these samples were known from previous intercalibration exercises. The overall range in performance was broad, which is similar to what has been observed in previous international intercomparisons. The results obtained by gamma-ray spectrometry tended to be somewhat underestimated, on average. On the other hand, the laboratories showed an overall tendency to overestimate 90Sr and possibly 239Pu, which were analysed radiochemically. The intercalibration exercise is continuing with nine materials, including: soil, grass, hay and milk powder contaminated with fallout from the Chernobyl accident. These materials, which were prepared by laboratories in the USSR, are now being tested by AQCS prior to future intercomparison exercises. Work with these materials is expected to continue for several years.

  15. Experiences using IAEA Code of practice for radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: Validation and routine control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmy, N.; Febrida, A.; Basril, A.

    2007-11-01

    Problems of tissue allografts in using International Standard (ISO) 11137 for validation of radiation sterilization dose (RSD) are limited and low numbers of uniform samples per production batch, those are products obtained from one donor. Allograft is a graft transplanted between two different individuals of the same species. The minimum number of uniform samples needed for verification dose (VD) experiment at the selected sterility assurance level (SAL) per production batch according to the IAEA Code is 20, i.e., 10 for bio-burden determination and the remaining 10 for sterilization test. Three methods of the IAEA Code have been used for validation of RSD, i.e., method A1 that is a modification of method 1 of ISO 11137:1995, method B (ISO 13409:1996), and method C (AAMI TIR 27:2001). This paper describes VD experiments using uniform products obtained from one cadaver donor, i.e., cancellous bones, demineralized bone powders and amnion grafts from one life donor. Results of the verification dose experiments show that RSD is 15.4 kGy for cancellous and demineralized bone grafts and 19.2 kGy for amnion grafts according to method A1 and 25 kGy according to methods B and C.

  16. Assessing Initiatives for Family, Friend, and Neighbor Child Care: An Overview of Models and Evaluations. Research-to-Policy Connections No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current efforts to document or evaluate initiatives for family, friend, and neighbor child care. The initiatives are grouped into two categories: those that view these caregivers through the child care lens and aim to improve the quality of care that they provide to children; and those that see these caregivers…

  17. The Early Childhood Cluster Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida. Early Implementation Study And Evaluability Assessment. Final Report. Chapin Hall Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Goyette, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This publication reports findings from the first year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  18. A Multi-Model Assessment for the 2006 and 2010 Simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of Column Variable Predictions Using Satellite Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative phase 2 (AQMEII2) project, this part II paper performs a multi-model assessment of major column abundances of gases, radiation, aerosol, and cloud variables for 2006 and 2010 simulations with three on...

  19. Open-label, Prospective, Investigator Initiated Study to Assess the Clinical Role of Oral Natural or Synthetic Progesterone During Stimulated IUI Cycles for Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    Background Unexplained infertility remains as one of the important subtype of infertility that follows expectant management with Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) in most cases. Aim To evaluate the clinical role of progesterone supplement as luteal phase support for women with unexplained infertility following stimulation protocol with Clomiphene Citrate (CC)/Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG). Materials and Methods An investigator initiated study to survey the success rate for first cycle of IUI following stimulation protocol with CC/HMG & luteal phase support with oral natural or synthetic progesterone was conducted. 120 patient records between observation period of Jan to May ’14 were retrieved especially for subjects undergoing IUI procedure for Unexplained infertility. Patients with baseline Serum (Sr). progesterone records who received Oral Natural Micronized Progesterone Sustained Release (Oral NMP SR) (N=45) or Dydrogesterone (n=33) following CC/HMG induction protocol and human Chorionic Gonadotropin(HCG) Inj., were further analysed following Luteal Phase Support(LPS) with oral natural or synthetic progesterone. Results Baseline demographics showed 78 patients with mean age, weight and cycle duration of 29.5 yrs, 57.3 kg & 28.6 days respectively. Progesterone was supplemented as Oral NMP SR 200/300 mg OD or Dydrogesterone 10 mg bid in 22, 23 and 33 patients respectively. In all cases ovulation was triggered with HCG inj., followed by IUI within the next 48 hours while baseline sr. progesterone levels were being assessed. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) UK recommended therapeutic compliance to suggest sr. progesterone levels of ≥14ng/ml were recorded as Mid-luteal levels in all of these patients. This therapeutic compliance was noted in 82.2% & 78.8% of the patients treated with oral NMP SR or Dydrogesterone respectively. Pregnancy was observed amongst 5 and 10 patients treated with oral NMP SR and Dydrogesterone respectively at

  20. Assessment of on-road emissions of four Euro V diesel and CNG waste collection trucks for supporting air-quality improvement initiatives in the city of Milan.

    PubMed

    Fontaras, Georgios; Martini, Giorgio; Manfredi, Urbano; Marotta, Alessandro; Krasenbrink, Alois; Maffioletti, Francesco; Terenghi, Roberto; Colombo, Mauro

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an extensive experimental study aiming to evaluate the performance and pollutant emissions of diesel and CNG waste collection trucks under realistic and controlled operating conditions in order to support a fleet renewal initiative in the city of Milan. Four vehicles (1 diesel and 3 CNG) were tested in two phases using a portable emission measurement system. The first phase included real world operation in the city of Milan while the second involved controlled conditions in a closed track. Emissions recorded from the diesel truck were on average 2.4 kg/km for CO(2), 0.21 g/km for HC, 7.4 g/km for CO, 32.3 g/km for NO(x) and 46.4 mg/km for PM. For the CNG the values were 3.6 kg/km for CO(2), 2.19 g/km for HC, 15.8 g/km for CO, 4.38 g/km for NO(x) and 11.4 mg/km for PM. CNG vehicles presented an important advantage with regards to NO(x) and PM emissions but lack the efficiency of their diesel counterparts when it comes to CO, HC and particularly greenhouse gas emissions. This tradeoff needs to be carefully analyzed prior to deciding if a fleet should be shifted towards either technology. In addition it was shown that existing emission factors, used in Europe for environmental assessment studies, reflect well the operation for CNG but were not so accurate when it came to the diesel engine truck particularly for CO(2) and NO(x). With regard to NO(x), it was also shown that the limits imposed by current emission standards are not necessarily reflected in real world operation, under which the diesel vehicle presented almost 4 times higher emissions. Regarding CO(2), appropriate use of PEMS data and vehicle information allows for accurate emission monitoring through computer simulation.

  1. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  2. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  3. Environmental initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    J I Case, a leading worldwide maker of agricultural and construction equipment based in Racine, Wisconsin, is taking an aggressive and responsible approach to environmental issues. From integrated solid waste handling plans and Freon recovery initiatives, to special employee training programs and voluntary participation in the EPA's Industrial Toxics Program, Case is addressing environmental issues at its facilities and in its products. One of the key environmental initiatives at Case is the company's voluntary participation in the US EPA's Industrial Toxics Program, also known as the 33/50 Program. This program is an EPA pollution prevention initiative started in 1990 that is designed to reduce industrial toxics generation quickly through voluntary actions by industry. The program derives its name from the EPA's national reduction goals for 17 high priority toxic pollutants - 33 percent reduction by 1992 and 50 percent by 1995. As a result, the Pryor Foundry has slashed its emissions of industrial toxic pollutants by 98 percent, from over 350,000 pounds (159 metric tons) in 1988 to around 5,000 pounds (2.27 metric tons) in 1991, with a projected reduction to only 750 pounds (340 kilograms) by 1995.

  4. A survey of IAEA/WHO 60Co TLD postal dose intercomparison exercises during 1985-2003.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ahmad Syed; Mahmood, Khalid; Orfi, Saraj Din

    2005-07-01

    Results of the survey of IAEA/WHO Co postal dose intercomparison exercises in which the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory participated during the period 1985-2003 are presented. In 14 exercises spread over a period of 19 years, the deviation in therapy dose level measurements of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory has never exceeded the International Atomic Energy Agency Dosimetry Laboratory acceptable levels of accuracy. The IAEA/WHO thermoluminescent dosimeter postal dose intercomparison service, the procedure for irradiation of thermoluminescent dosimeters, and the water absorbed dose determination are briefly described.

  5. Analysis of IAEA Environmental Samples for Plutonium and Uranium by ICP/MS in Support Of International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Orville T.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thomas, May-Lin P.; Garofoli, Stephanie J.

    2008-05-01

    A method for the separation and determination of total and isotopic uranium and plutonium by ICP-MS was developed for IAEA samples on cellulose-based media. Preparation of the IAEA samples involved a series of redox chemistries and separations using TRU® resin (Eichrom). The sample introduction system, an APEX nebulizer (Elemental Scientific, Inc), provided enhanced nebulization for a several-fold increase in sensitivity and reduction in background. Application of mass bias (ALPHA) correction factors greatly improved the precision of the data. By combining the enhancements of chemical separation, instrumentation and data processing, detection levels for uranium and plutonium approached high attogram levels.

  6. Under Construction: Benchmark Assessments and Common Core Math Implementation in Grades K-8. Formative Evaluation Cycle Report for the Math in Common Initiative, Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, John, Jr.; Sobolew-Shubin, Alexandria; Heredia, Alberto; Chen-Gaddini, Min; Klarin, Becca; Finkelstein, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    Math in Common® (MiC) is a five-year initiative that supports a formal network of 10 California school districts as they implement the Common Core State Standards in mathematics (CCSS-M) across grades K-8. As the MiC initiative moves into its second year, one of the central activities that each of the districts is undergoing to support CCSS…

  7. Assessment of the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network Standardized Procedure for In Vitro Malaria Drug Sensitivity Testing Using SYBR Green Assay for Field Samples with Various Initial Parasitemia Levels.

    PubMed

    Cheruiyot, Agnes C; Auschwitz, Jennifer M; Lee, Patricia J; Yeda, Redemptah A; Okello, Charles O; Leed, Susan E; Talwar, Mayank; Murthy, Tushar; Gaona, Heather W; Hickman, Mark R; Akala, Hoseah M; Kamau, Edwin; Johnson, Jacob D

    2016-04-01

    The malaria SYBR green assay, which is used to profilein vitrodrug susceptibility ofPlasmodium falciparum, is a reliable drug screening and surveillance tool. Malaria field surveillance efforts provide isolates with various low levels of parasitemia. To be advantageous, malaria drug sensitivity assays should perform reproducibly among various starting parasitemia levels rather than at one fixed initial value. We examined the SYBR green assay standardized procedure developed by the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) for its sensitivity and ability to accurately determine the drug concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50% (IC50) in samples with a range of initial parasitemia levels. The initial sensitivity determination of the WWARN procedure yielded a detection limit of 0.019% parasitemia.P. falciparumlaboratory strains and field isolates with various levels of initial parasitemia were then subjected to a range of doses of common antimalarials. The IC50s were comparable for laboratory strains with between 0.0375% and 0.6% parasitemia and for field isolates with between 0.075% and 0.6% parasitemia for all drugs tested. Furthermore, assay quality (Z') analysis indicated that the WWARN procedure displays high robustness, allowing for drug testing of malaria field samples within the derived range of initial parasitemia. The use of the WWARN procedure should allow for the inclusion of more malaria field samples in malaria drug sensitivity screens that would have otherwise been excluded due to low initial parasitemia levels.

  8. Assessment of the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network Standardized Procedure for In Vitro Malaria Drug Sensitivity Testing Using SYBR Green Assay for Field Samples with Various Initial Parasitemia Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cheruiyot, Agnes C.; Auschwitz, Jennifer M.; Lee, Patricia J.; Yeda, Redemptah A.; Okello, Charles O.; Leed, Susan E.; Talwar, Mayank; Murthy, Tushar; Gaona, Heather W.; Hickman, Mark R.; Akala, Hoseah M.; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The malaria SYBR green assay, which is used to profile in vitro drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum, is a reliable drug screening and surveillance tool. Malaria field surveillance efforts provide isolates with various low levels of parasitemia. To be advantageous, malaria drug sensitivity assays should perform reproducibly among various starting parasitemia levels rather than at one fixed initial value. We examined the SYBR green assay standardized procedure developed by the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) for its sensitivity and ability to accurately determine the drug concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50% (IC50) in samples with a range of initial parasitemia levels. The initial sensitivity determination of the WWARN procedure yielded a detection limit of 0.019% parasitemia. P. falciparum laboratory strains and field isolates with various levels of initial parasitemia were then subjected to a range of doses of common antimalarials. The IC50s were comparable for laboratory strains with between 0.0375% and 0.6% parasitemia and for field isolates with between 0.075% and 0.6% parasitemia for all drugs tested. Furthermore, assay quality (Z′) analysis indicated that the WWARN procedure displays high robustness, allowing for drug testing of malaria field samples within the derived range of initial parasitemia. The use of the WWARN procedure should allow for the inclusion of more malaria field samples in malaria drug sensitivity screens that would have otherwise been excluded due to low initial parasitemia levels. PMID:26856829

  9. Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D; Whitaker, J Michael; Howell, John

    2010-01-01

    Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide simulated

  10. Initial Development and Piloting of a Learning-Based, Classroom Assessment and Consultation System: New Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Improving Instruction in Higher Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loup, Karen S.; And Others

    Results are reported of three years of research and development, piloting, and extended field testing of a classroom-based assessment and professional consultation system used to assess important teaching and learning variables in higher education contexts. Of particular interest is the focus of the total system on enhancing learning and newer…

  11. Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (initial award through Award Modification 2); Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment (Award Modifications 3 - 6)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Ebert

    2008-02-28

    This is the final report for the DOE-NETL grant entitled 'Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification & Insurance Processes for the Electric Utility Industry' and later, 'Energy & Risk Transfer Assessment'. It reflects work done on projects from 15 August 2004 to 29 February 2008. Projects were on a variety of topics, including commercial insurance for electrical utilities, the Electrical Reliability Organization, cost recovery by Gulf State electrical utilities after major hurricanes, and review of state energy emergency plans. This Final Technical Report documents and summarizes all work performed during the award period, which in this case is from 15 August 2004 (date of notification of original award) through 29 February 2008. This report presents this information in a comprehensive, integrated fashion that clearly shows a logical and synergistic research trajectory, and is augmented with findings and conclusions drawn from the research as a whole. Four major research projects were undertaken and completed during the 42 month period of activities conducted and funded by the award; these are: (1) Creating New Incentives for Risk Identification and Insurance Process for the Electric Utility Industry (also referred to as the 'commercial insurance' research). Three major deliverables were produced: a pre-conference white paper, a two-day facilitated stakeholders workshop conducted at George Mason University, and a post-workshop report with findings and recommendations. All deliverables from this work are published on the CIP website at http://cipp.gmu.edu/projects/DoE-NETL-2005.php. (2) The New Electric Reliability Organization (ERO): an examination of critical issues associated with governance, standards development and implementation, and jurisdiction (also referred to as the 'ERO study'). Four major deliverables were produced: a series of preliminary memoranda for the staff of the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability ('OE'), an ERO interview

  12. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes.

  13. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes. PMID:24291528

  14. IAEA INTERCOMPARISON EXERCISES OF THYROID MEASUREMENT: PERFORMANCE OF LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN LABORATORIES.

    PubMed

    Dantas, B M; Dantas, A L A; Cruz-Suarez, R

    2016-09-01

    (131)I is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean Region in the field of nuclear medicine and has been recognised as one of the main sources of potential intake of radionuclides by the staff. The In Vivo Monitoring laboratory of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD-CNEN-Brazil) organised three intercomparison exercises (2005, 2009 and 2013) in the scope of IAEA technical cooperation projects RLA9049 and RLA9066 aimed to disseminate and harmonise the technique for measuring (131)I in the human thyroid. The number of participants in Latin America increased from 9 to 20 institutions from 7 and 13 countries, respectively, over the last 10 y. The participants have improved significantly their ability on the in vivo measurement technique. In the 2013 round all laboratories which reported results presented performances in an acceptable range according to the ISO criteria indicating the benefit of such exercises in the region. PMID:26546253

  15. Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2012-05-01

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

  16. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Benchmark Definition and Test Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Frederik Reitsma; Hans Gougar; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are essential elements of the reactor simulation code verification and validation process. Although several international uncertainty quantification activities have been launched in recent years in the LWR, BWR and VVER domains (e.g. the OECD/NEA BEMUSE program [1], from which the current OECD/NEA LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) benchmark [2] effort was derived), the systematic propagation of uncertainties in cross-section, manufacturing and model parameters for High Temperature Reactor (HTGR) designs has not been attempted yet. This paper summarises the scope, objectives and exercise definitions of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on HTGR UAM [3]. Note that no results will be included here, as the HTGR UAM benchmark was only launched formally in April 2012, and the specification is currently still under development.

  17. Using the IAEA Safety Culture Model as a Basis for Security Culture

    SciTech Connect

    De Castro, Kara; Thurmond, Paul; de Boer, Gloria; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2008-08-01

    In the last ten years, the practice of nuclear material physical protection control and accounting (MPC&A) in Russia has significantly changed. Under the cooperative US-Russian MPC&A Program, the MPC&A Culture Project team has developed the fundamentals of a pilot program to strengthen MPC&A Culture at nuclear sites. The pilot program is based on the IAEA Safety Culture Principles and Model Characteristics. There has been some debate on how easily these are transferable to Security Culture. While there may be operational differences, culture characteristics remain the same. This paper will compare and contrast the two cultures of Safety and Security, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of each discipline.

  18. Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2012-05-25

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

  19. Proficiency Testing as a tool to monitor consistency of measurements in the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Czap, Ladislav; Shortt, Ken

    2008-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (IAEA/WHO SSDL Network) in 1976. Through SSDLs designated by Member States, the Network provides a direct link of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Within this structure and through the proper calibration of field instruments, the SSDLs disseminate S.I. quantities and units. To ensure that the services provided by SSDL members to end-users follow internationally accepted standards, the IAEA has set up two different comparison programmes. One programme relies on the IAEA/WHO postal TLD service and the other uses comparisons of calibrated ionization chambers to help the SSDLs verify the integrity of their national standards and the procedures used for the transfer of the standards to the end-users. The IAEA comparisons include 60Co air kerma (NK) and absorbed dose to water (ND,W) coefficients. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy. This work describes the results of the IAEA programme comparing calibration coefficients for radiotherapy dosimetry, using ionization chambers. In this programme, ionization chambers that belong to the SSDLs are calibrated sequentially at the SSDL, at the IAEA, and again at the SSDL. As part of its own quality assurance programme, the IAEA has participated in several regional comparisons organized by Regional Metrology Organizations. The results of the IAEA comparison programme show that the majority of SSDLs are capable of providing calibrations that fall inside the acceptance level of 1.5% compared to the IAEA.

  20. Proficiency Testing as a tool to monitor consistency of measurements in the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Czap, Ladislav; Shortt, Ken

    2008-08-14

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (IAEA/WHO SSDL Network) in 1976. Through SSDLs designated by Member States, the Network provides a direct link of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Within this structure and through the proper calibration of field instruments, the SSDLs disseminate S.I. quantities and units.To ensure that the services provided by SSDL members to end-users follow internationally accepted standards, the IAEA has set up two different comparison programmes. One programme relies on the IAEA/WHO postal TLD service and the other uses comparisons of calibrated ionization chambers to help the SSDLs verify the integrity of their national standards and the procedures used for the transfer of the standards to the end-users. The IAEA comparisons include {sup 60}Co air kerma (N{sub K}) and absorbed dose to water (N{sub D,W}) coefficients. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy.This work describes the results of the IAEA programme comparing calibration coefficients for radiotherapy dosimetry, using ionization chambers. In this programme, ionization chambers that belong to the SSDLs are calibrated sequentially at the SSDL, at the IAEA, and again at the SSDL. As part of its own quality assurance programme, the IAEA has participated in several regional comparisons organized by Regional Metrology Organizations.The results of the IAEA comparison programme show that the majority of SSDLs are capable of providing calibrations that fall inside the acceptance level of 1.5% compared to the IAEA.

  1. On the status of IAEA delta-13C stable isotope reference materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2016-04-01

    For practical reasons all isotope measurements are performed on relative scales realized through the use of international, scale-defining primary standards. In fact these standards were materials (artefacts, similar to prototypes of meter and kg) selected based on their properties. The VPDB delta-13C scale is realised via two highest-level reference materials NBS19 and LSVEC, the first defining the scale and the second aimed to normalise lab-to-lab calibrations. These two reference materials (RMs) have been maintained and distributed by IAEA and NIST. The priority task is to maintain these primary RMs at the required uncertainty level, thus ensuring the long-term scale consistency. The second task is to introduce replacements when needed (currently for exhausted NBS19, work in progress). The next is to produce a family of lower level RMs (secondary, tertiary) addressing needs of various applications (with different delta values, in different physical-chemical forms) and their needs for the uncertainty; these RMs should be traceable to the highest level RMs. Presently three is a need for a range of RMs addressing existing and newly emerging analytical techniques (e.g. optical isotopic analysers) in form of calibrated CO2 gases with different delta-13C values. All that implies creating a family of delta-13C stable isotope reference materials. Presently IAEA works on replacement for NBS19 and planning new RMs. Besides, we found that LSVEC (introduced as second anchor for the VPDB scale in 2006) demonstrate a considerable scatter of its delta-13C value which implies a potential bias of the property value and increased value uncertainty which may conflict with uncertainty requirements for atmospheric monitoring. That is not compatible with the status of LSVEC, and therefore it should be replaced as soon as possible. The presentation will give an overview of the current status, the strategic plan of developments and the near future steps.

  2. Revised delta34S reference values for IAEA sulfur isotope reference materials S-2 and S-3.

    PubMed

    Mann, Jacqueline L; Vocke, Robert D; Kelly, W Robert

    2009-04-01

    Revised delta(34)S reference values with associated expanded uncertainties (95% confidence interval (C.I.)) are presented for the sulfur isotope reference materials IAEA-S-2 (22.62 +/- 0.16 per thousand) and IAEA-S-3 (-32.49 +/- 0.16 per thousand). These revised values are determined using two relative-difference measurement techniques, gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GIRMS) and double-spike multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). Gas analyses have traditionally been considered the most robust for relative isotopic difference measurements of sulfur. The double-spike MC-TIMS technique provides an independent method for value-assignment validation and produces revised values that are both unbiased and more precise than previous value assignments. Unbiased delta(34)S values are required to anchor the positive and negative end members of the sulfur delta (delta) scale because they are the basis for reporting both delta(34)S values and the derived mass-independent Delta(33)S and Delta(36)S values.

  3. The role of IAEA in coordinating research and transferring technology in radiation chemistry and processing of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Saeid, M.; Sampa, M. H.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Güven, O.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    2007-12-01

    The IAEA has been playing a significant role in fostering developments in radiation technology in general and radiation processing of polymers in particular, among its Member States (MS) and facilitate know-how/technology transfer to developing MS. The former is usually achieved through coordinated research projects (CRP) and thematic technical meetings, while the latter is mainly accomplished through technical cooperation (TC) projects. Coordinated research projects encourage research on, and development and practical application of, radiation technology to foster exchange of scientific and technical information. The technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States to realize their development priorities through the application of appropriate radiation technology. The IAEA has implemented several coordinated research projects (CRP) recently, including one on-going project, in the field of radiation processing of polymeric materials. The CRPs facilitated the acquisition and dissemination of know-how and technology for controlling of degradation effects in radiation processing of polymers, radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and absorbents for separation purposes and the use of radiation processing to prepare biomaterials for applications in medicine. The IAEA extends cooperation to well-known international conferences dealing with radiation technology to facilitate participation of talented scientists from developing MS and building collaborations. The IAEA published technical documents, covering the findings of thematic technical meetings (TM) and coordinated research projects have been an important source of valuable practical information.

  4. Analytical quality of environmental analysis: Recent results and future trends of the IAEA-ILMR's Analytical Quality Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Holm, E.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P. )

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services Program of the IAEA-ILMR covers a wide variety of intercalibration and reference materials. The purpose of the program is to ensure the comparability of the results obtained by the different participants and to enable laboratories engaged in low-level analyses of marine environmental materials to control their analytical performance. Within the past five years, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco has organized eight intercomparison exercises, on a world-wide basis, on natural materials of marine origin comprising sea water, sediment, seaweed and fish flesh. Results on artificial (fission and activation products, transuranium elements) and natural radionuclides were compiled and evaluated. Reference concentration values were established for a number of the intercalibration samples allowing them to become certified as reference materials available for general distribution. The results of the fish flesh sample and those of the deep-sea sediment are reviewed. The present status of three on-going intercomparison exercises on post-Chernobyl samples IAEA-306 (Baltic Sea sediment), IAEA-307 (Mediterranean sea-plant Posidonia oceanica) and IAEA-308 (Mediterranean mixed seaweed) is also described. 1 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Regulatory Guide on Conducting a Security Vulnerability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ek, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This document will provide guidelines on conducting a security vulnerability assessment at a facility regulated by the Radiation Protection Centre. The guidelines provide a performance approach assess security effectiveness. The guidelines provide guidance for a review following the objectives outlined in IAEA NSS#11 for Category 1, 2, & 3 sources.

  6. Technology Assessment for Proof-of-Concept UF6 Cylinder Unique Identification Task 3.1.2 Report – Survey and Assessment of Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, Joann; Hockert, John

    2014-04-24

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security’s (NA-24) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the nuclear industry have begun to develop approaches to identify and monitor uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The NA-24 interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to its interest in supporting the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in deterring and detecting diversion of UF6 (e.g., loss of cylinder in transit) and undeclared excess production at conversion and enrichment facilities. The industry interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to the improvements in operational efficiencies that such a system would provide. This task is part of an effort to survey and assess technologies for a UF6 cylinder to identify candidate technologies for a proof-of-concept demonstration and evaluation for the Cylinder Identification System (CIS).

  7. Investing In A Teacher Leadership Infrastructure For Washington Education: A Summative Assessment Of The Washington Initiative For National Board Teacher Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Laura; St. John, Mark; Helms, Jenifer; Maxon, Dianne

    2004-01-01

    The Washington Initiative (WI) was created in 2001 as an effort to help strengthen education reform in Washington by addressing teacher quality. The major strategies of the WI were to increase the number of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards and to support the leadership of these teachers in local…

  8. A Comparison of the Content Mastery Examination for Educators (CMEE) and the Praxis I Academic Skills Assessment for Initial Certification of Montana Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Claudette

    This comparative study was conducted in preparation for selecting a successor to the National Teachers Examination (NTE) for initial certification of Montana educators. The paper begins by discussing the background of using teacher competency tests in Montana, and examining demographic data on Montana students and certified teachers. Then, the…

  9. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  10. The Effects of Formative Assessment Pre-Lecture Online Chapter Quizzes and Student-Initiated Inquiries to the Instructor on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Judith C.; Majerich, David M.; Bernacki, Matthew L.; Varnum, Susan Jansen; Ducette, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    This study's goal was to quantify the effects pre-lecture online quizzes and student-initiated inquiries to the instructor, either virtually or in person, had on students' achievement. Pre- and post-course tests were also implemented to an experimental and a comparison section of the same course. The number of electronic administrative contacts…

  11. Numerical modeling of the radionuclide water pathway with HYDRUS and comparison with the IAEA model of SR 44.

    PubMed

    Merk, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    This study depicts a theoretical experiment in which the radionuclide transport through the porous material of a landfill consisting of concrete rubble (e.g., from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants) and the subsequent migration through the vadose zone and aquifer to a model well is calculated by means of the software HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). The radionuclides originally contained within the rubble become dissolved due to leaching caused by infiltrated rainwater. The resulting well-water contamination (in Bq/L) is calculated numerically as a function of time and location and compared with the outcome of a simplified analytic model for the groundwater pathway published by the IAEA (2005). Identical model parameters are considered. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the predictive capacity of the more simple IAEA model using HYDRUS-1D as a reference. For most of the radionuclides considered (e.g., ¹²⁹I, and ²³⁹Pu), results from applying the IAEA model were found to be comparable to results from the more elaborate HYDRUS modeling, provided the underlying parameter values are comparable. However, the IAEA model appears to underestimate the effects resulting from, for example, high nuclide mobility, short half-life, or short-term variations in the water infiltration. The present results indicate that the IAEA model is suited for screening calculations and general recommendation purposes. However, the analysis of a specific site should be accompanied by detailed HYDRUS computer simulations. In all models considered, the calculation outcome largely depends on the choice of the sorption parameter K(d). PMID:22230022

  12. Numerical modeling of the radionuclide water pathway with HYDRUS and comparison with the IAEA model of SR 44.

    PubMed

    Merk, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    This study depicts a theoretical experiment in which the radionuclide transport through the porous material of a landfill consisting of concrete rubble (e.g., from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants) and the subsequent migration through the vadose zone and aquifer to a model well is calculated by means of the software HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). The radionuclides originally contained within the rubble become dissolved due to leaching caused by infiltrated rainwater. The resulting well-water contamination (in Bq/L) is calculated numerically as a function of time and location and compared with the outcome of a simplified analytic model for the groundwater pathway published by the IAEA (2005). Identical model parameters are considered. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the predictive capacity of the more simple IAEA model using HYDRUS-1D as a reference. For most of the radionuclides considered (e.g., ¹²⁹I, and ²³⁹Pu), results from applying the IAEA model were found to be comparable to results from the more elaborate HYDRUS modeling, provided the underlying parameter values are comparable. However, the IAEA model appears to underestimate the effects resulting from, for example, high nuclide mobility, short half-life, or short-term variations in the water infiltration. The present results indicate that the IAEA model is suited for screening calculations and general recommendation purposes. However, the analysis of a specific site should be accompanied by detailed HYDRUS computer simulations. In all models considered, the calculation outcome largely depends on the choice of the sorption parameter K(d).

  13. Two wrongs don't make a right: the initial viability of different assessment rules in the evolution of indirect reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Panchanathan, Karthik

    2011-05-21

    Indirect reciprocity models are meant to correspond to simple moral systems, in which individuals assess the interactions of third parties in order to condition their cooperative behavior. Despite the staggering number of possible assessment rules in even the simplest of these models, previous research suggests that only a handful are evolutionarily stable against invasion by free riders. These successful assessment rules fall into two categories, one which positively judges miscreants when they refuse to help other miscreants, the other which does not. Previous research has not, however, demonstrated that all of these rules can invade an asocial population--a requirement for a complete theory of social evolution. Here, I present a general analytical model of indirect reciprocity and show that the class of assessment rules which positively judges a refusal to help scofflaws cannot invade a population of defectors, whereas the other class can. When rare, assessment rules which positively judge a refusal to help bad people produce a poor correlation between reputation and behavior. It is this correlation that generates the assortment crucial in sustaining cooperation through indirect reciprocity. Only assessment rules that require good deeds to achieve a good reputation guarantee a strong correlation between behavior and reputation.

  14. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  15. Initial Validation of a Comprehensive Assessment Instrument for Bereavement-Related Grief Symptoms and Risk of Complications: The Indicator of Bereavement Adaptation—Cruse Scotland (IBACS)

    PubMed Central

    Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Margaret S.; Wilson, Stewart; Birrell, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the validity of the Indicator of Bereavement Adaptation Cruse Scotland (IBACS). Designed for use in clinical and non-clinical settings, the IBACS measures severity of grief symptoms and risk of developing complications. Method N = 196 (44 male, 152 female) help-seeking, bereaved Scottish adults participated at two timepoints: T1 (baseline) and T2 (after 18 months). Four validated assessment instruments were administered: CORE-R, ICG-R, IES-R, SCL-90-R. Discriminative ability was assessed using ROC curve analysis. Concurrent validity was tested through correlation analysis at T1. Predictive validity was assessed using correlation analyses and ROC curve analysis. Optimal IBACS cutoff values were obtained by calculating a maximal Youden index J in ROC curve analysis. Clinical implications were compared across instruments. Results ROC curve analysis results (AUC = .84, p < .01, 95% CI between .77 and .90) indicated the IBACS is a good diagnostic instrument for assessing complicated grief. Positive correlations (p < .01, 2-tailed) with all four instruments at T1 demonstrated the IBACS' concurrent validity, strongest with complicated grief measures (r = .82). Predictive validity was shown to be fair in T2 ROC curve analysis results (n = 67, AUC = .78, 95% CI between .65 and .92; p < .01). Predictive validity was also supported by stable positive correlations between IBACS and other instruments at T2. Clinical indications were found not to differ across instruments. Conclusions The IBACS offers effective grief symptom and risk assessment for use by non-clinicians. Indications are sufficient to support intake assessment for a stepped model of bereavement intervention. PMID:27741246

  16. Health Heritage© a web-based tool for the collection and assessment of family health history: initial user experience and analytic validity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, W F; Ropka, M E; Pelletier, S L; Barrett, J R; Kinzie, M B; Harrison, M B; Liu, Z; Miesfeldt, S; Tucker, A L; Worrall, B B; Gibson, J; Mullins, I M; Elward, K S; Franko, J; Guterbock, T M; Knaus, W A

    2010-01-01

    A detailed family health history is currently the most potentially useful tool for diagnosis and risk assessment in clinical genetics. We developed and evaluated the usability and analytic validity of a patient-driven web-based family health history collection and analysis tool. Health Heritage(©) guides users through the collection of their family health history by relative, generates a pedigree, completes risk assessment, stratification, and recommendations for 89 conditions. We compared the performance of Health Heritage to that of Usual Care using a nonrandomized cohort trial of 109 volunteers. We contrasted the completeness and sensitivity of family health history collection and risk assessments derived from Health Heritage and Usual Care to those obtained by genetic counselors and genetic assessment teams. Nearly half (42%) of the Health Heritage participants reported discovery of health risks; 63% found the information easy to understand and 56% indicated it would change their health behavior. Health Heritage consistently outperformed Usual Care in the completeness and accuracy of family health history collection, identifying 60% of the elevated risk conditions specified by the genetic team versus 24% identified by Usual Care. Health Heritage also had greater sensitivity than Usual Care when comparing the identification of risks. These results suggest a strong role for automated family health history collection and risk assessment and underscore the potential of these data to serve as the foundation for comprehensive, cost-effective personalized genomic medicine. PMID:20424421

  17. Health Heritage© a web-based tool for the collection and assessment of family health history: initial user experience and analytic validity.

    PubMed

    Cohn, W F; Ropka, M E; Pelletier, S L; Barrett, J R; Kinzie, M B; Harrison, M B; Liu, Z; Miesfeldt, S; Tucker, A L; Worrall, B B; Gibson, J; Mullins, I M; Elward, K S; Franko, J; Guterbock, T M; Knaus, W A

    2010-01-01

    A detailed family health history is currently the most potentially useful tool for diagnosis and risk assessment in clinical genetics. We developed and evaluated the usability and analytic validity of a patient-driven web-based family health history collection and analysis tool. Health Heritage(©) guides users through the collection of their family health history by relative, generates a pedigree, completes risk assessment, stratification, and recommendations for 89 conditions. We compared the performance of Health Heritage to that of Usual Care using a nonrandomized cohort trial of 109 volunteers. We contrasted the completeness and sensitivity of family health history collection and risk assessments derived from Health Heritage and Usual Care to those obtained by genetic counselors and genetic assessment teams. Nearly half (42%) of the Health Heritage participants reported discovery of health risks; 63% found the information easy to understand and 56% indicated it would change their health behavior. Health Heritage consistently outperformed Usual Care in the completeness and accuracy of family health history collection, identifying 60% of the elevated risk conditions specified by the genetic team versus 24% identified by Usual Care. Health Heritage also had greater sensitivity than Usual Care when comparing the identification of risks. These results suggest a strong role for automated family health history collection and risk assessment and underscore the potential of these data to serve as the foundation for comprehensive, cost-effective personalized genomic medicine.

  18. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  19. Facilitators and barriers to implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation for participative assessment of children in need and for coordination of services.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sarah; Lessard, Danielle; Chamberland, Claire

    2014-12-01

    As part of an implementation evaluation, this study aims to identify the conditions of practice that facilitated or hindered implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation to support collaboration between partners involved with vulnerable children. Evaluators conducted qualitative telephone interviews with 36 respondents (19 practitioners and 17 managers) who participated in the AIDES initiative trial. Respondents were chosen to include all participating organisations (child protection services, prevention social services). Participants' comments were submitted to descriptive content analysis. Conditions facilitating or hindering implementation of the initiative included the following dimensions: (1) implementation quality; (2) organisational elements (organisational functioning, cooperation between organisations); (3) socio-political issues; and (4) personal and professional characteristics. The study highlights critical elements to consider in implementing and maintaining significant changes in practice in organisations providing assistance to vulnerable children and their families. Social innovations that do not consider such elements are likely to compromise their implementation and sustainability. We must prevent promising social changes from being considered unrealistic or inappropriate due to contextual barriers.

  20. The evolution and impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in the Latin American region.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    Since 1993, the IAEA supported the establishment or the consolidation of seven tissue banks in the region. As a direct or indirect consequence of the implementation of the IAEA program, more than 53 tissue banks are now operating in the participating countries. The fast development of tissue banks in the Latin America region under the ARCAL Agreement and with the financial and technical support of the IAEA program made it necessary to train new tissue bank operators and medical personnel. In general, 90 tissue bank operators and medical personnel were trained in the training centre of Buenos Aires. Another six tissue bank operators and medical personnel were trained in the International Training Centre of Singapore. The main impact of the IAEA program in the region was the following: the establishment or consolidation of fifty-three tissue banks in nine countries in the region; the implementation of five national projects, allocating $1,006,737 dollars for this purpose and of one regional project allocating $284,741 dollars for this purpose; the use of the IAEA Standards, the IAEA Code of Practice and the IAEA Public Awareness Strategies in several tissue banks in the region; the application of quality control and quality assurances manuals in all of the participating countries.