Science.gov

Sample records for assessments iaea initiatives

  1. Assessment of Alternative Funding Mechanisms for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2012-06-15

    While the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is growing concern that global demographic trends, advances in technology and the trend towards austerity in Member State budgets will stretch the Agency’s resources to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As part of an ongoing effort by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to evaluate the IAEA’s long-term budgetary concerns , this paper proposes a series of alternate funding mechanisms that have the potential to sustain the IAEA in the long-term, including endowment, charity, and fee-for-service funding models.

  2. Fault displacement hazard assessment for nuclear installations based on IAEA safety standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In the IAEA Safety NS-R-3, surface fault displacement hazard assessment (FDHA) is required for the siting of nuclear installations. If any capable faults exist in the candidate site, IAEA recommends the consideration of alternative sites. However, due to the progress in palaeoseismological investigations, capable faults may be found in existing site. In such a case, IAEA recommends to evaluate the safety using probabilistic FDHA (PFDHA), which is an empirical approach based on still quite limited database. Therefore a basic and crucial improvement is to increase the database. In 2015, IAEA produced a TecDoc-1767 on Palaeoseismology as a reference for the identification of capable faults. Another IAEA Safety Report 85 on ground motion simulation based on fault rupture modelling provides an annex introducing recent PFDHAs and fault displacement simulation methodologies. The IAEA expanded the project of FDHA for the probabilistic approach and the physics based fault rupture modelling. The first approach needs a refinement of the empirical methods by building a world wide database, and the second approach needs to shift from kinematic to the dynamic scheme. Both approaches can complement each other, since simulated displacement can fill the gap of a sparse database and geological observations can be useful to calibrate the simulations. The IAEA already supported a workshop in October 2015 to discuss the existing databases with the aim of creating a common worldwide database. A consensus of a unified database was reached. The next milestone is to fill the database with as many fault rupture data sets as possible. Another IAEA work group had a WS in November 2015 to discuss the state-of-the-art PFDHA as well as simulation methodologies. Two groups jointed a consultancy meeting in February 2016, shared information, identified issues, discussed goals and outputs, and scheduled future meetings. Now we may aim at coordinating activities for the whole FDHA tasks jointly.

  3. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Phase I Status and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-10-01

    required confidence level. In order to address uncertainty propagation in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) that officially started in 2013. Although this project focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements, many lessons can be learned from the LWR community and the significant progress already made towards a consistent methodology uncertainty analysis. In the case of LWRs the NRC has already in 1988 amended 10 CFR 50.46 to allow best-estimate (plus uncertainties) calculations of emergency core cooling system performance. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) also established an Expert Group on "Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling" which finally led to the definition of the "Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) for Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs". The CRP on HTGR UAM will follow as far as possible the on-going OECD Light Water Reactor UAM benchmark activity.

  4. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiatives: Records management for deep and near surface geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, P.J.

    1996-09-01

    The international scientific community has long had an interest in determining methods by which information regarding nuclear waste repositories, and the inherent danger to humanity, could be passed from generation to generation and society to society. Because nuclear waste will remain radioactive for thousands of years future generations must be warned of the dangers thus eliminating intentional or inadvertent intrusion. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained so that this information remains accessible to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years; thus the retention of information continues beyond current societies, cultures and languages, and must be continually migrated to new retrieval technologies to assure access.

  5. IAEA TECDOC 055 Outline

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-07-13

    An outline of suggestions for updating a version of IAEA-TECDOC-1276 is provided. This update will become IAEA-TECDOC-055, titled ''IAEA handbook for designing and implementing physical protection systems for nuclear material and nuclear facilities.''

  6. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  7. NGSI: IAEA Verification of UF6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-06-05

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is often ignorant of the location of declared, uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders following verification, because cylinders are not typically tracked onsite or off. This paper will assess various methods the IAEA uses to verify cylinder gross defects, and how the task could be ameliorated through the use of improved identification and monitoring. The assessment will be restricted to current verification methods together with one that has been applied on a trial basis—short-notice random inspections coupled with mailbox declarations. This paper is part of the NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and International Security’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) program to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies and tracks UF6 cylinders.

  8. Use of Data Libraries for IAEA Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) [section 5.4

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, D.; Lane, M.

    2015-06-23

    Data libraries are essential for the characterization of the facility and provide the documented input which enables the facility assessment results and subsequent conclusions. Data Libraries are historical, verifiable, quantified, and applicable collections of testing data on different types of barriers, sensors, cameras, procedures, and/or personnel. Data libraries are developed and maintained as part of any assessment program or process. Data is collected during the initial stages of facility characterization to aid in the model and/or simulation development process. Data library values may also be developed through the use of state testing centers and/or site resources by testing different types of barriers, sensors, cameras, procedures, and/or personnel. If no data exists, subject matter expert opinion and manufacturer's specifications/ testing values can be the basis for initially assigning values, but are generally less reliable and lack appropriate confidence measures. The use of existing data libraries that have been developed by a state testing organization reduces the assessment costs by establishing standard delay, detection and assessment values for use by multiple sites or facilities where common barriers and alarms systems exist.

  9. RELAP5 posttest calculation of IAEA-SPE-4

    SciTech Connect

    Petelin, S.; Mavko, B.; Parzer, I.; Prosek, A.

    1994-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Fourth Standard Problem Exercise (IAEA-SPE-4) was performed at the PMK-2 facility. The PMK-2 facility is designed to study processes following small- and medium-size breaks in the primary system and natural circulation in VVER-440 plants. The IAEA-SPE-4 experiment represents a cold-leg side small break, similar to the IAEA-SPE-2, with the exception of the high-pressure safety injection being unavailable, and the secondary side bleed and feed initiation. The break valve was located at the dead end of a vertical downcomer, which in fact simulates a break in the reactor vessel itself, and should be unlikely to happen in a real nuclear power plant (NPP). Three different RELAP5 code versions were used for the transient simulation in order to assess the calculations with test results.

  10. Annex C. Data Libraries for IAEA Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, D.; Lane, M.

    2015-06-23

    Data Libraries are a collection of experimental data for PP elements based on specific defeat mechanisms. The data can de related to probability of detection, assessment, or barrier delay times. The data libraries can be a manually tabulated list or an electronic menu values enbedded in a stand-alone database or in an assessment software program such as SAVI or EASI. Data library values are usually based on years of historical testing data for many forms of common and sometimes unique PPS systems. Most useful testing libraries include data from the most basic alarm sensors, doors, walls, and barriers to very sophisticated PP elements. Each PP element is tested using increasing levels of defeat techniques from hand tools, power tools, breaching tools, explosives, and vehicles, as applicable.

  11. Assessment of actinide decay data evaluations: findings of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    PubMed

    Kellett, M A

    2012-09-01

    Organised under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, comprehensive decay scheme evaluations for over eighty actinides and their decay products have been completed on the basis of detailed assessments of the available experimental data. However, despite the application of sound evaluation procedures, such work cannot replace the need to perform and access good quality measurements for adoption. This evaluation programme provided a means of quantifying the quality of the underlying data to ensure that well-focused recommendations could be made for future experimental decay-data studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of IDEAS guidelines: the IDEAS/IAEA intercomparison exercise on internal dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Hurtgen, C; Andrasi, A; Bailey, M R; Birchall, A; Blanchardon, E; Berkovski, V; Castellani, C M; Cruz-Suarez, R; Davis, K; Doerfel, H; Leguen, B; Malatova, I; Marsh, J; Zeger, J

    2007-01-01

    As part of the EU Fifth Framework Programme IDEAS project 'General Guidelines for the Evaluation of Incorporation Monitoring Data', and in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, a new intercomparison exercise for the assessment of doses from intakes of radionuclides was organised. Several cases were selected, to cover a wide range of practices in the nuclear fuel cycle and medical applications. The cases were: (1) acute intake of HTO, (2) acute inhalation of the fission products 137Cs and 90Sr, (3) acute inhalation of 60Co, (4) repeated intakes of 131I, (5) intake of enriched uranium and (6) single intake of Pu isotopes and 241Am. This intercomparison exercise especially focused on the effect of the Guidelines proposed by the IDEAS project for harmonisation of internal dosimetry.

  13. TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPPING FOR IAEA SEALS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFFHEINS,B.; ANNESE,C.; GOODMAN,M.; OCONNOR,W.; GUSHUE,S.; PEPPER,S.

    2003-07-13

    In the fall of 2002, the U.S. Support Program (USSP) initiated an effort to define a strategy or ''roadmap'' for future seals technologies and to develop a generalized process for planning safeguards equipment development, which includes seals and other safeguards equipment. The underlying objectives of the USSP include becoming more proactive than reactive in addressing safeguards equipment needs, helping the IAEA to maintain an inventory of cost-effective, reliable, and effective safeguards equipment, establishing a long-term planning horizon, and securing IAEA ownership in the process of effective requirements definition and timely transitioning of new or improved systems for IAEA use. At an initial workshop, seals, their functions, performance issues, and future embodiments were discussed in the following order: adhesive seals, metal seals, passive and active loop seals, ultrasonic seals, tamper indicating enclosures (including sample containers, equipment enclosures, and conduits). Suggested improvements to these technologies focused largely on a few themes: (1) The seals must be applied quickly, easily, and correctly; (2) Seals and their associated equipment should not unduly add bulk or weight to the inspectors load; (3) Rapid, in-situ verifiability of seals is desirable; and (4) Seal systems for high risk or high value applications should have two-way, remote communications. Based upon these observations and other insights, the participants constructed a skeletal approach for seals technology planning. The process begins with a top-level review of the fundamental safeguards requirements and extraction of required system features, which is followed by analysis of suitable technologies and identification of technology gaps, and finally by development of a planning schedule for system improvements and new technology integration. Development of a comprehensive procedure will require the partnership and participation of the IAEA. The presentation will include a

  14. A brief history of NDA at the IAEA.

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J. K.; Sinkule, B. J.; Hsue, S.-T.; Abhold, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, the first portable nondestructive assay instrument, a SAM-II, was brought to Vienna for IAEA consideration. This initial foray into the usage of nondestructive assay (NDA) as an independent assessment tool has materialized into one of the important tools for IAEA inspections. NDA instruments have several inherent advantages for inspectors; their measurements generate no radioactive waste, provide immediate answers, do not require specialized operators, and can be either taken to the items to be measured (portable instruments), or the items for measurement can be brought to the instruments, such as can be applied in on-site IAEA laboratories or off-site IAEA lab at Siebersdorf. The SAM-II was a small, lightweight, battery-powered, gamma-ray instrument used for uranium enrichment measurements. It was also found to be usehl for locating nuclear material, distinguishing between uranium and plutonium, and determining the active length of items like fuel pins. However it was not well suited for determining the amount of bulk material present, except for small containers of low-density materials. A 6-sided neutron coincidence counter, easily disassembled so it could be shipped and carried by airplane, was developed for bulk measurements of plutonium. The HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) was immediately useful for quantitative measurements of pure plutonium oxide. However, the IAEA had to make a trade-off between the ease of use of NDA instruments on-site, and the problems of obtaining small samples for shipment to an independent lab for more accurate analysis. NDA does not create radioactive waste, so as waste handling has become more cautious and more regulated, NDA looks better and better. After acceptance of NDA by the IAEA for routine use, the follow-up question was naturally, 'How much better can this measurement be made?' The Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) supported multiple and varied efforts in this

  15. AK-2123 (Sanazol) as a radiation sensitizer in the treatment of stage III cancer cervix: initial results of an IAEA multicentre randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Dobrowsky, Werner; Huigol, Nagraj G; Jayatilake, Ranapala S; Kizilbash, Noor-I-Alam; Okkan, Sait; Kagiya, Tsutomu V; Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    AK-2123, a nitrotriazole hypoxic cell sensitizer has reportedly improved results in head and neck cancers, uterine cervical cancers and other solid tumours when added to radical radiotherapy. A prospectively randomised trial was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) evaluating AK-2123 and radiotherapy in treatment of uterine cervical cancer stage IIIA and IIIB. A total of 333 patients were randomised between May 1995 and December 1998. Patients were randomised to either standard radical treatment (radiation therapy alone, RT) or standard radical radiotherapy and additional administration of AK-2123 (RT+AK-2123). The total dose of 45-50.8 Gy was delivered in 20 to 28 fractions over 4 to 5 1/2 weeks. The dose to the central disease was escalated to a radiobiologically equivalent dose of 70 Gy by external beam or brachytherapy, in accordance with each centres individual practice. In the study arm, patients received 0.6 g/sqm AK-2123 by intravenous administration before external beam radiotherapy, treating with AK-2123 on alternate days (e.g. Monday-Wednesday-Friday) during the entire course of external beam therapy. After a median follow up of 57 months (range 30-73 months) the rate of local tumour control was significantly higher in the group who received radiotherapy and additional administration of AK-2123. Local tumour control at the last follow up was 61% after combined radiotherapy and AK-2123 and 46% after radiotherapy alone (p = 0.005). AK-2123 neither increased gastro-intestinal toxicity nor gave any haematological toxicity. A mild peripheral neuropathy (Grade 1:11% and Grade 2:3%) was seen infrequently after AK-2123 administration and was usually completely reversible. Crude survival rates were 41% after radical treatment compared to 57% after combined therapy (p = 0.007). We conclude that the addition of AK-2123 to radical radiotherapy significantly increases response rates and local tumour control in advanced squamous cell cancer of

  16. Situation analysis of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (2013) in the I. R. of Iran; assessment and recommendations based on the IAEA imPACT mission.

    PubMed

    Rouhollahi, Mohammad Reza; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadrezai, Narges; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ghanbari Motlagh, Ali; Harirchi, Iraj; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2014-04-01

    Iran was engaged in the Program of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) in 2012, and delegates from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the National Cancer Control Program (NCCP) status (the imPACT mission), based on which they provided recommendations for improvements of NCCP in the I.R. of Iran. We reported the results of this situational analysis and discussed the recommendations and their implication in the promotion of NCCP in the I.R. of Iran.  International delegates visited the I.R. of Iran and evaluated different aspects and capacities of NCCP in Iran. In addition, a Farsi version of the WHO/IAEA self-assessment tool was completed by local experts and stakeholders, including experts from different departments of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) and representatives from the National Cancer Research Network (NCRN). Following these evaluations, the PACT office provided recommendations for improving the NCCP in Iran. Almost all the recommendations were endorsed by MOHME. The PACT program provided 31 recommendations for improvement of NCCP in Iran in six categories, including planning, cancer registration and information, prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment, and palliative care. The most important recommendation was to establish a strong, multi-sectoral NCCP committee and develop an updated national cancer control program. The imPACT mission report provided a comprehensive view about the NCCP status in Iran. An appropriate response to these recommendations and filing the observed gaps will improve the NCCP status in the I.R. of Iran.

  17. Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.; Haase, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; McNutt, P.

    2011-04-01

    Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's (DOI) Office of Insular Affairs (OIA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the island of Guam by conducting an island initial technical assessment that would lay out energy consumption and production data and establish a baseline. This assessment will be used to conduct future analysis and studies by NREL that will estimate energy efficiency and renewable energy potential for the island of Guam.

  18. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision.

    PubMed

    Carini, Franca

    2009-09-01

    Information on the transfer of radionuclides to fruits was almost absent in the former TRS 364 "Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments". The revision of the Handbook, carried out under the IAEA Programme on Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS), takes into account the information generated in the years following the Chernobyl accident and the knowledge produced under the IAEA BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment) Programme in the years 1997-2000. This paper describes the most important processes concerning the behaviour of radionuclides in fruits reported in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision and provides recommendations for research and modelling.

  19. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  20. Initial Performance Assessment of CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David; Hunt, Bill; McGill, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP, pronounced the same as "calliope") is a spaceborne two-wavelength polarizatio n lidar that has been acquiring global data since June 2006. CALIOP p rovides high resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols, and has been designed with a very large linear dynamic range to encompas s the full range of signal returns from aerosols and clouds. CALIOP is the primary instrument carried by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrar ed Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite, which was l aunched on April, 28 2006. CALIPSO was developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and the French space agency, CNES. I nitial data analysis and validation intercomparisons indicate the qua lity of data from CALIOP meets or exceeds expectations. This paper presents a description of the CALIPSO mission, the CALIOP instrument, an d an initial assessment of on-orbit measurement performance.

  1. IAEA safeguards and classified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.; Kratzer, M.

    1997-11-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has suggested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilize its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials, some of which are classified, under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring classified materials. A traditional safeguards approach, based on nuclear material accountancy, would seem unavoidably to reveal classified information. However, further analysis of the IAEA`s safeguards approaches is warranted in order to understand fully the scope and nature of any problems. The issues are complex and difficult, and it is expected that common technical understandings will be essential for their resolution. Accordingly, this paper examines and compares traditional safeguards item accounting of fuel at a nuclear power station (especially spent fuel) with the challenges presented by inspections of classified materials. This analysis is intended to delineate more clearly the problems as well as reveal possible approaches, techniques, and technologies that could allow the adaptation of safeguards to the unprecedented task of inspecting classified materials. It is also hoped that a discussion of these issues can advance ongoing political-technical debates on international inspections of excess classified materials.

  2. Safety-Related Activities of the IAEA for Radioactive Waste, Decommissioning and Remediation - 13473

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Pil-Soo; Vesterlind, Magnus

    2013-07-01

    To fulfil its mandate and serve the needs of its Member States, the IAEA is engaged in a wide range of safety-related activities pertaining to radioactive waste management, decommissioning and remediation. One of the statutory obligations of the IAEA is to establish safety standards and to provide for the application of these standards. The present paper describes recent developments in regard to the IAEA's waste safety standards, and some of the ways the IAEA makes provision for their application. The safety standards and supporting safety demonstration projects seek to establish international consensus on methodologies and approaches for dealing with particular subject areas, for example, safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal. (authors)

  3. Improving Initial Assessment: Guide to Good Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knasel, Eddy; Meed, John; Rossetti, Anna; Read, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    This guide is aimed at anyone in work-based training who is responsible for learners during their first few weeks. Readers will (1) understand the value and purpose of initial assessment in key skills and Skills for Life; (2) become familiar with a range of techniques for the initial assessment; (3) plan an initial assessment system that is…

  4. USSP-IAEA WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED SENSORS FOR SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.; QUEIROLO, A.; ZENDEL, M.; WHICHELLO, J.; ANNESE, C.; GRIEBE, J.; GRIEBE, R.

    2007-11-13

    The IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2006-2011) defines a number of specific goals in respect to the IAEA's ability to provide assurances to the international community regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy through States adherences to their respective non-proliferation treaty commitments. The IAEA has long used and still needs the best possible sensors to detect and measure nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards, recognizing the importance of safeguards-oriented R&D, especially targeting improved detection capabilities for undeclared facilities, materials and activities, initiated a number of activities in early 2005. The initiatives included letters to Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), personal contacts with known technology holders, topical meetings, consultant reviews of safeguards technology, and special workshops to identify new and novel technologies and methodologies. In support of this objective, the United States Support Program to IAEA Safeguards hosted a workshop on ''Advanced Sensors for Safeguards'' in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 23-27, 2007. The Organizational Analysis Corporation, a U.S.-based management consulting firm, organized and facilitated the workshop. The workshop's goal was to help the IAEA identify and plan for new sensors for safeguards implementation. The workshop, which was attended by representatives of seven member states and international organizations, included presentations by technology holders and developers on new technologies thought to have relevance to international safeguards, but not yet in use by the IAEA. The presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions where the participants considered two scenarios typical of what IAEA inspectors might face in the field. One scenario focused on an enrichment plant; the other scenario focused on a research reactor. The participants brainstormed using the technologies presented by the participants and other technologies known to them to propose

  5. Initiating a Programmatic Assessment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkaliev, Zaur; Devi, Shavila; Fasshauer, Gregory E.; Hickernell, Fred J.; Kartal, Ozgul; Li, Xiaofan; McCray, Patrick; Whitney, Stephanie; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of a department of applied mathematics, a program assessment was conducted to assess the departmental goal of enabling undergraduate students to recognize, appreciate, and apply the power of computational tools in solving mathematical problems that cannot be solved by hand, or would require extensive and tedious hand computation. A…

  6. Initiating a Programmatic Assessment Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkaliev, Zaur; Devi, Shavila; Fasshauer, Gregory E.; Hickernell, Fred J.; Kartal, Ozgul; Li, Xiaofan; McCray, Patrick; Whitney, Stephanie; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of a department of applied mathematics, a program assessment was conducted to assess the departmental goal of enabling undergraduate students to recognize, appreciate, and apply the power of computational tools in solving mathematical problems that cannot be solved by hand, or would require extensive and tedious hand computation. A…

  7. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    PubMed

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  8. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Bruce D.; Anzelon, George A.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory

    2016-09-01

    broaden the IAEA safeguards toolbox, the study recommends that the Agency consider closing potential gaps in safeguards coverage by, among other things: 1) adapting its safeguards measures based on a case-by-case assessment; 2) using more frequent and expanded/enhanced mailbox declarations (ideally with remote transmission of the data to IAEA Headquarters in Vienna) coupled with short-notice or unannounced inspections; 3) putting more emphasis on the collection and analysis of environmental samples at hot cells and waste storage tanks; 4) taking Safeguards by Design into account for the construction of new research reactors and best practices for existing research reactors; 5) utilizing fully all legal authorities to enhance inspection access (including a strengthened and continuing DIV process); and 6) utilizing new approaches to improve auditing activities, verify reactor operating data history, and track/monitor the movement and storage of spent fuel.

  9. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  10. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  11. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  12. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  13. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  14. IAEA proficiency tests for determination of radionuclides in sea water.

    PubMed

    Harms, Arend; Khanh Pham, Mai; Blinova, Oxana; Tarjan, Sandor; Nies, Hartmut; Osvath, Iolanda

    2017-02-14

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organised four proficiency tests between 2012 and 2015 to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in sea water samples. These exercises were initiated to support IAEA Member States in sea water analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment.

  15. a state department perspective on IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, J.C. )

    1989-07-01

    The maintenance of effective international safeguards is a fundamental tenet of U.S. non-proliferation policy. The U.S. Department of State plays a substantial role not only in articulating U.S. non-proliferation policy, but in the implementation of that policy, including a substantial role in all aspects of U.S. support of IAEA safeguards. The State Department's role in supporting IAEA safeguards ranges from considerations related to bilateral agreements for cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and export control to many rather technical aspects of safeguards such as the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) and negotiation of Facility Attachments for U.S. nuclear facilities subject to IAEA safeguards. TSO plays an important role in support of these efforts by providing technical advice on a broad range of matters where technical and policy issues are closely intertwined.

  16. Initial Assessment to Identify Learning Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Muriel; Bartram, Dave

    1998-01-01

    This document, which is intended for curriculum managers, student services managers, and learning support managers in further education (FE) colleges throughout the United Kingdom, presents the practical experiences of FE colleges that have implemented a range of approaches to initial assessment and offers technical information, good practice…

  17. Dumping of radioactive waste in the Artic Seas - The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1994-12-31

    The IAEA has initiated the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) to address the widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts of the dumped radioactive wastes in the shallow waters the Arctic seas. The work is being carried out as part of IAEA responsibilities to the London Convention 1972. It is envisaged that the project will last for four years and be run by the IAEA in co-operation with the Norwegian and Russian Governments and with the involvement, through the IAEA, of experts from relevant IAEA member states. The project is aimed at producing an assessment of the potential radiological implications of the dumping and at addressing the question of possible remedial measures. At the same time, it is intended to provide a focus for the reporting of national research and assessment work and a mechanism for encouraging international co-operation and collaboration.

  18. Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

    2009-10-06

    Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to

  19. The IAEA CRP on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maschek, W.; Chen, X.; Rineiski, A.; Schikorr, M.; Stanculescu, A.; Arien, B.; Malambu, E.; Bai, Y.; Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, S.; Chabert, C.; Peneliau, Y.; Chebeskov, A.; Dekoussar, V.; Vorotyntsev, M.; da Cruz, D.F.; Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Harish, R.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Pandikumar, G.; Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.; Feynberg, O.; Ignatiev, V.; Subbotin, V.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R.; Kophazi, J.; Szieberth, M.; Morita, K.; Srivenkatesan, R.; Taczanowski, S.; Tucek, K.; Wider, H.; Vertes, P.; Uhlir, J.

    2007-07-01

    In 2003, the IAEA has initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, is to increase the capability of Member States in developing and applying advanced technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. Twenty institutions from 15 Member States and one international organization participated in this CRP. The CRP concentrated on the assessment of the dynamic behavior of various transmutation systems. The reactor systems investigated comprise critical reactors, sub-critical accelerator driven systems with heavy liquid metal and gas cooling, critical molten salt systems, and hybrid fusion/fission systems. Both fertile and fertile-free fuel options have been investigated. Apart from the benchmarking of steady state core configurations (including the investigation of transmutation potential, burn-up behavior and decay heat of minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels), the CRP participants determined the safety coefficients for the individual systems and, in a second stage, performed transient analyses which reflected the generic safety related behavior of the various reactors types. (authors)

  20. American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Conrad, M.; Funk, K.; Kandt, A.; McNutt, P.

    2011-09-01

    This document is an initial energy assessment for American Samoa, the first of many steps in developing a comprehensive energy strategy. On March 1, 2010, Assistant Secretary of the Interior Tony Babauta invited governors and their staff from the Interior Insular Areas to meet with senior principals at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Meeting discussions focused on ways to improve energy efficiency and increase the deployment of renewable energy technologies in the U.S. Pacific Territories. In attendance were Governors Felix Camacho (Guam), Benigno Fitial (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), and Togiola Tulafono, (American Samoa). This meeting brought together major stakeholders to learn and understand the importance of developing a comprehensive strategic plan for implementing energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies. For several decades, dependence on fossil fuels and the burden of high oil prices have been a major concern but never more at the forefront as today. With unstable oil prices, the volatility of fuel supply and the economic instability in American Samoa, energy issues are a high priority. In short, energy security is critical to American Samoa's future economic development and sustainability. Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's Office of Insular Affairs, NREL was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the islands of American Samoa. Technical assistance included conducting an initial technical assessment to define energy consumption and production data, establish an energy consumption baseline, and assist with the development of a strategic plan. The assessment and strategic plan will be used to assist with the transition to a cleaner energy economy. NREL provided an interdisciplinary team to cover each relevant technical area for the initial energy assessments. Experts in the following disciplines traveled to American Samoa for on-island site assessments: (1) Energy

  1. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz,R.A.

    2008-06-13

    The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

  2. IAEA Safeguards: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A.; Hypes, Philip A.

    2012-06-14

    This talk will present an overview of the International Atomic Energy Agency with a specific focus on its international safeguards mission and activities. The talk will first present a brief history of the IAEA and discuss its current governing structure. It will then focus on the Safeguards Department and its role in providing assurance that nuclear materials are being used for peaceful purposes. It will then look at how the IAEA is currently evolving the way in which it executes its safeguards mission with a focus on the idea of a state-level approach.

  3. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online

  4. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  5. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  6. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except...

  7. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  8. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  9. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  10. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except...

  11. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except...

  12. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except...

  13. Assessing the value of human factors initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Micky P; Knott, David S; Moss, Michael A; Clegg, Chris W; Horton, Robin P

    2008-05-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of human factors initiatives and addresses some difficulties reported in calculating the value of such interventions. Company representatives and researchers applied a novel probabilistic assessment tool to estimate the financial impact of two macro-ergonomic projects. Key benefits of the company intranet project include reduced administrative and operational costs compared to a paper-based system; time savings for users asking for, providing and receiving information; and improved system usability and higher levels of usage. The communities of practice project demonstrates value through more efficient distribution and retrieval of information; reduced duplication by re-using technical knowledge to solve similar problems and improved sharing of good working practices, lessons and resources. The strengths of the tool include transparency, being quick and easy to learn and the collaborative workshop format, involving researches and key representatives from the organization. It makes a useful contribution to the challenge of assessing the financial value of ergonomic interventions, and, by exploiting its diagnostic and planning capabilities, could be extended to other domains.

  14. IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Four major challenges are facing the long-term development of nuclear energy: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind the topic of this paper. In this context, sustainability has two aspects: natural resources and waste management. IAEA's activities in the area of Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) are mostly in response to the latter. While not involving the large quantities of gaseous products and toxic solid wastes associated with fossil fuels, radioactive waste disposal is today's dominant public acceptance issue. In fact, small waste quantities permit a rigorous confinement strategy, and mined geological disposal is the strategy followed by some countries. Nevertheless, political opposition arguing that this does not yet constitute a safe disposal technology has largely stalled these efforts. One of the primary reasons cited is the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission. This concern has led to increased R&D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount and radio-toxicity of long-lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or sub-critical systems. In the frame of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste, ADS, and deuterium-tritium plasma-driven sub-critical systems. The paper presents past accomplishments, current status and planned activities of this IAEA project.

  15. Silent Aircraft Initiative Concept Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    A risk assessment of the Silent Aircraft Initiative's SAX-40 concept design for extremely low noise has been performed. A NASA team developed a list of 27 risk items, and evaluated the level of risk for each item in terms of the likelihood that the risk would occur and the consequences of the occurrence. The following risk items were identified as high risk, meaning that the combination of likelihood and consequence put them into the top one-fourth of the risk matrix: structures and weight prediction; boundary-layer ingestion (BLI) and inlet design; variable-area exhaust and thrust vectoring; displaced-threshold and continuous descent approach (CDA) operational concepts; cost; human factors; and overall noise performance. Several advanced-technology baseline concepts were created to serve as a basis for comparison to the SAX-40 concept. These comparisons indicate that the SAX-40 would have significantly greater research, development, test, and engineering (RDT&E) and production costs than a conventional aircraft with similar technology levels. Therefore, the cost of obtaining the extremely low noise capability that has been estimated for the SAX-40 is significant. The SAX-40 concept design proved successful in focusing attention toward low noise technologies and in raising public awareness of the issue.

  16. MANAGING UNCERTAINTIES ASSOCIATED WITH RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL: TASK GROUP 4 OF THE IAEA PRISM PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2011-03-02

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  17. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ``Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards.

  18. Development of an IAEA Training Course for Future U.S. Inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Savannah Avgerinos Fitzwater; Amanda R. Rynes; David S. Bracken; Richard R. M. Metcalf; James D. West

    2011-07-01

    U.S. citizens currently make up only 12% of the positions held in the IAEA’s Department of Safeguards. While the United States has maintained a high level of support for the Agency over the duration of its history, the number of American inspectors currently in the field does not reflect this level of involvement. As a result, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of International Relations, as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) mission, has tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to develop a rigorous two week hands-on training program to encourage and operationally acclimatize U.S. Citizens who are interested in applying for IAEA inspector positions using IAEA authorized equipment at INL. Idaho National Laboratory is one-of-a-kind in its ability to train IAEA inspectors by including training at nuclear facilities on site and includes, for example, direct measurement of an active spent fuel storage cooling pond. This accredited course will introduce and train attendees on the major IAEA systems used in collecting nuclear safeguards data and performing safeguards inspections. Unique in the United States, these classes will give attendees direct hands-on training and will address equipment purpose, function, operating principles, application, and troubleshooting, based upon what would be expected of an IAEA Safeguards Inspector in the field and in the office. Upon completion, U.S. applicants will be better qualified to pursue a position in the IAEA Department of Safeguards Operational Divisions. In support, INL has recently established a new laboratory space to house state of the art nuclear safeguards instrumentation. Currently, equipment installed in the laboratory space includes attended systems: 3DLR (3-D Imaging Laser) for design information verification, a Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device for measurement of spent fuel, HM-5 handheld radiation detectors, quantitative neutron and gamma systems; unattended monitoring

  19. DoD Biometric Conformity Assessment Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    REPORT DATE APR 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-04-2005 to 00-06-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DoD Biometric Conformity Assessment...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 dsp.dla.mil 21 DSP JOURNAL April/June 200522 The comprehensive discipline of conformity assess- ment involves conformance ... conformity assessment, and details the steps the DoD Biometrics Management Office (BMO) and its subordinate technology center, the DoD Biometrics Fusion

  20. 31 CFR 27.5 - Initial Notice of Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial Notice of Assessment. 27.5 Section 27.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CIVIL PENALTY ASSESSMENT FOR MISUSE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NAMES, SYMBOLS, ETC. § 27.5 Initial Notice of Assessment. The...

  1. 31 CFR 27.5 - Initial Notice of Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial Notice of Assessment. 27.5 Section 27.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CIVIL PENALTY ASSESSMENT FOR MISUSE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NAMES, SYMBOLS, ETC. § 27.5 Initial Notice of Assessment. The...

  2. Taking Initiative in the Age of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Josh; Morgan, Melanie; Ortiz, Anna Victoria; Anderson, Lindsey B.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is an increasingly important part of communication pedagogy, not just for periodic accreditation reviews but for ongoing justifications for resources and course design. This project relates the story of how another college at our university prompted us to prove that our Science Writing and Presentation course really delivered what it…

  3. 15 CFR 768.4 - Initiation of an assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... To initiate an assessment, each claimant or TAC must submit a FAS or a TAC Certification to BIS. TACs... alleging foreign availability to any country or countries. (2) A TAC may request that BIS initiate a decontrol assessment at any time by submitting a TAC Certification to BIS that there is foreign...

  4. Improving Initial Assessment in Work-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Muriel

    This document, which is designed to assist managers, trainers, or assessors in work-based provision across the United Kingdom, shares the experiences of five work-based learning providers that sought to improve their initial assessment processes. Section 1 explains the purpose of initial assessment and presents guidelines for evaluating intake…

  5. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12... AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except as... provided for in the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol. The Commission will take into account the...

  6. Technologies for pre-screening IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Steeb, Jennifer L.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, many samples are taken for the purpose of verifying the declared facility activities and identifying any possible undeclared activities. One of these sampling techniques is the environmental swipe sample. Due to the large number of samples collected, and the amount of time that is required to analyze them, prioritizing these swipes in the field or upon receipt at the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) will allow sensitive or mission-critical analyses to be performed sooner. As a result of this study, technologies were placed into one of three categories: recommended, promising, or not recommended. Both neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are recommended for further study and possible field deployment. These techniques performed the best in initial trials for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. We learned that for NAA more characterization of cold elements (such as calcium and magnesium) would need to be emphasized, and for XRF it may be appropriate to move towards a benchtop XRF versus a handheld XRF due to the increased range of elements available on benchtop equipment. Promising techniques that will require additional research and development include confocal Raman microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and infrared (IR) microscopy. These techniques showed substantive responses to uranium compounds, but expensive instrumentation upgrades (confocal Raman) or university engagement (fluorescence microscopy) may be necessary to investigate the utility of the techniques completely. Point-and-shoot (handheld) Raman and attenuated total reflectance–infrared (ATR-IR) measurements are not recommended, as they have not shown enough promise to continue investigations.

  7. Reference dosimeter system of the iaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    1995-09-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation processing facilities to satisfy national and international Standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit.

  8. Sources of uncertainty in model predictions: lessons learned from the IAEA Forest and Fruit Working Group model intercomparisons.

    PubMed

    Linkov, Igor; Burmistrov, Dmitriy

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), through the BIOMASS program, has provided a unique international forum for assessing the relative contribution of different sources of uncertainty associated with environmental modeling. The methodology and guidance for dealing with parameter uncertainty have been fairly well developed and quantitative tools such as Monte-Carlo modeling are often recommended. The issue of model uncertainty is still rarely addressed in practical applications and the use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs (similar to what was done in IAEA model intercomparisons) is one of a few available techniques. This paper addresses the often overlooked issue of what we call 'modeler uncertainty,' i.e., differences in problem formulation, model implementation and parameter selection originating from subjective interpretation of the problem at hand. This study uses results from the Fruit and Forest Working Groups created under the BIOMASS program (BIOsphere Modeling and ASSessment). The greatest uncertainty was found to result from modelers' interpretation of scenarios and approximations made by modelers. In scenarios that were unclear for modelers, the initial differences in model predictions were as high as seven orders of magnitude. Only after several meetings and discussions about specific assumptions did the differences in predictions by various models merge. Our study shows that the parameter uncertainty (as evaluated by a probabilistic Monte-Carlo assessment) may have contributed over one order of magnitude to the overall modeling uncertainty. The final model predictions ranged between one and three orders of magnitude, depending on the specific scenario. This study illustrates the importance of problem formulation and implementation of an analytic-deliberative process in fate and transport modeling and risk characterization.

  9. Provincially and Locally Initiated Curriculum Program Assessment, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This report is an independent assessment of the Provincially Initiated Curriculum (PIC) and Locally Initiated Curriculum (LIC) for British Columbia's Centre for Curriculum, Transfer and Technology (C2T2), which manages both PIC and LIC projects. The report makes four recommendations for C2T2's consideration: (1) a renewed emphasis on communication…

  10. Strengthened IAEA Safeguards-Imagery Analysis: Geospatial Tools for Nonproliferation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pabian, Frank V

    2012-08-14

    This slide presentation focuses on the growing role and importance of imagery analysis for IAEA safeguards applications and how commercial satellite imagery, together with the newly available geospatial tools, can be used to promote 'all-source synergy.' As additional sources of openly available information, satellite imagery in conjunction with the geospatial tools can be used to significantly augment and enhance existing information gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection and assessment of nonproliferation relevant activities, facilities, and programs. Foremost of the geospatial tools are the 'Digital Virtual Globes' (i.e., GoogleEarth, Virtual Earth, etc.) that are far better than previously used simple 2-D plan-view line drawings for visualization of known and suspected facilities of interest which can be critical to: (1) Site familiarization and true geospatial context awareness; (2) Pre-inspection planning; (3) Onsite orientation and navigation; (4) Post-inspection reporting; (5) Site monitoring over time for changes; (6) Verification of states site declarations and for input to State Evaluation reports; and (7) A common basis for discussions among all interested parties (Member States). Additionally, as an 'open-source', such virtual globes can also provide a new, essentially free, means to conduct broad area search for undeclared nuclear sites and activities - either alleged through open source leads; identified on internet BLOGS and WIKI Layers, with input from a 'free' cadre of global browsers and/or by knowledgeable local citizens (a.k.a.: 'crowdsourcing'), that can include ground photos and maps; or by other initiatives based on existing information and in-house country knowledge. They also provide a means to acquire ground photography taken by locals, hobbyists, and tourists of the surrounding locales that can be useful in identifying and discriminating between relevant and non-relevant facilities and their associated

  11. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  12. Guiding Principles to Impact an Institution-Wide Assessment Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinerichs, Scott; Bernotsky, R. Lorraine; Danner, Loretta Rieser

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are faced with challenges when implementing an assessment initiative. These challenges include constraints on time and resources, the demands of specialized accreditation, and faculty motivation to comply. In addition, the communication of the expectations around assessment must be clear to all constituents in…

  13. Formative Assessment Jump-Starts a Middle Grades Differentiation Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.

    2012-01-01

    A rural middle level school had stalled in its third year of a district-wide differentiation initiative. This article describes the way teachers and the leadership team engaged in collaborative practices to put a spotlight on formative assessment. Teachers learned to systematically gather formative assessment data from their students and to use…

  14. Nonproliferation, Disarmament, and the IAEA in Tomorrow's World

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Jill

    2008-09-08

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards have evolved considerably during the last five decades and have become an integral part of the international non-proliferation regime and the global security system. To carry on serving well the international community, they need to continue to move with the times -- especially in light of the renewed interest in nuclear energy and its projected expansion in the coming years, which could bring additional nuclear facilities, material and activities under IAEA safeguards. The projected nuclear ˜renaissance" may pose increased proliferation risks as nuclear material, technology and know-how spread in an increasingly globalized world. The presentation will provide an overview of the IAEA safeguards system and describe current verification challenges and potential new IAEA roles.

  15. Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

    2013-05-01

    Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants

  16. Diversion analysis and safeguards measures for liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors. Paper IAEA-SM-260/6

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.; Ermakov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the study is to perform a diversion analysis and an assessment of the available safeguards methods and systems for verifying inventory and flow of nuclear material in accessible and inaccessible areas of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, LMFBR, systems. The study focuses primarily on the assembly-handling operations, assembly storage facilities, and reactor operations facilities relating to experimental, demonstration and prototypal reactor plants. The safeguards systems and methods presented are considered to be feasible for development and implementation within the resource limitation of the IAEA and are considered to be consistent with the objectives, requirements, and constraints of the IAEA documents INFCIRC/153 and INFCIRC/66-Rev-2.

  17. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; van Beek, P; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gurriaran, R; Hanley, O; Harms, A V; Herrmann, J; Hult, M; Ikeuchi, Y; Ilchmann, C; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kloster, M; Laubenstein, M; Llaurado, M; Mas, J L; Nakano, M; Nielsen, S P; Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Schikowski, J; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Sýkora, I; Tarjan, S; Varga, B; Vasileva, E; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2016-03-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified radionuclides include: (40)K, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am for IAEA-410 and (40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (239+240)Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes in the analysis of radionuclides in sediments, for development and validation of analytical methods and for staff training.

  18. Progresses in tritium accident modelling in the frame of IAEA EMRAS II

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.

    2015-03-15

    The assessment of the environmental impact of tritium release from nuclear facilities is a topic of interest in many countries. In the IAEA's Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS I) programme, progresses for routine releases were done and in the EMRAS II programme a dedicated working group (WG 7 - Tritium Accidents) focused on the potential accidental releases (liquid and atmospheric pathways). The progresses achieved in WG 7 were included in a complex report - a technical document of IAEA covering both liquid and atmospheric accidental release consequences. A brief description of the progresses achieved in the frame of EMRAS II WG 7 is presented. Important results have been obtained concerning washout rate, the deposition on the soil of HTO and HT, the HTO uptake by leaves and the subsequent conversion to OBT (organically bound tritium) during daylight. Further needs of the processes understanding and the experimental efforts are emphasised.

  19. Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections. Final report: Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    This is the second of two reports prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in {open_quotes}Observational Skills{close_quotes}. The first (Phase 1) report was essentially exploratory. It defined Observational Skills broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. It identified 10 specific Observational Skills components, analyzed their relevance to IAEA safeguards inspections, and reviewed a variety of inspection programs in the public and private sectors that provide training in one or more of these components. The report concluded that while it should be possible to draw upon these other programs in developing Observational Skills training for IAEA inspectors, the approaches utilized in these programs will likely require significant adaption to support the specific job requirements, policies, and practices that define the IAEA inspector`s job. The overall objective of this second (Phase 2) report is to provide a basis for the actual design and delivery of Observational Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The more specific purposes of this report are to convey a fuller understanding of the potential application of Observational Skills to the inspector`s job, describe inspector perspectives on the relevance and importance of particular Observational Skills, identify the specific Observational Skill components that are most important and relevant to enhancing safeguards inspections, and make recommendations as to Observational Skills training for the IAEA`s consideration in further developing its Safeguards training program.

  20. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper S. E.; .; Worrall, L.; Pickett, C.; Bachner, K.; Queirolo, A.

    2014-08-08

    The U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, the U.S. Department of State, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a a workshop on the subject of ”Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation.” The workshop was held at the Vienna International Centre in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. The workshop participants included software and hardware experts from national laboratories, industry, government, and IAEA member states who were specially selected by the workshop organizers based on their experience with software that is developed for the control and operation of safeguards instrumentation. The workshop included presentations, to orient the participants to the IAEA Department of Safeguards software activities related to instrumentation data collection and processing, and case studies that were designed to inspire discussion of software development, use, maintenance, and upgrades in breakout sessions and to result in recommendations for effective software practices and management. This report summarizes the results of the workshop.

  1. Fostering applications of neutron scattering techniques in developing countries: IAEA's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjpe, Shriniwas K.; Mank, G.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2006-11-01

    Over the last 60 years research reactors have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind. Neutron scattering has been the workhorse for research and development in materials science. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactors have also been involved in using this technique. The reactors and the facilities around them have a large potential for applications, while their under-utilization has been a concern for many member states. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting its member states in the enhancement of utilization of their research reactors. Technical meetings focussing on the area of current interests with potential applications are organized under the project on “effective utilization of research reactors,” e.g. on residual stress measurement, neutron reflectometry. Coordinated research projects (CRPs) bring together scientists from developed and developing countries, build collaborations, and exchange expertise and technology. The CRPs on research reactor utilization include topics like development of small-angle neutron scattering applications and development of sources and imaging systems for neutron radiography. New CRPs on the measurement of residual stress and accelerator-driven neutron sources will be initiated soon. The results from these meetings of CRPs are published as technical documents of the IAEA that would act as guidelines for capacity building for research reactor managers. This paper will present some of the salient features of IAEA activities in promoting research reactor utilization.

  2. The evolution and impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    The Asia and the Pacific region was within the IAEA program on radiation and tissue banking, the most active region. Most of the tissue banks in the Asia and the Pacific region were developed during the late 1980s and 1990s. The initial number of tissue banks established or supported by the IAEA program in the framework of the RCA Agreement for Asia and the Pacific region was 18. At the end of 2006, the number of tissue banks participating, in one way or another in the IAEA program was 59. Since the beginning of the implementation of the IAEA program in Asia and the Pacific region 63,537 amnion and 44,282 bone allografts were produced and 57,683 amnion and 36,388 bone allografts were used. The main impact of the IAEA program in the region was the following: the establishment or consolidation of at least 59 tissue banks in 15 countries in the region (the IAEA supported directly 16 of these banks); the improvement on the quality and safety of tissues procured and produced in the region reaching international standards; the implementation of eight national projects, two regional projects and two interregional projects; the elaboration of International Standards, a Code of Practice and a Public Awareness Strategies and, the application of quality control and quality assurances programs in all participating tissue banks.

  3. The IAEA handbook on radionuclide transfer to wildlife.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Copplestone, D; Telleria, D; Proehl, G; Fesenko, S; Jeffree, R A; Yankovich, T L; Brown, J E; Higley, K; Johansen, M P; Mulye, H; Vandenhove, H; Gashchak, S; Wood, M D; Takata, H; Andersson, P; Dale, P; Ryan, J; Bollhöfer, A; Doering, C; Barnett, C L; Wells, C

    2013-07-01

    An IAEA handbook presenting transfer parameter values for wildlife has recently been produced. Concentration ratios (CRwo-media) between the whole organism (fresh weight) and either soil (dry weight) or water were collated for a range of wildlife groups (classified taxonomically and by feeding strategy) in terrestrial, freshwater, marine and brackish generic ecosystems. The data have been compiled in an on line database, which will continue to be updated in the future providing the basis for subsequent revision of the Wildlife TRS values. An overview of the compilation and analysis, and discussion of the extent and limitations of the data is presented. Example comparisons of the CRwo-media values are given for polonium across all wildlife groups and ecosystems and for molluscs for all radionuclides. The CRwo-media values have also been compared with those currently used in the ERICA Tool which represented the most complete published database for wildlife transfer values prior to this work. The use of CRwo-media values is a pragmatic approach to predicting radionuclide activity concentrations in wildlife and is similar to that used for screening assessments for the human food chain. The CRwo-media values are most suitable for a screening application where there are several conservative assumptions built into the models which will, to varying extents, compensate for the variable data quality and quantity, and associated uncertainty.

  4. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-01-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…

  5. Customized Assessment Group Initiative: A Complementary Approach to Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akindayomi, Akinloye

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in a US setting, examines the importance of group dynamics that emphasize cooperative team building through the proposed grouping strategy called Customized Assessment Group Initiative (CAGI). CAGI is a student grouping strategy designed to operationalize the mutual accountability concept central to the definition of teams by…

  6. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-01-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…

  7. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.15 Initial notice of... other evidence that the United States Mint compiled and relied on in determining to issue the...

  8. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 92.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance UNITED STATES MINT... the United States Mint § 92.15 Initial notice of assessment. The examining official shall review all... or opportunity to review any documents and/or other evidence that the United States Mint compiled...

  9. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.15 Initial notice of... other evidence that the United States Mint compiled and relied on in determining to issue the...

  10. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.15 Initial notice of... other evidence that the United States Mint compiled and relied on in determining to issue the...

  11. 31 CFR 92.15 - Initial notice of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties for Misuse of Words, Letters, Symbols, or Emblems of the United States Mint § 92.15 Initial notice of... other evidence that the United States Mint compiled and relied on in determining to issue the...

  12. 20 CFR 726.304 - Notice of initial assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of initial assessment. 726.304 Section 726.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE...

  13. 20 CFR 726.304 - Notice of initial assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of initial assessment. 726.304 Section 726.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE...

  14. 20 CFR 726.304 - Notice of initial assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of initial assessment. 726.304 Section 726.304 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE...

  15. Customized Assessment Group Initiative: A Complementary Approach to Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akindayomi, Akinloye

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in a US setting, examines the importance of group dynamics that emphasize cooperative team building through the proposed grouping strategy called Customized Assessment Group Initiative (CAGI). CAGI is a student grouping strategy designed to operationalize the mutual accountability concept central to the definition of teams by…

  16. 20 CFR 726.304 - Notice of initial assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of initial assessment. 726.304 Section 726.304 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S...

  17. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards: Challenges Ahead (437th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Michael

    2008-06-25

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), headquartered in Vienna, Austria, was established in 1957 to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to discourage its military use. The agency's success in halting nuclear proliferation and in enhancing nuclear safeguards and security have been recognized internationally, including with the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the IAEA and its Director General. BNL has long had a role in the IAEA, by providing technical advice and assistance to its safeguards department. In fact, the IAEA's International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) is headquartered at the Lab and is responsible for the management of U.S. programs supporting ISPO. In the 437th Brookhaven Lecture on Wednesday, June 25th, at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall, physicist Michael Rosenthal of the Energy, Environment & National Security Directorate will discuss the challenges facing the IAEA and ISPO in light of the world political situation and today's tight budgets, and BNL's role in finding and implementing solutions.

  18. Potential applications of environmental sampling and analysis for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.

    1993-03-01

    This objective of this paper is to address the usefulness of envirorunental sampling and analysis in support of the IAEA. In particular, whether state-of-the-art analytical methods may provide detection of undeclared nuclear activities. It is important to emphasize that envirorunental sampling offers the IAEA a method of improving the assurance that a particular facility has no ongoing undeclared nuclear activities. It is suggested as a supplement to the existing IAEA safeguards inspections and activities. Enviromental sampling with appropriate analytical techniques can detect unknown activity fairly well, but it is not very reliable for determining how much or when activity has actually occured. Additionally, it is important to point out that the cost of such an envirorunental sampling program needs to be balanced with the confidence provided to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Environmental sampling wig probably not allow the IAEA to reduce or eliminate some of its existing baseline activities. The addition of an environmental sampling and analysis program will entail a cost of its own, and adding such a program may not reduce IAEA total costs. The overall cost of such a program will depend on the level of confidence required, (e.g. number and type of samples and analyses), the Quality Assurance plan to be implemented and the number of sites to be inspected. A more detailed cost analysis is not within the scope of this paper.

  19. International contributions to IAEA-NEA heat transfer databases for supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, L. K. H.; Yamada, K.

    2012-07-01

    An IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermohydraulics Code Testing for SCWRs' is being conducted to facilitate collaboration and interaction among participants from 15 organizations. While the project covers several key technology areas relevant to the development of SCWR concepts, it focuses mainly on the heat transfer aspect, which has been identified as the most challenging. Through the collaborating effort, large heat-transfer databases have been compiled for supercritical water and surrogate fluids in tubes, annuli, and bundle subassemblies of various orientations over a wide range of flow conditions. Assessments of several supercritical heat-transfer correlations were performed using the complied databases. The assessment results are presented. (authors)

  20. IAEA Inspections for Undeclared and Declared Activities: Is a More Robust Approach Needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The United States has long supported a strong international safeguards system and for many years has served as the foremost supplier of technology, equipment, and training to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In doing so, it drew in many instances on DOE sponsored R&D and training that was directed towards domestic safeguards and then adapted for IAEA purposes. This was relatively straightforward because of the strong overlap between the development of nuclear material accountancy measures needed for both domestic and international purposes. Two factors have emerged that have made this strong reliance on domestic measures less and less able to be a source of support for the IAEA. One is the shift by the IAEA safeguards system towards detecting undeclared activities. The second is the shift of domestic attention away from nuclear material accountancy and towards physical protection. As a result, a gap in US sponsored R&D and training relevant to international safeguards has developed. The NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and the DOE NA-22 Safeguards R&D program are intended to help fill this gap and, thereby, permit the U.S. to remain as the pre-eminent supplier of technology for international safeguards purposes. In this context, IAEA challenges have been examined from the perspective of detecting the diversion of nuclear material from declared stocks; detecting undeclared production of nuclear material and activities at locations declared under INFCIRC/153; and detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities elsewhere in a state. Of these, the detection of undeclared nuclear material and activities is, perhaps, the IAEA’s most significant challenge. It is a challenge that even the international community finds difficult to meet because of the scope and the geographic scale of the problem, the technical constraints, the knowledge required, and the significant resources needed to deploy effective systems world-wide (e.g., satellite

  1. 49 CFR 171.26 - Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... International Transport Standards and Regulations § 171.26 Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA... may be offered for transportation or transported in accordance with the IAEA Regulations (IBR, see...

  2. Comparing methods for assessing the effectiveness of subnational REDD+ initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Astrid B.; Duchelle, Amy E.; Angelsen, Arild; Avitabile, Valerio; De Sy, Veronique; Herold, Martin; Joseph, Shijo; de Sassi, Claudio; Sills, Erin O.; Sunderlin, William D.; Wunder, Sven

    2017-07-01

    The central role of forests in climate change mitigation, as recognized in the Paris agreement, makes it increasingly important to develop and test methods for monitoring and evaluating the carbon effectiveness of REDD+. Over the last decade, hundreds of subnational REDD+ initiatives have emerged, presenting an opportunity to pilot and compare different approaches to quantifying impacts on carbon emissions. This study (1) develops a Before-After-Control-Intervention (BACI) method to assess the effectiveness of these REDD+ initiatives; (2) compares the results at the meso (initiative) and micro (village) scales; and (3) compares BACI with the simpler Before-After (BA) results. Our study covers 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives in Brazil, Peru, Cameroon, Tanzania, Indonesia and Vietnam. As a proxy for deforestation, we use annual tree cover loss. We aggregate data into two periods (before and after the start of each initiative). Analysis using control areas (‘control-intervention’) suggests better REDD+ performance, although the effect is more pronounced at the micro than at the meso level. Yet, BACI requires more data than BA, and is subject to possible bias in the before period. Selection of proper control areas is vital, but at either scale is not straightforward. Low absolute deforestation numbers and peak years influence both our BA and BACI results. In principle, BACI is superior, with its potential to effectively control for confounding factors. We conclude that the more local the scale of performance assessment, the more relevant is the use of the BACI approach. For various reasons, we find overall minimal impact of REDD+ in reducing deforestation on the ground thus far. Incorporating results from micro and meso level monitoring into national reporting systems is important, since overall REDD+ impact depends on land use decisions on the ground.

  3. Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Barton, Michael; Mackillop, William; Fidarova, Elena; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Abad, Anthony; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kobachi, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. International Workshops to Foster Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Coates, Cameron W.; Bedke, Michael L.

    2003-07-14

    A country’s adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Additional Protocol is an important statement to the world of that country’s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation. Without the Additional Protocol (AP) it is possible, as demonstrated in Iraq, for a country party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to clandestinely work toward nuclear weapons and be undetected by the IAEA. This is because classical safeguards under the NPT are directed at diversion of nuclear material from declared activities. But a country may instead build undeclared activities to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. The AP is directed at detecting those undeclared activities. As of May 2003, 73 countries had signed the AP, but only 35 have entered into force. To further adherence to the AP, the IAEA has held regional, high-level seminars in Japan, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Peru, Romania, and Malaysia to explain AP provisions. To supplement these policy-level seminars, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken to develop a set of modules of technical competencies required to implement the AP. The intent is to work closely with the IAEA by providing these technical competencies to countries as well as to complement the IAEA’s regional seminars and other outreach efforts. This paper briefly describes the technical competency modules.

  5. The US Support program to IAEA Safeguards - 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.

    2008-06-09

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) was established in 1977 to provide technical assistance to the IAEA Department of Safeguards. Since that time the U.S. Department of State has provided funding of over $200 million and over 900 tasks have been completed by USSP contractors on behalf of the KEA. The USSP is directed by a U.S. interagency subcommittee known as the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) and is managed by the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In recent years, the SSTS and ISPO have identified priorities to guide the process of determining which IAEA requests are aligned with US. policy and will be funded. The USSP priorities are reviewed and updated prior to the USSP Annual Review Meeting which is hosted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) each spring in Vienna, Austria. This paper will report on the 2008 USSP priorities and be an introduction for a session which will consist of four papers on USSP priorities and four other papers related to USSP activities.

  6. Intercomparison of techniques available at INETI in the analysis of two IAEA candidate research materials.

    PubMed

    Freitas, M C; Afonso, M H; Almeida, C; Alves, L C; Araújo, M F; Barreiros, M A; Seabra e Barros, J; Costa, M B; Gouveia, M A; Reis, M A

    1994-01-01

    Under contract with the IAEA, the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri was collected to prepare a multielement lichen reference material for quality assurance of environmental studies. An intercomparison run on trace and minor elements in this candidate research material (IAEA-336) was organized in which six analytical groups of the National Institute of Engineering and Industrial Technology (INETI) took part. INAA, PIXE, XRF, AAS, and ICP-ES were applied. The results obtained by different methods are compared, and their complementarity is discussed. As a quality control, the IAEA cabbage research material (IAEA-359) was analyzed. The results agree quite well with the estimated values given by the IAEA.

  7. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Saulsbury, Bo; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to

  8. Characterisation of the IAEA-152 milk powder reference material for radioactivity with assigned values traceable to the SI units.

    PubMed

    Altzitzoglou, T; Bohnstedt, A

    2008-11-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to SI units. The purpose of the work described in this article was to establish traceability to the International System of Units (SI) of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (40)K, and (90)Sr in the IAEA-152 milk powder RM. The choice of the particular RM was based on the concern about radioactivity levels in foodstuff. The sample preparation and the assaying of the activity concentrations in the milk powder, the methods used to achieve instrument calibrations and measurements traceable to the SI units, the data reduction and analysis, and finally, the results obtained are presented.

  9. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fančovičová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-10-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.

  10. Initial assessment of an airborne Ku-band polarimetric SAR.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01

    Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been used for a variety of dual-use research applications since the 1940s. By measuring the direction of the electric field vector from radar echoes, polarimetry may enhance an analysts understanding of scattering effects for both earth monitoring and tactical surveillance missions. Polarimetry may provide insight into surface types, materials, or orientations for natural and man-made targets. Polarimetric measurements may also be used to enhance the contrast between scattering surfaces such as man-made objects and their surroundings. This report represents an initial assessment of the utility of, and applications for, polarimetric SAR at Ku-band for airborne or unmanned aerial systems.

  11. Microplastics in the Solent estuarine complex, UK: An initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Anthony; Rees, Aldous; Rowe, Rob; Stevens, John; Wright, Paul

    2016-01-30

    Microplastics are known to be an increasing component found within both marine sediments and the water column. This study carried out an initial assessment of the levels of microplastics present within the Solent estuarine complex, focusing specifically on the water column. A plankton net trawl survey was carried out, with samples analysed using visual observation and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The study identified significant quantities of plastics, ranging in shape, with hot spots found at confluence points within the estuary. Though the FT-IR analysis was inconclusive, the nature of the samples indicates the effect of oceanographic conditions on the prevalent types of microplastics found, which in turn identifies key local sources such as wastewater treatment plants and the plastics industry as being the dominant inputs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of Commercial Satellite Communications Initiative (CSCI) studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N.; Kearns, W.; Chapell, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the fixed and mobile satellite services (FSS, MSS) as studied by three contractors: COMSAT, Hughes, and Space Systems/LORAL. Each contractor developed a commercial satellite communications initiative (CSCI) architecture based on the requirements provided them from DOD's Integrated Communications Data Base (ICDB). An implementation plan, recommending an acquisition, transition, logistics, and host nation approval plan, was developed according to each contractor's recommended architecture. In addition, this report summarizes the demonstrations conducted by each contractor and the vulnerabilities inherent in using commercial satellites. This summary information is provided as the foundation for the section on the government's assessment and critique of the CSCI study which emphasizes the highlights and remaining uncertainties from this program.

  13. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  14. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Projects on Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Server, W. L.; Nanstad, Randy K

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted a series of Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) that have focused on irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel fracture toughness properties and approaches for assuring structural integrity of RPVs throughout operating life. A series of nine CRPs have been sponsored by the IAEA, starting in the early 1970s, focused on neutron radiation effects on RPV steels. The purpose of the CRPs was to develop comparisons and correlations to test the uniformity of irradiated results through coordinated international research studies and data sharing. Consideration of dose rate effects, effects of alloying (nickel, manganese, silicon, etc.) and residual elements (eg., copper and phosphorus), and drop in upper shelf toughness are also important for assessing neutron embrittlement effects. The ultimate use of embrittlement understanding is assuring structural integrity of the RPV under current and future operation and accident conditions. Material fracture toughness is the key ingredient needed for this assessment, and many of the CRPs have focused on measurement and application of irradiated fracture toughness. This paper presents an overview of the progress made since the inception of the CRPs in the early 1970s. The chronology and importance of each CRP have been reviewed and put into context for continued and long-term safe operation of RPVs.

  15. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  16. Stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA - the latest developments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Gröning, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2017-04-01

    During the last few years the IAEA has performed works in several directions as following: • Released IAEA-603 (replacement of NBS19) - this is primary Stable isotope Reference Material (RM) used for the VPDB 13C and 18O scale realisation, • Released 6 isotopically enriched (in 2H and 18O) waters, • Performed careful monitoring of LVEC' property delta-13C value. This resulted in understanding that LSVEC needs a replacement. • Taken part in characterisation of 18 new organic CRMs (together with Indiana University and USGS) • Creating collaborations with metrology institutes - focus on metrological aspects of RMs, • As a spin-off of the Technical Meeting on Stable Isotope Reference Materials (IAEA, Vienna 2014) the European EMPIR project aimed to create infrastructure to produce gas mixtures characterised in CO2 isotope composition has been established (NPL, UK and other metrological institutes). The presentation will give details of these works and overview of the current status of RMs production and development.

  17. IAEA Fellowship Program, 1996 report on United States participants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fellowship Program began in April 1958 as a part of the Agency`s Technical Cooperation (TC) Program. Through the TC Program, the IAEA provides technical assistance to meet the needs of recipient countries and to bring about a substantial transfer of technology. This is done by providing experts, equipment, fellowships, and training courses. This report addresses the US component of the fellowship program. These fellowships provide opportunities for research and training of scientists, engineers and physicians from developing countries in the peaceful application of nuclear energy. The fellowships are awarded to persons who are, or soon will be, trusted with responsibilities that are important to the development of their countries. Fellowship awards are classified into two groups, those financed by the IAEA General Fund or the UNDP Fund (Type 1 Fellowships and Scientific Visits), and those offered by Member States (Type 2 Fellowships). In placing individuals, preference is given to applicants from countries that are signatories to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America.

  18. IAEA Fellowship Program, 1997 report on United States participants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fellowship Program began in April 1958 as a part of the Agency`s Technical Cooperation (TC) Program. Through the TC Program, the IAEA provides technical assistance to meet the needs of recipient countries and to bring about a substantial transfer of technology. This is done by providing experts, equipment, fellowships, and training courses. This report addresses the US component of the fellowship program. These fellowships provide opportunities for research and training of scientists, engineers and physicians from developing countries in the peaceful application of nuclear energy. The fellowships are awarded to persons who are, or soon will be, trusted with responsibilities that are important to the development of their countries. Fellowship awards are classified into two groups, those financed by the IAEA General Fund or the UNDP Fund (Type 1 Fellowships and Scientific Visits), and those offered by Member States (Type 2 Fellowships). In placing individuals, preference is given to applicants from countries that are signatories to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America.

  19. The Community Research Scholars Initiative: A Mid‐Project Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Earl; Sehgal, Ashwini R.; Fischer, Robert L.; Collins, Cyleste

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Community organizations addressing health and human service needs generally have minimal capacity for research and evaluation. As a result, they are often inadequately equipped to independently carry out activities that can be critical for their own success, such as conducting needs assessments, identifying best practices, and evaluating outcomes. Moreover, they are unable to develop equitable partnerships with academic researchers to conduct community‐based research. This paper reports on the progress of the Community Research Scholar Initiative (CRSI), a program that aims to enhance community research and evaluation capacity through training of selected employees from Greater Cleveland community organizations. The intensive 2‐year CRSI program includes didactic instruction, fieldwork, multiple levels of community and academic engagement, leadership training, and a mentored research project. The first cohort of CRSI Scholars, their community organizations, and other community stakeholders have incorporated program lessons into their practices and operations. The CRSI program evaluation indicates: the importance of careful Scholar selection; the need to engage executive leadership from Scholar organizations; the value of a curriculum integrating classwork, fieldwork, and community engagement; and the need for continual scholar skill and knowledge assessment. These findings and lessons learned guide other efforts to enhance community organization research and evaluation capacity. PMID:26073663

  20. Recent Data Generation Activities at the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.E.H.; Humbert, D.

    2005-05-27

    The main data generation mechanism of the Atomic and Molecular (A+M) Data Unit of the IAEA is the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). The International Fusion Research Council Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion recommends topics for new CRPs to be initiated by the A+M Unit. A typical CRP has a lifetime of three to five years. At the start of the CRP a Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) is held with the purpose of formulating a detailed work plan. At later RCMs progress on these work plans is reported and the studies debated and expanded. At the conclusion of the CRP the results are compiled in a volume of the journal Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion. Numerical results are also added to the electronic database as appropriate. Normally the Unit has three to four active CRPs, and also holds Technical Meetings and invites individual Consultants to IAEA Headquarters, Vienna for specific tasks. Such activities can result in providing advice on a particular topic, on data for a particular process, or a new capability to be made widely available. Recently, consultants to the Unit have provided extensive additions to the Unit databases, as well as interfaces to run several calculational tools through the Internet. Specific examples will be presented.

  1. Determination of organochlorinated compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment sample IAEA-408. Results from a world-wide intercalibration exercise.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, J P; de Mora, S J; Cattini, C; Carvalho, F P

    2000-10-01

    A sediment sample from the intertidal mudflats of the Tagus estuary was prepared, homogenised and distributed globally to laboratories as the IAEA-408 intercomparison material for the analyses of organochlorinated pesticides, PCBs and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs). A total of 48 laboratories from 36 countries reported their results. The data from participants show that there still remain some difficulties with the accurate determination of organic contaminants such as pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). More consistent interlaboratory results were obtained for PCBs congeners. The final results of this intercomparison exercise enable individual participants to assess their performance and, where necessary, to introduce appropriate modifications in their analytical procedures. Furthermore, as a series of statistical criteria was fulfilled for a number of compounds, the sample IAEA-408 can now be used as a reference material for quality control in the determination of some persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in marine sediment samples.

  2. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): outcomes of an IAEA meeting.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Eeva K; Kiel, Krystyna; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Joiner, Michael C; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Wondergem, Jan; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2011-02-04

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed.ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology.

  3. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed. ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology. PMID:21294881

  4. Implementation of neutron counting techniques at US facilities for IAEA verification of excess materials from nuclear weapons production

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Reilly, T.D.; Theis, W.; Lemaire, R.J.; Xiao, J.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy, announced by President Clinton before the United Nations General Assembly on September 27, 1993, commits the U.S. to placing under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards excess nuclear materials no longer needed for the U.S. nuclear deterrent. As of July 1, 1995, the IAEA had completed Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) at two facilities: a storage vault in the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant containing highly enriched uranium (HOW) metal and another storage vault in the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) containing plutonium oxide and plutonium-bearing residues. Another plutonium- storage vault, located at Rocky Flats, is scheduled for the IPIV in the fall of 1995. Conventional neutron coincidence counting is one of the routinely applied IAEA nondestructive assay (ND) methods for verification of uranium and plutonium. However, at all three facilities mentioned above, neutron ND equipment had to be modified or developed for specific facility needs such as the type and configuration of material placed under safeguards. This document describes those modifications and developments.

  5. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    The National University Hospital (NUH) Tissue Bank was established in October 1988. The National University of Singapore (NUS) was officially appointed by IAEA to be the IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre (RTC) for RCA Member States for training of tissue bank operators on September 18, 1996. In the first five years since its establishment the National University Hospital Tissue Bank concentrated its work on the sterile procurement and production of deep frozen femoral heads and were used in patients for bone reconstruction. The cost of producing these tissues were about SGD$ 250 per femoral head although cost fees were initially charged at SGD$ 50 per femoral head. The most important activity carried out by Singapore within the IAEA was training. Between November 1997 and April 2007, a total of nine courses were conducted by RTC with a total of 180 tissue bank operators registered, 133 from Asia and the Pacific region (13 countries, including 2 from Iran), 14 from Africa (Zambia, Libya, Egypt, Algeria, and South Africa), 6 from Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Peru, and Uruguay), 9 from Europe (Greece, Slovakia, Poland, and Ukraine), and 2 from Australia. The last batch (ninth batch) involved 20 students registered in April 2007 and will be due to sit for the terminal examination in April 2008.

  6. Assessment of postural response after a self-initiated perturbation.

    PubMed

    Termoz, Nicolas; Martin, Luc; Prince, François

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess postural response efficiency to a self-initiated perturbation using an original method based on the inverted pendulum model. Eight young subjects were asked to perform bilateral arm raising and lowering at 3 different speeds while standing on a force plate. The time necessary to recover a steady state following the movement was computed by analyzing the time evolution of the coefficient of determination between the center of pressure and center of mass difference variable (COP-COM) and the horizontal acceleration of the COM. Results show a spatial reorganization (hip strategy) of the segments following the perturbation and a strong influence of the linear relationship to the arm velocity. However, the conditions of arm velocity did not have any effect on the time response of the postural control, suggesting that this parameter would be an invariant characteristic of the movement. These results support the existence of an internal representation of the inertial constraints related to the movement execution.

  7. Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument: Initial Italian validation and proposed refinement.

    PubMed

    Caricati, Luca; Dicembrino, Rita Bruna; Gionti, Luciano; Petre, Lucica; Ungurean, Liana

    2015-09-09

    Italy has become a target of immigration in the last three decades. Accordingly, the Italian population is progressively changing, becoming increasingly culturally different. Cultural competences are a fundamental requirement for many industries and, especially, for healthcare organizations. The aim of this paper is to propose an initial Italian validation of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCAI) and to propose a refinement of this scale in terms of measured constructs. The CCAI was translated into Italian through a team-based iterative approach and then administered to a sample of 289 nurses with symbolic and realistic threat scale and social dominance orientation scale. An on-line cross-sectional survey questionnaire was used. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original two dimensions of the CCAI can be divided into two other sub-scales, thus leaving us with the following dimensions: cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity, seeking information and active behavior. These dimensions appeared to be sufficiently reliable and independent one from another. Moreover, they showed specific and different correlations with other measured constructs. The Italian version of the CCAI would seem to be a useful instrument for measuring both attitudes and behavioral intention of nurses with respect to intercultural care. Using four dimensions instead of two appears to increase the understanding of professionals' cultural competence and supply a deeper picture of dimensions which compose cultural competence in healthcare settings.

  8. US technical assistance to the IAEA and the chemical weapons convection (CWC) - a review and look to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Indusi, J.; Parsick, R.J.; Reisman, A.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper reviews the Safeguards mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and describes U.S. technical support programs. We also review the mandate of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and speculate on the technical areas where U.S. assistance may prove useful. The IAEA was organized in 1957 in response to President Eisenhower`s {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace{close_quotes} initiative presented to the UN General Assembly on December 8, 1953. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organized by a Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) to prepare for the entry-into-force of this new convention which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The safeguards mandate of the IAEA is to carry out verifications of nuclear material pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other voluntary but legally binding agreements. U.S. technical support programs have provided and continue to provide assistance in the form of Cost-Free Experts (CFE`s), systems studies on new safeguards approaches, training, computerized information systems, and equipment for nuclear materials measurements and containment and surveillance systems. Because the CWC just recently entered into force (April 29, 1997), verification procedures of the OPCW are not yet fully developed. However, it is expected, and can already be seen for many aspects of the technical task, that there are many similarities between the verification activities of the OPCW and those carried out by the IAEA. This paper will discuss potential technical support areas that can help strengthen the OPCW. 9 refs.

  9. Professor Glyn O. Phillip's legacy within the IAEA programme on radiation and tissue banking.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2017-08-19

    Professor Phillips began his involvement in the implementation of this important IAEA programme, insisting that there were advantages to be gained by using the ionizing radiation technique to sterilize human and animal tissues, based on the IAEA experience gained in the sterilization of medical products. The outcome of the implementation of the IAEA programme on radiation and tissue banking demonstrated that Professor Phillips was right in his opinion.

  10. Initial assessment and management of pediatric trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    McFadyen, J Grant; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

    2012-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Each year, almost one in six children in the United States require emergency department (ED) care for the treatment of injuries, and more than 10,000 children die from injuries. Severely injured children need to be transported to a facility that is staffed 24/7 by personnel experienced in the management of children, and that has all the appropriate equipment to diagnose and manage injuries in children. Anatomical, physiological, and emotional differences between adults and children mean that children are not just scaled-down adults. Facilities receiving injured children need to be child and family friendly, in order to minimize the psychological impact of injury on the child and their family/carers. Early recognition and treatment of life-threatening airway obstruction, inadequate breathing, and intra-abdominal and intra-cranial hemorrhage significantly increases survival rate after major trauma. The initial assessment and management of the injured child follows the same ATLS® sequence as adults: primary survey and resuscitation, followed by secondary survey. A well-organized trauma team has a leader who designates roles to team members and facilitates clear, unambiguous communication between team members. The team leader stands where he/she can observe the entire team and monitor the “bigger picture.” Working together as a cohesive team, the members perform the primary survey in just a few minutes. Life-threatening conditions are dealt with as soon as they are identified. Necessary imaging studies are obtained early. Constant reassessment ensures that any deterioration in the child's condition is picked up immediately. The secondary survey identifies other injuries, such as intra-abdominal injuries and long-bone fractures, which can result in significant hemorrhage. The relief of pain is an important part of the treatment of an injured child. PMID:23181205

  11. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.; Krass, A.; Kratzer, M.; Sanborn, J.; Ward, B.; Wulf, N. A.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field of nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.

  12. Training activities at FSUE 'RADON' and Lomonosov's Moscow state university under practical arrangements with IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Karlina, O.K.; Neveykin, P.P.; Kalmykov, S.N.; Ojovan, M.I.

    2013-07-01

    The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) 'Radon', in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 15 years. Since 1997, the educational system of the enterprise with the support of the IAEA has acquired an international character: more than 470 experts from 35 countries - IAEA Member States completed the professional development. Training is conducted at various thematic courses or fellowships for individual programs and seminars on IAEA technical projects. In June 2008 a direct agreement (Practical Arrangements) has been signed between FSUE 'Radon' and the IAEA on cooperation in the field of development of new technologies, expert's advice to IAEA Member States, and, in particular, the training of personnel in the field of radioactive waste management (RWM), which opens up new perspectives for fruitful cooperation of industry professionals. A similar agreement - Practical Arrangements - has been signed between Lomonosov's MSU and the IAEA in 2012. In October 2012 a new IAEA two-weeks training course started at Lomonosov's MSU and FSUE 'Radon' in the framework of the Practical Agreements signed. Pre-disposal management of waste was the main topic of the courses. The paper summarizes the current experience of the FSUE 'Radon' in the organization and implementation of the IAEA sponsored training and others events and outlines some of strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years. (authors)

  13. Improving Quality and Access to Radiation Therapy-An IAEA Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Polo, Alfredo; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved in radiation therapy since soon after its creation in 1957. In response to the demands of Member States, the IAEA׳s activities relating to radiation therapy have focused on supporting low- and middle-income countries to set up radiation therapy facilities, expand the scope of treatments, or gradually transition to new technologies. In addition, the IAEA has been very active in providing internationally harmonized guidelines on clinical, dosimetry, medical physics, and safety aspects of radiation therapy. IAEA clinical research has provided evidence for treatment improvement as well as highly effective resource-sparing interventions. In the process, training of researchers occurs through this program. To provide this support, the IAEA works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide through several mechanisms. In this article, we review the main activities conducted by the IAEA in support to radiation therapy. IAEA support has been crucial for achieving tangible results in many low- and middle-income countries. However, long-term sustainability of projects can present a challenge, especially when considering health budget constraints and the brain drain of skilled professionals. The need for support remains, with more than 90% of patients in low-income countries lacking access to radiotherapy. Thus, the IAEA is expected to continue its support and strengthen quality radiation therapy treatment of patients with cancer.

  14. RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.E.; DECARO,D.; WILLIAMS,G.; CARELLI,J.; ASSUR,M.

    1999-07-25

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is important that persons within and outside the US nuclear and safeguards industries become aware of career opportunities available at the IAEA, and informed about important vacancies. The IAEA has established an impressive web page to advertise opportunities for employment. However, additional effort is necessary to ensure that there is sufficient awareness in the US of these opportunities, and assistance for persons interested in taking positions at the IAEA. In 1998, the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) approved a special task under the US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) for improving US efforts to identify qualified candidates for vacancies in IAEA's Department of Safeguards. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) developed a plan that includes increased advertising, development of a web page to support US recruitment efforts, feedback from the US Mission in Vienna, and interaction with other recruitment services provided by US professional organizations. The main purpose of this effort is to educate US citizens about opportunities at the IAEA so that qualified candidates can be identified for the IAEA's consideration.

  15. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised.

  16. Strengthening IAEA safeguards in an era of nuclear cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, R.

    1995-11-01

    Since the end of the Cold War the world has witnessed a remarkable series of events demonstrating that universal adherence to the principles of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament are no longer utopian dreams. The author reviews the actions of various countries to terminate or reduce nuclear weapons programs and those that are resisting the non-proliferation efforts. The author addresses efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to safeguard declared nuclear material more cost-effectively and deal with the possibility of undeclared nuclear activities.

  17. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1980-10-01

    Radiation detectors used for personnel dosimetry are examined for use under IAEA Safeguards as monitors to confirm the passage or nonpassage (YES/NO) of plutonium-bearing nuclear material at barrier penetrations declared closed. In this application where backgrounds are ill defined, no advantage is found for a particular detector type because of intrinsic efficiency. Secondary considerations such as complexity, ease of tamper-proofing, and ease of readout are used to recommend specific detector types for routine monitoring and for data-base measurements. Recommendations are made for applications, data acquisition, and instrument development.

  18. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase II-Preliminary assessment and...—Preliminary assessment and initiation of action. (a) The OSC is responsible for promptly initiating a preliminary assessment. (b) The preliminary assessment shall be conducted using available information...

  19. Laptop Initiative Impact: Assessed Using Student, Parent and Teacher Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Diane M.; King, Frederick B.; Brown, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Several university researchers were invited to assist in the implementation and study of a Laptop Initiative for high school students. This initiative provided laptop computers for 247 students and 24 teachers who were grouped into ninth grade learning clusters at three schools. The research on the program's impact focused on student, teacher, and…

  20. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  1. Guidance on Initial Site Assessment at Corrective Action Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Guidance to be used to conduct Corrective Action site assessment efforts. Informs Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit writers and enforcement officials of procedures to be used in conducting RCRA Facility Assessments.

  2. 77 FR 40893 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Final Stakeholder Assessment and Multi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ....S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Final Stakeholder Assessment and Multi-Stakeholder... (CBI), to conduct a stakeholder assessment as part of the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency... Transparency Initiative. EITI is a signature initiative of the U.S. National Action Plan for the international...

  3. IAEA's role in manpower development for nuclear power in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Csik, B.J.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1985-01-01

    Strengthening the manpower infrastructures in the developing countries that have nuclear power programs or plan to start one is of primary importance. Though manpower development is mainly a national effort, outside assistance is also needed. The IAEA is heavily engaged in providing such assistance through an integral, co-ordinated program employing different means: publications, courses, information exchange meetings, fellowships, equipment grants and expert missions. The program is aimed at promoting awareness of need, importance, requirements and problems; providing guidance for assessment of manpower requirements; assisting in manpower development program planning and implementation; and providing specialized training. Within this program, efforts are concentrated mainly in those critical areas where the need for external assistance seems greatest and where the largest benefits are expected, such as planning, management, safety and quality assurance. The sustained and increasing demand of the member States for such assistance provides a measure of the success of this program.

  4. Using Student Goals Assessment Research in Planning Retention Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Wm. Berry; Melanson, Diane C.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that data from the assessment of students' goals can be used to improve retention by fostering student integration with the college environment. Describes the use of the Student Goals Inventory (SGI) with first-year students at two community colleges, indicating that the assessment program is practical to administer, monitor, and…

  5. Community Based ESL: An Assessment of a Federal Pilot Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Overviews the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission's pilot program for community-based English as a second language delivery. Effective needs assessment was critical to the program's success. Implications for needs assessments, decision-making structures, delivery agencies, time-frames, funding, and program models are discussed. (CB)

  6. Role of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards in confidence building

    SciTech Connect

    Augustson, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, I will examine some attributes of confidence building and connect them with how the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) interacts with its member states in carrying out its safeguards function. These interactions and the structure set up to define them help maintain and strengthen confidence between the IAEA and the member states and among these states. 3 refs.

  7. 49 CFR 171.26 - Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... may be offered for transportation or transported in accordance with the IAEA Regulations (IBR, see... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations. 171.26 Section 171.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...

  8. 49 CFR 171.26 - Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may be offered for transportation or transported in accordance with the IAEA Regulations (IBR, see... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations. 171.26 Section 171.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...

  9. 77 FR 30022 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Stakeholder Assessment Public Listening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ....S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Stakeholder Assessment Public Listening Sessions... the May 18 publication of the United States Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Stakeholder... Obama announced the United States' commitment to participate in the Extractive Industries Transparency...

  10. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM HEAT SETTING CARPET YARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives initial results of a project to determine the nature of emissions resulting from the heat setting of carpet yarn and to identify possible control options. To collect the necessary technical information, two manufacturing facilities were visited: World Carpets in ...

  11. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM HEAT SETTING CARPET YARN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives initial results of a project to determine the nature of emissions resulting from the heat setting of carpet yarn and to identify possible control options. To collect the necessary technical information, two manufacturing facilities were visited: World Carpets in ...

  12. Initial assessment of energy beets in the Southeast Coastal Plain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy beets as a non-food biofuel feedstock can help the U.S. achieve its renewable fuel goals, but with current emphasis on cellulosic feedstocks, there has been minimal research and development effort for energy beets in commercial bioconversion operations. Research was initiated to examine and ...

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for the Military Family Housing Privatization Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Prevention Plan TCE Trichloroethene TCLP Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure TLF Temporary Lodging Facility TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act U.S...Initiative Robins Air Force Base, Georgia concentrations for the following criteria pollutants: ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide...Georgia ● Asbestos-Containing Building Materials (ACBM) – Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral whose crystals form long, thin fibers and which has

  14. Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; delaTorre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Fisk, M.; Freissent, C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory has made measurements that contribute to our assessment of habitability potential at Gale Crater. Campaign organization into a consistent set of measurable parameters allows us to rank the relative habitability potential of sites we study, ultimately laying a foundation for a global context inclusive of past and future Mars mission observations. Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape environments. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. Metrics for habitability assessment based on field work at sites sharing features analogous to Mars have previously been suggested. Grouping these metrics helps us to develop an index for their application to habitability assessment. The index is comprised of the weighted values for four groups of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory support to IAEA environmental safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; Dry, Don E; Roensch, Fred R; Kinman, Will S; Roach, Jeff L; La Mont, Stephen P

    2010-12-01

    The nuclear and radiochemistry group provides sample preparation and analysis support to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL). These analyses include both non-destructive (alpha and gamma-ray spectrometry) and destructive (thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) methods. On a bi-annual basis the NWAL laboratories are invited to meet to discuss program evolution and issues. During this meeting each participating laboratory summarizes their efforts over the previous two years. This presentation will present Los Alamos National Laboratories efforts in support of this program. Data showing results from sample and blank analysis will be presented along with capability enhancement and issues that arose over the previous two years.

  16. Patient exposure tracking: the IAEA smart card project.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M; Frush, Donald P

    2011-09-01

    The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents.

  17. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.; Anzelon, G.; Deland, S.; Whiteson, R.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.

  18. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W

    2011-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including the ongoing

  19. The Role of Needs Assessment for Faculty Development Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Garvan, Cynthia W.; Catalanotto, Frank A.; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the need for faculty development among faculty in one dental school by determining their highest priorities in teaching, scholarship, and administrative and leadership skills; the relationships among their knowledge and priorities for additional training; their satisfaction with current faculty development…

  20. Assessment and Outcomes Measurement: Statewide and Systemwide Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Mary J.; Church, Kathleen

    As part of the final report by the Arizona Board of Regents' Task Force on Excellence, Efficiency and Competitiveness, information on statewide activities on assessment and outcomes measurement is presented. The information comes from a 1986 survey by the Educational Commission of the States, American Association for Higher Education, and State…

  1. Early Results in Capella's Prior Learning Assessment Experimental Site Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    In July 2014, the U.S. Department of Education announced a new round of experimental sites focusing on competency-based education. Capella University was selected to participate in three of the Department of Education's competency-based education (CBE) experiments and began by implementing the prior learning assessment experiment, which allows…

  2. Assessing Precollege Science Education Outreach Initiatives: A Funder's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Debra A.; Hertle, Mark D.; Conley, Jill G.; Washington, Lori B.; Bruns, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an assessment of the collective impact of 35 grants that the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) made to biomedical research institutions in 1999 to support precollege science education outreach programs. Data collected from funded institutions were compared with data from a control group of institutions that had advanced to the…

  3. The Role of Needs Assessment for Faculty Development Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Garvan, Cynthia W.; Catalanotto, Frank A.; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the need for faculty development among faculty in one dental school by determining their highest priorities in teaching, scholarship, and administrative and leadership skills; the relationships among their knowledge and priorities for additional training; their satisfaction with current faculty development…

  4. Initial Findings Using an Alternative Assessment of Body Shape Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryujin, Donald H.; And Others

    Due to concerns that body shape preferences contribute to eating disorders among women, a new method to assess observer preferences for female body shapes was devised. In prior studies women have preferred thin models, but men have preferred models of average weight. In Experiment 1, an underweight female model was photographed in a white top and…

  5. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  6. 77 FR 26315 - U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Stakeholder Assessment and Multi-Stakeholder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ....S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Stakeholder Assessment and Multi-Stakeholder Group... conduct a stakeholder assessment as part of the U.S. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (USEITI... forming a U.S. multi- stakeholder group that will be responsible for determining how USEITI will...

  7. Four Years of Practical Arrangements between IAEA and Moscow SIA 'Radon': Preliminary Results - 13061

    SciTech Connect

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Karlina, O.K.; Neveikin, P.P.

    2013-07-01

    The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon'), in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 15 years. Since 1997, the educational system of the enterprise with the support of the IAEA has acquired an international character: more than 470 experts from 35 countries- IAEA Member States completed the professional development. Training is conducted at various thematic courses or fellowships for individual programs and seminars on IAEA technical projects. In June 2008 a direct agreement (Practical Arrangements) was signed between SIA 'Radon' and the IAEA on cooperation in the field of development of new technologies, expert's advice to IAEA Member States, and, in particular, the training of personnel in the field of radioactive waste management (RWM), which opens up new perspectives for fruitful cooperation of industry professionals. The paper summarizes the current experience of the SIA 'Radon' in the organization and implementation of the IAEA sponsored training and others events and outlines some of strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years. (authors)

  8. Grain-scale stable carbon and oxygen isotopic variations of the international reference calcite, IAEA-603.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kozue; Ishimura, Toyoho

    2017-08-22

    The new international reference material IAEA-603 (calcite) for stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ(13) C and δ(18) O values) was released in 2016 to replace the previous reference material, NBS19 (exhausted). We examined the grain-scale isotopic variations of IAEA-603 for application to microscale isotopic analysis of carbonate samples. Individual grains of IAEA-603 were analyzed with an IsoPrime100 isotope ratio mass spectrometer with a customized continuous-flow gas preparation system (MICAL3c). The individual grains of IAEA-603 were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and their observational characteristics (grain color and size) were compared with their stable isotope compositions. Translucent grains (main component of IAEA-603; grain weight, 4-132 μg) had homogeneous isotopic ratios, comparable with the grain-scale isotopic homogeneity of NBS 19. Their average δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were the same as the recommended values determined by the IAEA. Opaque (whitish) grains (1-2 per 100 grains; grain weight, 8-63 μg) were significantly more depleted in (13) C and (18) O than the translucent grains. Low abundance opaque grains (1-2 grains of 100 translucent grains) have lower δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, suggesting that these grains should be eliminated when using IAEA-603 for single grain (microscale) isotope analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial assessment of CryoSat-2 Performance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingham, D.; Galin, N.; Ridout, A.; Cullen, R.; Giles, K. A.; Laxon, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Following the launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, we have examined the performance of the CryoSat-2 SAR Interferometer over the continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, the Artic Ocean, and, for the purposes of calibration, over the oceans. Our aim has been to provide confirmation of the engineering performance of the radar interferometer, and to provide an initial geophysical validation of the resulting elevation measurements. We have confirmed the engineering performance at system level of the interferometer through performing a sequence of satellite rolls over the oceans, which provide a surface of known behavior and surface gradient. The activity has identified some errors in the SARIN L1b data products presently issued by ESA. Once corrected, the ocean calibration has demonstrated that the interferometer measures across-track surface slopes with a precision of 25 micro-radians and an accuracy of 10 micro-radians, which may be compared with a pre-launch estimation of 100 micro-radians; in short, the engineering performance greatly its the specification. The elevation measurement over the ice sheets combines the interferometer measurement of across track slope with the range measurement deduced from the SAR echoes. We have examined the performance of the range estimation, and determined the range precision to be 19 cm RMS at 20 Hz. We have examined the retrieval of the phase information over the ice sheets, and found the phase estimates to be robust and little affected by the uncertain ice sheet topography. Based on the calibration of the interferometer, the contribution of the across track slope error is, at 0.4 mm, negligible. While the quantity of data available to us that contains the corrections identified by the interferometer is limited, we have been able to confirm the range precision values from a limited cross-over analysis. Over marine sea ice, we have verified the discrimination of sea ice and ocean lead returns using contemporaneous SAR

  10. Assessing regression to the mean effects in health care initiatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interventions targeting individuals classified as “high-risk” have become common-place in health care. High-risk may represent outlier values on utilization, cost, or clinical measures. Typically, such individuals are invited to participate in an intervention intended to reduce their level of risk, and after a period of time, a follow-up measurement is taken. However, individuals initially identified by their outlier values will likely have lower values on re-measurement in the absence of an intervention. This statistical phenomenon is known as “regression to the mean” (RTM) and often leads to an inaccurate conclusion that the intervention caused the effect. Concerns about RTM are rarely raised in connection with most health care interventions, and it is uncommon to find evaluators who estimate its effect. This may be due to lack of awareness, cognitive biases that may cause people to systematically misinterpret RTM effects by creating (erroneous) explanations to account for it, or by design. Methods In this paper, the author fully describes the RTM phenomenon, and tests the accuracy of the traditional approach in calculating RTM assuming normality, using normally distributed data from a Monte Carlo simulation and skewed data from a control group in a pre-post evaluation of a health intervention. Confidence intervals are generated around the traditional RTM calculation to provide more insight into the potential magnitude of the bias introduced by RTM. Finally, suggestions are offered for designing interventions and evaluations to mitigate the effects of RTM. Results On multivariate normal data, the calculated RTM estimates are identical to true estimates. As expected, when using skewed data the calculated method underestimated the true RTM effect. Confidence intervals provide helpful guidance on the magnitude of the RTM effect. Conclusion Decision-makers should always consider RTM to be a viable explanation of the observed change in an outcome in

  11. An initial assessment of haptics in preclinical operative dentistry training.

    PubMed

    Koo, Samuel; Kim, Aram; Donoff, Robert Bruce; Karimbux, Nadeem Yakub

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess novice student perception of haptic-based manual dexterity training. The short-term impact of haptic training in the early phase of preclinical operative dentistry education was also investigated. Dental students performed a class II amalgam and a class III resin tooth preparation in a typodont model at baseline. The experimental group performed exercises on the manual dexterity module of the IDEA™ software using a haptic device. The exercises required removing the maximum amount of three-dimensional geometric shapes within a predetermined width and depth. Tooth preparations were repeated 2 weeks later. A questionnaire survey was given to assess the subjective evaluation of the haptic simulation exercise. Tooth preparations were scored regarding external outline, internal form, and integrity of adjacent tooth. Improvement of overall tooth preparation scores post-haptic use was not statistically significant compared to controls (P > 0.05). However, students found the game-feature of the haptic device made the learning experience more fun and interesting. The haptic exercises with the manual dexterity module software were not superior in improving the dexterity of students for tooth cavity preparations in short-term. Benefits of ease of use and fun learning experience can be further investigated in future studies. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Competencies for public health finance: an initial assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Kathleen N; Kurz, Richard S; McBride, Timothy; Schmitz, Homer H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study in this article was to identify The needs of public health managers with regard to public health finance. A survey of public health practitioners regarding competencies was conducted and a review of course offerings in finance among schools of public health was performed. Most public health practitioners surveyed believe that a broad array of management competencies are required to administer the finances of a public health facility or department. Respondents added 35 competencies to those initially given to them for review. Most added competencies that were more specific than the original competencies or could be viewed as subpoints of the original competencies. Many schools offered no courses specifically addressing public health care finance, with a few offering at most only one public health finance course. All schools offered at least one corporate finance course, and the majority offered two or more courses. We conclude with a number of recommendations for education and competency development, suggesting several next steps that can advance the field of public health's understanding of what managers need to master in public health finance to effectively function as public health managers.

  13. Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-04-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  14. Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  15. Initial Activation Assessment for ARIES Compact Stellarator Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Paige, D.

    2005-04-15

    As the safety assessment frequently requires knowledge of the activation parameters, we estimated the highest possible activity, decay heat, and waste disposal rating on the time scale after shutdown for the compact stellarator power plant ARIES-CS. We selected two widely different systems employing SiC/SiC composites and low-activation ferritic steel (FS) as structural materials. Our results show that components of both systems qualify as Class C low-level waste (LLW) at the end of a 100 y storage period following the decommissioning of the plant. The SiC blanket, vacuum vessel, and magnet offer very low waste disposal rating to the extent that a Class A LLW seems achievable for these components. On this last point, we discussed the split between the Class A and Class C wastes, emphasizing our motivation to lower the level of ARIES-CS radioactive waste.

  16. Assessing precollege science education outreach initiatives: a funder's perspective.

    PubMed

    Felix, Debra A; Hertle, Mark D; Conley, Jill G; Washington, Lori B; Bruns, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    We describe an assessment of the collective impact of 35 grants that the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) made to biomedical research institutions in 1999 to support precollege science education outreach programs. Data collected from funded institutions were compared with data from a control group of institutions that had advanced to the last stage of review but had not been funded. The survey instrument and the results reveal outcomes and impacts that HHMI considers relevant for these programs. The following attributes are considered: ability to secure additional, non-HHMI funding; institution buy-in as measured by gains in dedicated space and staff; enhancement of the program director's career; number and adoption of educational products developed; number of related publications and awards; percentage of programs for which teachers received course credit; increase in science content knowledge; and increase in student motivation to study science.

  17. Assessing Precollege Science Education Outreach Initiatives: A Funder's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We describe an assessment of the collective impact of 35 grants that the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) made to biomedical research institutions in 1999 to support precollege science education outreach programs. Data collected from funded institutions were compared with data from a control group of institutions that had advanced to the last stage of review but had not been funded. The survey instrument and the results reveal outcomes and impacts that HHMI considers relevant for these programs. The following attributes are considered: ability to secure additional, non-HHMI funding; institution buy-in as measured by gains in dedicated space and staff; enhancement of the program director's career; number and adoption of educational products developed; number of related publications and awards; percentage of programs for which teachers received course credit; increase in science content knowledge; and increase in student motivation to study science. PMID:15526066

  18. The IAEA neutron coincidence counting (INCC) and the DEMING least-squares fitting programs

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, M.S.; Harker, W.C.; Rinard, P.M.; Wenz, T.R.; Lewis, W.; Pham, P.; Ridder, P. de

    1998-12-01

    Two computer programs are described: (1) the INCC (IAEA or International Neutron Coincidence Counting) program and (2) the DEMING curve-fitting program. The INCC program is an IAEA version of the Los Alamos NCC (Neutron Coincidence Counting) code. The DEMING program is an upgrade of earlier Windows{reg_sign} and DOS codes with the same name. The versions described are INCC 3.00 and DEMING 1.11. The INCC and DEMING codes provide inspectors with the software support needed to perform calibration and verification measurements with all of the neutron coincidence counting systems used in IAEA inspections for the nondestructive assay of plutonium and uranium.

  19. Can initial clinical assessment exclude thoracolumbar vertebral injury?

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Dinendra Singh; Mitra, Biswadev; Reeves, Fairleigh; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Liew, Susan; Varma, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that all blunt trauma patients, presenting with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of 15, without intoxication or neurological deficit, and no pain or tenderness on log-roll can have any thoracolumbar fracture excluded without imaging. Materials and Methods All patients diagnosed with a thoracolumbar fracture presenting to the emergency department of a major trauma centre and having an initial GCS score of 15 were included in the study. Variables collected included type of fracture, mechanism of injury, the presence of pain or tenderness on log-roll, ethanol levels and prehospital opioid analgesia. Results There were 536 patients with thoracolumbar fractures, of which 508 (94.8%) patients had either pain, tenderness or had received prehospital opioid analgesia. A small subgroup of 28 (5.2%) patients who received no prehospital opioid analgesia, did not complain of pain and had no tenderness to the thoracolumbar spine elicited on log-roll. This subgroup was significantly older (p=0.033) and a high proportion of patients (64.3%) had a concurrent fracture of the cervical spine. Within this subgroup, a clinically significant unstable thoracic fracture was present in three patients, with all three patients exhibiting symptoms and signs of neurological injury or having a concurrent cervical vertebral fracture. Conclusions In this population of blunt trauma patients with a GCS score of 15, not under the influence of alcohol or prehospital morphine administration, the absence of pain or tenderness on log-roll can exclude a clinically significant lumbar vertebral fracture, but does not exclude a thoracic fracture. PMID:22915226

  20. Social Health Maintenance Organizations: assessing their initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Friedlob, A

    1990-01-01

    The Social/Health Maintenance Organization (S/HMO) is a four-site national demonstration. This program combines Medicare Part A and B coverage, with various extended and chronic care benefits, into an integrated health plan. The provision of these services extends both the traditional roles of HMOs and that of long-term care community-service case management systems. During the initial 30 months of operation the four S/HMOs shared financial risk with the Health Care Financing Administration. This article reports on this developmental period. During this phase the S/HMOs had lower-than-expected enrollment levels due in part to market competition, underfunding of marketing efforts, the limited geographic area served, and an inability to differentiate the S/HMO product from that of other Medicare HMOs. The S/HMOs were allowed to conduct health screening of applicants prior to enrolling them. The number of nursing home-certifiable enrollees was controlled through this mechanism, but waiting lists were never very long. Persons joining S/HMOs and other Medicare HMOs during this period were generally aware of the alternatives available. S/HMO enrollees favored the more extensive benefits; HMO enrollees considerations of cost. The S/HMOs compare both newly formed HMOs and established HMOs. On the basis of administrator cost, it is more efficient to add chronic care benefits to an HMO than to add an HMO component to a community care provider. All plans had expenses greater than their revenues during the start-up period, but they were generally able to keep service expenditures within planned levels. PMID:2116384

  1. Initial emission assessment of hazardous-waste-incineration facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, E.S.; Holton, G.A.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Health and Safety Research Division, sponsored by EPA, conducted a study to quantify emission factors from stacks, spills, fugitives, storage, and treatment for a typical hazardous waste incinerator facility. Engineering participated in preparing flowsheets and providing calculations for fugitive emissions. Typical block-flow diagrams were developed two types of hazardous waste incinerators (rotary kiln and liquid-injector) and for three capacities (small: 1 MM Btu/hr, median: 10 MM Btu/hr, and large: 150 MM Btu/hr). Storage reqirements and support services were determined in more detail. Using the properties of a typical waste, fugitive emissions were determined, including emissions from pump leaks, valve leaks, flange leaks, and tank vents. An atmospheric dispersion model was then employed to calculate atmospheric concentration and population exposure estimates. With these estimates, an assessment was performed to determine the percentage of concentrations and exposure associated with selected emissions from each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source at the incineration facility. Results indicated the relative importance of each source both in terms of public health and pollution control requirements.

  2. Assessment of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative: Year 2 Report, Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokher, Christine; Jacobson, Lou

    2014-01-01

    The Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative (FCCRI) is a statewide program designed to assess the college readiness of high school students in 11th grade, and for those assessed as not college-ready, to provide instruction in the 12th grade that will lead to their college success. The assessment used is the Postsecondary Education…

  3. IAEA-447: a new certified reference material for environmental radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Tarjan, S; Ceccatelli, A; Kis-Benedek, G; Betti, M

    2012-08-01

    The environment program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) includes activities to produce and certify reference materials for environmental radioactivity measurements. This paper describes methodologies applied in preparation and certification of the new IAEA-447 moss-soil certified reference material. In this work, the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties of (40)K, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (212)Pb, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu and (241)Am were established. Details of the analytical methods including radiochemical procedures were reported. Analytical challenges and lessons learned from the reported results in the worldwide IAEA proficiency test using this material was summarized and best analytical practices to improve the performance for environmental radioactivity determinations were recommended. IAEA-447 is an important reference material for quality control and method validation of gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analytical procedures.

  4. Radiation processing of natural polymers: The IAEA contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Safrany, Agnes; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2010-03-01

    Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, non-toxic, and biodegradable natural polymers. Crosslinked natural polymers can be used as hydrogel wound dressings, face cleaning cosmetic masks, adsorbents of toxins, and non-bedsore mats; while low molecular weight products show antibiotic, antioxidant, and plant-growth promoting properties. Recognizing the potential benefits that radiation technology can offer for processing of natural polymers into useful products, the IAEA implemented a coordinated research project (CRP) on "Development of Radiation-processed products of Natural Polymers for application in Agriculture, Healthcare, Industry and Environment". This CRP was launched at the end of 2007 with participation of 16 MS to help connecting radiation technology and end-users to derive enhanced benefits from these new value-added products of radiation-processed natural materials. In this paper the results of activities in participating MS related to this work will be presented.

  5. Technology recommendations for pre-screening of IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Steeb, Jennifer L.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories have prepared an analysis of recommended, possible, and not recommended technologies for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. The analytical techniques listed under the recommended technology list are the most promising techniques available to date. The recommended list is divided into two sections: Argonne’s recommended techniques and Oak Ridge’s recommended techniques. This list was divided based upon the expertise of staff in each subject area and/or the instrumentation available at each laboratory. The following section, titled Possible Techniques, is a list of analytical techniques that could be used for pre-screening and prioritizing swipes if additional instrumentation and effort were provided. These techniques are not necessarily top priority, but should not be discounted for future or expanded efforts. Lastly, a list of not recommended techniques is provided to outline the analytical methods and instrumentation that were investigated by each lab but deemed not suitable for this task. In addition to the recommendation list, a short procedure is provided outlining the steps followed for destructive analysis by the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) for determination of uranium concentrations, isotopic content of sample and swipe. Swipes generated for this project will be given to ORNL’s NWAL laboratory for analysis after analysis by other techniques at both laboratories.

  6. Framework for fuel-cycle approaches to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1986-10-01

    In order to compare several nuclear-safeguards verification approaches to one another and to the conventional facility-oriented approach, we establish a framework of the classes of information routinely verifiable by IAEA safeguards inspections. For each facility type within a State nuclear fuel cycle, the classes include flow data, inventory data, and shipper and receiver data. By showing which classes of information are verified for each facility type within three fuel cycles of different complexity, we distinguish the inspection approaches from one anoter and exhibit their fuel-cycle dependence, i.e., their need for sets of safeguards inspection activities different from those required under the facility-oriented approach at similar facilities in fuel cycles of differing complexity. Tables V-1, V-2, and V-3 graphically depict these relations and give a qualitative summary of the relative effectiveness and effort requirements of the approaches classified. The zone, information-correlation, diversion-assumption-change, and randomization-over-facilities approaches depend intrinsically on the complexity of the fuel cycle: their very definition implies fuel-cycle dependence. The approaches involving randomization over activities and goal relaxations do not have such dependence.

  7. Coordinated Research Projects of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-05-11

    The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit is dedicated to the provision of databases for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (AM/PMI) data that are relevant for nuclear fusion research. IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) are the principal mechanism by which the Unit encourages data evaluation and the production of new data. Ongoing and planned CRPs on AM/PMI data are briefly described here.

  8. IAEA activities related to radiation biology and health effects of radiation.

    PubMed

    Wondergem, Jan; Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    The IAEA is involved in capacity building with regard to the radiobiological sciences in its member states through its technical cooperation programme. Research projects/programmes are normally carried out within the framework of coordinated research projects (CRPs). Under this programme, two CRPs have been approved which are relevant to nuclear/radiation accidents: (1) stem cell therapeutics to modify radiation-induced damage to normal tissue, and (2) strengthening biological dosimetry in IAEA member states.

  9. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  10. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  11. Present status and strategic plan for the stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will give the overview of the stable isotope reference materials (SI-RMs) under distribution by the IAEA, its stable isotope laboratory and capacities related to material testing & production as well as future plans. Historically, most of the IAEA reference materials were produced and made available via collaborations with expert stable isotope laboratories worldwide. The IAEA plans include several directions as follows: • Maintaining the scale-defining SI-RMs at the highest level and introducing adequate replacements when needed; • Monitoring existing SI-RMs for any potential alteration(s) and of isotopic values assigned; • Identifying and then addressing the needs for new SI-RMs, with the priority to address the most critical applications (environmental and climate related applications, human health, food safety studies) and newly emerging analytical isotope techniques; • Performing all measurements aimed for characterisation of new SI-RMs and the corresponding uncertainty evaluation in accordance to the latest metrological concepts; • Promoting metrological approaches on traceability and uncertainty evaluation in every day practice of stable isotope measurements; • Expanding the IAEA capacities for SI-RMs by (i) planning a renewed laboratory at IAEA; (ii) enlarging collaboration with expert laboratories aimed to help IAEA in production and characterisation of new SI-RMs. These major directions will help to address the increasing demand for Stable Isotope Reference Materials.

  12. Chapter 2: Assessing the Potential Energy Impacts of Clean Energy Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energy initiatives

  13. Chapter 2: Assessing the Potential Energy Impacts of Clean Energy Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energy initiatives

  14. From ''Star Wars'' to strategic defensive initiative. European perceptions and assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Brauch, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) debate. The implications of SDI for the Wests' nuclear strategy are assessed and the implications of SDI for treaties and for arms control are discussed.

  15. IAEA Isotope-enabled coupled catchment-lake water balance model, IWBMIso: description and validation.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Dagnachew Legesse; Leavesley, George; David, Olaf; Patterson, Dave; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Terzer, Stefan; Carlson, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Water Balance Model with Isotopes (IWBMIso) is a spatially distributed monthly water balance model that considers water fluxes and storages and their associated isotopic compositions. It is composed of a lake water balance model that is tightly coupled with a catchment water balance model. Measured isotope compositions of precipitation, rivers, lakes, and groundwater provide data that can be used to make an improved estimate of the magnitude of the fluxes among the model components. The model has been developed using the Object Modelling System (OMS). A variety of open source geographic information systems and web-based tools have been combined to provide user support for (1) basin delineation, characterization, and parameterization; (2) data pre-processing; (3) model calibration and application; and (4) visualization and analysis of model results. In regions where measured data are limited, the model can use freely available global data sets of climate, isotopic composition of precipitation, and soils and vegetation characteristics to create input data files and estimate spatially distributed model parameters. The OMS model engine and support functions, and the spatial and web-based tool set are integrated using the Colorado State University Environmental Risk Assessment and Management System (eRAMS) framework. The IWBMIso can be used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of annual and monthly water balance components for input to water planning and management.

  16. Using evaluability assessment and evaluation capacity-building to strengthen community-based prevention initiatives.

    PubMed

    Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Yancey, Ellen M; Daniels, Pamela; Mayberry, Robert M; Jacobs, DeBran; Berry, Jamillah

    2012-05-01

    To examine the process of community-campus engagement in an initiative developed to build evaluation capacities of community-based organizations (CBOs). Evaluability assessment, capacity-building, self administered surveys and semi-structured interviews were conducted from 2004 to 2007 and analyzed through transcript assessment and SPSS to identify trends, relationships and capacity changes over time. Evaluability assessment identified CBO strengths in program planning and implementation and challenges in measurable objective development, systematic use of mixed methods, data management and analysis. Evaluability assessment informed evaluation capacity-building (ECB) trainings, teleconferences and webinars that resulted in statistically significant improvements in evaluation knowledge, skills, and abilities. Post-initiative interviews indicated CBO preferences for face-to-face training in logic model development, mixed method data collection and analysis. This report illustrates the use of mixed methods to plan, implement and evaluate a model to catalyze CBOs systematic assessment of prevention initiatives and considerations in evaluation capacity-building.

  17. Automated Controlled-Potential Coulometer for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.V.; Holland, M.K.; Fields, T.

    1998-01-29

    An automated controlled-potential coulometer has been developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the determination of plutonium for use at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Siebersdorf, Austria. The system is functionally the same as earlier systems built for use at the Savannah River Site`s Analytical Laboratory. All electronic circuits and printed circuits boards have been upgraded with state-of-the-art components. A higher amperage potentiostat with improved control stability has been developed. The system achieves electronic calibration accuracy and linearity of better than 0.01 percent, with a precision and accuracy better than 0.1 percent has been demonstrated. This coulometer features electrical calibration of the integration system, electrolysis current background corrections, and control-potential adjustment capabilities. These capabilities allow application of the system to plutonium measurements without chemical standards, achieving traceability to the international measurement system through electrical standards and Faraday`s constant. the chemist is provided with the capability to perform measurements without depending upon chemical standards, which is a significant advantage for applications such as characterization of primary and secondary standards. Additional benefits include reducing operating cost to procure, prepare and measure calibration standards and the corresponding decrease in radioactive waste generation. The design and documentation of the automated instrument are provided herein. Each individual module`s operation, wiring, layout, and alignment are described. Interconnection of the modules and system calibration are discussed. A complete set of prints and a list of associated parts are included.

  18. Lessons from UNSCOM/IAEA applicable to nuclear arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, D.W.

    1995-12-05

    In early 1991, the Security Council of the United Nations tasked the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the assistance and cooperation of the United Nations Special Commission, to oversee the destruction, removal or rendering harmless of nuclear weapons material and capabilities in Iraq. The conduct of the nuclear inspections, and the subsequent activities (identification, destruction, removal rendering harmless), have provided a wealth of experience and insight into the inspection and monitoring process as well as into the political realities of such an operation. The early inspections were conducted in an atmosphere of discovery and inexperience on both the part of the Iraqis and the IAEA and UNSCOM. As time went on, the Iraqis became more adept at hiding and obscuring relevant documents and equipment, and the inspection teams became more knowledgeable about inspection and investigative techniques, and the pre-existing Iraqi programs. A continuous monitoring presence in Iraq has now been established and an import/export monitoring regime is being developed. While steps taken to date have proven effective in inhibiting resumption of nuclear weaponization activities, it remains to be seen how effective these measures will be in the future. The external and internal conditions which led the Iraqi leadership to undertake a nuclear weaponization program have not changed, and the prognosis for the long term is uncertain. The entire process in Iraq has shown how fragile are the tools available to the international community, and how a determined proliferator can evade inspection and monitoring measures. Such measures cannot prevent nuclear proliferation, they can only hope to deter it, or, failing in that, detect it.

  19. Containment and surveillance -- A principal IAEA safeguards measure

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, D.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    The growth of the safeguards inspectorate of the Agency, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a variety of interesting subjects (legal, technical, political, etc.) for recollection, discussion, and study. Although the Agency was established in 1957, the first practical inspections did not occur until the early 1960s. In the early inspections, thee was little C/S equipment available, and no optical surveillance was used. However, by the third decade of the IAEA, the 1980s, many technology advances were made, and the level of C/S equipment activities increased. By the late 1980s, some 200 Twin Minolta film camera systems were deployed by the Agency for safeguards use. At the present time, the Agency is evaluating and beginning to implement remote monitoring as part of the Strengthened Safeguards System. However, adoption of remote monitoring by international agencies cannot occur rapidly because of the many technical and policy issues associated with this activity. A glimpse into the future indicates that an important element of safeguards instrumentation will be the merging of C/S and NDA equipment into integrated systems. The use of modern interior area monitors in International Safeguards also offers a great potential for advancing C/S measures. The research in microsensors is in its infancy, and the opportunities for their reducing the cost, increasing the life time, and increasing the reliability of sensors for safeguards applications are manifold. A period may be approaching in which the terminology of C/S will no longer have its original meaning, as integrated systems combining NDA instruments and C/S instruments are already in use and are expected to be the norm in the near future.

  20. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, F.

    2015-09-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The predictive capability of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations for reactor design and safety analysis can be assessed with sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) methods. Uncertainty originates from errors in physical data, manufacturing uncertainties, modelling and computational algorithms. (The interested reader is referred to the large body of published SA and UA literature for a more complete overview of the various types of uncertainties, methodologies and results obtained). SA is helpful for ranking the various sources of uncertainty and error in the results of core analyses. SA and UA are required to address cost, safety, and licensing needs and should be applied to all aspects of reactor multi-physics simulation. SA and UA can guide experimental, modelling, and algorithm research and development. Current SA and UA rely either on derivative-based methods such as stochastic sampling methods or on generalized perturbation theory to obtain sensitivity coefficients. Neither approach addresses all needs. In order to benefit from recent advances in modelling and simulation and the availability of new covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies are needed for quantification of the impact of different sources of uncertainties on the design and safety parameters of HTGRs. Only a parallel effort in advanced simulation and in nuclear data improvement will be able to provide designers with more robust and well validated calculation tools to meet design target accuracies. In February 2009, the Technical Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (TWG-GCR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended that the proposed Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on

  1. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment must be incorporated into the plan of care and considered in the bereavement plan of care. (8) The... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Conditions of Participation: Patient Care § 418.54 Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of...

  2. World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration sponsored Advanced Resources International, Inc., to assess 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries, containing almost 70 shale gas formations. This effort has culminated in the report: World Shale Gas Resources: An Initial Assessment of 14 Regions Outside the United States.

  3. 76 FR 24874 - Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... AGENCY Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts related to the reissuance of the National.... The EA will evaluate the potential environmental impacts from the discharge of pollutants...

  4. 78 FR 68835 - Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... AGENCY Initiation of Scoping for an Environmental Assessment (EA) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts related to the reissuance of the National..., also referred to as the Multi-Sector General Permit. The EA will evaluate the potential...

  5. Assessing the Mathematical Thinking of Young Children in New Zealand: The Initial School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of assessment policy and practice in mathematics for early years classrooms in New Zealand between 1993 and the present day. It describes the introduction of school entry assessment for children starting school at age five. A numeracy initiative, the Numeracy Development Projects (NDP), for students in Years 1-10…

  6. IAEA SAFEGUARDS DURING PLUTONIUM STABILIZATION AT HANFORDS PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MCRAE, L.P.

    2004-02-20

    The Vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) became subject to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards beginning in 1994 as part of the US excess fissile material program. The inventory needed to be stabilized and repackaged for long-term storage to comply with Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. In 1998, the United States began negotiations with IAEA to develop methods to maintain safeguards as this material was stabilized and repackaged. The Design Information Questionnaire was revised and submitted to the IAEA in 2002 describing how PFP would be modified to accommodate the stabilization process line. The operation plan for 2003 was submitted describing the proposed schedules for removing materials for stabilization. Stabilization and repackaging activities for the safeguarded plutonium began in January 2003 and were completed in December 2003. The safeguards approach implemented at the Hanford Site was a combination of the original baseline approach augmented by a series of five vault additions of stabilized materials followed by five removals of unstabilized materials. IAEA containment and surveillance measures were maintained until the unstabilized material was removed. Following placement of repackaged material (most from the original safeguarded stock) into the storage vault, the IAEA conducted inventory change verification measurements and then established containment and surveillance. As part of the stabilization campaign, the IAEA developed new measurement methods and calibration standards representative of the materials and packaging. The annual physical inventory verification was conducted on the normal IAEA schedule following the fourth additional/removal phase. Plant activities and the impacts on operations are described.

  7. Assessing Outcomes of Higher Education in Colorado: Initial Library Participation in State Legislature Mandated Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Mary L.; And Others

    In response to a state mandate, the University of Northern Colorado (UNC) created an administrative structure, the University Assessment Committee (UAC), to assess the institution's educational merit. Representing the university library was the University Library Assessment Committee (ULAC). The ULAC used two surveys, one for faculty and one for…

  8. Documentation and Analysis of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safeguards Implementation at the Exxon Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Those efforts also resulted in the development of innovative approaches for improving effectiveness and minimizing the cost burden. The experience showed...approaches for improving effectiveness and minimizing the cost burden. The experience showed that IAEA safeguards could be technically effective...services such as the cost of shipping the IAEA equipment to other locations in the U.S. and for providing the IAEA with working standards for use at the U.S

  9. Fuel Cycle Analysis Framework Base Cases for the IAEA/INPRO GAINS Collaborative Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative Project GAINS “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle”, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: “Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy” for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth projection and four using a high growth projection for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel cycle strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel cycle strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel cycle strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.

  10. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS DURING STABILIZATION AT HANFORD PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MCRAE, L.P.

    2004-06-30

    The Vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) became subject to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards beginning in 1994 as part of the US excess fissile material program. The inventory needed to be stabilized and repackaged for long-term storage to comply with Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. In 1998, the United States began negotiations with IAEA to develop methods to maintain safeguards during stabilization and repackaging of this material. The Design Information Questionnaire was revised and submitted to the IAEA in 2002 describing modification to the facility to accommodate the stabilization process line. The operation plan for 2003 was submitted describing the proposed schedules for removing materials for stabilization. Stabilization and repackaging activities for the safeguarded plutonium began in January 2003 and were completed in December 2003. The stabilization was completed in five phases. IAEA containment and surveillance measures were maintained until the material was removed by phase for stabilization and repackaging. Following placement of the repackaged material into the storage vault, the IAEA conducted inventory change verification measurements, and re-established containment and surveillance. Plant activities and the impacts on operations are described.

  11. IAEA Safeguards and technical support programs: POTAS in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, C.J. . Office of Nuclear Technology and Safeguards); Reisman, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) has since 1978 provided technology and technical assistance to the IAEA to support its nuclear safeguards activities. The present level of support, $6.9 million per year, equals 10% of the Department of Safeguards annual budget. During the next decade, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will face new technical challenges in carrying out its verification activities. To help the IAEA acquire the technology and other technical support that it will require in the 1990s, POTAS expects to continue its assistance, both in the areas established in the past and in additional areas dictated by newly identified IAEA safeguards requirements. This paper will look at the political and policy context within which the Department of Safeguards, and hence POTAS, operates, and how that context is expected to evolve over the next decade. The roles and functions of POTAS will be identified and discussed in terms of their historical evolution. Lastly, the paper will consider how POTAS is expected to change during the 1990s, both to maintain effectiveness in existing roles and functions, and to meet the challenge of the changing policy context. 5 refs.

  12. Cooperation between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA Under the State-Level Concept:

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Johnson, Jaclyn M

    2012-01-01

    The role of State and Regional Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSACs/RSACs) will increase within the framework of the state-level concept that is being implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to effectively implement the concept and further establish a state-level approach, which is sought to tailor safeguards activities in a specific state accordingly, collaboration between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is very important. Nevertheless, the implementation of such concept is not simple. Optimal relationship between operators and national/governmental authorities and between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is an evolving process. Benefits of such an approach as well as roles and responsibilities must be made clear to all parties involved. Acknowledging the uniqueness and diversity of SSACs/RSACs is a first step, followed by the implementation of confidence-building measures that result from an efficient communication process, and culminating with a transparent technical cooperation program. This paper analyses various aspects of the complex relationship among all parties involved in the implementation of the state-level concept: operators, national authorities, government agencies, SSACs/RSACs, and the IAEA. The author analyses the intricate network of possibilities to improve cooperation and discusses issues involving the provision of additional and voluntary information by SSACs/RSACs to the IAEA.

  13. A new method to assess temporal features of gait initiation with a single force plate.

    PubMed

    Moineau, Bastien; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Barbieri, Guillaume; Nougier, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether time of toe-off and heel-contact during gait initiation could be assessed with a single force plate. Twenty subjects performed ten self-paced gait initiations and seven other subjects performed ten gait initiations in four new conditions (slow, fast, obstacle and splint). Several force-plate parameters were measured with a single force plate, and actual toe-off and heel-contact were assessed with a motion analysis system. Results showed strong temporal correlations and closeness (r=.86-.99, mean error=3-86 ms) between two force-plate parameters and the kinematics events (toe-off and heel-contact). These new parameters may be of interest to easily measure duration of anticipatory postural adjustments and swing phase during clinical assessments.

  14. Management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: initial assessment, management outside specialised centres and referral pathways.

    PubMed

    Perros, Petros; Dayan, Colin M; Dickinson, A Jane; Ezra, Daniel; Estcourt, Stephanie; Foley, Peter; Hickey, Janis; Lazarus, John H; MacEwen, Caroline J; McLaren, Julie; Rose, Geoffrey E; Uddin, Jimmy; Vaidya, Bijay

    2015-04-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is uncommon, but responsible for considerable morbidity. A coordinated approach between healthcare professionals is required in order to meet the needs of patients. Early diagnosis can be achieved by a simple clinical assessment. Low-cost effective interventions can be initiated by generalists, which may improve outcomes. Moderate-to-severe GO should be referred to specialised centres. Recommendations for clinical diagnosis, initial management and referral pathways are highlighted.

  15. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IAEA Nuclear Data Section: provision of atomic and nuclear databases for user applications.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Denis P; Nichols, Alan L; Schwerer, Otto

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides a wide range of atomic and nuclear data services to scientists worldwide, with particular emphasis placed on the needs of developing countries. Highly focused Co-ordinated Research Projects and multinational data networks are sponsored under the auspices of the IAEA for the development and assembly of databases through the organised participation of specialists from Member States. More than 100 data libraries are readily available cost-free through the Internet, CD-ROM and other media. These databases are used in a wide range of applications, including fission- and fusion-energy, non-energy applications and basic research studies. Further information concerning the various services can be found through the web address of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section: and a mirror site at IPEN, Brazil that is maintained by NDS staff:.

  17. Project plan international atomic energy agency (IAEA) safeguards project plutonium finishing plant

    SciTech Connect

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-05-13

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the PFP Integrated Project Management Plan (PMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP IAEA project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the IAEA project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process.

  18. Equivalency Evaluation between IAEA Safety Guidelines and Codes and Standards for Computer-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, S.H.; Kim, DAI. I.; Park, H.S.; Kim, B.R.; Kang, Y.D.; Oh, S.H.

    2002-07-01

    Computer based systems are used in safety related applications in safety critical applications as well as safety related applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features, certain functions of the process control and monitoring system. In this context, the IAEA released the safety standard series, NS-G-1.11 (hereafter: IAEA Guideline), 'Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in NPPs', in 2000 as a guideline for evaluating the software of digitalized computer based system applied in instrumentation and control system of nuclear plants. This paper discusses about the equivalency between IAEA Guideline and codes and standards adopted by Korea Institute Nuclear Safety (hereafter: KINS Guideline) as regulatory basis. (authors)

  19. Training in Tbilisi nuclear facility provides new sampling perspectives for IAEA inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2016-06-08

    Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control- (NPAC-) sponsored training in a “cold” nuclear facility in Tbilisi, Georgia provides International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors with a new perspective on environmental sampling strategies. Sponsored by the Nuclear Safeguards program under the NPAC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) experts have been conducting an annual weeklong class for IAEA inspectors in a closed nuclear facility since 2011. The Andronikashvili Institute of Physics and the Republic of Georgia collaborate with PNNL to provide the training, and the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Embassy in Tbilisi and the U.S. Mission to International Organizations in Vienna provide logistical support.

  20. The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards - How It Works

    SciTech Connect

    Nock,C.; Hoffheins,B.

    2008-07-13

    The U.S. Support Program to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards (USSP) was established in 1977 to transfer US technology and expertise to assist the IAEA Department of Safeguards because its limited budget and scope would not allow for R&D activities and the procurement of specialized or customized equipment. Over the years, the USSP and the Department of Safeguards have worked together continuously to develop and improve processes for requesting, selecting, and managing projects that support the Safeguards verification mission. This paper will discuss the main USSP processes for accepting and processing Safeguards requests, and managing and reporting task progress.

  1. An Australian secondary standard dosimetry laboratory participation in IAEA postal dose audits.

    PubMed

    Davies, J B; Izewska, J; Meriaty, H; Baldock, C

    2013-03-01

    For over 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have jointly monitored activities of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) through postal dose audits with the aim of achieving consistency in dosimetry throughout the world. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) maintains an SSDL and is a member of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. Postal dose audit results at this Australian SSDL from 2001 to 2011 demonstrate the consistency of absorbed dose to water measurements, underpinned by the primary standard maintained at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA).

  2. Evaluation of IAEA Coordinated Program Steels and Welds for 288 C radiation Embrittlement Resistance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    NRC-IN-B5528 UNCLASSIFIED NRL-MR-4655 NUREG -CR-2487T NL SMENEEEh EhhhhmmhhGIG AD -A .1 z4 Cq NUREG /CR-2487 NRL Memo Rpt 4655 m Evaluation of IAEA...3.00 and Na" al Tech 1 Infor on Servi e ingfi Id, irgi ia 1 NUREG /CR-2487 NRL Memo Rpt 4655 R5 Evaluation of IAEA Coordinated Program Steels and...reports and correspondence; Commission papers; and applicant and licensee documents and correspondence. The following documents in the NUREG series are

  3. RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    OCCHIOGROSSO, D.; PEPPER, S.

    2006-07-16

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is likewise important to the U.S. government for U.S. citizens to take positions with the IAEA to contribute to its success. It is important for persons within and outside the U.S. nuclear and safeguards industries to become aware of the job opportunities available at the IAEA and to be informed of important vacancies as they arise. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is tasked by the U.S. government with recruiting candidates for positions within the Department of Safeguards at the IAEA and since 1998, has been actively seeking methods for improving outreach. In addition, ISPO has been working more closely with the IAEA Division of Personnel. ISPO staff members attend trade shows to distribute information about IAEA opportunities. The shows target the nuclear industry as well as shows that are unrelated to the nuclear industry. ISPO developed a web site that provides information for prospective candidates. They have worked with the IAEA to understand its recruitment processes, to make suggestions for improvements, and to understand employment benefits so they can be communicated to potential U.S. applicants. ISPO is also collaborating with a State Department working group that is focused on increasing U.S. representation within the United Nations as a whole. Most recently Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice issued a letter to all Federal Agency heads encouraging details and transfers of their employees to international organizations to the maximum extent feasible and with due regard to their manpower requirements. She urged all federal agencies to review their detail and transfer policies and practices to ensure that employment in international organizations is promoted in a positive and active manner. In addition, she wrote that it is

  4. Assessing personal initiative among vocational training students: development and validation of a new measure.

    PubMed

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Ulacia, Imanol

    2014-11-14

    Personal initiative characterizes people who are proactive, persistent and self-starting when facing the difficulties that arise in achieving goals. Despite its importance in the educational field there is a scarcity of measures to assess students' personal initiative. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess this variable in the academic environment and to validate it for adolescents and young adults. The sample comprised 244 vocational training students. The questionnaire showed a factor structure including three factors (Proactivity-Prosocial behavior, Persistence and Self-Starting) with acceptable indices of internal consistency (ranging between α = .57 and α =.73) and good convergent validity with respect to the Self-Reported Initiative scale. Evidence of external validity was also obtained based on the relationships between personal initiative and variables such as self-efficacy, enterprising attitude, responsibility and control aspirations, conscientiousness, and academic achievement. The results indicate that this new measure is very useful for assessing personal initiative among vocational training students.

  5. "Doing Geography": Evaluating an Independent Geographic Inquiry Assessment Task in an Initial Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The assessment task of the final course in a bachelor of secondary education program is examined for opportunities for preservice geography teachers to achieve the course aims of integrating, consolidating, applying, and reflecting on the knowledge and skills they have learned during their initial teacher education program. The results show that…

  6. Bringing Assessment Literacy to the Local School: A Decade of Reform Initiatives in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Linda R.; Rau, William C.; Baker, Paul J.; Ashby, Dianne E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on 4 distinct Illinois reform initiatives that attempted to connect assessment to curriculum, instruction, and school improvement. Using quantitative and qualitative data obtained from principals and teachers involved in local reform efforts from 1993 through 2002, this study indicates that the lack of development of local…

  7. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  8. Initial Assessment of a Forgivable Loan Program for Pre-service Mathematics and Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas E.

    Described is the development and initial assessment of a forgiveable loan program designed to attract qualified students into a teacher education program to prepare for teaching mathematics in middle or high schools. The program was established in 1983 at Austin College by the King Foundation. Five qualified students a year may be awarded a King…

  9. Bringing Assessment Literacy to the Local School: A Decade of Reform Initiatives in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Linda R.; Rau, William C.; Baker, Paul J.; Ashby, Dianne E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on 4 distinct Illinois reform initiatives that attempted to connect assessment to curriculum, instruction, and school improvement. Using quantitative and qualitative data obtained from principals and teachers involved in local reform efforts from 1993 through 2002, this study indicates that the lack of development of local…

  10. Initial Assessment of a Forgivable Loan Program for Pre-service Mathematics and Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas E.

    Described is the development and initial assessment of a forgiveable loan program designed to attract qualified students into a teacher education program to prepare for teaching mathematics in middle or high schools. The program was established in 1983 at Austin College by the King Foundation. Five qualified students a year may be awarded a King…

  11. Development and Initial Validation of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Benjamin D.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Zhao, Yu; Lei, Pui-Wa; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Li, Hongli; Tate, Robin; Lin, Yu-Chu

    2012-01-01

    A short version of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) was created via three studies. The final short version (CCAPS-34), which contains 34 items and 7 subscales, demonstrated good discrimination power, support for the proposed factor structure, strong initial convergent validity, and adequate test-retest…

  12. Risk Assessment supporting the decision on the initial selection of supplemental ILAW technologies

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-09-29

    A risk assessment on the long-term environmental impact of various potential waste forms was conducted at the request of the Hanford Site's Mission Acceleration Initiative Team. These potential waste forms (bulk vitrification, cast stone, and steam reformer) may treat some of the low-activity waste currently planned to be treated at the Waste Treatment Plant.

  13. "Doing Geography": Evaluating an Independent Geographic Inquiry Assessment Task in an Initial Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The assessment task of the final course in a bachelor of secondary education program is examined for opportunities for preservice geography teachers to achieve the course aims of integrating, consolidating, applying, and reflecting on the knowledge and skills they have learned during their initial teacher education program. The results show that…

  14. Development and Initial Validation of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Benjamin D.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Zhao, Yu; Lei, Pui-Wa; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Li, Hongli; Tate, Robin; Lin, Yu-Chu

    2012-01-01

    A short version of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) was created via three studies. The final short version (CCAPS-34), which contains 34 items and 7 subscales, demonstrated good discrimination power, support for the proposed factor structure, strong initial convergent validity, and adequate test-retest…

  15. Assessing Students' Opportunity to Learn the Intended Curriculum Using an Online Teacher Log: Initial Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Yel, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence supporting intended score interpretations for the purpose of assessing opportunity to learn (OTL) via an online teacher log. MyiLOGS yields 5 scores related to instructional time, content, and quality. Based on data from 46 middle school classes, the evidence indicated that (a) MyiLOGS has high usability, (b)…

  16. Systems scale assessment of the sustainability implications of emerging green initiatives.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Namdeo, Anil; Fuentes, Jose; Dore, Anthony; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Bell, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a systems framework for assessment of environmental impacts from 'green initiatives', through a case study of meso-scale, anthropogenic-biogenic interactions. The following cross-sectoral green initiatives, combining the emerging trends in the North East region of the United Kingdom, have been considered - increasing the vegetation cover; decarbonising road transport; decentralising energy production through biomass plants. Two future scenarios are assessed - Baseline_2020 (projected emissions from realisation of policy instruments); Aggressive_2020 (additional emissions from realisation of green initiatives). Resulting trends from the Aggressive_2020 scenario suggest an increase in emissions of pollutant precursors, including biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide over the base case by up to 20% and 5% respectively. This has implications for enhanced daytime ozone and secondary aerosols formation by up to 15% and over 5% respectively. Associated land cover changes show marginal decrease of ambient temperature but modest reductions in ammonia and ambient particulates.

  17. New Organic Stable Isotope Reference Materials for Distribution through the USGS and the IAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping

    2014-05-01

    The widespread adoption of relative stable isotope-ratio measurements in organic matter by diverse scientific disciplines is at odds with the dearth of international organic stable isotopic reference materials (RMs). Only two of the few carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) organic RMs, namely L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 [1], both available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provide an isotopically contrasting pair of organic RMs to enable essential 2-point calibrations for δ-scale normalization [2, 3]. The supply of hydrogen (H) organic RMs is even more limited. Numerous stable isotope laboratories have resorted to questionable practices, for example by using 'CO2, N2, and H2 reference gas pulses' for isotopic calibrations, which violates the principle of identical treatment of sample and standard (i.e., organic unknowns should be calibrated directly against chemically similar organic RMs) [4], or by using only 1 anchor instead of 2 for scale calibration. The absence of international organic RMs frequently serves as an excuse for indefensible calibrations. In 2011, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded an initiative of 10 laboratories from 7 countries to jointly develop much needed new organic RMs for future distribution by the USGS and the IAEA. The selection of targeted RMs attempts to cover various common compound classes of broad technical and scientific interest. We had to accept compromises to approach the ideal of high chemical stability, lack of toxicity, and low price of raw materials. Hazardous gases and flammable liquids were avoided in order to facilitate international shipping of future RMs. With the exception of polyethylene and vacuum pump oil, all organic RMs are individual, chemically-pure substances, which can be used for compound-specific isotopic measurements in conjunction with liquid and gas chromatographic interfaces. The compounds listed below are under isotopic calibration by

  18. Legal and institutional framework of environmental impact assessment in Nigeria: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Olokesusi, F.

    1998-03-01

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has high rates of urbanization and industrialization. Until recently, decisions on most large-scale projects such as expressways, harbors, industries, dams, and irrigation were considered with an emphasis on traditional technical and cost-benefit analysis. Spurred by massive environmental degradation and persistent community agitation in oil producing areas, environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation was passed in late 1992. The main purpose of this article is to review and assess the content of this legislation and the guidelines produced by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), the institution responsible for EIA administration. Some EIA reports have been prepared and reviewed by FEPA since 1994. There are some positive outcomes and expectations, but some problems have been identified as well, including: deliberate restriction of public involvement and participation by proponents and/or their consultants, interagency conflict leading to high cost and project delays especially in the oil industry, and restriction of public access to final EIA reports. These are discussed, and recommendations for improving the process are made.

  19. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu speaks to the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation

    ScienceCinema

    Secretary Chu

    2016-07-12

    On Sept. 14, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addressed the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation. Chu is the first Cabinet official to discuss President Obama's nuclear security and nonproliferation agenda outside the United States since the President delivered his landmark speech in Prague in April 2009.

  20. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Training and Human Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Queirolo,A.

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) priority of training and human resources is aimed at providing the Department of Safeguards with an appropriate mixture of regular staff and extrabudgetary experts who are qualified to meet the IAEA's technical needs and to provide personnel with appropriate instruction to improve the technical basis and specific skills needed to perform their job functions. The equipment and methods used in inspection activities are unique, complex, and evolving. New and experienced safeguards inspectors need timely and effective training to perform required tasks and to learn new skills prescribed by new safeguards policies or agreements. The role of the inspector has changed from that of strictly an accountant to include that of a detective. New safeguards procedures are being instituted, and therefore, experienced inspectors must be educated on these new procedures. The USSP also recognizes the need for training safeguards support staff, particularly those who maintain and service safeguards equipment (SGTS), and those who perform information collection and analysis (SGIM). The USSP is committed to supporting the IAEA with training to ensure the effectiveness of all staff members and will continue to offer its assistance in the development and delivery of basic, refresher, and advanced training courses. This paper will discuss the USSP ongoing support in the area of training and IAEA staffing.

  1. Safety of evolutionary and innovative nuclear reactors: IAEA activities and world efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2004-07-01

    'Defence in Depth' approach constitutes the basis of the IAEA safety standards for nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from the current generation of reactors suggest that, for the next generation of reactor designs, the Defence in Depth philosophy should be retained, and that its implementation should be guided by the probabilistic insights. Recent developments in the area of general safety requirements based on Defence in Depth approach are examined and summarized. Global efforts to harmonize safety requirements for evolutionary nuclear power plants have involved many countries and organizations such as IAEA, US EPRI and European Utility EUR Organization. In recent years, developments of innovative nuclear power plants are also being discussed. The IAEA is currently developing a safety approach specifically for innovative nuclear reactors. This approach will eventually lead to a proposal of safety requirements for innovative reactors. Such activities related to safety requirements of evolutionary and innovative reactors are introduced. Various evolutionary and innovative reactor designs are reported in the world. The safety design features of evolutionary large LWRs, innovative LWRs, Modular High Temperature Gas Reactors and Small Liquid Metal Cooled LMRs are also introduced. Enhanced safety features proposed in such reactors are discussed and summarized according to the levels of Defence in Depth. For future nuclear plants, international cooperation and harmonization, especially in the area of safety, appear to be inevitable. Based on the past experience with many member states, the IAEA believes itself to be the uniquely positioned international organization to play this key role. (authors)

  2. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  3. Implementation of IAEA /1/INT/054 Project in Nuclear Analytical Techniques Group of Argentina: Current State

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, Resnizky; Rita, Pla; Alba, Zaretzky

    2008-08-14

    This paper presents the implementation of the training received through the IAEA Project 'Preparation of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Tests Rounds' in the Nuclear Analytical (NAT) Group of CNEA. Special emphasis is done on those activities related to the first Proficiency Test being carried out by the NAT Group.

  4. Project Management Plan (PMP) for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Project

    SciTech Connect

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-09-14

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the PFP IAEA project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP) HNF-3617 Rev 0.

  5. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu speaks to the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation

    SciTech Connect

    Secretary Chu

    2009-09-15

    On Sept. 14, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addressed the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation. Chu is the first Cabinet official to discuss President Obama's nuclear security and nonproliferation agenda outside the United States since the President delivered his landmark speech in Prague in April 2009.

  6. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R J

    2011-01-05

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  7. Implementation of IAEA /1/INT/054 Project in Nuclear Analytical Techniques Group of Argentina: Current State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sara, Resnizky; Rita, Plá; Alba, Zaretzky

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the training received through the IAEA Project "Preparation of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Tests Rounds" in the Nuclear Analytical (NAT) Group of CNEA. Special emphasis is done on those activities related to the first Proficiency Test being carried out by the NAT Group.

  8. 10 CFR 75.32 - Initial inventory report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Initial inventory report. 75.32 Section 75.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.32 Initial inventory report. (a) The initial inventory reporting date shall be...

  9. 10 CFR 75.32 - Initial inventory report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial inventory report. 75.32 Section 75.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.32 Initial inventory report. (a) The initial inventory reporting date shall be...

  10. 10 CFR 75.32 - Initial inventory report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial inventory report. 75.32 Section 75.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Reports § 75.32 Initial inventory report. (a) The initial inventory reporting date shall be...

  11. Opportunities to more fully utilize safeguards information reported to the IAEA at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, James R; Whitaker, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase transparency and to strengthen IAEA safeguards, more countries are adopting practices that provide the IAEA with more timely, safeguards-relevant information to confirm nuclear operations are as declared. At Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) potential examples include installing unattended IAEA instruments that transmit selected information back to Vienna, instruments that collect and store measurement information on-site, and daily facility operator submissions of material receipts, shipments, or utilization of key operational systems (e.g., UF6 feed stations) to on-site mail boxes. Recently the IAEA has implemented the use of on-site mailbox systems supplemented with short notice or unannounced inspections to maintain effectiveness without significantly increasing the number of inspection days. While these measures significantly improves the IAEA’s effectiveness, we have identified several opportunities for how the use of this information could be improved and how some additional information would further improve safeguards. This paper presents concepts for how the safeguards information currently collected at GCEPs could be more effectively utilized through enhancing the way that raw data is displayed visually so that it is more intuitive to the inspector and provides for more effective inspection planning and execution, comparing information with previous IAEA inspection activities (lists of previous verified inventory), through comparing data with operator supplied data when inspectors arrive (notional inventory change reports), and through evaluating the data over time to provide even greater confidence in the data and operations as declared in between inspections. This paper will also discuss several potential improvements to the submissions themselves, such as including occupancy information about product and tails stations and including weight information for each station.

  12. Cost-effective initial assessment strategies for thyroid nodules in iodine-adequate areas.

    PubMed

    Cai, Haidong; Qiao, Yu; Huang, Xiao; Sun, Ming; Luo, Qiong; Yuan, Xueyu; Yang, Yuehua; Mao, Weiqing; Lv, Zhongwei

    2017-01-01

    In the initial assessment of thyroid nodules, thyrotropin (TSH) has very low sensitivity for assessing functional thyroid nodules (FTNs). The false negativity in FTNs and the false positivity in non-FTNs misinterpreted by TSH will raise unnecessary assessment costs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the values of the TSH and color flow Doppler sonography (CFDS) combined strategies in reducing the unnecessary assessment costs. 2383 patients with thyroid nodules were retrospectively analyzed, including 107 FTNs and 2276 non-FTNs. Four strategies including TSH, CFDS, Combination 1 (TSH+/CFDS+, TSH+/CFDS-, and TSH-/CFDS+ defined as positive; TSH-/CFDS- defined as negative) and Combination 2 (TSH+/CFDS+ defined as positive; TSH+/CFDS-, TSH-/CFDS+, and TSH-/CFDS- defined as negative) were separately used for initial assessment. The four strategies were compared using the testing cost ratio of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to thyroid scintigraphy (TS) (marked as CFNA/TS) as main outcome measure. Compared with TSH, Combination 1 prevented 15.89 % of FTNs from unnecessary FNA, but increased the number of non-FTNs subjected to unnecessary (99m)Tc-TS by 9.31 %. Combination 2 prevented 5.32 % of non-FTNs from unnecessary TS, but increased the number of FTNs subjected to unnecessary FNA by 18.69 %. When CFNA/TS was <6.05, the lowest total cost was found in Combination 2. The TSH and Combination 1 were optimal at 6.05 ≤ CFNA/TS ≤ 12.47 and CFNA/TS > 12.47, respectively. The combined strategies can be used to supplement TSH in the initial assessment of thyroid nodules in iodine-adequate areas, depending on the testing costs of FNA and TS.

  13. Clinical Mentorship of Nurse Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy in Khayelitsha, South Africa: A Quality of Care Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Green, Ann; de Azevedo, Virginia; Patten, Gabriela; Davies, Mary-Ann; Ibeto, Mary; Cox, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To combat the AIDS epidemic and increase HIV treatment access, the South African government implemented a nurse-based, doctor-supported model of care that decentralizes administration of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV positive patients through nurse initiated and managed ART. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) implemented a mentorship programme to ensure successful task-shifting, subsequently assessing the quality of clinical care provided by nurses. Methods A before-after cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses completing the mentorship programme in Khayelitsha, South Africa, from February 2011-September 2012. Routine clinical data from 229 patient folders and 21 self-assessment questionnaires was collected to determine the number of patients initiated on ART by nurses; quality of ART management before-after mentorship; patient characteristics for doctor and nurse ART initiations; and nurse self-assessments after mentorship. Results Twenty one nurses were authorized by one nurse mentor with one part-time medical officer's support, resulting in nurses initiating 77% of ART eligible patients. Improvements in ART management were found for drawing required bloods (91% vs 99%, p = 0.03), assessing adherence (50% vs 78%, p<0.001) and WHO staging (63% vs 91%, p<0.001). Nurse ART initiation indicators were successfully completed at 95–100% for 11 of 16 indicators: clinical presentation; patient weight; baseline blood work (CD4, creatinine, haemoglobin); STI screening; WHO stage, correlating medical history; medications prescribed appropriately; ART start date; and documented return date. Doctors initiated more patients with TB/HIV co-infection and WHO Stage 3 and 4 disease than nurses. Nurse confidence improved for managing HIV-infected children and pregnant women, blood result interpretation and long-term side effects. Conclusions Implementation of a clinical mentorship programme in Khayelitsha led to nurse initiation of a majority of

  14. Rapid assessment and initial patient treatment team -- a way forward for emergency care.

    PubMed

    Cronin, J G; Wright, J

    2005-04-01

    As a consequence of the UK Department of Health drive to introduce the 4-h emergency care target acute trusts have attempted to initialize a myriad of programmes to improve the patients' experience in this sector. Changes to how patients are managed and the flow that they enter within the emergency care system have become a popular option. This paper seeks to explore the concept of the Rapid Assessment and Initial Patient Treatment team (RAPT) within the Accident and Emergency (A and E) environment. We intend to provide information for readers who may be considering introducing such teams. The paper will explore the initial practical difficulties that were encountered. We will explore associated benefits for the RAPT approach including improved teamwork, better communication with the family, avoiding unnecessary duplication of work and discuss the benefits of having a direct referral process in place for emergency patients.

  15. Incorporating Preliminary Mental Health Assessment in the Initial Healthcare for Refugees in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, AbdulKareem; West, Bernadette; Fox, Anne; Savin, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to assess the feasibility of introducing a mental health screening tool into the initial health care assessment for refugees in New Jersey, US. A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of professionals providing refugee health care in New Jersey and in a number of other states. There is a widespread appreciation of the need to consider the mental and emotional issues of the refugees as a priority in healthcare services. A mental health screening tool is required for practice in NJ. Community resources should be coupled with early screening for better refugee mental health outcomes.

  16. Initial emergency medical dispatching and prehospital needs assessment: a prospective study of the Swedish ambulance service.

    PubMed

    Hjälte, Lena; Suserud, Björn-Ove; Herlitz, Johan; Karlberg, Ingvar

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the setting of priorities and patients' need for the ambulance service. A prospective, consecutive study was conducted during a 6-week period. The ambulance staff completed a questionnaire assessing each patient's need for prehospital care. In addition to the questionnaire, data were extracted from the ambulance medical records for each case. The study included 1977 ambulance assignments. The results show that there is a substantial safety margin in the priority assessments made by the emergency medical dispatch operators, where the ambulance staff support the safety margin for initial priorities, despite the lack of at-the-scene confirmation. At-the-scene assessments indicated that 10% of all patients had potentially life-threatening conditions or no signs of life, but the advanced life support units were not systematically involved in these serious cases. The results even showed that one-third of the patients for whom an ambulance was assigned did not need the ambulance service according to the assessment made by the ambulance staff. Using the criteria-based dispatch protocol, the personnel at the emergency medical dispatch centres work with a safety margin in their priority assessments for ambulance response. Generally, this 'overtriage' and safety margin for initial priority settings were supported as appropriate by the ambulance staff. According to the judgement of the ambulance staff, one-third of all the patients who were assigned an ambulance response did not require ambulance transport.

  17. Assessment of self-efficacy to employ self-initiated pornography use-reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Shane W; Rosenberg, Harold; Tompsett, Carolyn J

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated several psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire designed to assess individuals' self-efficacy (from 0% to 100%) to employ self-initiated cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the frequency and duration of their pornography use. Using a web-based data collection procedure, we recruited 1298 male users of pornography to complete questionnaires assessing hypersexuality, pornography use history, and general self-efficacy. Based on a principal component analysis and examination of inter-item correlations, we deleted 13 items from the initial pool of 21 strategies. The resulting 8-item questionnaire had excellent internal consistency reliability, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation considered indicative of unidimensionality. In support of criterion validity, self-efficacy to employ use-reduction strategies was significantly associated with the frequency with which participants used pornography, with scores on a measure of hypersexuality, and with the number of times one had attempted to cut back using pornography. In support of discriminant validity, we found that pornography use-reduction self-efficacy scores were not strongly correlated with general self-efficacy. Both researchers and clinicians could use this questionnaire to assess pornography users' confidence to employ self-initiated strategies intended to reduce the duration and frequency with which they use pornography. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Approach to IAEA material-balance verification with intermittent inspection at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.

    1984-05-18

    This paper describes a potential approach by which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) might verify the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) for the circumstance in which the IAEA inspections occur on an intermittent basis. The verification approach is a variation of the standard IAEA attributes/variables measurement-verification method. This alternative approach is useful and applicable at the Portsmouth GCEP, which will ship all its product and tails UF/sub 6/ to United States facilities not eligible for IAEA safeguards. The paper reviews some of the relevant results of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), describes the standard IAEA material-balance-verification approach for bulk-handling facilities, and provides the procedures to be followed in handling and processing UF/sub 6/ cylinders at the Portsmouth GCEP. The paper then discusses the assumptions made in the approach, and derives a formula for the probability with which the IAEA could detect the diversion of a significant quantity of uranium (75 kg of U-235 in depleted, normal, and low-enriched uranium) if this method were applied. The paper also provides numerical examples of IAEA detection probability should the operator divert uranium from the feed, product, or tails streams for the Portsmouth GCEP with a capacity of 1100 tonnes of separative work per year.

  19. Initial Assessment of Open Rotor Propulsion Applied to an Advanced Single-Aisle Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or propfans, to subsonic transport aircraft received significant attention and research in the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Recent volatility in fuel prices and concern for aviation s environmental impact have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion, and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Unfortunately, in the two decades that have passed since open rotor concepts were thoroughly investigated, NASA has lost experience and expertise in this technology area. This paper describes initial efforts to re-establish NASA s capability to assess aircraft designs with open rotor propulsion. Specifically, methodologies for aircraft-level sizing, performance analysis, and system-level noise analysis are described. Propulsion modeling techniques have been described in a previous paper. Initial results from application of these methods to an advanced single-aisle aircraft using open rotor engines based on historical blade designs are presented. These results indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide large reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. Initial noise analysis indicates that current noise regulations can be met with old blade designs and modern, noiseoptimized blade designs are expected to result in even lower noise levels. Although an initial capability has been established and initial results obtained, additional development work is necessary to make NASA s open rotor system analysis capability on par with existing turbofan analysis capabilities.

  20. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chapter 4 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers assess the air quality, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and health benefits of clean energy initiatives.

  1. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chapter 4 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers assess the air quality, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and health benefits of clean energy initiatives.

  2. Testing the methodology for dosimetry audit of heterogeneity corrections and small MLC-shaped fields: Results of IAEA multi-center studies

    PubMed Central

    Izewska, Joanna; Wesolowska, Paulina; Azangwe, Godfrey; Followill, David S.; Thwaites, David I.; Arib, Mehenna; Stefanic, Amalia; Viegas, Claudio; Suming, Luo; Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulski, Wojciech; Georg, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a long tradition of supporting development of methodologies for national networks providing quality audits in radiotherapy. A series of co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) has been conducted by the IAEA since 1995 assisting national external audit groups developing national audit programs. The CRP ‘Development of Quality Audits for Radiotherapy Dosimetry for Complex Treatment Techniques’ was conducted in 2009–2012 as an extension of previously developed audit programs. Material and methods. The CRP work described in this paper focused on developing and testing two steps of dosimetry audit: verification of heterogeneity corrections, and treatment planning system (TPS) modeling of small MLC fields, which are important for the initial stages of complex radiation treatments, such as IMRT. The project involved development of a new solid slab phantom with heterogeneities containing special measurement inserts for thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic films. The phantom and the audit methodology has been developed at the IAEA and tested in multi-center studies involving the CRP participants. Results. The results of multi-center testing of methodology for two steps of dosimetry audit show that the design of audit procedures is adequate and the methodology is feasible for meeting the audit objectives. A total of 97% TLD results in heterogeneity situations obtained in the study were within 3% and all results within 5% agreement with the TPS predicted doses. In contrast, only 64% small beam profiles were within 3 mm agreement between the TPS calculated and film measured doses. Film dosimetry results have highlighted some limitations in TPS modeling of small beam profiles in the direction of MLC leave movements. Discussion. Through multi-center testing, any challenges or difficulties in the proposed audit methodology were identified, and the methodology improved. Using the experience of these

  3. Testing the methodology for dosimetry audit of heterogeneity corrections and small MLC-shaped fields: Results of IAEA multi-center studies.

    PubMed

    Izewska, Joanna; Wesolowska, Paulina; Azangwe, Godfrey; Followill, David S; Thwaites, David I; Arib, Mehenna; Stefanic, Amalia; Viegas, Claudio; Suming, Luo; Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulski, Wojciech; Georg, Dietmar

    2016-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a long tradition of supporting development of methodologies for national networks providing quality audits in radiotherapy. A series of co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) has been conducted by the IAEA since 1995 assisting national external audit groups developing national audit programs. The CRP 'Development of Quality Audits for Radiotherapy Dosimetry for Complex Treatment Techniques' was conducted in 2009-2012 as an extension of previously developed audit programs. The CRP work described in this paper focused on developing and testing two steps of dosimetry audit: verification of heterogeneity corrections, and treatment planning system (TPS) modeling of small MLC fields, which are important for the initial stages of complex radiation treatments, such as IMRT. The project involved development of a new solid slab phantom with heterogeneities containing special measurement inserts for thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic films. The phantom and the audit methodology has been developed at the IAEA and tested in multi-center studies involving the CRP participants. The results of multi-center testing of methodology for two steps of dosimetry audit show that the design of audit procedures is adequate and the methodology is feasible for meeting the audit objectives. A total of 97% TLD results in heterogeneity situations obtained in the study were within 3% and all results within 5% agreement with the TPS predicted doses. In contrast, only 64% small beam profiles were within 3 mm agreement between the TPS calculated and film measured doses. Film dosimetry results have highlighted some limitations in TPS modeling of small beam profiles in the direction of MLC leave movements. Through multi-center testing, any challenges or difficulties in the proposed audit methodology were identified, and the methodology improved. Using the experience of these studies, the participants could incorporate the auditing

  4. Development of the Indigenous Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment: Selection of play materials and administration.

    PubMed

    Dender, Alma; Stagnitti, Karen

    2011-02-01

    There is a need for culturally appropriate assessments for Australian Indigenous children. This article reports the selection of culturally appropriate and gender-neutral play materials, and changes in administration identified to develop further the Indigenous Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (I-ChIPPA). Twenty-three typically developing children aged four to six years from the Pilbara region in Western Australia participated in the study. Children were presented with four sets of play materials and frequency counts were recorded for each time the child used one of the play materials in a pretend play action. Twelve of the 23 children came to play in pairs. Both boys and girls used the Pilbara toy set including the dark coloured dolls and Pilbara region animals, more frequently than the standardised play materials from the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (ChIPPA). This study reports the first steps in the development of the I-ChIPPA. Future development will include the refinement of the administration and scoring with pairs of children, and then validity testing the assessment. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  5. Trip report on IAEA Training Workshop on Implementation of Integrated Management Systems for Research Reactors (T3-TR-45496).

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard J.

    2013-11-01

    From 17-21 June 2013, Sandia National Laboratories, Technical Area-V (SNL TA-V) represented the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Training Workshop (T3-TR-45486). This report gives a breakdown of the IAEA regulatory structure for those unfamiliar, and the lessons learned and observations that apply to SNL TA-V that were obtained from the workshop. The Safety Report Series, IAEA workshop final report, and SNL TA-V presentation are included as attachments.

  6. Multi-Functional Sandwich Composites for Spacecraft Applications: An Initial Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel O.; Webb, Nicholas Jason; Yarger, Cody B.; Hunter, Abigail; Oborn, Kelli D.

    2007-01-01

    Current spacecraft implement relatively uncoupled material and structural systems to address a variety of design requirements, including structural integrity, damage tolerance, radiation protection, debris shielding and thermal insulation. This investigation provided an initial assessment of multi-functional sandwich composites to integrate these diverse requirements. The need for radiation shielding was addressed through the selection of polymeric constituents with high hydrogen content. To provide increased damage tolerance and debris shielding, manufacturing techniques were developed to incorporate transverse stitching reinforcement, internal layers, and a self-healing ionomer membrane. To assess the effects of a space environment, thermal expansion behavior of the candidate foam materials was investigated under a vacuum and increasing temperature. Finally, a thermal expansion model was developed for foam under vacuum conditions and its predictive capability assessed.

  7. Comparative assessment of techniques for initial pose estimation using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumant; D`Amico, Simone

    2016-06-01

    This work addresses the comparative assessment of initial pose estimation techniques for monocular navigation to enable formation-flying and on-orbit servicing missions. Monocular navigation relies on finding an initial pose, i.e., a coarse estimate of the attitude and position of the space resident object with respect to the camera, based on a minimum number of features from a three dimensional computer model and a single two dimensional image. The initial pose is estimated without the use of fiducial markers, without any range measurements or any apriori relative motion information. Prior work has been done to compare different pose estimators for terrestrial applications, but there is a lack of functional and performance characterization of such algorithms in the context of missions involving rendezvous operations in the space environment. Use of state-of-the-art pose estimation algorithms designed for terrestrial applications is challenging in space due to factors such as limited on-board processing power, low carrier to noise ratio, and high image contrasts. This paper focuses on performance characterization of three initial pose estimation algorithms in the context of such missions and suggests improvements.

  8. NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility Completes Initial Assessment after Orbital Launch Mishap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    An aerial view of the Wallops Island launch facilities taken by the Wallops Incident Response Team Oct. 29 following the failed launch attempt of Orbital Science Corp.'s Antares rocket Oct. 28. Credit: NASA/Terry Zaperach --- The Wallops Incident Response Team completed today an initial assessment of Wallops Island, Virginia, following the catastrophic failure of Orbital Science Corp.’s Antares rocket shortly after liftoff at 6:22 p.m. EDT Tuesday, Oct. 28, from Pad 0A of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. “I want to praise the launch team, range safety, all of our emergency responders and those who provided mutual aid and support on a highly-professional response that ensured the safety of our most important resource -- our people,” said Bill Wrobel, Wallops director. “In the coming days and weeks ahead, we'll continue to assess the damage on the island and begin the process of moving forward to restore our space launch capabilities. There's no doubt in my mind that we will rebound stronger than ever.” The initial assessment is a cursory look; it will take many more weeks to further understand and analyze the full extent of the effects of the event. A number of support buildings in the immediate area have broken windows and imploded doors. A sounding rocket launcher adjacent to the pad, and buildings nearest the pad, suffered the most severe damage. At Pad 0A the initial assessment showed damage to the transporter erector launcher and lightning suppression rods, as well as debris around the pad. The Wallops team also met with a group of state and local officials, including the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, the Virginia Marine Police, and the U.S. Coast Guard. The Wallops environmental team also is conducting assessments at the site. Preliminary observations are that the environmental effects of the launch failure were largely contained

  9. Initial ecological risk assessment of eight selected human pharmaceuticals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yudai; Nakamura, Yuki; Kitani, Chise; Imari, Tetsuya; Sekizawa, Jun; Takao, Yuji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Hirai, Narisato; Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2007-01-01

    Eight pharmaceuticals were selected on the basis of their domestic consumption in Japan, the excretion ratio of the parent compound and the frequency of detection in the aquatic environment or wastewater treatment plant effluent. Toxicity tests on these pharmaceuticals were conducted using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), daphnia (Daphnia magna), and green algae (Psuedokirchneriella subcapitata). Predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was calculated using lethal or effect concentration 50 (LC50 or EC50) values and no effect concentration (NOEC) obtained in the toxicity tests for these compounds. Predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was also calculated from annual consumption, the excretion rate of the parent compound, and removal rate in the preliminary batch activated sludge treatment performed in this study. Maximum concentrations found in the aquatic environment or sewage effluent in Japan or foreign countries were also used for another calculation of PEC. Initial risk assessment on the selected pharmaceuticals was performed using the PEC/PNEC ratio. The results of initial risk assessment on the eight selected pharmaceuticals suggest neither urgent nor severe concern for the ecological risk of these compounds, but further study needs to be conducted using chronic toxicity tests, including reproduction inhibition and endocrine disruption assessments.

  10. Assessing Patients' Cognitive Therapy Skills: Initial Evaluation of the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Daniel R; Hollars, Shannon N; Adler, Abby D; Goldstein, Lizabeth A; Braun, Justin D

    2014-10-01

    In Cognitive Therapy (CT), therapists work to help patients develop skills to cope with negative affect. Most current methods of assessing patients' skills are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To address this issue, we developed and conducted an initial psychometric evaluation of self and therapist reported versions of a new measure of CT skills: the Competencies of Cognitive Therapy Scale (CCTS). We evaluated the CCTS at intake and post-treatment in a sample of 67 patients participating in CT. The CCTS correlated with a preexisting measure of CT skills (the Ways of Responding Questionnaire) and was also related to concurrent depressive symptoms. Across CT, self-reported improvements in CT competencies were associated with greater changes in depressive symptoms. These findings offer initial evidence for the validity of the CCTS. We discuss the CCTS in comparison with other measures of CT skills and suggest future research directions.

  11. A Pilot Study Assessing Adherence to Auto-Bilevel Following a Poor Initial Encounter with CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Eric D.; Gay, Peter C.; Ojile, Joseph M.; Litinski, Mikhail; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: We hypothesized that early intervention with an auto bilevel device would improve treatment adherence compared to CPAP among OSA patients with a poor initial experience with lab-based CPAP titration. Methods: Patients with a poor initial CPAP experience were recruited for this parallel group, randomized, double-blind, controlled pilot study. After an in-lab titration, patients were randomized with either an auto-bilevel device or CPAP. Treatment adherence and functioning were assessed at 90 days. Results: We enrolled 51 subjects, with 47 completing the protocol. Groups were equally matched for gender, age, education, and OSA severity. There was no significant difference in the proportion of compliant subjects (≥ 4 h/night) between the auto bilevel and CPAP groups (62% vs. 54%; p = 0.624) after 90 days of use. Functional outcomes significantly improved in both groups during treatment use (p < 0.001) but did not differ between groups. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in adherence between the auto bilevel and CPAP groups in this study. Patients with a poor initial CPAP exposure may still achieve an acceptable long-term clinical outcome. Both groups demonstrated comparably significant improvements in functional outcomes, sleepiness, and fatigue complaints over the treatment period. Clinical Trials Information: NCT00635206 ClinicalTrials.gov Citation: Powell ED; Gay PC; Ojile JM; Litinski M; Malhotra A. A pilot study assessing adherence to auto-bilevel following a poor initial encounter with CPAP. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(1):43-47. PMID:22334808

  12. Using fish communities to assess streams in Romania: Initial development of an index of biotic integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, P.L.; Davideanu, G.

    2004-01-01

    Multimetric biotic indices increasingly are used to complement physicochemical data in assessments of stream quality. We initiated development of multimetric indices, based on fish communities, to assess biotic integrity of streams in two physiographic regions of central Romania. Unlike previous efforts to develop such indices for European streams, our metrics and scoring criteria were selected largely on the basis of empirical relations in the regions of interest. We categorised 54 fish species with respect to ten natural-history attributes, then used this information to compute 32 candidate metrics of five types (taxonomic, tolerance, abundance, reproductive, and feeding) for each of 35 sites. We assessed the utility of candidate metrics for detecting anthropogenic impact based on three criteria: (a) range of values taken, (b) relation to a site-quality index (SQI), which incorporated information on hydrologic alteration, channel alteration, land-use intensity, and water chemistry, and (c) metric redundancy. We chose seven metrics from each region to include in preliminary multimetric indices (PMIs). Both PMIs included taxonomic, tolerance, and feeding metrics, but only two metrics were common to both PMIs. Although we could not validate our PMIs, their strong association with the SQI in each region suggests that such indices would be valuable tools for assessing stream quality and could provide more comprehensive assessments than the traditional approaches based solely on water chemistry.

  13. Brain collection, standardized neuropathologic assessment, and comorbidity in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 participants.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Erin E; Perrin, Richard J; Vincent, Benjamin; Baxter, Michael; Morris, John C; Cairns, Nigel J

    2015-07-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Neuropathology Core (ADNI-NPC) facilitates brain donation, ensures standardized neuropathologic assessments, and maintains a tissue resource for research. The ADNI-NPC coordinates with performance sites to promote autopsy consent, facilitate tissue collection and autopsy administration, and arrange sample delivery to the NPC, for assessment using National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association neuropathologic diagnostic criteria. The ADNI-NPC has obtained 45 participant specimens, and neuropathologic assessments have been completed in 36 to date. Challenges in obtaining consent at some sites have limited the voluntary autopsy rate to 58%. Among assessed cases, clinical diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer disease (AD) is 97%; however, 58% of cases show neuropathologic comorbidities. Challenges facing autopsy consent and coordination are largely resource related. The neuropathologic assessments indicate that ADNI's clinical diagnostic accuracy for AD is high; however, many AD cases have comorbidities that may impact the clinical presentation, course, and imaging and biomarker results. These neuropathologic data permit multimodal and genetic studies of these comorbidities to improve diagnosis and provide etiologic insights. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Emily C.; Rowberry, Ariana N.; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2012-07-12

    In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

  15. The US Support Program Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology, Collection, and Analysis 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Tackentien,J.

    2008-06-12

    One of the United States Support Program's (USSP) priorities for 2008 is to support the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) development of an integrated and efficient safeguards information infrastructure, including reliable and maintainable information systems, and effective tools and resources to collect and analyze safeguards-relevant information. The USSP has provided funding in support of this priority for the ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP), and for human resources support to the design and definition of the enhanced information analysis architecture project (nVision). Assistance for several other information technology efforts is provided. This paper will report on the various ongoing support measures undertaken by the USSP to support the IAEA's information technology enhancements and will provide some insights into activities that the USSP may support in the future.

  16. NOTE: Monte Carlo simulation of correction factors for IAEA TLD holders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultqvist, Martha; Fernández-Varea, José M.; Izewska, Joanna

    2010-03-01

    The IAEA standard thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) holder has been developed for the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose program for audits of high-energy photon beams, and it is also employed by the ESTRO-QUALity assurance network (EQUAL) and several national TLD audit networks. Factors correcting for the influence of the holder on the TL signal under reference conditions have been calculated in the present work from Monte Carlo simulations with the PENELOPE code for 60Co γ-rays and 4, 6, 10, 15, 18 and 25 MV photon beams. The simulation results are around 0.2% smaller than measured factors reported in the literature, but well within the combined standard uncertainties. The present study supports the use of the experimentally obtained holder correction factors in the determination of the absorbed dose to water from the TL readings; the factors calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations may be adopted for the cases where there are no measured data.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1983-10-01

    Data have been presented for 35 elements determined by INAA for NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and for 38 elements determined by INAA and RNAA for IAEA animal bone (H-5). The experimental data showed excellent agreement with published values wherever the comparison exists. Additional trace-element data in the ppb range have been presented for the elements Sc, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W and Th in NBS oyster tissue. Also, additional trace-element data for IAEA animal bone (H-5) in the ppb range for the elements Al, Sc, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, lu, Hf, Ta and Th have been presented.

  18. Safety in radiation oncology: the role of international initiatives by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Holmberg, Ola; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2011-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a wide range of initiatives that address the issue of safety. Quality assurance initiatives and comprehensive audits of radiotherapy services, such as the Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology, are available through the IAEA. Furthermore, the experience of the IAEA in thermoluminescence dosimetric audits has been transferred to the national level in various countries and has contributed to improvements in the quality and safety of radiotherapy. The IAEA is also involved in the development of a safety reporting and analysis system (Safety in Radiation Oncology). In addition, IAEA publications describe and analyze factors contributing to safety-related incidents around the world. The lack of sufficient trained, qualified staff members is addressed through IAEA programs. Initiatives include national, regional, and interregional technical cooperation projects, educational workshops, and fellowship training for radiation oncology professionals, as well as technical assistance in developing and initiating local radiation therapy, safety education, and training programs. The agency is also active in developing staffing guidelines and encourages advanced planning at a national level, aided by information collection systems such as the Directory of Radiotherapy Centers and technical cooperation project personnel planning, to prevent shortages of staff. The IAEA also promotes the safe procurement of equipment for radiation therapy centers within a comprehensive technical cooperation program that includes clinical, medical physics, and radiation safety aspects and review of local infrastructure (room layout, shielding, utilities, and radiation safety), the availability of qualified staff members (radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists and therapists), as well as relevant imaging, treatment planning, dosimetry, and quality control items. The IAEA has taken the lead in developing a

  19. A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

  20. A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through Ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

  1. A technology assessment of alternative communications systems for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Spence, Rodney L.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-09-01

    Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) services are vital to accomplish the ambitious goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). A technology assessment is provided for four alternative lunar and Mars operational TNIM systems based on detailed communications link analyses. The four alternative systems range from a minimum to a fully enhanced capability and use frequencies from S-band, through ka-band, and up to optical wavelengths. Included are technology development schedules as they relate to present SEI mission architecture time frames.

  2. The Mailbox Computer System for the IAEA verification experiment on HEU downlending at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, A.L.; Gordon, D.M.

    2000-07-31

    IN APRIL 1996, THE UNITED STATES (US) ADDED THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT TO THE LIST OF FACILITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS. AT THAT TIME, THE US PROPOSED THAT THE IAEA CARRY OUT A ''VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT'' AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO DOOWNBLENDING OF ABOUT 13 METRIC TONS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) IN THE FORM OF URANIUM HEXAFLUROIDE (UF6). DURING THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1997 THROUGH JULY 1998, THE IAEA CARRIED OUT THE REQUESTED VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT. THE VERIFICATION APPROACH USED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT INCLUDED, AMONG OTHER MEASURES, THE ENTRY OF PROCESS-OPERATIONAL DATA BY THE FACILITY OPERATOR ON A NEAR-REAL-TIME BASIS INTO A ''MAILBOX'' COMPUTER LOCATED WITHIN A TAMPER-INDICATING ENCLOSURE SEALED BY THE IAEA.

  3. Sections prepared for inclusion in an IAEA technical document handbook on Designing and Implementing a Physical Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark K.

    2015-11-01

    Two major sections were drafted (each with several subsections) for the IAEA dealing with designing and implementing a Physical Protection System (PPS). Areas addressed were Search Systems and the evaluation of PPS effectiveness.

  4. Assessment of Safety and Long-Term Outcomes of Initial Treatment With Placebo in TADS

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Silva, Susan G.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Rohde, Paul; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Curry, John F.; Emslie, Graham J.; Reinecke, Mark A.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The authors examined whether initial assignment to receive placebo for 12 weeks followed by open active treatment as clinically indicated was associated with different levels of benefit and risk of harm across 36 weeks as compared with initial assignment to receive active treatments. Method Adolescents with major depressive disorder (N=439) were randomly assigned to receive an initial 12 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment with fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with placebo; those assigned to placebo received open active treatment as clinically indicated after 12 weeks of placebo. Assessments were conducted every 6 weeks for 36 weeks. The primary outcome measures were response and remission based on scores on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale–Revised and the Clinical Global Impression improvement subscale. Results At week 36, the response rate was 82% in the placebo/open group and 83% in the active treatment groups. The remission rate was 48% in the placebo/open group and 59% in the active treatment groups, a difference that approached statistical significance. Patients who responded to placebo generally retained their response. Those who did not respond to placebo subsequently responded to active treatment at the same rate as those initially assigned to active treatments. There were no differences between groups in rates of suicidal events, study retention, or symptom worsening. Conclusions Remission rates at 9 months were lower in patients treated initially with placebo, but 3 months of placebo treatment was not associated with any harm or diminished response to subsequent treatment. PMID:19147693

  5. A comparison of the PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes for the analysis of IAEA benchmark transients

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Hanan, N.A.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes are used to analyze the series of benchmark transients specified for the IAEA Research Reactor Core Conversion Guidebook (IAEA-TECDOC-643, Vol. 3). The computed results for these loss-of-flow and reactivity insertion transients with scram are in excellent agreement and agree well with the earlier results reported in the guidebook. Attempts to also compare RELAP5/MOD3 with the SPERT series of experiments are in progress.

  6. Technical results of Y-12/IAEA field trial of remote monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Corbell, B.H.; Whitaker, J.M.; Welch, J.

    1997-08-01

    A Remote Monitoring System (RMS) field trial has been conducted with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The RMS included a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies which provide containment seals, video monitoring, radiation asset measurements, and container identification data to the on-site DAS (Data Acquisition System) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LonWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information was transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines. The technologies tested in the remote monitoring environment are the RadCouple, RadSiP, and SmartShelf sensors from the ORSENS (Oak Ridge Sensors for Enhancing Nuclear Safeguards) technologies; the AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System) motion sensor (AMS), AIMS fiber-optic seal (AFOS), ICAM (Image Compression and Authentication Module) video surveillance system, DAS (Data Acquisition System), and DIRS (Data and Image Review Station) from Sandia; and the AssetLAN identification tag, VACOSS-S seal, and Gemini digital surveillance system from Aquila. The field trial was conducted from October 1996 through May 1997. Tests were conducted during the monthly IAEA Interim Inventory Verification (IIV) inspections for evaluation of the equipment. Experience gained through the field trials will allow the technologies to be applied to various monitoring scenarios.

  7. IAEA activities on atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction data for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit (http://www-amdis.iaea.org/) aims to provide internationally evaluated and recommended data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M+PMI) processes in fusion research. The Unit organizes technical meetings and coordinates an A+M Data Centre Network (DCN) and a Code Centre Network (CCN). In addition the Unit organizes Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs), for which the objectives are mixed between development of new data and evaluation and recommendation of existing data. In the area of A+M data we are placing new emphasis in our meeting schedule on data evaluation and especially on uncertainties in calculated cross section data and the propagation of uncertainties through structure data and fundamental cross sections to effective rate coefficients. Following a recent meeting of the CCN it is intended to use electron scattering on Be, Ne and N2 as exemplars for study of uncertainties and uncertainty propagation in calculated data; this will be discussed further at the presentation. Please see http://www-amdis.iaea.org/CRP/ for more on our active and planned CRPs, which are concerned with atomic processes in core and edge plasma and with plasma interaction with beryllium-based surfaces and with irradiated tungsten.

  8. Private sector involvement in the US program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, S.E.; Epel, L.; Maise, G.; Reisman, A.; Skalyo, J.

    1995-12-01

    The US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) relies on technical expertise found in the U. S private and public sectors. Since 1993, the international Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) has sought to increase the role of the private sector in POTAS. ISPO maintains and continues to develop a database of US companies interested in providing technical expertise to the IAEA. This database is used by ISPO to find appropriate contractors to respond to IAEA requests for technical assistance when the assistance can be provided by the private sector. The private sector is currently providing support in the development of equipment, training, and procedure preparation. POTAS also supports the work of private consultants. This paper discusses ISPO`s efforts to identify suitable vendors and discusses conditions that hinder more substantial involvement by the private sector. In addition, the paper will discuss selected projects that are currently in progress and identify common problems that impede the progress and success of tasks performed by the private sector.

  9. Preliminary considerations on developing IAEA technical safeguards for LMFBR power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P. J.

    1980-09-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles safeguards should be considered in the dynamic context of a world deployment of various reactor types and varying availability of fuel-cycle services. There will be a close interaction between thermal-reactor cycles and the future deployment of fast breeders. The quantitites of plutonium and the reprocessing, conversion, fabrication, and storage methods of the fuel for the fast breeders will have a significant impact on safeguards techniques. The approach to the fast breeder fuel cycle safeguards follows the general safeguards system approach proposed by the IAEA. Objective of IAEA safeguards is the detection of diversion of nuclear material and deterrence of such diversion. To achieve independent verification of material balance accountancy requires the capability to monitor inventory status and verify material flows and quantities of all nuclear materials subject to safeguards. Containment and surveillance measures are applied to monitor key measurement points, maintain integrity of material balance, and complement material accountancy. The safeguards study attempts to develop a generic reference IAEA Safeguards System and explores various system options using containment/surveillance and material accountancy instrumentation and integrated systems designs.

  10. NNSA / IAEA VVER reactor safety workshops. May 2002 - April 2003. Executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Petri, M. C.

    2003-07-29

    Over the past year, the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has sponsored four workshops to compare the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of Soviet-designed VVER power plants. The ''International Workshop on Safety of First-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Power Plants'' was held on May 20-25, 2002, in Piestany, Slovakia. A short follow-on workshop was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, on November 5-6, 2002, to complete the work begun in May. Piestany was the location also for the ''International Workshop on Safety of Second-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Power Plants'' (September 9-14, 2002) and the ''International Workshop on Safety of VVER-1000 Nuclear Power Plants'' (April 7-12, 2003). The four workshops were held in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovakia (UJD), the Center for Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe (CENS), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives of the workshops were to identify the impact of the improvements on the core damage frequency; the contribution to the PRA results of different assumptions about events that can occur at the plants; and to understand, identify, and prioritize potential improvements in hardware and plant operation of VVER nuclear power plants. These objectives were achieved based on insights gained from recent PRAs completed by the plants and their technical support organizations. Nine first-generation VVER-440 plants (nominally of the VVER-440/230 design) are currently operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, Russia, and Slovakia. Sixteen VVER-440/213 plants are currently operating in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Twenty-three VVER-1000 plants are currently operating in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Russia, and Ukraine. Eleven addition plants are in the advanced stages of construction in various parts of the world. The workshops reviewed the current configuration and safety status of each plant

  11. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. Ph.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Louzeiro-Malaquias, A.-J.; Petti, D.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2008-01-01

    Reports were presented covering a selection of topics on the safety of fusion power plants. These included a review on licensing studies developed for ITER site preparation surveying common and non-common issues (i.e. site dependent) as lessons to a broader approach for fusion power plant safety. Several fusion power plant models, spanning from accessible technology to more advanced-materials based concepts, were discussed. On the topic related to fusion-specific technology, safety studies were reported on different concepts of breeding blanket modules, tritium handling and auxiliary systems under normal and accident scenarios' operation. The testing of power plant relevant technology in ITER was also assessed in terms of normal operation and accident scenarios, and occupational doses and radioactive releases under these testings have been determined. Other specific safety issues for fusion have also been discussed such as availability and reliability of fusion power plants, dust and tritium inventories and component failure databases. This study reveals that the environmental impact of fusion power plants can be minimized through a proper selection of low activation materials and using recycling technology helping to reduce waste volume and potentially open the route for its reutilization for the nuclear sector or even its clearance into the commercial circuit. Computational codes for fusion safety have been presented in support of the many studies reported. The on-going work on establishing validation approaches aiming at improving the prediction capability of fusion codes has been supported by experimental results and new directions for development have been identified. Fusion standards are not available and fission experience is mostly used as the framework basis for licensing and target design for safe operation and occupational and environmental constraints. It has been argued that fusion can benefit if a specific fusion approach is implemented, in particular

  12. Welfare Conditions of Donkeys in Europe: Initial Outcomes from On-Farm Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Francesca; Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Murray, Leigh Margareth Anne; Canali, Elisabetta; Minero, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper aims to present the first outcomes of data collected using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys in 20 EU donkey facilities. Three assessors evaluated 278 donkeys. The authors found recurrent issues: tendency to obesity, lack of hoof care and irregular positive interactions with humans. The protocol proved to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude. Abstract This paper is a baseline study to present the initial outcomes of data collected in a sample of EU donkey farms using the AWIN welfare assessment protocol for donkeys, comprehensive of 22 valid, reliable and feasible animal-based indicators. A total of 20 donkey facilities (N = 12 in Italy and N = 8 in United Kingdom) were visited and 278 donkeys of different breed, aged 2–45 years, were assessed. Three assessors underwent a common training period to learn how to perform and score all the indicators included in the protocol. Data was collected using digitalized systems and downloaded to a database. A descriptive statistic for each welfare indicator was calculated. The authors found recurrent issues: 25% of donkeys were moderately over weight; although most of the assessed animals had good quality hoof care, 15.16% of them presented some signs of neglect, such as overgrowth and/or incorrect trimming; 18.05% of donkeys showed an avoidance reaction to an approaching human in the avoidance distance test. The protocol has proven to be applicable in different management conditions and for donkeys of different attitude. PMID:26761034

  13. A pilot study assessing adherence to auto-bilevel following a poor initial encounter with CPAP.

    PubMed

    Powell, Eric D; Gay, Peter C; Ojile, Joseph M; Litinski, Mikhail; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-02-15

    We hypothesized that early intervention with an auto bilevel device would improve treatment adherence compared to CPAP among OSA patients with a poor initial experience with lab-based CPAP titration. Patients with a poor initial CPAP experience were recruited for this parallel group, randomized, double-blind, controlled pilot study. After an in-lab titration, patients were randomized with either an auto-bilevel device or CPAP. Treatment adherence and functioning were assessed at 90 days. We enrolled 51 subjects, with 47 completing the protocol. Groups were equally matched for gender, age, education, and OSA severity. There was no significant difference in the proportion of compliant subjects (≥ 4 h/night) between the auto bilevel and CPAP groups (62% vs. 54%; p = 0.624) after 90 days of use. Functional outcomes significantly improved in both groups during treatment use (p < 0.001) but did not differ between groups. There was no statistically significant difference in adherence between the auto bilevel and CPAP groups in this study. Patients with a poor initial CPAP exposure may still achieve an acceptable long-term clinical outcome. Both groups demonstrated comparably significant improvements in functional outcomes, sleepiness, and fatigue complaints over the treatment period. CLINICAL TRIALS INFORMATION: NCT00635206 ClinicalTrials.gov

  14. Interaction initiatives between regulatory, health technology assessment and coverage bodies, and industry.

    PubMed

    Frønsdal, Katrine; Pichler, Franz; Mardhani-Bayne, Logan; Henshall, Chris; Røttingen, John-Arne; Mørland, Berit; Klemp, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    There has been an increased focus on the relationship between health technology assessment (HTA) and regulatory assessments and how regulatory, HTA and coverage bodies, and industry can work better together to improve efficiency and alignment of processes. There is increasingly agreement across sectors that improved communication and coordination could contribute to facilitating timely patient access to effective, affordable treatments that offer value to the health system. Discussions on aspects of this relationship are being held in different forums and various forms of coordination and collaboration are being developed or piloted within several jurisdictions. It is therefore both timely and of value to stakeholders to describe and reflect on current initiatives intended to improve interactions between regulatory, HTA and coverage bodies, and industry. Drawing on 2011 meetings of the HTAi Policy Forum and the Center for Innovation in Regulatory Science (CIRS), this study aims to describe and compare initiatives, and point to success factors and challenges that are likely to inform future work and collaboration.

  15. An assessment of technology alternatives for telecommunications and information management for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Zuzek, John E.

    1991-01-01

    On the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing, President Bush set forth ambitious goals for expanding human presence in the solar system. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) addresses these goals beginning with Space Station Freedom, followed by a permanent return to the Moon, and a manned mission to Mars. A well designed, adaptive Telecommunications, Navigation, and Information Management (TNIM) infrastructure is vital to the success of these missions. Utilizing initial projections of user requirements, a team under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Operations developed overall architectures and point designs to implement the TNIM functions for the Lunar and Mars mission scenarios. Based on these designs, an assessment of technology alternatives for the telecommunications and information management functions was performed. This technology assessment identifies technology developments necessary to meet the telecommunications and information management system requirements for SEI. Technology requirements, technology needs and alternatives, the present level of technology readiness in each area, and a schedule for development are presented.

  16. The agreement of caregivers' initial identification of children's developmental problems with the professional assessment in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Lee, I-Chin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hui-Mei; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2011-01-01

    Children's developmental problems vary, with some easier to identify than others. The accuracy of caregivers' initial identification of children's developmental problems is important in the timely treatment of those problems by medical professionals. In this study, we investigated the degree to which caregivers' initial identification of children's developmental problems matched the clinical assessment by a team of qualified professionals in a developmental assessment unit of a medical center in Taiwan. The practitioners included a pediatric neurologist, a psychiatrist, a psychologist, an occupational therapist, a physical therapist, and two speech therapists. Caregivers of 943 children (age range: 2-80 months; mean: 37.7 months) who visited the unit for a suspected developmental problem were interviewed about the chief problem that led to the caregivers bringing their children to the unit. The results showed high agreement in the global and the motor domains between the caregivers and the professionals, and low agreement in the cognitive and the speech/language domains. The agreement was significantly related to the caregivers' native origin and socioeconomic status index (SSI). Caregivers with a foreign origin (immigrant mothers) and low SSI were more likely to misidentify their children's problems. It is recommended that pediatric practitioners offer continuing education to caregivers, especially in the domains of cognitive and speech/language development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structured Benefit-risk assessment: a review of key publications and initiatives on frameworks and methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mt-Isa, Shahrul; Ouwens, Mario; Robert, Veronique; Gebel, Martin; Schacht, Alexander; Hirsch, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The conduct of structured benefit-risk assessment (BRA) of pharmaceutical products is a key area of interest for regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. However, the acceptance of a standardized approach and implementation are slow. Statisticians play major roles in these organizations, and have a great opportunity to be involved and drive the shaping of future BRA. Method We performed a literature search of recent reviews and initiatives assessing BRA methodologies, and grouped them to assist those new to BRA in learning, understanding, and choosing methodologies. We summarized the key points and discussed the impact of this emerging field on various stakeholders, particularly statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. Results We provide introductory, essential, special interest, and further information and initiatives materials that direct readers to the most relevant materials, which were published between 2000 and 2013.  Based on recommendations in these materials we supply a toolkit of advocated BRA methodologies. Discussion Despite initiatives promoting these methodologies, there are still barriers, one of which being the lack of a consensus on the most appropriate methodologies among stakeholders. However, this opens up opportunities, for statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry especially, to champion appropriate BRA methodology use throughout the pharmaceutical product lifecycle. Conclusions This article may serve as a starting point for discussions and to reach a mutual consensus for methodology selection in a particular situation. Regulators and pharmaceutical industry should continue to collaborate to develop and take forward BRA methodologies, and by clear communication develop a mutual understanding of the key issues. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Missed injuries during the initial assessment in a cohort of 1124 level-1 trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, G F; Saltzherr, T P; Beenen, L F M; Reitsma, J B; Bloemers, F W; Goslings, J C; Bakker, F C

    2012-09-01

    Despite the presence of diagnostic guidelines for the initial evaluation in trauma, the reported incidence of missed injuries is considerable. The aim of this study was to assess the missed injuries in a large cohort of trauma patients originating from two European Level-1 trauma centres. We analysed the 1124 patients included in the randomised REACT trial. Missed injuries were defined as injuries not diagnosed or suspected during initial clinical and radiological evaluation in the trauma room. We assessed the frequency, type, consequences and the phase in which the missed injuries were diagnosed and used univariate analysis to identify potential contributing factors. Eight hundred and three patients were male, median age was 38 years and 1079 patients sustained blunt trauma. Overall, 122 injuries were missed in 92 patients (8.2%). Most injuries concerned the extremities. Sixteen injuries had an AIS grade of ≥ 3. Patients with missed injuries had significantly higher injury severity scores (ISSs) (median of 15 versus 5, p<0.001). Factors associated with missed injuries were severe traumatic brain injury (GCS ≤ 8) and multitrauma (ISS ≥ 16). Seventy-two missed injuries remained undetected during tertiary survey (59%). In total, 31 operations were required for 26 initially missed injuries. Despite guidelines to avoid missed injuries, this problem is hard to prevent, especially in the severely injured. The present study showed that the rate of missed injuries was comparable with the literature and their consequences not severe. A high index of suspicion remains warranted, especially in multitrauma patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PREFACE: Third IAEA Technical Meeting on ECRH Physics and Technology in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirant, S.

    2005-01-01

    This meeting belongs to a series of topical events which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) organizes in a regular basis on crucial aspects of nuclear fusion research, or related in particular to ITER physics or a technological application relevant to the nuclear fusion reactor. Each Technical Meeting series has a specific object; the events are called on a two-three years basis and are recommended by the IAEA advisory body for Fusion, the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) . The object of the IAEA-TM held in Como, Italy, 2-5 May 2005, was the application in ITER of powerful Electron Cyclotron waves in the millimeter wave frequency range for plasma Heating and noninductive Current Drive. The meeting was the third on this subject. There were 42 presentations to an audience of about 60 delegates from 16 countries. The main goal of this series of IAEA-TM is to bring together specialists of the different branches involved in the project, in the effort of the best understanding of the limits and capabilities of each one of the different fields of research and development. Millimeter-wave source developers, millimeter-wave system designers and plasma physicists, theoreticians and experimentalists in all of the fields, exposed their way of addressing the problem in plenary sessions attended by all participants. Discussions on the different topics of gyrotron development, launcher options and physics application were continued in forums following the presentations. The specialist reader will find in this volume in particular the latest developments concerning the frequency, the output power and the efficiency of the gyrotrons which are now being considered the preferred type of high power millimeter wave generators for ECH/ECCD applications in the fusion reactor. The debate on the launcher of the EC waves, in the form of Gaussian beams, is presently very active, with a few options on the table to be merged in one optimized and integrated design

  20. Scrutinising the Final Judging Role in Assessment of Practicum in Early Childhood Initial Teacher Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qilong; Cown, Paula; Hayes, Joanne; Werry, Sue; Barnes, Ruth; France, Lois; TeHau-Grant, Rawhia

    2015-01-01

    Practicum is the cornerstone of teacher education. Triadic assessment of practicum is an established model in early childhood initial teacher education in New Zealand. Based on a phenomenographic study on assessment of practicum, this paper presents a new perspective on triadic assessment. Interview data are collected from 35 participants (20…

  1. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation: assessing the role of intrauterine exposure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amy E; Howe, Laura D; Heron, Jon E; Ware, Jennifer J; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-01-01

    Aims To assess whether associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking initiation are due to intrauterine mechanisms. Design Comparison of associations of maternal and partner smoking behaviour during pregnancy with offspring smoking initiation using partner smoking as a negative control (n = 6484) and a Mendelian randomization analysis (n = 1020), using a genetic variant in the mothers as a proxy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Setting A longitudinal birth cohort in South West England. Participants Participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Measurements Smoking status during pregnancy was self-reported by mother and partner in questionnaires administered at pregnancy. Latent classes of offspring smoking initiation (non-smokers, experimenters, late-onset regular smokers and early-onset regular smokers) were previously developed from questionnaires administered at 14–16 years. A genetic variant, rs1051730, was genotyped in the mothers. Findings Both mother and partner smoking were similarly positively associated with offspring smoking initiation classes, even after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for class membership compared with non-smokers were: experimenters: mother OR = 1.33 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.67), partner OR = 1.28 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.55), late-onset regular smokers: mother OR = 1.80 (95% CI = 1.43, 2.26), partner OR = 1.86 (95% CI = 1.52, 2.28) and early-onset regular smokers: mother OR = 2.89 (95% CI = 2.12, 3.94), partner OR = 2.50 (95% CI = 1.85, 3.37). There was no clear evidence for a dose–response effect of either mother or partner smoking heaviness on class membership. Maternal rs1051730 genotype was not clearly associated with offspring smoking initiation class in pre-pregnancy smokers (P = 0.35). Conclusion The association between smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking

  2. IAEA programme on the quality of marine radioactivity data.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Pham, M K; Povinec, P P

    2008-10-01

    Society's growing interest in environmental issues requires the production of reliable information for policy-makers, stakeholders and society in general. This information must be based on accurate data produced by qualified laboratories and data need to be comparable between numerous laboratories for joint assessments, e.g. in International Conventions. The Marine Environment Laboratories of the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing Quality Assurance services to laboratories involved in marine radioactivity studies for the past 30 years. This has included training, organization of laboratory intercomparison exercises, production of Reference Materials (RMs) and more recently, production of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) that comply with relevant ISO standards. Here, the overall process of Certification of Reference Materials is reviewed, past work summarized and future needs of marine radioactivity laboratories briefly discussed.

  3. Treatment of Irradiated Graphite to meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal: A New IAEA Collaborative Research Program - 12443

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, A.J.; Drace, Z.

    2012-07-01

    World-wide, more than 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite have arisen through commercial nuclear-power operations and from military production reactors. Whilst most nations responsible for the generation of this material have in mind repository disposal alongside other radwaste, the lack of progress in this regard has led in some cases to difficulties where, for example, the site of an existing graphite-moderated reactor is required for re-utilisation. In any case, graphite as a radwaste stream has unique chemical and physical properties which may lend itself to more radical and innovative treatment and disposal options, including the recovery of useful isotopes and also recycling within the nuclear industry. Such aspects are important in making the case for future graphite-moderated reactor options (for example, High-Temperature Reactors planned for simultaneous power production and high-grade heat sources for such applications as hydrogen production for road fuel). A number of initiatives have taken place since the mid 1990s aimed at exploring such alternative strategies and, more recently, improving technology offers new options at all stages of the dismantling and disposal process. A new IAEA Collaborative Research Program aims to build upon the work already done and the knowledge achieved, in order to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with alternative options for graphite disposal, along with cost comparisons, thus enabling individual Member States to have the best-available information at their disposal to configure their own programs. (authors)

  4. Initial validation of the Brief Assessment of Service Satisfaction in Persons with an Intellectual Disability (BASSPID).

    PubMed

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Argumedes, Malena; Lamontagne, Alexandrine J; Duquette, Julie R; Morizot, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an intellectual disability often require intensive services to promote their social participation to the fullest extent. As such, measuring satisfaction with these services appears essential to enhance the quality of life of individuals with an intellectual disability and to improve service delivery within agencies. Thus, the purpose of the study was to conduct an initial validation of the Brief Assessment of Service Satisfaction in Persons with an Intellectual Disability (BASSPID), a 15-item questionnaire designed to assess service satisfaction. To examine the structure, reliability, and validity of the BASSPID, we interviewed 98 individuals with an intellectual disability and 23 parents. Overall, the BASSPID contained one scale, which had strong content and convergent validity as well as items easily understandable for individuals with an intellectual disability. Furthermore, the questionnaire had good internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. However, parents generally overestimated the perceived satisfaction of their child. The study suggests that the BASSPID may be useful to assess the satisfaction of individuals with an intellectual disability, but more research is needed to examine its potential impact on improving service quality.

  5. Initial development of the Psychopathic Processing and Personality Assessment (PAPA) across populations.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael; Ireland, Jane L; Abbott, Janice; Ireland, Carol A

    2017-06-28

    Three studies describe development of the Psychopathic Processing and Personality Assessment (PAPA). Study one outlines a literature review and Expert Delphi (n=32) to develop the initial PAPA. Study two validates the PAPA with 431 participants (121 male prisoners and 310 university students: 154 men, 156 women), also using the Levenson Self Report Psychopathy scale and a measure of cognitive schema and affect. Study three refined the PAPA, employing it with 50 male students and 40 male forensic psychiatric patients using clinical (interview) assessments of psychopathy: the Psychopathy Checklist - Screening Version and the Affect, Cognitive and Lifestyle assessment. The PAPA comprised four factors; dissocial tendencies; emotional detachment; disregard for others; and lack of sensitivity to emotion. It positively correlated with existing psychopathy measures. Variations across PAPA subscales were noted across samples when associated with clinical measures of psychopathy. Support for the validity of the PAPA was indicated across samples. Directions for research and application are outlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Do Community Based Initiatives foster sustainability transitions? Towards a unique Environmental Impact Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellozzo, Federico; Hendrickson, Cary; Gozdowska, Iga; Groß, Helge; Henderson, Charles; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    The active participation in Community Based Initiatives (CBI) is a spreading phenomenon that has reached a significant magnitude and - in some cases - CBIs are also supposed to have catalysed social and technological innovation, thus contributing to global transition into low-carbon economy. Generally speaking, CBIs are grassroots initiatives with broad sustainability foci that promote a plethora of activities such as alternative transportation, urban gardening, renewable energy implementation, waste regeneration/reduction, etc. Some advocate that such practices fostered by bottom-up activities, rather than top-down policies, represent a proficient countermeasure to alleviate global environmental change and effectively foster a societal transition towards sustainability. However, thus far most empirical research grounds mainly on anecdotal evidence and little work has been done to quantitatively assess CBIs' "environmental impacts" (EI) or their carbon footprints using comparative methodologies. This research main aim is to frame a methodology to assess univocally CBIs' EIs which are crucial to understanding their role in societal sustainability transition. However, to do so, three main caveats need to be addressed: first, some CBIs do not directly produce tangible measurable outputs, nor have an intelligibly defined set of inputs (e.g. CBIs focusing on environmental education and awareness rising). Thus, calculating their "indirect" EI may represent an intricate puzzle that is very much open to subjective interpretation. Second, CBIs' practices are heterogenic and therefore existing methodologies to make comparisons of their EIs are neither straightforward nor proficient, also given the lack of available data. Third, another issue closely related to the one previously mentioned, is a general lack of consensus among already existing impact-assessment frameworks for certain practices (e.g. composting). A potential way of estimating a CBI's EI is a standard Carbon

  7. CURRENT STATUS OF THE IAEA'S NET ENABLED WASTE MANAGEMENT DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Csullog, G.W.; Pozdniakov, I.; Bellag, M.J.

    2003-02-27

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Net Enabled Waste Management Database (NEWMDB) contains information on national radioactive waste management programs and organizations, plans and activities, relevant laws and regulations, policies and radioactive waste inventories. The NEWMDB, which was launched on the Internet July 6, 2001, is the successor to the Agency's Waste Management Database (WMDB), which was in use during the 1990's. The NEWMDB's first data collection cycle took place from July 2001 to March 2002. Agency Member State participation in the first data collection cycle was low--only 22 submissions were received. However, the first data collection cycle demonstrated that: the NEWMDB could be used to collect information on national radioactive waste management programs and radioactive waste inventories annually, the NEWMDB data can support the routine reporting of status and trends in radioactive waste management based on quantitative data, the NEWMDB can support the compilation of a consolidated, international radioactive waste inventory based on a unified waste classification scheme, the data needed to compute an indicator of sustainable development for radioactive waste management are available at the national level, NEWMDB data can be used to assess the development and implementation of national systems for radioactive waste management, and the NEWMDB can support the reporting requirements of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Agency Member States that had not made data submissions in the first cycle were asked to submit data during an extension of the first cycle (July 2002--January 2003). When this paper was written, the Agency had conducted two of three international workshops to provide training for future NEWMDB data collection cycles and to compile lessons learned for the first data collection cycle. A third workshop was scheduled for January 2003. This paper provides

  8. Total skin electron therapy (TSET): A reimplementation using radiochromic films and IAEA TRS-398 code of practice

    SciTech Connect

    Schiapparelli, P.; Zefiro, D.; Massone, F.; Taccini, G.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to present an updated implementation of total skin electron therapy (TSET) using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films. The optimization of quality control tests is also included. Methods: A Varian 2100 C/D linear accelerator equipped with the special procedure HDTSe{sup -} (high dose rate total skin electron mode, E=6 MeV) was employed to perform TSET irradiations using the modified Stanford technique. The commissioning was performed following the AAPM report 23 recommendations. In particular, for dual-field beams irradiation, the optimal tilt angle was investigated and the dose distribution in the treatment plane was measured. For a complete six dual-field beams irradiation, the treatment skin dose on the surface of a cylindrical phantom was evaluated by radiochromic films and the B factor which relates the single dual-field skin dose to the six dual-field skin dose was assessed. Since the TRS-398 reference conditions do not meet the requirements of TSET absolute dosimetry, GafChromic EBT films were also employed to check and validate the application of the protocol. Simplified procedures were studied to verify beam constancy in PMMA phantoms without the more difficult setup of total skin irradiation. Results: The optimized geometrical setup for dual-field beams was: Tilt angle={+-}19 deg., SSD=353 cm, and the beam degrader (200x100x1 cm{sup 3}) placed at 320 cm from the source. As regards to dose homogeneity in the treatment plane, for dual-field beams irradiation, the mean relative dose value was 97%{+-}5% (normalizing to 100% at the calibration point level). For six dual-field beams irradiation, the multiplication factor B was 2.63. In addition, beam quality, dose rate, and bremsstrahlung contribution were also suitable for TSET treatments. The TRS-398 code of practice was used for TSET dosimetry, as dose measurements performed by ionization chamber and

  9. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  10. Initial technology assessment for the Large-Aperture UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) mission concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Division's 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet/optical/infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for biosignatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  11. Initial Technology Assessment for the Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Feinberg, Lee D.; France, Kevin; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Divisions 30-Year Roadmap prioritized a future large-aperture space telescope operating in the ultra-violet-optical-infrared wavelength regime. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy envisioned a similar observatory, the High Definition Space Telescope. And a multi-institution group also studied the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope. In all three cases, a broad science case is outlined, combining general astrophysics with the search for bio-signatures via direct-imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exo-planets. We present an initial technology assessment that enables such an observatory that is currently being studied for the 2020 Decadal Survey by the Large UV-Optical Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor Science and Technology Definition Team. We present here the technology prioritization for the 2016 technology cycle and define the required technology capabilities and current state-of-the-art performance. Current, planned, and recommended technology development efforts are also reported.

  12. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. OP36CONCORDANCE OF PATIENT AND CLINICIAN REPORTED PRESENTING SYMPTOMS AT INITIAL NEURO-ONCOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J.E.C.; Santarius, T.; Watts, C.; Walter, F.M.; Price, S.J.; Joannides, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly recognised as an important component of neuro-oncology assessment. The EORTC QLQ-C30 is a well-validated instrument for measuring global health domains and cancer-related symptoms. On this background we sought to evaluate questionnaire symptom reporting as compared to standard clinical assessment. METHOD: Patients presenting for initial assessment in neurosurgical oncology clinic were asked to complete the QLQ-C30 and BN20 brain cancer module questionnaires prior to their appointment. Clinician reported symptoms were determined retrospectively from outpatient clinic letters. Statistical significance was determined using paired t-test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were included in the analysis (96 male, 86 female; median age 61). Commonest diagnoses included high-grade glioma (n = 63; 34.6%), metastatic disease (n = 33; 18.1%) and low-grade glioma (n = 29; 15.9%). A higher average number of symptoms was reported by patients (8.2 ± 0.3) compared to clinicians (2.1 ± 0.1; p < 0.0001). Reporting rate for all symptoms was significantly higher from the questionnaire (all p < 0.002) with the exception of seizures which had a higher reporting rate from clinician review (p < 0.0001). Positive symptoms showing the highest concordance included motor dysfunction (43.0%), communication deficit (30.4%) and visual disorder (29.5%). CONCLUSION: Measuring HRQoL with the QLQ-C30 and BN20 enabled detection of more presenting symptoms than by clinician review alone, with concordance highest for gross neurological deficits. Routine collection of HRQoL data thus adds a further dimension to clinical assessment that enhances and complements current practice.

  14. Development of transient initiating event frequencies for use in probabilistic risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Mackowiak, D.P.; Gentillon, C.D.; Smith, K.L.

    1985-05-01

    Transient initiating event frequencies are an essential input to the analysis process of a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment. These frequencies describe events causing or requiring scrams. This report documents an effort to validate and update from other sources a computer-based data file developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) describing such events at 52 United States commercial nuclear power plants. Operating information from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on 24 additional plants from their date of commercial operation has been combined with the EPRI data, and the entire data base has been updated to add 1980 through 1983 events for all 76 plants. The validity of the EPRI data and data analysis methodology and the adequacy of the EPRI transient categories are examined. New transient initiating event frequencies are derived from the expanded data base using the EPRI transient categories and data display methods. Upper bounds for these frequencies are also provided. Additional analyses explore changes in the dominant transients, changes in transient outage times and their impact on plant operation, and the effects of power level and scheduled scrams on transient event frequencies. A more rigorous data analysis methodology is developed to encourage further refinement of the transient initiating event frequencies derived herein. Updating the transient event data base resulted in approx.2400 events being added to EPRI's approx.3000-event data file. The resulting frequency estimates were in most cases lower than those reported by EPRI, but no significant order-of-magnitude changes were noted. The average number of transients per year for the combined data base is 8.5 for pressurized water reactors and 7.4 for boiling water reactors.

  15. Mechanism, kinetics and toxicity assessment of OH-initiated transformation of triclosan in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanpeng; Ji, Yuemeng; Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of OH-initiated transformation of triclosan (TCS) in aquatic environments were modeled using high-accuracy molecular orbital theory. TCS can be initially attacked by OH in two ways, OH-addition and H-abstraction. Twelve OH-addition routes were reported, and the C atom adjacent to the ether bond in the benzene ring (RaddB1) was found as the most easily attacked position by OH, producing TCS-OHB1. Seven H-abstraction routes were reported, and the OH exclusively abstracted the phenolic hydroxyl (RabsOH) H atom, to form TCS(-H). The kinetics results showed that the RaddB1 and RabsOH routes would occur preferentially in aquatic environments, and the half-life depended on the OH concentration ([OH]). At low [OH], the main intermediates, TCS-OHB1 and TCS(-H), can be converted into 2,4-dichlorophenol and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, respectively. However, when enough OH is present, such as in advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems, they would be fully decomposed. The acute and chronic toxicities of TCS and its products were assessed at three trophic levels using the "ecological structure-activity relationships" program. The toxicity of the products decreased through the RaddB1 route, while the toxicity of the products first increased and then decreased through the other degradation routes. These results should help reveal the mechanism of TCS transformation as well as risk assessment in aquatic environments, and will help design further experimental studies and industrial application of AOPs.

  16. The Initial Development of a Checklist for Assessing Thirst in Patients With Advanced Dementia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Chi-Jane; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2016-09-01

    Patients with advanced dementia (PwAD) often have difficulty expressing their needs verbally because of cognitive impairments. PwAD thus often communicate these needs through behaviors and psychological symptoms. Understanding the behavioral characteristics of certain needs is critical for caregivers and clinicians when caring for PwAD. The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist that may be used to assess the thirst status of PwAD. A mixed method design was used. The checklist was developed using qualitative interviews and surveys. The initial items were developed through interviews with 10 professional nurses who were caring for PwAD. Four experts in dementia assessed the content validity of these items. PwAD caregivers from eight facilities were then invited to complete the checklist based on their current PwAD patient care experience. Data obtained in this study were analyzed with regard to content validity, interrater reliability, internal consistency, and exploratory factor analysis. The content validity of the initial 18 items was .96, interrater reliability was -.33 to 1, and internal consistency reliability was .52. Exploratory factor analysis identified seven checklist items, including repetitive movements, squirming, restlessness or anxiety, persistent or unreasonable demands, pacing back and forth, repeating a sentence or question without purpose, and slow reaction. The factor loadings of these seven items accounted for 49.3% of the total variance. The reassessed internal consistency reliability was .66. Caregivers may use this checklist as an aid to identify the thirst or fluid needs of PwAD who are unable to communicate their needs effectively.

  17. Insights from an Evaluability Assessment of the U.S. Forest Service "More Kids in the Woods" Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zint, Michaela T.; Covitt, Beth A.; Dowd, Patrick F.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an evaluability assessment of the U.S. Forest Service's "More Kids in the Woods" internal grant initiative based on a review of 26 funded proposals, the creation of logic models, and a survey of project leaders. Evaluations of the initiative are warranted because it has clear outcome objectives, is implemented as intended, and results…

  18. Insights from an Evaluability Assessment of the U.S. Forest Service "More Kids in the Woods" Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zint, Michaela T.; Covitt, Beth A.; Dowd, Patrick F.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an evaluability assessment of the U.S. Forest Service's "More Kids in the Woods" internal grant initiative based on a review of 26 funded proposals, the creation of logic models, and a survey of project leaders. Evaluations of the initiative are warranted because it has clear outcome objectives, is implemented as intended, and results…

  19. Time-lapsed assessment of microcrack initiation and propagation in murine cortical bone at submicrometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Voide, R; Schneider, P; Stauber, M; Wyss, P; Stampanoni, M; Sennhauser, U; van Lenthe, G H; Müller, R

    2009-08-01

    The strength of bone tissue is not only determined by its mass, but also by other properties usually referred to as bone quality, such as microarchitecture, distribution of bone cells, or microcracks and damage. It has been hypothesized that the bone ultrastructure affects microcrack initiation and propagation. Due to its high resolution, bone assessment by means of synchrotron radiation (SR)-based computed tomography (CT) allows unprecedented three-dimensional (3D) and non-invasive insights into ultrastructural bone phenotypes, such as the canal network and the osteocyte lacunar system. The aims of this study were to describe the initiation and propagation of microcracks and their relation with these ultrastructural phenotypes. To this end, femora from the two genetically distinct inbred mouse strains C3H/He (C3H) and C57BL/6 (B6) were loaded axially under compression, from 0% strain to failure, with 1% strain steps. Between each step, a high-resolution 3D image (700 nm nominal resolution) was acquired at the mid-diaphysis using SR CT for characterization and quantitative analysis of the intracortical porosity, namely the bone canal network, the osteocyte lacunar system and the emerging microcracks. For C3H mice, the canal, lacunar, and microcrack volume densities accounted typically for 1.91%, 2.11%, and 0.27% of the cortical total volume at 2% apparent strain, respectively. Due to its 3D nature, SR CT allowed to visualize and quantify also the volumetric extent of microcracks. At 2% apparent strain, the average microcrack thickness for both mouse strains was 2.0 microm for example. Microcracks initiated at canal and at bone surfaces, whereas osteocyte lacunae provided guidance to the microcracks. Moreover, we observed that microcracks could appear as linear cracks in one plane, but as diffuse cracks in a perpendicular plane. Finally, SR CT images permitted visualization of uncracked ligament bridging, which is thought to be of importance in bone toughening

  20. Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC) Prediction Assessment and Initial Comparisons with Tram Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Charles, Bruce D.; McCluer, Megan

    1999-01-01

    A prediction sensitivity assessment to inputs and blade modeling is presented for the TiltRotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC). For this study, the non-CFD prediction system option in TRAC is used. Here, the comprehensive rotorcraft code, CAMRAD.Mod1, coupled with the high-resolution sectional loads code HIRES, predicts unsteady blade loads to be used in the noise prediction code WOPWOP. The sensitivity of the predicted blade motions, blade airloads, wake geometry, and acoustics is examined with respect to rotor rpm, blade twist and chord, and to blade dynamic modeling. To accomplish this assessment, an interim input-deck for the TRAM test model and an input-deck for a reference test model are utilized in both rigid and elastic modes. Both of these test models are regarded as near scale models of the V-22 proprotor (tiltrotor). With basic TRAC sensitivities established, initial TRAC predictions are compared to results of an extensive test of an isolated model proprotor. The test was that of the TiltRotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) conducted in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). Predictions are compared to measured noise for the proprotor operating over an extensive range of conditions. The variation of predictions demonstrates the great care that must be taken in defining the blade motion. However, even with this variability, the predictions using the different blade modeling successfully capture (bracket) the levels and trends of the noise for conditions ranging from descent to ascent.

  1. The Global Modeling Initiative Assessment Model: Model Description, Integration and Testing of the Transport Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.A.; Tannahill, J.R.; Kinnison, D.E.; Connell, P.S.; Bergmann, D.; Proctor, D.; Rodriquez, J.M.; Lin, S.J.; Rood, R.B.; Prather, M.J.; Rasch, P.J.; Considine, D.B.; Ramaroson, R.; Kawa, S.R.

    2000-04-25

    We describe the three dimensional global stratospheric chemistry model developed under the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) to assess the possible environmental consequences from the emissions of a fleet of proposed high speed civil transport aircraft. This model was developed through a unique collaboration of the members of the GMI team. Team members provided computational modules representing various physical and chemical processes, and analysis of simulation results through extensive comparison to observation. The team members' modules were integrated within a computational framework that allowed transportability and simulations on massively parallel computers. A unique aspect of this model framework is the ability to interchange and intercompare different submodules to assess the sensitivity of numerical algorithms and model assumptions to simulation results. In this paper, we discuss the important attributes of the GMI effort, describe the GMI model computational framework and the numerical modules representing physical and chemical processes. As an application of the concept, we illustrate an analysis of the impact of advection algorithms on the dispersion of a NO{sub y}-like source in the stratosphere which mimics that of a fleet of commercial supersonic transports (High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)) flying between 17 and 20 kilometers.

  2. The development and initial assessment of the strategy and leadership systems capability evaluation survey.

    PubMed

    Coon, Cheryl D; Bokowy, Kay L; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Zisman, Robert S; McLeod, Lori D; Brown, T Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Hospital management and leadership systems are associated with organizational success and quality care. The Strategy and Leadership Systems Capability Evaluation (CE) survey was developed by GE Healthcare to assess management and leadership systems at health care institutions, serve as a benchmark for improvement, and measure progress. To assess the psychometric properties of the 29-item CE survey, including the factor structure, scoring algorithm, reliability, and discriminant validity, an online survey was completed by 3450 employees at 15 US hospitals. Of these employees, 609 worked at a hospital where a leadership and management intervention occurred after the initial survey administration. Data were also collected on job level, number of hospital beds, hospital ownership, location, community type, and the implementation of hospital interventions. Item response frequencies showed no floor or ceiling effects and limited missing data. Interitem correlations were strong without obvious redundancies, and factor analysis suggested a unidimensional scale. The resulting scale had strong internal consistency and was able to discriminate among known groups. The CE survey was developed to evaluate management and leadership systems at health care institutions. This study provides psychometric evidence in support of the reliability, validity, and scoring structure of this survey.

  3. Assessment of Global Cloud Datasets from Satellites: Project and Database Initiated by the GEWEX Radiation Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubenrauch, C. J.; Rossow, W. B.; Kinne, S.; Ackerman, S.; Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Getzewich, B.; Di Girolamo, L.; Guignard, A.; Heidinger, A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the whole globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years in length. However, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provided the first coordinated intercomparison of publically available, standard global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multiangle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. A monthly, gridded database, in common format, facilitates further assessments, climate studies and the evaluation of climate models.

  4. Pharmacokinetic assessment in patients receiving continuous RRT: perspectives from the Kidney Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Nolin, Thomas D; Aronoff, George R; Fissell, William H; Jain, Lokesh; Madabushi, Rajnikanth; Reynolds, Kellie; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew Mei; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Flessner, Michael F; Leypoldt, John K; Witcher, Jennifer W; Zineh, Issam; Archdeacon, Patrick; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2015-01-07

    The effect of AKI and modern continuous RRT (CRRT) methods on drug disposition (pharmacokinetics) and response has been poorly studied. Pharmaceutical manufacturers have little incentive to perform pharmacokinetic studies in patients undergoing CRRT because such studies are neither recommended in existing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance documents nor required for new drug approval. Action is urgently needed to address the knowledge deficit. The Kidney Health Initiative has assembled a work group composed of clinicians and scientists representing academia, the FDA, and the pharmaceutical and dialysis industries with expertise related to pharmacokinetics, AKI, and/or CRRT. The work group critically evaluated key considerations in the assessment of pharmacokinetics and drug dosing in CRRT, practical constraints related to conducting pharmacokinetic studies in critically ill patients, and the generalizability of observations made in the context of specific CRRT prescriptions and specific patient populations in order to identify efficient study designs capable of addressing the knowledge deficit without impeding drug development. Considerations for the standardized assessment of pharmacokinetics and development of corresponding drug dosing recommendations in critically ill patients with AKI receiving CRRT are proposed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Pharmacokinetic Assessment in Patients Receiving Continuous RRT: Perspectives from the Kidney Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, George R.; Fissell, William H.; Jain, Lokesh; Madabushi, Rajnikanth; Reynolds, Kellie; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew Mei; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Flessner, Michael F.; Leypoldt, John K.; Witcher, Jennifer W.; Zineh, Issam; Archdeacon, Patrick; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Goldstein, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of AKI and modern continuous RRT (CRRT) methods on drug disposition (pharmacokinetics) and response has been poorly studied. Pharmaceutical manufacturers have little incentive to perform pharmacokinetic studies in patients undergoing CRRT because such studies are neither recommended in existing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance documents nor required for new drug approval. Action is urgently needed to address the knowledge deficit. The Kidney Health Initiative has assembled a work group composed of clinicians and scientists representing academia, the FDA, and the pharmaceutical and dialysis industries with expertise related to pharmacokinetics, AKI, and/or CRRT. The work group critically evaluated key considerations in the assessment of pharmacokinetics and drug dosing in CRRT, practical constraints related to conducting pharmacokinetic studies in critically ill patients, and the generalizability of observations made in the context of specific CRRT prescriptions and specific patient populations in order to identify efficient study designs capable of addressing the knowledge deficit without impeding drug development. Considerations for the standardized assessment of pharmacokinetics and development of corresponding drug dosing recommendations in critically ill patients with AKI receiving CRRT are proposed. PMID:25189923

  6. Tiltrotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC) Prediction Assessment and Initial Comparisons With TRAM Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Charles, Bruce D.; McCluer, Megan

    1999-01-01

    A prediction sensitivity assessment to inputs and blade modeling is presented for the TiltRotor Aeroacoustic Code (TRAC). For this study, the non-CFD prediction system option in TRAC is used. Here, the comprehensive rotorcraft code, CAMRAD.Mod 1, coupled with the high-resolution sectional loads code HIRES, predicts unsteady blade loads to be used in the noise prediction code WOPWOP. The sensitivity of the predicted blade motions, blade airloads, wake geometry, and acoustics is examined with respect to rotor rpm, blade twist and chord, and to blade dynamic modeling. To accomplish this assessment. an interim input-deck for the TRAM test model and an input-deck for a reference test model are utilized in both rigid and elastic modes. Both of these test models are regarded as near scale models of the V-22 proprotor (tiltrotor). With basic TRAC sensitivities established, initial TRAC predictions are compared to results of an extensive test of an isolated model proprotor. The test was that of the TiltRotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM) conducted in the Duits-Nederlandse Windtunnel (DNW). Predictions are compared to measured noise for the proprotor operating over an extensive range of conditions. The variation of predictions demonstrates the great care that must be taken in defining the blade motion. However, even with this variability, the predictions using the different blade modeling successfully capture (bracket) the levels and trends of the noise for conditions ranging from descent to ascent.

  7. Activities of NASA's Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) in the Assessment of Subsonic Aircraft Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J. M.; Logan, J. A.; Rotman, D. A.; Bergmann, D. J.; Baughcum, S. L.; Friedl, R. R.; Anderson, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated a peak increase in ozone ranging from 7-12 ppbv (zonal and annual average, and relative to a baseline with no aircraft), due to the subsonic aircraft in the year 2015, corresponding to aircraft emissions of 1.3 TgN/year. This range of values presumably reflects differences in model input (e.g., chemical mechanism, ground emission fluxes, and meteorological fields), and algorithms. The model implemented by the Global Modeling Initiative allows testing the impact of individual model components on the assessment calculations. We present results of the impact of doubling the 1995 aircraft emissions of NOx, corresponding to an extra 0.56 TgN/year, utilizing meteorological data from NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO), the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), and the Middle Atmosphere Community Climate Model, version 3 (MACCM3). Comparison of results to observations can be used to assess the model performance. Peak ozone perturbations ranging from 1.7 to 2.2 ppbv of ozone are calculated using the different fields. These correspond to increases in total tropospheric ozone ranging from 3.3 to 4.1 Tg/Os. These perturbations are consistent with the IPCC results, due to the difference in aircraft emissions. However, the range of values calculated is much smaller than in IPCC.

  8. Assessing the benefits of stereoscopic displays to visual search: methodology and initial findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwin, Hayward J.; Holliman, Nick S.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Liversedge, Simon P.; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Visual search is a task that is carried out in a number of important security and health related scenarios (e.g., X-ray baggage screening, radiography). With recent and ongoing developments in the technology available to present images to observers in stereoscopic depth, there has been increasing interest in assessing whether depth information can be used in complex search tasks to improve search performance. Here we outline the methodology that we developed, along with both software and hardware information, in order to assess visual search performance in complex, overlapping stimuli that also contained depth information. In doing so, our goal is to foster further research along these lines in the future. We also provide an overview with initial results of the experiments that we have conducted involving participants searching stimuli that contain overlapping objects presented on different depth planes to one another. Thus far, we have found that depth information does improve the speed (but not accuracy) of search, but only when the stimuli are highly complex and contain a significant degree of overlap. Depth information may therefore aid real-world search tasks that involve the examination of complex, overlapping stimuli.

  9. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands

  10. Choosing Meteorological Input for the Global Modeling Initiative Assessment of High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, A. R.; Prather, M. P.; Hall, T. M.; Strahan, S. E.; Rasch, P. J.; Sparling, L. C.; Coy, L.; Rodriquez, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) science team is developing a three dimensional chemistry and transport model (CTM) to be used in assessment of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Requirements are that this model be documented, be validated against observations, use a realistic atmospheric circulation, and contain numerical transport and photochemical modules representing atmospheric processes. The model must also retain computational efficiency to be tractable to use for multiple scenarios and sensitivity studies. To meet these requirements, a facility model concept was developed in which the different components of the CTM are evaluated separately. The first use of the GMI model will be to evaluate the impact of the exhaust of supersonic aircraft on the stratosphere. The assessment calculations will depend strongly on the wind and temperature fields used by the CTM. Three meteorological data sets for the stratosphere are available to GMI: the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2), the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GISS). Objective criteria were established by the GMI team to identify the data set which provides the best representation of the stratosphere. Simulations of gases with simple chemical control were chosen to test various aspects of model transport. The three meteorological data sets were evaluated and graded based on their ability to simulate these aspects of stratospheric measurements. This paper describes the criteria used in grading the meteorological fields. The meteorological data set which has the highest score and therefore was selected for GMI is CCM2. This type of objective model evaluation establishes a physical basis for interpretation of differences between models and observations. Further, the method provides a quantitative basis for defining model errors, for discriminating between different

  11. Choosing Meteorological Input for the Global Modeling Initiative Assessment of High Speed Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Prather, M. P.; Hall, T. M.; Strahan, S. E.; Raesch, P. J.; Sparling, L. C.; Coy, Lawrence; Rodriquez, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) science team is developing a three dimensional chemistry and transport model (CTM) to be used in assessment of the atmospheric effects of aviation. Requirements are that this model be documented be validated against observations, use a realistic atmospheric circulation, and contain numerical transport and photochemical modules representing atmospheric processes. The model must also retain computational efficiency to be tractable to use for multiple scenarios and sensitivity studies. To meet these requirements, a facility model concept was developed in which the different components of the CTM are evaluated separately. The first use of the GMI model will be to evaluate the impact of the exhaust of supersonic aircraft on the stratosphere. The assessment calculations will depend strongly on the wind and temperature fields used by the CTM. Three meteorological data sets for the stratosphere are available to GMI: the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2), the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GISS). Objective criteria were established by the GMI team to identify the data set which provides the best representation of the stratosphere. Simulations of gases with simple chemical control were chosen to test various aspects of model transport. The three meteorological data sets were evaluated and graded based on their ability to simulate these aspects of stratospheric measurements. This paper describes the criteria used in grading the meteorological fields. The meteorological data set which has the highest score and therefore was selected for GMI is CCM2. This type of objective model evaluation establishes a physical basis for interpretation of differences between models and observations. Further, the method provides a quantitative basis for defining model errors, for discriminating between different

  12. A new large initial condition ensemble to assess avoided impacts in a climate mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, B. M.; Tebaldi, C.; Knutti, R.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that when considering timescales of up to 50 years, natural variability may play an equal role to anthropogenic forcing on subcontinental trends for a variety of climate indicators. Thus, for many questions assessing climate impacts on such time and spatial scales, it has become clear that a significant number of ensemble members may be required to produce robust statistics (and especially so for extreme events). However, large ensemble experiments to date have considered the role of variability in a single scenario, leaving uncertain the relationship between the forced climate trajectory and the variability about that path. To address this issue, we present a new, publicly available, 15 member initial condition ensemble of 21st century climate projections for the RCP 4.5 scenario using the CESM1.1 Earth System Model, which we propose as a companion project to the existing 40 member CESM large ensemble which uses the higher greenhouse gas emission future of RCP8.5. This provides a valuable data set for assessing what societal and ecological impacts might be avoided through a moderate mitigation strategy in contrast to a fossil fuel intensive future. We present some early analyses of these combined ensembles to assess to what degree the climate variability can be considered to combine linearly with the underlying forced response. In regions where there is no detectable relationship between the mean state and the variability about the mean trajectory, then linear assumptions can be trivially exploited to utilize a single ensemble or control simulation to characterize the variability in any scenario of interest. We highlight regions where there is a detectable nonlinearity in extreme event frequency, how far in the future they will be manifested and propose mechanisms to account for these effects.

  13. Reference Material for Radionuclides in Sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon Sediment)

    SciTech Connect

    Povinec, P; Pham, M; Barci-Funel, G; Bojanawski, R; Boshkova, T; Burnett, W; Carvalho, F; Chapeyron, B; Cunha, I; Dahlgaard, H; Galabov, N; Gastaud, J; Geering, J; Gomez, I; Green, N; Hamilton, T; Ibanez, F; Majah, M I; John, M; Kanisch, G; Kenna, T; Kloster, M; Korun, M; Wee Kwong, L L; La Rosa, J; Lee, S; Levy-Palomo, I; Malatova, M; Maruo, Y; Mitchell, P; Murciano, I; Nelson, R; Oh, J; Oregioni, B; Petit, G L; Pettersson, H; Reineking, A; Smedley, P; Suckow, A; der Struijs, T v; Voors, P; Yoshimizu, K; Wyse, E

    2005-09-23

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's program of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). An important part of the AQCS program has been a production of Reference Materials (RMs) and their provision to radioanalytical laboratories. The RMs have been developed for different marine matrices (sediment, water, biota), with accuracy and precision required for the present state of the art of radiometrics and mass spectrometry methods. The RMs have been produced as the final products of world-wide intercomparison exercises organized during last 30 years. A total of 44 intercomparison exercises were undertaken and 39 RMs were produced for radionuclides in the marine environment. All required matrices (seawater, biota, sediment) have been covered with radionuclide concentrations ranging from typical environmental levels to elevated levels affected by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants. The long-term availability of RMs (over 10 years) requires the use of very specific techniques to collect and pretreat large quantities of material (e.g., in excess of 100 kg) in order to ensure sample stability and homogenization of any analytes of interest. The production of a RM is therefore a long process, covering the identification of needs, sample collection, pre-treatment, homogenization, bottling, distribution to laboratories, evaluation of data, preliminary reporting, additional analyses in expert laboratories, certification of the material, and finally issuing the RM. In this paper we describe a reference material IAEA-384, Fangataufa lagoon sediment, designed for determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in the marine environment. This RM has been prepared with the aim of testing the performance of analytical laboratories to measure the activity of these radionuclides in a sediment sample contaminated

  14. 3-D heat transfer computer calculations of the performance of the IAEA's air-bath calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, E.; Kaizermann, S.; Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.

    1989-01-01

    A three dimensional (3-D) heat transfer computer code was developed to study and optimize the design parameters and to better understand the performance characteristics of the IAEA's air-bath calorimeters. The computer model accounts for heat conduction and radiation in the complex materials of the calorimeter and for heat convection and radiation at its outer surface. The temperature servo controller is modelled as an integral part of the heat balance equations in the system. The model predictions will be validated against test data using the ANL bulk calorimeter. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol in the Philippines: USDOE/PNRI Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Sequis, Julietta E.; Cain, Ronald A.; Burbank, Roberta L.; Hansen, Linda H.; VanSickle, Matthew; Killinger, Mark H.; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2011-07-19

    The Philippines entered into force the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol (AP) in February 2010. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency responsible for implementing the AP. In June 2010 the IAEA invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to help conduct a joint national training seminar on the AP. DOE presented to PNRI its AP international technical assistance program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), which helps partner countries implement the AP. In coordination with the IAEA, DOE established this program in 2008 to complement IAEA AP seminars with long-term country-specific cooperation from the perspective of a Member State. The US version of the AP is the same version as that of non-nuclear weapon states except for the addition of a national security exclusion. Due to this, DOE cooperation with other countries enables the sharing of valuable lessons learned in implementing the AP. DOE/INSEP described to PNRI the various areas of cooperation it offers to interested countries, whether they are preparing for entry into force or already implementing the AP. Even countries that have entered the AP into force are sometimes not fully prepared to implement it well, and welcome cooperation to improve their implementation process. PNRI and DOE/INSEP subsequently agreed to cooperate in several areas to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the Philippines AP implementation. These areas include providing working-level training to PNRI staff and preparing an information document that details that training for future reference, assisting with the development of an outreach program and procedures for AP reporting and complementary access, and identifying Annex II equipment and non-nuclear materials whose export must be reported under the AP. DOE laboratory representatives, funded by INSEP, met again with PNRI in February 2011 to provide training for PNRI AP

  16. Status of IAEA CRP on Study of Process-Losses in Separation Processes in Partitioning and Transmutation Systems in View of Minimizing Long-Term Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J.; Bimova, K.C.; Bychkov, A.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Inoue, T.; Koch, L.; Nagarajan, K.; Nawada, H.; Ye, Y.; Yoo, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was initiated in 2002 by IAEA to enable Member States in developing methodologies for reducing radio-toxic discharge to the environment from nuclear fuel cycle activities and in paving the way for sustainability of nuclear energy. In the past three Research Coordination Meetings (RCM), the following areas of research were examined upon: (1)Basic studies to compare dry partitioning process with aqueous partitioning process; (2)Defining proliferation resistance attributes of partitioning processes; (3) Advanced characterization methods for actinides for measuring the possible material holdup;( 4)Minimization of actinides losses in the waste fraction from the partitioning process;(5)Establishment of separation criteria of partitioning process to minimize environmental impact; and (6)Defining environmental impact associated with partitioning processes. The final TECDOC is currently being prepared to summarize the activities of this CRP. (authors)

  17. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kairiyama, Eulogia; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    Tissue banking activities in Argentina started in 1993. The regulatory and controlling national authority on organ, tissue and cells for transplantation activity is the National Unique Coordinating Central Institute for Ablation and Implant (INCUCAI). Three tissue banks were established under the IAEA program and nine other banks participated actively in the implementation of this program. As result of the implementation of the IAEA program in Argentina and the work done by the established tissue banks, more and more hospitals are now using, in a routine manner, radiation sterilised tissues processed by these banks. During the period 1992-2005, more than 21 016 tissues were produced and irradiated in the tissue banks participating in the IAEA program. Within the framework of the training component of the IAEA program, Argentina has been selected to host the Regional Training Centre for Latin American. In this centre, tissue bank operators and medical personal from Latin American countries were trained. Since 1999, Argentina has organised four regular regional training courses and two virtual regional training courses. More than twenty (20) tissue bank operators and medical personnel from Argentina were trained under the IAEA program in the six courses organised in the country. In general, ninety (96) tissue bank operators and medical personnel from eight Latin-American countries were trained in the Buenos Aires regional training centre. From Argentina 16 students graduated in these courses.

  18. Participation in proficiency test for tritium strontium and caesium isotopes in seawater 2015 (IAEA-RML-2015-02)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visetpotjanakit, S.; Kaewpaluek, S.

    2017-06-01

    A proficiency test (PT) exercise has proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation project RAS/7/021 “Marine benchmark study on the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific Region for Caesium Determination in Sea Water” since 2012. In 2015 the exercise was referred to Proficiency Test for Tritium, Strontium and Caesium Isotopes in Seawater 2015 (IAEA-RML-2015-02) to analyse3H, 134Cs, 137Cs and90Sr in a seawater sample. OAP was one of the 17 laboratories from 15 countries from Asia-Pacific Region who joined the PT exercise. The aim of our participation was to validate our analytical performance for the accurate determination of radionuclides in seawater by developed methods of radiochemical analysis. OAP submitted results determining the concentration for the three elements i.e. 134Cs, 137Cs and90Sr in seawater to the IAEA. A critical review was made to check suitability of our methodology and the criteria for the accuracy, precision and trueness of our data. The results of both 134Cs and 137Cs passed all criteria which were assigned “Accepted” statuses. Whereas 90Sr analysis did not pass the accuracy test therefore it was considered as “Not accepted” Our results and all other participant results with critical comments were published in the IAEA proficiency test report.

  19. A Porcine Model for Initial Surge Mechanical Ventilator Assessment and Evaluation of Two Limited Function Ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P; Hotchkin, David L; Lamm, Wayne JE; Hinkson, Carl; Pierson, David J; Glenny, Robb W; Rubinson, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To adapt an animal model of acute lung injury for use as a standard protocol for a screening, initial evaluation of limited function, or “surge,” ventilators for use in mass casualty scenarios. Design Prospective, experimental animal study. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects 12 adult pigs. Interventions 12 spontaneously breathing pigs (6 in each group) were subjected to acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) via pulmonary artery infusion of oleic acid. Following development of respiratory failure, animals were mechanically ventilated with a limited function ventilator (Simplified Automatic Ventilator [SAVe] I or II; Automedx) for one hour or until the ventilator could not support the animal. The limited function ventilator was then exchanged for a full function ventilator (Servo 900C; Siemens). Measurements and Main Results Reliable and reproducible levels of ALI/ARDS were induced. The SAVe I was unable to adequately oxygenate 5 animals, with PaO2 (52.0 ± 11.1 torr) compared to the Servo (106.0 ± 25.6 torr; p=0.002). The SAVe II was able to oxygenate and ventilate all 6 animals for one hour with no difference in PaO2 (141.8 ± 169.3 torr) compared to the Servo (158.3 ± 167.7 torr). Conclusions We describe a novel in vivo model of ALI/ARDS that can be used to initially screen limited function ventilators considered for mass respiratory failure stockpiles, and is intended to be combined with additional studies to defintively assess appropriateness for mass respiratory failure. Specifically, during this study we demonstrate that the SAVe I ventilator is unable to provide sufficient gas exchange, while the SAVe II, with several more functions, was able to support the same level of hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to ALI/ARDS for one hour. PMID:21187747

  20. Assessment of land use impact on hydraulic threshold conditions for gully head cut initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari Samani, Aliakbar; Chen, Qiuwen; Khalighi, Shahram; Wasson, Robert James; Rahdari, Mohammad Reza

    2016-07-01

    A gully as an accelerated erosion process is responsible for land degradation under various environmental conditions and has been known as a threshold phenomenon. Although the effects of gullying processes have been well documented, few soil erosion models have taken into account the threshold condition necessary for gully development. This research was devoted to determining the effects of land use change on hydraulic threshold condition and stream power of water flow through an in situ experimental flume (15 m × 0.4 m). Results indicated that head cut initiation and detachment rates showed a better correlation to stream power indices than shear stress (τcr). The threshold unit stream power value (ωu) for head cut initiation in rangeland, abandoned land, and dry farming land was 0.0276, 0.0149, and 4.5 × 10-5 m s-1, respectively. Moreover, the micro-relief condition of soil surface and surface vegetation affected the flow regime of discharge and velocity. It is seen that the composite hydraulic criteria of Froude number (Fr) and discharge (Q) can clearly discriminate the land uses' threshold. In fact, the remarkable decrease of τcr in dry farming was related to the effect of tillage practice on soil susceptibility and aggregate strength. The findings indicated that using the unit steam power index instead of critical shear stress could increase the models' precision for prediction of head cut development. Compared to the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Model (EGEM) equation for critical shear stress, it is important to point out that for modelling of gully erosion, using single soil attributes can lead to an inaccurate estimation for τcr. In addition, based on the findings of this research, the use of threshold values of τcr = 35 dyne cm-2 and ωu = 0.4 cm s-1 in physically based soil erosion models is susceptible to high uncertainty when assessing gully erosion.

  1. Development and initial validation of the assessment of caregiver experience with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Clayton-Krasinski, Debora A; Klinge, Stephen A; Gomez, Jaime A; Booker, Whitney A; Hyman, Joshua E; Roye, David P; Vitale, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Orthopaedic intervention can have a wide range of functional and psychosocial effects on children with neuromuscular disease (NMD). In the multihandicapped child (Gross Motor Classification System IV/V), functional status, pain, psychosocial function, and health-related quality of life also have effects on the families of these child. The purpose of this study is to report the development and initial validation of an outcomes instrument specifically designed to assess the caregiver impact experienced by parents raising severely affected NMD children: the Assessment of Caregiver Experience with Neuromuscular Disease (ACEND). In the first part of this prospective study, 61 children with NMD and their parents were administered a range of earlier validated pediatric health measures. A framework technique was used to select the most appropriate and relevant subset of questions from this large set. Sensitivity analyses guided the development of a master question list measuring caregiver impact, excluding items with low relevance, and modifying unclear questions. In the second part of the study, the ACEND was administered to the caregivers of 46 children with moderate-to-severe NMD. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine validity of the instrument. The resulting ACEND instrument included 2 domains, 7 subdomains, and 41 items. Domain 1, examining physical impact, includes 4 subdomains: feeding/grooming/dressing (6 items), sitting/play (5 items), transfers (5 items), and mobility (7 items). Domain 2, which examines general caregiver impact, included 3 subdomains: time (4 items), emotion (9 items), and finance (5 items). Mean overall relevance rating was 6.21 ± 0.37 and clarity rating was 6.68 ± 0.52 (scale 0 to 7). Multiple floor effects in patients with GMFCS V and ceiling effects in patients with GMFCS III were identified almost exclusively in motor-based items. Virtually no floor or ceiling effects were identified in the time, emotion or finance domains

  2. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 4th IAEA Technical Meeting on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities Special issue containing papers presented at the 4th IAEA Technical Meeting on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, K.; Wilson, H. R.

    2010-05-01

    The 4th IAEA technical meeting (TM) on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities was held in Kyoto, May 18th--20th 2009, following the first (Seeon), second (Trieste) and third (York) meetings in this series. This IAEA-TM was motivated by the recent advances in theoretical methodology, the rapid progress in observations of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas and the evolution of fusion research as we approach the ITER era. The international advisory committee (IAC) and local organizing committee (LOC), the members of which are listed below, collaborated to define the scope and the content of the scientific programme. Young scientists were actively encouraged to participate in this TM to help stimulate their future research careers and raise their international profiles. Through these young scientists, the IAEA-TM planned to identify the future directions of research. About 90 researchers, from 13 countries and the IAEA, participated in this IAEA-TM, with 72 scientific presentations. The talks and posters generated enthusiastic discussions, contributing to the vibrancy of the meeting. This special issue of Nuclear Fusion consists of a cluster of papers, reporting some of the main contributions to the IAEA-TM. The articles in this cluster are representative of the scientific width of presentations at the meeting, spanning topics from micro-turbulence to large-scale MHD dynamics and from transport to detailed analysis of diagnostics. They demonstrate the quality and depth of the research presented at the conference. List of IAC (alphabetical order): B. Breizman (USA), S. Guenter (Germany), T. S. Hahm (USA), K. Itoh (Japan, Chair of 2009), Ya. I. Kolesnichenko (Ukraine), A. G. Peeters (UK), H. Wilson (UK) List of LOC (alphabetical order): A. Fukuyama, R. Horiuchi, S.-I. Itoh, N. Kasuya, Y. Kishimoto (co-chair), K. Kusano, J. Li, K. Mima, S. Murakami, H. Naitou, N. Nakajima, Y. Nakamura, H. Ohtani, S. Okamura, T. Ozeki, S. Sudo (co-chair), H. Sugama, Y. Todo, S. Tokuda, S

  3. Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nahra, Henry K.

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA s program requirements.

  4. Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Threats to NASA's Docking Seals: Initial Assessment and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Nahra, Henry K.

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be exposed to the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) during missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and to the micrometeoroid environment during lunar missions. The CEV will be equipped with a docking system which enables it to connect to ISS and the lunar module known as Altair; this docking system includes a hatch that opens so crew and supplies can pass between the spacecrafts. This docking system is known as the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS) and uses a silicone rubber seal to seal in cabin air. The rubber seal on LIDS presses against a metal flange on ISS (or Altair). All of these mating surfaces are exposed to the space environment prior to docking. The effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and MMOD have been estimated using ground based facilities. This work presents an initial methodology to predict meteoroid and orbital debris threats to candidate docking seals being considered for LIDS. The methodology integrates the results of ground based hypervelocity impacts on silicone rubber seals and aluminum sheets, risk assessments of the MMOD environment for a variety of mission scenarios, and candidate failure criteria. The experimental effort that addressed the effects of projectile incidence angle, speed, mass, and density, relations between projectile size and resulting crater size, and relations between crater size and the leak rate of candidate seals has culminated in a definition of the seal/flange failure criteria. The risk assessment performed with the BUMPER code used the failure criteria to determine the probability of failure of the seal/flange system and compared the risk to the allotted risk dictated by NASA's program requirements.

  5. An initial probabilistic hazard assessment of oil dispersants approved by the United States National Contingency Plan.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Jason P; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-07-01

    Dispersants are commonly applied during oil spill mitigation efforts; however, these industrial chemicals may present risks to aquatic organisms individually and when mixed with oil. Fourteen dispersants are listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). Availability of environmental effects information for such agents is limited, and individual components of dispersants are largely proprietary. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches including Chemical Toxicity Distributions (CTDs) may be useful as an initial step toward prioritizing environmental hazards from the use of dispersants. In the present study, we applied the CTD approach to two acute toxicity datasets: NCP (the contingency plan dataset) and DHOS (a subset of NCP listed dispersants reevaluated subsequent to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill). These datasets contained median lethal concentration (LC50) values for dispersants alone and dispersant:oil mixtures, in two standard marine test species, Menidia beryllina and Mysidopsis bahia. These CTDs suggest that dispersants alone are generally less toxic than oil. In contrast, most dispersant:oil mixtures are more toxic than oil alone. For the two datasets (treated separately because of differing methodologies), CTDs would predict 95% of dispersant:oil mixtures to have acute toxicity values above 0.32 and 0.76 mg/L for Mysidopsis and 0.33 mg/L and 1.06 mg/L for Menidia (for DHOS and NCP, respectively). These findings demonstrate the utility of CTDs as a means to evaluate the comparative ecotoxicity of dispersants alone and in mixture with different oil types. The approaches presented here also provide valuable tools for prioritizing prospective and retrospective environmental assessments of oil dispersants.

  6. Pilot Assessment of the National Science Foundation's Investments in Informal Science Education. An Approach to Assessing Initiatives in Science Education: Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Michael S.; And Others

    This project is concerned with the development of procedures and plans for the National Science Foundation (NSF) to use in assessing its initiatives on an ongoing basis. This work is meant to complement another review of NSF's investment opportunities by estabishing a sound basis for designing and carrying out assessments aimed at any of the…

  7. If I Experience Formative Assessment Whilst Studying at University, Will I Put It into Practice Later as a Teacher? Formative and Shared Assessment in Initial Teacher Education (ITE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamodi, Carolina; López-Pastor, Víctor Manuel; López-Pastor, Ana Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse whether having experience of formative assessment during their initial teacher education courses (ITE) influences graduates' subsequent practice as teachers. That is, if the assessment methods that university students are subject to during their learning process are then actually employed by them during their…

  8. An AeroCom initial assessment optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, S.; Schulz, M.; Textor, C.; Guibert, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Berntsen, T.; Berglen, T. F.; Boucher, O.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, S.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Herzog, M.; Horowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Krol, M.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lesins, G.; Liu, X.; Lohmann, U.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2005-09-01

    The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment simulated global distributions for mass and mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among 20 different modules. Model diversity was also explored in the context of previous comparisons. For the component combined aot general agreement has improved for the annual global mean. At 0.11 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca. 0.135) and space (satellite composite ca. 0.15). More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture remain. Of particular concern are large model diversities for contributions by dust and carbonaceous aerosol, because they lead to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab). Since aot and aab, both, influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, the aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions) and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks) or space (e.g. correlations between aerosol and clouds).

  9. An AeroCom initial assessment - optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, S.; Schulz, M.; Textor, C.; Guibert, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Berntsen, T.; Berglen, T. F.; Boucher, O.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, R.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, S.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Herzog, M.; Horowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Krol, M.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lesins, G.; Liu, X.; Lohmann, U.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2006-05-01

    The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment simulated global distributions for mass and mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among 20 different modules. Model diversity was also explored in the context of previous comparisons. For the component combined aot general agreement has improved for the annual global mean. At 0.11 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca. 0.135) and space (satellite composite ca. 0.15). More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture remain. Of particular concern are large model diversities for contributions by dust and carbonaceous aerosol, because they lead to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab). Since aot and aab, both, influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, the aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions) and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks) or space (e.g. correlations between aerosol and clouds).

  10. An assessment of policymakers’ engagement initiatives to promote evidence informed health policy making in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In most developing countries including Nigeria, one of the most challenging issues associated with evidence-to-policy link is the capacity constraints of policymakers to access, synthesize, adapt and utilize available research evidence. The purpose of this review is to assess the efforts and various initiatives that have been undertaken to deliberately engage policymakers and other stakeholders in the health sector in Nigeria for the promotion of evidence informed policymaking. A MEDLINE Entrez Pubmed search was performed and studies that investigated policy making process, evidence to policy link, research to policy mechanism, and researchers/policymakers interaction in Nigeria in relation to health policy were sought. Of the 132 publications found, 14(10.6%) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria and were selected and included in the review. Of the fourteen scientific publications identified, 11 of the studies targeted both researchers and policymakers and the principal tool of intervention was training workshops which focused on various aspects of evidence informed policymaking. All the studies indicated positive outcomes and impacts in relation to quantifiable improvement in policymakers' knowledge and competence in evidence to policy process. Capacity strengthening engagement mechanism is needed for both researchers to generate better evidence and for policymakers and health-care professionals to better use available evidence. PMID:28819479

  11. An AeroCom Initial Assessment - Optical Properties in Aerosol Component Modules of Global Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, M.; Textor, C.; Guibert, S.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Berglen, T.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Easter, Richard C.; Feichter, H.; Fillmore, D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Grini, A.; Hendricks, J.; Herzog, M.; Horrowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Kloster, S.; Koch, D.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Krol, M.; Lauer, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Lesins, G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lohmann, U.; Montanaro, V.; Myhre, G.; Penner, Joyce E.; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tie, X.

    2006-05-29

    The AeroCom exercise diagnoses multi-component aerosol modules in global modeling. In an initial assessment global fields for mass and for mid-visible aerosol optical thickness (aot) were compared among aerosol component modules of 21 different global models. There is general agreement among models for the annual global mean of component combined aot. At 0.12 to 0.14, simulated aot values are at the lower end of global averages suggested by remote sensing from ground (AERONET ca 0.14) and space (MODIS-MISR composite ca 0.16). More detailed comparisons, however, reveal that larger differences in regional distribution and significant differences in compositional mixture have remained. Of particular concern is the large model diversity for contributions by dust and carbon, because it leads to significant uncertainty in aerosol absorption (aab). Since not only aot but also aab influence the aerosol impact on the radiative energy-balance, aerosol (direct) forcing uncertainty in modeling is larger than differences in aot might suggest. New diagnostic approaches are proposed to trace model differences in terms of aerosol processing and transport: These include the prescription of common input (e.g. amount, size and injection of aerosol component emissions) and the use of observational capabilities from ground (e.g. measurements networks) and space (e.g. correlations between retrieved aerosol and cloud properties).

  12. An initial assessment of the performance achieved by the Seasat-1 radar altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an initial on-orbit engineering assessment of the performance achieved by the radar altimeter system flown on SEASAT-1 are presented. Additionally, the general design characteristics of this system are discussed and illustrations of altimeter data product are provided. The instrument consists of a 13.5 GHz monostatic radar system that tracks in range only using a one meter parabolic antenna pointed at the satellite nadir. Two of its unique features are a linear FM transmitter with 320 MHz bandwidth which yields a 3.125 nanosecond time delay resolution, and microprocessor implemented closed loop range tracking, automatic gain control (AGC), and real time estimation of significant wave height (SWH). Results presented show that the altimeter generally performed in accordance with its orginal performance requirments of measuring altitude to a precision of less the 10 cm RMS, significant wave height to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 m or 10%, whichever is greater, and ocean backscatter coefficient to an accuracy of + or - 1 db, all over an SWH range of 1 to 20 meters.

  13. An assessment of policymakers' engagement initiatives to promote evidence informed health policy making in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In most developing countries including Nigeria, one of the most challenging issues associated with evidence-to-policy link is the capacity constraints of policymakers to access, synthesize, adapt and utilize available research evidence. The purpose of this review is to assess the efforts and various initiatives that have been undertaken to deliberately engage policymakers and other stakeholders in the health sector in Nigeria for the promotion of evidence informed policymaking. A MEDLINE Entrez Pubmed search was performed and studies that investigated policy making process, evidence to policy link, research to policy mechanism, and researchers/policymakers interaction in Nigeria in relation to health policy were sought. Of the 132 publications found, 14(10.6%) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria and were selected and included in the review. Of the fourteen scientific publications identified, 11 of the studies targeted both researchers and policymakers and the principal tool of intervention was training workshops which focused on various aspects of evidence informed policymaking. All the studies indicated positive outcomes and impacts in relation to quantifiable improvement in policymakers' knowledge and competence in evidence to policy process. Capacity strengthening engagement mechanism is needed for both researchers to generate better evidence and for policymakers and health-care professionals to better use available evidence.

  14. The Initial Assessment of Daily Insulin Dose in Chinese Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Hua; Chen, Xie; Teng, Xiangyu; Liu, Qianjing; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been well accepted that insulin therapy is the ideal treatment for newly diagnosed diabetic patients. However, there was no study about assessment of the initial insulin dosage in new onset Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods. 65 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (39 males/26 females; HbA1c ≥ 11.80 ± 0.22%) were investigated. All patients had random hyperglycaemia (at 21.8 ± 3.9 mmol/L) on the first day of admission and received insulin infusion intravenously (5 U/per hour). When the blood glucose level dropped to around 10 mmol/L, patients were then transferred to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The reduction of blood glucose levels in response to per unit of insulin (RBG/RI) was recorded. The target glucose level was achieved in about 3 days. The total daily insulin dose (TDD) and basal insulin dose (TBD) were calculated. Results. TDD was 45.97 ± 1.28 units and TBD was 19.00 ± 0.54 units. TBD was about 40% of the total daily insulin requirement. There was a negative correlation between the ratio of RBG/RI and TDD. Conclusions. TDD was correlated with blood glucose reduction in response to intravenous insulin infusion in Chinese new onset patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26697503

  15. Development and Initial Assessment of a Patient Education Video about Pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Mills, Rachel; Ensinger, Megan; Callanan, Nancy; Haga, Susanne B

    2017-05-25

    As few patient-friendly resources about pharmacogenetics are currently available, we aimed to create and assess a patient educational video on pharmacogenetic testing. A primary literature and resources review was conducted to inform the content and the format of the video. The educational video was then created using a commercially available animation program and pilot tested in focus groups of the general public and by an online survey of pharmacists. Emerging themes from the focus groups and survey indicate a desire for appropriate risk contextualization and specific examples when pharmacogenetic testing may be beneficial. Focus group participants also expressed a preference for a video with live action, and more text to reinforce concepts. Pharmacists generally felt that the video was understandable for patients and relevant for decision-making regarding testing. Using this initial feedback and the identification of important concepts to include in pharmacogenetics educational tools, we plan to revise the video, perform additional evaluations, and publish the video for public use in the future.

  16. Development and Initial Assessment of a Patient Education Video about Pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Rachel; Ensinger, Megan; Callanan, Nancy; Haga, Susanne B.

    2017-01-01

    As few patient-friendly resources about pharmacogenetics are currently available, we aimed to create and assess a patient educational video on pharmacogenetic testing. A primary literature and resources review was conducted to inform the content and the format of the video. The educational video was then created using a commercially available animation program and pilot tested in focus groups of the general public and by an online survey of pharmacists. Emerging themes from the focus groups and survey indicate a desire for appropriate risk contextualization and specific examples when pharmacogenetic testing may be beneficial. Focus group participants also expressed a preference for a video with live action, and more text to reinforce concepts. Pharmacists generally felt that the video was understandable for patients and relevant for decision-making regarding testing. Using this initial feedback and the identification of important concepts to include in pharmacogenetics educational tools, we plan to revise the video, perform additional evaluations, and publish the video for public use in the future. PMID:28587070

  17. Preparing the 1993--94 Safeguards Implementation Support Programme for IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L.

    1993-08-01

    The 1993-94 Safeguards Implementation Support (IS) Program describes the Department of Safeguards` program of implementation support for the coming two years. The main body of the document describes the IS program for IAEA. A detailed description of the individual IS needs for 1993-1994 is contained in an annex that specifies the nee, assigns priorities and lists tasks and activities underway to address the need. Other annexes address policy and procedures for program planning and management, current Member State Support Programs (MSSP) tasks, and identification of MSSP resources required for implementation of developed technologies that could be provided. The primary responsibility for supporting the implementation of safeguards technology is with the support divisions of the Department of Safeguards. However, in this time of limited resources it is essential that, where possible, the Department receives assistance from MSSPs that have the needed resources. This document should serve as a guide for IAEA, in planning implementation support activities and for identifying tasks for MSSPs wishing to provide assistance.

  18. An Interprofessional Quality Improvement Initiative to Standardize Pediatric Extubation Readiness Assessment.

    PubMed

    Abu-Sultaneh, Samer; Hole, Acrista J; Tori, Alvaro J; Benneyworth, Brian D; Lutfi, Riad; Mastropietro, Christopher W

    2017-10-01

    Establishing protocols to wean mechanical ventilation and assess readiness for extubation, with the goal of minimizing morbidity associated with extubation failure and prolonged mechanical ventilation, have become increasingly important in contemporary PICUs. The aim of this quality improvement initiative is to establish a respiratory therapist-led daily spontaneous breathing trial protocol to standardize extubation readiness assessment and documentation in our PICU. A quality improvement project. Single center, tertiary care Children's Hospital PICU. All intubated patients admitted to PICU requiring conventional mechanical ventilation between February 2013 and January 2016. A working group of pediatric intensivists, respiratory therapists, nurses, and information technology specialists established the protocol, standardized documentation via the electronic medical record, and planned education. Daily spontaneous breathing trial protocol implementation began in February 2015. All patients on mechanical ventilation were screened daily at approximately 4 AM by a respiratory therapist to determine daily spontaneous breathing trial eligibility. If all screening criteria were met, patients were placed on continuous positive airway pressure of 5 cm H2O with pressure support of 8 cm H2O for up to 2 hours. If tolerated, patients would be extubated to supplemental oxygen delivered via nasal cannula in the morning, after intensivist approval. Daily audits were done to assess screening compliance and accuracy of documentation. We analyzed data from 398 mechanically ventilated patients during daily spontaneous breathing trial period (February 2015-January 2016), compared with 833 patients from the pre-daily spontaneous breathing trial period (February 2013-January 2015). During the daily spontaneous breathing trial period, daily screening occurred in 92% of patients. Extubation failure decreased from 7.8% in the pre-daily spontaneous breathing trial period to 4.5% in daily

  19. Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E): mission concept and initial performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, A.; Orphal, J.; Checa-Garcia, R.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.; Knigge, T.; Weise, D.; Sqalli-Houssini, O.; Kemper, D.

    2015-07-01

    The Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a concept for a geostationary satellite sounder that targets at constraining the sources and sinks of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for continental-scale regions. Thereby, its primary focus is on Central Europe. G3E carries a spectrometer system that collects sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Solar absorption spectra allow for spatiotemporally dense observations of the column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4), and carbon monoxide (XCO) including sampling of the diurnal variation with several measurements per day during summer. Here, we present the mission concept and carry out an initial performance assessment of the retrieval capabilities. The radiometric performance of the 4 grating spectrometers is tuned to reconcile small ground-pixel sizes (~ 2 km × 3 km at 50° latitude) with short single-shot exposures (∼ 2.9 s) that allow for sampling continental regions such as Central Europe within 2 h while providing sufficient signal-to-noise. The noise errors to be expected for XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are assessed through retrieval simulations for a European trial ensemble. Generally, single-shot precision for the targeted XCO2 and XCH4 is better than 0.5 % with some exception for scenes with low infrared surface albedo observed under low sun conditions in winter. For XCO, precision is generally better than 10 %. Performance for aerosol and cirrus loaded atmospheres is assessed by mimicking G3E's slant view on Europe for an ensemble of atmospheric scattering properties used previously for evaluating nadir-viewing low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. While retrieval concepts developed for LEO configurations generally succeed in mitigating aerosol and cirrus induced retrieval errors for G3E's setup, residual errors are somewhat greater in geostationary orbit

  20. Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E): mission concept and initial performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, A.; Orphal, J.; Checa-Garcia, R.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; von Clarmann, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.; Knigge, T.; Weise, D.; Sqalli-Houssini, O.; Kemper, D.

    2015-11-01

    The Geostationary Emission Explorer for Europe (G3E) is a concept for a geostationary satellite sounder that aims to constrain the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) for continental-scale regions. Its primary focus is on central Europe. G3E carries a spectrometer system that collects sunlight backscattered from the Earth's surface and atmosphere in the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral range. Solar absorption spectra allow for spatiotemporally dense observations of the column-average concentrations of carbon dioxide (XCO2), methane (XCH4), and carbon monoxide (XCO). The mission concept in particular facilitates sampling of the diurnal variation with several measurements per day during summer. Here, we present the mission concept and carry out an initial performance assessment of the retrieval capabilities. The radiometric performance of the 4 grating spectrometers is tuned to reconcile small ground-pixel sizes (~2 km × 3 km at 50° latitude) with short single-shot exposures (~2.9 s) that allow for sampling continental regions such as central Europe within 2 h while providing a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. The noise errors to be expected for XCO2, XCH4, and XCO are assessed through retrieval simulations for a European trial ensemble. Generally, single-shot precision for the targeted XCO2 and XCH4 is better than 0.5 % with some exception for scenes with low infrared surface albedo observed under low sun conditions in winter. For XCO, precision is generally better than 10 %. Performance for aerosol and cirrus loaded atmospheres is assessed by mimicking G3E's slant view on Europe for an ensemble of atmospheric scattering properties used previously for evaluating nadir-viewing low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellites. While retrieval concepts developed for LEO configurations generally succeed in mitigating aerosol- and cirrus-induced retrieval errors for G3E's setup, residual errors are somewhat greater in

  1. Analysis of IAEA Environmental Samples for Plutonium and Uranium by ICP/MS in Support Of International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Orville T.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thomas, May-Lin P.; Garofoli, Stephanie J.

    2008-05-01

    A method for the separation and determination of total and isotopic uranium and plutonium by ICP-MS was developed for IAEA samples on cellulose-based media. Preparation of the IAEA samples involved a series of redox chemistries and separations using TRU® resin (Eichrom). The sample introduction system, an APEX nebulizer (Elemental Scientific, Inc), provided enhanced nebulization for a several-fold increase in sensitivity and reduction in background. Application of mass bias (ALPHA) correction factors greatly improved the precision of the data. By combining the enhancements of chemical separation, instrumentation and data processing, detection levels for uranium and plutonium approached high attogram levels.

  2. The role of business size in assessing the uptake of health promoting workplace initiatives in Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A W; Pilkington, R; Montgomerie, A; Feist, H

    2016-04-21

    Worksite health promotion (WHP) initiatives are increasingly seen as having potential for large-scale health gains. While health insurance premiums are directly linked to workplaces in the USA, other countries with universal health coverage, have less incentive to implement WHP programs. Size of the business is an important consideration with small worksites less likely to implement WHP programs. The aim of this study was to identify key intervention points and to provide policy makers with evidence for targeted interventions. The worksites (n = 218) of randomly selected, working participants, aged between 30 and 65 years, in two South Australian cohort studies were surveyed to assess the practices, beliefs, and attitudes regarding WHP. A survey was sent electronically or by mail to management within each business. Smaller businesses (<20 employees) had less current health promotion activies (mean 1.0) compared to medium size businesses (20-200 employees - mean 2.4) and large businesses (200+ employees - mean 2.9). Management in small businesses were less likely (31.0 %) to believe that health promotion belonged in the workplace (compared to 55.7 % of medium businesses and 73.9 % of large businesses) although half of small businesses did not know or were undecided (compared to 36.4 and 21.6 % of medium and large businesses). In total, 85.0 % of smaller businesses believed the health promotion activities currently employed in the worksite were effective (compared to 89.2 % of medium businesses and 83.1 % of large businesses). Time and funding were the most cited responses to the challenges to implementing health promoting strategies regardless of business size. Small businesses ranked morale and work/life balance the highest among a range of health promotion activities that were important for their workplace while work-related injury was the highest ranked consideration for large businesses. This study found that smaller workplaces had many barriers

  3. To Receive or Not to Receive Analgesics in the Emergency Department: The Importance of the Pain Intensity Assessment and Initial Nursing Assessment.

    PubMed

    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Carlsson, Marianne; Gunningberg, Lena

    2015-10-01

    Patients seeking emergency care for abdominal pain still experience poor pain management. Pain intensity is not always seen as a mandatory parameter in the initial nurse assessment. Despite the development of nurse-initiated analgesic protocols, many patients do not receive analgesics in the emergency department. The aim of this study was to describe initial nursing assessment related to pain management and to identify predictors for receiving or not receiving analgesics in the emergency department. The sample consists of 100 patients from an intervention group in a previously undertaken Swedish intervention study. The main findings were that the registered nurses assessed 62 patients as being in need of analgesics, and that 52 of these obtained analgesics. The majority of the patients assessed as not being in need of analgesics did not receive analgesics because they did not want medication. Median value for pain intensity at initial assessment was 6 on the numerical rating scale. The results for the logistic regression (n = 80) showed significant differences between receiving analgesics/not receiving analgesics and the predictor pain intensity (measured at initial nurse assessment). Nurses in emergency departments play a crucial role, in that their initial assessment is of specific importance for the patient's further care and whether the patient may or may not receive analgesics. However, more attention has to be paid to patients' experiences and their expectations regarding the pain management in the emergency department. These complex questions have to be studied further in a more systematic way. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Initial validation of the Yin-Yang Assessment Questionnaire for persons with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yee Chi Peggy; Pang, Mei Che Samantha

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To initially test for the content validity, comprehensibility, test-retest reliability and internal consistency reliability of the Yin-Yang Assessment Questionnaire (YY-AQ). METHODS: The process of initial validity and reliability test covered: (1) content validation from the findings of 18 multiple-case studies, validated Yin- and Yang-deficiency assessment questionnaires, relevant literatures and registered Chinese medicine practitioners; (2) comprehension with the levels of comprehensibility for each item categorized on a 3-point scale (not comprehensible; moderately comprehensible; highly comprehensible). A minimum of three respondents selecting for each item of moderately or highly comprehensible were regarded as comprehensive; (3) test-retest reliability conducted with a 2-wk interval. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and their 95%CIs were calculated using a two-way random effects model. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test for related samples was adopted to compare the medians of test-retest scores. An ICC value of 0.85 or higher together with P > 0.05, was considered acceptable; and (4) internal consistency of the total items was measured and evaluated by Cronbach’s coefficient alpha (α). A Cronbach’s α of 0.7 or higher was considered to represent good internal consistency. RESULTS: Eighteen Yin-deficiency and 14 Yang-deficiency presentation items were finalized from content validation. Five participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) performed the comprehensibility and test-retest reliability tests. Comprehensibility score level of each presentation item was found to be moderate or high in three out of the five participants. Test-retest reliability showed that the single measure ICC of the total Yin-deficiency presentation items was 0.99 (95%CI: 0.89-0.99) and the median scores on the first and 14th days were 17 (IQR 6.5-27) and 21 (IQR 6-29) (P = 0.144) respectively. The single measure ICC of the total Yang-deficiency presentation

  5. Children's safety initiative: a national assessment of pediatric educational needs among emergency medical services providers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthew; Meckler, Garth; Dickinson, Caitlyn; Dickenson, Kathryn; Jui, Jonathan; Lambert, William; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) providers may have critical knowledge gaps in pediatric care due to lack of exposure and training. There is currently little evidence to guide educators to the knowledge gaps that most need to be addressed to improve patient safety. The objective of this study was to identify educational needs of EMS providers related to pediatric care in various domains in order to inform development of curricula. The Children's Safety Initiative-EMS performed a three-phase Delphi survey on patient safety in pediatric emergencies among providers and content experts in pediatric emergency care, including physicians, nurses, and prehospital providers of all levels. Each round included questions related to educational needs of providers or the effect of training on patient safety events. We identified knowledge gaps in the following domains: case exposure, competency and knowledge, assessment and decision making, and critical thinking and proficiency. Individual knowledge gaps were ranked by portion of respondents who ranked them "highly likely" (Likert-type score 7-10 out of 10) to contribute to safety events. There were 737 respondents who were included in analysis of the first phase of the survey. Paramedics were 50.8% of respondents, EMT-basics/first responders were 22%, and physicians 11.4%. The top educational priorities identified in the final round of the survey include pediatric airway management, responder anxiety when working with children, and general pediatric skills among providers. The top three needs in decision-making include knowing when to alter plans mid-course, knowing when to perform an advanced airway, and assessing pain in children. The top 3 technical or procedural skills needs were pediatric advanced airway, neonatal resuscitation, and intravenous/intraosseous access. For neonates, specific educational needs identified included knowing appropriate vital signs and preventing hypothermia. This is the first large-scale Delphi

  6. Data resources for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assal, Timothy J.; Garman, Steven L.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    The data contained in this report were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Integrated Assessment (IA). The WLCI is a long-term science based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale in southwest Wyoming while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. The IA is an integrated synthesis and analysis of WLCI resource values based on best available data and information collected from multiple agencies and organizations. It is a support tool for landscape-scale conservation planning and evaluation, and a data and analysis resource that can be used for addressing specific management questions. The IA analysis was conducted using a Geographic Information System in a raster (that is, a grid) environment using a cell size of 30 meters. To facilitate the interpretation of the data in a regional context, mean values were summarized and displayed at the subwatershed unit (WLCI subwatersheds were subset from the National Hydrography Dataset, Hydrologic Unit Code 12/Level 6). A dynamic mapping platform, accessed via the WLCI webpage at http://www.wlci.gov is used to display the mapped information, and to access underlying resource values that were combined to produce the final mapped results. The raster data used in the IA are provided here for use by interested parties to conduct additional analyses and can be accessed via the WLCI webpage. This series contains 74 spatial data sets: WLCI subwatersheds (vector) and 73 geotiffs (raster) that are segregated into the major categories of Multicriteria Index (including Resource Index and Condition), Change Agents, and Future Change. The Total Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Multicriteria Index and the Terrestrial Multicriteria Index. The Aquatic Multicriteria Index is composed of the Aquatic Resource Index and the Aquatic Condition. The Aquatic Resource Index is composed of the

  7. Assessment of population-level effect of Avahan, an HIV-prevention initiative in India.

    PubMed

    Ng, Marie; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Levin-Rector, Alison; Khera, Ajay; Murray, Christopher J L; Dandona, Lalit

    2011-11-05

    The aim of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, was to reduce HIV transmission in the general population through large-scale prevention interventions focused on high-risk groups. It was launched in 2003 in six states with a total population of 300 million and a high HIV burden. We assessed the population-level effect of the first phase of Avahan (2003-08). Population prevalence was estimated by use of adjustment factors from the national HIV sentinel surveillance data obtained annually from antenatal clinics. A mixed-effects multilevel regression model was developed to estimate the association between intervention intensity and population HIV prevalence trends, taking into account differences in the underlying epidemic trends in states and other potential confounders, and to estimate the number of HIV infections averted with Avahan. 80 (61%) of 131 districts in the six Avahan states received funding from Avahan for HIV prevention, as the only or shared source. Greater intensity of Avahan, measured as amount of grant per HIV population (medians US$24-432 in the six states), was significantly associated with lower HIV prevalence in Andhra Pradesh (p=0·004), Karnataka (p=0·004), and Maharashtra (p=0·008) states; this association was not significant in Tamil Nadu (p=0·06), Manipur (p=0·62), and Nagaland (p=0·67). Overall, we estimated that 100,178 HIV infections (95% CI 25,897-207,713) were averted at the population level from 2003 up to 2008 as a result of Avahan. The results of our analysis suggest that Avahan had a beneficial effect in reducing HIV prevalence at the population level over 5 years of programme implementation in some of the states. With stagnating funding for HIV prevention globally, our findings support investment in well planned and managed HIV prevention programmes in low-income and middle-income countries. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An initial needs assessment of science inquiry curriculum practices at a local level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, Susan M.

    Frequently, students learn in science classes taught like traditional reading courses in which reading texts and answering questions is the main activity. The problem at one southern middle school is that students are not developing an understanding of science concepts and are doing poorly on standardized testing. Students are seldom given the opportunity model scientific inquiry methods that promote experiential learning in the classroom. The purpose of this project was to create a curriculum for inquiry science (IS) instruction at the seventh-grade level to increase student understanding of science concepts after conducting an initial needs assessment to guide deploying the intervention. Research guiding the IS movement at the national level suggests that many teachers use only the textbook and students do not apply what they have learned. Factors affecting this problem include a lack of integrated curricula for IS learning and teacher understanding and confidence in IS skills. A constructivist view of student learning served as the conceptual framework. The needs analysis for the project questioned if teachers were willing to adopt the IS method and prepared to conduct it through a quantitative survey research design. Results indicated that all teachers supported the IS approach, however it was infrequently used in instruction and only two of five teachers were somewhat comfortable with their IS skills. The local IS project draws from empirically tested elements to develop an integrated IS curricula aligned to the state science criterion. The curricula will be supported through a concurrently deployed professional learning community to support teacher professional development and confidence. This project can positively impact social change by increasing science related academic performance, and ultimately, interest in careers in science among middle school students.

  9. Initial skill assessment of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Clarissa R; Kudela, Raphael M; Kahru, Mati; Chao, Yi; Rosenfeld, Leslie K; Bahr, Frederick L; Anderson, David M; Norris, Tenaya A

    2016-11-01

    Toxic algal events are an annual burden on aquaculture and coastal ecosystems of California. The threat of domoic acid (DA) toxicity to human and wildlife health is the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) concern for the region, leading to a strong focus on prediction and mitigation of these blooms and their toxic effects. This paper describes the initial development of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system that predicts the spatial likelihood of blooms and dangerous levels of DA using a unique blend of numerical models, ecological forecast models of the target group, Pseudo-nitzschia, and satellite ocean color imagery. Data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions (DINEOF) are applied to ocean color imagery to fill in missing data and then used in a multivariate mode with other modeled variables to forecast biogeochemical parameters. Daily predictions (nowcast and forecast maps) are run routinely at the Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS) and posted on its public website. Skill assessment of model output for the nowcast data is restricted to nearshore pixels that overlap with routine pier monitoring of HABs in California from 2014 to 2015. Model lead times are best correlated with DA measured with solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) and marine mammal strandings from DA toxicosis, suggesting long-term benefits of the HAB predictions to decision-making. Over the next three years, the C-HARM application system will be incorporated into the NOAA operational HAB forecasting system and HAB Bulletin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Global Soil Moisture from the Aquarius/SAC-D Satellite: Description and Initial Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas; Cosh, Michael; Zhao, Tianjie; O'Neil, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius satellite observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Although Aquarius was designed for ocean salinity mapping, our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to include the retrieval of surface soil moisture. The soil moisture retrieval algorithm development focused on using only the radiometer data because of the extensive heritage of passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture. The single channel algorithm (SCA) was implemented using the Aquarius observations to estimate surface soil moisture. Aquarius radiometer observations from three beams (after bias/gain modification) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction model forecast surface temperatures were then used to retrieve soil moisture. Ancillary data inputs required for using the SCA are vegetation water content, land surface temperature, and several soil and vegetation parameters based on land cover classes. The resulting global spatial patterns of soil moisture were consistent with the precipitation climatology and with soil moisture from other satellite missions (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity). Initial assessments were performed using in situ observations from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Little Washita and Little River watershed soil moisture networks. Results showed good performance by the algorithm for these land surface conditions for the period of August 2011-June 2013 (rmse = 0.031 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), Bias = -0.007 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), and R = 0.855). This radiometer-only soil moisture product will serve as a baseline for continuing research on both active and combined passive-active soil moisture algorithms. The products are routinely available through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration data archive at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

  11. Assessment of bird response to the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative using weather-surveillance radar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sieges, Mason L.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Randall, Lori A.; Buler, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in spring 2010, the Natural Resources Conservation Service implemented the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI) to provide temporary wetland habitat for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other birds along the northern Gulf of Mexico via managed flooding of agricultural lands. We used weather-surveillance radar to conduct broad regional assessments of bird response to MBHI activities within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Across both regions, birds responded positively to MBHI management by exhibiting greater relative bird densities within sites relative to pre-management conditions in prior years and relative to surrounding non-flooded agricultural lands. Bird density at MBHI sites was generally greatest during winter for both regions. Unusually high flooding in the years prior to implementation of the MBHI confounded detection of overall changes in remotely sensed soil wetness across sites. The magnitude of bird response at MBHI sites compared to prior years and to non-flooded agricultural lands was generally related to the surrounding landscape context: proximity to areas of high bird density, amount of forested wetlands, emergent marsh, non-flooded agriculture, or permanent open water. However, these relationships varied in strength and direction between regions and seasons, a finding which we attribute to differences in seasonal bird composition and broad regional differences in landscape configuration and composition. We detected greater increases in relative bird use at sites in closer proximity to areas of high bird density during winter in both regions. Additionally, bird density was greater during winter at sites with more emergent marsh in the surrounding landscape. Thus, bird use of managed wetlands could be maximized by enrolling lands located near areas of known bird concentration and within a mosaic of existing wetlands. Weather-radar observations

  12. Development and assessment of a composite score for memory in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI).

    PubMed

    Crane, Paul K; Carle, Adam; Gibbons, Laura E; Insel, Philip; Mackin, R Scott; Gross, Alden; Jones, Richard N; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Curtis, S McKay; Harvey, Danielle; Weiner, Michael; Mungas, Dan

    2012-12-01

    We sought to develop and evaluate a composite memory score from the neuropsychological battery used in the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We used modern psychometric approaches to analyze longitudinal Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, 2 versions), AD Assessment Schedule - Cognition (ADAS-Cog, 3 versions), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Logical Memory data to develop ADNI-Mem, a composite memory score. We compared RAVLT and ADAS-Cog versions, and compared ADNI-Mem to RAVLT recall sum scores, four ADAS-Cog-derived scores, the MMSE, and the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes. We evaluated rates of decline in normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, ability to predict conversion from MCI to AD, strength of association with selected imaging parameters, and ability to differentiate rates of decline between participants with and without AD cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signatures. The second version of the RAVLT was harder than the first. The ADAS-Cog versions were of similar difficulty. ADNI-Mem was slightly better at detecting change than total RAVLT recall scores. It was as good as or better than all of the other scores at predicting conversion from MCI to AD. It was associated with all our selected imaging parameters for people with MCI and AD. Participants with MCI with an AD CSF signature had somewhat more rapid decline than did those without. This paper illustrates appropriate methods for addressing the different versions of word lists, and demonstrates the additional power to be gleaned with a psychometrically sound composite memory score.

  13. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by SETAC.

  14. Measuring the value of process improvement initiatives in a preoperative assessment center using time-driven activity-based costing.

    PubMed

    French, Katy E; Albright, Heidi W; Frenzel, John C; Incalcaterra, James R; Rubio, Augustin C; Jones, Jessica F; Feeley, Thomas W

    2013-12-01

    The value and impact of process improvement initiatives are difficult to quantify. We describe the use of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) in a clinical setting to quantify the value of process improvements in terms of cost, time and personnel resources. Difficulty in identifying and measuring the cost savings of process improvement initiatives in a Preoperative Assessment Center (PAC). Use TDABC to measure the value of process improvement initiatives that reduce the costs of performing a preoperative assessment while maintaining the quality of the assessment. Apply the principles of TDABC in a PAC to measure the value, from baseline, of two phases of performance improvement initiatives and determine the impact of each implementation in terms of cost, time and efficiency. Through two rounds of performance improvements, we quantified an overall reduction in time spent by patient and personnel of 33% that resulted in a 46% reduction in the costs of providing care in the center. The performance improvements resulted in a 17% decrease in the total number of full time equivalents (FTE's) needed to staff the center and a 19% increase in the numbers of patients assessed in the center. Quality of care, as assessed by the rate of cancellations on the day of surgery, was not adversely impacted by the process improvements. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The assessment of ionising radiation impact on the cooling pond freshwater ecosystem non-human biota from the Ignalina NPP operation beginning to shut down and initial decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Mazeika, J; Marciulioniene, D; Nedveckaite, T; Jefanova, O

    2016-01-01

    The radiological doses to non-human biota of freshwater ecosystem in the Ignalina NPP cooling pond - Lake Druksiai were evaluated for several cases including the plant's operation period and initial decommissioning activities, using the ERICA 1.2 code with IAEA SRS-19 models integrated approach and tool. Among the Lake Druksiai freshwater ecosystem reference organisms investigated the highest exposure dose rate was determined for bottom fauna - benthic organisms (mollusc-bivalves, crustaceans, mollusc-gastropods, insect larvae), and among the other reference organisms - for vascular plants. The mean and maximum total dose rate values due to anthropogenic radionuclide ionising radiation impact in all investigated cases were lower than the ERICA screening dose rate value of 10 μGy/h. The main exposure of reference organisms as a result of Ignalina NPP former effluent to Lake Druksiai is due to ionizing radiation of radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs, of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai during initial decommissioning period - due to radionuclides (60)Co, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and as a result of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai from low- and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste disposal site in 30-100 year period - due to radionuclides (99)Tc and (3)H. The risk quotient expected values in all investigated cases were <1, and therefore the risk to non-human biota can be considered negligible with the exception of a conservative risk quotient for insect larvae. Radiological protection of non-human biota in Lake Druksiai, the Ignalina NPP cooling pond, is both feasible and acceptable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D; Whitaker, J Michael; Howell, John

    2010-01-01

    Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide simulated

  17. Report to the President and Congress on the Third Assessment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Joe; Amato, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is the U.S. Government's crosscutting program that coordinates Federal research and development (R&D) activities in nanoscale science, engineering, technology, and related efforts among various participating agencies. The Federal Government launched the NNI in FY 2001 with an initial $500 million…

  18. What Can the Common Core State Standards Initiative Learn from the National Assessment Governing Board?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI) is a bit like the underdog candidate who wins the election when few think it possible. "Now what?" is the question facing the surprised victor. With an initial agreement for the Common Core State Standards to be developed, and visible progress toward their development and promulgation, what will…

  19. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness... Amendments of 2012 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... or prior approval supplements to these applications, will be required to undergo an initial...

  20. The Agreement of Caregivers' Initial Identification of Children's Developmental Problems with the Professional Assessment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Lee, I-Chin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hui-Mei; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2011-01-01

    Children's developmental problems vary, with some easier to identify than others. The accuracy of caregivers' initial identification of children's developmental problems is important in the timely treatment of those problems by medical professionals. In this study, we investigated the degree to which caregivers' initial identification of…

  1. The Agreement of Caregivers' Initial Identification of Children's Developmental Problems with the Professional Assessment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Lee, I-Chin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hui-Mei; Chen, Yung-Jung

    2011-01-01

    Children's developmental problems vary, with some easier to identify than others. The accuracy of caregivers' initial identification of children's developmental problems is important in the timely treatment of those problems by medical professionals. In this study, we investigated the degree to which caregivers' initial identification of…

  2. Proficiency Testing as a tool to monitor consistency of measurements in the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Czap, Ladislav; Shortt, Ken

    2008-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (IAEA/WHO SSDL Network) in 1976. Through SSDLs designated by Member States, the Network provides a direct link of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Within this structure and through the proper calibration of field instruments, the SSDLs disseminate S.I. quantities and units. To ensure that the services provided by SSDL members to end-users follow internationally accepted standards, the IAEA has set up two different comparison programmes. One programme relies on the IAEA/WHO postal TLD service and the other uses comparisons of calibrated ionization chambers to help the SSDLs verify the integrity of their national standards and the procedures used for the transfer of the standards to the end-users. The IAEA comparisons include 60Co air kerma (NK) and absorbed dose to water (ND,W) coefficients. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy. This work describes the results of the IAEA programme comparing calibration coefficients for radiotherapy dosimetry, using ionization chambers. In this programme, ionization chambers that belong to the SSDLs are calibrated sequentially at the SSDL, at the IAEA, and again at the SSDL. As part of its own quality assurance programme, the IAEA has participated in several regional comparisons organized by Regional Metrology Organizations. The results of the IAEA comparison programme show that the majority of SSDLs are capable of providing calibrations that fall inside the acceptance level of 1.5% compared to the IAEA.

  3. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainties in Modeling: Assessment of Phase I Lattice to Core Model Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Rouxelin, Pascal Nicolas; Strydom, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    Best-estimate plus uncertainty analysis of reactors is replacing the traditional conservative (stacked uncertainty) method for safety and licensing analysis. To facilitate uncertainty analysis applications, a comprehensive approach and methodology must be developed and applied. High temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) have several features that require techniques not used in light-water reactor analysis (e.g., coated-particle design and large graphite quantities at high temperatures). The International Atomic Energy Agency has therefore launched the Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling to study uncertainty propagation in the HTGR analysis chain. The benchmark problem defined for the prismatic design is represented by the General Atomics Modular HTGR 350. The main focus of this report is the compilation and discussion of the results obtained for various permutations of Exercise I 2c and the use of the cross section data in Exercise II 1a of the prismatic benchmark, which is defined as the last and first steps of the lattice and core simulation phases, respectively. The report summarizes the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) best estimate results obtained for Exercise I 2a (fresh single-fuel block), Exercise I 2b (depleted single-fuel block), and Exercise I 2c (super cell) in addition to the first results of an investigation into the cross section generation effects for the super-cell problem. The two dimensional deterministic code known as the New ESC based Weighting Transport (NEWT) included in the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 6.1.2 package was used for the cross section evaluation, and the results obtained were compared to the three dimensional stochastic SCALE module KENO VI. The NEWT cross section libraries were generated for several permutations of the current benchmark super-cell geometry and were then provided as input to the Phase II core calculation of the stand alone neutronics Exercise II 1a. The steady state core calculations were simulated with the INL coupled-code system known as the Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for INL Code System (PHISICS) and the system thermal-hydraulics code known as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP) 5 3D using the nuclear data libraries previously generated with NEWT. It was observed that significant differences in terms of multiplication factor and neutron flux exist between the various permutations of the Phase I super-cell lattice calculations. The use of these cross section libraries only leads to minor changes in the Phase II core simulation results for fresh fuel but shows significantly larger discrepancies for spent fuel cores. Furthermore, large incongruities were found between the SCALE NEWT and KENO VI results for the super cells, and while some trends could be identified, a final conclusion on this issue could not yet be reached. This report will be revised in mid 2016 with more detailed analyses of the super-cell problems and their effects on the core models, using the latest version of SCALE (6.2). The super-cell models seem to show substantial improvements in terms of neutron flux as compared to single-block models, particularly at thermal energies.

  4. Use of Advanced Tsunami Hazard Assessment Techniques and Tsunami Source Characterizations in U.S. and International Nuclear Regulatory Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammerer, A. M.; Godoy, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, as well as the anticipation of the submission of license applications for new nuclear facilities, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for nuclear power plants and other coastal facilities in the United States. To undertake this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program jointly undertaken with researchers at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for the purpose of assessing tsunami hazard on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. This study identified and modeled both seismic and landslide tsunamigenic sources in the near- and far-field. The results from this work are now being used directly as the basis for the review of tsunami hazard at potential nuclear plant sites. This application once again shows the importance that the earth sciences can play in addressing issues of importance to society. Because the Indian Ocean Tsunami was a global event, a number of cooperative international activities have also been initiated within the nuclear community. The results of US efforts are being incorporated into updated regulatory guidance for both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the United Nation’s International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Coordinated efforts are underway to integrate state-of-the art tsunami warning tools developed by NOAA into NRC and IAEA activities. The goal of the warning systems project is to develop automated protocols that allow scientists at these agencies to have up-to-the minute user-specific information in hand shortly after a potential tsunami has been identified by the US Tsunami Warning System. Lastly, USGS and NOAA scientists are assisting the NRC and IAEA in a special Extra-Budgetary Program (IAEA EBP) on tsunami being coordinated by the IAEA’s International Seismic Safety

  5. Analytical quality of environmental analysis: Recent results and future trends of the IAEA-ILMR's Analytical Quality Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Holm, E.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P. )

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services Program of the IAEA-ILMR covers a wide variety of intercalibration and reference materials. The purpose of the program is to ensure the comparability of the results obtained by the different participants and to enable laboratories engaged in low-level analyses of marine environmental materials to control their analytical performance. Within the past five years, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco has organized eight intercomparison exercises, on a world-wide basis, on natural materials of marine origin comprising sea water, sediment, seaweed and fish flesh. Results on artificial (fission and activation products, transuranium elements) and natural radionuclides were compiled and evaluated. Reference concentration values were established for a number of the intercalibration samples allowing them to become certified as reference materials available for general distribution. The results of the fish flesh sample and those of the deep-sea sediment are reviewed. The present status of three on-going intercomparison exercises on post-Chernobyl samples IAEA-306 (Baltic Sea sediment), IAEA-307 (Mediterranean sea-plant Posidonia oceanica) and IAEA-308 (Mediterranean mixed seaweed) is also described. 1 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Initial Psychometric Properties of a Brief Parent-Report Instrument for Assessing Tic Severity in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susanna; Himle, Michael B.; Tucker, Benjamin T. P.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ)--a new measure assessing the number, frequency, and intensity of motor and vocal tics in children and adolescents with Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD). Parents of 40 children with a CTD completed the PTQ as part of a larger assessment…

  7. Factors that Affect Science and Mathematics Teachers' Initial Implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment Using a Classroom Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan; Beatty, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to uncover and understand the factors that affect secondary science and mathematics teachers' initial implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), a pedagogy developed for teaching with classroom response system (CRS) technology. We sought to identify the most common and strongest factors, and to…

  8. A Preliminary Assessment of the Change Recipients' Perceptions of the "4+4+4 Reform Initiative": Has Anything Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summak, M. Semih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess change recipients' perceptions of 4+4+4 reform initiative put in effect in Turkish education system and to explore if anything has changed within the one-year interval. This research is a qualitative longitudinal case study conducted in 2013 and 2014 in a large city in Southeastern Turkey. Pragmatist…

  9. Initial Psychometric Properties of a Brief Parent-Report Instrument for Assessing Tic Severity in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susanna; Himle, Michael B.; Tucker, Benjamin T. P.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ)--a new measure assessing the number, frequency, and intensity of motor and vocal tics in children and adolescents with Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD). Parents of 40 children with a CTD completed the PTQ as part of a larger assessment…

  10. Adolescents at Risk for Violence: An Initial Validation of the Life Challenges Questionnaire and Risk Assessment Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinberg, Ilyse; Dawkins, Marva; Dawkins, Marvin P.; Fullilove, Constance

    2005-01-01

    Initial validation was sought for the Life-Challenges Questionnaire-Teen Form, a 120-item youth-risk assessment tool. The questionnaire was administered to 99 students enrolled in an adolescent detention facility and a comparison group of 305 students attending high school. The survey items included correlates of youth violence and categorized…

  11. Development and Initial Validation of the NyTid Test: A Movement Assessment Tool for Compulsory School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidén, Anna; Lundqvist, Carolina; Nyberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the development process and initial validation of the NyTid test, a process-oriented movement assessment tool for compulsory school pupils. A sample of 1,260 (627 girls and 633 boys; mean age of 14.39) Swedish school children participated in the study. In the first step, exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were performed in…

  12. Using Activity Theory to Evaluate a Professional Learning and Development Initiative in the Use of Narrative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Roseanna; Mentis, Mandia; O'Neill, John

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the impact of professional learning and development (PLD) programmes for educators is complex. This article presents an analysis of a PLD initiative in which classroom teachers learned to use narrative assessment for students with "high" and "very high" learning needs. Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory…

  13. Adolescents at Risk for Violence: An Initial Validation of the Life Challenges Questionnaire and Risk Assessment Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinberg, Ilyse; Dawkins, Marva; Dawkins, Marvin P.; Fullilove, Constance

    2005-01-01

    Initial validation was sought for the Life-Challenges Questionnaire-Teen Form, a 120-item youth-risk assessment tool. The questionnaire was administered to 99 students enrolled in an adolescent detention facility and a comparison group of 305 students attending high school. The survey items included correlates of youth violence and categorized…

  14. An Empirical System for Assessing the Impact of Aptitude Requirement Adjustments on Air Force Initial Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.; And Others

    A multivariate modeling approach was developed to assess the impact of changes in aptitude requirement minimums on U.S. Air Force technical training outcomes. Initially, interviews were conducted with technical training personnel to identify significant student inputs, course content, and training outcome variables. Measures of these variables…

  15. When the Sky Falls: Performing Initial Assessments of Bright Atmospheric Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.; Brown, Peter; Blaauw, Rhiannon; Kingery, Aaron; Moser, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Chelyabinsk super bolide was the first "significant" impact event to occur in the age of social media and 24 hour news. Scientists, used to taking many days or weeks to analyze fireball events, were hard pressed to meet the immediate demands (within hours) for answers from the media, general public, and government officials. Fulfilling these requests forced many researchers to exploit information available from various Internet sources - videos were downloaded from sites like Youtube, geolocated via Google Street View, and quickly analyzed with improvised software; Twitter and Facebook were scoured for eyewitness accounts of the fireball and reports of meteorites. These data, combined with infrasound analyses, enabled a fairly accurate description of the Chelyabinsk event to be formed within a few hours; in particular, any relationship to 2012 DA14 (which passed near Earth later that same day) was eliminated. Results of these analyses were quickly disseminated to members of the NEO community for press conferences and media interviews. Despite a few minor glitches, the rapid initial assessment of Chelyabinsk was a triumph, permitting the timely conveyance of accurate information to the public and the incorporation of social media into fireball analyses. Beginning in 2008, the NASA Meteoroid Environments Office, working in cooperation with Western's Meteor Physics Group, developed processes and software that permit quick characterization - mass, trajectory, and orbital properties - of fireball events. These tools include automated monitoring of Twitter to establish the time of events (the first tweet is usually no more than a few seconds after the fireball), mining of Youtube and all sky camera web archives to locate videos suitable for analyses, use of Google Earth and Street View to geolocate the video locations, and software to determine the fireball trajectory and object orbital parameters, including generation of animations suitable for popular media

  16. INITIAL SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    JARAYSI, M.N.

    2007-01-08

    The ''Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site [1] (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank waste and closure of the SST farms at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) [2], the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A ''reference'' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The ''reference case'' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. ''Reference'' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that re significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives

  17. Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jaraysi, M.N.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Connelly, M.P.; Wood, M.I.; Knepp, A.J.; Quintero, R.A.

    2007-07-01

    The Initial Single-Shell Tank System Performance Assessment for the Hanford Site (SST PA) presents the analysis of the long-term impacts of residual wastes assumed to remain after retrieval of tank wastes and closure of the SST farms at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The SST PA supports key elements of the closure process agreed upon in 2004 by DOE, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The SST PA element is defined in Appendix I of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989), the document that establishes the overall closure process for the SST and double-shell tank (DST) systems. The approach incorporated in the SST PA integrates substantive features of both hazardous and radioactive waste management regulations into a single analysis. The defense-in-depth approach used in this analysis defined two major engineering barriers (a surface barrier and the grouted tank structure) and one natural barrier (the vadose zone) that will be relied on to control waste release into the accessible environment and attain expected performance metrics. The analysis evaluates specific barrier characteristics and other site features that influence contaminant migration by the various pathways. A 'reference' case and a suite of sensitivity/uncertainty cases are considered. The 'reference case' evaluates environmental impacts assuming central tendency estimates of site conditions. 'Reference' case analysis results show residual tank waste impacts on nearby groundwater, air resources; or inadvertent intruders to be well below most important performance objectives. Conversely, past releases to the soil, from previous tank farm operations, are shown to have groundwater impacts that are significantly above most performance objectives. Sensitivity/uncertainty cases examine single and multiple parameter variability along with plausible alternatives to 'reference

  18. Assessing the Sense of Initiative and Entrepreneurship in Vocational Students Using the European Qualification Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morselli, Daniele; Ajello, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find a framework for the assessment of the learning outcomes of entrepreneurship education as a cross-curricular subject. The problem is twofold: the first difficulty is the relationship to the general issues regarding competence and its assessment; the second difficulty is the assessment of competencies in…

  19. Assessing the Sense of Initiative and Entrepreneurship in Vocational Students Using the European Qualification Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morselli, Daniele; Ajello, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find a framework for the assessment of the learning outcomes of entrepreneurship education as a cross-curricular subject. The problem is twofold: the first difficulty is the relationship to the general issues regarding competence and its assessment; the second difficulty is the assessment of competencies in…

  20. What Assessment Knowledge and Skills Do Initial Teacher Education Programs Address? A Western Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poth, Cheryl-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Teacher education programs play a crucial role in preparing teachers for their future assessment roles and responsibilities, yet many beginning teachers feel unprepared to assess their students' performances (Mertler, 2009). To address concerns related to the relevancy of pre-service assessment education, this study examined 57 syllabi from…

  1. IAEA coordinated research projects on core physics benchmarks for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Methnani, M.

    2006-07-01

    High-temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs present special computational challenges related to their core physics characteristics, in particular neutron streaming, double heterogeneities, impurities and the random distribution of coated fuel particles in the graphite matrix. In recent years, two consecutive IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRP 1 and CRP 5) have focused on code-to-code and code-to-experiment comparisons of representative benchmarks run by several participating international institutes. While the PROTEUS critical HTR experiments provided the test data reference for CRP-1, the more recent CRP-5 data has been made available by the HTTR, HTR-10 and ASTRA test facilities. Other benchmark cases are being considered for the GT-MHR and PBMR core designs. This paper overviews the scope and some sample results of both coordinated research projects. (authors)

  2. Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2012-05-01

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

  3. Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2012-05-25

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

  4. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  5. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Benchmark Definition and Test Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Frederik Reitsma; Hans Gougar; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are essential elements of the reactor simulation code verification and validation process. Although several international uncertainty quantification activities have been launched in recent years in the LWR, BWR and VVER domains (e.g. the OECD/NEA BEMUSE program [1], from which the current OECD/NEA LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) benchmark [2] effort was derived), the systematic propagation of uncertainties in cross-section, manufacturing and model parameters for High Temperature Reactor (HTGR) designs has not been attempted yet. This paper summarises the scope, objectives and exercise definitions of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on HTGR UAM [3]. Note that no results will be included here, as the HTGR UAM benchmark was only launched formally in April 2012, and the specification is currently still under development.

  6. On the status of IAEA delta-13C stable isotope reference materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2016-04-01

    For practical reasons all isotope measurements are performed on relative scales realized through the use of international, scale-defining primary standards. In fact these standards were materials (artefacts, similar to prototypes of meter and kg) selected based on their properties. The VPDB delta-13C scale is realised via two highest-level reference materials NBS19 and LSVEC, the first defining the scale and the second aimed to normalise lab-to-lab calibrations. These two reference materials (RMs) have been maintained and distributed by IAEA and NIST. The priority task is to maintain these primary RMs at the required uncertainty level, thus ensuring the long-term scale consistency. The second task is to introduce replacements when needed (currently for exhausted NBS19, work in progress). The next is to produce a family of lower level RMs (secondary, tertiary) addressing needs of various applications (with different delta values, in different physical-chemical forms) and their needs for the uncertainty; these RMs should be traceable to the highest level RMs. Presently three is a need for a range of RMs addressing existing and newly emerging analytical techniques (e.g. optical isotopic analysers) in form of calibrated CO2 gases with different delta-13C values. All that implies creating a family of delta-13C stable isotope reference materials. Presently IAEA works on replacement for NBS19 and planning new RMs. Besides, we found that LSVEC (introduced as second anchor for the VPDB scale in 2006) demonstrate a considerable scatter of its delta-13C value which implies a potential bias of the property value and increased value uncertainty which may conflict with uncertainty requirements for atmospheric monitoring. That is not compatible with the status of LSVEC, and therefore it should be replaced as soon as possible. The presentation will give an overview of the current status, the strategic plan of developments and the near future steps.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Low Rate Initial Production on Army Missile System Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    is not presently configured as a "fire and forget" weapon. The system utilizes semiactive laser or radar guidance against heavily armored vehicles at...Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) has upon Army missile system development. It focuses on: (1) regulatory guidance on the use of LRIP in the...Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) has upon Army missile system development. It focuses on: (1) regulatory guidance on the use of LRIP in the

  8. Defense Logistics: Improved Performance Measures and Information Needed for Assessing Asset Visibility Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    measures. For example, for six initiatives there were no baseline and trend data associated with the measures. While DOD’s 2014 and 2015 Strategy for...Improving DOD Asset Visibility ( Strategies ) called for performance measures to be identified for the initiatives, the Strategies lacked complete...achieving the goals described in the Strategies . Without improved performance measures and information to support that progress has been made, DOD may not

  9. Tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use: assessing the evidence for causality.

    PubMed

    DiFranza, Joseph R; Wellman, Robert J; Sargent, James D; Weitzman, Michael; Hipple, Bethany J; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2006-06-01

    We sought to determine whether there is evidence of a causal link between exposure to tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use by children. We conducted a structured search in Medline, PsycINFO, and ABI/INFORM Global to identify relevant empirical research. The literature was examined against the Hill epidemiologic criteria for determining causality. (1) Children are exposed to tobacco promotion before the initiation of tobacco use; (2) exposure increases the risk for initiation; (3) there is a dose-response relationship, with greater exposure resulting in higher risk; (4) the increased risk is robust; it is observed with various study methods, in multiple populations, and with various forms of promotion and persists after controlling for other factors; (5) scientifically plausible mechanisms whereby promotion could influence initiation exist; and (6) no explanation other than causality can account for the evidence. Promotions foster positive attitudes, beliefs, and expectations regarding tobacco use. This fosters intentions to use and increases the likelihood of initiation. Greater exposure to promotion leads to higher risk. This is seen in diverse cultures and persists when other risk factors, such as socioeconomic status or parental and peer smoking, are controlled. Causality is the only plausible scientific explanation for the observed data. The evidence satisfies the Hill criteria, indicating that exposure to tobacco promotion causes children to initiate tobacco use.

  10. Numerical modeling of the radionuclide water pathway with HYDRUS and comparison with the IAEA model of SR 44.

    PubMed

    Merk, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    This study depicts a theoretical experiment in which the radionuclide transport through the porous material of a landfill consisting of concrete rubble (e.g., from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants) and the subsequent migration through the vadose zone and aquifer to a model well is calculated by means of the software HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). The radionuclides originally contained within the rubble become dissolved due to leaching caused by infiltrated rainwater. The resulting well-water contamination (in Bq/L) is calculated numerically as a function of time and location and compared with the outcome of a simplified analytic model for the groundwater pathway published by the IAEA (2005). Identical model parameters are considered. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the predictive capacity of the more simple IAEA model using HYDRUS-1D as a reference. For most of the radionuclides considered (e.g., ¹²⁹I, and ²³⁹Pu), results from applying the IAEA model were found to be comparable to results from the more elaborate HYDRUS modeling, provided the underlying parameter values are comparable. However, the IAEA model appears to underestimate the effects resulting from, for example, high nuclide mobility, short half-life, or short-term variations in the water infiltration. The present results indicate that the IAEA model is suited for screening calculations and general recommendation purposes. However, the analysis of a specific site should be accompanied by detailed HYDRUS computer simulations. In all models considered, the calculation outcome largely depends on the choice of the sorption parameter K(d). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2004-07-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using SAPHIRE software. This Study shows that the obtained core damage frequency for Tehran Research Reactor (8.368 E-6 per year) well meets the IAEA criterion for existing nuclear power plants (1E-4). But safety improvement suggestions are offered to decrease the most probable accidents. (authors)

  12. Assessing the Value of Team Science A Study Comparing Center- and Investigator-Initiated Grants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kara L.; Stokols, Daniel; Stipelman, Brooke A.; Vogel, Amanda L.; Feng, Annie; Masimore, Beth; Morgan, Glen; Moser, Richard P.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Berrigan, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Large cross-disciplinary scientific teams are becoming increasingly prominent in the conduct of research. Purpose This paper reports on a quasi-experimental longitudinal study conducted to compare bibliometric indicators of scientific collaboration, productivity, and impact of center-based transdisciplinary team science initiatives and traditional investigator-initiated grants in the same field. Methods All grants began between 1994 and 2004 and up to 10 years of publication data were collected for each grant. Publication information was compiled and analyzed during the spring and summer of 2010. Results Following an initial lag period, the transdisciplinary research center grants had higher overall publication rates than the investigator-initiated R01 (NIH Research Project Grant Program) grants. There were relatively uniform publication rates across the research center grants compared to dramatically dispersed publication rates among the R01 grants. On average, publications produced by the research center grants had greater numbers of coauthors but similar journal impact factors compared with publications produced by the R01 grants. Conclusions The lag in productivity among the transdisciplinary center grants was offset by their overall higher publication rates and average number of coauthors per publication, relative to investigator-initiated grants, over the 10-year comparison period. The findings suggest that transdisciplinary center grants create benefits for both scientific productivity and collaboration. (Am J Prev Med 2012;42(2):157–163) Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine PMID:22261212

  13. Multi-model assessment of the impact of soil moisture initialization on mid-latitude summer predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardilouze, Constantin; Batté, L.; Bunzel, F.; Decremer, D.; Déqué, M.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.; Douville, H.; Fereday, D.; Guemas, V.; MacLachlan, C.; Müller, W.; Prodhomme, C.

    2017-02-01

    Land surface initial conditions have been recognized as a potential source of predictability in sub-seasonal to seasonal forecast systems, at least for near-surface air temperature prediction over the mid-latitude continents. Yet, few studies have systematically explored such an influence over a sufficient hindcast period and in a multi-model framework to produce a robust quantitative assessment. Here, a dedicated set of twin experiments has been carried out with boreal summer retrospective forecasts over the 1992-2010 period performed by five different global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. The impact of a realistic versus climatological soil moisture initialization is assessed in two regions with high potential previously identified as hotspots of land-atmosphere coupling, namely the North American Great Plains and South-Eastern Europe. Over the latter region, temperature predictions show a significant improvement, especially over the Balkans. Forecast systems better simulate the warmest summers if they follow pronounced dry initial anomalies. It is hypothesized that models manage to capture a positive feedback between high temperature and low soil moisture content prone to dominate over other processes during the warmest summers in this region. Over the Great Plains, however, improving the soil moisture initialization does not lead to any robust gain of forecast quality for near-surface temperature. It is suggested that models biases prevent the forecast systems from making the most of the improved initial conditions.

  14. Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-3: new-generation navigation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Mingkui; Liu, Wanke; Li, Xingxing; Yu, Shun; Lu, Cuixian; Wickert, Jens

    2017-10-01

    The successful launch of five new-generation experimental satellites of the China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, namely BeiDou I1-S, I2-S, M1-S, M2-S, and M3-S, marks a significant step in expanding BeiDou into a navigation system with global coverage. In addition to B1I (1561.098 MHz) and B3I (1269.520 MHz) signals, the new-generation BeiDou-3 experimental satellites are also capable of transmitting several new navigation signals in space, namely B1C at 1575.42 MHz, B2a at 1176.45 MHz, and B2b at 1207.14 MHz. For the first time, we present an initial characterization and performance assessment for these new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites and their signals. The L1/L2/L5 signals from GPS Block IIF satellites, E1/E5a/E5b signals from Galileo satellites, and B1I/B2I/B3I signals from BeiDou-2 satellites are also evaluated for comparison. The characteristics of the B1C, B1I, B2a, B2b, and B3I signals are evaluated in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudorange multipath and noise, triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, and double-differenced carrier-phase and code residuals. The results demonstrate that the observational quality of the new-generation BeiDou-3 signals is comparable to that of GPS L1/L2/L5 and Galileo E1/E5a/E5b signals. However, the analysis of code multipath shows that the elevation-dependent code biases, which have been previously identified to exist in the code observations of the BeiDou-2 satellites, seem to be not obvious for all the available signals of the new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites. This will significantly benefit precise applications that resolve wide-lane ambiguity based on Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena linear combinations and other applications such as single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) based on the ionosphere-free code-carrier combinations. Furthermore, with regard to the triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, it is found

  15. Initial assessment of the COMPASS/BeiDou-3: new-generation navigation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Mingkui; Liu, Wanke; Li, Xingxing; Yu, Shun; Lu, Cuixian; Wickert, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The successful launch of five new-generation experimental satellites of the China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, namely BeiDou I1-S, I2-S, M1-S, M2-S, and M3-S, marks a significant step in expanding BeiDou into a navigation system with global coverage. In addition to B1I (1561.098 MHz) and B3I (1269.520 MHz) signals, the new-generation BeiDou-3 experimental satellites are also capable of transmitting several new navigation signals in space, namely B1C at 1575.42 MHz, B2a at 1176.45 MHz, and B2b at 1207.14 MHz. For the first time, we present an initial characterization and performance assessment for these new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites and their signals. The L1/L2/L5 signals from GPS Block IIF satellites, E1/E5a/E5b signals from Galileo satellites, and B1I/B2I/B3I signals from BeiDou-2 satellites are also evaluated for comparison. The characteristics of the B1C, B1I, B2a, B2b, and B3I signals are evaluated in terms of observed carrier-to-noise density ratio, pseudorange multipath and noise, triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, and double-differenced carrier-phase and code residuals. The results demonstrate that the observational quality of the new-generation BeiDou-3 signals is comparable to that of GPS L1/L2/L5 and Galileo E1/E5a/E5b signals. However, the analysis of code multipath shows that the elevation-dependent code biases, which have been previously identified to exist in the code observations of the BeiDou-2 satellites, seem to be not obvious for all the available signals of the new-generation BeiDou-3 satellites. This will significantly benefit precise applications that resolve wide-lane ambiguity based on Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena linear combinations and other applications such as single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) based on the ionosphere-free code-carrier combinations. Furthermore, with regard to the triple-frequency carrier-phase ionosphere-free and geometry-free combination, it is found

  16. An assessment of prospects for international cooperation on the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Lynn F. H.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the unique characteristics of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which will have to be taken into account if the Initiative is to become an international one; the technical capabilities offered by prospective international partners; the political and economic prospects for proceeding with the Initiative both in the United States and elsewhere; and the advantages and disadvantages of various possible approaches to international cooperation on SEI. SEI preparatory activities are likely to extend over a several-year period. Such an extended preparatory period should provide the time needed for coordinating studies, for identifing interests and potential contributions, and for resolving the numerous planning, budgeting, organizational and political issues which will have to be dealt with if such a complex undertaking is to be successfully internationalized.

  17. Reducing Non-Attendance Rates for Assessment at an Eating Disorders Service: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Paul E

    2017-02-10

    Rates of non-attendance at initial appointments within community eating disorder (ED) services are frequently high, although this has received relatively little research attention and no reports of interventions designed to address this. The current report describes outcomes following a change of procedure introducing a 'partial booking' system. Attendance rates at first appointments (N = 1260) were audited following introduction of a system designed to reduce non-attendance in January 2013 within a UK ED service. Rates were compared following implementation of the new system, using a historical control group for comparison, and showed a decline from 20.4 to 15.1%, a medium-sized effect. Use of a system asking patients to book an appointment reduced non-attendance at initial appointments and may be of use to similar services experiencing high non-attendance rates. Opt-in initiatives can reduce burden resulting from long waiting times and can be easily adapted to individual services.

  18. An assessment of prospects for international cooperation on the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Lynn F. H.; Rosendhal, Jeffrey D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the unique characteristics of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which will have to be taken into account if the Initiative is to become an international one; the technical capabilities offered by prospective international partners; the political and economic prospects for proceeding with the Initiative both in the United States and elsewhere; and the advantages and disadvantages of various possible approaches to international cooperation on SEI. SEI preparatory activities are likely to extend over a several-year period. Such an extended preparatory period should provide the time needed for coordinating studies, for identifing interests and potential contributions, and for resolving the numerous planning, budgeting, organizational and political issues which will have to be dealt with if such a complex undertaking is to be successfully internationalized.

  19. Importance of Pelvic Radiography for Initial Trauma Assessment: An Orthopedic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Diederik O; Burgess, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    Many institutions have abandoned the routine for selective pelvic x-ray (PXR) for initial imaging in blunt trauma patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) scanning. Our aim was to examine the association between selective use of PXR and time to diagnosis of (major) pelvic fractures, as well as prioritization of key immediate interventions (including hip reduction and pelvic arterial embolization). We conducted a 1-year review of early management of pelvic fracture patients undergoing pelvic CT scanning. Time interval and sequence of initial imaging and key immediate interventions were recorded. Of 218 pelvic fracture patients, 79 (36%) had no initial PXR, and instead had an initial CT scan. Time to first pelvic imaging in those patients was 48 min (standard deviation [SD] = 47 min vs. 2 min [SD = 6 min] with PXR; p < 0.001). Of 40 hip dislocations, 15 (38%) were detected first on CT scan. Overall, 22 (55%) required a second CT scan after reduction in the emergency department. No initial PXR was performed in 42 of 120 (35%) pelvic ring fracture patients and in 16 of 61 (26%) unstable pelvic ring fractures. Time to pelvic arterial embolization was longer in 4 patients without initial PXR than in 14 patients with PXR (296 min [SD = 206 min] vs. 170 min [SD = 76 min], respectively, p = 0.038). Selective PXR was associated with a significant delay in recognition of (major) pelvic fractures, including those with associated hip dislocations and (potential) pelvic bleeding. PXR remains a useful screening tool to rapidly determine the need for immediate interventions and to allow early planning before CT scanning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The evolution and impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in the Latin American region.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    Since 1993, the IAEA supported the establishment or the consolidation of seven tissue banks in the region. As a direct or indirect consequence of the implementation of the IAEA program, more than 53 tissue banks are now operating in the participating countries. The fast development of tissue banks in the Latin America region under the ARCAL Agreement and with the financial and technical support of the IAEA program made it necessary to train new tissue bank operators and medical personnel. In general, 90 tissue bank operators and medical personnel were trained in the training centre of Buenos Aires. Another six tissue bank operators and medical personnel were trained in the International Training Centre of Singapore. The main impact of the IAEA program in the region was the following: the establishment or consolidation of fifty-three tissue banks in nine countries in the region; the implementation of five national projects, allocating $1,006,737 dollars for this purpose and of one regional project allocating $284,741 dollars for this purpose; the use of the IAEA Standards, the IAEA Code of Practice and the IAEA Public Awareness Strategies in several tissue banks in the region; the application of quality control and quality assurances manuals in all of the participating countries.

  1. Development of an Electronic Role-Play Assessment Initiative in Bioscience for Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Judy; Ainscough, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Devising authentic assessments for subjects with large enrolments is a challenge. This study describes an electronic role-play assessment for approximately 600 first-year nursing students to learn and apply pathophysiology (bioscience) concepts to nursing practice. Students used Microsoft Office PowerPoint[R] to prepare electronic role-plays both…

  2. Development of an Electronic Role-Play Assessment Initiative in Bioscience for Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Judy; Ainscough, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Devising authentic assessments for subjects with large enrolments is a challenge. This study describes an electronic role-play assessment for approximately 600 first-year nursing students to learn and apply pathophysiology (bioscience) concepts to nursing practice. Students used Microsoft Office PowerPoint[R] to prepare electronic role-plays both…

  3. A practical guidance for assessments of sedentary behavior at work: A PEROSH initiative.

    PubMed

    Holtermann, Andreas; Schellewald, Vera; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Gupta, Nidhi; Pinder, Andrew; Punakallio, Anne; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Weber, Britta; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Draicchio, Francesco; Enquist, Henrik; Desbrosses, Kevin; García Sanz, Maria Peñahora; Malińska, Marzena; Villar, María; Wichtl, Michael; Strebl, Michaela; Forsman, Mikael; Lusa, Sirpa; Tokarski, Tomasz; Hendriksen, Peter; Ellegast, Rolf

    2017-09-01

    Sedentary behavior is defined as sitting or lying with low energy expenditure. Humans in industrialized societies spend an increasing amount of time in sedentary behaviors every day. This has been associated with detrimental health outcomes. Despite a growing interest in the health effects of sedentary behavior at work, associations remain unclear, plausibly due to poor and diverse methods for assessing sedentary behavior. Thus, good practice guidance for researchers and practitioners on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior are needed. The aim of this paper is to provide a practical guidance for practitioners and researchers on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior. Ambulatory systems for use in field applications (wearables) are a promising approach for sedentary behavior assessment. Many different small-size consumer wearables, with long battery life and high data storage capacity are commercially available today. However, no stand-alone commercial system is able to assess sedentary behavior in accordance with its definition. The present paper offers decision support for practitioners and researchers in selecting wearables and data collection strategies for their purpose of study on sedentary behavior. Valid and reliable assessment of occupational sedentary behavior is currently not easy. Several aspects need to be considered in the decision process on how to assess sedentary behavior. There is a need for development of a cheap and easily useable wearable for assessment of occupational sedentary behavior by researchers and practitioners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Functional Idiographic Assessment Template-Questionnaire (FIAT-Q): Initial Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Callaghan, Glenn C.; Bonow, Jordan T.; Follette, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The evidence based assessment (EBA) movement stresses the importance of psychological measures with strong psychometric properties and clinical utility. The Functional Idiographic Assessment Template system (FIAT; Callaghan, 2006) is a functional analytic behavioral approach to the assessment of interpersonal functioning for use with therapies like Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991). While research has begun to demonstrate the clinical utility of the FIAT, its psychometric properties have not been explored. The present study examines the Functional Idiographic Assessment Template-Questionnaire (FIAT-Q), a self-report measure contained in the FIAT. Two different approaches are used to explore the psychometric properties and structure of the FIAT-Q, and test-retest reliability is examined. These methods are discussed along with the use of the FIAT-Q as an alternative to nosological assessment of client behaviors. PMID:25250219

  5. The Functional Idiographic Assessment Template-Questionnaire (FIAT-Q): Initial Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Sabrina M; Callaghan, Glenn C; Bonow, Jordan T; Follette, William C

    2014-04-01

    The evidence based assessment (EBA) movement stresses the importance of psychological measures with strong psychometric properties and clinical utility. The Functional Idiographic Assessment Template system (FIAT; Callaghan, 2006) is a functional analytic behavioral approach to the assessment of interpersonal functioning for use with therapies like Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991). While research has begun to demonstrate the clinical utility of the FIAT, its psychometric properties have not been explored. The present study examines the Functional Idiographic Assessment Template-Questionnaire (FIAT-Q), a self-report measure contained in the FIAT. Two different approaches are used to explore the psychometric properties and structure of the FIAT-Q, and test-retest reliability is examined. These methods are discussed along with the use of the FIAT-Q as an alternative to nosological assessment of client behaviors.

  6. Assessing Europe's Initiatives to Boost the Competitive Position of Its Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlier, Jean-Emile

    2008-01-01

    This issue and the winter 2007-2008 issue (vol. 39, no. 4) of "European Education" address the implications of competition for the future of European higher education. Studies bear on the initiatives taken over the past few years in Europe to enhance the harmonization of European higher education systems and particularly the Bologna…

  7. Assessment of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative: Year 2 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokher, Christine; Jacobson, Lou

    2014-01-01

    The Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative is a statewide policy that mandates college placement testing of 11th-graders who meet high school graduation criteria but are unlikely to meet college readiness criteria. Students who score below college-ready on the Postsecondary Education Readiness Test (PERT) are required to take math and…

  8. An Assessment of the Air Force Weather Agency’s Readiness for Knowledge Management Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    within the context of this paper. KM initiatives are typically organizational endeavors that seek to leverage the value of knowledge as an intangible ... asset (Liebowitz & Megbolugbe, 1998). “Such projects are attempts to do something useful with knowledge, to accomplish organizational objectives

  9. Assessment of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokher, Christine; Jacobson, Louis; Rosenbaum, James; LaLonde, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The intent of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative (FCCRI) is to help students become college-ready by high school graduation, and subsequently to succeed in obtaining college credentials. This is done by testing college readiness in grade 11 and requiring that students testing below college-ready take college readiness and success…

  10. Assessment of Students' Acceptability Ratings of Teacher-Initiated Interventions for Classroom Misbehavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turco, Timothy L.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    1986-01-01

    Fifth-, seventh-, and ninth-grade students completed the Children's Intervention Rating Profile (CIRP) in response to eight teacher-initiated intervention methods designed to correct classroom behavior problems. A factorial analysis of variance indicated that students generally are able to differentiate between various methods of improving student…

  11. Assessing Students' Development in Learning Approaches According to Initial Learning Profiles: A Person-Oriented Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanthournout, Gert; Coertjens, Liesje; Gijbels, David; Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Research regarding the development of students' learning approaches have at times reported unexpected or lack of expected changes. The current study explores the idea of differential developments in learning approaches according to students' initial learning profiles as a possible explanation for these outcomes. A learning profile is conceived as…

  12. Assessing Europe's Initiatives to Boost the Competitive Position of Its Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlier, Jean-Emile

    2008-01-01

    This issue and the winter 2007-2008 issue (vol. 39, no. 4) of "European Education" address the implications of competition for the future of European higher education. Studies bear on the initiatives taken over the past few years in Europe to enhance the harmonization of European higher education systems and particularly the Bologna…

  13. Opportunities in Place: National Assessment of the Rural Community College Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Ron; Jensen, Jane McEldowney; Robbins, Rebecca L.; Russell, Jack; Salant, Priscilla; Torres, Vasti; Viterito, Arthur

    The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI), supported by the Ford Foundation, sought to energize distressed rural communities and the local colleges that serve them. Through a structured process of guided intervention, 24 colleges and their communities learned how to build new partnerships, adapt new ideas to local needs, and implement…

  14. 78 FR 32237 - Draft Initial Comprehensive Plan and Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Resources and Ecosystems Sustainability, Tourist Opportunities... Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Council (Council), announces the availability of a Draft Initial... preliminary lists of ecosystem restoration projects that are ``authorized but not yet commenced'' and the full...

  15. Assessing Cost-Reduction Initiatives in a Changing Defense Acquisition Environment: A Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Just - in - time manufacturing requires initiatives...present exactly equals the amount required by the process. Interdependencies Implementation of just - in - time manufacturing requires that an excellent...relationship exist between the contractor and the suppliers. Thus, vertical partnering and supplier certification aid in implementing just - in - time manufacturing .

  16. Personal Exposure Monitoring Wearing Protocol Compliance: An Initial Assessment of Quantitative Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure sampling provides the most accurate and representative assessment of exposure to a pollutant, but only if measures are implemented to minimize exposure misclassification and reduce confounders that may cause misinterpretation of the collected data. Poor complian...

  17. Report: Source Water Assessment and Protection Programs Show Initial Promise, But Obstacles Remain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2005-P-00013, March 28, 2005. Source water assessments are being used by (1) some States to improve the overall drinking water protection program by prioritizing protection efforts and program resources.

  18. Technology-Enabled Capability Demonstration 4A Sustainability and Logistics-Basing: Initial Quality of Life and Soldier Readiness User Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-30

    CAPABILITY DEMONSTRATION 4A SUSTAINABILITY AND LOGISTICS-BASING: INITIAL QUALITY OF LIFE AND SOLDIER READINESS USER ASSESSMENT by Justine Federici...CAPABILITY DEMONSTRATION 4A SUSTAINABILITY AND LOGISTICS-BASING: INITIAL QUALITY OF LIFE AND SOLDIER READINESS USER ASSESSMENT 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT This report documents an initial user assessment on Soldier quality of life (QoL) performed for the Technology-Enabled Capability

  19. Smokeless Propellants as Vehicle Borne IED Main Charges: An Initial Threat Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    government has thus far not assessed the extent of this threat. A valid threat assessment can only be accomplished through comprehensive testing and...definitions provided avoid, to the greatest extent possible, scientific and technical 6 -~--_._---------- ŕ (J jargon and are most appropriate for the...influenced to a great extent by particle size and shape. That is, for a given weight and composition of powder, particles of a larger surface area

  20. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  1. Initial screening test for blunt cerebrovascular injury: Validity assessment of whole-body computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Laser, Adriana; Kufera, Joseph A; Bruns, Brandon R; Sliker, Clint W; Tesoriero, Ronald B; Scalea, Thomas M; Stein, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    Our whole-body computed tomography protocol (WBCT), used to image patients with polytrauma, consists of a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) followed by a multidetector computed tomography (40- or 64- slice) that includes an intravenous, contrast-enhanced scan from the face through the pelvis. WBCT is used to screen for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) during initial CT imaging of the patient with polytrauma and allows for early initiation of therapy with the goal of avoiding stroke. WBCT has not been directly compared with CT angiography (CTA) of the neck as a screening tool for BCVI. We hypothesize that WBCT is a valid modality to diagnose BCVI compared with neck CTA, thus screening patients with polytrauma for BCVI and limiting the need for subsequent CTA. A retrospective review of the trauma registry was conducted for all patients diagnosed with BCVI from June 2009 to June 2013 at our institution. All injuries, identified and graded on initial WBCT, were compared with neck CTA imaging performed within the first 72 hours. Sensitivity was calculated for WBCT by the use of CTA as the reference standard. Proportions of agreement also were calculated between the grades of injury for both imaging modalities. A total of 319 injured vessels were identified in 227 patients. On initial WBCT 80 (25%) of the injuries were grade I, 75 (24%) grade II, 45 (14%) grade III, 41 (13%) grade IV, and 58 (18%) were classified as indeterminate: 27 vertebral and 31 carotid lesions. Twenty (6%) of the 319 injuries were not detected on WBCT but identified on subsequent CTA (9 grade I, 7 grade II, 4 grade III); 6 vertebral and 14 carotid. For each vessel type and for all vessels combined, WBCT demonstrated sensitivity rates of over 90% to detect BCVI among the population of patients with at least one vessel injured. There was concordant grading of injuries between WBCT and initial diagnostic CTA in 154 (48% of all injuries). Lower grade injures were more discordant than higher

  2. Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.

    1991-12-10

    The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the author prepare such an assessment. The author provides an estimate of the number of nuclear tests needed to accomplish a variety of specified warhead safety upgrades, then uses the results of this estimate to answer three questions posed by the Senators. These questions concern pit reuse and the number of nuclear tests needed for specified safety upgrades of those ballistic missiles not scheduled for retirement, namely the Minuteman III, C4, and D5 missiles.

  3. Assessing the importance of letter pairs in initial, exterior, and interior positions in reading.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Thomas, Sharon M; Patching, Geoffrey R; Scott-Brown, Kenneth C

    2003-09-01

    Exterior letter pairs (e.g., d--k in dark) play a major role in single-word recognition, but other research (D. Briihl & A. W. Inhoff, 1995) indicates no such role in reading text. This issue was examined by visually degrading letter pairs in three positions in words (initial, exterior, and interior) in text. Each degradation slowed reading rate compared with an undegraded control. However, whereas degrading initial and interior pairs slowed reading rate to a similar extent, degrading exterior pairs slowed reading rate most of all. Moreover, these effects were obtained when letter identities across pair positions varied naturally and when they were matched. The findings suggest that exterior letter pairs play a preferential role in reading, and candidates for this role are discussed.

  4. Consistent Criteria are Needed to Assess Small-Business Innovation Initiatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-07

    of Federal initiatives to support small-business innovation. GAO dem- onstrates the usefulness of these criteria by examining the design of existing...between them posi- tively. GAO demonstrates the usefulness of these cri- teria by considering the design of several existing Federal efforts to...Federal programs designed to provide funding or technical and management assistance directly to small busi- nesses (such as the National Science

  5. Assessment of duration until initial treatment and its determining factors among newly diagnosed oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Lin, Wender; Hsieh, Chi-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have focused on the early treatment stages of cancer, and the impact of treatment delay on oncologic outcomes is poorly defined. We used oral cancer as an example to investigate the distribution of durations until initial treatment. This study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database, which is linked to Taiwan's Cancer Registry and Death Registry databases. We defined “cutoff points for first-time treatment” according to a weekly schedule and sorted the patients into 2 groups based on whether their duration until initial treatment was longer or shorter than each cutoff. We then calculated the Kaplan–Meier estimator to determine the difference in survival rates between the 2 groups and performed logistic regression to identify determining factors. The average time between diagnosis and initial treatment was approximately 22.45 days. The average survival duration was 1363 days (standard deviation: 473.06 days). Oral cancer patients had no statistically significant differences in survival until a cutoff point of 3 weeks was used (with survival duration 71 days longer if initial treatment was received within 3 weeks). Patients with higher incomes or higher Charlson comorbidity index scores and patients treated at a hospital in a region with medium urbanization had lower likelihoods of treatment delay, whereas older patients were at higher risk of treatment delay. The attitudes, beliefs, and social contexts of oral cancer patients influence the treatment-seeking behaviors of these patients. Therefore, the government should advocate the merits of the referral system for cancer treatment or improve quality assurance for cancer diagnoses across different types of hospitals. Health authorities should also educate patients or use a case manager to encourage prompt treatment within 3 weeks and should provide screening and prevention services, particularly for high-risk groups, to reduce mortality risk. PMID:27977607

  6. Disparities in head and neck cancer: assessing delay in treatment initiation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Urjeet A; Brennan, Tara E

    2012-08-01

    Disparities in outcome for head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment are related to diverse factors including tumor stage, socioeconomic status, and treatment compliance. Latency to initiation of therapy may contribute to worse outcomes for underserved populations. The objectives of this study were to measure the interval from diagnosis of HNC to initiation of cancer treatment (DTI) and to identify factors that prolong DTI. Retrospective study. We identified 150 consecutive patients treated for squamous cell HNC at a tertiary-care public hospital between 2005 and 2007. Outcome measures used were 1) interval between cancer diagnosis and treatment initiation and 2) factors that predict prolonged DTI. We included 100 patients in the analysis. Median time to perform biopsy was 8 days; time to obtain final diagnosis was 14 days; time to complete staging scans was 18 days; time to discuss treatment plan was 23 days; time to initiation of therapy was 56 days. Median DTI was 48 days. DTI was prolonged for patients receiving primary radiotherapy compared to surgical therapy: 57 versus 30 days (P < .001). Early stage tumors had shorter DTI than late-stage tumors: 38 versus 57 days (P = .02). Presenting with outside biopsy demonstrating HNC also reduced DTI (P = .03). Obtaining a computed tomography scan in the emergency department was not found to significantly affect DTI. DTI was found to be prolonged among HNC patients in this study when compared to previously published treatment intervals. Advanced stage of tumor, primary radiotherapy, and need for biopsy prolonged DTI. Future studies should better identify causes of delay and reduce latency for patients at highest risk for delay. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. An Assessment of the Methods Used to Determine Resource Requirements for Enlisted Initial Entry Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    class size and other variables pro - vides the capability to accomodate recycles without con - cern for their impact on loads. Total inputs, outputs and...like to acknowledge the technical direction pro - vided by Maj. Kenneth P. Rousseau and Mr. Michael J. Kendall of the Training and Education...training models: * The Services all have adequate methodologies for pro - gramming and budgeting initial entry training resources. However, in no case

  8. Physiotherapy in hip and knee osteoarthritis: development of a practice guideline concerning initial assessment, treatment and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Peter, W F; Jansen, M J; Hurkmans, E J; Bloo, H; Dekker, J; Dilling, R G; Hilberdink, W; Kersten-Smit, C; de Rooij, M; Veenhof, C; Vermeulen, H M; de Vos, R J; Schoones, J W; Vliet Vlieland, T P

    2011-01-01

    An update of a Dutch physiotherapy practice guideline in Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis (HKOA) was made, based on current evidence and best practice. A guideline steering committee, comprising 10 expert physiotherapists, selected topics concerning the guideline chapters: initial assessment, treatment and evaluation. With respect to treatment a systematic literature search was performed using various databases, and the evidence was graded (1-4). For the initial assessment and evaluation mainly review papers and textbooks were used. Based on evidence and expert opinion, recommendations were formulated. A first draft of the guideline was reviewed by 17 experts from different professional backgrounds. A second draft was field-tested by 45 physiotherapists. In total 11 topics were selected. For the initial assessment, three recommendations were formulated, pertaining to history taking, red flags, and formulating treatment goals. Concerning treatment, 7 recommendations were formulated; (supervised) exercise therapy, education and self management interventions, a combination of exercise and manual therapy, postoperative exercise therapy and taping of the patella were recommended. Balneotherapy and hydrotherapy in HKOA, and thermotherapy, TENS, and Continuous Passive Motion in knee OA were neither recommended nor discouraged. Massage therapy, ultrasound, electrotherapy, electromagnetic field, Low Level Laser Therapy, preoperative physiotherapy and education could not be recommended. For the evaluation of treatment goals the following measurement instruments were recommended: Lequesne index, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, 6-minute walktest, Timed Up and Go test, Patient Specific Complaint list, Visual Analoge Scale for pain, Intermittent and Constant OsteoArthritis Pain Questionnaire, goniometry, Medical Research Council for strength, handheld

  9. [Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography in the initial evaluation and response assessment in primary central nervous system lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Mercadal, Santiago; Cortés-Romera, Montserrat; Vélez, Patricia; Climent, Fina; Gámez, Cristina; González-Barca, Eva

    2015-06-08

    To evaluate the role of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) in the initial evaluation and response assessment in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Fourteen patients (8 males) with a median age 59.5 years diagnosed of PCNSL. A brain PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in the initial evaluation. In 7 patients a PET-CT after treatment was performed. PET-CT showed at diagnosis 31 hypermetabolic focuses and MRI showed 47 lesions, with a good grade of concordance between both (k = 0.61; P = .005). In the response assessment, correlation between both techniques was good, and PET-CT was helpful in the appreciation of residual MRI lesions. Overall survival at 2 years of negative vs. positive PET-CT at the end of treatment was 100 vs. 37.5%, respectively (P = .045). PET-CT can be useful in the initial evaluation of PCNSL, and especially in the assessment of response. Despite the fact that PET-CT detects less small lesions than MRI, a good correlation between MRI and PET-CT was observed. It is effective in the evaluation of residual lesions. Prospective studies are needed to confirm their possible prognostic value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Next-generation ecological risk assessment: Predicting risk from molecular initiation to ecosystem service delivery.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Valery E; Galic, Nika

    2016-05-01

    Ecological risk assessment is the process of evaluating how likely it is that the environment may be impacted as the result of exposure to one or more chemicals and/or other stressors. It is not playing as large a role in environmental management decisions as it should be. A core challenge is that risk assessments often do not relate directly or transparently to protection goals. There have been exciting developments in in vitro testing and high-throughput systems that measure responses to chemicals at molecular and biochemical levels of organization, but the linkage between such responses and impacts of regulatory significance - whole organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems - are not easily predictable. This article describes some recent developments that are directed at bridging this gap and providing more predictive models that can make robust links between what we typically measure in risk assessments and what we aim to protect.

  11. Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Educational Needs Assessment Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Kim, MyoungJin; Dyck, Mary J; Funk, Amy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the revised Educational Needs Assessment (ENA) questionnaire, a 32-item questionnaire designed to assess educational needs of nurses. Data were obtained from 317 nursing home nurses in central Illinois and underwent testing for psychometric properties. The principal component analysis yielded a 6-factor solution that explained 65.9% of the variance and Cronbach's alpha for each factor was satisfactory. The revised ENA can be a useful tool to measure and identify in what areas of educational needs nursing home nurses need to develop their skills to help patients more effectively.

  12. Biopsychosocial characteristics and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League players: an initial assessment.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Gary S; Haase, Richard F

    2008-09-01

    The use of neurocognitive testing in the assessment of professional athletes sustaining sports-related concussions has become widespread over the past decade. Baseline neurocognitive testing is now a requirement for athletes in the National Football League (NFL). We present preliminary normative data on a computer based neurocognitive test (Immediate Post Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing; ImPACT) for 159 NFL athletes. Also included are summary data on basic biopsychosocial characteristics, including medical, psychiatric, chemical dependency, concussion, learning disability/attention deficit disorder, and symptom variables, and the relevance of each to baseline neurocognitive test scores.

  13. Assessment of channeling bias among initiators of glucose-lowering drugs: A UK cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Thorsted, Brian L; Groenwold, Rolf HH; Adalsteinsson, Erpur; Ali, M Sanni; Klungel, Olaf H

    2017-01-01

    Background Channeling bias may occur when a newly marketed drug and an established drug, despite similar indications, are prescribed to patients with different prognostic characteristics (ie, confounding). Aim To investigate channeling bias and its impact on relative effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs versus basal insulin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) versus sulfonylurea. Methods In the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, patients with type 2 diabetes initiating treatment between 2006 and 2015 were included. Analyses were stratified by years since first prescription of GLP-1 and DPP-4i, respectively. The characteristics of GLP-1 versus insulin and DPP-4i versus sulfonylurea initiators were compared over time. After propensity score matching, the relative effectiveness regarding 6-month changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight was estimated. Results In total, 8,398 GLP-1, 14,807 insulin, 24,481 DPP-4i, and 33,505 sulfonylurea initiators were identified. No major channeling was observed. Considerable overlap in distributions of characteristics allowed for propensity score-matched analyses. Relative effectiveness was similar across time. The overall relative effect of GLP-1 versus insulin showed no difference for HbA1c and relative increase in body weight (3.57 kg [95% confidence interval {CI}: 3.21, 3.92]) for insulin. The overall relative effect of DPP-4i versus sulfonylurea showed relative decrease in HbA1c (−0.34% [95% CI: −0.38, −0.30]) and increase in body weight (1.58 kg [95% CI: 1.38, 1.78]) for sulfonylurea. Conclusion No major channeling was identified in the investigated glucose-lowering drugs. Relative effectiveness could be estimated already in the first year after launch and was consistent in the years thereafter. PMID:28176886

  14. Initial assessment and treatment of refugees in the Mediterranean Sea (a secondary data analysis concerning the initial assessment and treatment of 2656 refugees rescued from distress at sea in support of the EUNAVFOR MED relief mission of the EU).

    PubMed

    Kulla, M; Josse, F; Stierholz, M; Hossfeld, B; Lampl, L; Helm, M

    2016-05-20

    As a part of the European Union Naval Force - Mediterranean Operation Sophia (EUNAVFOR Med), the Federal Republic of Germany is contributing to avoid further loss of lives at sea by supplying two naval vessels. In the study presented here we analyse the medical requirements of such rescue missions, as well as the potential benefits of various additional monitoring devices in identifying sick/injured refugees within the primary onboard medical assessment process. Retrospective analysis of the data collected between May - September 2015 from a German Naval Force frigate. Initial data collection focused on the primary medical assessment and treatment process of refugees rescued from distress at sea. Descriptive statistics, uni- and multivariate analysis were performed. The study has received a positive vote from the Ethics Commission of the University of Ulm, Germany (request no. 284/15) and has been registered in the German Register of Clinical Studies (no. DRKS00009535). A total of 2656 refugees had been rescued. 16.9 % of them were classified as "medical treatment required" within the initial onboard medical assessment process. In addition to the clinical assessment by an emergency physician, pulse rate (PR), core body temperature (CBT) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were evaluated. Sick/injured refugees displayed a statistically significant higher PR (114/min vs. 107/min; p < .001) and CBT (37.1 °C vs. 36.7 °C; p < .001). There was no statistically significant difference in SpO2-values. The same results were found for the subgroup of patients classified as "treatment at emergency hospital required". However, a much larger difference of the mean PR and CBT (35/min resp. 1.8 °C) was found when examining the subgroups of the corresponding refugee boats. A cut-off value of clinical importance could not be found. Predominant diagnoses have been dermatological diseases (55.4), followed by internal diseases (27.7) and trauma (12.1 %). None of the refugees

  15. Initial experience establishing an EUV baseline lithography process for manufacturability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, O. R., II; Back, D.; Brainard, R.; Denbeaux, G.; Goldfarb, D.; Goodwin, F.; Hartley, J.; Kimmel, K.; Koay, C.; La Fontaine, B.; Mackey, J.; Martinick, B.; Montgomery, W.; Naulleau, P.; Okoroanyanwu, U.; Petrillo, K.; Pierson, B.; Tittnich, M.; Trogisch, S.; Wallow, T.; Wei, Y.

    2007-03-01

    The International Venture for Nanolithography (INVENT) initiative announced in mid 2005, a unique industry-university consortium between the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at Albany and a group of leading edge integrated device manufacturers, has launched an extensive R&D program on EUV lithography (EUVL). The overall scope of the INVENT EUVL program, the status of our efforts to establish a baseline lithography process on a full-field EUVL scanner, and our progress in evaluating EUV resist materials, in designing a custom reticle for scanner characterization and in developing an actinic EUV mask imaging microscope, are discussed.

  16. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  17. Faculty-Student Engagement in Teaching Observation and Assessment: A Hong Kong Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, James S.; Ho Hung-lam, Elizabeth; Groves, Julie May

    2016-01-01

    There is now a worldwide focus on the quality of university teaching and yet there is general dissatisfaction in universities with the student evaluation of teaching system. Peer observation of teaching seems to hold much promise in the assessment of teaching quality, but such observation pays little attention to the quality of teaching as…

  18. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... comprehensive assessment must take into consideration the following factors: (1) The nature and condition..., herbal remedies and other alternative treatments that could affect drug therapy. This includes, but is not limited to, identification of the following: (i) Effectiveness of drug therapy. (ii) Drug side...

  19. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... comprehensive assessment must take into consideration the following factors: (1) The nature and condition..., herbal remedies and other alternative treatments that could affect drug therapy. This includes, but is not limited to, identification of the following: (i) Effectiveness of drug therapy. (ii) Drug side...

  20. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... comprehensive assessment must take into consideration the following factors: (1) The nature and condition..., herbal remedies and other alternative treatments that could affect drug therapy. This includes, but is not limited to, identification of the following: (i) Effectiveness of drug therapy. (ii) Drug side...

  1. Global Initiatives for Early Childhood Care and Education: Global Guidelines and Global Guidelines Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trube, Mary Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This report focuses on the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) Global Guidelines (GG) and Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA), which were developed in response to and in keeping with the prominence that the issue of quality early childhood care, development, and education has reached globally. Further, the paper positions the…

  2. Implementation and Initial Validation of the Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA) at Golden West College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isonio, Steven

    During spring 1992, the Combined English Language Skills Assessment (CELSA) test was piloted with a sample of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classes at Golden West College (GWC) in Huntington Beach, California. The CELSA, which utilizes a cloze format including parts of conversations and short dialogues, combines items from beginning,…

  3. Global Initiatives for Early Childhood Care and Education: Global Guidelines and Global Guidelines Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trube, Mary Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This report focuses on the Association for Childhood Education International's (ACEI) Global Guidelines (GG) and Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA), which were developed in response to and in keeping with the prominence that the issue of quality early childhood care, development, and education has reached globally. Further, the paper positions the…

  4. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  5. A Longitudinal Assessment of an Initial Cohort in a Psychology Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buch, Kim; Spaulding, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Discipline-based learning communities have become a popular strategy for improving student performance and satisfaction. This article describes the goals and features of a university-based, first-year psychology learning community (PLC) implemented in Fall 2003. We also report the results of a longitudinal assessment of the impact of the PLC on…

  6. Development and Initial Testing of a Structured Clinical Observation Tool to Assess Pharmacotherapy Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John Q.; Lieu, Sandra; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Tong, Lowell

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed and tested the feasibility and utility of a new direct-observation instrument to assess trainee performance of a medication management session. Methods: The Psychopharmacotherapy-Structured Clinical Observation (P-SCO) instrument was developed based on multiple sources of expertise and then implemented in 4…

  7. Private Sector Initiative Program. Documentation and Assessment of CETA Title VII Implementation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.

    The development and performance, through 1981, of Private Industry Councils (PICs) in 16 study sites are described and assessed in this report. (PICs were set up under Title VII of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) to serve as a hub for attracting increased private sector involvement in employment and training activities for the…

  8. Development and Initial Testing of a Structured Clinical Observation Tool to Assess Pharmacotherapy Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John Q.; Lieu, Sandra; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Tong, Lowell

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed and tested the feasibility and utility of a new direct-observation instrument to assess trainee performance of a medication management session. Methods: The Psychopharmacotherapy-Structured Clinical Observation (P-SCO) instrument was developed based on multiple sources of expertise and then implemented in 4…

  9. Assessing College Student-Athletes' Life Stress: Initial Measurement Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Kao, Kuei-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    College student-athletes have unique life stress that warrants close attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement assessing college student-athletes' life stress. In Study 1, a focus group discussion and Delphi method produced a questionnaire draft, termed the College Student-Athletes' Life Stress Scale. In…

  10. Integrated Guidance and Assessment for Working Women. A Skill Choice Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBell, Diane

    An action research project was designed to test a model for providing integrated guidance and assessment services to adult women in Britain. A network of professional guidance providers were involved in delivering the services. Coordination was separate from delivery but linked into the action research and evaluation. The emphasis throughout…

  11. Assessing College Student-Athletes' Life Stress: Initial Measurement Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Kao, Kuei-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    College student-athletes have unique life stress that warrants close attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement assessing college student-athletes' life stress. In Study 1, a focus group discussion and Delphi method produced a questionnaire draft, termed the College Student-Athletes' Life Stress Scale. In…

  12. State-Based Case Studies of Assessment Initiatives in Undergraduate Education: Chronology of Critical Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Ewell, Peter T.

    The Education Commission of the States (ECS) together with the American Association for Higher Education recently conducted five case studies of state-based approaches to assessment in undergraduate education in Colorado, Missouri, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Virginia. The case studies, in turn, are part of the Missouri Governor John Ashcroft's…

  13. Initial Steps in Creating a Developmentally Valid Tool for Observing/Assessing Rope Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberton, Mary Ann; Thompson, Gregory; Langendorfer, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Valid motor development sequences show the various behaviors that children display as they progress toward competence in specific motor skills. Teachers can use these sequences to observe informally or formally assess their students. While longitudinal study is ultimately required to validate developmental sequences, there are earlier,…

  14. Initial Steps in Creating a Developmentally Valid Tool for Observing/Assessing Rope Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberton, Mary Ann; Thompson, Gregory; Langendorfer, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Valid motor development sequences show the various behaviors that children display as they progress toward competence in specific motor skills. Teachers can use these sequences to observe informally or formally assess their students. While longitudinal study is ultimately required to validate developmental sequences, there are earlier,…

  15. "Should We Make a Start Then?": A Strange Case of (Delayed) Client-Initiated Psychological Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHoul, Alec; Rapley, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Subjects Sack's (1992) conjecture about there being "omni-relevant devices" in specific kinds of conversation to empirical analysis. Examines a data fragment taken from a corpus of materials in which "resettled" mental patients are undergoing "quality of life assessments." (Author/VWL)

  16. Faculty-Student Engagement in Teaching Observation and Assessment: A Hong Kong Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, James S.; Ho Hung-lam, Elizabeth; Groves, Julie May

    2016-01-01

    There is now a worldwide focus on the quality of university teaching and yet there is general dissatisfaction in universities with the student evaluation of teaching system. Peer observation of teaching seems to hold much promise in the assessment of teaching quality, but such observation pays little attention to the quality of teaching as…

  17. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  18. Initial Validity and Reliability of the SCCAN: Using Tailored Testing to Assess Adult Cognition and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Lisa H.; Holland, Audrey; Kaszniak, Alfred W.; D'Agostino, Jerry; Garrett, Merrill; Rapcsak, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Scales of Cognitive and Communicative Ability for Neurorehabilitation (SCCAN; L. Milman & A. Holland, 2007) was developed in the hospital setting to address changes in assessment practice. The SCCAN was designed to provide an overview of impairment and activity limitations across 8 cognitive scales (Speech Comprehension, Oral…

  19. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    SciTech Connect

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  20. Microbial water pollution: a screening tool for initial catchment-scale assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Anthony, S; Crowther, J; Chambers, B J; Nicholson, F A; Chadwick, D; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D

    2010-11-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive requires that Management Plans are developed for individual River Basin Districts. From the point of view of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), there is a critical need for screening tools that can provide a rapid assessment of the likely FIO concentrations and fluxes within catchments under base- and high-flow conditions, and of the balance ('source apportionment') between agriculture- and sewage-derived sources. Accordingly, the present paper reports on: (1) the development of preliminary generic models, using water quality and land cover data from previous UK catchment studies for assessing FIO concentrations, fluxes and source apportionment within catchments during the summer bathing season; (2) the calibration of national land use data, against data previously used in the models; and (3) provisional FIO concentration and source-apportionment assessments for England and Wales. The models clearly highlighted the crucial importance of high-flow conditions for the flux of FIOs within catchments. At high flow, improved grassland (and associated livestock) was the key FIO source; FIO loadings derived from catchments with high proportions of improved grassland were shown to be as high as from urbanized catchments; and in many rural catchments, especially in NW and SW England and Wales, which are important areas of lowland livestock (especially dairy) farming, ≥ 40% of FIOs was assessed to be derived from agricultural sources. In contrast, under base-flow conditions, when there was little or no runoff from agricultural land, urban (i.e. sewerage-related) sources were assessed to dominate, and even in rural areas the majority of FIOs were attributed to urban sources. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of this type of approach, particularly in light of climate change and the likelihood of more high-flow events, in underpinning informed policy development and prioritization of investment.

  1. Assessing the impact of soil moisture initialization on seasonal predictions using the NCEP AGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Mitchell, K.

    2002-12-01

    Due to the lack of long-term consistent soil moisture analysis, numerical studies of the impact of soil moisture on medium to seasonal range forecasts are often based on extreme or idealized conditions. In this study, the atmospheric predictability at seasonal scale is investigated using soil moisture analyses that are more realistic and model consistent. This is accomplished using the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) Agricultural Meteorology modeling system (AGRMET), an operational global database of land surface states and energy/water fluxes, and the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS), a state-of-the-art general circulation model. AFWA incorporated the NCEP community NOAH Land Surface Model (NOAH LSM) into AGRMET in late 1999. The soil hydrology physics are forced with analyses of shelter height temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, short and longwave radition, and precipitation. As part of the efforts to unify land model in all NCEP global and regional models, NOAH LSM has been implemented into GFS in 2002. As AGRMET land states have spun up using same land physics that GFS executes, they provide ideal source of initial land states that are strictly self consistent with GFS land physics. Two sets of summer-time ensemble integration of atmospheric model will be performed, one using climatological soil wetness derived from the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis (R-2) and the other using AGRMET soil wetness analysis as initial conditions. The geographical variations of the predictability of soil wetness, precipitation, and near surface temperature will be examined from this dataset.

  2. In vitro assessment of artificial saliva formulations on initial enamel erosion remineralization.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Franciny Querobim; Mendonça, Fernanda Lyrio; de Oliveira, Gabriela Cristina; de Alencar, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; Honório, Heitor Marques; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Rios, Daniela

    2014-02-01

    Various formulations of artificial saliva are present in the literature and little guidance is available on the standardization of type of saliva for use in in vitro protocols for erosive studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralizing capacity of different formulations of artificial saliva on initial enamel erosive lesion. Bovine enamel blocks were subjected to short-term acidic exposure by immersion in citric acid 0.05 M (pH 2.5) for 15s, resulting in surface softening without tissue loss. Then 90 selected eroded enamel blocks were randomly and equally divided into 6 groups according to saliva formulation (n=15): Saliva 1 (contain mucin); Saliva 2 (Saliva 1 without mucin); Saliva 3; Saliva 4; Saliva 5 (contain sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) and control (C) (deionized water). After demineralization enamel blocks were subjected to remineralization by immersion in the saliva's formulations for 2h. Enamel remineralization was measured by superficial hardness test (% superficial hardness change). The data were tested using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). All the tested formulations of artificial saliva resulted in significantly higher enamel remineralization compared to control (p<0.001). Saliva 3 showed higher percentage of enamel remineralization than Saliva 5 (p<0.05). Besides the variety of artificial saliva for erosion in vitro protocols, all the formulations tested were able to partially remineralize initial erosive lesions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Certified reference material for radionuclides in fish flesh sample IAEA-414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Sea).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Povinec, P P; Arnold, D; Benmansour, M; Bojanowski, R; Carvalho, F P; Kim, C K; Esposito, M; Gastaud, J; Gascó, C L; Ham, G J; Hegde, A G; Holm, E; Jaskierowicz, D; Kanisch, G; Llaurado, M; La Rosa, J; Lee, S-H; Liong Wee Kwong, L; Le Petit, G; Maruo, Y; Nielsen, S P; Oh, J-S; Oregioni, B; Palomares, J; Pettersson, H B L; Rulik, P; Ryan, T P; Sato, K; Schikowski, J; Skwarzec, B; Smedley, P A; Tarján, S; Vajda, N; Wyse, E

    2006-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for radionuclides in fish sample IAEA-414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Seas) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Nine radionuclides (40K, 137Cs, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) were certified for this material. Information on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals is given for six other radionuclides (90Sr, 210Pb(210Po), 226Ra, 239Pu, 240Pu 241Pu). Less frequently reported radionuclides (99Tc, 129I, 228Th, 230Th and 237Np) and information on some activity and mass ratios are also included. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in fish sample, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available from IAEA, Vienna, in 100 g units.

  4. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy.

  5. 15 years in promoting the use of isotopic and nuclear technique for combating land degradation and soil erosion: the contribution of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabit, Lionel; Toloza, Arsenio; Heng, Lee

    2017-04-01

    Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed research and development activities and capacity building to combat soil degradation (especially soil erosion) and to foster climate smart agriculture. More than 70 FAO/IAEA Member States have benefitted from the technical support and guidance in using fallout radionuclides (FRNs) and Compound-Specific Stable Isotope (CSSI) techniques to trace soil movement and assess soil erosion at different spatial and temporal scales, and to evaluate the effectiveness of soil conservation strategies to ensure sustainable land management. This contribution summarizes the historical background and the latest innovative activities conducted by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, as well as the main advantages and complementarity of stable and radioisotopic tracers to conventional techniques when investigating land degradation. As examples of the significant role played by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, two major outcomes achieved in Africa (i.e. Madagascar and Morocco) through the use of isotopic and nuclear techniques will be elaborated. The authors will also report on a new 5-year Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) funded by the IAEA on "Nuclear Techniques for a Better Understanding of the Impact of Climate Change on Soil Erosion in Upland Agro-ecosystems" which involves key research institutions from 12 participating countries.

  6. Market Research Survey of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Portable MS Systems for IAEA Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Garret L.; Hager, George J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes the results for the market research survey of mass spectrometers that are deemed pertinent to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needs and strategic objectives. The focus of the report is on MS instruments that represent currently available (or soon to be) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technology and weigh less than 400 pounds. A compilation of all available MS instruments (36 COTS and 2 R&D) is presented, along with pertinent information regarding each instrument.

  7. Initial assessment and early treatment options for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Powers, P S

    1996-12-01

    This article presents the essential aspects of assessment of patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. The evaluation of the athlete with a suspected eating disorder is described. The choice of appropriate type and site of treatment is discussed. Throughout the article there is an emphasis on methods that can be useful in assisting the patient to acknowledge his or her illness and participate in treatment. The need to focus simultaneously on psychological and relationship issues and nutritional status is stressed.

  8. Environmental Assessment: Military Housing Privatization Initiative at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    housing area. Investigations indicated that ethylene glycol may have migrated in groundwater under portions of the Georgian housing. A TACO Tier 3...analysis performed in consultation with the Illinois EPA Site Remediation Program indicated that natural degradation of the ethylene glycol in groundwater ...Assessment 14 levels of ethylene glycol at the closest discharge of groundwater to surface water. These investigations indicate that the concentrations are

  9. Assessment and initial treatment of lacerations, mammalian bites, and insect stings.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Deborah; Hancox, Jerelen DeChatelet; Bernardon, Stephen O

    2003-11-01

    Millions of wounds are seen in emergency rooms across the United States each year. The goals of wound care for all ages are to avoid infection and achieve an esthetically pleasing and functional scar. This article reviews the care needs associated with acute traumatic wounds. Information presented includes anatomy and physiology of skin and wound healing, and assessment and care of lacerations, bites, and sting wounds.

  10. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. CIRMIS data system. Volume 1. Initialization, operation, and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrichs, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. The various input parameters required in the analysis are compiled in data systems. The data are organized and prepared by various input subroutines for use by the hydrologic and transport codes. The hydrologic models simulate the groundwater flow systems and provide water flow directions, rates, and velocities as inputs to the transport models. Outputs from the transport models are basically graphs of radionuclide concentration in the groundwater plotted against time. After dilution in the receiving surface-water body (e.g., lake, river, bay), these data are the input source terms for the dose models, if dose assessments are required. The dose models calculate radiation dose to individuals and populations. CIRMIS (Comprehensive Information Retrieval and Model Input Sequence) Data System, a storage and retrieval system for model input and output data, including graphical interpretation and display is described. This is the first of four volumes of the description of the CIRMIS Data System.

  11. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Initial Safety and Security Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents a preliminary safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the L-band communication system after the technology is chosen and system rollout timing is determined. The security risk analysis resulted in identifying main security threats to the proposed system as well as noting additional threats recommended for a future security analysis conducted at a later stage in the system development process. The document discusses various security controls, including those suggested in the COCR Version 2.0.

  12. Feasibility of Flat Panel Detector CT in Perfusion Assessment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: Initial Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Okell, T W; Gloor, M; Chappell, M A; Jezzard, P; Bieri, O; Byrne, J V

    2017-02-16

    The different results from flat panel detector CT in various pathologies have provoked some discussion. Our aim was to assess the role of flat panel detector CT in brain arteriovenous malformations, which has not yet been assessed. Five patients with brain arteriovenous malformations were studied with flat panel detector CT, DSC-MR imaging, and vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling. In glomerular brain arteriovenous malformations, perfusion was highest next to the brain arteriovenous malformation with decreasing values with increasing distance from the lesion. An inverse tendency was observed in the proliferative brain arteriovenous malformation. Flat panel detector CT, originally thought to measure blood volume, correlated more closely with arterial spin-labeling-CBF and DSC-CBF than with DSC-CBV. We conclude that flat panel detector CT perfusion depends on the time point chosen for data collection, which is triggered too early in these patients (ie, when contrast agent appears in the superior sagittal sinus after rapid shunting through the brain arteriovenous malformation). This finding, in combination with high data variability, makes flat panel detector CT inappropriate for perfusion assessment in brain arteriovenous malformations.

  13. Initial assessment of a model relating intratumoral genetic heterogeneity to radiological morphology.

    PubMed

    Noterdaeme, O; Kelly, M; Friend, P; Soonowalla, Z; Steers, G; Brady, M

    2010-02-01

    Tumour heterogeneity has major implications for tumour development and response to therapy. Tumour heterogeneity results from mutations in the genes responsible for mismatch repair or maintenance of chromosomal stability. Cells with different genetic properties may grow at different rates and exhibit different resistance to therapeutic interventions. To date, there exists no approach to non-invasively assess tumour heterogeneity. Here we present a biologically inspired model of tumour growth, which relates intratumoral genetic heterogeneity to gross morphology visible on radiological images. The model represents the development of a tumour as a set of expanding spheres, each sphere representing a distinct clonal centre, with the sprouting of new spheres corresponding to new clonal centres. Each clonal centre may possess different characteristics relating to genetic composition, growth rate and response to treatment. We present a clinical example for which the model accurately tracks tumour growth and shows the correspondence to genetic variation (as determined by array comparative genomic hybridisation). One clinical implication of our work is that the assessment of heterogeneous tumours using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST) or volume measurements may not accurately reflect tumour growth, stability or the response to treatment. We believe that this is the first model linking the macro-scale appearance of tumours to their genetic composition. We anticipate that our model will provide a more informative way to assess the response of heterogeneous tumours to treatment, which is of increasing importance with the development of novel targeted anti-cancer treatments.

  14. Assessment of risk to wildlife from ionising radiation: can initial screening tiers be used with a high level of confidence?

    PubMed

    Beresford, N A; Hosseini, A; Brown, J E; Cailes, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Barnett, C L; Copplestone, D

    2010-06-01

    A number of models are being used to assess the potential environmental impact of releases of radioactivity. These often use a tiered assessment structure whose first tier is designed to be highly conservative and simple to use. An aim of using this initial tier is to identify sites of negligible concern and to remove them from further consideration with a high degree of confidence. In this paper we compare the screening assessment outputs of three freely available models. The outputs of these models varied considerably in terms of estimated risk quotient (RQ) and the radionuclide-organism combinations identified as being the most limiting. A number of factors are identified as contributing to this variability: values of transfer parameters (concentration ratios and K(d)) used; organisms considered; different input options and how these are utilised in the assessment; assumptions as regards secular equilibrium; geometries and exposure scenarios. This large variation in RQ values between models means that the level of confidence required by users is not achieved. We recommend that the factors contributing to the variation in screening assessments be subjected to further investigation so that they can be more fully understood and assessors (and those reviewing assessment outputs) can better justify and evaluate the results obtained.

  15. Implementation of geriatric assessment and decision support in residential care homes: facilitating and impeding factors during initial and maintenance phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Successfully introducing and maintaining care innovations may depend on the interplay between care setting, the intervention and specific circumstances. We studied the factors influencing the introduction and maintenance of a Multidisciplinary Integrated Care model in 10 Dutch residential care homes. Methods Facilitating and impeding factors were studied and compared at the time of introduction of the interRAI-LTCF assessment method in residential care homes as well as three years later, by surveys and semi structured interviews among nurse staff, managers, and physicians. Results Facilitating factors at introduction were positive opinions of staff and family physicians about the changes of the process of care and the anticipated improvement of quality of care. Staff was positive about the applicability of the software to support the interRAI-LTCF assessments. Impeding factors were time constraints to complete interRAI-LTCF assessments and insufficient computer equipment. In the maintenance phase, the positive attitude of the location manager and the perceived benefits of the care model and the interRAI-LTCF assessment method were most important. Impeding factors after 3 years remained the lack of time to complete the assessments and lack of sufficient computer equipment. Conclusions Impeding and facilitating factors were comparable in the initial and maintenance phase. Adoption of the interRAI-LTCF assessment method depended on positive opinions of staff and management, continuing support of staff and the availability of sufficient computer equipment. PMID:23289629

  16. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists` meeting on cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E.; Raney, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains 17 papers that were presented in four sessions at the IAEA Specialists` meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations held at ASTM Headquarters in Philadelphia on May 2-3, 1995. The papers are compiled here in the order that presentations were made in the sessions, and they relate to operational observations, inspection techniques, analytical modeling, and regulatory control. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to review experience in the field of ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. The emphasis was to allow a better understanding of RPV material behavior, to provide guidance supporting reliability and adequate performance, and to assist in defining directions for further investigations. The international nature of the meeting is illustrated by the fact that papers were presented by researchers from 10 countries. There were technical experts present form other countries who participated in discussions of the results presented. This present document incorporates the final version of the papers as received from the authors. The final chapter includes conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  17. Absolute dose determination in high-energy electron beams: Comparison of IAEA dosimetry protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sathiyan, S.; Ravikumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, absorbed doses were measured and compared for high-energy electrons (6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV) using International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Technical Reports Series No. 277 (TRS), TRS 381, and TRS 398 dosimetry protocols. Absolute dose measurements were carried out using FC65-G Farmer chamber and Nordic Association of Clinical Physicists (NACP) parallel plate chamber with DOSE1 electrometer in WP1-D water phantom for reference field size of 15 × 15 cm2 at 100 cm source-to-surface distance. The results show that the difference between TRS 398 and TRS 381 was about 0.24% to 1.3% depending upon the energy, and the maximum difference between TRS 398 and TRS 277 was 1.5%. The use of cylindrical chamber in electron beam gives the maximum dose difference between the TRS 398 and TRS 277 in the order of 1.4% for energies above 10 MeV (R50 > 4 g/cm2). It was observed that the accuracy of dose estimation was better with the protocols based on the water calibration procedures, as no conversion quantities are involved for conversion of dose from air to water. The cross-calibration procedure of parallel plate chamber with high-energy electron beams is recommended as it avoids pwall correction factor entering into the determination of kQ,Qo. PMID:19893700

  18. Lessons from UNSCOM and IAEA regarding remote monitoring and air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, at the direction of the United Nations Security Council, UNSCOM and IAEA developed plans for On-going Monitoring and Verification (OMV) in Iraq. The plans were accepted by the Security Council and remote monitoring and atmospheric sampling equipment has been installed at selected sites in Iraq. The remote monitoring equipment consists of video cameras and sensors positioned to observe equipment or activities at sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, or long-range missiles. The atmospheric sampling equipment provides unattended collection of chemical samples from sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of chemical weapon agents. To support OMV in Iraq, UNSCOM has established the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Centre. Imagery from the remote monitoring cameras can be accessed in near-real time from the Centre through RIF communication links with the monitored sites. The OMV program in Iraq has implications for international cooperative monitoring in both global and regional contexts. However, monitoring systems such as those used in Iraq are not sufficient, in and of themselves, to guarantee the absence of prohibited activities. Such systems cannot replace on-site inspections by competent, trained inspectors. However, monitoring similar to that used in Iraq can contribute to openness and confidence building, to the development of mutual trust, and to the improvement of regional stability.

  19. Proton Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Initial Assessment of Isolated Mycobacterium avium Complex Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jonathan H; Huitt, Gwen; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Hobbs, Stephen B; Faino, Anna V; Bolster, Bradley D; Biederer, Jürgen; Puderbach, Michael; Lynch, David A

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) radiography is the reference standard for imaging Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung infection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be comparable to CT for characterizing other pulmonary inflammatory conditions, but has not been rigorously tested for imaging MAC pneumonia. To determine the feasibility of pulmonary MRI for imaging MAC pneumonia and to assess the degree of agreement between MRI and CT for assessing the anatomic features and lobar extent of MAC lung infections. Twenty-five subjects with culture-confirmed MAC pneumonia and no identified coinfecting organisms were evaluated by thoracic MRI and then by chest CT imaging performed up to 1 week later. After deidentification, first the MRI and then the CT scans were scored 2 weeks apart by two chest radiologists working independently of one another. Discrepancies were resolved by a third chest radiologist. The scans were scored for bronchiectasis, consolidation or atelectasis, abscess or sacculation, nodules, and mucus plugging using a three-point lobar scale (absent, <50% of lobe, and >50% of lobe). Agreement analyses and ordinary least products regressions were performed. A fixed bias was found between total CT and MRI scores, with CT scoring higher on average (median difference: 4 on a scale of 48; interquartile range: 3, 6). Fixed biases were found for bronchiectasis and consolidation or atelectasis subscale scores. Both fixed and proportional biases were found between CT and MRI mucus plugging scores. No bias was found between CT and MRI nodule scores. There was nearly perfect lobar percent agreement for more conspicuous findings such as consolidation or atelectasis and abscess or sacculation. In this exploratory study of 25 adult patients with culture-proven MAC lung infection, we found moderate agreement between MRI and CT for assessing the anatomic features and lobar extent of disease. Given the feasibility of chest MRI for this condition, future work is

  20. PET Imaging for Initial Staging and Therapy Assessment in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Clément; Leforestier, Rodolphe; Jamet, Bastien; Carlier, Thomas; Bourgeois, Mickael; Guérard, François; Touzeau, Cyrille; Moreau, Philippe; Chérel, Michel; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Bodet-Milin, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological neoplasm characterized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. MM results in diffuse or focal bone infiltration and extramedullary lesions. Over the past two decades, advances have been made with regard to the diagnosis, staging, treatment, and imaging of MM. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently recommended as the most effective imaging modalities at diagnostic. Yet, recent data from the literature suggest that positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) using 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) is a promising technique for initial staging and therapeutic monitoring in this pathology. This paper reviews the recent advances as well as the potential place of a more specific radiopharmaceutical in MM. PMID:28218709