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Sample records for assigning large proteins

  1. A Semi-Automated Assignment Protocol for Methyl Group Side-Chains in Large Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonggul; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Geoffrey; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The developments of biosynthetic specific labeling strategies for side-chain methyl groups have allowed structural and dynamic characterization of very large proteins and protein complexes. However, the assignment of the methyl-group resonances remains an Achilles’ heel for NMR, as the experiments designed to correlate side chains to the protein backbone become rather insensitive with the increase of the transverse relaxation rates. In this chapter, we outline a semi-empirical approach to assign the resonances of methyl group side chains in large proteins. This method requires a crystal structure or an NMR ensemble of conformers as an input, together with NMR data sets such as NOEs and PREs, to be implemented in a computational protocol that provides a probabilistic assignment of methyl group resonances. As an example, we report the protocol used in our laboratory to assign the side chains of the 42-kDa catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. Although we emphasize the labeling of isoleucine, leucine, and valine residues, this method is applicable to other methyl group side chains such as those of alanine, methionine, and threonine, as well as reductively-methylated cysteine side chains. PMID:26791975

  2. A Semiautomated Assignment Protocol for Methyl Group Side Chains in Large Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggul; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Geoffrey; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The developments of biosynthetic specific labeling strategies for side-chain methyl groups have allowed structural and dynamic characterization of very large proteins and protein complexes. However, the assignment of the methyl-group resonances remains an Achilles' heel for NMR, as the experiments designed to correlate side chains to the protein backbone become rather insensitive with the increase of the transverse relaxation rates. In this chapter, we outline a semiempirical approach to assign the resonances of methyl-group side chains in large proteins. This method requires a crystal structure or an NMR ensemble of conformers as an input, together with NMR data sets such as nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) and paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs), to be implemented in a computational protocol that provides a probabilistic assignment of methyl-group resonances. As an example, we report the protocol used in our laboratory to assign the side chains of the 42-kDa catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. Although we emphasize the labeling of isoleucine, leucine, and valine residues, this method is applicable to other methyl group side chains such as those of alanine, methionine, and threonine, as well as reductively methylated cysteine side chains. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Facilitated assignment of large protein NMR signals with covariance sequential spectra using spectral derivatives.

    PubMed

    Harden, Bradley J; Nichols, Scott R; Frueh, Dominique P

    2014-09-24

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of larger proteins are hampered by difficulties in assigning NMR resonances. Human intervention is typically required to identify NMR signals in 3D spectra, and subsequent procedures depend on the accuracy of this so-called peak picking. We present a method that provides sequential connectivities through correlation maps constructed with covariance NMR, bypassing the need for preliminary peak picking. We introduce two novel techniques to minimize false correlations and merge the information from all original 3D spectra. First, we take spectral derivatives prior to performing covariance to emphasize coincident peak maxima. Second, we multiply covariance maps calculated with different 3D spectra to destroy erroneous sequential correlations. The maps are easy to use and can readily be generated from conventional triple-resonance experiments. Advantages of the method are demonstrated on a 37 kDa nonribosomal peptide synthetase domain subject to spectral overlap.

  4. Fast and Accurate Resonance Assignment of Small-to-Large Proteins by Combining Automated and Manual Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Niklasson, Markus; Ahlner, Alexandra; Andresen, Cecilia; Marsh, Joseph A.; Lundström, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The process of resonance assignment is fundamental to most NMR studies of protein structure and dynamics. Unfortunately, the manual assignment of residues is tedious and time-consuming, and can represent a significant bottleneck for further characterization. Furthermore, while automated approaches have been developed, they are often limited in their accuracy, particularly for larger proteins. Here, we address this by introducing the software COMPASS, which, by combining automated resonance assignment with manual intervention, is able to achieve accuracy approaching that from manual assignments at greatly accelerated speeds. Moreover, by including the option to compensate for isotope shift effects in deuterated proteins, COMPASS is far more accurate for larger proteins than existing automated methods. COMPASS is an open-source project licensed under GNU General Public License and is available for download from http://www.liu.se/forskning/foass/tidigare-foass/patrik-lundstrom/software?l=en. Source code and binaries for Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows are available. PMID:25569628

  5. Managing Large Volumes of Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, James; Hagen, John, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    In spring 2003, the Distance Education Network (DEN), Viterbi School of Engineering at the University of Southern California (USC), had 860 students and more than 1,000 enrollments in 70 courses toward 10 different degrees. Typically, for assignments in engineering courses, professors require students to show how their answers are derived so that…

  6. Assignment strategies for large proteins by magic-angle spinning NMR: the 21-kDa disulfide bond forming enzyme DsbA

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Lindsay J.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Sasser, Terry L.; Jeisy-Scott, Victoria; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary We present strategies for chemical shift assignments of large proteins by magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR), using the 21-kDa disulfide bond forming enzyme DsbA as a prototype. Previous studies have demonstrated that complete de novo assignments are possible for proteins up to ~17 kDa, and partial assignments have been performed for several larger proteins. Here we show that combinations of isotopic labeling strategies, high field correlation spectroscopy and 3D and 4D backbone correlation experiments yield highly confident assignments for more than 90% of the backbone resonances in DsbA. Samples were prepared as nanocrystalline precipitates by a dialysis procedure, resulting in heterogeneous linewidths under 0.2 ppm. Thus, high magnetic fields, selective decoupling pulse sequences, and sparse isotopic labeling all improved spectral resolution. Assignments by amino acid type were facilitated by particular combinations of pulse sequences and isotopic labeling; for example, TEDOR experiments enhanced sensitivity for Pro and Gly residues, 2-13C-glycerol labeling clarified Val, Ile and Leu assignments, IPAP correlation spectra enabled interpretation of otherwise crowded Glx/Asx sidechain regions, and 3D NCACX experiments on 2-13C-glycerol samples provided unique sets of aromatic (Phe, Tyr, Trp) correlations. Together with high sensitivity CANCOCA 4D and CANCOCX 3D experiments, unambiguous backbone walks could be performed throughout the majority of the sequence. At 189 residues, DsbA represents the largest monomeric unit for which essentially complete solid-state NMR assignments have so far been achieved. These results will facilitate studies of nanocrystalline DsbA structure and dynamics and enable analysis of its 41-kDa covalent complex with the membrane protein DsbB, for which we demonstrate a high-resolution 2D 13C-13C spectrum. PMID:20394752

  7. Protein side-chain resonance assignment and NOE assignment using RDC-defined backbones without TOCSY data.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2011-08-01

    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA: (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA: extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA: assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA: have backbone

  8. Protein Side-Chain Resonance Assignment and NOE Assignment Using RDC-Defined Backbones without TOCSY Data3

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2011-01-01

    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA have backbone RMSD 0

  9. Target-based fiber assignment for large survey spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Christoph E. R.; Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    Next generation massive spectroscopic survey projects have to process a massive amount of targets. The preparation of subsequent observations should be feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We present a fast algorithm for target assignment that scales as O(log(n)). Our proposed algorithm follow a target based approach, which enables to assign large number of targets to their positioners quickly and with a very high assignment efficiency. We also discuss additional optimization of the fiber positioning problem to take into account the positioner collision problems and how to use the algorithm for an optimal survey strategy. We apply our target-based algorithm in the context of the MOONS project.

  10. Computer-Assisted Assignments in a Large Physics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoennessen, M.; Harrison, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes CAPA, a software tool to implement a computer-assisted personalized approach for homework assignments and examinations in a large introductory physics class at Michigan State University. Highlights include increased individual attention for students; correlation between homework performance and results of the final exam; feedback for…

  11. Functional assignment to JEV proteins using SVM

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Das, Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Identification of different protein functions facilitates a mechanistic understanding of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection and opens novel means for drug development. Support vector machines (SVM), useful for predicting the functional class of distantly related proteins, is employed to ascribe a possible functional class to Japanese encephalitis virus protein. Our study from SVMProt and available JE virus sequences suggests that structural and nonstructural proteins of JEV genome possibly belong to diverse protein functions, are expected to occur in the life cycle of JE virus. Protein functions common to both structural and non-structural proteins are iron-binding, metal-binding, lipid-binding, copper-binding, transmembrane, outer membrane, channels/Pores - Pore-forming toxins (proteins and peptides) group of proteins. Non-structural proteins perform functions like actin binding, zinc-binding, calcium-binding, hydrolases, Carbon-Oxygen Lyases, P-type ATPase, proteins belonging to major facilitator family (MFS), secreting main terminal branch (MTB) family, phosphotransfer-driven group translocators and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family group of proteins. Whereas structural proteins besides belonging to same structural group of proteins (capsid, structural, envelope), they also perform functions like nuclear receptor, antibiotic resistance, RNA-binding, DNA-binding, magnesium-binding, isomerase (intra-molecular), oxidoreductase and participate in type II (general) secretory pathway (IISP). PMID:19052658

  12. An Algorithm for Protein Helix Assignment Using Helix Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong

    2015-01-01

    Helices are one of the most common and were among the earliest recognized secondary structure elements in proteins. The assignment of helices in a protein underlies the analysis of its structure and function. Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, no previous assignment programs have used a genuine helical curve as a model for helix assignment. In this paper we present a two-step assignment algorithm. The first step searches for a series of bona fide helical curves each one best fits the coordinates of four successive backbone Cα atoms. The second step uses the best fit helical curves as input to make helix assignment. The application to the protein structures in the PDB (protein data bank) proves that the algorithm is able to assign accurately not only regular α-helix but also 310 and π helices as well as their left-handed versions. One salient feature of the algorithm is that the assigned helices are structurally more uniform than those by the previous programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction while the accurate assignment of a helix to a particular type underlies structure-function relationship in proteins. PMID:26132394

  13. An Algorithm for Protein Helix Assignment Using Helix Geometry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong

    2015-01-01

    Helices are one of the most common and were among the earliest recognized secondary structure elements in proteins. The assignment of helices in a protein underlies the analysis of its structure and function. Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, no previous assignment programs have used a genuine helical curve as a model for helix assignment. In this paper we present a two-step assignment algorithm. The first step searches for a series of bona fide helical curves each one best fits the coordinates of four successive backbone Cα atoms. The second step uses the best fit helical curves as input to make helix assignment. The application to the protein structures in the PDB (protein data bank) proves that the algorithm is able to assign accurately not only regular α-helix but also 310 and π helices as well as their left-handed versions. One salient feature of the algorithm is that the assigned helices are structurally more uniform than those by the previous programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction while the accurate assignment of a helix to a particular type underlies structure-function relationship in proteins.

  14. Practical aspects of NMR signal assignment in larger and challenging proteins

    PubMed Central

    Frueh, Dominique P.

    2014-01-01

    NMR has matured into a technique routinely employed for studying proteins in near physiological conditions. However, applications to larger proteins are impeded by the complexity of the various correlation maps necessary to assign NMR signals. This article reviews the data analysis techniques traditionally employed for resonance assignment and describes alternative protocols necessary for overcoming challenges in large protein spectra. In particular, simultaneous analysis of multiple spectra may help overcome ambiguities or may reveal correlations in an indirect manner. Similarly, visualization of orthogonal planes in a multidimensional spectrum can provide alternative assignment procedures. We describe examples of such strategies for assignment of backbone, methyl, and nOe resonances. We describe experimental aspects of data acquisition for the related experiments and provide guidelines for preliminary studies. Focus is placed on large folded monomeric proteins and examples are provided for 37, 48, 53, and 81 kDa proteins. PMID:24534088

  15. Probabilistic Validation of Protein NMR Chemical Shift Assignments

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Hesam; Tonelli, Marco; Lee, Woonghee; Westler, William M.; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Markley, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Data validation plays an important role in ensuring the reliability and reproducibility of studies. NMR investigations of the functional properties, dynamics, chemical kinetics, and structures of proteins depend critically on the correctness of chemical shift assignments. We present a novel probabilistic method named ARECA for validating chemical shift assignments that relies on the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data. ARECA has been evaluated through its application to 26 case studies and has been shown to be complementary to, and usually more reliable than, approaches based on chemical shift databases. ARECA is available online at http://areca.nmrfam.wisc.edu/. PMID:26724815

  16. Protein domain assignment from the recurrence of locally similar structures

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Chin-Hsien; Sam, Vichetra; Gibrat, Jean-Francois; Garnier, Jean; Munson, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Domains are basic units of protein structure and essential for exploring protein fold space and structure evolution. With the structural genomics initiative, the number of protein structures in the Protein Databank (PDB) is increasing dramatically and domain assignments need to be done automatically. Most existing structural domain assignment programs define domains using the compactness of the domains and/or the number and strength of intra-domain versus inter-domain contacts. Here we present a different approach based on the recurrence of locally similar structural pieces (LSSPs) found by one-against-all structure comparisons with a dataset of 6,373 protein chains from the PDB. Residues of the query protein are clustered using LSSPs via three different procedures to define domains. This approach gives results that are comparable to several existing programs that use geometrical and other structural information explicitly. Remarkably, most of the proteins that contribute the LSSPs defining a domain do not themselves contain the domain of interest. This study shows that domains can be defined by a collection of relatively small locally similar structural pieces containing, on average, four secondary structure elements. In addition, it indicates that domains are indeed made of recurrent small structural pieces that are used to build protein structures of many different folds as suggested by recent studies. PMID:21287617

  17. NMR assignment method for amide signals with cell-free protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods are widely used to determine the three-dimensional structures of proteins, to estimate protein folding, and to discover high-affinity ligands for proteins. However, one of the problems to apply such NMR methods to proteins is that we should obtain mg quantities of (15)N and/or (13)C labeled pure proteins of interest. Here, we describe the method to produce dual amino acid-selective (13)C-(15)N labeled proteins for NMR study using the improved wheat germ cell-free system, which enables sequence-specific assignments of amide signals simply even for very large protein.

  18. Assigning protein functions by comparative genome analysis protein phylogenetic profiles

    DOEpatents

    Pellegrini, Matteo; Marcotte, Edward M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Eisenberg, David; Grothe, Robert; Yeates, Todd O.

    2003-05-13

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  19. Normalized Cut Algorithm for Automated Assignment of Protein Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, M. P.; Liang, S.; Zha, H.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel computational method for automatic assignment of protein domains from structural data. At the core of our algorithm lies a recently proposed clustering technique that has been very successful for image-partitioning applications. This grap.,l-theory based clustering method uses the notion of a normalized cut to partition. an undirected graph into its strongly-connected components. Computer implementation of our method tested on the standard comparison set of proteins from the literature shows a high success rate (84%), better than most existing alternative In addition, several other features of our algorithm, such as reliance on few adjustable parameters, linear run-time with respect to the size of the protein and reduced complexity compared to other graph-theory based algorithms, would make it an attractive tool for structural biologists.

  20. An ambiguity principle for assigning protein structural domains.

    PubMed

    Postic, Guillaume; Ghouzam, Yassine; Chebrek, Romain; Gelly, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguity is the quality of being open to several interpretations. For an image, it arises when the contained elements can be delimited in two or more distinct ways, which may cause confusion. We postulate that it also applies to the analysis of protein three-dimensional structure, which consists in dividing the molecule into subunits called domains. Because different definitions of what constitutes a domain can be used to partition a given structure, the same protein may have different but equally valid domain annotations. However, knowledge and experience generally displace our ability to accept more than one way to decompose the structure of an object-in this case, a protein. This human bias in structure analysis is particularly harmful because it leads to ignoring potential avenues of research. We present an automated method capable of producing multiple alternative decompositions of protein structure (web server and source code available at www.dsimb.inserm.fr/sword/). Our innovative algorithm assigns structural domains through the hierarchical merging of protein units, which are evolutionarily preserved substructures that describe protein architecture at an intermediate level, between domain and secondary structure. To validate the use of these protein units for decomposing protein structures into domains, we set up an extensive benchmark made of expert annotations of structural domains and including state-of-the-art domain parsing algorithms. The relevance of our "multipartitioning" approach is shown through numerous examples of applications covering protein function, evolution, folding, and structure prediction. Finally, we introduce a measure for the structural ambiguity of protein molecules.

  1. An ambiguity principle for assigning protein structural domains

    PubMed Central

    Postic, Guillaume; Ghouzam, Yassine; Chebrek, Romain; Gelly, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguity is the quality of being open to several interpretations. For an image, it arises when the contained elements can be delimited in two or more distinct ways, which may cause confusion. We postulate that it also applies to the analysis of protein three-dimensional structure, which consists in dividing the molecule into subunits called domains. Because different definitions of what constitutes a domain can be used to partition a given structure, the same protein may have different but equally valid domain annotations. However, knowledge and experience generally displace our ability to accept more than one way to decompose the structure of an object—in this case, a protein. This human bias in structure analysis is particularly harmful because it leads to ignoring potential avenues of research. We present an automated method capable of producing multiple alternative decompositions of protein structure (web server and source code available at www.dsimb.inserm.fr/sword/). Our innovative algorithm assigns structural domains through the hierarchical merging of protein units, which are evolutionarily preserved substructures that describe protein architecture at an intermediate level, between domain and secondary structure. To validate the use of these protein units for decomposing protein structures into domains, we set up an extensive benchmark made of expert annotations of structural domains and including state-of-the-art domain parsing algorithms. The relevance of our “multipartitioning” approach is shown through numerous examples of applications covering protein function, evolution, folding, and structure prediction. Finally, we introduce a measure for the structural ambiguity of protein molecules. PMID:28097215

  2. Stereospecific assignment of the asparagine and glutamine sidechain amide protons in proteins from chemical shift analysis.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Tobias; Schneider, Philipp; Kieninger, Bärbel; Donaubauer, Harald; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2017-02-01

    Side chain amide protons of asparagine and glutamine residues in random-coil peptides are characterized by large chemical shift differences and can be stereospecifically assigned on the basis of their chemical shift values only. The bimodal chemical shift distributions stored in the biological magnetic resonance data bank (BMRB) do not allow such an assignment. However, an analysis of the BMRB shows, that a substantial part of all stored stereospecific assignments is not correct. We show here that in most cases stereospecific assignment can also be done for folded proteins using an unbiased artificial chemical shift data base (UACSB). For a separation of the chemical shifts of the two amide resonance lines with differences ≥0.40 ppm for asparagine and differences ≥0.42 ppm for glutamine, the downfield shifted resonance lines can be assigned to H(δ21) and H(ε21), respectively, at a confidence level >95%. A classifier derived from UASCB can also be used to correct the BMRB data. The program tool AssignmentChecker implemented in AUREMOL calculates the Bayesian probability for a given stereospecific assignment and automatically corrects the assignments for a given list of chemical shifts.

  3. Studying interregional wildland fire engine assignments for large fire suppression

    Treesearch

    Erin J. Belval; Yu Wei; David E. Calkin; Crystal S. Stonesifer; Matthew P. Thompson; John R. Tipton

    2017-01-01

    One crucial component of large fire response in the United States (US) is the sharing of wildland firefighting resources between regions: resources from regions experiencing low fire activity supplement resources in regions experiencing high fire activity. An important step towards improving the efficiency of resource sharing and related policies is to develop a better...

  4. Assigning roles to protein mentions: the case of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Keane, John; Bergman, Casey M; Nenadic, Goran

    2009-10-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play a crucial role in gene regulation, and providing structured and curated information about them is important for genome biology. Manual curation of TF related data is time-consuming and always lags behind the actual knowledge available in the biomedical literature. Here we present a machine-learning text mining approach for identification and tagging of protein mentions that play a TF role in a given context to support the curation process. More precisely, the method explicitly identifies those protein mentions in text that refer to their potential TF functions. The prediction features are engineered from the results of shallow parsing and domain-specific processing (recognition of relevant appearing in phrases) and a phrase-based Conditional Random Fields (CRF) model is used to capture the content and context information of candidate entities. The proposed approach for the identification of TF mentions has been tested on a set of evidence sentences from the TRANSFAC and FlyTF databases. It achieved an F-measure of around 51.5% with a precision of 62.5% using 5-fold cross-validation evaluation. The experimental results suggest that the phrase-based CRF model benefits from the flexibility to use correlated domain-specific features that describe the dependencies between TFs and other entities. To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the first attempts to apply text-mining techniques to the task of assigning semantic roles to protein mentions.

  5. Automating unambiguous NOE data usage in NVR for NMR protein structure-based assignments.

    PubMed

    Akhmedov, Murodzhon; Çatay, Bülent; Apaydın, Mehmet Serkan

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy is an important technique that allows determining protein structure in solution. An important problem in protein structure determination using NMR spectroscopy is the mapping of peaks to corresponding amino acids, also known as the assignment problem. Structure-Based Assignment (SBA) is an approach to solve this problem using a template structure that is homologous to the target. Our previously developed approach Nuclear Vector Replacement-Binary Integer Programming (NVR-BIP) computed the optimal solution for small proteins, but was unable to solve the assignments of large proteins. NVR-Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) extended the applicability of the NVR approach for such proteins. One of the input data utilized in these approaches is the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) data. NOE is an interaction observed between two protons if the protons are located close in space. These protons could be amide protons, protons attached to the alpha-carbon atom in the backbone of the protein, or side chain protons. NVR only uses backbone protons. In this paper, we reformulate the NVR-BIP model to distinguish the type of proton in NOE data and use the corresponding proton coordinates in the extended formulation. In addition, the threshold value over interproton distances is set in a standard manner for all proteins by extracting the NOE upper bound distance information from the data. We also convert NOE intensities into distance thresholds. Our new approach thus handles the NOE data correctly and without manually determined parameters. We accordingly adapt NVR-ACO solution methodology to these changes. Computational results show that our approaches obtain optimal solutions for small proteins. For the large proteins our ant colony optimization-based approach obtains promising results.

  6. Quantification of protein group coherence and pathway assignment using functional association

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomics and proteomics experiments produce a large amount of data that are awaiting functional elucidation. An important step in analyzing such data is to identify functional units, which consist of proteins that play coherent roles to carry out the function. Importantly, functional coherence is not identical with functional similarity. For example, proteins in the same pathway may not share the same Gene Ontology (GO) terms, but they work in a coordinated fashion so that the aimed function can be performed. Thus, simply applying existing functional similarity measures might not be the best solution to identify functional units in omics data. Results We have designed two scores for quantifying the functional coherence by considering association of GO terms observed in two biological contexts, co-occurrences in protein annotations and co-mentions in literature in the PubMed database. The counted co-occurrences of GO terms were normalized in a similar fashion as the statistical amino acid contact potential is computed in the protein structure prediction field. We demonstrate that the developed scores can identify functionally coherent protein sets, i.e. proteins in the same pathways, co-localized proteins, and protein complexes, with statistically significant score values showing a better accuracy than existing functional similarity scores. The scores are also capable of detecting protein pairs that interact with each other. It is further shown that the functional coherence scores can accurately assign proteins to their respective pathways. Conclusion We have developed two scores which quantify the functional coherence of sets of proteins. The scores reflect the actual associations of GO terms observed either in protein annotations or in literature. It has been shown that they have the ability to accurately distinguish biologically relevant groups of proteins from random ones as well as a good discriminative power for detecting interacting pairs of

  7. Organic Chemistry YouTube Writing Assignment for Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Annaliese K.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes efforts to incorporate and evaluate the use of a YouTube writing assignment in large lecture classes to personalize learning and improve conceptual understanding of chemistry through peer- and self-explanation strategies. Although writing assignments can be a method to incorporate peer- and self-explanation strategies, this…

  8. Organic Chemistry YouTube Writing Assignment for Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Annaliese K.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes efforts to incorporate and evaluate the use of a YouTube writing assignment in large lecture classes to personalize learning and improve conceptual understanding of chemistry through peer- and self-explanation strategies. Although writing assignments can be a method to incorporate peer- and self-explanation strategies, this…

  9. A tabu search approach for the NMR protein structure-based assignment problem.

    PubMed

    Cavuşlar, Gizem; Çatay, Bülent; Apaydın, Mehmet Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopy is an experimental technique which exploits the magnetic properties of specific nuclei and enables the study of proteins in solution. The key bottleneck of NMR studies is to map the NMR peaks to corresponding nuclei, also known as the assignment problem. Structure-Based Assignment (SBA) is an approach to solve this computationally challenging problem by using prior information about the protein obtained from a homologous structure. NVR-BIP used the Nuclear Vector Replacement (NVR) framework to model SBA as a binary integer programming problem. In this paper, we prove that this problem is NP-hard and propose a tabu search (TS) algorithm (NVR-TS) equipped with a guided perturbation mechanism to efficiently solve it. NVR-TS uses a quadratic penalty relaxation of NVR-BIP where the violations in the Nuclear Overhauser Effect constraints are penalized in the objective function. Experimental results indicate that our algorithm finds the optimal solution on NVRBIP’s data set which consists of seven proteins with 25 templates (31 to 126 residues). Furthermore, it achieves relatively high assignment accuracies on two additional large proteins, MBP and EIN (348 and 243 residues, respectively), which NVR-BIP failed to solve. The executable and the input files are available for download at http://people.sabanciuniv.edu/catay/NVR-TS/NVR-TS.html.

  10. Efficient eigenvalue assignment by state and output feedback with applications for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannell, Eric C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Maghami, Peiman G.

    1995-01-01

    The erection and deployment of large flexible structures having thousands of degrees of freedom requires controllers based on new techniques of eigenvalue assignment that are computationally stable and more efficient. Scientists at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a novel and efficient algorithm for the eigenvalue assignment of large, time-invariant systems using full-state and output feedback. The objectives of this research were to improve upon the output feedback version of this algorithm, to produce a toolbox of MATLAB functions based on the efficient eigenvalue assignment algorithm, and to experimentally verify the algorithm and software by implementing controllers designed using the MATLAB toolbox on the phase 2 configuration of NASA Langley's controls-structures interaction evolutionary model, a laboratory model used to study space structures. Results from laboratory tests and computer simulations show that effective controllers can be designed using software based on the efficient eigenvalue assignment algorithm.

  11. Side chain NMR assignments in the membrane protein OmpX reconstituted in DHPC micelles.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Christian; Fernández, César; Wider, Gerhard; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2002-08-01

    Sequence-specific assignments have been obtained for side chain methyl resonances of Val, Leu and Ile in the outer membrane protein X (OmpX) from Escherichia coli reconstituted in 60 kDa micelles in aqueous solution. Using previously established techniques, OmpX was uniformly 2H,13C,15N-labeled with selectively protonated Val-gamma(1,2), Leu-delta(1,2) and Ile-delta1 methyl groups. The thus labeled protein was studied with the novel experiments 3D (H)C(CC)-TOCSY-(CO)-[15N,1H]-TROSY and 3D H(C)(CC)-TOCSY-(CO)-[15N,1H]-TROSY. Compared to the corresponding conventional experimental schemes, the TROSY-type experiments yielded a sensitivity gain of about 2 at 500 MHz. The overall sensitivity of the experiments was further enhanced more than two-fold by the use of a cryoprobe. Complete assignments of the proton and carbon chemical shifts were obtained for all isopropyl methyl groups of Val and Leu, as well as for the delta1-methyls of Ile. The present approach is applicable for soluble proteins or micelle-reconstituted membrane proteins in structures with overall molecular weights up to about 100 kDa, and adds to the potentialities of solution NMR for de novo structure determination as well as for functional studies, such as ligand screening with proteins in large structures.

  12. A constraint-based assignment system for automating long side chain assignments in protein 2D NMR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Leishman, S.; Gray, P.; Fothergill, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The sequential assignment of protein 2D NMR data has been tackled by many automated and semi-automated systems. One area that these systems have not tackled is the searching of the TOCSY spectrum looking for cross peaks and chemical shift values for hydrogen nuclei that are at the end of long side chains. This paper describes our system for solving this problem using constraint logic programming and compares our constraint satisfaction algorithm to a standard backtracking version.

  13. Domain assignment for protein structures using a consensus approach: characterization and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S.; Stewart, M.; Michie, A.; Swindells, M. B.; Orengo, C.; Thornton, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    A consensus approach for the assignment of structural domains in proteins is presented. The approach combines a number of previously published algorithms, and takes advantage of the elevated accuracy obtained when assignments from the individual algorithms are in agreement. The consensus approach is tested on a data set of 55 protein chains, for which domain assignments from four automated methods were known, and for which crystallographers assignments had been reported in the literature. Accuracy was found to increase in this test from 72% using individual algorithms to 100% when all four methods were in agreement. However a consensus prediction using all four methods was only possible for 52% of the dataset. The consensus approach [using three publicly available domain assignment algorithms (PUU, DETECTIVE, DOMAK)] was then used to make domain assignments for a data set of 787 protein chains from the Protein Data Bank. Analysis of the assignments showed 55.7% of assignments could be made automatically, and of these, 13.5% were multi-domain proteins. Of the remaining 44.3% that could not be assigned by the consensus procedure 90.4% had their domain boundaries assigned correctly by at least one of the algorithms. Once identified, these domains were analyzed for trends in their size and secondary structure class. In addition, the discontinuity of each domain along the protein chain was considered. PMID:9521098

  14. Assignment of the norepinephrine transporter protein (NET1) locus to chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Gelernter, J.; Kruger, S. ); Kidd, K.K.; Pakstis, A.J.; Pacholczyk, T. ); Sparkes, R.S. ); Amara, S. )

    1993-12-01

    The norepinephrine transporter protein (NET) is the presynaptic reuptake site for norepinephrine and a site of action for several drugs with CNS effects, some of which are therapeutically useful and some of which are drugs of abuse. The authors used PCR with a somatic cell hybrid panel to obtain a provisional assignment to chromosome 16. They then typed a genetic polymorphism at the NET1 locus in three large multigenerational families and used linkage analysis to confirm the preliminary assignment and to refine the localization to 16q, near the HP locus. Finally, they typed the NET1 RFLP, on the CEPH families and the additional linkage data localized NET1 to 16q13-q21, flanked by D16S71 (centromerically) and HP (telomerically). 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa’s major poaching hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, S. K.; Brown, L.; Mailand, C.; Mondol, S.; Clark, W.; Laurie, C.; Weir, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Poaching of elephants is now occurring at rates that threaten African populations with extinction. Identifying the number and location of Africa’s major poaching hotspots may assist efforts to end poaching and facilitate recovery of elephant populations. We genetically assign origin to 28 large ivory seizures (≥0.5 metric tons) made between 1996 and 2014, also testing assignment accuracy. Results suggest that the major poaching hotspots in Africa may be currently concentrated in as few as two areas. Increasing law enforcement in these two hotspots could help curtail future elephant losses across Africa and disrupt this organized transnational crime. PMID:26089357

  16. CONSERVATION. Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa's major poaching hotspots.

    PubMed

    Wasser, S K; Brown, L; Mailand, C; Mondol, S; Clark, W; Laurie, C; Weir, B S

    2015-07-03

    Poaching of elephants is now occurring at rates that threaten African populations with extinction. Identifying the number and location of Africa's major poaching hotspots may assist efforts to end poaching and facilitate recovery of elephant populations. We genetically assign origin to 28 large ivory seizures (≥0.5 metric tons) made between 1996 and 2014, also testing assignment accuracy. Results suggest that the major poaching hotspots in Africa may be currently concentrated in as few as two areas. Increasing law enforcement in these two hotspots could help curtail future elephant losses across Africa and disrupt this organized transnational crime. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. CASA: an efficient automated assignment of protein mainchain NMR data using an ordered tree search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyong; Wang, Tianzhi; Zuiderweg, Erik R P; Crippen, Gordon M

    2005-12-01

    Rapid analysis of protein structure, interaction, and dynamics requires fast and automated assignments of 3D protein backbone triple-resonance NMR spectra. We introduce a new depth-first ordered tree search method of automated assignment, CASA, which uses hand-edited peak-pick lists of a flexible number of triple resonance experiments. The computer program was tested on 13 artificially simulated peak lists for proteins up to 723 residues, as well as on the experimental data for four proteins. Under reasonable tolerances, it generated assignments that correspond to the ones reported in the literature within a few minutes of CPU time. The program was also tested on the proteins analyzed by other methods, with both simulated and experimental peaklists, and it could generate good assignments in all relevant cases. The robustness was further tested under various situations.

  18. Amino acid recognition for automatic resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Piai, Alessandro; Gonnelli, Leonardo; Felli, Isabella C; Pierattelli, Roberta; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Grudziąż, Katarzyna; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Resonance assignment is a prerequisite for almost any NMR-based study of proteins. It can be very challenging in some cases, however, due to the nature of the protein under investigation. This is the case with intrinsically disordered proteins, for example, whose NMR spectra suffer from low chemical shifts dispersion and generally low resolution. For these systems, sequence specific assignment is highly time-consuming, so the prospect of using automatic strategies for their assignment is very attractive. In this article we present a new version of the automatic assignment program TSAR dedicated to intrinsically disordered proteins. In particular, we demonstrate how the automatic procedure can be improved by incorporating methods for amino acid recognition and information on chemical shifts in selected amino acids. The approach was tested in silico on 16 disordered proteins and experimentally on α-synuclein, with remarkably good results.

  19. Protein coding assignment of avian reovirus strain S1133.

    PubMed Central

    Varela, R; Benavente, J

    1994-01-01

    Avian reovirus S1133 encodes 10 primary translation products, 8 of which are structural components of the viral particle and 2 of which are nonstructural proteins. The identity of the gene that codes for each of these polypeptides was determined by in vitro translation of denatured individual genome segments. Images PMID:8084013

  20. Resonance Assignment of the NMR Spectra of Disordered Proteins Using a Multi-Objective Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Fritzsching, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-objective genetic algorithm is introduced to predict the assignment of protein solid-state NMR spectra with partial resonance overlap and missing peaks due to broad linewidths, molecular motion, and low sensitivity. This non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) aims to identify all possible assignments that are consistent with the spectra and to compare the relative merit of these assignments. Our approach is modeled after the recently introduced Monte Carlo simulated annealing (MC/SA) protocol, with the key difference that NSGA-II simultaneously optimizes multiple assignment objectives instead of searching for possible assignments based on a single composite score. The multiple objectives include maximizing the number of consistently assigned peaks between multiple spectra (“good connections”), maximizing the number of used peaks, minimizing the number of inconsistently assigned peaks between spectra (“bad connections”), and minimizing the number of assigned peaks that have no matching peaks in the other spectra (“edges”). Using six solid-state NMR protein chemical shift datasets with varying levels of imperfection that was introduced by peak deletion, random chemical shift changes, and manual peak picking of spectra with moderately broad linewidths, we show that the NSGA-II algorithm produces a large number of valid and good assignments rapidly. For high-quality chemical shift peak lists, NSGA-II and MC/SA perform similarly well. However, when the peak lists contain many missing peaks that are uncorrelated between different spectra and have chemical shift deviations between spectra, the modified NSGA-II produces a larger number of valid solutions than MC/SA, and is more effective at distinguishing good from mediocre assignments by avoiding the hazard of suboptimal weighting factors for the various objectives. These two advantages, namely diversity and better evaluation, lead to a higher probability of predicting the correct

  1. Assignment of the disulfide bonds in the sweet protein brazzein.

    PubMed

    Kohmura, M; Ota, M; Izawa, H; Ming, D; Hellekant, G; Ariyoshi, Y

    1996-04-01

    The thermostable sweet protein brazzein consists of 54 amino acid residues and has four intramolecular disulfide bonds, the location of which is unknown. We found that brazzein resists enzymatic hydrolysis at enzyme/substrate ratios (w/w) of 1:100-1:10 at 35-40 degrees C for 24-48 h. Brazzein was hydrolyzed using thermolysin at an enzyme/substrate ratio of 1:1 (w/w) in water, pH 5.5, for 6 h and at 50 degrees C. The disulfide bonds were determined, by a combination of mass spectrometric analysis and amino acid sequencing of cystine-containing peptides, to be between Cys4-Cys52, Cys16-Cys37, Cys22-Cys47, and Cys26-Cys49. These disulfide bonds contribute to its thermostability.

  2. Coming to Grips with Ambiguity: Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry for Protein Quaternary Structure Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschweiler, Joseph D.; Frank, Aaron T.; Ruotolo, Brandon T.

    2017-10-01

    Multiprotein complexes are central to our understanding of cellular biology, as they play critical roles in nearly every biological process. Despite many impressive advances associated with structural characterization techniques, large and highly-dynamic protein complexes are too often refractory to analysis by conventional, high-resolution approaches. To fill this gap, ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) methods have emerged as a promising approach for characterizing the structures of challenging assemblies due in large part to the ability of these methods to characterize the composition, connectivity, and topology of large, labile complexes. In this Critical Insight, we present a series of bioinformatics studies aimed at assessing the information content of IM-MS datasets for building models of multiprotein structure. Our computational data highlights the limits of current coarse-graining approaches, and compelled us to develop an improved workflow for multiprotein topology modeling, which we benchmark against a subset of the multiprotein complexes within the PDB. This improved workflow has allowed us to ascertain both the minimal experimental restraint sets required for generation of high-confidence multiprotein topologies, and quantify the ambiguity in models where insufficient IM-MS information is available. We conclude by projecting the future of IM-MS in the context of protein quaternary structure assignment, where we predict that a more complete knowledge of the ultimate information content and ambiguity within such models will undoubtedly lead to applications for a broader array of challenging biomolecular assemblies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Coming to Grips with Ambiguity: Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry for Protein Quaternary Structure Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschweiler, Joseph D.; Frank, Aaron T.; Ruotolo, Brandon T.

    2017-07-01

    Multiprotein complexes are central to our understanding of cellular biology, as they play critical roles in nearly every biological process. Despite many impressive advances associated with structural characterization techniques, large and highly-dynamic protein complexes are too often refractory to analysis by conventional, high-resolution approaches. To fill this gap, ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) methods have emerged as a promising approach for characterizing the structures of challenging assemblies due in large part to the ability of these methods to characterize the composition, connectivity, and topology of large, labile complexes. In this Critical Insight, we present a series of bioinformatics studies aimed at assessing the information content of IM-MS datasets for building models of multiprotein structure. Our computational data highlights the limits of current coarse-graining approaches, and compelled us to develop an improved workflow for multiprotein topology modeling, which we benchmark against a subset of the multiprotein complexes within the PDB. This improved workflow has allowed us to ascertain both the minimal experimental restraint sets required for generation of high-confidence multiprotein topologies, and quantify the ambiguity in models where insufficient IM-MS information is available. We conclude by projecting the future of IM-MS in the context of protein quaternary structure assignment, where we predict that a more complete knowledge of the ultimate information content and ambiguity within such models will undoubtedly lead to applications for a broader array of challenging biomolecular assemblies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Stereospecific assignments of glycine in proteins by stereospecific deuteration and {sup 15}N labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.P.; Curley, R.W. Jr.; Panigot, M.J.; Fesik, S.W.

    1994-12-01

    Stereospecific assignments are important for accurately determining the three-dimensional structures of proteins through the use of multidimensional NMR techniques. It is especially important to stereospecifically assign the glycine {alpha}-protons in proteins because of the potential for different backbone conformations of this residue. These stereospecific assignments are critical for interpreting the {sup 3}J{sub NH,{alpha}H} coupling constants and NOEs involving the glycine {alpha}-protons that determine the conformation of this part of the protein. However, it is often difficult to unambiguously obtain the stereospecific assignments for glycine residues by using only NOE data. In this poster, we present a method for unambiguous, stereospecific assignment of the {alpha}-protons of glycine residues. This method involves synthesis of stereo-specifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gly using a slightly modified procedure originally described by Woodard and coworkers for the stereoselective deuteration of glycine. The stereospecifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gy has been incorporated into recombinant proteins expressed in both bacterial systems (FKBP) and mammalian cells (u-PA). Two- and three-dimensional isotope-filtered and isotope-edited NMR experiments were used to obtain the stereospecific assignments of the glycine {alpha}-protons for these proteins.

  5. NMR Assignments for a Helical 40 kDa Membrane Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Oxenoid, Kirill; Kim, Hak J.; Jacob, Jaison; Soennichsen, Frank D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2004-04-28

    Backbone nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments were achieved for diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) in detergent micelles. DAGK is a homotrimeric integral membrane protein comprised of 121 residue subunits, each having three transmembrane segments. Assignments were made using TROSY-based pulse sequences. DAGK was found to be an almost exclusively helical protein. This work points to the feasibility of both solving the structure of DAGK using solution NMR methods and using NMR as a primary tool in structural studies of other helical integral membrane proteins of similar size and complexity.

  6. Review of Methods to Assign the NMR Peaks of Reductively Methylated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Kevin J.; Macnaughtan, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Reductive methylation of lysyl side-chain amines has been a successful tool in the advancement of high resolution structural biology. The utility of this method has continuously gained ground as a protein chemical modification; first, as a tool to aid protein crystallization and later, as a probe in protein nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. As an isotope-labeling strategy for NMR studies, reductive methylation has contributed to the study of protein-protein interactions and global conformational changes. While more detailed structural studies using this labeling strategy are possible, the hurdle of assigning the NMR peaks to the corresponding reductively methylated amine hinders its use. In this review, we discuss and compare strategies used to assign the NMR peaks of reductively methylated protein-amines. PMID:25175010

  7. Optimizing a realistic large-scale frequency assignment problem using a new parallel evolutionary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves-González, José M.; Vega-Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Gómez-Pulido, Juan A.; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan M.

    2011-08-01

    This article analyses the use of a novel parallel evolutionary strategy to solve complex optimization problems. The work developed here has been focused on a relevant real-world problem from the telecommunication domain to verify the effectiveness of the approach. The problem, known as frequency assignment problem (FAP), basically consists of assigning a very small number of frequencies to a very large set of transceivers used in a cellular phone network. Real data FAP instances are very difficult to solve due to the NP-hard nature of the problem, therefore using an efficient parallel approach which makes the most of different evolutionary strategies can be considered as a good way to obtain high-quality solutions in short periods of time. Specifically, a parallel hyper-heuristic based on several meta-heuristics has been developed. After a complete experimental evaluation, results prove that the proposed approach obtains very high-quality solutions for the FAP and beats any other result published.

  8. Dominant-Negative Proteins in Herpesviruses – From Assigning Gene Function to Intracellular Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Mühlbach, Hermine; Mohr, Christian A.; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

    2009-01-01

    Investigating and assigning gene functions of herpesviruses is a process, which profits from consistent technical innovation. Cloning of bacterial artificial chromosomes encoding herpesvirus genomes permits nearly unlimited possibilities in the construction of genetically modified viruses. Targeted or randomized screening approaches allow rapid identification of essential viral proteins. Nevertheless, mapping of essential genes reveals only limited insight into function. The usage of dominant-negative (DN) proteins has been the tool of choice to dissect functions of proteins during the viral life cycle. DN proteins also facilitate the analysis of host-virus interactions. Finally, DNs serve as starting-point for design of new antiviral strategies. PMID:21994555

  9. A set of 4D NMR experiments of enhanced resolution for easy resonance assignment in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Koźmiński, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents examples of techniques based on the principle of random sampling that allows acquisition of NMR spectra featuring extraordinary resolution. This is due to increased dimensionality and maximum evolution time reached. The acquired spectra of CsPin protein and maltose binding protein were analyzed statistically with the aim to evaluate each technique. The results presented include exemplary spectral cross-sections. The spectral data provided by the proposed techniques allow easy assignment of backbone and side-chain resonances.

  10. Using Computer-Based Writing Software to Facilitate Writing Assignments in Large Political Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishiyama, John; Watson, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted in the literature that writing assignments, even short ones, increase both student writing ability and comprehension of the material covered in the assignments. As class enrollments increase, particularly at the introductory level, however, instructors often sacrifice writing assignments because of the difficulty in…

  11. Using Computer-Based Writing Software to Facilitate Writing Assignments in Large Political Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishiyama, John; Watson, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted in the literature that writing assignments, even short ones, increase both student writing ability and comprehension of the material covered in the assignments. As class enrollments increase, particularly at the introductory level, however, instructors often sacrifice writing assignments because of the difficulty in…

  12. Acceleration of protein backbone NMR assignment by combinatorial labeling: Application to a small molecule binding study.

    PubMed

    Hein, Christopher; Löhr, Frank; Schwarz, Daniel; Dötsch, Volker

    2017-05-01

    Selective labeling with stable isotopes has long been recognized as a valuable tool in protein NMR to alleviate signal overlap and sensitivity limitations. In this study, combinatorial (15) N-, (13) C(α) -, and (13) C'-selective labeling has been used during the backbone assignment of human cyclophilin D to explore binding of an inhibitor molecule. Using a cell-free expression system, a scheme that involves (15) N, 1-(13) C, 2-(13) C, fully (15) N/(13) C, and unlabeled amino acids was optimized to gain a maximum of assignment information from three samples. This scheme was combined with time-shared triple-resonance NMR experiments, which allows a fast and efficient backbone assignment by giving the unambiguous assignment of unique amino acid pairs in the protein, the identity of ambiguous pairs and information about all 19 non-proline amino acid types. It is therefore well suited for binding studies where de novo assignments of amide (1) H and (15) N resonances need to be obtained, even in cases where sensitivity is the limiting factor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. SAS-Pro: Simultaneous Residue Assignment and Structure Superposition for Protein Structure Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shweta B.; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V.

    2012-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is the problem of determining an assignment between the amino-acid residues of two given proteins in a way that maximizes a measure of similarity between the two superimposed protein structures. By identifying geometric similarities, structure alignment algorithms provide critical insights into protein functional similarities. Existing structure alignment tools adopt a two-stage approach to structure alignment by decoupling and iterating between the assignment evaluation and structure superposition problems. We introduce a novel approach, SAS-Pro, which addresses the assignment evaluation and structure superposition simultaneously by formulating the alignment problem as a single bilevel optimization problem. The new formulation does not require the sequentiality constraints, thus generalizing the scope of the alignment methodology to include non-sequential protein alignments. We employ derivative-free optimization methodologies for searching for the global optimum of the highly nonlinear and non-differentiable RMSD function encountered in the proposed model. Alignments obtained with SAS-Pro have better RMSD values and larger lengths than those obtained from other alignment tools. For non-sequential alignment problems, SAS-Pro leads to alignments with high degree of similarity with known reference alignments. The source code of SAS-Pro is available for download at http://eudoxus.cheme.cmu.edu/saspro/SAS-Pro.html. PMID:22662161

  14. APSY-NMR for protein backbone assignment in high-throughput structural biology

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Samit Kumar; Serrano, Pedro; Proudfoot, Andrew; Geralt, Michael; Pedrini, Bill; Herrmann, Torsten; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    A standard set of three APSY-NMR experiments has been used in daily practice to obtain polypeptide backbone NMR assignments in globular proteins with sizes up to about 150 residues, which had been identified as targets for structure determination by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) under the auspices of the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). In a representative sample of 30 proteins, initial fully automated data analysis with the software UNIO-MATCH-2014 yielded complete or partial assignments for over 90% of the residues. For most proteins the APSY data acquisition was completed in less than 30 hours. The results of the automated procedure provided a basis for efficient interactive validation and extension to near-completion of the assignments by reference to the same 3D heteronuclear-resolved [1H,1H]-NOESY spectra that were subsequently used for the collection of conformational constraints. High-quality structures were obtained for all 30 proteins, using the J-UNIO protocol, which includes extensive automation of NMR structure determination. PMID:25428764

  15. SAS-Pro: simultaneous residue assignment and structure superposition for protein structure alignment.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shweta B; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V

    2012-01-01

    Protein structure alignment is the problem of determining an assignment between the amino-acid residues of two given proteins in a way that maximizes a measure of similarity between the two superimposed protein structures. By identifying geometric similarities, structure alignment algorithms provide critical insights into protein functional similarities. Existing structure alignment tools adopt a two-stage approach to structure alignment by decoupling and iterating between the assignment evaluation and structure superposition problems. We introduce a novel approach, SAS-Pro, which addresses the assignment evaluation and structure superposition simultaneously by formulating the alignment problem as a single bilevel optimization problem. The new formulation does not require the sequentiality constraints, thus generalizing the scope of the alignment methodology to include non-sequential protein alignments. We employ derivative-free optimization methodologies for searching for the global optimum of the highly nonlinear and non-differentiable RMSD function encountered in the proposed model. Alignments obtained with SAS-Pro have better RMSD values and larger lengths than those obtained from other alignment tools. For non-sequential alignment problems, SAS-Pro leads to alignments with high degree of similarity with known reference alignments. The source code of SAS-Pro is available for download at http://eudoxus.cheme.cmu.edu/saspro/SAS-Pro.html.

  16. Rapid proton-detected NMR assignment for proteins with fast magic angle spinning.

    PubMed

    Barbet-Massin, Emeline; Pell, Andrew J; Retel, Joren S; Andreas, Loren B; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Franks, W Trent; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J; Hiller, Matthias; Higman, Victoria; Guerry, Paul; Bertarello, Andrea; Knight, Michael J; Felletti, Michele; Le Marchand, Tanguy; Kotelovica, Svetlana; Akopjana, Inara; Tars, Kaspars; Stoppini, Monica; Bellotti, Vittorio; Bolognesi, Martino; Ricagno, Stefano; Chou, James J; Griffin, Robert G; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon; Herrmann, Torsten; Pintacuda, Guido

    2014-09-03

    Using a set of six (1)H-detected triple-resonance NMR experiments, we establish a method for sequence-specific backbone resonance assignment of magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 5-30 kDa proteins. The approach relies on perdeuteration, amide (2)H/(1)H exchange, high magnetic fields, and high-spinning frequencies (ωr/2π ≥ 60 kHz) and yields high-quality NMR data, enabling the use of automated analysis. The method is validated with five examples of proteins in different condensed states, including two microcrystalline proteins, a sedimented virus capsid, and two membrane-embedded systems. In comparison to contemporary (13)C/(15)N-based methods, this approach facilitates and accelerates the MAS NMR assignment process, shortening the spectral acquisition times and enabling the use of unsupervised state-of-the-art computational data analysis protocols originally developed for solution NMR.

  17. Rapid Proton-Detected NMR Assignment for Proteins with Fast Magic Angle Spinning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using a set of six 1H-detected triple-resonance NMR experiments, we establish a method for sequence-specific backbone resonance assignment of magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 5–30 kDa proteins. The approach relies on perdeuteration, amide 2H/1H exchange, high magnetic fields, and high-spinning frequencies (ωr/2π ≥ 60 kHz) and yields high-quality NMR data, enabling the use of automated analysis. The method is validated with five examples of proteins in different condensed states, including two microcrystalline proteins, a sedimented virus capsid, and two membrane-embedded systems. In comparison to contemporary 13C/15N-based methods, this approach facilitates and accelerates the MAS NMR assignment process, shortening the spectral acquisition times and enabling the use of unsupervised state-of-the-art computational data analysis protocols originally developed for solution NMR. PMID:25102442

  18. Protein residue linking in a single spectrum for magic-angle spinning NMR assignment.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Loren B; Stanek, Jan; Le Marchand, Tanguy; Bertarello, Andrea; Cala-De Paepe, Diane; Lalli, Daniela; Krejčíková, Magdaléna; Doyen, Camille; Öster, Carl; Knott, Benno; Wegner, Sebastian; Engelke, Frank; Felli, Isabella C; Pierattelli, Roberta; Dixon, Nicholas E; Emsley, Lyndon; Herrmann, Torsten; Pintacuda, Guido

    2015-07-01

    Here we introduce a new pulse sequence for resonance assignment that halves the number of data sets required for sequential linking by directly correlating sequential amide resonances in a single diagonal-free spectrum. The method is demonstrated with both microcrystalline and sedimented deuterated proteins spinning at 60 and 111 kHz, and a fully protonated microcrystalline protein spinning at 111 kHz, with as little as 0.5 mg protein sample. We find that amide signals have a low chance of ambiguous linkage, which is further improved by linking in both forward and backward directions. The spectra obtained are amenable to automated resonance assignment using general-purpose software such as UNIO-MATCH.

  19. Homology modeling and assigned functional annotation of an uncharacterized antitoxin protein from Streptomyces xinghaiensis

    PubMed Central

    Oany, Arafat Rahman; Ahmed, Md Shahabuddin; Jahan, Nasreen; Latif, Md Abdul; Mahmud, Shahin; Hossain, Md. Ahmed; Akter, Fatema; Rakib, Hasibul Haque; Islam, Md. Shariful

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces xinghaiensis is a Gram-positive, aerobic and non-motile bacterium. The bacterial genome is known. Therefore, it is of interest to study the uncharacterized proteins in the genome. An uncharacterized protein (gi|518540893|86 residues) in the genome was selected for a comprehensive computational sequence-structure-function analysis using available data and tools. Subcellular localization of the targeted protein with conserved residues and assigned secondary structures is documented. Sequence homology search against the protein data bank (PDB) and non-redundant GenBank proteins using BLASTp showed different homologous proteins with known antitoxin function. A homology model of the target protein was developed using a known template (PDB ID: 3CTO:A) with 62% sequence similarity in HHpred after assessment using programs PROCHECK and QMEAN6. The predicted active site using CASTp is analyzed for assigned anti-toxin function. This information finds specific utility in annotating the said uncharacterized protein in the bacterial genome. PMID:26912949

  20. Ner protein of phage Mu: Assignments using {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-labeled protein

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelecka, T.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Clore, G.M.

    1994-12-01

    The Ner protein is a small (74-amino acid) DNA-binding protein that regulates a switch between the lysogenic and lytic stages of phage Mu. It inhibits expression of the C repressor gene and down-regulates its own expression. Two-dimensional NMR experiments on uniformly {sup 15}N-labeled protein provided most of the backbone and some of the sidechain proton assignments. The secondary structure determination using two-dimensional NOESY experiments showed that Ner consists of five {alpha}-helices. However, because most of the sidechain protons could not be assigned, the full structure was not determined. Using uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-labeled Ner and a set of three-dimensional experiments, we were able to assign all of the backbone and 98% of the sidechain protons. In particular, the CBCANH and CBCA(CO)NH experiments were used to sequentially assign the C{alpha} and C{beta} resonances; the HCCH-CTOCSY and HCCH-COSY were used to assign sidechain carbon and proton resonances.

  1. Fast automated protein NMR data collection and assignment by ADAPT-NMR on Bruker spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woonghee; Hu, Kaifeng; Tonelli, Marco; Bahrami, Arash; Neuhardt, Elizabeth; Glass, Karen C; Markley, John L

    2013-11-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) supports automated NMR data collection and backbone and side chain assignment for [U-(13)C, U-(15)N]-labeled proteins. Given the sequence of the protein and data for the orthogonal 2D (1)H-(15)N and (1)H-(13)C planes, the algorithm automatically directs the collection of tilted plane data from a variety of triple-resonance experiments so as to follow an efficient pathway toward the probabilistic assignment of (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N signals to specific atoms in the covalent structure of the protein. Data collection and assignment calculations continue until the addition of new data no longer improves the assignment score. ADAPT-NMR was first implemented on Varian (Agilent) spectrometers [A. Bahrami, M. Tonelli, S.C. Sahu, K.K. Singarapu, H.R. Eghbalnia, J.L. Markley, PLoS One 7 (2012) e33173]. Because of broader interest in the approach, we present here a version of ADAPT-NMR for Bruker spectrometers. We have developed two AU console programs (ADAPT_ORTHO_run and ADAPT_NMR_run) that run under TOPSPIN Versions 3.0 and higher. To illustrate the performance of the algorithm on a Bruker spectrometer, we tested one protein, chlorella ubiquitin (76 amino acid residues), that had been used with the Varian version: the Bruker and Varian versions achieved the same level of assignment completeness (98% in 20 h). As a more rigorous evaluation of the Bruker version, we tested a larger protein, BRPF1 bromodomain (114 amino acid residues), which yielded an automated assignment completeness of 86% in 55 h. Both experiments were carried out on a 500 MHz Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer equipped with a z-gradient 5 mm TCI probe. ADAPT-NMR is available at http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/ADAPT-NMR in the form of pulse programs, the two AU programs, and instructions for installation and use. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Fast automated protein NMR data collection and assignment by ADAPT-NMR on Bruker spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woonghee; Hu, Kaifeng; Tonelli, Marco; Bahrami, Arash; Neuhardt, Elizabeth; Glass, Karen C.; Markley, John L.

    2013-11-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) supports automated NMR data collection and backbone and side chain assignment for [U-13C, U-15N]-labeled proteins. Given the sequence of the protein and data for the orthogonal 2D 1H-15N and 1H-13C planes, the algorithm automatically directs the collection of tilted plane data from a variety of triple-resonance experiments so as to follow an efficient pathway toward the probabilistic assignment of 1H, 13C, and 15N signals to specific atoms in the covalent structure of the protein. Data collection and assignment calculations continue until the addition of new data no longer improves the assignment score. ADAPT-NMR was first implemented on Varian (Agilent) spectrometers [A. Bahrami, M. Tonelli, S.C. Sahu, K.K. Singarapu, H.R. Eghbalnia, J.L. Markley, PLoS One 7 (2012) e33173]. Because of broader interest in the approach, we present here a version of ADAPT-NMR for Bruker spectrometers. We have developed two AU console programs (ADAPT_ORTHO_run and ADAPT_NMR_run) that run under TOPSPIN Versions 3.0 and higher. To illustrate the performance of the algorithm on a Bruker spectrometer, we tested one protein, chlorella ubiquitin (76 amino acid residues), that had been used with the Varian version: the Bruker and Varian versions achieved the same level of assignment completeness (98% in 20 h). As a more rigorous evaluation of the Bruker version, we tested a larger protein, BRPF1 bromodomain (114 amino acid residues), which yielded an automated assignment completeness of 86% in 55 h. Both experiments were carried out on a 500 MHz Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer equipped with a z-gradient 5 mm TCI probe. ADAPT-NMR is available at http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/ADAPT-NMR in the form of pulse programs, the two AU programs, and instructions for installation and use.

  3. Backbone NMR assignments of a topologically knotted protein in urea-denatured state.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ju Micky; Mallam, Anna L; Jackson, Sophie E; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny

    2014-10-01

    YbeA is a 3-methylpseudoridine methyltransferase from Escherichia coli that forms a stable homodimer in solution. It is one of the deeply trefoil 31 knotted proteins, of which the knot encompasses the C-terminal helix that threads through a long loop. Recent studies on the knotted protein folding pathways using YbeA have suggested that the protein knot remains present under chemically denaturing conditions. Here, we report (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shift assignments for urea-denatured YbeA, which will serve as the basis for further structural characterisations using solution state NMR spectroscopy with paramagnetic spin labeled and partial alignment media.

  4. Complete backbone and DENQ side chain NMR assignments in proteins from a single experiment: implications to structure-function studies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jithender G; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2014-03-01

    Resonance assignment is the first and the most crucial step in all nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations on structure-function relationships in biological macromolecules. Often, the assignment exercise has to be repeated several times when specific interactions with ligands, substrates etc., have to be elucidated for understanding the functional mechanisms. While the protein backbone serves to provide a scaffold, the side chains interact directly with the ligands. Such investigations will be greatly facilitated, if there are rapid methods for obtaining exhaustive information with minimum of NMR experimentation. In this context, we present here a pulse sequence which exploits the recently introduced technique of parallel detection of multiple nuclei, e.g. (1)H and (13)C, and results in two 3D-data sets simultaneously. These yield complete backbone resonance assignment ((1)H(N), (15)N, (13)CO, (1)Hα/(13)Cα, and (1)Hβ/(13)Cβ chemical shifts) and side chain assignment of D, E, N and Q residues. Such an exhaustive assignment has the potential of yielding accurate 3D structures using one or more of several algorithms which calculate structures of the molecules very reliably on the basis of NMR chemical shifts alone. The side chain assignments of D, E, N, and Q will be extremely valuable for interaction studies with different ligands; D and E side chains are known to be involved in majority of catalytic activities. Utility of this experiment has been demonstrated with Ca(2+) bound M-crystallin, which contains largely D, E, N and Q residues at the metal binding sites.

  5. Selective excitation for spectral editing and assignment in separated local field experiments of oriented membrane proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroloff, Sophie N.; Nevzorov, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic assignment of NMR spectra for oriented uniformly labeled membrane proteins embedded in their native-like bilayer environment is essential for their structure determination. However, sequence-specific assignment in oriented-sample (OS) NMR is often complicated by insufficient resolution and spectral crowding. Therefore, the assignment process is usually done by a laborious and expensive "shotgun" method involving multiple selective labeling of amino acid residues. Presented here is a strategy to overcome poor spectral resolution in crowded regions of 2D spectra by selecting resolved "seed" residues via soft Gaussian pulses inserted into spin-exchange separated local-field experiments. The Gaussian pulse places the selected polarization along the z-axis while dephasing the other signals before the evolution of the 1H-15N dipolar couplings. The transfer of magnetization is accomplished via mismatched Hartmann-Hahn conditions to the nearest-neighbor peaks via the proton bath. By optimizing the length and amplitude of the Gaussian pulse, one can also achieve a phase inversion of the closest peaks, thus providing an additional phase contrast. From the superposition of the selective spin-exchanged SAMPI4 onto the fully excited SAMPI4 spectrum, the 15N sites that are directly adjacent to the selectively excited residues can be easily identified, thereby providing a straightforward method for initiating the assignment process in oriented membrane proteins.

  6. Selective excitation for spectral editing and assignment in separated local field experiments of oriented membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Koroloff, Sophie N; Nevzorov, Alexander A

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic assignment of NMR spectra for oriented uniformly labeled membrane proteins embedded in their native-like bilayer environment is essential for their structure determination. However, sequence-specific assignment in oriented-sample (OS) NMR is often complicated by insufficient resolution and spectral crowding. Therefore, the assignment process is usually done by a laborious and expensive "shotgun" method involving multiple selective labeling of amino acid residues. Presented here is a strategy to overcome poor spectral resolution in crowded regions of 2D spectra by selecting resolved "seed" residues via soft Gaussian pulses inserted into spin-exchange separated local-field experiments. The Gaussian pulse places the selected polarization along the z-axis while dephasing the other signals before the evolution of the (1)H-(15)N dipolar couplings. The transfer of magnetization is accomplished via mismatched Hartmann-Hahn conditions to the nearest-neighbor peaks via the proton bath. By optimizing the length and amplitude of the Gaussian pulse, one can also achieve a phase inversion of the closest peaks, thus providing an additional phase contrast. From the superposition of the selective spin-exchanged SAMPI4 onto the fully excited SAMPI4 spectrum, the (15)N sites that are directly adjacent to the selectively excited residues can be easily identified, thereby providing a straightforward method for initiating the assignment process in oriented membrane proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced dimensionality 3D HNCAN for unambiguous HN, CA and N assignment in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Manoj Kumar; Mishra, Pushpa; Atreya, Hanudatta S.; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.

    2012-03-01

    We present here an improvisation of HNN (Panchal, Bhavesh et al., 2001) called RD 3D HNCAN for backbone (HN, CA and 15N) assignment in both folded and unfolded proteins. This is a reduced dimensionality experiment which employs CA chemical shifts to improve dispersion. Distinct positive and negative peak patterns of various triplet segments along the polypeptide chain observed in HNN are retained and these provide start and check points for the sequential walk. Because of co-incrementing of CA and 15N, peaks along one of the dimensions appear at sums and differences of the CA and 15N chemical shifts. This changes the backbone assignment protocol slightly and we present this in explicit detail. The performance of the experiment has been demonstrated using Ubiquitin and Plasmodium falciparum P2 proteins. The experiment is particularly valuable when two neighboring amino acid residues have nearly identical backbone 15N chemical shifts.

  8. Rapid analysis of protein backbone resonance assignments using cryogenic probes, a distributed Linux-based computing architecture, and an integrated set of spectral analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Daniel; Colson, Kimberly; Moseley, Hunter N B; Anklin, Clemens; Oswald, Robert; Szyperski, Thomas; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2002-01-01

    Rapid data collection, spectral referencing, processing by time domain deconvolution, peak picking and editing, and assignment of NMR spectra are necessary components of any efficient integrated system for protein NMR structure analysis. We have developed a set of software tools designated AutoProc, AutoPeak, and AutoAssign, which function together with the data processing and peak-picking programs NMRPipe and Sparky, to provide an integrated software system for rapid analysis of protein backbone resonance assignments. In this paper we demonstrate that these tools, together with high-sensitivity triple resonance NMR cryoprobes for data collection and a Linux-based computer cluster architecture, can be combined to provide nearly complete backbone resonance assignments and secondary structures (based on chemical shift data) for a 59-residue protein in less than 30 hours of data collection and processing time. In this optimum case of a small protein providing excellent spectra, extensive backbone resonance assignments could also be obtained using less than 6 hours of data collection and processing time. These results demonstrate the feasibility of high throughput triple resonance NMR for determining resonance assignments and secondary structures of small proteins, and the potential for applying NMR in large scale structural proteomics projects.

  9. Dipolar Assisted Assignment Protocol (DAAP) for MAS solid-state NMR of rotationally aligned membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bibhuti B.; Zhang, Hua; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-05-01

    A method for making resonance assignments in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectra of membrane proteins that utilizes the range of heteronuclear dipolar coupling frequencies in combination with conventional chemical shift based assignment methods is demonstrated. The Dipolar Assisted Assignment Protocol (DAAP) takes advantage of the rotational alignment of the membrane proteins in liquid crystalline phospholipid bilayers. Improved resolution is obtained by combining the magnetically inequivalent heteronuclear dipolar frequencies with isotropic chemical shift frequencies. Spectra with both dipolar and chemical shift frequency axes assist with resonance assignments. DAAP can be readily extended to three- and four-dimensional experiments and to include both backbone and side chain sites in proteins.

  10. Sequential protein NMR assignments in the liquid state via sequential data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Bellstedt, Peter; Kirschstein, Anika; Häfner, Sabine; Herbst, Christian; Görlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2014-02-01

    Two different NMR pulse schemes involving sequential 1H data acquisition are presented for achieving protein backbone sequential resonance assignments: (i) acquisition of 3D {HCCNH and HNCACONH} and (ii) collection of 3D {HNCOCANH and HNCACONH} chemical shift correlation spectra using uniformly 13C,15N labelled proteins. The sequential acquisition of these spectra reduces the overall experimental time by a factor of ≈2 as compared to individual acquisitions. The suitability of this approach is experimentally demonstrated for the C-terminal winged helix (WH) domain of the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex of Sulfolobus solfataricus.

  11. iHADAMAC: A complementary tool for sequential resonance assignment of globular and highly disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Sophie; Plevin, Michael J.; Willbold, Dieter; Brutscher, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    An experiment, iHADAMAC, is presented that yields information on the amino-acid type of individual residues in a protein by editing the 1H- 15N correlations into seven different 2D spectra, each corresponding to a different class of amino-acid types. Amino-acid type discrimination is realized via a Hadamard encoding scheme based on four different spin manipulations as recently introduced in the context of the sequential HADAMAC experiment. Both sequential and intra-residue HADAMAC experiments yield highly complementary information that greatly facilitate resonance assignment of proteins with high frequency degeneracy, as demonstrated here for a 188-residue intrinsically disordered protein fragment of the hepatitis C virus protein NS5A.

  12. Development and Application of ANN Model for Worker Assignment into Virtual Cells of Large Sized Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, R. V.; Puri, A. B.; Fathi, Khalid

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents an extended version of study already undertaken on development of an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for assigning workforce into virtual cells under virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) environments. Previously, the same authors have introduced this concept and applied it to virtual cells of two-cell configuration and the results demonstrated that ANNs could be a worth applying tool for carrying out workforce assignments. In this attempt, three-cell configurations problems are considered for worker assignment task. Virtual cells are formed under dual resource constraint (DRC) context in which the number of available workers is less than the total number of machines available. Since worker assignment tasks are quite non-linear and highly dynamic in nature under varying inputs & conditions and, in parallel, ANNs have the ability to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs and find similar patterns effectively, an attempt was earlier made to employ ANNs into the above task. In this paper, the multilayered perceptron with feed forward (MLP-FF) neural network model has been reused for worker assignment tasks of three-cell configurations under DRC context and its performance at different time periods has been analyzed. The previously proposed worker assignment model has been reconfigured and cell formation solutions available for three-cell configuration in the literature are used in combination to generate datasets for training ANNs framework. Finally, results of the study have been presented and discussed.

  13. Development and Application of ANN Model for Worker Assignment into Virtual Cells of Large Sized Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Murali, R. V.; Fathi, Khalid; Puri, A. B.

    2010-10-26

    This paper presents an extended version of study already undertaken on development of an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for assigning workforce into virtual cells under virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) environments. Previously, the same authors have introduced this concept and applied it to virtual cells of two-cell configuration and the results demonstrated that ANNs could be a worth applying tool for carrying out workforce assignments. In this attempt, three-cell configurations problems are considered for worker assignment task. Virtual cells are formed under dual resource constraint (DRC) context in which the number of available workers is less than the total number of machines available. Since worker assignment tasks are quite non-linear and highly dynamic in nature under varying inputs and conditions and, in parallel, ANNs have the ability to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs and find similar patterns effectively, an attempt was earlier made to employ ANNs into the above task. In this paper, the multilayered perceptron with feed forward (MLP-FF) neural network model has been reused for worker assignment tasks of three-cell configurations under DRC context and its performance at different time periods has been analyzed. The previously proposed worker assignment model has been reconfigured and cell formation solutions available for three-cell configuration in the literature are used in combination to generate datasets for training ANNs framework. Finally, results of the study have been presented and discussed.

  14. Mass spectrometry-based protein identification with accurate statistical significance assignment.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2015-03-01

    Assigning statistical significance accurately has become increasingly important as metadata of many types, often assembled in hierarchies, are constructed and combined for further biological analyses. Statistical inaccuracy of metadata at any level may propagate to downstream analyses, undermining the validity of scientific conclusions thus drawn. From the perspective of mass spectrometry-based proteomics, even though accurate statistics for peptide identification can now be achieved, accurate protein level statistics remain challenging. We have constructed a protein ID method that combines peptide evidences of a candidate protein based on a rigorous formula derived earlier; in this formula the database P-value of every peptide is weighted, prior to the final combination, according to the number of proteins it maps to. We have also shown that this protein ID method provides accurate protein level E-value, eliminating the need of using empirical post-processing methods for type-I error control. Using a known protein mixture, we find that this protein ID method, when combined with the Sorić formula, yields accurate values for the proportion of false discoveries. In terms of retrieval efficacy, the results from our method are comparable with other methods tested. The source code, implemented in C++ on a linux system, is available for download at ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/qmbp/qmbp_ms/RAId/RAId_Linux_64Bit. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. An assignment of intrinsically disordered regions of proteins based on NMR structures.

    PubMed

    Ota, Motonori; Koike, Ryotaro; Amemiya, Takayuki; Tenno, Takeshi; Romero, Pedro R; Hiroaki, Hidekazu; Dunker, A Keith; Fukuchi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not adopt stable three-dimensional structures in physiological conditions, yet these proteins play crucial roles in biological phenomena. In most cases, intrinsic disorder manifests itself in segments or domains of an IDP, called intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), but fully disordered IDPs also exist. Although IDRs can be detected as missing residues in protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography, no protocol has been developed to identify IDRs from structures obtained by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Here, we propose a computational method to assign IDRs based on NMR structures. We compared missing residues of X-ray structures with residue-wise deviations of NMR structures for identical proteins, and derived a threshold deviation that gives the best correlation of ordered and disordered regions of both structures. The obtained threshold of 3.2Å was applied to proteins whose structures were only determined by NMR, and the resulting IDRs were analyzed and compared to those of X-ray structures with no NMR counterpart in terms of sequence length, IDR fraction, protein function, cellular location, and amino acid composition, all of which suggest distinct characteristics. The structural knowledge of IDPs is still inadequate compared with that of structured proteins. Our method can collect and utilize IDRs from structures determined by NMR, potentially enhancing the understanding of IDPs.

  16. Two-dimensional sup 1 H NMR studies on HPr protein from Staphylococcus aureus: Complete sequential assignments and secondary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kalbitzer, H.R.; Neidig, K.P. ); Hengstenberg, W. )

    1991-11-19

    Complete sequence-specific assignments of the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of HPr protein from Staphylococcus aureus were obtained by two-dimensional NMR methods. Important secondary structure elements that can be derived from the observed nuclear Overhauser effects are a large antiparallel {beta}-pleated sheet consisting of four strands, A, B, C, D, a segment S{sub AB} consisting of an extended region around the active-center histidine (His-15) and an {alpha}-helix, a half-turn between strands B and C, a segment S{sub CD} which shows no typical secondary structure, and the {alpha}-helical, C-terminal segment S{sub term}. These general structural features are similar to those found earlier in HPr proteins from different microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptococcus faecalis.

  17. Proton NMR assignments and secondary structure of the snake venom protein echistatin

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Chen; Baum, J. ); Pitzenberger, S.M.; Garsky, V.M.; Lumma, P.K.; Sanyal, G. )

    1991-12-17

    The snake venom protein echistatin is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. The inhibitory properties of echistatin have been attributed to the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence at residues 24-26. In this paper, sequence-specific nuclear magnetic resonance assignments are presented for the proton resonances of echistatin in water. The single-chain protein contains 49 amino acids and 4 cystine bridges. All of the backbone amide, C{sub alpha}H, and side-chain resonances, except for the {eta}-NH of the arginines, have been assigned. The secondary structure of the protein was characterized from the pattern of nuclear Overhauser enhancements, from the identification of slowly exchanging amide protons, from {sup 3}J{sub c{alpha}H-NH} coupling constants, and from circular dichroism studies. The data suggest that the secondary structure consists of a type I {beta}-turn, a short {beta}-hairpin, and a short-, irregular, antiparallel {beta}-sheet and that the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence is in a flexible loop connecting two strands of the distorted antiparallel {beta}-sheet.

  18. Resonance assignments for latherin, a natural surfactant protein from horse sweat.

    PubMed

    Vance, Steven J; McDonald, Rhona E; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Smith, Brian O

    2014-04-01

    Latherin is an intrinsically surfactant protein of ~23 kDa found in the sweat and saliva of horses. Its function is probably to enhance the translocation of sweat water from the skin to the surface of the pelt for evaporative cooling. Its role in saliva may be to enhance the wetting, softening and maceration of the dry, fibrous food for which equines are adapted. Latherin is unusual in its relatively high content of aliphatic amino acids (~25% leucines) that might contribute to its surfactant properties. Latherin is related to the palate, lung, and nasal epithelium carcinoma-associated proteins (PLUNCs) of mammals, at least one of which is now known to exhibit similar surfactant activity to latherin. No structures of any PLUNC protein are currently available. (15)N,(13)C-labelled recombinant latherin was produced in Escherichia coli, and essentially all of the resonances were assigned despite the signal overlap due to the preponderance of leucines. The most notable exceptions include a number of residues located in an apparently dynamic loop region between residues 145 and 154. The assignments have been deposited with BMRB accession number 19067.

  19. Resonance assignment of PsbP: an extrinsic protein from photosystem II of Spinacia oleracea.

    PubMed

    Rathner, Adriana; Chandra, Kousik; Rathner, Petr; Horničáková, Michaela; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Kohoutová, Jaroslava; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Müller, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    PsbP (23 kDa) is an extrinsic eukaryotic protein of photosystem II found in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants and green algae. It has been proven to be indispensable for proper functioning of the oxygen evolving complex. By interaction with other extrinsic proteins (PsbQ, PsbO and PsbR), it modulates the concentration of two cofactors of the water splitting reaction, Ca(2+) and Cl(-). The crystallographic structure of PsbP from Spinacia oleracea lacks the N-terminal part as well as two inner regions which were modelled as loops. Those unresolved parts are believed to be functionally crucial for the binding of PsbP to the thylakoid membrane. In this NMR study we report (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonance assignments of the backbone and side chain atoms of the PsbP protein. Based on these data, an estimate of the secondary structure has been made. The structural motifs found fit the resolved parts of the crystallographic structure very well. In addition, the complete assignment set provides preliminary insight into the dynamic regions.

  20. Writing Assignments with a Metacognitive Component Enhance Learning in a Large Introductory Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mynlieff, Michelle; Manogaran, Anita L.; St. Maurice, Martin; Eddinger, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Writing assignments, including note taking and written recall, should enhance retention of knowledge, whereas analytical writing tasks with metacognitive aspects should enhance higher-order thinking. In this study, we assessed how certain writing-intensive "interventions," such as written exam corrections and peer-reviewed writing…

  1. Backbone dynamics of a model membrane protein: assignment of the carbonyl carbon /sup 13/C NMR resonances in detergent-solubilized M13 coat protein

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, G.D.; Weiner, J.H.; Sykes, B.D.

    1987-06-16

    The major coat protein of the filamentous bacteriophage M13 is a 50-residue amphiphilic polypeptide which is inserted, as an integral membrane-spanning protein, in the inner membrane of the Escherichia coli host during infection. /sup 13/C was incorporated biosynthetically into a total of 23 of the peptide carbonyls using labeled amino acids (alanine, glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, and proline). The structure and dynamics of carbonyl-labeled M13 coat protein were monitored by /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Assignment of many resonances was achieved by using protease digestion, pH titration, or labeling of the peptide bond with both /sup 13/C and /sup 15/N. The carbonyl region of the natural-abundance /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of M13 coat protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution shows approximately eight backbone carbonyl resonances with line widths much narrower than the rest. Three of these more mobile residues correspond to assigned peaks (glycine-3, lysine-48, and alanine-49) in the individual amino acid spectra, and another almost certainly arises from glutamic acid-2. A ninth residue, alanine-1, also gives rise to a very narrow carbonyl resonance if the pH is well above or below the pK/sub a/ of the terminal amino group. These data suggest that only about four residues at either end of the protein experience large-amplitude spatial fluctuations; the rest of the molecule is essentially rigid on the time scale of the overall rotational tumbling of the protein-detergent complex. The relative exposure of different regions of detergent-bound protein was monitored by limited digestion with proteinase K. Comparable spectra and digestion patterns were obtained when the protein was solubilized in sodium deoxycholate, suggesting that the coat protein binds both amphiphiles in a similar fashion.

  2. NMR assignments for the insertion domain of bacteriophage Sf6 coat protein.

    PubMed

    Tripler, Therese N; Teschke, Carolyn M; Alexandrescu, Andrei T

    2017-04-01

    The P22 bacteriophage group is a subgroup of the λ phage supercluster, comprised of the three major sequence types Sf6, P22, and CUS-3, based on their capsid proteins. Our goal is to investigate the extent to which structure-function relationships are conserved for the viral coat proteins and I-domains in this subgroup. Sf6 is a phage that infects the human pathogen Shigella flexneri. The coat protein of Sf6 assembles into a procapsid, which further undergoes maturation during DNA packaging into an infectious virion. The Sf6 coat protein contains a genetically inserted domain, termed the I-domain, similar to the ones present in the P22 and CUS-3 coat proteins. Based on the P22 example, I-domains play important functional roles in capsid assembly, stability, viability, and size-determination. Here we report the (1)H, (15)N, and (13)C chemical shift assignments for the I-domain of the Sf6 phage coat protein. Chemical shift-based secondary structure prediction and hydrogen-bond patterns from a long-range HNCO experiment indicate that the Sf6 I-domain adopts a 6-stranded β-barrel fold like those of P22 and CUS-3 but with important differences, including the absence of the D-loop that is critical for capsid assembly and the addition of a novel disordered loop region.

  3. Influence of assignment on the prediction of transmembrane helices in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Pylouster, Jean; Bornot, Aurélie; Etchebest, Catherine; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2010-11-01

    α-Helical transmembrane proteins (TMPα) are composed of a series of helices embedded in the lipid bilayer. Due to technical difficulties, few 3D structures are available. Therefore, the design of structural models of TMPα is of major interest. We study the secondary structures of TMPα by analyzing the influence of secondary structures assignment methods (SSAMs). For this purpose, a published and updated benchmark databank of TMPα is used and several SSAMs (9) are evaluated. The analysis of the results points to significant differences in SSA depending on the methods used. Pairwise comparisons between SSAMs led to more than 10% of disagreement. Helical regions corresponding to transmembrane zones are often correctly characterized. The study of the sequence-structure relationship shows very limited differences with regard to the structural disagreement. Secondary structure prediction based on Bayes' rule and using only a single sequence give correct prediction rates ranging from 78 to 81%. A structural alphabet approach gives a slightly better prediction, i.e., only 2% less than the best equivalent approach, whereas the prediction rate with a very different assignment bypasses 86%. This last result highlights the importance of the correct assignment choice to evaluate the prediction assessment.

  4. Writing Assignments with a Metacognitive Component Enhance Learning in a Large Introductory Biology Course

    PubMed Central

    Mynlieff, Michelle; Manogaran, Anita L.; St. Maurice, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Writing assignments, including note taking and written recall, should enhance retention of knowledge, whereas analytical writing tasks with metacognitive aspects should enhance higher-order thinking. In this study, we assessed how certain writing-intensive “interventions,” such as written exam corrections and peer-reviewed writing assignments using Calibrated Peer Review and including a metacognitive component, improve student learning. We designed and tested the possible benefits of these approaches using control and experimental variables across and between our three-section introductory biology course. Based on assessment, students who corrected exam questions showed significant improvement on postexam assessment compared with their nonparticipating peers. Differences were also observed between students participating in written and discussion-based exercises. Students with low ACT scores benefited equally from written and discussion-based exam corrections, whereas students with midrange to high ACT scores benefited more from written than discussion-based exam corrections. Students scored higher on topics learned via peer-reviewed writing assignments relative to learning in an active classroom discussion or traditional lecture. However, students with low ACT scores (17–23) did not show the same benefit from peer-reviewed written essays as the other students. These changes offer significant student learning benefits with minimal additional effort by the instructors. PMID:26086661

  5. Writing Assignments with a Metacognitive Component Enhance Learning in a Large Introductory Biology Course.

    PubMed

    Mynlieff, Michelle; Manogaran, Anita L; St Maurice, Martin; Eddinger, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Writing assignments, including note taking and written recall, should enhance retention of knowledge, whereas analytical writing tasks with metacognitive aspects should enhance higher-order thinking. In this study, we assessed how certain writing-intensive "interventions," such as written exam corrections and peer-reviewed writing assignments using Calibrated Peer Review and including a metacognitive component, improve student learning. We designed and tested the possible benefits of these approaches using control and experimental variables across and between our three-section introductory biology course. Based on assessment, students who corrected exam questions showed significant improvement on postexam assessment compared with their nonparticipating peers. Differences were also observed between students participating in written and discussion-based exercises. Students with low ACT scores benefited equally from written and discussion-based exam corrections, whereas students with midrange to high ACT scores benefited more from written than discussion-based exam corrections. Students scored higher on topics learned via peer-reviewed writing assignments relative to learning in an active classroom discussion or traditional lecture. However, students with low ACT scores (17-23) did not show the same benefit from peer-reviewed written essays as the other students. These changes offer significant student learning benefits with minimal additional effort by the instructors.

  6. Stereospecific assignments of the isopropyl methyl groups of the membrane protein OmpX in DHPC micelles.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Christian; Wider, Gerhard; Fernández, César; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2003-12-01

    In NMR studies of large molecular structures, the number of conformational constraints based on NOE measurements is typically limited due to the need for partial deuteration. As a consequence, when using selective protonation of peripheral methyl groups on a perdeuterated background, stereospecific assignments of the diastereotopic methyl groups of Val and Leu can have a particularly large impact on the quality of the NMR structure determination. For example, 3D 15N- and 13C-resolved [1H,1H]-NOESY spectra of the E. Coli membrane protein OmpX in mixed micelles with DHPC, which have an overall molecular weight of about 60 kDa, showed that about 50% of all obtainable NOEs involve the diastereotopic methyl groups of Val and Leu. In this paper, we used biosynthetically-directed fractional 13C labeling of OmpX and [13C,1H]-HSQC spectroscopy to obtain stereospecific methyl assignments of Val and Leu in OmpX/DHPC. For practical purposes it is of interest that this data could be obtained without use of a deuterated background, and that combinations of NMR experiments have been found for obtaining the desired information either at a 1H frequency of 500 MHz, or with significantly reduced measuring time on a high-frequency instrument.

  7. Enhanced biosynthetically directed fractional carbon-13 enrichment of proteins for backbone NMR Assignments

    PubMed Central

    Wenrich, Broc R.; Sonstrom, Reilly E.; Gupta, Riju A.; Rovnyak, David

    2015-01-01

    Routes to carbon-13 enrichment of bacterially expressed proteins include achieving uniform or positionally selective (e.g. ILV-Me, or 13C′, etc.) enrichment. We consider the potential for biosynthetically directed fractional enrichment (e.g. carbon-13 incorporation in the protein less than 100%) for performing routine n-(D)dimensional NMR spectroscopy of proteins. First, we demonstrate an approach to fractional isotope addition where the initial growth media containing natural abundance glucose is replenished at induction with a small amount (e.g. 10%w/w u-13C-glucose) of enriched nutrient. The approach considered here is to add 10% (e.g. 200 mg for a 2 g/L culture) u-13C-glucose at the induction time (OD600=0.8), resulting in a protein with enhanced 13C incorporation that gives almost the same NMR signal levels as an exact 20% 13C sample. Second, whereas fractional enrichment is used for obtaining stereospecific methyl assignments, we find that 13C incorporation levels no greater than 20%w/w yield 13C and 13C-13C spin pair incorporation sufficient to conduct typical 3D-bioNMR backbone experiments on moderate instrumentation (600 MHz, RT probe). Typical 3D-bioNMR experiments of a fractionally enriched protein yield expected backbone connectivities, and did not show amino acid biases in this work, with one exception. When adding 10% u-13C glucose to expression media at induction, there is poor preservation of 13Cα-13Cβ spin pairs in the amino acids ILV, leading to the absence of Cβ signals in HNCACB spectra for ILV, a potentially useful editing effect. Enhanced fractional carbon-13 enrichment provides lower-cost routes to high throughput protein NMR studies, and makes modern protein NMR more cost-accessible. PMID:26256059

  8. Automated sequence- and stereo-specific assignment of methyl-labeled proteins by paramagnetic relaxation and methyl-methyl nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Vincenzo; Fawzi, Nicolas L; Clore, G Marius

    2011-11-01

    Methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy is rapidly becoming the preferred NMR technique for probing structure and dynamics of very large proteins up to ~1 MDa in molecular size. Data interpretation, however, necessitates assignment of methyl groups which still presents a very challenging and time-consuming process. Here we demonstrate that, in combination with a known 3D structure, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE), induced by nitroxide spin-labels incorporated at only a few surface-exposed engineered cysteines, provides fast, straightforward and robust access to methyl group resonance assignments, including stereoassignments for the methyl groups of leucine and valine. Neither prior assignments, including backbone assignments, for the protein, nor experiments that transfer magnetization between methyl groups and the protein backbone, are required. PRE-derived assignments are refined by 4D methyl-methyl nuclear Overhauser enhancement data, eliminating ambiguities and errors that may arise due to the high sensitivity of PREs to the potential presence of sparsely-populated transient states. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA) 2011

  9. Reliable resonance assignments of selected residues of proteins with known structure based on empirical NMR chemical shift prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-Wei; Meng, Dan; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    A robust NMR resonance assignment method is introduced for proteins whose 3D structure has previously been determined by X-ray crystallography. The goal of the method is to obtain a subset of correct assignments from a parsimonious set of 3D NMR experiments of 15N, 13C labeled proteins. Chemical shifts of sequential residue pairs are predicted from static protein structures using PPM_One, which are then compared with the corresponding experimental shifts. Globally optimized weighted matching identifies the assignments that are robust with respect to small changes in NMR cross-peak positions. The method, termed PASSPORT, is demonstrated for 4 proteins with 100-250 amino acids using 3D NHCA and a 3D CBCA(CO)NH experiments as input producing correct assignments with high reliability for 22% of the residues. The method, which works best for Gly, Ala, Ser, and Thr residues, provides assignments that serve as anchor points for additional assignments by both manual and semi-automated methods or they can be directly used for further studies, e.g. on ligand binding, protein dynamics, or post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation.

  10. Reliable Resonance Assignments of Selected Residues of Proteins with Known Structure Based on Empirical NMR Chemical Shift Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Da-Wei; Meng, Dan; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A robust NMR resonance assignment method is introduced for proteins whose 3D structure has previously been determined by X-ray crystallography. The goal of the method is to obtain a subset of correct assignments from a parsimonious set of 3D NMR experiments of 15N, 13C labeled proteins. Chemical shifts of sequential residue pairs are predicted from static protein structures using PPM_One, which are then compared with the corresponding experimental shifts. Globally optimized weighted matching identifies the assignments that are robust with respect to small changes in NMR cross-peak positions. The method, termed PASSPORT, is demonstrated for 4 proteins with 100 – 250 amino acids using 3D NHCA and a 3D CBCA(CO)NH experiments as input producing correct assignments with high reliability for 22% of the residues. The method, which works best for Gly, Ala, Ser, and Thr residues, provides assignments that serve as anchor points for additional assignments by both manual and semi-automated methods or they can be directly used for further studies, e.g. on ligand binding, protein dynamics, or post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation. PMID:25863893

  11. CAPA (Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignments) in a large university setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascarella, Andrea M.

    A systematic study of the online homework system CAPA (Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignments) was carried out in the calculus-based introductory physics course at the University of Colorado, Boulder during the fall 2001 semester (N ≈ 500). This study looked at the effects CAPA had on student learning and attitudes. The students in this class were split into two groups. One group was initially assigned to CAPA; the other group was assigned to traditional homework. At mid-semester the groups switched identities (the students who began the course using CAPA had to complete traditional homework). Exam scores and Force and Motion Concept Evaluation gains showed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Written quizzes and exams were collected from a smaller sample of students and analyzed using a problem-solving rubric. No statistically significant differences in the problem solving abilities of the groups were seen. Student opinions about the effect each homework type had on their learning were elicited. Students with non-expert-like epistemologies felt that CAPA was a better learning tool while students with expert-like epistemologies believed that traditional homework was a better learning tool. Problem solving interviews were conducted weekly with 9 students. From the analysis of this data a problem solving characterization of students using CAPA and traditional homework was inferred. Four types of problems solvers emerged---the CAPA Thinker, Traditional Thinker, CAPA Guesser, and Traditional Guesser. Thinkers tend to have expert-like epistemological beliefs. Guessers generally have non-expert-like epistemologies. On quantitative problems traditional homework promoted metacognitive processes in the Traditional Thinker and CAPA hindered self-evaluation among CAPA Thinkers. On qualitative problems, the opposite was observed to occur. When the students switched homework types at mid-semester it was expected that CAPA Thinkers would become

  12. Resonance assignment of DVU2108 that is part of the Orange Protein complex in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Neca, António J; Soares, Rui; Carepo, Marta S P; Pauleta, Sofia R

    2016-04-01

    We report the 94 % assignment of DVU2108, a protein belonging to the Orange Protein family, that in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough forms a protein complex named the Orange Protein complex. This complex has been shown to be implicated in the cell division of this organism. DVU2108 is a conserved protein in anaerobic microorganisms and in Desulfovibrio gigas the homologous protein was isolated with a novel Mo-Cu cluster non-covalently attached to the polypeptide chain. However, the heterologously produced DVU2108 did not contain any bound metal. These assignments provide the means to characterize the interaction of DVU2108 with the proteins that form the Orange Protein complex using NMR methods.

  13. Resonance assignment of the ribosome binding domain of E. coli ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Pierre; Créchet, Jean-Bernard; Uzan, Marc; Bontems, François; Sizun, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Ribosomal protein S1 is an essential actor for protein synthesis in Escherichia coli. It is involved in mRNA recruitment by the 30S ribosomal subunit and recognition of the correct start codon during translation initiation. E. coli S1 is a modular protein that contains six repeats of an S1 motif, which have distinct functions despite structural homology. Whereas the three central repeats have been shown to be involved in mRNA recognition, the two first repeats that constitute the N-terminal domain of S1 are responsible for binding to the 30S subunit. Here we report the almost complete (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignment of two fragments of the 30S binding region of S1. The first fragment comprises only the first repeat. The second corresponds to the entire ribosome binding domain. Since S1 is absent from all high resolution X-ray structures of prokaryotic ribosomes, these data provide a first step towards atomic level structural characterization of this domain by NMR. Chemical shift analysis of the first repeat provides evidence for structural divergence from the canonical OB-fold of an S1 motif. In contrast the second domain displays the expected topology for an S1 motif, which rationalizes the functional specialization of the two subdomains.

  14. Genome analysis: Assigning protein coding regions to three-dimensional structures.

    PubMed Central

    Salamov, A. A.; Suwa, M.; Orengo, C. A.; Swindells, M. B.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the results of a procedure for maximizing the number of sequences that can be reliably linked to a protein of known three-dimensional structure. Unlike other methods, which try to increase sensitivity through the use of fold recognition software, we only use conventional sequence alignment tools, but apply them in a manner that significantly increases the number of relationships detected. We analyzed 11 genomes and found that, depending on the genome, between 23 and 32% of the ORFs had significant matches to proteins of known structure. In all cases, the aligned region consisted of either >100 residues or >50% of the smaller sequence. Slightly higher percentages could be attained if smaller motifs were also included. This is significantly higher than most previously reported methods, even those that have a fold-recognition component. We survey the biochemical and structural characteristics of the most frequently occurring proteins, and discuss the extent to which alignment methods can realistically assign function to gene products. PMID:10211823

  15. Quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment in large-scale stochastic dynamic systems for resilient and economic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Goswami, K.; Datta, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    Failure of structural systems under dynamic loading can be prevented via active vibration control which shifts the damped natural frequencies of the systems away from the dominant range of a loading spectrum. The damped natural frequencies and the dynamic load typically show significant variations in practice. A computationally efficient methodology based on quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment technique and optimization under uncertainty has been formulated in the present work that will rigorously account for these variations and result in economic and resilient design of structures. A novel scheme based on hierarchical clustering and importance sampling is also developed in this work for accurate and efficient estimation of probability of failure to guarantee the desired resilience level of the designed system. Finally the most robust set of feedback matrices is selected from the set of probabilistically characterized optimal closed-loop system to implement the new methodology for design of active controlled structures. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  16. Practical use of chemical shift databases for protein solid-state NMR: 2D chemical shift maps and amino-acid assignment with secondary-structure information

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsching, K. J.; Yang, Y.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a Python-based program that utilizes the large database of 13C and 15N chemical shifts in the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank to rapidly predict the amino acid type and secondary structure from correlated chemical shifts. The program, called PACSYlite Unified Query (PLUQ), is designed to help assign peaks obtained from 2D 13C–13C, 15N–13C, or 3D 15N–13C–13C magic-angle-spinning correlation spectra. We show secondary-structure specific 2D 13C–13C correlation maps of all twenty amino acids, constructed from a chemical shift database of 262,209 residues. The maps reveal interesting conformation-dependent chemical shift distributions and facilitate searching of correlation peaks during amino-acid type assignment. Based on these correlations, PLUQ outputs the most likely amino acid types and the associated secondary structures from inputs of experimental chemical shifts. We test the assignment accuracy using four high-quality protein structures. Based on only the Cα and Cβ chemical shifts, the highest-ranked PLUQ assignments were 40–60 % correct in both the amino-acid type and the secondary structure. For three input chemical shifts (CO–Cα–Cβ or N–Cα–Cβ), the first-ranked assignments were correct for 60 % of the residues, while within the top three predictions, the correct assignments were found for 80 % of the residues. PLUQ and the chemical shift maps are expected to be useful at the first stage of sequential assignment, for combination with automated sequential assignment programs, and for highly disordered proteins for which secondary structure analysis is the main goal of structure determination. PMID:23625364

  17. Determination of Stereospecific Assignments, Torsion-Angle Constraints, and Rotamer Populations in Proteins Using the Program Anglesearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polshakov, V. I.; Frenkiel, T. A.; Birdsall, B.; Soteriou, A.; Feeney, J.

    1995-07-01

    A general program, AngleSearch, which calculates coupling constants and interproton distances for any molecular fragment and does a grid search to find torsion angles, rotamer populations, and stereospecific assignments which fit the measured data has been developed. The program takes full advantage of the fact that ratios of cross-peak intensities (measured in HNHB and HN(CO)HB experiments) can provide accurate ratios of coupling constants even for large molecules, AngleSearch is capable of: (a) analyzing any type of residue including protein, RNA, DNA, and ligand residues; (b) conformational grid searching in dihedral-angle space using 6° steps; (c) averaging coupling constants and <1/r6> distances for rotamers undergoing fast exchange; (d) grid or Monte Carlo searching for populations of staggered rotamers; (e) using all available distance-related data from ROESY and/or NOESY spectra; (f) using any available coupling constant data having known relationships to corresponding dihedral angles; and (g) directly using cross-peak intensities related to values of coupling constants. The program can also assist in the stereospecific assignment of the α-CH2, protons of glycine residues. The effects of the quality of the input data on the results of the AngleSearch calculations have been assessed.

  18. Investigations of Protein Structure and Function Using the Scientific Literature: An Assignment for an Undergraduate Cell Physiology Course

    PubMed Central

    Mulnix, Amy B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate biology curricula are being modified to model and teach the activities of scientists better. The assignment described here, one that investigates protein structure and function, was designed for use in a sophomore-level cell physiology course at Earlham College. Students work in small groups to read and present in poster format on the content of a single research article reporting on the structure and/or function of a protein. Goals of the assignment include highlighting the interdependence of protein structure and function; asking students to review, integrate, and apply previously acquired knowledge; and helping students see protein structure/function in a context larger than cell physiology. The assignment also is designed to build skills in reading scientific literature, oral and written communication, and collaboration among peers. Assessment of student perceptions of the assignment in two separate offerings indicates that the project successfully achieves these goals. Data specifically show that students relied heavily on their peers to understand their article. The assignment was also shown to require students to read articles more carefully than previously. In addition, the data suggest that the assignment could be modified and used successfully in other courses and at other institutions. PMID:14673490

  19. Accurate Mass Assignment of Native Protein Complexes Detected by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liepold, Lars O.; Oltrogge, Luke M.; Suci, Peter; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Correct charge state assignment is crucial to assigning an accurate mass to supramolecular complexes analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Conventional charge state assignment techniques fall short of reliably and unambiguously predicting the correct charge state for many supramolecular complexes. We provide an explanation of the shortcomings of the conventional techniques and have developed a robust charge state assignment method that is applicable to all spectra. PMID:19103497

  20. Recruiting Participants for Large-Scale Random Assignment Experiments in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Feng, Mingyu; Gallagher, H. Alix; Murphy, Robert; Harris, Christopher; Kamdar, Danae; Trinidad, Gucci

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment is a key challenge for researchers conducting any large school-based study. Control is needed not only over the condition participants receive, but also over how the intervention is implemented, and may include restrictions in other areas of school and classroom functioning. We report here on our experiences in recruiting participants…

  1. A program for semi-automatic sequential resonance assignments in protein 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billeter, M.; Basus, V. J.; Kuntz, I. D.

    A new approach to the sequential resonance assignment of protein 1H NMR spectra based on a computer program is presented. Two main underlying concepts were used in the design of this program. First, it considers at any time all possible assignments that are consistent with the currently available data. If new information is added then assignments that have become inconsistent are eliminated. Second, the process of the assignment is split into formal steps that follow strictly from the available data and steps that involve the interpretation of ambiguous NMR data. The first kind of step is safe in the sense that it never leads to false assignments provided that the input does not contain any error; these steps are executed automatically by the program when the input files are read and whenever new data have been entered interactively. The second kind of step is left to the user: An interactive dialog provides detailed information on the current situation of the assignment and indicates what kind of new data would be most promising for further assignment. The user then provides new data to the program and restarts the automatic part which will attempt to draw logical conclusions from the joint use of the new data and the earlier available information and will eliminate assignments that have become inconsistent. Results of test problems using simulated NMR data for proteins consisting of up to 99 residues as well as the application of the program to obtain the complete assignment of α-bungarotoxin, a 74-residue snake neurotoxin, are reported.

  2. Sequence-specific assignments in the /sup 1/H NMR spectrum of the human inflammatory protein C5a

    SciTech Connect

    Zuiderweg, E.R.P.; Mollison, K.W.; Henkin, J.; Carter, G.W.

    1988-05-17

    Full sequence-specific assignments for the /sup 1/H NMR lines of the backbone protons of the human complement factor C5a are described and documented. The results were obtained by largely following the methodology developed by Wuethrich et al. Assignments for the majority of the amino acid side chain protons were obtained by using a comparison of double- and triple-quantum-filtered two-dimensional correlated experiments together with the analysis of relayed coherence transfer spectra. The assignments provide the basis for the determination of the thus far unknown three-dimensional structure of C5a from nuclear Overhauser enhancement distance constraints.

  3. A Set of Efficient nD NMR Protocols for Resonance Assignments of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Bellstedt, Peter; Häfner, Sabine; Herbst, Christian; Bordusa, Frank; Görlach, Matthias; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2016-07-04

    The RF pulse scheme RN[N-CA HEHAHA]NH, which provides a convenient approach to the acquisition of different multidimensional chemical shift correlation NMR spectra leading to backbone resonance assignments, including those of the proline residues of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), is experimentally demonstrated. Depending on the type of correlation data required, the method involves the generation of in-phase ((15) N)(x) magnetisation via different magnetisation transfer pathways such as H→N→CO→N, HA→CA→CO→N, H→N→CA→N and H→CA→N, the subsequent application of (15) N-(13) C(α) heteronuclear Hartmann-Hahn mixing over a period of ≈100 ms, chemical-shift labelling of relevant nuclei before and after the heteronuclear mixing step and amide proton detection in the acquisition dimension. It makes use of the favourable relaxation properties of IDPs and the presence of (1) JCαN and (2) JCαN couplings to achieve efficient correlation of the backbone resonances of each amino acid residue "i" with the backbone amide resonances of residues "i-1" and "i+1". It can be implemented in a straightforward way through simple modifications of the RF pulse schemes commonly employed in protein NMR studies. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated using a uniformly ((15) N,(13) C) labelled sample of α-synuclein. The different possibilities for obtaining the amino-acid-type information, simultaneously with the connectivity data between the backbone resonances of sequentially neighbouring residues, have also been outlined.

  4. Investigations of Protein Structure and Function Using the Scientific Literature: An Assignment for an Undergraduate Cell Physiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Amy B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate biology curricula are being modified to model and teach the activities of scientists better. The assignment described here, one that investigates protein structure and function, was designed for use in a sophomore-level cell physiology course at Earlham College. Students work in small groups to read and present in poster format on…

  5. Investigations of Protein Structure and Function Using the Scientific Literature: An Assignment for an Undergraduate Cell Physiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Amy B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate biology curricula are being modified to model and teach the activities of scientists better. The assignment described here, one that investigates protein structure and function, was designed for use in a sophomore-level cell physiology course at Earlham College. Students work in small groups to read and present in poster format on…

  6. 1H, 13C and 15N NMR assignments of a calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Verma, Deepshikha; Bhattacharya, Alok; Chary, Kandala V R

    2016-04-01

    We report almost complete sequence specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR assignments of a 150-residue long calmodulin-like calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP6), as a prelude to its structural and functional characterization.

  7. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as a waste

  8. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up

  9. Floating stereospecific assignment revisited: application to an 18 kDa protein and comparison with J-coupling data.

    PubMed

    Folmer, R H; Hilbers, C W; Konings, R N; Nilges, M

    1997-04-01

    We report a floating chirality procedure to treat nonstereospecifically assigned methylene or isopropyl groups in the calculation of protein structures from NMR data using restrained molecular dynamics and simulated annealing. The protocol makes use of two strategies to induce the proper conformation of the prochiral centres: explicit atom 'swapping' following an evaluation of the NOE energy term, and atom 'floating' by reducing the angle and improper force constants that enforce a defined chirality at the prochiral centre. The individual contributions of both approaches have been investigated. In addition, the effects of accuracy and precision of the interproton distance restraints were studied. The model system employed is the 18 kDa single-stranded DNA binding protein encoded by Pseudomonas bacteriophage Pf3. Floating chirality was applied to all methylene and isopropyl groups that give rise to non-degenerate NMR signals, and the results for 34 of these groups were compared to J-coupling data. We conclude that floating stereospecific assignment is a reliable tool in protein structure calculation. Its use is beneficial because it allows the distance restraints to be extracted directly from the measured peak volumes without the need for averaging or adding pseudoatom corrections. As a result, the calculated structures are of a quality almost comparable to that obtained with stereospecific assignments. As floating chirality furthermore is the only approach treating prochiral centres that ensures a consistent assignment of the two proton frequencies in a single structure, it seems to be preferable over using pseudoatoms or (R(-6)) averaging.

  10. Carbon and amide detect backbone assignment methods of a novel repeat protein from the staphylocoagulase in S. aureus.

    PubMed

    Voehler, Markus; Ashoka, Maddur Appajaiah; Meiler, Jens; Bock, Paul E

    2017-08-17

    The C-terminal repeat domain of staphylocoagulase that is secreted by the S. aureus is believed to play an important role interacting with fibrinogen and promotes blood clotting. To study this interaction by NMR, full assignment of each amide residue in the HSQC spectrum was required. Despite of the short sequence of the repeat construct, the HSQC spectrum contained a substantial amount of overlapped and exchange broadened resonances, indicating little secondary or tertiary structure. This caused severe problems while using the conventional, amide based NMR method for the backbone assignment. With the growing interest in small apparently disordered proteins, these issues are being faced more frequently. An alternative strategy to improve the backbone assignment capability involved carbon direct detection methods. Circumventing the amide proton detection offers a larger signal dispersion and more uniform signal intensity. For peptides with higher concentrations and in combination with the cold carbon channels of new cryoprobes, higher fields, and sufficiently long relaxation times, the disadvantage of the lower sensitivity of the (13)C nucleus can be overcome. Another advantage of this method is the assignment of the proline backbone residues. Complete assignment with the carbon-detected strategy was achieved with a set of only two 3D, one 2D, and a HNCO measurement, which was necessary to translate the information to the HSQC spectrum.

  11. A Monte Carlo/simulated annealing algorithm for sequential resonance assignment in solid state NMR of uniformly labeled proteins with magic-angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycko, Robert; Hu, Kan-Nian

    2010-08-01

    We describe a computational approach to sequential resonance assignment in solid state NMR studies of uniformly 15N, 13C-labeled proteins with magic-angle spinning. As input, the algorithm uses only the protein sequence and lists of 15N/ 13C α crosspeaks from 2D NCACX and NCOCX spectra that include possible residue-type assignments of each crosspeak. Assignment of crosspeaks to specific residues is carried out by a Monte Carlo/simulated annealing algorithm, implemented in the program MC_ASSIGN1. The algorithm tolerates substantial ambiguity in residue-type assignments and coexistence of visible and invisible segments in the protein sequence. We use MC_ASSIGN1 and our own 2D spectra to replicate and extend the sequential assignments for uniformly-labeled HET-s(218-289) fibrils previously determined manually by Siemer et al. (J. Biomol. NMR, 34 (2006) 75-87) from a more extensive set of 2D and 3D spectra. Accurate assignments by MC_ASSIGN1 do not require data that are of exceptionally high quality. Use of MC_ASSIGN1 (and its extensions to other types of 2D and 3D data) is likely to alleviate many of the difficulties and uncertainties associated with manual resonance assignments in solid state NMR studies of uniformly labeled proteins, where spectral resolution and signal-to-noise are often sub-optimal.

  12. NMR assignments of the FKBP-type PPIase domain of the human aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP).

    PubMed

    Linnert, Miriam; Haupt, Katja; Lin, Yi-Jan; Kissing, Sandra; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Fischer, Gunter; Weiwad, Matthias; Lücke, Christian

    2012-10-01

    The aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) interacts with several protein binding partners and has been associated with pituitary tumor development. Here, we report nearly complete (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shift assignments for the N-terminal AIP(2-166) segment, which has been predicted to represent a FKBP-type PPIase domain. Sequence alignment with the prototypic FKBP12, however, reveals disagreements between the AIP chemical shift index consensus and the corresponding FKBP12 secondary structure elements.

  13. Luminescent Conjugated Oligothiophenes for Sensitive Fluorescent Assignment of Protein Inclusion Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Klingstedt, Therése; Blechschmidt, Cristiane; Nogalska, Anna; Prokop, Stefan; Häggqvist, Bo; Danielsson, Olof; Engel, W King; Askanas, Valerie; Heppner, Frank L; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Small hydrophobic ligands identifying intracellular protein deposits are of great interest, as protein inclusion bodies are the pathological hallmark of several degenerative diseases. Here we report that fluorescent amyloid ligands, termed luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), rapidly and with high sensitivity detect protein inclusion bodies in skeletal muscle tissue from patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM). LCOs having a conjugated backbone of at least five thiophene units emitted strong fluorescence upon binding, and showed co-localization with proteins reported to accumulate in s-IBM protein inclusion bodies. Compared with conventional amyloid ligands, LCOs identified a larger fraction of immunopositive inclusion bodies. When the conjugated thiophene backbone was extended with terminal carboxyl groups, the LCO revealed striking spectral differences between distinct protein inclusion bodies. We conclude that 1) LCOs are sensitive, rapid and powerful tools for identifying protein inclusion bodies and 2) LCOs identify a wider range of protein inclusion bodies than conventional amyloid ligands. PMID:23450708

  14. Proteomic Analysis of a Fraction with Intact Eyespots of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Assignment of Protein Methylation.

    PubMed

    Eitzinger, Nicole; Wagner, Volker; Weisheit, Wolfram; Geimer, Stefan; Boness, David; Kreimer, Georg; Mittag, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate green algae possess a visual system, the eyespot. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii it is situated at the edge of the chloroplast and consists of two carotenoid rich lipid globule layers subtended by thylakoid membranes (TM) that are attached to both chloroplast envelope membranes and a specialized area of the plasma membrane (PM). A former analysis of an eyespot fraction identified 203 proteins. To increase the understanding of eyespot related processes, knowledge of the protein composition of the membranes in its close vicinity is desirable. Here, we present a purification procedure that allows isolation of intact eyespots. This gain in intactness goes, however, hand in hand with an increase of contaminants from other organelles. Proteomic analysis identified 742 proteins. Novel candidates include proteins for eyespot development, retina-related proteins, ion pumps, and membrane-associated proteins, calcium sensing proteins as well as kinases, phosphatases and 14-3-3 proteins. Methylation of proteins at Arg or Lys is known as an important posttranslational modification involved in, e.g., signal transduction. Here, we identify several proteins from eyespot fractions that are methylated at Arg and/or Lys. Among them is the eyespot specific SOUL3 protein that influences the size and position of the eyespot and EYE2, a protein important for its development.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of a Fraction with Intact Eyespots of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Assignment of Protein Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Eitzinger, Nicole; Wagner, Volker; Weisheit, Wolfram; Geimer, Stefan; Boness, David; Kreimer, Georg; Mittag, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Flagellate green algae possess a visual system, the eyespot. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii it is situated at the edge of the chloroplast and consists of two carotenoid rich lipid globule layers subtended by thylakoid membranes (TM) that are attached to both chloroplast envelope membranes and a specialized area of the plasma membrane (PM). A former analysis of an eyespot fraction identified 203 proteins. To increase the understanding of eyespot related processes, knowledge of the protein composition of the membranes in its close vicinity is desirable. Here, we present a purification procedure that allows isolation of intact eyespots. This gain in intactness goes, however, hand in hand with an increase of contaminants from other organelles. Proteomic analysis identified 742 proteins. Novel candidates include proteins for eyespot development, retina-related proteins, ion pumps, and membrane-associated proteins, calcium sensing proteins as well as kinases, phosphatases and 14-3-3 proteins. Methylation of proteins at Arg or Lys is known as an important posttranslational modification involved in, e.g., signal transduction. Here, we identify several proteins from eyespot fractions that are methylated at Arg and/or Lys. Among them is the eyespot specific SOUL3 protein that influences the size and position of the eyespot and EYE2, a protein important for its development. PMID:26697039

  16. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  17. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  18. The Personal Response: A Novel Writing Assignment to Engage First Year Students in Large Human Biology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.; Poronnik, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of highly valued scientific writing skills in the first year of university is challenging. This report describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel written assignment, "The Personal Response" and accompanying Peer Review, in the course, Human Biology (BIOL1015) at The University of Queensland. These assignments were…

  19. The Personal Response: A Novel Writing Assignment to Engage First Year Students in Large Human Biology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.; Poronnik, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of highly valued scientific writing skills in the first year of university is challenging. This report describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel written assignment, "The Personal Response" and accompanying Peer Review, in the course, Human Biology (BIOL1015) at The University of Queensland. These assignments were…

  20. Concerted two-dimensional NMR approaches to hydrogen-1, carbon-13, and nitrogen-15 resonance assignments in proteins.

    PubMed

    Stockman, B J; Reily, M D; Westler, W M; Ulrich, E L; Markley, J L

    1989-01-10

    When used in concert, one-bond carbon-carbon correlations, one-bond and multiple-bond proton-carbon correlations, and multiple-bond proton-nitrogen correlations, derived from two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra of isotopically enriched proteins, provide a reliable method of assigning proton, carbon, and nitrogen resonances. In contrast to procedures that simply extend proton assignments to carbon or nitrogen resonances, this technique assigns proton, carbon, and nitrogen resonances coordinately on the basis of their integrated coupling networks. Redundant spin coupling pathways provide ways of resolving overlaps frequently encountered in homonuclear 1H 2D NMR spectra and facilitate the elucidation of complex proton spin systems. Carbon-carbon and proton-carbon couplings can be used to bridge the aromatic and aliphatic parts of proton spin systems; this avoids possible ambiguities that may result from the use of nuclear Overhauser effects to assign aromatic amino acid signals. The technique is illustrated for Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin and cytochrome c-553, both uniformly enriched with carbon-13 (26%) or nitrogen-15 (98%).

  1. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding human GLEPP1, a membrane protein tyrosine phosphatase: characterization of the GLEPP1 protein distribution in human kidney and assignment of the GLEPP1 gene to human chromosome 12p12-p13.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, R C; Wiggins, J E; Goyal, M; Wharram, B L; Thomas, P E

    1995-05-01

    Human glomerular epithelial protein 1 (GLEPP1), a receptor-like membrane protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase), was cloned and sequenced from a human renal cortical cDNA library. The human nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences were, respectively, 90 and 97% identical to those of rabbit. Human GLEPP1 is predicted to contain 1188 amino acids. The predicted mature protein is 1159 amino acids long and contains a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a single intracellular PTPase domain. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against a human GLEPP1 fusion protein recognized a protein with distribution restricted to the glomerulus in human kidney and with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 200 kDa. The GLEPP1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 12p12-p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  2. Optimization of amino acid type-specific 13C and 15N labeling for the backbone assignment of membrane proteins by solution- and solid-state NMR with the UPLABEL algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hefke, Frederik; Bagaria, Anurag; Reckel, Sina; Ullrich, Sandra Johanna; Dötsch, Volker; Glaubitz, Clemens; Güntert, Peter

    2011-02-01

    We present a computational method for finding optimal labeling patterns for the backbone assignment of membrane proteins and other large proteins that cannot be assigned by conventional strategies. Following the approach of Kainosho and Tsuji (Biochemistry 21:6273-6279 (1982)), types of amino acids are labeled with (13)C or/and (15)N such that cross peaks between (13)CO(i - 1) and (15)NH(i) result only for pairs of sequentially adjacent amino acids of which the first is labeled with (13)C and the second with (15)N. In this way, unambiguous sequence-specific assignments can be obtained for unique pairs of amino acids that occur exactly once in the sequence of the protein. To be practical, it is crucial to limit the number of differently labeled protein samples that have to be prepared while obtaining an optimal extent of labeled unique amino acid pairs. Our computer algorithm UPLABEL for optimal unique pair labeling, implemented in the program CYANA and in a standalone program, and also available through a web portal, uses combinatorial optimization to find for a given amino acid sequence labeling patterns that maximize the number of unique pair assignments with a minimal number of differently labeled protein samples. Various auxiliary conditions, including labeled amino acid availability and price, previously known partial assignments, and sequence regions of particular interest can be taken into account when determining optimal amino acid type-specific labeling patterns. The method is illustrated for the assignment of the human G-protein coupled receptor bradykinin B2 (B(2)R) and applied as a starting point for the backbone assignment of the membrane protein proteorhodopsin.

  3. Backbone resonance assignments for G protein α(i3) subunit in the GDP-bound state.

    PubMed

    Mase, Yoko; Yokogawa, Mariko; Osawa, Masanori; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-10-01

    Guanine-nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) serve as molecular switches in signaling pathways, by coupling the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the cell surface to intracellular responses. In the resting state, G protein forms a heterotrimer, consisting of the G protein α subunit with GDP (Gα·GDP) and the G protein βγ subunit (Gβγ). Ligand binding to GPCRs promotes the GDP-GTP exchange on Gα, leading to the dissociation of the GTP-bound form of Gα (Gα·GTP) and Gβγ. Then, Gα·GTP and Gβγ bind to their downstream effector enzymes or ion channels and regulate their activities, leading to a variety of cellular responses. Finally, Gα hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP and returns to the resting state by re-associating with Gβγ. The G proteins are classified with four major families based on the amino acid sequences of Gα: i/o, s, q/11, and 12/13. Here, we established the backbone resonance assignments of human Gαi3, a member of the i/o family with a molecular weight of 41 K, in complex with GDP. The chemical shifts were compared with those of Gα(i3) in complex with a GTP-analogue, GTPγS, which we recently reported, indicating that the residues with significant chemical shift differences are mostly consistent with the regions with the structural differences between the GDP- and GTPγS-bound states, as indicated in the crystal structures. The assignments of Gα(i3)·GDP would be useful for the analyses of the dynamics of Gα(i3) and its interactions with various target molecules.

  4. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance assignments and secondary structure determination of the Co1E1 rop (rom) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, W. European Molecular Biology Lab., Heidelberg ); Klaus, W. ); Cesareni, G. ); Sander, C. ); Roesch, P. )

    1990-08-14

    The complete resonance assignment of the Co1E1 rop (rom) protein at pH 2.3 was obtained by two-dimensional (2D) proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR) at 500 and 600 MHz using through-bond and through-space connectivities. Sequential assignments and elements of regular secondary structure were deduced by analysis of nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments and {sup 3}J{sub HN{alpha}} coupling constants. One 7.2-kDa monomer of the homodimer consists of two antiparallel helices connected by a hairpin loop at residue 31. The C-terminal peptide consisting of amino acids 59-63 shows no stable conformation. The dimer forms a four-helix bundle with opposite polarization of neighboring elements in agreement with the x-ray structure.

  5. Luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes for sensitive fluorescent assignment of protein inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Klingstedt, Therése; Blechschmidt, Cristiane; Nogalska, Anna; Prokop, Stefan; Häggqvist, Bo; Danielsson, Olof; Engel, W King; Askanas, Valerie; Heppner, Frank L; Nilsson, K Peter R

    2013-03-18

    Small hydrophobic ligands identifying intracellular protein deposits are of great interest, as protein inclusion bodies are the pathological hallmark of several degenerative diseases. Here we report that fluorescent amyloid ligands, termed luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs), rapidly and with high sensitivity detect protein inclusion bodies in skeletal muscle tissue from patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM). LCOs having a conjugated backbone of at least five thiophene units emitted strong fluorescence upon binding, and showed co-localization with proteins reported to accumulate in s-IBM protein inclusion bodies. Compared with conventional amyloid ligands, LCOs identified a larger fraction of immunopositive inclusion bodies. When the conjugated thiophene backbone was extended with terminal carboxyl groups, the LCO revealed striking spectral differences between distinct protein inclusion bodies. We conclude that 1) LCOs are sensitive, rapid and powerful tools for identifying protein inclusion bodies and 2) LCOs identify a wider range of protein inclusion bodies than conventional amyloid ligands. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. CATH FunFHMMer web server: protein functional annotations using functional family assignments.

    PubMed

    Das, Sayoni; Sillitoe, Ian; Lee, David; Lees, Jonathan G; Dawson, Natalie L; Ward, John; Orengo, Christine A

    2015-07-01

    The widening function annotation gap in protein databases and the increasing number and diversity of the proteins being sequenced presents new challenges to protein function prediction methods. Multidomain proteins complicate the protein sequence-structure-function relationship further as new combinations of domains can expand the functional repertoire, creating new proteins and functions. Here, we present the FunFHMMer web server, which provides Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for query protein sequences based on the functional classification of the domain-based CATH-Gene3D resource. Our server also provides valuable information for the prediction of functional sites. The predictive power of FunFHMMer has been validated on a set of 95 proteins where FunFHMMer performs better than BLAST, Pfam and CDD. Recent validation by an independent international competition ranks FunFHMMer as one of the top function prediction methods in predicting GO annotations for both the Biological Process and Molecular Function Ontology. The FunFHMMer web server is available at http://www.cathdb.info/search/by_funfhmmer.

  7. NMR resonance assignments of the lantibiotic immunity protein NisI from Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Carolin; Christ, Nina Alexandra; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Korn, Sophie; Berninger, Lucija; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Wöhnert, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The lantibiotic nisin is a small antimicrobial peptide which acts against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria. Nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains express four genes for self-protection against their own antimicrobial compound. This immunity system consists of the lipoprotein NisI and the ABC transporter NisFEG. NisI is attached to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane via a covalently linked diacylglycerol anchor. Both the lipoprotein and the ABC transporter are needed for full immunity but the exact immunity mechanism is still unclear. To gain insights into the highly specific immunity mechanism of nisin producing strains on a structural level we present here the backbone resonance assignment of NisI (25.8 kDa) as well as the virtually complete (1)H,(15)N,(13)C chemical shift assignments for the isolated 12.7 kDa N-terminal and 14.6 kDa C-terminal domains of NisI.

  8. NMR Spectroscopic Assignment of Backbone and Side-Chain Protons in Fully Protonated Proteins: Microcrystals, Sedimented Assemblies, and Amyloid Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Jan; Andreas, Loren B; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Cala, Diane; Lalli, Daniela; Bertarello, Andrea; Schubeis, Tobias; Akopjana, Inara; Kotelovica, Svetlana; Tars, Kaspars; Pica, Andrea; Leone, Serena; Picone, Delia; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Dixon, Nicholas E; Martinez, Denis; Berbon, Mélanie; El Mammeri, Nadia; Noubhani, Abdelmajid; Saupe, Sven; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Pintacuda, Guido

    2016-12-12

    We demonstrate sensitive detection of alpha protons of fully protonated proteins by solid-state NMR spectroscopy with 100-111 kHz magic-angle spinning (MAS). The excellent resolution in the Cα-Hα plane is demonstrated for 5 proteins, including microcrystals, a sedimented complex, a capsid and amyloid fibrils. A set of 3D spectra based on a Cα-Hα detection block was developed and applied for the sequence-specific backbone and aliphatic side-chain resonance assignment using only 500 μg of sample. These developments accelerate structural studies of biomolecular assemblies available in submilligram quantities without the need of protein deuteration.

  9. Letter to the Editor: H-1, C-13 and N-15 Assignments for the Archaeglobus fulgidis Protein AF2095.

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Robert; Acton, Thomas; Chiang, Yiwen; Rajan, Paranji K.; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Liu, Jinfeng; Ma, LiChung; Rost, Burkhard; Montelione, Gaetano

    2004-09-01

    targeted for structural analysis by NESG. AF2095 belongs to the Pfam family PF01981 - UPF0099, protein domain family of unknown function that has been found in yeast, archaebacteria and eubacteria. AF2095 has been assigned to NESG Cluster ID:17431, a set of fourteen protein sequences with high (> {approx}30%) sequence identity (Liu, 2004). This cluster includes proteins of human, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis, yeast, archaeal and eubacterial origin. A total of fifty-six proteins are identified when the analysis is expanded to include all available genomes. Therefore, determining the NMR solution structure of AF2095 can be leveraged to infer 3D structural information for at least an additional fifty-five proteins. Here we report the near complete 1H, 15N, 13CO, and 13C NMR assignments and secondary structure of AF2095. These data provide a basis for determining the solution structure of AF2095, for further investigation of the function of this protein and for providing representative structural and functional information for the protein domain family that includes AF2095.

  10. Mössbauer spectroscopy of the nitrogenase proteins from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Structural assignments and mechanistic conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Barry E.; Lang, George

    1974-01-01

    The Mo–Fe protein and the Fe protein which together constitute the nitrogenase of Klebsiella pneumoniae were prepared from bacteria grown in 57Fe-enriched medium. The Mössbauer spectrum of the Mo–Fe protein, as isolated in the presence of Na2S2O4, showed that the protein contained three iron species, called M4, M5 and M6. The area of the spectrum associated with species M4, with δ=0.65mm/s and ΔE=3.05mm/s at 4.2°K, corresponded to two iron atoms/molecule of protein and it is interpreted as being due to a high-spin ferrous, spin-coupled pair of iron atoms. The iron atoms of species M4 may be involved in the quaternary structure of the protein. Species M5, with δ=0.61mm/s and ΔE=0.83mm/s at 77°K, corresponded to eight iron atoms/molecule of protein and is interpreted as being due to Fe4S4 or Fe2S2 low-spin ferrous iron clusters. Species M6, with δ=0.37mm/s and ΔE=0.71mm/s at 77°K, also corresponded to eight iron atoms/molecule of protein and, at 4.2°K, became a broad shallow absorption, characteristic of magnetic hyperfine interaction. Oxidation of the Mo–Fe protein with the redox dye Lauth's Violet did not affect the activity of the protein but changed species M4, M5 and M6 into the species M1 (δ=0.37mm/s, ΔE=0.75mm/s at 77°K, broad magnetic component at 4.2°K) and M2 (δ=0.35mm/s, ΔE=0.9mm/s at 4.2°K). In the presence of the Fe protein, Na2S2O4, ATP and Mg2+, the M6 component of the Mo–Fe protein was replaced by species M7 with δ=0.46mm/s, ΔE=1.04mm/s at 4.2°K. The change in Mössbauer parameters associated with the M6 → M7 transformation was very similar to the change observed on reduction of the high-potential Fe protein from Chromatium vinosum. In contrast, Na2S2O4-reduced Fe protein contained only one type of iron cluster (F4). Species F4 had δ=0.50mm/s, ΔE=0.9mm/s at 195°K, and at 4.2°K broadened in a manner characteristic of a magnetic hyperfine interaction, associated with half-integral spin, equally distributed over all

  11. Chemical shift assignments and secondary structure prediction of the phosphorelay protein VanU from Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Bobay, Benjamin G.; Thompson, Richele J.; Milton, Debra L.; Cavanagh, John

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a biofilm forming Gram-negative bacterium that survives prolonged periods in seawater and causes vibriosis in marine life. A quorum-sensing signal transduction pathway initiates biofilm formation in response to environmental stresses. The phosphotransferase protein VanU is the focal point of the quorum-sensing pathway and facilitates the regulation between independent phosphorelay systems that activate or repress biofilm formation. Here we report the 1H, 13C, and 15N backbone and side chain resonance assignments and secondary structure prediction for VanU from V. anguillarum. PMID:23604692

  12. Charge site assignment in native proteins by ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Lindsay J.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of all gas-phase charge sites of natively sprayed proteins and peptides is demonstrated using 193 nm UVPD. The high sequence coverage offered by UVPD is exploited for the accurate determination of charge sites in protein systems up to 18 kDa, allowing charge site to be studied as a function of protein conformation and the presence of disulfide bonds. Charging protons are found on both basic sidechains and on the amide backbone of less basic amino acids such as serine, glutamine, and proline. UVPD analysis was performed on the 3+ charge state of melittin, the 5+ to 8+ charge states of ubiquitin, and the 8+ charge state of reduced and oxidized β-lactoglobulin. The location of charges in gas-phase proteins is known to impact structure; molecular modeling of different charge site motifs of 3+ melittin demonstrates how placement of protons in simulations can dramatically impact the predicted structure of the molecule. The location of positive charge sites in ubiquitin and β-lactoglobulin are additionally found to depend on the presence or absence of salt-bridges, columbic repulsion across the length of the peptide, and protein conformation. Charge site isomers are demonstrated for ubiquitin and β-lactoglobulin but found to be much less numerous than previously predicted. PMID:26596460

  13. ProDomAs, protein domain assignment algorithm using center-based clustering and independent dominating set.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Elnaz Saberi; Eslahchi, Changiz; Pezeshk, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Decomposition of structural domains is an essential task in classifying protein structures, predicting protein function, and many other proteomics problems. As the number of known protein structures in PDB grows exponentially, the need for accurate automatic domain decomposition methods becomes more essential. In this article, we introduce a bottom-up algorithm for assigning protein domains using a graph theoretical approach. This algorithm is based on a center-based clustering approach. For constructing initial clusters, members of an independent dominating set for the graph representation of a protein are considered as the centers. A distance matrix is then defined for these clusters. To obtain final domains, these clusters are merged using the compactness principle of domains and a method similar to the neighbor-joining algorithm considering some thresholds. The thresholds are computed using a training set consisting of 50 protein chains. The algorithm is implemented using C++ language and is named ProDomAs. To assess the performance of ProDomAs, its results are compared with seven automatic methods, against five publicly available benchmarks. The results show that ProDomAs outperforms other methods applied on the mentioned benchmarks. The performance of ProDomAs is also evaluated against 6342 chains obtained from ASTRAL SCOP 1.71. ProDomAs is freely available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/prodomas. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mass Spectrometry-Based Detection and Assignment of Protein Posttranslational Modifications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics allow the identification and quantitation of thousands of posttranslational modification (PTM) sites in a single experiment. This follows from the development of more effective class enrichment strategies, new high performance instrumentation and bioinformatic algorithms with rigorous scoring strategies. More widespread use of these combined capabilities have led to a vast expansion in our knowledge of the complexity of biological processes mediated by PTMs. The classes most actively pursued include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, O-GlcNAcylation, methylation, and acetylation. Very recently succinylation, SUMOylation, and citrullination have emerged. Among the some 260 000 PTM sites that have been identified in the human proteome thus far, only a few have been assigned to key regulatory and/or other biological roles. Here, we provide an update of MS-based PTM analyses, with a focus on current enrichment strategies coupled with revolutionary advances in high performance MS. Furthermore, we discuss examples of the discovery of recently described biological roles of PTMs and address the challenges of defining site-specific functions. PMID:25541750

  15. Sequential sup 1 H NMR assignments and secondary structure of an IgG-binding domain from protein G

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, L.Y.; Yang, J.C.; Derrick, J.P.; Sutcliffe, M.J.; Roberts, G.C.K. ); Murphy, J.P.; Goward, C.R.; Atkinson, T. )

    1991-06-04

    Protein G is a member of a class of cell surface bacterial proteins from Streptococcus that bind IgG with high affinity. A fragment of molecular mass 6,988, which retains IgG-binding activity, has been generated by proteolytic digestion and analyzed by {sup 1}H NMR. Two-dimenstional DQF-COSY, TOCSY, and NOESY spectra have been employed to assign the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of the peptide. Elements of regular secondary structure have been identified by using nuclear Overhauser enhancement, coupling constant, and amide proton exchange data. The secondary structure consists of a central {alpha}-helix (Ala28-Val44), flanked by two portions of {beta}-sheet (Val5-Val26 and Asp45-Lys62). This is a fundamentally different arrangement of secondary structure from that of protein A, which is made up of three consecutive {alpha}-helics in free solution. The authors conclude that the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of protein A and protein G with IgG are different.

  16. Ab Initio structure prediction for Escherichia coli: towards genome-wide protein structure modeling and fold assignment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide protein structure prediction and structure-based function annotation have been a long-term goal in molecular biology but not yet become possible due to difficulties in modeling distant-homology targets. We developed a hybrid pipeline combining ab initio folding and template-based modeling for genome-wide structure prediction applied to the Escherichia coli genome. The pipeline was tested on 43 known sequences, where QUARK-based ab initio folding simulation generated models with TM-score 17% higher than that by traditional comparative modeling methods. For 495 unknown hard sequences, 72 are predicted to have a correct fold (TM-score > 0.5) and 321 have a substantial portion of structure correctly modeled (TM-score > 0.35). 317 sequences can be reliably assigned to a SCOP fold family based on structural analogy to existing proteins in PDB. The presented results, as a case study of E. coli, represent promising progress towards genome-wide structure modeling and fold family assignment using state-of-the-art ab initio folding algorithms. PMID:23719418

  17. Artifactual sulfation of silver-stained proteins: implications for the assignment of phosphorylation and sulfation sites.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Marlene; Marcantonio, Maria; Lehmann, Sylvia G; Courcelles, Mathieu; Meloche, Sylvain; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2009-03-01

    Sulfation and phosphorylation are post-translational modifications imparting an isobaric 80-Da addition on the side chain of serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. These two post-translational modifications are often difficult to distinguish because of their similar MS fragmentation patterns. Targeted MS identification of these modifications in specific proteins commonly relies on their prior separation using gel electrophoresis and silver staining. In the present investigation, we report a potential pitfall in the interpretation of these modifications from silver-stained gels due to artifactual sulfation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues by sodium thiosulfate, a commonly used reagent that catalyzes the formation of metallic silver deposits onto proteins. Detailed MS analyses of gel-separated protein standards and Escherichia coli cell extracts indicated that several serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues were sulfated using silver staining protocols but not following Coomassie Blue staining. Sodium thiosulfate was identified as the reagent leading to this unexpected side reaction, and the degree of sulfation was correlated with increasing concentrations of thiosulfate up to 0.02%, which is typically used for silver staining. The significance of this artifact is discussed in the broader context of sulfation and phosphorylation site identification from in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  18. How do you assign persistent identifiers to extracts from large, complex, dynamic data sets that underpin scholarly publications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Car, Nicholas; Evans, Benjamin; Klump, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Persistent identifiers in the form of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) are becoming more mainstream, assigned at both the collection and dataset level. For static datasets, this is a relatively straight-forward matter. However, many new data collections are dynamic, with new data being appended, models and derivative products being revised with new data, or the data itself revised as processing methods are improved. Further, because data collections are becoming accessible as services, researchers can log in and dynamically create user-defined subsets for specific research projects: they also can easily mix and match data from multiple collections, each of which can have a complex history. Inevitably extracts from such dynamic data sets underpin scholarly publications, and this presents new challenges. The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has been experiencing and making progress towards addressing these issues. The NCI is large node of the Research Data Services initiative (RDS) of the Australian Government's research infrastructure, which currently makes available over 10 PBytes of priority research collections, ranging from geosciences, geophysics, environment, and climate, through to astronomy, bioinformatics, and social sciences. Data are replicated to, or are produced at, NCI and then processed there to higher-level data products or directly analysed. Individual datasets range from multi-petabyte computational models and large volume raster arrays, down to gigabyte size, ultra-high resolution datasets. To facilitate access, maximise reuse and enable integration across the disciplines, datasets have been organized on a platform called the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). Combined, the NERDIP data collections form a rich and diverse asset for researchers: their co-location and standardization optimises the value of existing data, and forms a new resource to underpin data-intensive Science. New publication

  19. Gray platelet syndrome: natural history of a large patient cohort and locus assignment to chromosome 3p

    PubMed Central

    Zivony-Elboum, Yifat; Gumruk, Fatma; Geiger, Dan; Cetin, Mualla; Khayat, Morad; Kleta, Robert; Kfir, Nehama; Anikster, Yair; Chezar, Judith; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Shalata, Adel; Stanescu, Horia; Manaster, Joseph; Arat, Mutlu; Edwards, Hailey; Freiberg, Andrew S.; Hart, P. Suzanne; Riney, Lauren C.; Patzel, Katherine; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot; Markello, Tom; Huizing, Marjan; Maric, Irina; Horne, McDonald; Kehrel, Beate E.; Jurk, Kerstin; Hansen, Nancy F.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Jones, Marypat; Cruz, Pedro; Mullikin, Jim C.; Nurden, Alan; White, James G.; Gahl, William A.; Falik-Zaccai, Tzippora

    2010-01-01

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and absence of platelet α-granules resulting in typical gray platelets on peripheral smears. GPS is associated with a bleeding tendency, myelofibrosis, and splenomegaly. Reports on GPS are limited to case presentations. The causative gene and underlying pathophysiology are largely unknown. We present the results of molecular genetic analysis of 116 individuals including 25 GPS patients from 14 independent families as well as novel clinical data on the natural history of the disease. The mode of inheritance was autosomal recessive (AR) in 11 and indeterminate in 3 families. Using genome-wide linkage analysis, we mapped the AR-GPS gene to a 9.4-Mb interval on 3p21.1-3p22.1, containing 197 protein-coding genes. Sequencing of 1423 (69%) of the 2075 exons in the interval did not identify the GPS gene. Long-term follow-up data demonstrated the progressive nature of the thrombocytopenia and myelofibrosis of GPS resulting in fatal hemorrhages in some patients. We identified high serum vitamin B12 as a consistent, novel finding in GPS. Chromosome 3p21.1-3p22.1 has not been previously linked to a platelet disorder; identification of the GPS gene will likely lead to the discovery of novel components of platelet organelle biogenesis. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00069680 and NCT00369421. PMID:20709904

  20. Gray platelet syndrome: natural history of a large patient cohort and locus assignment to chromosome 3p.

    PubMed

    Gunay-Aygun, Meral; Zivony-Elboum, Yifat; Gumruk, Fatma; Geiger, Dan; Cetin, Mualla; Khayat, Morad; Kleta, Robert; Kfir, Nehama; Anikster, Yair; Chezar, Judith; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Shalata, Adel; Stanescu, Horia; Manaster, Joseph; Arat, Mutlu; Edwards, Hailey; Freiberg, Andrew S; Hart, P Suzanne; Riney, Lauren C; Patzel, Katherine; Tanpaiboon, Pranoot; Markello, Tom; Huizing, Marjan; Maric, Irina; Horne, McDonald; Kehrel, Beate E; Jurk, Kerstin; Hansen, Nancy F; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Jones, Marypat; Cruz, Pedro; Mullikin, Jim C; Nurden, Alan; White, James G; Gahl, William A; Falik-Zaccai, Tzippora

    2010-12-02

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and absence of platelet α-granules resulting in typical gray platelets on peripheral smears. GPS is associated with a bleeding tendency, myelofibrosis, and splenomegaly. Reports on GPS are limited to case presentations. The causative gene and underlying pathophysiology are largely unknown. We present the results of molecular genetic analysis of 116 individuals including 25 GPS patients from 14 independent families as well as novel clinical data on the natural history of the disease. The mode of inheritance was autosomal recessive (AR) in 11 and indeterminate in 3 families. Using genome-wide linkage analysis, we mapped the AR-GPS gene to a 9.4-Mb interval on 3p21.1-3p22.1, containing 197 protein-coding genes. Sequencing of 1423 (69%) of the 2075 exons in the interval did not identify the GPS gene. Long-term follow-up data demonstrated the progressive nature of the thrombocytopenia and myelofibrosis of GPS resulting in fatal hemorrhages in some patients. We identified high serum vitamin B(12) as a consistent, novel finding in GPS. Chromosome 3p21.1-3p22.1 has not been previously linked to a platelet disorder; identification of the GPS gene will likely lead to the discovery of novel components of platelet organelle biogenesis. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00069680 and NCT00369421.

  1. The personal response: A novel writing assignment to engage first year students in large human biology classes.

    PubMed

    Moni, Roger W; Moni, Karen B; Lluka, Lesley J; Poronnik, Philip

    2007-03-01

    The teaching of highly valued scientific writing skills in the first year of university is challenging. This report describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a novel written assignment, The Personal Response and accompanying Peer Review, in the course, Human Biology (BIOL1015) at The University of Queensland. These assignments were the first assessment tasks of the course and were set early in the first semester of university. BIOL1015 had a diverse cohort of 319 first year students from five bachelor degree programs, primarily from Pharmacy and Human Movement Studies. Audio files in the form of interviews with eminent biomedical scientists were obtained from a leading public radio program. Students used these files as triggers to submit a short but highly structured assignment written from a personal perspective and in an expressive style. Evaluations revealed that overall, students found the task interesting and challenging. Students performed well, regardless of their background knowledge, disciplinary interest, or preference for topics within human biology. This study demonstrated that The Personal Response was an appropriate task for these first year students of human biology. It represents an alternative to traditional essay writing.

  2. Efficient Resonance Assignment of Proteins in MAS NMR by Simultaneous Intra- and Inter-residue 3D Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Daviso, Eugenio; Eddy, Matthew T.; Andreas, Loren B.; Griffin, Robert G.; Herzfeld, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Resonance assignment is the first step in NMR structure determination. For magic angle spinning NMR, this is typically achieved with a set of heteronuclear correlation experiments (NCaCX, NCOCX, CONCa) that utilize SPECIFIC-CP 15N-13C transfers. However, the SPECIFIC-CP transfer efficiency is often compromised by molecular dynamics and probe performance. Here we show that one-bond ZF-TEDOR 15N-13C transfers provide simultaneous NCO and NCa transfers with at least as much sensitivity as SPECIFIC-CP for some non-crystalline samples. Furthermore, a 3D TEDOR-CC experiment provides heteronuclear sidechains correlations and robustness with respect to proton decoupling and radiofrequency power instabilities. We demonstrate transfer efficiencies and connectivities by application of 3D ZF-TEDOR-DARR to a model microcrystalline protein, GB1, and a less ideal system, GvpA in intact gas vesicles. PMID:23334347

  3. Assignment of the zinc ligands in RsrA, a redox-sensing ZAS protein from Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Zdanowski, Konrad; Doughty, Phillip; Jakimowicz, Piotr; O'Hara, Liisa; Buttner, Mark J; Paget, Mark S B; Kleanthous, Colin

    2006-07-11

    ZAS proteins are widespread bacterial zinc-containing anti-sigma factors that regulate the activity of sigma factors in response to diverse cues. One of the best characterized ZAS proteins is RsrA from Streptomyces coelicolor, which responds to disulfide stress. Zn-RsrA binds and represses the transcriptional activity of sigmaR in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm but undergoes reversible, intramolecular disulfide bond formation during oxidative stress. This expels the single metal ion and causes dramatic structural changes in RsrA that result in its dissociation from sigmaR, leaving the sigma factor free to activate the transcription of antioxidant genes. We showed recently that Zn2+ serves a critical role in modulating the redox activity of RsrA thiols but uncertainty remains as to how the metal ion is coordinated in RsrA and related ZAS proteins. Using a combination of random and site-specific mutagenesis with zinc K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, we have assigned unambiguously the metal ligands in RsrA, thereby distinguishing between the different ligation models that have been proposed. The data show that the zinc site in RsrA is comprised of Cys11, His37, Cys41, and Cys44. Three of these residues are part of a conserved ZAS-specific sequence motif (H37xxxC41xxC44), with the fourth ligand, Cys11, found in a subset of ZAS proteins. Cys11 and Cys44 form the trigger disulfide in RsrA, explaining why the metal ion is expelled during oxidation. We discuss these data in the context of redox sensing by RsrA and the sensory mechanisms of other ZAS proteins.

  4. A large-scale evaluation of computational protein function prediction.

    PubMed

    Radivojac, Predrag; Clark, Wyatt T; Oron, Tal Ronnen; Schnoes, Alexandra M; Wittkop, Tobias; Sokolov, Artem; Graim, Kiley; Funk, Christopher; Verspoor, Karin; Ben-Hur, Asa; Pandey, Gaurav; Yunes, Jeffrey M; Talwalkar, Ameet S; Repo, Susanna; Souza, Michael L; Piovesan, Damiano; Casadio, Rita; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Jianlin; Fang, Hai; Gough, Julian; Koskinen, Patrik; Törönen, Petri; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Holm, Liisa; Cozzetto, Domenico; Buchan, Daniel W A; Bryson, Kevin; Jones, David T; Limaye, Bhakti; Inamdar, Harshal; Datta, Avik; Manjari, Sunitha K; Joshi, Rajendra; Chitale, Meghana; Kihara, Daisuke; Lisewski, Andreas M; Erdin, Serkan; Venner, Eric; Lichtarge, Olivier; Rentzsch, Robert; Yang, Haixuan; Romero, Alfonso E; Bhat, Prajwal; Paccanaro, Alberto; Hamp, Tobias; Kaßner, Rebecca; Seemayer, Stefan; Vicedo, Esmeralda; Schaefer, Christian; Achten, Dominik; Auer, Florian; Boehm, Ariane; Braun, Tatjana; Hecht, Maximilian; Heron, Mark; Hönigschmid, Peter; Hopf, Thomas A; Kaufmann, Stefanie; Kiening, Michael; Krompass, Denis; Landerer, Cedric; Mahlich, Yannick; Roos, Manfred; Björne, Jari; Salakoski, Tapio; Wong, Andrew; Shatkay, Hagit; Gatzmann, Fanny; Sommer, Ingolf; Wass, Mark N; Sternberg, Michael J E; Škunca, Nives; Supek, Fran; Bošnjak, Matko; Panov, Panče; Džeroski, Sašo; Šmuc, Tomislav; Kourmpetis, Yiannis A I; van Dijk, Aalt D J; ter Braak, Cajo J F; Zhou, Yuanpeng; Gong, Qingtian; Dong, Xinran; Tian, Weidong; Falda, Marco; Fontana, Paolo; Lavezzo, Enrico; Di Camillo, Barbara; Toppo, Stefano; Lan, Liang; Djuric, Nemanja; Guo, Yuhong; Vucetic, Slobodan; Bairoch, Amos; Linial, Michal; Babbitt, Patricia C; Brenner, Steven E; Orengo, Christine; Rost, Burkhard; Mooney, Sean D; Friedberg, Iddo

    2013-03-01

    Automated annotation of protein function is challenging. As the number of sequenced genomes rapidly grows, the overwhelming majority of protein products can only be annotated computationally. If computational predictions are to be relied upon, it is crucial that the accuracy of these methods be high. Here we report the results from the first large-scale community-based critical assessment of protein function annotation (CAFA) experiment. Fifty-four methods representing the state of the art for protein function prediction were evaluated on a target set of 866 proteins from 11 organisms. Two findings stand out: (i) today's best protein function prediction algorithms substantially outperform widely used first-generation methods, with large gains on all types of targets; and (ii) although the top methods perform well enough to guide experiments, there is considerable need for improvement of currently available tools.

  5. A large-scale evaluation of computational protein function prediction

    PubMed Central

    Radivojac, Predrag; Clark, Wyatt T; Ronnen Oron, Tal; Schnoes, Alexandra M; Wittkop, Tobias; Sokolov, Artem; Graim, Kiley; Funk, Christopher; Verspoor, Karin; Ben-Hur, Asa; Pandey, Gaurav; Yunes, Jeffrey M; Talwalkar, Ameet S; Repo, Susanna; Souza, Michael L; Piovesan, Damiano; Casadio, Rita; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Jianlin; Fang, Hai; Gough, Julian; Koskinen, Patrik; Törönen, Petri; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Holm, Liisa; Cozzetto, Domenico; Buchan, Daniel W A; Bryson, Kevin; Jones, David T; Limaye, Bhakti; Inamdar, Harshal; Datta, Avik; Manjari, Sunitha K; Joshi, Rajendra; Chitale, Meghana; Kihara, Daisuke; Lisewski, Andreas M; Erdin, Serkan; Venner, Eric; Lichtarge, Olivier; Rentzsch, Robert; Yang, Haixuan; Romero, Alfonso E; Bhat, Prajwal; Paccanaro, Alberto; Hamp, Tobias; Kassner, Rebecca; Seemayer, Stefan; Vicedo, Esmeralda; Schaefer, Christian; Achten, Dominik; Auer, Florian; Böhm, Ariane; Braun, Tatjana; Hecht, Maximilian; Heron, Mark; Hönigschmid, Peter; Hopf, Thomas; Kaufmann, Stefanie; Kiening, Michael; Krompass, Denis; Landerer, Cedric; Mahlich, Yannick; Roos, Manfred; Björne, Jari; Salakoski, Tapio; Wong, Andrew; Shatkay, Hagit; Gatzmann, Fanny; Sommer, Ingolf; Wass, Mark N; Sternberg, Michael J E; Škunca, Nives; Supek, Fran; Bošnjak, Matko; Panov, Panče; Džeroski, Sašo; Šmuc, Tomislav; Kourmpetis, Yiannis A I; van Dijk, Aalt D J; ter Braak, Cajo J F; Zhou, Yuanpeng; Gong, Qingtian; Dong, Xinran; Tian, Weidong; Falda, Marco; Fontana, Paolo; Lavezzo, Enrico; Di Camillo, Barbara; Toppo, Stefano; Lan, Liang; Djuric, Nemanja; Guo, Yuhong; Vucetic, Slobodan; Bairoch, Amos; Linial, Michal; Babbitt, Patricia C; Brenner, Steven E; Orengo, Christine; Rost, Burkhard; Mooney, Sean D; Friedberg, Iddo

    2013-01-01

    Automated annotation of protein function is challenging. As the number of sequenced genomes rapidly grows, the overwhelming majority of protein products can only be annotated computationally. If computational predictions are to be relied upon, it is crucial that the accuracy of these methods be high. Here we report the results from the first large-scale community-based Critical Assessment of protein Function Annotation (CAFA) experiment. Fifty-four methods representing the state-of-the-art for protein function prediction were evaluated on a target set of 866 proteins from eleven organisms. Two findings stand out: (i) today’s best protein function prediction algorithms significantly outperformed widely-used first-generation methods, with large gains on all types of targets; and (ii) although the top methods perform well enough to guide experiments, there is significant need for improvement of currently available tools. PMID:23353650

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance assignment and secondary structure of an ankyrin-like repeat-bearing protein: myotrophin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Rao, N S; Walker, E; Sen, S; Qin, J

    1997-06-01

    Multidimensional heteronuclear NMR has been applied to the structural analysis of myotrophin, a novel protein identified from spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts and hypertrophic human hearts. Myotrophin has been shown to stimulate protein synthesis in myocytes and likely plays an important role in the initiation of cardiac hypertrophy, a major cause of mortality in humans. Recent cDNA cloning revealed that myotrophin has 11B amino acids containing 2.5 contiguous ANK repeats, a motif known to be involved in a wide range of macromolecular recognition. A series of two- and three-dimensional heteronuclear bond correlation NMR experiments have been performed on uniformly 15N-labeled or uniformly 15N/13C-labeled protein to obtain the 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shift assignments. The secondary structure of myotrophin has been determined by a combination of NOEs, NH exchange data, 3JHN alpha coupling constants, and chemical shifts of 1H alpha, 13C alpha, and 13 C beta. The protein has been found to consist of seven helices, all connected by turns or loops. Six of the seven helices (all but the C-terminal helix) form three separate helix-turn-helix motifs. The two full ANK repeats in myotrophin are characteristic of multiple turns followed by a helix-turn-helix motif. A hairpin-like turn involving L32-R36 in ANK repeat #1 exhibits slow conformational averaging on the NMR time scale and appears dynamically different from the corresponding region (D65-169) of ANK repeat #2.

  7. 1H, 15N and 13C resonance assignment of imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) synthase protein HisF from Thermotoga maritima

    PubMed Central

    Lipchock, James M.; Loria, J. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    HisF comprises one half of the heterodimeric protein complex IGP synthase responsible for the fifth step of histidine biosynthesis. Here we report backbone and sidechain assignments necessary for characterization of protein dynamics involved in the allosteric mechanism of IGP synthase. PMID:19636909

  8. 1H, 15N and 13C resonance assignment of imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) synthase protein HisF from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Lipchock, James M; Loria, J Patrick

    2008-12-01

    HisF comprises one half of the heterodimeric protein complex imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) synthase responsible for the fifth step of histidine biosynthesis. Here we report backbone and side chain assignments necessary for characterization of protein dynamics involved in the allosteric mechanism of IGP synthase.

  9. Adenovirus dodecahedron allows large multimeric protein transduction in human cells.

    PubMed

    Fender, P; Schoehn, G; Foucaud-Gamen, J; Gout, E; Garcel, A; Drouet, E; Chroboczek, J

    2003-04-01

    Adenovirus dodecahedron is a virus-like particle composed of only two viral proteins of human adenovirus serotype 3 that are responsible for virus attachment and internalization. We show here that this dodecameric particle, devoid of genetic information, efficiently penetrates human cells and can deliver large multimeric proteins such as immunoglobulins.

  10. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins.

  11. Solid-state NMR resonance assignments of the filament-forming CARD domain of the innate immunity signaling protein MAVS.

    PubMed

    He, Lichun; Lührs, Thorsten; Ritter, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    The mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) is a central signal transduction hub in the innate immune response against viral infections. Viral RNA present in the cytoplasm is detected by retinoic acid inducible gene I like receptors, which then activate MAVS via heterotypic interactions between their respective caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARD). This leads to the formation of active, high molecular weight MAVS complexes formed by homotypic interactions between the single N-terminal CARDs of MAVS. Filaments formed by the N-terminal MAVS(CARD) alone are sufficient to induce the autocatalytic conversion from a monomeric to an aggregated state in a prion-like manner. Here, we present the nearly complete spectroscopic (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of human MAVS(CARD) filaments obtained from a single sample by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The corresponding secondary chemical shifts suggest that the filamentous form of MAVS(CARD) retains an exclusively alpha-helical fold that is very similar to the X-ray structure determined previously from monomeric MAVS(CARD)-maltose binding protein fusion constructs.

  12. Towards fully automated structure-based NMR resonance assignment of ¹⁵N-labeled proteins from automatically picked peaks.

    PubMed

    Jang, Richard; Gao, Xin; Li, Ming

    2011-03-01

    In NMR resonance assignment, an indispensable step in NMR protein studies, manually processed peaks from both N-labeled and C-labeled spectra are typically used as inputs. However, the use of homologous structures can allow one to use only N-labeled NMR data and avoid the added expense of using C-labeled data. We propose a novel integer programming framework for structure-based backbone resonance assignment using N-labeled data. The core consists of a pair of integer programming models: one for spin system forming and amino acid typing, and the other for backbone resonance assignment. The goal is to perform the assignment directly from spectra without any manual intervention via automatically picked peaks, which are much noisier than manually picked peaks, so methods must be error-tolerant. In the case of semi-automated/manually processed peak data, we compare our system with the Xiong-Pandurangan-Bailey-Kellogg's contact replacement (CR) method, which is the most error-tolerant method for structure-based resonance assignment. Our system, on average, reduces the error rate of the CR method by five folds on their data set. In addition, by using an iterative algorithm, our system has the added capability of using the NOESY data to correct assignment errors due to errors in predicting the amino acid and secondary structure type of each spin system. On a publicly available data set for human ubiquitin, where the typing accuracy is 83%, we achieve 91% accuracy, compared to the 59% accuracy obtained without correcting for such errors. In the case of automatically picked peaks, using assignment information from yeast ubiquitin, we achieve a fully automatic assignment with 97% accuracy. To our knowledge, this is the first system that can achieve fully automatic structure-based assignment directly from spectra. This has implications in NMR protein mutant studies, where the assignment step is repeated for each mutant.

  13. G protein Gs alpha (GNAS 1), the probable candidate gene for Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, is assigned to human chromosome 20q12-q13.2.

    PubMed

    Rao, V V; Schnittger, S; Hansmann, I

    1991-05-01

    Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, also known as G proteins, mediate intracellular responses to a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. A variety of genes that specify the synthesis of the components of guanine nucleotide proteins have been identified. One of these proteins, termed Gs alpha (GNAS1), is the G protein component of the olfactory signal transduction cascade. Mutations in the GNAS1 gene leading to Gs alpha protein deficiency are known to be associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia (Albright hereditary osteodystrophy) and certain pituitary tumors with acromegaly. Studies on the human--mouse somatic cell hybrids provisionally assigned this gene to chromosome 20. We have now confirmed this localization on chromosome 20 and regionally assigned the GNAS1 gene to 20q12-q13.2 by in situ hybridization.

  14. Resonance assignment of disordered protein with repetitive and overlapping sequence using combinatorial approach reveals initial structural propensities and local restrictions in the denatured state.

    PubMed

    Malik, Nikita; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-09-01

    NMR resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins poses a challenge because of the limited dispersion of amide proton chemical shifts. This becomes even more complex with the increase in the size of the system. Residue specific selective labeling/unlabeling experiments have been used to resolve the overlap, but require multiple sample preparations. Here, we demonstrate an assignment strategy requiring only a single sample of uniformly labeled (13)C,(15)N-protein. We have used a combinatorial approach, involving 3D-HNN, CC(CO)NH and 2D-MUSIC, which allowed us to assign a denatured centromeric protein Cse4 of 229 residues. Further, we show that even the less sensitive experiments, when used in an efficient manner can lead to the complete assignment of a complex system without the use of specialized probes in a relatively short time frame. The assignment of the amino acids discloses the presence of local structural propensities even in the denatured state accompanied by restricted motion in certain regions that provides insights into the early folding events of the protein.

  15. Improved Peak Detection and Deconvolution of Native Electrospray Mass Spectra from Large Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jonathan; Trnka, Michael J.; Roh, Soung-Hun; Robinson, Philip J. J.; Shiau, Carrie; Fujimori, Danica Galonic; Chiu, Wah; Burlingame, Alma L.; Guan, Shenheng

    2015-12-01

    Native electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (native MS) measures biomolecules under conditions that preserve most aspects of protein tertiary and quaternary structure, enabling direct characterization of large intact protein assemblies. However, native spectra derived from these assemblies are often partially obscured by low signal-to-noise as well as broad peak shapes because of residual solvation and adduction after the electrospray process. The wide peak widths together with the fact that sequential charge state series from highly charged ions are closely spaced means that native spectra containing multiple species often suffer from high degrees of peak overlap or else contain highly interleaved charge envelopes. This situation presents a challenge for peak detection, correct charge state and charge envelope assignment, and ultimately extraction of the relevant underlying mass values of the noncovalent assemblages being investigated. In this report, we describe a comprehensive algorithm developed for addressing peak detection, peak overlap, and charge state assignment in native mass spectra, called PeakSeeker. Overlapped peaks are detected by examination of the second derivative of the raw mass spectrum. Charge state distributions of the molecular species are determined by fitting linear combinations of charge envelopes to the overall experimental mass spectrum. This software is capable of deconvoluting heterogeneous, complex, and noisy native mass spectra of large protein assemblies as demonstrated by analysis of (1) synthetic mononucleosomes containing severely overlapping peaks, (2) an RNA polymerase II/α-amanitin complex with many closely interleaved ion signals, and (3) human TriC complex containing high levels of background noise.

  16. Complete assignment of the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of French bean plastocyanin. Application of an integrated approach to spin system identification in proteins.

    PubMed

    Chazin, W J; Rance, M; Wright, P E

    1988-08-05

    The identification of the spin systems that comprise the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of French bean Cu(I) plastocyanin (Mr 10,600) has been made using an approach that integrates a wide range of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A very large percentage of these assignments has been obtained in spectra acquired from 1H2O solution using a backbone amide-based strategy. The spin systems of 91 of the 99 residues have been assigned to the appropriate amino acid, thereby providing an ample basis for obtaining sequence-specific assignments, as described in the accompanying paper.

  17. Backbone NMR assignments of tryparedoxin, the central protein in the hydroperoxide detoxification cascade of African trypanosomes, in the oxidized and reduced form.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Annika; Diehl, Erika; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Hellmich, Ute A

    2017-06-01

    Tryparedoxin (Tpx) is a pivotal protein in the redox-metabolism of trypanosomatid parasites. Tpx has previously been identified as a potential target for drug development in the fight against human African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei. Tpx belongs to the thioredoxin superfamily and acts as an oxidoreductase in the parasite's cytoplasm. It contains a WCPPC active site motif, which enables the protein to undergo thiol-disulfide exchange. To promote future protein-drug interaction analyses, we report the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone chemical shift assignments for both the oxidized and reduced states of Tpx. The redox state of the protein has a significant impact on the chemical shifts of the residues at the active site of the protein, especially on the two redox active site cysteines. The NMR assignments presented here will be a prerequisite for investigating drug binding to Tpx in molecular detail and to drive further drug optimization.

  18. Assignment of the human pulmonary surfactant protein D gene (SFTP4) to 10q22-q23 close to the surfactant protein A gene cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Koelble, K.; Kaluz, S.; Reid, K.B.M. ); Mole, S.E. )

    1993-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant consists of a complex mixture of phospholipids and several proteins essential to normal respiratory function. Two of the surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, appear to have lectin-like activity relevant to the local phagocytic defense. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based somatic cell hybrid mapping, the human SP-D gene (SFTP4) was assigned to chromosome 10. A regional mapping panel was assembled and characterized using sequence tagged sites for five loci previously mapped to 10q. SFTP4, the SP-A gene (SFTP1), and the microsatellite D10S109 were placed in the interval 10q22-q23. Low-stringency PCR using the SFTP1 primer pair suggested the presence of at least two additional SP-A-related genes in the same region. With the locus for mannose-binding lectin (MBL) at 10q21, this may be indicative of this region's central role in the evolutionary history of carbohydrate-binding proteins containing collagen-like regions. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Assignment of Methyl NMR Resonances of a 52 kDa Protein with Residue-specific 4D Correlation Maps

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Subrata H.; Frueh, Dominique P.

    2015-01-01

    Methyl groups have become key probes for structural and functional studies by nuclear magnetic resonance. However, their NMR signals cluster in a small spectral region and assigning their resonances can be a tedious process. Here, we present a method that facilitates assignment of methyl resonances from assigned amide groups. Calculating the covariance between sensitive methyl and amide 3D spectra, each providing correlations to Cα and Cβ separately, produces 4D correlation maps directly correlating methyl groups to amide groups. Optimal correlation maps are obtained by extracting residue-specific regions, applying derivative to the dimensions subject to covariance, and multiplying 4D maps stemming from different 3D spectra. The latter procedure rescues weak signals that may be missed in traditional assignment procedures. Using these covariance correlation maps, nearly all assigned isoleucine, leucine, and valine amide resonances of a 52 kDa nonribosomal peptide synthetase cyclization domain were paired with their corresponding methyl groups. PMID:25953312

  20. Vibrational entropy of a protein: large differences between distinct conformations.

    PubMed

    Goethe, Martin; Fita, Ignacio; Rubi, J Miguel

    2015-01-13

    In this article, it is investigated whether vibrational entropy (VE) is an important contribution to the free energy of globular proteins at ambient conditions. VE represents the major configurational-entropy contribution of these proteins. By definition, it is an average of the configurational entropies of the protein within single minima of the energy landscape, weighted by their occupation probabilities. Its large part originates from thermal motion of flexible torsion angles giving rise to the finite peak widths observed in torsion angle distributions. While VE may affect the equilibrium properties of proteins, it is usually neglected in numerical calculations as its consideration is difficult. Moreover, it is sometimes believed that all well-packed conformations of a globular protein have similar VE anyway. Here, we measure explicitly the VE for six different conformations from simulation data of a test protein. Estimates are obtained using the quasi-harmonic approximation for three coordinate sets, Cartesian, bond-angle-torsion (BAT), and a new set termed rotamer-degeneracy lifted BAT coordinates by us. The new set gives improved estimates as it overcomes a known shortcoming of the quasi-harmonic approximation caused by multiply populated rotamer states, and it may serve for VE estimation of macromolecules in a very general context. The obtained VE values depend considerably on the type of coordinates used. However, for all coordinate sets we find large entropy differences between the conformations, of the order of the overall stability of the protein. This result may have important implications on the choice of free energy expressions used in software for protein structure prediction, protein design, and NMR refinement.

  1. Photoswitchable red fluorescent protein with a large Stokes shift

    PubMed Central

    Piatkevich, Kiryl D.; English, Brian P.; Malashkevich, Vladimir N.; Xiao, Hui; Almo, Steven C.; Singer, Robert H.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Subclass of fluorescent proteins, large Stokes shift fluorescent proteins, is characterized by their increased spread between the excitation and emission maxima. Here we report a photoswitchable variant of a red fluorescent protein with a large Stokes shift, PSLSSmKate, which initially exhibits excitation/emission at 445/622 nm, but irradiation with violet light photoswitches PSLSSmKate into a common red form with excitation/emission at 573/621 nm. We characterize spectral, photophysical and biochemical properties of PSLSSmKate in vitro and in mammalian cells, and determine its crystal structure in the large Stokes shift form. Mass-spectrometry, mutagenesis and spectroscopic analysis of PSLSSmKate allow us to propose molecular mechanisms for the large Stokes shift, pH dependence and light-induced chromophore transformation. We demonstrate applicability of PSLSSmKate to superresolution PALM microscopy and protein dynamics in live cells. Given its promising properties, we expect that PSLSSmKate-like phenotype will be further used for photoactivatable imaging and tracking multiple populations of intracellular objects. PMID:25242289

  2. Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Rob M; Chu, Peter; Elisma, Fred; Li, Hongyan; Taylor, Paul; Climie, Shane; McBroom-Cerajewski, Linda; Robinson, Mark D; O'Connor, Liam; Li, Michael; Taylor, Rod; Dharsee, Moyez; Ho, Yuen; Heilbut, Adrian; Moore, Lynda; Zhang, Shudong; Ornatsky, Olga; Bukhman, Yury V; Ethier, Martin; Sheng, Yinglun; Vasilescu, Julian; Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Duewel, Henry S; Stewart, Ian I; Kuehl, Bonnie; Hogue, Kelly; Colwill, Karen; Gladwish, Katharine; Muskat, Brenda; Kinach, Robert; Adams, Sally-Lin; Moran, Michael F; Morin, Gregg B; Topaloglou, Thodoros; Figeys, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

  3. Protein resonance assignment at MAS frequencies approaching 100 kHz: a quantitative comparison of J-coupling and dipolar-coupling-based transfer methods.

    PubMed

    Penzel, Susanne; Smith, Albert A; Agarwal, Vipin; Hunkeler, Andreas; Org, Mai-Liis; Samoson, Ago; Böckmann, Anja; Ernst, Matthias; Meier, Beat H

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the optimum experimental conditions to obtain assignment spectra for solid proteins at magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies around 100 kHz. We present a systematic examination of the MAS dependence of the amide proton T 2' times and a site-specific comparison of T 2' at 93 kHz versus 60 kHz MAS frequency. A quantitative analysis of transfer efficiencies of building blocks, as they are used for typical 3D experiments, was performed. To do this, we compared dipolar-coupling and J-coupling based transfer steps. The building blocks were then combined into 3D experiments for sequential resonance assignment, where we evaluated signal-to-noise ratio and information content of the different 3D spectra in order to identify the best assignment strategy. Based on this comparison, six experiments were selected to optimally assign the model protein ubiquitin, solely using spectra acquired at 93 kHz MAS. Within 3 days of instrument time, the required spectra were recorded from which the backbone resonances have been assigned to over 96%.

  4. Pythoscape: a framework for generation of large protein similarity networks.

    PubMed

    Barber, Alan E; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2012-11-01

    Pythoscape is a framework implemented in Python for processing large protein similarity networks for visualization in other software packages. Protein similarity networks are graphical representations of sequence, structural and other similarities among proteins for which pairwise all-by-all similarity connections have been calculated. Mapping of biological and other information to network nodes or edges enables hypothesis creation about sequence-structure-function relationships across sets of related proteins. Pythoscape provides several options to calculate pairwise similarities for input sequences or structures, applies filters to network edges and defines sets of similar nodes and their associated data as single nodes (termed representative nodes) for compression of network information and output data or formatted files for visualization.

  5. Biomolecular NMR using a microcoil NMR probe--new technique for the chemical shift assignment of aromatic side chains in proteins.

    PubMed

    Peti, Wolfgang; Norcross, James; Eldridge, Gary; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark

    2004-05-12

    A specially designed microcoil probe for use in biomolecular NMR spectroscopy is presented. The microcoil probe shows a mass-based sensitivity increase of a minimal factor of 7.5, allowing for the first time routine biomolecular NMR spectroscopy with microgram amounts of proteins. In addition, the exceptional radio frequency capabilities of this probe allowed us to record an aliphatic-aromatic HCCH-TOCSY spectrum for the first time. Using this spectrum, the side chains of aliphatic and aromatic amino acids can be completely assigned using only a single experiment. Using the conserved hypothetical protein TM0979 from Thermotoga maritima, we demonstrate the capabilities of this microcoil NMR probe to completely pursue the sequence specific backbone assignment with less than 500 microg of (13)C,(15)N labeled protein.

  6. Large-Scale Measurement of Absolute Protein Glycosylation Stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shisheng; Zhang, Hui

    2015-07-07

    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important protein modifications. Glycosylation site occupancy alteration has been implicated in human diseases and cancers. However, current glycoproteomic methods focus on the identification and quantification of glycosylated peptides and glycosylation sites but not glycosylation occupancy or glycoform stoichiometry. Here we describe a method for large-scale determination of the absolute glycosylation stoichiometry using three independent relative ratios. Using this method, we determined 117 absolute N-glycosylation occupancies in OVCAR-3 cells. Finally, we investigated the possible functions and the determinants for partial glycosylation.

  7. Strategies for crystallization of large membrane protein complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Shinya; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Ueda, Hidefumi; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Fukumoto, Yoshihisa; Kubota, Tomomi; Kawamoto, Masahide; Fukuyama, Keiichi; Matsubara, Hiroshi

    1992-08-01

    Crystalline cytochrome c oxidase and ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase which diffracted X-rays at 7-8A˚resolution were obtained from bovine heart mitochondria. The methods for the purification and crystallization of these enzymes indicate that large membrane protein complexes are easier to purify and crystallize than smaller homologous membrane protein complexes, because the former have more hydrophilic surface than the latter. Bulky and polydispersed detergents such as Brij-35 and Tween 20 attached to the isolated complex are not always obstructive to crystallization if they are effective for stabilizing the complexes.

  8. Insights into Hox protein function from a large scale combinatorial analysis of protein domains.

    PubMed

    Merabet, Samir; Litim-Mecheri, Isma; Karlsson, Daniel; Dixit, Richa; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Monier, Bruno; Brun, Christine; Thor, Stefan; Vijayraghavan, K; Perrin, Laurent; Pradel, Jacques; Graba, Yacine

    2011-10-01

    Protein function is encoded within protein sequence and protein domains. However, how protein domains cooperate within a protein to modulate overall activity and how this impacts functional diversification at the molecular and organism levels remains largely unaddressed. Focusing on three domains of the central class Drosophila Hox transcription factor AbdominalA (AbdA), we used combinatorial domain mutations and most known AbdA developmental functions as biological readouts to investigate how protein domains collectively shape protein activity. The results uncover redundancy, interactivity, and multifunctionality of protein domains as salient features underlying overall AbdA protein activity, providing means to apprehend functional diversity and accounting for the robustness of Hox-controlled developmental programs. Importantly, the results highlight context-dependency in protein domain usage and interaction, allowing major modifications in domains to be tolerated without general functional loss. The non-pleoitropic effect of domain mutation suggests that protein modification may contribute more broadly to molecular changes underlying morphological diversification during evolution, so far thought to rely largely on modification in gene cis-regulatory sequences.

  9. Insights into Hox Protein Function from a Large Scale Combinatorial Analysis of Protein Domains

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Daniel; Dixit, Richa; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Monier, Bruno; Brun, Christine; Thor, Stefan; Vijayraghavan, K.; Perrin, Laurent; Pradel, Jacques; Graba, Yacine

    2011-01-01

    Protein function is encoded within protein sequence and protein domains. However, how protein domains cooperate within a protein to modulate overall activity and how this impacts functional diversification at the molecular and organism levels remains largely unaddressed. Focusing on three domains of the central class Drosophila Hox transcription factor AbdominalA (AbdA), we used combinatorial domain mutations and most known AbdA developmental functions as biological readouts to investigate how protein domains collectively shape protein activity. The results uncover redundancy, interactivity, and multifunctionality of protein domains as salient features underlying overall AbdA protein activity, providing means to apprehend functional diversity and accounting for the robustness of Hox-controlled developmental programs. Importantly, the results highlight context-dependency in protein domain usage and interaction, allowing major modifications in domains to be tolerated without general functional loss. The non-pleoitropic effect of domain mutation suggests that protein modification may contribute more broadly to molecular changes underlying morphological diversification during evolution, so far thought to rely largely on modification in gene cis-regulatory sequences. PMID:22046139

  10. Comprehensive functional analysis of large lists of genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Mlecnik, Bernhard; Galon, Jérôme; Bindea, Gabriela

    2017-03-22

    The interpretation of high dimensional datasets resulting from genomic and proteomic experiments in a timely and efficient manner is challenging. ClueGO software is a Cytoscape App that extracts representative functional biological information for large lists of genes or proteins. The functional enrichment analysis is based on the latest publicly available data from multiple annotation and ontology resources that can be automatically accessed through ClueGO. Predefined settings for the selection of the terms are provided to facilitate the analysis. Results are visualized as networks in which Gene Ontology (GO) terms and pathways are grouped based on their biological role. Many species are now supported by ClueGO and additional organisms are added on demand. ClueGO can be used together with the CluePedia App to enable the visualization of protein-protein interactions within or between pathways.

  11. Direct mass spectrometric analysis of intact proteins of the yeast large ribosomal subunit using capillary LC/FTICR

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Won; Berger, Scott J.; Martinović, Suzana; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shen, Yufeng; Zhao, Rui; Smith, Richard D.

    2002-01-01

    Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry coupled with capillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography was used to characterize intact proteins from the large subunit of the yeast ribosome. High mass measurement accuracy, achieved by “mass locking” with an internal standard from a dual electrospray ionization source, allowed identification of ribosomal proteins. Analyses of the intact proteins revealed information on cotranslational and posttranslational modifications of the ribosomal proteins that included loss of the initiating methionine, acetylation, methylation, and proteolytic maturation. High-resolution separations permitted differentiation of protein isoforms having high structural similarity as well as proteins from their modified forms, facilitating unequivocal assignments. The study identified 42 of the 43 core large ribosomal subunit proteins and 58 (of 64 possible) core large subunit protein isoforms having unique masses in a single analysis. These results demonstrate the basis for the high-throughput analyses of complex mixtures of intact proteins, which we believe will be an important complement to other approaches for defining protein modifications and their changes resulting from physiological processes or environmental perturbations. PMID:11983894

  12. Tools for Interpreting Large-Scale Protein Profiling in Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, E. L.; Lamont, R. J.; Hackett, M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative proteome analysis of microbial systems generates large datasets that can be difficult and time consuming to interpret. Fortunately, many of the data display and gene clustering tools developed to analyze large transcriptome microarray datasets are also applicable to proteomes. Plots of abundance ratio versus total signal or spectral counts can highlight regions of random error and putative change. Displaying data in the physical order of the genes in the genome sequence can highlight potential operons. At a basic level of transcriptional organization, identifying operons can give insights into regulatory pathways as well as provide corroborating evidence for proteomic results. Classification and clustering algorithms can group proteins together by their abundance changes under different conditions, helping to identify interesting expression patterns, but often work poorly with noisy data like that typically generated in a large-scale proteome analysis. Biological interpretation can be aided more directly by overlaying differential protein abundance data onto metabolic pathways, indicating pathways with altered activities. More broadly, ontology tools detect altered levels of protein abundance for different metabolic pathways, molecular functions and cellular localizations. In practice, pathway analysis and ontology are limited by the level of database curation associated with the organism of interest. PMID:18946006

  13. Backbone and Ile-δ1, Leu, Val Methyl 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shift assignments for human interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Cuifeng; Aramini, James M.; Ma, LiChung; Cort, John R.; Swapna, G.V.T.; Krug, R. M.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2011-10-01

    Human interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein (ISG15), also called ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP), is the first identified ubiquitin-like protein containing two ubiquitin-like domains fused in tandem. The active form of ISG15 is conjugated to target proteins via the C-terminal glycine residue through an isopeptide bond in a manner similar to ubiquitin. The biological role of ISG15 is strongly associated with the modulation of cell immune function, and there is mounting evidence suggesting that many viral pathogens evade the host innate immune response by interfering with ISG15 conjugation to both host and viral proteins in a variety of ways. Here we report nearly complete backbone 1HN, 15N, 13CO, and 13Ca, as well as side chain 13Cb, methyl (Ile-d1, Leu, Val), amide (Asn, Gln), and indole NH (Trp) NMR resonance assignments for the 157-residue human ISG15 protein. These resonance assignments provide the basis for future structural and functional solution NMR studies of the biologically important human ISG15 protein.

  14. A structural dissection of large protein-protein crystal packing contacts.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiesi; Liu, Zhongyu; Guo, Yanzhi; Li, Menglong

    2015-09-15

    With the rapid increase in crystal structures of protein-protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), more and more crystal contacts have been shown to have similar or even larger interface areas than biological interfaces. However, little attention has been paid to these large crystal packing contacts and their structural principles remain unknown. To address this issue, we used a comparative feature analysis to analyze the geometric and physicochemical properties of large crystal packing contacts by comparing two types of specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs), weak transient complexes and permanent homodimers. Our results show that although large crystal packing contacts have a similar interface area and contact size as permanent homodimers, they tend to be more planar, loosely packed and less hydrophobic than permanent homodimers and cannot form a central core region that is fully buried during interaction. However, the properties of large crystal packing contacts, except for the interface area and contact size, more closely resemble those of weak transient complexes. The large overlap between biological and large crystal packing contacts indicates that interface properties are not efficient indicators for classification of biological interfaces from large crystal packing contacts and finding other specific features urgently needed.

  15. Shape-Dependent Global Deformation Modes of Large Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Miloshevsky, Gennady V.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Jordan, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Conformational changes are central to the functioning of pore-forming proteins that open and close their molecular gates in response to external stimuli such as pH, ionic strength, membrane voltage or ligand binding. Normal mode analysis (NMA) is used to identify and characterize the slowest motions in the gA, KcsA, ClC-ec1, LacY and LeuTAa proteins at the onset of gating. Global deformation modes of the essentially cylindrical gA, KcsA, LacY and LeuTAa biomolecules are reminiscent of global twisting, transverse and longitudinal motions in a homogeneous elastic rod. The ClC-ec1 protein executes a splaying motion in the plane perpendicular to the lipid bilayer. These global collective deformations are determined by protein shape. New methods, all-atom Monte Carlo Normal Mode Following and its simplification using a rotation-translation of protein blocks (RTB), are described and applied to gain insight into the nature of gating transitions in gA and KcsA. These studies demonstrate the severe limitations of standard NMA in characterizing the structural rearrangements associated with gating transitions. Comparison of all-atom and RTB transition pathways in gA clearly illustrates the impact of the rigid protein block approximation and the need to include all degrees of freedom and their relaxation in computational studies of protein gating. The effects of atomic level structure, pH, hydrogen bonding and charged residues on the large scale conformational changes associated with gating transitions are discussed. PMID:20526444

  16. Shape-dependent global deformation modes of large protein structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloshevsky, Gennady V.; Hassanein, Ahmed; Jordan, Peter C.

    2010-05-01

    Conformational changes are central to the functioning of pore-forming proteins that open and close their molecular gates in response to external stimuli such as pH, ionic strength, membrane voltage or ligand binding. Normal mode analysis (NMA) is used to identify and characterize the slowest motions in the gA, KcsA, ClC-ec1, LacY and LeuT Aa proteins at the onset of gating. Global deformation modes of the essentially cylindrical gA, KcsA, LacY and LeuT Aa biomolecules are reminiscent of global twisting, transverse and longitudinal motions in a homogeneous elastic rod. The ClC-ec1 protein executes a splaying motion in the plane perpendicular to the lipid bilayer. These global collective deformations are determined by protein shape. New methods, all-atom Monte Carlo Normal Mode Following and its simplification using a rotation-translation of protein blocks (RTB), are described and applied to gain insight into the nature of gating transitions in gA and KcsA. These studies demonstrate the severe limitations of standard NMA in characterizing the structural rearrangements associated with gating transitions. Comparison of all-atom and RTB transition pathways in gA clearly illustrates the impact of the rigid protein block approximation and the need to include all degrees of freedom and their relaxation in computational studies of protein gating. The effects of atomic level structure, pH, hydrogen bonding and charged residues on the large-scale conformational changes associated with gating transitions are discussed.

  17. Predicting protein functions from redundancies in large-scale protein interaction networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, Manoj Pratim; Liang, Shoudan

    2003-01-01

    Interpreting data from large-scale protein interaction experiments has been a challenging task because of the widespread presence of random false positives. Here, we present a network-based statistical algorithm that overcomes this difficulty and allows us to derive functions of unannotated proteins from large-scale interaction data. Our algorithm uses the insight that if two proteins share significantly larger number of common interaction partners than random, they have close functional associations. Analysis of publicly available data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals >2,800 reliable functional associations, 29% of which involve at least one unannotated protein. By further analyzing these associations, we derive tentative functions for 81 unannotated proteins with high certainty. Our method is not overly sensitive to the false positives present in the data. Even after adding 50% randomly generated interactions to the measured data set, we are able to recover almost all (approximately 89%) of the original associations.

  18. Predicting protein functions from redundancies in large-scale protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Manoj Pratim; Liang, Shoudan

    2003-01-01

    Interpreting data from large-scale protein interaction experiments has been a challenging task because of the widespread presence of random false positives. Here, we present a network-based statistical algorithm that overcomes this difficulty and allows us to derive functions of unannotated proteins from large-scale interaction data. Our algorithm uses the insight that if two proteins share significantly larger number of common interaction partners than random, they have close functional associations. Analysis of publicly available data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals >2,800 reliable functional associations, 29% of which involve at least one unannotated protein. By further analyzing these associations, we derive tentative functions for 81 unannotated proteins with high certainty. Our method is not overly sensitive to the false positives present in the data. Even after adding 50% randomly generated interactions to the measured data set, we are able to recover almost all (≈89%) of the original associations. PMID:14566057

  19. Predicting protein functions from redundancies in large-scale protein interaction networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanta, Manoj Pratim; Liang, Shoudan

    2003-01-01

    Interpreting data from large-scale protein interaction experiments has been a challenging task because of the widespread presence of random false positives. Here, we present a network-based statistical algorithm that overcomes this difficulty and allows us to derive functions of unannotated proteins from large-scale interaction data. Our algorithm uses the insight that if two proteins share significantly larger number of common interaction partners than random, they have close functional associations. Analysis of publicly available data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals >2,800 reliable functional associations, 29% of which involve at least one unannotated protein. By further analyzing these associations, we derive tentative functions for 81 unannotated proteins with high certainty. Our method is not overly sensitive to the false positives present in the data. Even after adding 50% randomly generated interactions to the measured data set, we are able to recover almost all (approximately 89%) of the original associations.

  20. Sizing Large Proteins and Protein Complexes by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Kaddis, Catherine S.; Lomeli, Shirley H.; Yin, Sheng; Berhane, Beniam; Apostol, Marcin I.; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Loo, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility with electrospray ionization (ESI) have the capability to measure and detect large noncovalent protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes. Using an ion mobility method termed GEMMA (Gas-Phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis), protein particles representing a range of sizes can be separated by their electrophoretic mobility in air. Highly charged particles produced from a protein complex solution using electrospray can be manipulated to produce singly charged ions which can be separated and quantified by their electrophoretic mobility. Results from ESI-GEMMA analysis from our laboratory and others were compared to other experimental and theoretically determined parameters, such as molecular mass and cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray crystal structure dimensions. There is a strong correlation between the electrophoretic mobility diameter determined from GEMMA analysis and the molecular mass for protein complexes up to 12 MDa, including the 93 kDa enolase dimer, the 480 kDa ferritin 24-mer complex, the 4.6 MDa cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), and the 9 MDa MVP-vault assembly. ESI-GEMMA is used to differentiate a number of similarly sized vault complexes that are composed of different N-terminal protein tags on the MVP subunit. The average effective density of the proteins and protein complexes studied was 0.6 g/cm3. Moreover, there is evidence that proteins and protein complexes collapse or become more compact in the gas phase in the absence of water. PMID:17434746

  1. Detecting differential protein expression in large-scale population proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Soyoung; Qian, Weijun; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2014-06-17

    Mass spectrometry-based high-throughput quantitative proteomics shows great potential in clinical biomarker studies, identifying and quantifying thousands of proteins in biological samples. However, methods are needed to appropriately handle issues/challenges unique to mass spectrometry data in order to detect as many biomarker proteins as possible. One issue is that different mass spectrometry experiments generate quite different total numbers of quantified peptides, which can result in more missing peptide abundances in an experiment with a smaller total number of quantified peptides. Another issue is that the quantification of peptides is sometimes absent, especially for less abundant peptides and such missing values contain the information about the peptide abundance. Here, we propose a Significance Analysis for Large-scale Proteomics Studies (SALPS) that handles missing peptide intensity values caused by the two mechanisms mentioned above. Our model has a robust performance in both simulated data and proteomics data from a large clinical study. Because varying patients’ sample qualities and deviating instrument performances are not avoidable for clinical studies performed over the course of several years, we believe that our approach will be useful to analyze large-scale clinical proteomics data.

  2. Complex protein nanopatterns over large areas via colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Stine H; Pedersen, Gitte A; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Bochenkov, Vladimir; Nejsum, Lene N; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2013-04-01

    The patterning of biomolecules at the nanoscale provides a powerful method to investigate cellular adhesion processes. A novel method for patterning is presented that is based on colloidal monolayer templating combined with multiple and angled deposition steps. Patterns of gold and SiO2 layers are used to generate complex protein nanopatterns over large areas. Simple circular patches or more complex ring structures are produced in addition to hierarchical patterns of smaller patches. The gold regions are modified through alkanethiol chemistry, which enables the preparation of extracellular matrix proteins (vitronectin) or cellular ligands (the extracellular domain of E-cadherin) in the nanopatterns, whereas the selective poly(l-lysine)-poly(ethylene glycol) functionalization of the SiO2 matrix renders it protein repellent. Cell studies, as a proof of principle, demonstrate the potential for using sets of systematically varied samples with simpler or more complex patterns for studies of cellular adhesive behavior and reveal that the local distribution of proteins within a simple patch critically influences cell adhesion. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Monomeric red fluorescent proteins with a large Stokes shift.

    PubMed

    Piatkevich, Kiryl D; Hulit, James; Subach, Oksana M; Wu, Bin; Abdulla, Arian; Segall, Jeffrey E; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2010-03-23

    Two-photon microscopy has advanced fluorescence imaging of cellular processes in living animals. Fluorescent proteins in the blue-green wavelength range are widely used in two-photon microscopy; however, the use of red fluorescent proteins is limited by the low power output of Ti-Sapphire lasers above 1,000 nm. To overcome this limitation we have developed two red fluorescent proteins, LSS-mKate1 and LSS-mKate2, which possess large Stokes shifts with excitation/emission maxima at 463/624 and 460/605 nm, respectively. These LSS-mKates are characterized by high pH stability, photostability, rapid chromophore maturation, and monomeric behavior. They lack absorbance in the green region, providing an additional red color to the commonly used red fluorescent proteins. Substantial overlap between the two-photon excitation spectra of the LSS-mKates and blue-green fluorophores enables multicolor imaging using a single laser. We applied this approach to a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer to intravitally study the motility and Golgi-nucleus alignment of tumor cells as a function of their distance from blood vessels. Our data indicate that within 40 mum the breast cancer cells show significant polarization towards vessels in living mice.

  4. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; ...

    2015-03-30

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for themore » growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.« less

  5. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Hodge, Teresa A.; Huang, Sijay

    2015-03-30

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for the growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.

  6. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Hodge, Teresa A.; Huang, Sijay

    2015-01-01

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for the growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. These include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations. PMID:25849493

  7. NMR resonance assignments of the archaeal ribosomal protein L7Ae in the apo form and bound to a 25 nt RNA.

    PubMed

    Moschen, Thomas; Wunderlich, Christoph; Kreutz, Christoph; Tollinger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The archaeal protein L7Ae forms part of a protein complex in the ribosome that specifically recognizes and binds to kink-turn RNA. In this complex, L7Ae directly interacts with the oligonucleotide and creates a functional arrangement for site-specific 2'-O-methylation. We report the solution NMR backbone assignment of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae (117 residues, 12.7 kDa) in the ligand-free state and when bound to a 25 nucleotide C/D box kink-turn mimic RNA.

  8. Proton-detected MAS NMR experiments based on dipolar transfers for backbone assignment of highly deuterated proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevelkov, Veniamin; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Proton-detected solid-state NMR was applied to a highly deuterated insoluble, non-crystalline biological assembly, the Salmonella typhimurium type iii secretion system (T3SS) needle. Spectra of very high resolution and sensitivity were obtained at a low protonation level of 10-20% at exchangeable amide positions. We developed efficient experimental protocols for resonance assignment tailored for this system and the employed experimental conditions. Using exclusively dipolar-based interspin magnetization transfers, we recorded two sets of 3D spectra allowing for an almost complete backbone resonance assignment of the needle subunit PrgI. The additional information provided by the well-resolved proton dimension revealed the presence of two sets of resonances in the N-terminal helix of PrgI, while in previous studies employing 13C detection only a single set of resonances was observed.

  9. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata: sequential and stereospecific resonance assignment and secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, P C; Clore, G M; Beress, L; Gronenborn, A M

    1989-03-07

    The sequential resonance assignment of the 1H NMR spectrum of the antihypertensive and antiviral protein BDS-I from the sea anemone Anemonia sulcata is presented. This is carried out with two-dimensional NMR techniques to identify through-bond and through-space (less than 5 A) connectivities. Added spectral complexity arises from the fact that the sample is an approximately 1:1 mixture of two BDS-I isoproteins, (Leu-18)-BDS-I and (Phe-18)-BDS-I. Complete assignments, however, are obtained, largely due to the increased resolution and sensitivity afforded at 600 MHz. In addition, the stereospecific assignment of a large number of beta-methylene protons is achieved from an analysis of the pattern of 3J alpha beta coupling constants and the relative magnitudes of intraresidue NOEs involving the NH, C alpha H, and C beta H protons. Regular secondary structure elements are deduced from a qualitative interpretation of the nuclear Overhauser enhancement, 3JHN alpha coupling constant, and amide NH exchange data. A triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet is found to be related to that found in partially homologous sea anemone polypeptide toxins.

  10. Discovery of Manassantin A Protein Targets Using Large-Scale Protein Folding and Stability Measurements.

    PubMed

    Geer Wallace, M Ariel; Kwon, Do-Yeon; Weitzel, Douglas H; Lee, Chen-Ting; Stephenson, Tesia N; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Mook, Robert A; Dewhirst, Mark W; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2016-08-05

    Manassantin A is a natural product that has been shown to have anticancer activity in cell-based assays, but has a largely unknown mode-of-action. Described here is the use of two different energetics-based approaches to identify protein targets of manassantin A. Using the stability of proteins from rates of oxidation technique with an isobaric mass tagging strategy (iTRAQ-SPROX) and the pulse proteolysis technique with a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture strategy (SILAC-PP), over 1000 proteins in a MDA-MB-231 cell lysate grown under hypoxic conditions were assayed for manassantin A interactions (both direct and indirect). A total of 28 protein hits were identified with manassantin A-induced thermodynamic stability changes. Two of the protein hits (filamin A and elongation factor 1α) were identified using both experimental approaches. The remaining 26 hit proteins were only assayed in either the iTRAQ-SPROX or the SILAC-PP experiment. The 28 potential protein targets of manassantin A identified here provide new experimental avenues along which to explore the molecular basis of manassantin A's mode of action. The current work also represents the first application iTRAQ-SPROX and SILAC-PP to the large-scale analysis of protein-ligand binding interactions involving a potential anticancer drug with an unknown mode-of-action.

  11. Resonance assignments of the myristoylated Y28F/Y67F mutant of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Doležal, Michal; Hrabal, Richard; Ruml, Tomáš; Rumlová, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    The matrix protein (MA) of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) plays a key role in the transport and budding of immature retroviral particles from the host cell. Natural N-terminal myristoylation of MA is essential for the targeting of the particles to the plasma membrane and participates in the interaction of MA with membranes phospholipids. The mutation Y28F/Y67F in MA reduces budding and thus causes the accumulation of viral particles under the cytoplasmic membrane. To investigate the impact of Y28F/Y67F mutation on the structure of MA, we prepared this protein in amount and quality suitable for NMR spectroscopy. We report backbone, side-chain and myristoyl residue assignments of the Y28F/Y67F mutant of the M-PMV matrix protein, which will be used to study the interaction with membrane phospholipids and to determine the structure of the mutant matrix protein.

  12. A large solvent isotope effect on protein association thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Eginton, Christopher; Beckett, Dorothy

    2013-09-24

    Solvent reorganization can contribute significantly to the energetics of protein-protein interactions. However, our knowledge of the magnitude of the energetic contribution is limited, in part, by a dearth of quantitative experimental measurements. The biotin repressor forms a homodimer as a prerequisite to DNA binding to repress transcription initiation. At 20 °C, the dimerization reaction, which is thermodynamically coupled to binding of a small ligand, bio-5'-AMP, is characterized by a Gibbs free energy of -7 kcal/mol. This modest net dimerization free energy reflects underlying, very large opposing enthalpic and entropic driving forces of 41 ± 3 and -48 ± 3 kcal/mol, respectively. The thermodynamics have been interpreted as indicating coupling of solvent release to dimerization. In this work, this interpretation has been investigated by measuring the effect of replacing H2O with D2O on the dimerization thermodynamics. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements performed at 20 °C reveal a solvent isotope effect of -1.5 kcal/mol on the Gibbs free energy of dimerization. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the reaction in D2O indicates enthalpic and entropic contributions of 28 and -37 kcal/mol, respectively, considerably smaller than the values measured in H2O. These large solvent isotope perturbations to the thermodynamics are consistent with a significant contribution of solvent release to the dimerization reaction.

  13. Large Ribosomal Protein 4 Increases Efficiency of Viral Recoding Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Green, Lisa; Houck-Loomis, Brian; Yueh, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Expression of retroviral replication enzymes (Pol) requires a controlled translational recoding event to bypass the stop codon at the end of gag. This recoding event occurs either by direct suppression of termination via the insertion of an amino acid at the stop codon (readthrough) or by alteration of the mRNA reading frame (frameshift). Here we report the effects of a host protein, large ribosomal protein 4 (RPL4), on the efficiency of recoding. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay, we found that transfection of cells with a plasmid encoding RPL4 cDNA increases recoding efficiency in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal enhancement of nearly twofold. Expression of RPL4 increases recoding of reporters containing retroviral readthrough and frameshift sequences, as well as the Sindbis virus leaky termination signal. RPL4-induced enhancement of recoding is cell line specific and appears to be specific to RPL4 among ribosomal proteins. Cotransfection of RPL4 cDNA with Moloney murine leukemia proviral DNA results in Gag processing defects and a reduction of viral particle formation, presumably caused by the RPL4-dependent alteration of the Gag-to-Gag-Pol ratio required for virion assembly and release. PMID:22718819

  14. APoc: large-scale identification of similar protein pockets

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mu; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Most proteins interact with small-molecule ligands such as metabolites or drug compounds. Over the past several decades, many of these interactions have been captured in high-resolution atomic structures. From a geometric point of view, most interaction sites for grasping these small-molecule ligands, as revealed in these structures, form concave shapes, or ‘pockets’, on the protein’s surface. An efficient method for comparing these pockets could greatly assist the classification of ligand-binding sites, prediction of protein molecular function and design of novel drug compounds. Results: We introduce a computational method, APoc (Alignment of Pockets), for the large-scale, sequence order-independent, structural comparison of protein pockets. A scoring function, the Pocket Similarity Score (PS-score), is derived to measure the level of similarity between pockets. Statistical models are used to estimate the significance of the PS-score based on millions of comparisons of randomly related pockets. APoc is a general robust method that may be applied to pockets identified by various approaches, such as ligand-binding sites as observed in experimental complex structures, or predicted pockets identified by a pocket-detection method. Finally, we curate large benchmark datasets to evaluate the performance of APoc and present interesting examples to demonstrate the usefulness of the method. We also demonstrate that APoc has better performance than the geometric hashing-based method SiteEngine. Availability and implementation: The APoc software package including the source code is freely available at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/APoc. Contact: skolnick@gatech.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23335017

  15. Assignment of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) linkage groups to specific chromosomes: conservation of large syntenic blocks corresponding to whole chromosome arms in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ruth B; Keatley, Kimberly A; Morasch, Matthew R; Ventura, Abigail B; Lubieniecki, Krzysztof P; Koop, Ben F; Danzmann, Roy G; Davidson, William S

    2009-08-18

    Most teleost species, especially freshwater groups such as the Esocidae which are the closest relatives of salmonids, have a karyotype comprising 25 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes and 48-52 chromosome arms. After the common ancestor of salmonids underwent a whole genome duplication, its karyotype would have 100 chromosome arms, and this is reflected in the modal range of 96-104 seen in extant salmonids (e.g., rainbow trout). The Atlantic salmon is an exception among the salmonids as it has 72-74 chromosome arms and its karyotype includes 12 pairs of large acrocentric chromosomes, which appear to be the result of tandem fusions. The purpose of this study was to integrate the Atlantic salmon's linkage map and karyotype and to compare the chromosome map with that of rainbow trout. The Atlantic salmon genetic linkage groups were assigned to specific chromosomes in the European subspecies using fluorescence in situ hybridization with BAC probes containing genetic markers mapped to each linkage group. The genetic linkage groups were larger for metacentric chromosomes compared to acrocentric chromosomes of similar size. Comparison of the Atlantic salmon chromosome map with that of rainbow trout provides strong evidence for conservation of large syntenic blocks in these species, corresponding to entire chromosome arms in the rainbow trout. It had been suggested that some of the large acrocentric chromosomes in Atlantic salmon are the result of tandem fusions, and that the small blocks of repetitive DNA in the middle of the arms represent the sites of chromosome fusions. The finding that the chromosomal regions on either side of the blocks of repetitive DNA within the larger acrocentric chromosomes correspond to different rainbow trout chromosome arms provides support for this hypothesis.

  16. Reduced dimensionality tailored HN(C)N experiments for facile backbone resonance assignment of proteins through unambiguous identification of sequential HSQC peaks.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2013-12-01

    Two novel reduced dimensionality (RD) tailored HN(C)N [S.C. Panchal, N.S. Bhavesh, R.V. Hosur, Improved 3D triple resonance experiments, HNN and HN(C)N, for HN and 15N sequential correlations in (13C, 15N) labeled proteins: application to unfolded proteins, J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147] experiments are proposed to facilitate the backbone resonance assignment of proteins both in terms of its accuracy and speed. These experiments - referred here as (4,3)D-hNCOcaNH and (4,3)D-hNcoCANH - exploit the linear combination of backbone (15)N and (13)C'/(13)C(α) chemical shifts simultaneously to achieve higher peak dispersion and randomness along their respective F1 dimensions. Simply, this has been achieved by modulating the backbone (15)N(i) chemical shifts with that of (13)C' (i-1)/(13)C(α) (i-1) spins following the established reduced dimensionality NMR approach [T. Szyperski, D.C. Yeh, D.K. Sukumaran, H.N. Moseley, G.T. Montelione, Reduced-dimensionality NMR spectroscopy for high-throughput protein resonance assignment, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 8009-8014]. Though the modification is simple it has resulted an ingenious improvement of HN(C)N both in terms of peak dispersion and easiness of establishing the sequential connectivities. The increased dispersion along F1 dimension solves two purposes here: (i) resolves the ambiguities arising because of degenerate (15)N chemical shifts and (ii) reduces the signal overlap in F2((15)N)-F3((1)H) planes (an important requisite in HN(C)N based assignment protocol for facile and unambiguous identification of sequentially connected HSQC peaks). The performance of both these experiments and the assignment protocol has been demonstrated using bovine apo Calbindin-d9k (75 aa) and urea denatured UNC60B (a 152 amino acid ADF/cofilin family protein of Caenorhabditis elegans), as representatives of folded and unfolded protein systems, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for Escherichia coli ytfP, a member of the broadly conserved UPF0131 protein domain family

    SciTech Connect

    Aramini, James M.; Swapna, G.V.T.; Huang, Yuanpeng; Rajan, Paranji K.; Xiao, Rong; Shastry, Ritu; Acton, Thomas; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    Protein ytfP from Escherichia coli (Swiss-Prot ID: YTFP-ECOLI; NESG target ID: ER111; Wunderlich et al., 2004) is a 113-residue member of the UPF0131 protein family (Pfam ID: PF03674) of unknown function. This domain family is found in organisms from all three kingdoms, archaea, eubacteria and eukaryotes. Using triple resonance NMR techniques, we have determined 97% of backbone and 91% of side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments. The chemical shift and 3J(HN?Ha) scalar coupling data reveal a mixed a/b topology,????????. BMRB deposit with Accession No. 6448. Reference: Wunderlich et al. (2004) Proteins, 56, 181?187.

  18. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for the protein coded by gene locus BB0938 of Bordetella bronchiseptica

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Paolo; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Xiao, Rong; Ho, Chi K.; Ma, LiChung; Acton, Thomas; Kennedy, Michael A.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    The product of gene locus BB0938 from Bordetella bronchiseptica (Swiss-Prot ID: Q7WNU7-BORBR; NESG target ID: BoR11; Wunderlich et al., 2004; Pfam ID: PF03476) is a 128-residue protein of unknown function. This broadly conserved protein family is found in eubacteria and eukaryotes. Using triple resonance NMR techniques, we have determined 98% of backbone and 94% of side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments. The chemical shift and 3J(HN?Ha) scalar coupling data reveal a b topology with a seven-residue helical insert, ??????????. BMRB deposit with accession number 6693. Reference: Wunderlich et al. (2004) Proteins, 56, 181?187.

  19. Photoswitchable red fluorescent protein with a large Stokes shift.

    PubMed

    Piatkevich, Kiryl D; English, Brian P; Malashkevich, Vladimir N; Xiao, Hui; Almo, Steven C; Singer, Robert H; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2014-10-23

    A subclass of fluorescent proteins (FPs), large Stokes shift (LSS) FP, are characterized by increased spread between excitation and emission maxima. We report a photoswitchable variant of a red FP with an LSS, PSLSSmKate, which initially exhibits excitation and emission at 445 and 622 nm, but violet irradiation photoswitches PSLSSmKate into a common red form with excitation and emission at 573 and 621 nm. We characterize spectral, photophysical, and biochemical properties of PSLSSmKate in vitro and in mammalian cells and determine its crystal structure in the LSS form. Mass spectrometry, mutagenesis, and spectroscopy of PSLSSmKate allow us to propose molecular mechanisms for the LSS, pH dependence, and light-induced chromophore transformation. We demonstrate the applicability of PSLSSmKate to superresolution photoactivated localization microscopy and protein dynamics in live cells. Given its promising properties, we expect that PSLSSmKate-like phenotype will be further used for photoactivatable imaging and tracking multiple populations of intracellular objects.

  20. 1H, 15N and 13C resonance assignments of light organ-associated fatty acid-binding protein of Taiwanese fireflies.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kai-Li; Lee, Yi-Zong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2016-04-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of proteins that modulate the transfer of various fatty acids in the cytosol and constitute a significant portion in many energy-consuming cells. The ligand binding properties and specific functions of a particular type of FABP seem to be diverse and depend on the respective binding cavity as well as the cell type from which this protein is derived. Previously, a novel FABP (lcFABP; lc: Luciola cerata) was identified in the light organ of Taiwanese fireflies. The lcFABP was proved to possess fatty acids binding capabilities, especially for fatty acids of length C14-C18. However, the structural details are unknown, and the structure-function relationship has remained to be further investigated. In this study, we finished the (1)H, (15)N and (13)C chemical shift assignments of (15)N/(13)C-enriched lcFABP by solution NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the secondary structure distribution was revealed based on the backbone N, H, Cα, Hα, C and side chain Cβ assignments. These results can provide the basis for further structural exploration of lcFABP.

  1. A fundamental protein property, thermodynamic stability, revealed solely from large-scale measurements of protein function

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Carlos L.; Fowler, Douglas M.; Chen, Wentao; Muniez, Ike; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Fields, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The ability of a protein to carry out a given function results from fundamental physicochemical properties that include the protein’s structure, mechanism of action, and thermodynamic stability. Traditional approaches to study these properties have typically required the direct measurement of the property of interest, oftentimes a laborious undertaking. Although protein properties can be probed by mutagenesis, this approach has been limited by its low throughput. Recent technological developments have enabled the rapid quantification of a protein’s function, such as binding to a ligand, for numerous variants of that protein. Here, we measure the ability of 47,000 variants of a WW domain to bind to a peptide ligand and use these functional measurements to identify stabilizing mutations without directly assaying stability. Our approach is rooted in the well-established concept that protein function is closely related to stability. Protein function is generally reduced by destabilizing mutations, but this decrease can be rescued by stabilizing mutations. Based on this observation, we introduce partner potentiation, a metric that uses this rescue ability to identify stabilizing mutations, and identify 15 candidate stabilizing mutations in the WW domain. We tested six candidates by thermal denaturation and found two highly stabilizing mutations, one more stabilizing than any previously known mutation. Thus, physicochemical properties such as stability are latent within these large-scale protein functional data and can be revealed by systematic analysis. This approach should allow other protein properties to be discovered. PMID:23035249

  2. Recent excitements in protein NMR: Large proteins and biologically relevant dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chiliveri, Sai Chaitanya; Deshmukh, Mandar V

    2016-12-01

    The advent of Transverse Relaxation Optimized SpectroscopY (TROSY) and perdeuteration allowed biomolecular NMR spectroscopists to overcome the size limitation barrier (approx. 20 kDa) in de novo structure determination of proteins. The utility of these techniques was immediately demonstrated on large proteins and protein complexes (e.g. GroELGroES, ClpP protease, Hsp90-p53, 20S proteasome, etc.). Further, recent methodological developments such as Residual Dipolar Couplings and Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement allowed accurate measurement of long-range structural restraints. Additionally, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG), rotating frame relaxation experiments (R1(rho)) and saturation transfer experiments (CEST and DEST) created never-before accessibility to the (mu)s-ms timescale dynamic parameters that led to the deeper understanding of biological processes. Meanwhile, the excitement in the field continued with a series of developments in the fast data acquisition methods allowing rapid structural studies on less stable proteins. This review aims to discuss important developments in the field of biomolecular NMR spectroscopy in the recent past, i.e., in the post TROSY era. These developments not only gave access to the structural studies of large protein assemblies, but also revolutionized tools in the arsenal of today's biomolecular NMR and point to a bright future of biomolecular NMR spectroscopy.

  3. A sequential assignment procedure for proteins that have intermediate line widths in MAS NMR spectra: amyloid fibrils of human CA150.WW2.

    PubMed

    Becker, Johanna; Ferguson, Neil; Flinders, Jeremy; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Fersht, Alan R; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2008-08-11

    The second WW domain (WW2) of CA150, a human transcriptional activator, forms amyloid fibrils in vitro under physiological conditions. Based on experimental constraints from MAS NMR spectroscopy experiments, alanine scanning and electron microscopy, a structural model of CA150.WW2 amyloid fibrils was calculated earlier. Here, the assignment strategy is presented and suggested as a general approach for proteins that show intermediate line width. The (13)C,(13)C correlation experiments were recorded on fully or partially (13)C-labelled fibrils. The earlier (13)C assignment (26 residues) was extended to 34 of the 40 residues by direct (13)C-excitation experiments by using a deuterated sample that showed strongly improved line width. A 3D HNC-TEDOR (transferred-echo double-resonance) experiment with deuterated CA150.WW2 fibrils yielded 14 amide nitrogen and proton resonance assignments. The obtained chemical shifts were compared with the chemical shifts determined with the natively folded WW domain. TALOS (Torsion angle likelihood obtained from shift and sequence similarity) predictions confirmed that, under physiological conditions, the fibrillar form of CA150.WW2 adopts a significantly different beta structure than the native WW-domain fold.

  4. Assignment of the protein kinase C delta polypeptide gene (PRKCD) to human chromosome 3 and mouse chromosome 14.

    PubMed

    Huppi, K; Siwarski, D; Goodnight, J; Mischak, H

    1994-01-01

    The protein kinase C (pkc) enzymes are a family of serine-threonine protein kinases, each encoded by a distinct and separate gene. The chromosomal locations of human PRKCA, PRKCB, and PRKCG have previously been established. We now report that PRKCD, a novel member of the pkc gene family, maps to human chromosome 3. The chromosomal location of Pkcd has also been determined in the mouse by analysis of recombination frequency in an interspecific panel of backcross mice. We find that the locus encoding pkcd resides proximal to nucleoside phosphorylase (Np-2) and Tcra on mouse chromosome 14 in a region syntenic with human 3p.

  5. 1H, 13C, and 15N assignment of the muscular LIM protein MLP/CRP3.

    PubMed

    Schallus, Thomas; Edlich, Christian; Stier, Gunter; Muhle-Goll, Claudia

    2007-07-01

    The family of CRP proteins comprises three members, which are composed of two LIM domains separated by a long linker of more than 50 residues. We determined the structure of the muscle variant, MLP (CRP3), by nuclear magnetic resonance and show that the two LIM domains are independent of each other.

  6. Assignment of the human protein tyrosine phosphatase epsilon (PTPRE) gene to chromosome 10q26 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Maagdenberg, A.M.J.M. van den; Hurk, H.H. van den; Wieringa, B.

    1995-11-01

    Phosphorylation of cellular protein tyrosine residues is an important mechanism for the transduction of external signals to the intracellular compartment. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) act in concert with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) to regulate the level of tyrosine phosphorylation in these proteins. PTKs have been studied in detail, and many have been shown to be proto-oncogenes. Because PTPases can be considered functional antagonists of PTKs it has been postulated that these PTPases might act as tumor suppressors. Over 30 different PTPase genes have been isolated so far, and the chromosomal localization has been determined for many of them. Comparison of such mapping data with temporal and spatial expression patterns of individual PTPase genes and losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in relevant tumor types could be indicative of their proposed tumor suppressive activity. Until now, chromosomal deletions have been reported only for the PTPRG gene in primary renal and lung carcinomas and cancer-derived cell lines, but a causal role for a loss of PTPase activity in tumor formation remains to be determined. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Structure-Based Assignment of Ile, Leu, and Val Methyl Groups in the Active and Inactive Forms of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yao; Warner, Lisa R; Latham, Michael P; Ahn, Natalie G; Pardi, Arthur

    2015-07-21

    Resonance assignments are the first step in most NMR studies of protein structure, function, and dynamics. Standard protein assignment methods employ through-bond backbone experiments on uniformly (13)C/(15)N-labeled proteins. For larger proteins, this through-bond assignment procedure often breaks down due to rapid relaxation and spectral overlap. The challenges involved in studies of larger proteins led to efficient methods for (13)C labeling of side chain methyl groups, which have favorable relaxation properties and high signal-to-noise. These methyls are often still assigned by linking them to the previously assigned backbone, thus limiting the applications for larger proteins. Here, a structure-based procedure is described for assignment of (13)C(1)H3-labeled methyls by comparing distance information obtained from three-dimensional methyl-methyl nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) spectroscopy with the X-ray structure. The Ile, Leu, or Val (ILV) methyl type is determined by through-bond experiments, and the methyl-methyl NOE data are analyzed in combination with the known structure. A hierarchical approach was employed that maps the largest observed "NOE-methyl cluster" onto the structure. The combination of identification of ILV methyl type with mapping of the NOE-methyl clusters greatly simplifies the assignment process. This method was applied to the inactive and active forms of the 42-kDa ILV (13)C(1)H3-methyl labeled extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), leading to assignment of 60% of the methyls, including 90% of Ile residues. A series of ILV to Ala mutants were analyzed, which helped confirm the assignments. These assignments were used to probe the local and long-range effects of ligand binding to inactive and active ERK2.

  8. Investigating the Role of Large-Scale Domain Dynamics in Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Delaforge, Elise; Milles, Sigrid; Huang, Jie-rong; Bouvier, Denis; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Sattler, Michael; Hart, Darren J.; Blackledge, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered linkers provide multi-domain proteins with degrees of conformational freedom that are often essential for function. These highly dynamic assemblies represent a significant fraction of all proteomes, and deciphering the physical basis of their interactions represents a considerable challenge. Here we describe the difficulties associated with mapping the large-scale domain dynamics and describe two recent examples where solution state methods, in particular NMR spectroscopy, are used to investigate conformational exchange on very different timescales. PMID:27679800

  9. Studies of individual carbon sites of proteins in solution by natural abundance carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Strategies for assignments.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, E; Norton, R S; Allerhand, A

    1975-08-25

    Natural abundance 13C Fourier transform NMR spectra (at 15.18 MHz, in 20-mm sample tubes) of aqueous native proteins yield numerous narrow single carbon resonances of nonprotonated aromatic carbons. Techniques for the assignment of these resonances are presented. Each technique is applied to one or more of the following proteins: ferricytochrome c from horse heart and Candida krusei, ferrocytochrome c and cyanoferricytochrome c from horse heart, lysozyme from hen egg white, cyanoferrimyoglobins from horse and sperm whale skeletal muscle, and carbon monoxide myoglobin from horse. In all of the protein spectra we have examined, methine aromatic carbons give rise to broad bands. Studies of the narrow resonances of nonprotonated aromatic carbons of proteins are facilitated by removal of these broad bands by means of the convolution-difference method, preferably from spectra recorded under conditions of noise-modulated off-resonance proton decoupling. We present a summary of the chemical shift ranges for the various types of nonprotonated aromatic carbons of amino acid residues and hemes of diamagnetic proteins, based on our results for hen egg white lysozyme, horse heart ferrocytochrome c, horse carbon monoxide myoglobin, and carbon monoxide hemoglobins from various species...

  10. A New Secondary Structure Assignment Algorithm Using Cα Backbone Fragments.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Guishen; Liu, An; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong; Zou, Shuxue

    2016-03-11

    The assignment of secondary structure elements in proteins is a key step in the analysis of their structures and functions. We have developed an algorithm, SACF (secondary structure assignment based on Cα fragments), for secondary structure element (SSE) assignment based on the alignment of Cα backbone fragments with central poses derived by clustering known SSE fragments. The assignment algorithm consists of three steps: First, the outlier fragments on known SSEs are detected. Next, the remaining fragments are clustered to obtain the central fragments for each cluster. Finally, the central fragments are used as a template to make assignments. Following a large-scale comparison of 11 secondary structure assignment methods, SACF, KAKSI and PROSS are found to have similar agreement with DSSP, while PCASSO agrees with DSSP best. SACF and PCASSO show preference to reducing residues in N and C cap regions, whereas KAKSI, P-SEA and SEGNO tend to add residues to the terminals when DSSP assignment is taken as standard. Moreover, our algorithm is able to assign subtle helices (310-helix, π-helix and left-handed helix) and make uniform assignments, as well as to detect rare SSEs in β-sheets or long helices as outlier fragments from other programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction, while outlier fragments underlie the structure-function relationship.

  11. A New Secondary Structure Assignment Algorithm Using Cα Backbone Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Guishen; Liu, An; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong; Zou, Shuxue

    2016-01-01

    The assignment of secondary structure elements in proteins is a key step in the analysis of their structures and functions. We have developed an algorithm, SACF (secondary structure assignment based on Cα fragments), for secondary structure element (SSE) assignment based on the alignment of Cα backbone fragments with central poses derived by clustering known SSE fragments. The assignment algorithm consists of three steps: First, the outlier fragments on known SSEs are detected. Next, the remaining fragments are clustered to obtain the central fragments for each cluster. Finally, the central fragments are used as a template to make assignments. Following a large-scale comparison of 11 secondary structure assignment methods, SACF, KAKSI and PROSS are found to have similar agreement with DSSP, while PCASSO agrees with DSSP best. SACF and PCASSO show preference to reducing residues in N and C cap regions, whereas KAKSI, P-SEA and SEGNO tend to add residues to the terminals when DSSP assignment is taken as standard. Moreover, our algorithm is able to assign subtle helices (310-helix, π-helix and left-handed helix) and make uniform assignments, as well as to detect rare SSEs in β-sheets or long helices as outlier fragments from other programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction, while outlier fragments underlie the structure–function relationship. PMID:26978354

  12. Molecular characterization and chromosomal assignment of equine cartilage derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP)/melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA).

    PubMed

    Berg, Lise C; Mata, Xavier; Thomsen, Preben D

    2008-01-15

    Cartilage-derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP) also known as melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has already been established as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation and a number of cancerous conditions in humans. Studies have also shown that CD-RAP/MIA is a potential marker of joint disease. The objective of this study was to characterize the equine CD-RAP/MIA gene and thus make it available as a marker in cartilage research and clinical studies. Gene analysis revealed that the equine gene (GenBank accession no. EF679787) consists of four exons and three introns, and the homology to the human gene is 90% for the translated region. The upstream sequence includes regulatory elements and putative transcription factor binding sites previously described in the human and murine promoter regions. The deduced amino acid sequence consists of 130 aa including a signal peptide of 23 aa, and has a 91% identity to the human protein. Using radiation hybrid mapping, the CD-RAP/MIA gene was localized to the p arm of equine chromosome 10 (ECA10p), which is in accordance with prediction based on the current human-equine comparative map. Gene expression studies showed expression of CD-RAP/MIA mRNA in articular cartilage and chondrocytes from horses with no signs of joint disease. The expression decreased as the cells dedifferentiated in monolayer culture. We also identified an equine CD-RAP/MIA splice variant similar to that reported in humans. The CD-RAP/MIA protein was detected in equine synovial fluid, serum and culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. In conclusion, CD-RAP/MIA is expressed in equine cartilage and chondrocytes, and the protein can be detected in equine serum, synovial fluid and in culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. The equine gene and resulting protein share great homology with the human gene, making future studies on CD-RAP/MIAs potential as a marker in joint disease possible using the equine joint as a model.

  13. Large-scale proteomic analysis of membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ahram, Mamoun; Springer, David L.

    2004-10-01

    Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins is promising in identification of novel candidates as drug targets and/or disease biomarkers. Despite notable technological developments, obstacles related to extraction and solubilization of membrane proteins are frequently encountered. A critical discussion of the different preparative methods of membrane proteins is offered in relation to downstream proteomic applications, mainly gel-based analyses and mass spectrometry. Unknown proteins are often identified by high-throughput profiling of membrane proteins. In search for novel membrane proteins, analysis of protein sequences using computational tools is performed to predict for the presence of transmembrane domains. Here, we also present these bioinformatic tools with the human proteome as a case study. Along with technological innovations, advancements in the areas of sample preparation and computational prediction of membrane proteins will lead to exciting discoveries.

  14. Large-scale crystallization of proteins for purification and formulation.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Dariusch

    2015-07-01

    Since about 170 years, salts were used to create supersaturated solutions and crystallize proteins. The dehydrating effect of salts as well as their kosmotropic or chaotropic character was revealed. Even the suitability of organic solvents for crystallization was already recognized. Interestingly, what was performed during the early times is still practiced today. A lot of effort was put into understanding the underlying physico-chemical interaction mechanisms leading to protein crystallization. However, it was understood that already the solvation of proteins is a highly complex process not to mention the intricate interrelation of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions taking place. Although many basic questions are still unanswered, preparative protein crystallization was attempted as illustrated in the presented case studies. Due to the highly variable nature of crystallization, individual design of the crystallization process is needed in every single case. It was shown that preparative crystallization from impure protein solutions as a capture step is possible after applying adequate pre-treatment procedures like precipitation or extraction. Protein crystallization can replace one or more chromatography steps. It was further shown that crystallization can serve as an attractive alternative means for formulation of therapeutic proteins. Crystalline proteins can offer enhanced purity and enable highly concentrated doses of the active ingredient. Easy scalability of the proposed protein crystallization processes was shown using the maximum local energy dissipation as a suitable scale-up criterion. Molecular modeling and target-oriented protein engineering may allow protein crystallization to become part of a platform purification process in the near future.

  15. Backbone and side chain assignment strategies for multiply labeled membrane peptides and proteins in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, Aneta T.; Baldus, Marc; Belenky, Marina; Hong, Mei; Griffin, Robert G.; Herzfeld, Judith

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the SPECIFIC CP technique can be used to obtain heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra of peptide backbones with greater efficiency than conventional HETCOR methods. We show that similar design principles can be employed to achieve selective homonuclear polarization transfer mediated through dipolar or scalar couplings. Both approaches are demonstrated in a tripeptide with uniform 15N and 13C labeling, and with uniform 15N labeling and natural abundance 13C. In other applications, the high efficiency of the heteronuclear SPECIFIC CP transfer allows discrimination of single amide signals in the 248-residue membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR). In particular, variations are detected in the ordering of the Ala81-Arg82 peptide bond among the photocycle intermediates of bR and SPECIFIC CP is used to correlate 15N and 13C signals from the three Val-Pro peptide bonds.

  16. Tracking metal ions through a Cu/Ag efflux pump assigns the functional roles of the periplasmic proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon, Kelly N.; Mealman, Tiffany D.; McEvoy, Megan M.; Blackburn, Ninian J.

    2014-10-13

    Copper is an essential nutrient for all aerobic organisms but is toxic in excess. At the host–pathogen interface, macrophages respond to bacterial infection by copper-dependent killing mechanisms, whereas the invading bacteria are thought to counter with an up-regulation of copper transporters and efflux pumps. The tripartite efflux pump CusCBA and its metallochaperone CusF are vital to the detoxification of copper and silver ions in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. However, the mechanism of efflux by this complex, which requires the activation of the inner membrane pump CusA, is poorly understood. In this paper, we use selenomethionine (SeM) active site labels in a series of biological X-ray absorption studies at the selenium, copper, and silver edges to establish a “switch” role for the membrane fusion protein CusB. We determine that metal-bound CusB is required for activation of cuprous ion transfer from CusF directly to a site in the CusA antiporter, showing for the first time (to our knowledge) the in vitro activation of the Cus efflux pump. This metal-binding site of CusA is unlike that observed in the crystal structures of the CusA protein and is composed of one oxygen and two sulfur ligands. Finally, our results suggest that metal transfer occurs between CusF and apo-CusB, and that, when metal-loaded, CusB plays a role in the regulation of metal ion transfer from CusF to CusA in the periplasm.

  17. Tracking metal ions through a Cu/Ag efflux pump assigns the functional roles of the periplasmic proteins

    DOE PAGES

    Chacon, Kelly N.; Mealman, Tiffany D.; McEvoy, Megan M.; ...

    2014-10-13

    Copper is an essential nutrient for all aerobic organisms but is toxic in excess. At the host–pathogen interface, macrophages respond to bacterial infection by copper-dependent killing mechanisms, whereas the invading bacteria are thought to counter with an up-regulation of copper transporters and efflux pumps. The tripartite efflux pump CusCBA and its metallochaperone CusF are vital to the detoxification of copper and silver ions in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. However, the mechanism of efflux by this complex, which requires the activation of the inner membrane pump CusA, is poorly understood. In this paper, we use selenomethionine (SeM) active site labelsmore » in a series of biological X-ray absorption studies at the selenium, copper, and silver edges to establish a “switch” role for the membrane fusion protein CusB. We determine that metal-bound CusB is required for activation of cuprous ion transfer from CusF directly to a site in the CusA antiporter, showing for the first time (to our knowledge) the in vitro activation of the Cus efflux pump. This metal-binding site of CusA is unlike that observed in the crystal structures of the CusA protein and is composed of one oxygen and two sulfur ligands. Finally, our results suggest that metal transfer occurs between CusF and apo-CusB, and that, when metal-loaded, CusB plays a role in the regulation of metal ion transfer from CusF to CusA in the periplasm.« less

  18. Tracking metal ions through a Cu/Ag efflux pump assigns the functional roles of the periplasmic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mealman, Tiffany D.; McEvoy, Megan M.; Blackburn, Ninian J.

    2014-01-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient for all aerobic organisms but is toxic in excess. At the host–pathogen interface, macrophages respond to bacterial infection by copper-dependent killing mechanisms, whereas the invading bacteria are thought to counter with an up-regulation of copper transporters and efflux pumps. The tripartite efflux pump CusCBA and its metallochaperone CusF are vital to the detoxification of copper and silver ions in the periplasm of Escherichia coli. However, the mechanism of efflux by this complex, which requires the activation of the inner membrane pump CusA, is poorly understood. Here, we use selenomethionine (SeM) active site labels in a series of biological X-ray absorption studies at the selenium, copper, and silver edges to establish a “switch” role for the membrane fusion protein CusB. We determine that metal-bound CusB is required for activation of cuprous ion transfer from CusF directly to a site in the CusA antiporter, showing for the first time (to our knowledge) the in vitro activation of the Cus efflux pump. This metal-binding site of CusA is unlike that observed in the crystal structures of the CusA protein and is composed of one oxygen and two sulfur ligands. Our results suggest that metal transfer occurs between CusF and apo-CusB, and that, when metal-loaded, CusB plays a role in the regulation of metal ion transfer from CusF to CusA in the periplasm. PMID:25313055

  19. Re-fraction: a machine learning approach for deterministic identification of protein homologues and splice variants in large-scale MS-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengyi; Humphrey, Sean J; Fazakerley, Daniel J; Prior, Matthew J; Yang, Guang; James, David E; Yang, Jean Yee-Hwa

    2012-05-04

    A key step in the analysis of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data is the inference of proteins from identified peptide sequences. Here we describe Re-Fraction, a novel machine learning algorithm that enhances deterministic protein identification. Re-Fraction utilizes several protein physical properties to assign proteins to expected protein fractions that comprise large-scale MS-based proteomics data. This information is then used to appropriately assign peptides to specific proteins. This approach is sensitive, highly specific, and computationally efficient. We provide algorithms and source code for the current version of Re-Fraction, which accepts output tables from the MaxQuant environment. Nevertheless, the principles behind Re-Fraction can be applied to other protein identification pipelines where data are generated from samples fractionated at the protein level. We demonstrate the utility of this approach through reanalysis of data from a previously published study and generate lists of proteins deterministically identified by Re-Fraction that were previously only identified as members of a protein group. We find that this approach is particularly useful in resolving protein groups composed of splice variants and homologues, which are frequently expressed in a cell- or tissue-specific manner and may have important biological consequences.

  20. Sequential assignment of 1H, 15N, 13C resonances and secondary structure of human calmodulin-like protein determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, H.; Rogers, M. S.; Schleucher, J.; Edlund, U.; Strehler, E. E.; Sethson, I.

    1998-01-01

    Human calmodulin-like protein (CLP) is closely related to vertebrate calmodulin, yet its unique cell specific expression pattern, overlapping but divergent biochemical properties, and specific target proteins suggest that it is not an isoform of calmodulin. To gain insight into the structural differences that may underlie the difference target specificities and biochemical properties of CLP when compared to calmodulin, we determined the sequential backbone assignment and associated secondary structure of 144 out of the 148 residues of Ca2+-CLP by using multinuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Despite a very high overall degree of structural similarity between CLP and calmodulin, a number of significant differences were found mainly in the length of alpha-helices and in the central nonhelical flexible region. Interestingly, the regions of greatest primary sequence divergence between CLP and calmodulin in helices III and VIII displayed only minor secondary structure differences. The data suggest that the distinct differences in target specificity and biochemical properties of CLP and calmodulin result from the sum of several minor structural and side-chain changes spread over multiple domains in these proteins. PMID:9828009

  1. Heteronuclear NMR assignments and secondary structure of the coiled coil trimerization domain from cartilage matrix protein in oxidized and reduced forms.

    PubMed Central

    Wiltscheck, R.; Kammerer, R. A.; Dames, S. A.; Schulthess, T.; Blommers, M. J.; Engel, J.; Alexandrescu, A. T.

    1997-01-01

    The C-terminal oligomerization domain of chicken cartilage matrix protein is a trimeric coiled coil comprised of three identical 43-residue chains. NMR spectra of the protein show equivalent magnetic environments for each monomer, indicating a parallel coiled coil structure with complete threefold symmetry. Sequence-specific assignments for 1H-, 15N-, and 13C-NMR resonances have been obtained from 2D 1H NOESY and TOCSY spectra, and from 3D HNCA, 15N NOESY-HSQC, and HCCH-TOCSY spectra. A stretch of alpha-helix encompassing five heptad repeats (35 residues) has been identified from intra-chain HN-HN and HN-H alpha NOE connectivities. 3JHNH alpha coupling constants, and chemical shift indices. The alpha-helix begins immediately downstream of inter-chain disulfide bonds between residues Cys 5 and Cys 7, and extends to near the C-terminus of the molecule. The threefold symmetry of the molecule is maintained when the inter-chain disulfide bonds that flank the N-terminus of the coiled coil are reduced. Residues Ile 21 through Glu 36 show conserved chemical shifts and NOE connectivities, as well as strong protection from solvent exchange in the oxidized and reduced forms of the protein. By contrast, residues Ile 10 through Val 17 show pronounced chemical shift differences between the oxidized and reduced protein. Strong chemical exchange NOEs between HN resonances and water indicate solvent exchange on time scales faster than 10 s, and suggests a dynamic fraying of the N-terminus of the coiled coil upon reduction of the disulfide bonds. Possible roles for the disulfide crosslinks of the oligomerization domain in the function of cartilage matrix protein are proposed. PMID:9260286

  2. CISA: combined NMR resonance connectivity information determination and sequential assignment.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiang; Lin, Guohui

    2007-01-01

    A nearly complete sequential resonance assignment is a key factor leading to successful protein structure determination via NMR spectroscopy. Assuming the availability of a set of NMR spectral peak lists, most of the existing assignment algorithms first use the differences between chemical shift values for common nuclei across multiple spectra to provide the evidence that some pairs of peaks should be assigned to sequentially adjacent amino acid residues in the target protein. They then use these connectivities as constraints to produce a sequential assignment. At various levels of success, these algorithms typically generate a large number of potential connectivity constraints, and it grows exponentially as the quality of spectral data decreases. A key observation used in our sequential assignment program, CISA, is that chemical shift residual signature information can be used to improve the connectivity determination, and thus to dramatically decrease the number of predicted connectivity constraints. Fewer connectivity constraints lead to less ambiguities in the sequential assignment. Extensive simulation studies on several large test datasets demonstrated that CISA is efficient and effective, compared to three most recently proposed sequential resonance assignment programs RANDOM, PACES, and MARS.

  3. The PDZ protein discs-large (DLG): the 'Jekyll and Hyde' of the epithelial polarity proteins.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sally; Delury, Craig; Marsh, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    Discs-large (DLG) is a multi-PDZ domain-containing protein that belongs to the family of molecular scaffolding proteins known as membrane guanylate kinases or MAGUKs. DLG is a component of the Scribble polarity complex and genetic analyses of DLG in Drosophila have identified a role for the protein in several key biological processes including the regulation of apico-basal polarity of epithelial cells, as well as other polarity processes such as asymmetric cell division and cell invasion. Disturbance of DLG function leads to uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation and neoplastic transformation, thereby defining DLG as a potential tumour suppressor. However, whether mammalian homologues of DLG (DLG1, DLG2, DLG3 and DLG4) also possess tumour suppressor functions is not known. In this minireview, we focus on the biological functions of DLG1 in human epithelial cells and on how the function of this MAGUK relates to its intracellular location. We examine some of the evidence that implies that DLG has both tumour suppressor and, paradoxically, oncogenic functions depending upon the precise cellular context. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  4. Oligomeric viral proteins: small in size, large in presence

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Bhargavi; Smith, Amber M.; Fernandes, Jason D.; Frankel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are obligate parasites that rely heavily on host cellular processes for replication. The small number of proteins typically encoded by a virus is faced with selection pressures that lead to the evolution of distinctive structural properties, allowing each protein to maintain its function under constraints such as small genome size, high mutation rate, and rapidly changing fitness conditions. One common strategy for this evolution is to utilize small building blocks to generate protein oligomers that assemble in multiple ways, thereby diversifying protein function and regulation. In this review, we discuss specific cases that illustrate how oligomerization is used to generate a single defined functional state, to modulate activity via different oligomeric states, or to generate multiple functional forms via different oligomeric states. PMID:27685368

  5. Assignment of IR bands of isolated and protein-bound Peridinin in its fundamental and triplet state by static FTIR, time-resolved step-scan FTIR and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetti, Alberto; Kish, Elizabeth; Robert, Bruno; Spezia, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    The vibrational properties of Peridinin in its fundamental state and in the excited triplet state have been investigated by DFT calculations and static and time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. The infrared spectrum of Peridinin in its fundamental state has been explored in the whole 2000-600 cm-1 range, and interpreted in term of molecular vibrations. In particular, new infrared bands have been identified and assigned to specific molecular vibrations. 3Peridinin molecular vibrations have also been investigated by DFT calculations. In addition, putative IR bands belonging to Peridinin and 3Peridinin have been identified in the step-scan FTIR difference spectrum of the Peridinin-Chlorophyll a-Protein from Amphidinium carterae, where light induce formation of a triplet state localized on one or more Peridinins. The exact nature of the triplet state formed in Peridinin-Chlorophyll a-Protein from dinoflagellates, in particular the possible involvement in this triplet state of 3Chlorophyll a, has been largely debated in the last few years (see Carbonera et al., 2014 [3]); time-resolved differential FTIR experiments have played a key role in this debate. Identification of IR marker bands for the main molecule (Peridinin) implicated in this photophysical process is therefore particularly important and makes this study a significant step towards the full understanding of Peridinin-Chlorophyll-a-Proteins photophysics.

  6. (1)H, (15)N, (13)C resonance assignments for pyrazinoic acid binding domain of ribosomal protein S1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Biling; Fu, Jinglin; Guo, Chenyun; Wu, Xueji; Lin, Donghai; Liao, Xinli

    2016-10-01

    Ribosomal protein S1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtRpsA) binds to ribosome and mRNA, and plays significant role in the regulation of translation initiation, conventional protein synthesis and transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) mediated trans-translation. It has been identified as the target of pyrazinoic acid (POA), a bactericidal moiety from hydrolysis of pyrazinamide, which is a mainstay of combination therapy for tuberculosis. POA prevented the interactions between the C-terminal S1 domain of MtRpsA (residues 280-368, MtRpsA(CTD)_S1) and tmRNA; so that POA can inhibit the trans-translation, which is a key component of multiple quality control pathways in bacteria. However, the details of molecular mechanism and dynamic characteristics for MtRpsA(CTD)_S1 interactions with POA, tmRNA or mRNA are still unclear. Here we present the (1)H, (15)N, (13)C resonance assignments of MtRpsA(CTD)_S1 as well as the secondary structure information based on backbone chemical shifts, which lay foundation for further solution structure determination, dynamic properties characterization and interactions investigation between MtRpsA(CTD)_S1 and tmRNA, RNA or POA.

  7. Assignments, secondary structure, global fold, and dynamics of chemotaxis Y protein using three- and four-dimensional heteronuclear (13C,15N) NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moy, F J; Lowry, D F; Matsumura, P; Dahlquist, F W; Krywko, J E; Domaille, P J

    1994-09-06

    NMR spectroscopy has been used to study recombinant Escherichia coli CheY, a 128-residue protein involved in regulating bacterial chemotaxis. Heteronuclear three- and four-dimensional (3D and 4D) experiments have provided sequence-specific resonance assignments and quantitation of short-, medium-, and long-range distance restraints from nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) intensities. These distance restraints were further supplemented with measurements of three-bond scalar coupling constants to define the local dihedral angles, and with the identification of amide protons undergoing slow solvent exchange from which hydrogen-bonding patterns were identified. The current model structure shows the same global fold of CheY as existing X-ray structures (Volz & Matsumura, 1991; Stock et al. 1993) with a (beta/alpha)5 motif of five parallel beta-strands at the central core surrounded by three alpha-helices on one face and with two on the opposite side. Heteronuclear 15N-1H relaxation experiments are interpreted to show portions of the protein structure in the Mg2+ binding loop are ill-defined because of slow motion (chemical exchange) on the NMR time scale. Moreover, the presence of Mg2+ disrupts the salt bridge between the highly conserved Lys-109 and Asp-57, the site of phosphorylation.

  8. Chemical shift assignments of the first and second RRMs of Nrd1, a fission yeast MAPK-target RNA binding protein.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ayaho; Kanaba, Teppei; Satoh, Ryosuke; Ito, Yutaka; Sugiura, Reiko; Mishima, Masaki

    2017-03-11

    Negative regulator differentiation 1 (Nrd1), a fission yeast RNA binding protein, modulates cytokinesis and sexual development and contributes to stress granule formation in response to environmental stresses. Nrd1 comprises four RRM domains and binds and stabilizes Cdc4 mRNA that encodes the myosin II light chain. Nrd1 binds the Cpc2 fission-yeast RACK1 homolog, and the interaction promotes Nrd1 localization to stress granules. Interestingly, Pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates Thr40 in the unstructured N-terminal region and Thr126 in the first RRM domain of Nrd1. Phosphorylation significantly reduces RNA-binding activity and likely modulates Nrd1 function. To reveal the relationship between the structure and function of Nrd1 and how phosphorylation affects structure, we used heteronuclear NMR techniques to investigate the three-dimensional structure of Nrd1. Here we report the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N resonance assignments of RRM1-RRM2 (residues 108-284) comprising the first and second RRMs obtained using heteronuclear NMR techniques. Secondary structures derived from the chemical shifts are reported. These data should contribute to the understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the RRM1-RRM2 region of Nrd1 and the perturbation caused by phosphorylation.

  9. Simultaneous acquisition of 2D and 3D solid-state NMR experiments for sequential assignment of oriented membrane protein samples.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, T; Mote, Kaustubh R; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-05-01

    We present a new method called DAISY (Dual Acquisition orIented ssNMR spectroScopY) for the simultaneous acquisition of 2D and 3D oriented solid-state NMR experiments for membrane proteins reconstituted in mechanically or magnetically aligned lipid bilayers. DAISY utilizes dual acquisition of sine and cosine dipolar or chemical shift coherences and long living (15)N longitudinal polarization to obtain two multi-dimensional spectra, simultaneously. In these new experiments, the first acquisition gives the polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle (PISEMA) or heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra, the second acquisition gives PISEMA-mixing or HETCOR-mixing spectra, where the mixing element enables inter-residue correlations through (15)N-(15)N homonuclear polarization transfer. The analysis of the two 2D spectra (first and second acquisitions) enables one to distinguish (15)N-(15)N inter-residue correlations for sequential assignment of membrane proteins. DAISY can be implemented in 3D experiments that include the polarization inversion spin exchange at magic angle via I spin coherence (PISEMAI) sequence, as we show for the simultaneous acquisition of 3D PISEMAI-HETCOR and 3D PISEMAI-HETCOR-mixing experiments.

  10. Large scale purification of rapeseed proteins (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Bérot, S; Compoint, J P; Larré, C; Malabat, C; Guéguen, J

    2005-04-15

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cruciferin (12S globulin), napin (2S albumin) and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) were purified at a multi-g scale. The procedure developed was simple, rather fast and resolutive; it permitted the recovery of these proteins with a good yield, such as 40% for cruciferin and 18% for napin. Nanofiltration eliminated the major phenolic compounds. The remaining protein fraction was fractionated by cation exchange chromatography (CEC) on a streamline SP-XL column in alkaline conditions. The unbound neutral cruciferin was polished by size exclusion chromatography. The alkaline napin isoforms and LTP, adsorbed on the beads, were eluted as a whole fraction and further separated by an other CEC step at acidic pH. Napins were polished by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The fractions were characterized by reverse phase HPLC, electrophoresis, N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. All the fractions contained less than 5% of impurities.

  11. BACHSCORE. A tool for evaluating efficiently and reliably the quality of large sets of protein structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, E.; Zamuner, S.; Cossio, P.; Laio, A.; Seno, F.; Trovato, A.

    2013-12-01

    In protein structure prediction it is of crucial importance, especially at the refinement stage, to score efficiently large sets of models by selecting the ones that are closest to the native state. We here present a new computational tool, BACHSCORE, that allows its users to rank different structural models of the same protein according to their quality, evaluated by using the BACH++ (Bayesian Analysis Conformation Hunt) scoring function. The original BACH statistical potential was already shown to discriminate with very good reliability the protein native state in large sets of misfolded models of the same protein. BACH++ features a novel upgrade in the solvation potential of the scoring function, now computed by adapting the LCPO (Linear Combination of Pairwise Orbitals) algorithm. This change further enhances the already good performance of the scoring function. BACHSCORE can be accessed directly through the web server: bachserver.pd.infn.it. Catalogue identifier: AEQD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEQD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 130159 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 687 455 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any computer capable of running an executable produced by a g++ compiler (4.6.3 version). Operating system: Linux, Unix OS-es. RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes Classification: 3. Nature of problem: Evaluate the quality of a protein structural model, taking into account the possible “a priori” knowledge of a reference primary sequence that may be different from the amino-acid sequence of the model; the native protein structure should be recognized as the best model. Solution method: The contact potential scores the occurrence of any given type of residue pair in 5 possible

  12. Enabling large-scale design, synthesis and validation of small molecule protein-protein antagonists.

    PubMed

    Koes, David; Khoury, Kareem; Huang, Yijun; Wang, Wei; Bista, Michal; Popowicz, Grzegorz M; Wolf, Siglinde; Holak, Tad A; Dömling, Alexander; Camacho, Carlos J

    2012-01-01

    Although there is no shortage of potential drug targets, there are only a handful known low-molecular-weight inhibitors of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). One problem is that current efforts are dominated by low-yield high-throughput screening, whose rigid framework is not suitable for the diverse chemotypes present in PPIs. Here, we developed a novel pharmacophore-based interactive screening technology that builds on the role anchor residues, or deeply buried hot spots, have in PPIs, and redesigns these entry points with anchor-biased virtual multicomponent reactions, delivering tens of millions of readily synthesizable novel compounds. Application of this approach to the MDM2/p53 cancer target led to high hit rates, resulting in a large and diverse set of confirmed inhibitors, and co-crystal structures validate the designed compounds. Our unique open-access technology promises to expand chemical space and the exploration of the human interactome by leveraging in-house small-scale assays and user-friendly chemistry to rationally design ligands for PPIs with known structure.

  13. Efficient acquisition of high-resolution 4-D diagonal-suppressed methyl-methyl NOESY for large proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jie; Zhou, Pei; Wu, Jihui

    2012-05-01

    The methyl-methyl NOESY experiment plays an important role in determining the global folds of large proteins. Despite the high sensitivity of this experiment, the analysis of methyl-methyl NOEs is frequently hindered by the limited chemical shift dispersion of methyl groups, particularly methyl protons. This makes it difficult to unambiguously assign all of the methyl-methyl NOE crosspeaks using 3-D spectroscopy. The recent development of sparse sampling methods enables highly efficient acquisition of high-resolution 4-D spectra, which provides an excellent solution to resolving the degeneracy of methyl signals. However, many reconstruction algorithms for processing sparsely-sampled NMR data do not provide adequate suppression of aliasing artifacts in the presence of strong NOE diagonal signals. In order to overcome this limitation, we present a 4-D diagonal-suppressed methyl-methyl NOESY experiment specifically optimized for ultrasparse sampling and evaluate it using a deuterated, ILV methyl-protonated sample of the 42 kDa Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP). Suppression of diagonal signals removes the dynamic range barrier of the methyl-methyl NOESY experiment such that residual aliasing artifacts in the CLEAN-reconstructed high-resolution 4-D spectrum can be further reduced. At an ultrasparse sampling rate of less than 1%, we were able to identify and unambiguously assign the vast majority of expected NOE crosspeaks between methyl groups separated by less than 5 Å and to detect very weak NOE crosspeaks from methyl groups that are over 7 Å apart.

  14. Quality Control Test for Sequence-Phenotype Assignments

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Maria Teresa Lara; Rosario, Pablo Benjamín Leon; Luna-Nevarez, Pablo; Gamez, Alba Savin; Martínez-del Campo, Ana; Del Rio, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Relating a gene mutation to a phenotype is a common task in different disciplines such as protein biochemistry. In this endeavour, it is common to find false relationships arising from mutations introduced by cells that may be depurated using a phenotypic assay; yet, such phenotypic assays may introduce additional false relationships arising from experimental errors. Here we introduce the use of high-throughput DNA sequencers and statistical analysis aimed to identify incorrect DNA sequence-phenotype assignments and observed that 10–20% of these false assignments are expected in large screenings aimed to identify critical residues for protein function. We further show that this level of incorrect DNA sequence-phenotype assignments may significantly alter our understanding about the structure-function relationship of proteins. We have made available an implementation of our method at http://bis.ifc.unam.mx/en/software/chispas. PMID:25700273

  15. New data reduction protocol for Bragg reflections observed by TOF single-crystal neutron diffractometry for protein crystals with large unit cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomoyori, Katsuaki; Tamada, Taro

    2016-10-01

    In protein crystallography, high backgrounds are caused by incoherent scattering from the hydrogen atoms of protein molecules and hydration water. In addition, the scattering intensity from large unit-cell crystals is very small, which makes it difficult to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. In the case of time-of-flight (TOF) single-crystal neutron diffractometry, the measured spectra cover four-dimensional space including X, Y, and TOF in addition to intensity. When estimating the integrated intensity, 3D background domains in the vicinity of peaks should be clearly classified. In conventional 1D or 2D background evaluation, the evaluation is applied for individual peaks assigned using peak searches; however, it is quite difficult to classify the 3D background domain in TOF protein single-crystal neutron diffraction experiments. We undertook the development of a data reduction protocol for measurements involving large biomacromolecules. At the initial stage of the reduction protocol, appropriate 3D background estimation and eliminations were applied over the entire range of X, Y, and TOF bins. The histograms were then searched for peaks and indexed, and the individually assigned peaks were finally integrated with an effective profile function in the TOF direction. Three-dimensional deconvolution procedures for overlapping peaks associated with large unit cells were implemented as necessary. This data reduction protocol may lead to the improvement of signal-to-noise ratios to enable TOF spectral analysis of large unit-cell protein crystals.

  16. Characterization and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a protein related to the murine 102-kDa cadherin-associated protein ([alpha]-catenin)

    SciTech Connect

    Claverie, J.M. ); Hardelin, J.P.; Legouis, R.; Levilliers, J.; Petit, C. ); Bougueleret, L. ); Mattei, M.G. )

    1993-01-01

    We report the characterization of a human cDNA encompassing the complete coding region of a 945-residue putative protein (CAP-R) 80% identical to the recently described murine 102-kDa [alpha]-catenin (CAP102). The CAP-R protein mostly differs from CAP102 by the presence of a 48-residue insert. This insert exhibits similarity with a segment of the type 1 neurofibromatosis gene product. The analysis of a publicly available human [open quote]expressed sequence tag[close quotes] collection revealed the existence of another human cDNA more closely related (89% identical) to CAP 102. This strongly suggests that CAP-R is not the human homologue of the murine 102- kDa [alpha]-catenin but a new closely related gene of the vinculin family. This is further supported by the computed mutation rates falling outside the range observed for mammalian orthologous genes. Using in situ hybridization, the CAP-R gene could be mapped to the pll.l-pl2 region of human chromosome 2 and to the homologous B3-D region of mouse chromosome 6. 32 refs., 4 fig.

  17. A Simple and Effective Protein Folding Activity Suitable for Large Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive hands-on simulation of protein folding suitable for use in large lecture classes. This activity uses a minimum of parts, tools, and skill to simulate some of the fundamental principles of protein folding. The major concepts targeted are that proteins begin as linear polypeptides and fold to…

  18. A Simple and Effective Protein Folding Activity Suitable for Large Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive hands-on simulation of protein folding suitable for use in large lecture classes. This activity uses a minimum of parts, tools, and skill to simulate some of the fundamental principles of protein folding. The major concepts targeted are that proteins begin as linear polypeptides and fold to…

  19. Sequential NMR resonance assignment and structure determination of the Kunitz-type inhibitor domain of the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Heald, S L; Tilton, R F; Hammond, L J; Lee, A; Bayney, R M; Kamarck, M E; Ramabhadran, T V; Dreyer, R N; Davis, G; Unterbeck, A

    1991-10-29

    Certain precursor proteins (APP751 and APP770) of the amyloid beta-protein (AP) present in Alzheimer's disease contain a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor domain (APPI). In this study, the domain is obtained as a functional inhibitor through both recombinant (APPIr) and synthetic (APPIs) methodologies, and the solution structure of APPI is determined by 1H 2D NMR techniques. Complete sequence-specific resonance assignments (except for P13 and G37 NH) for both APPIr and APPIs are achieved using standard procedures. Ambiguities arising from degeneracies in the NMR resonances are resolved by varying sample conditions. Qualitative interpretation of short- and long-range NOEs reveals secondary structural features similar to those extensively documented by NMR for bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). A more rigorous interpretation of the NOESY spectra yields NOE-derived interresidue distance restraints which are used in conjunction with dynamic simulated annealing to generate a family of APPI structures. Within this family, the beta-sheet and helical regions are in good agreement with the crystal structure of BPTI, whereas portions of the protease-binding loops deviate from those in BPTI. These deviations are consistent with those recently described in the crystal structure of APPI (Hynes et al., 1990). Also supported in the NMR study is the hydrophobic patch in the protease-binding domain created by side chain-side chain NOE contacts between M17 and F34. In addition, the NMR spectra indicate that the rotation of the W21 ring in APPI is hindered, unlike Y21 in BPTI, showing a greater than 90% preference for one orientation in the hydrophobic groove.

  20. Sampling small-scale and large-scale conformational changes in proteins and molecular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Mi-Ran; Mousseau, N.; Derreumaux, P.

    2007-03-01

    Sampling of small-scale and large-scale motions is important in various computational tasks, such as protein-protein docking and ligand binding. Here, we report further development and applications of the activation-relaxation technique for internal coordinate space trajectories (ARTIST). This method generates conformational moves of any complexity and size by identifying and crossing well-defined saddle points connecting energy minima. Simulations on two all-atom proteins and three protein complexes containing between 70 and 300 amino acids indicate that ARTIST opens the door to the full treatment of all degrees of freedom in dense systems such as protein-protein complexes.

  1. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  2. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  3. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  4. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  5. Large scale analysis of protein stability in OMIM disease related human protein variants.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fariselli, Piero; Savojardo, Castrense; Babbi, Giulia; Aggazio, Francesco; Casadio, Rita

    2016-06-23

    Modern genomic techniques allow to associate several Mendelian human diseases to single residue variations in different proteins. Molecular mechanisms explaining the relationship among genotype and phenotype are still under debate. Change of protein stability upon variation appears to assume a particular relevance in annotating whether a single residue substitution can or cannot be associated to a given disease. Thermodynamic properties of human proteins and of their disease related variants are lacking. In the present work, we take advantage of the available three dimensional structure of human proteins for predicting the role of disease related variations on the perturbation of protein stability. We develop INPS3D, a new predictor based on protein structure for computing the effect of single residue variations on protein stability (ΔΔG), scoring at the state-of-the-art (Pearson's correlation value of the regression is equal to 0.72 with mean standard error of 1.15 kcal/mol on a blind test set comprising 351 variations in 60 proteins). We then filter 368 OMIM disease related proteins known with atomic resolution (where the three dimensional structure covers at least 70 % of the sequence) with 4717 disease related single residue variations and 685 polymorphisms without clinical consequence. We find that the effect on protein stability of disease related variations is larger than the effect of polymorphisms: in particular, by setting to |1 kcal/mol| the threshold between perturbing and not perturbing variations of the protein stability, about 44 % of disease related variations and 20 % of polymorphisms are predicted with |ΔΔG| > 1 kcal/mol, respectively. A consistent fraction of OMIM disease related variations is however predicted to promote |ΔΔG| ≤ 1 kcal/mol and we focus here on detecting features that can be associated to the thermodynamic property of the protein variant. Our analysis reveals that some 47 % of disease related variations

  6. Sequence-specific {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments for intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein complexed with palmitate (15.4 kDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hodsdon, M.E.; Toner, J.J.; Cistola, D.P.

    1994-12-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (I-FABP) belongs to a family of soluble, cytoplasmic proteins that are thought to function in the intracellular transport and trafficking of polar lipids. Individual members of this protein family have distinct specificities and affinities for fatty acids, cholesterol, bile salts, and retinoids. We are comparing several retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins from intestine in order to define the factors that control molecular recognition in this family of proteins. We have established sequential resonance assignments for uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-enriched I-FABP complexed with perdeuterated palmitate at pH7.2 and 37{degrees}C. The assignment strategy was similar to that introduced for calmodulin. We employed seven three-dimensional NMR experiments to establish scalar couplings between backbone and sidechain atoms. Backbone atoms were correlated using triple-resonance HNCO, HNCA, TOCSY-HMQC, HCACO, and HCA(CO)N experiments. Sidechain atoms were correlated using CC-TOCSY, HCCH-TOCSY, and TOCSY-HMQC. The correlations of peaks between three-dimensional spectra were established in a computer-assisted manner using NMR COMPASS (Molecular Simulations, Inc.) Using this approach, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments have been established for 120 of the 131 residues of I-FABP. For 18 residues, amide {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances were unobservable, apparently because of the rapid exchange of amide protons with bulk water at pH 7.2. The missing amide protons correspond to distinct amino acid patterns in the protein sequence, which will be discussed. During the assignment process, several sources of ambiguity in spin correlations were observed. To overcome this ambiguity, the additional inter-residue correlations often observed in the HNCA experiment were used as cross-checks for the sequential backbone assignments.

  7. Photophysical behavior and assignment of the low-energy chlorophyll states in the CP43 proximal antenna protein of higher plant photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Joseph L; Picorel, Rafael; Seibert, Michael; Krausz, Elmars

    2006-10-10

    We have employed absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and persistent spectral hole-burning measurements at 1.7 K to study the photoconversion properties and exciton coupling of low-energy chlorophylls (Chls) in the CP43 proximal antenna light-harvesting subunit of photosystem II (PSII) isolated from spinach. These approximately 683 nm states act as traps for excitation energy in isolated CP43. They "bleach" at 683 nm upon illumination and photoconvert to a form absorbing in the range approximately 660-680 nm. We present new data that show the changes in the CD spectrum due to the photoconversion process. These changes occur in parallel with those in absorption, providing evidence that the feature undergoing the apparent bleach is a component of a weakly exciton-coupled system. From our photoconversion difference spectra, we assign four states in the Chl long-wavelength region of CP43, two of which are the known trap states and are both highly localized on single Chls. The other two states are associated with weak exciton coupling (maximally approximately 50 cm(-)(1)) to one of these traps. We propose a mechanism for photoconversion that involves Chl-protein hydrogen bonding. New hole-burning data are presented that indicate this mechanism is distinct to that for narrow-band spectral hole burning in CP43. We discuss the photophysical behavior of the Chl trap states in isolated CP43 compared to their behavior in intact PSII preparations. The latter represent a more intact, physiological complex, and we find no clear evidence that they exhibit the photoconversion process reported here.

  8. Bridge over troubled proline: assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins using (HCA)CON(CAN)H and (HCA)N(CA)CO(N)H experiments concomitantly with HNCO and i(HCA)CO(CA)NH.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Maarit; Piirainen, Henni; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Permi, Perttu

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is by far the most versatile and information rich technique to study intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). While NMR is able to offer residue level information on structure and dynamics, assignment of chemical shift resonances in IDPs is not a straightforward process. Consequently, numerous pulse sequences and assignment protocols have been developed during past several years, targeted especially for the assignment of IDPs, including experiments that employ H(N), H(α) or (13)C detection combined with two to six indirectly detected dimensions. Here we propose two new HN-detection based pulse sequences, (HCA)CON(CAN)H and (HCA)N(CA)CO(N)H, that provide correlations with (1)H(N)(i - 1), (13)C'(i - 1) and (15)N(i), and (1)H(N)(i + 1), (13)C'(i) and (15)N(i) frequencies, respectively. Most importantly, they offer sequential links across the proline bridges and enable filling the single proline gaps during the assignment. We show that the novel experiments can efficiently complement the information available from existing HNCO and intraresidual i(HCA)CO(CA)NH pulse sequences and their concomitant usage enabled >95 % assignment of backbone resonances in cytoplasmic tail of adenosine receptor A2A in comparison to 73 % complete assignment using the HNCO/i(HCA)CO(CA)NH data alone.

  9. Characterization of Protein-Protein Interfaces in Large Complexes by Solid-State NMR Solvent Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancements.

    PubMed

    Öster, Carl; Kosol, Simone; Hartlmüller, Christoph; Lamley, Jonathan M; Iuga, Dinu; Oss, Andres; Org, Mai-Liis; Vanatalu, Kalju; Samoson, Ago; Madl, Tobias; Lewandowski, Józef R

    2017-09-06

    Solid-state NMR is becoming a viable alternative for obtaining information about structures and dynamics of large biomolecular complexes, including ones that are not accessible to other high-resolution biophysical techniques. In this context, methods for probing protein-protein interfaces at atomic resolution are highly desirable. Solvent paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (sPREs) proved to be a powerful method for probing protein-protein interfaces in large complexes in solution but have not been employed toward this goal in the solid state. We demonstrate that (1)H and (15)N relaxation-based sPREs provide a powerful tool for characterizing intermolecular interactions in large assemblies in the solid state. We present approaches for measuring sPREs in practically the entire range of magic angle spinning frequencies used for biomolecular studies and discuss their benefits and limitations. We validate the approach on crystalline GB1, with our experimental results in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Finally, we use sPREs to characterize protein-protein interfaces in the GB1 complex with immunoglobulin G (IgG). Our results suggest the potential existence of an additional binding site and provide new insights into GB1:IgG complex structure that amend and revise the current model available from studies with IgG fragments. We demonstrate sPREs as a practical, widely applicable, robust, and very sensitive technique for determining intermolecular interaction interfaces in large biomolecular complexes in the solid state.

  10. Fast large-scale clustering of protein structures using Gauss integrals.

    PubMed

    Harder, Tim; Borg, Mikael; Boomsma, Wouter; Røgen, Peter; Hamelryck, Thomas

    2012-02-15

    Clustering protein structures is an important task in structural bioinformatics. De novo structure prediction, for example, often involves a clustering step for finding the best prediction. Other applications include assigning proteins to fold families and analyzing molecular dynamics trajectories. We present Pleiades, a novel approach to clustering protein structures with a rigorous mathematical underpinning. The method approximates clustering based on the root mean square deviation by first mapping structures to Gauss integral vectors--which were introduced by Røgen and co-workers--and subsequently performing K-means clustering. Compared to current methods, Pleiades dramatically improves on the time needed to perform clustering, and can cluster a significantly larger number of structures, while providing state-of-the-art results. The number of low energy structures generated in a typical folding study, which is in the order of 50,000 structures, can be clustered within seconds to minutes.

  11. Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis in Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts by Split Firefly Luciferase Complementation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Feng; Bush, Jenifer; Xiong, Yan; Li, Lei; McCormack, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute the regulatory network that coordinates diverse cellular functions. There are growing needs in plant research for creating protein interaction maps behind complex cellular processes and at a systems biology level. However, only a few approaches have been successfully used for large-scale surveys of PPIs in plants, each having advantages and disadvantages. Here we present split firefly luciferase complementation (SFLC) as a highly sensitive and noninvasive technique for in planta PPI investigation. In this assay, the separate halves of a firefly luciferase can come into close proximity and transiently restore its catalytic activity only when their fusion partners, namely the two proteins of interest, interact with each other. This assay was conferred with quantitativeness and high throughput potential when the Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast system and a microplate luminometer were employed for protein expression and luciferase measurement, respectively. Using the SFLC assay, we could monitor the dynamics of rapamycin-induced and ascomycin-disrupted interaction between Arabidopsis FRB and human FKBP proteins in a near real-time manner. As a proof of concept for large-scale PPI survey, we further applied the SFLC assay to testing 132 binary PPIs among 8 auxin response factors (ARFs) and 12 Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrated that the SFLC assay is ideal for in vivo quantitative PPI analysis in plant cells and is particularly powerful for large-scale binary PPI screens. PMID:22096563

  12. Assignments That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests, on a humorous note, a game-plan for assignment justification and elaboration that utilizes, in a constructive and professional manner, the best of what is known about assignment-making. (EL)

  13. Very simple combination of TROSY, CRINEPT and multiple quantum coherence for signal enhancement in an HN(CO)CA experiment for large proteins.

    PubMed

    Bayrhuber, Monika; Riek, Roland

    2011-04-01

    Sensitivity enhancement in liquid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) triple resonance experiments for the sequential assignment of proteins is important for the investigation of large proteins or protein complexes. We present here the 3D TROSY-MQ/CRINEPT-HN(CO)CA which makes use of a ¹⁵N-¹H-TROSY element and a ¹³C'-¹³CA CRINEPT step combined with a multiple quantum coherence during the ¹³CA evolution period. Because of the introduction of these relaxation-optimized elements and 10 less pulses required, when compared with the conventional TROSY-HN(CO)CA experiment an average signal enhancement of a factor of 1.8 was observed for the membrane protein-detergent complex KcsA with a rotational correlation time τ(c) of around 60 ns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. fast_protein_cluster: parallel and optimized clustering of large-scale protein modeling data

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ling-Hong; Samudrala, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: fast_protein_cluster is a fast, parallel and memory efficient package used to cluster 60 000 sets of protein models (with up to 550 000 models per set) generated by the Nutritious Rice for the World project. Results: fast_protein_cluster is an optimized and extensible toolkit that supports Root Mean Square Deviation after optimal superposition (RMSD) and Template Modeling score (TM-score) as metrics. RMSD calculations using a laptop CPU are 60× faster than qcprot and 3× faster than current graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations. New GPU code further increases the speed of RMSD and TM-score calculations. fast_protein_cluster provides novel k-means and hierarchical clustering methods that are up to 250× and 2000× faster, respectively, than Clusco, and identify significantly more accurate models than Spicker and Clusco. Availability and implementation: fast_protein_cluster is written in C++ using OpenMP for multi-threading support. Custom streaming Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) extensions and advanced vector extension intrinsics code accelerate CPU calculations, and OpenCL kernels support AMD and Nvidia GPUs. fast_protein_cluster is available under the M.I.T. license. (http://software.compbio.washington.edu/fast_protein_cluster) Contact: lhhung@compbio.washington.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24532722

  15. fast_protein_cluster: parallel and optimized clustering of large-scale protein modeling data.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ling-Hong; Samudrala, Ram

    2014-06-15

    fast_protein_cluster is a fast, parallel and memory efficient package used to cluster 60 000 sets of protein models (with up to 550 000 models per set) generated by the Nutritious Rice for the World project. fast_protein_cluster is an optimized and extensible toolkit that supports Root Mean Square Deviation after optimal superposition (RMSD) and Template Modeling score (TM-score) as metrics. RMSD calculations using a laptop CPU are 60× faster than qcprot and 3× faster than current graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations. New GPU code further increases the speed of RMSD and TM-score calculations. fast_protein_cluster provides novel k-means and hierarchical clustering methods that are up to 250× and 2000× faster, respectively, than Clusco, and identify significantly more accurate models than Spicker and Clusco. fast_protein_cluster is written in C++ using OpenMP for multi-threading support. Custom streaming Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) extensions and advanced vector extension intrinsics code accelerate CPU calculations, and OpenCL kernels support AMD and Nvidia GPUs. fast_protein_cluster is available under the M.I.T. license. (http://software.compbio.washington.edu/fast_protein_cluster) © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Large-scale production and protein engineering of G protein-coupled receptors for structural studies.

    PubMed

    Milić, Dalibor; Veprintsev, Dmitry B

    2015-01-01

    Structural studies of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) gave insights into molecular mechanisms of their action and contributed significantly to molecular pharmacology. This is primarily due to technical advances in protein engineering, production and crystallization of these important receptor targets. On the other hand, NMR spectroscopy of GPCRs, which can provide information about their dynamics, still remains challenging due to difficulties in preparation of isotopically labeled receptors and their low long-term stabilities. In this review, we discuss methods used for expression and purification of GPCRs for crystallographic and NMR studies. We also summarize protein engineering methods that played a crucial role in obtaining GPCR crystal structures.

  17. Large-scale production and protein engineering of G protein-coupled receptors for structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Milić, Dalibor; Veprintsev, Dmitry B.

    2015-01-01

    Structural studies of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) gave insights into molecular mechanisms of their action and contributed significantly to molecular pharmacology. This is primarily due to technical advances in protein engineering, production and crystallization of these important receptor targets. On the other hand, NMR spectroscopy of GPCRs, which can provide information about their dynamics, still remains challenging due to difficulties in preparation of isotopically labeled receptors and their low long-term stabilities. In this review, we discuss methods used for expression and purification of GPCRs for crystallographic and NMR studies. We also summarize protein engineering methods that played a crucial role in obtaining GPCR crystal structures. PMID:25873898

  18. LGL: creating a map of protein function with an algorithm for visualizing very large biological networks.

    PubMed

    Adai, Alex T; Date, Shailesh V; Wieland, Shannon; Marcotte, Edward M

    2004-06-25

    Networks are proving to be central to the study of gene function, protein-protein interaction, and biochemical pathway data. Visualization of networks is important for their study, but visualization tools are often inadequate for working with very large biological networks. Here, we present an algorithm, called large graph layout (LGL), which can be used to dynamically visualize large networks on the order of hundreds of thousands of vertices and millions of edges. LGL applies a force-directed iterative layout guided by a minimal spanning tree of the network in order to generate coordinates for the vertices in two or three dimensions, which are subsequently visualized and interactively navigated with companion programs. We demonstrate the use of LGL in visualizing an extensive protein map summarizing the results of approximately 21 billion sequence comparisons between 145579 proteins from 50 genomes. Proteins are positioned in the map according to sequence homology and gene fusions, with the map ultimately serving as a theoretical framework that integrates inferences about gene function derived from sequence homology, remote homology, gene fusions, and higher-order fusions. We confirm that protein neighbors in the resulting map are functionally related, and that distinct map regions correspond to distinct cellular systems, enabling a computational strategy for discovering proteins' functions on the basis of the proteins' map positions. Using the map produced by LGL, we infer general functions for 23 uncharacterized protein families.

  19. "C.R.E.A.T.E."-ing Unique Primary-Source Research Paper Assignments for a Pleasure and Pain Course Teaching Neuroscientific Principles in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J; Rotella, Francis M; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Coke, Tricia; Olsson, Kerstin; Barrientos, Alicia; Blachorsky, Lauren; Warshaw, Deena; Buras, Agata; Sanchez, Ciara M; Azad, Raihana; Stellar, James R

    2016-01-01

    A large (250 registrants) General Education lecture course, Pleasure and Pain, presented basic neuroscience principles as they related to animal and human models of pleasure and pain by weaving basic findings related to food and drug addiction and analgesic states with human studies examining empathy, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. In its first four years, the course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page review of three unique peer-reviewed research articles. Although well-registered and well-received, 18% of the students received Incomplete grades, primarily due to failing to submit the paper that went largely unresolved and eventually resulted in a failing grade. To rectify this issue, a modified version of the C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method replaced the paper with eight structured assignments focusing on an initial general-topic article, the introduction-methods, and results-discussion of each of three related peer-review neuroscience-related articles, and a final summary. Compliance in completing these assignments was very high, resulting in only 11 INC grades out of 228 students. Thus, use of the C.R.E.A.T.E. method reduced the percentage of problematic INC grades from 18% to 4.8%, a 73% decline, without changing the overall grade distribution. Other analyses suggested the students achieved a deeper understanding of the scientific process using the C.R.E.A.T.E. method relative to the original term paper assignment.

  20. “C.R.E.A.T.E.”-ing Unique Primary-Source Research Paper Assignments for a Pleasure and Pain Course Teaching Neuroscientific Principles in a Large General Education Undergraduate Course

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.; Rotella, Francis M.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Coke, Tricia; Olsson, Kerstin; Barrientos, Alicia; Blachorsky, Lauren; Warshaw, Deena; Buras, Agata; Sanchez, Ciara M.; Azad, Raihana; Stellar, James R.

    2016-01-01

    A large (250 registrants) General Education lecture course, Pleasure and Pain, presented basic neuroscience principles as they related to animal and human models of pleasure and pain by weaving basic findings related to food and drug addiction and analgesic states with human studies examining empathy, social neuroscience and neuroeconomics. In its first four years, the course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page review of three unique peer-reviewed research articles. Although well-registered and well-received, 18% of the students received Incomplete grades, primarily due to failing to submit the paper that went largely unresolved and eventually resulted in a failing grade. To rectify this issue, a modified version of the C.R.E.A.T.E. (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret data, Think of the next Experiment) method replaced the paper with eight structured assignments focusing on an initial general-topic article, the introduction-methods, and results-discussion of each of three related peer-review neuroscience-related articles, and a final summary. Compliance in completing these assignments was very high, resulting in only 11 INC grades out of 228 students. Thus, use of the C.R.E.A.T.E. method reduced the percentage of problematic INC grades from 18% to 4.8%, a 73% decline, without changing the overall grade distribution. Other analyses suggested the students achieved a deeper understanding of the scientific process using the C.R.E.A.T.E. method relative to the original term paper assignment. PMID:27385918

  1. Automated assignment of NMR chemical shifts based on a known structure and 4D spectra.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Matthias; Fredriksson, Kai; Möller, Heiko M; Exner, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Apart from their central role during 3D structure determination of proteins the backbone chemical shift assignment is the basis for a number of applications, like chemical shift perturbation mapping and studies on the dynamics of proteins. This assignment is not a trivial task even if a 3D protein structure is known and needs almost as much effort as the assignment for structure prediction if performed manually. We present here a new algorithm based solely on 4D [(1)H,(15)N]-HSQC-NOESY-[(1)H,(15)N]-HSQC spectra which is able to assign a large percentage of chemical shifts (73-82 %) unambiguously, demonstrated with proteins up to a size of 250 residues. For the remaining residues, a small number of possible assignments is filtered out. This is done by comparing distances in the 3D structure to restraints obtained from the peak volumes in the 4D spectrum. Using dead-end elimination, assignments are removed in which at least one of the restraints is violated. Including additional information from chemical shift predictions, a complete unambiguous assignment was obtained for Ubiquitin and 95 % of the residues were correctly assigned in the 251 residue-long N-terminal domain of enzyme I. The program including source code is available at https://github.com/thomasexner/4Dassign .

  2. Large-scale screening for novel low-affinity extracellular protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bushell, K. Mark; Söllner, Christian; Schuster-Boeckler, Benjamin; Bateman, Alex; Wright, Gavin J.

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular protein–protein interactions are essential for both intercellular communication and cohesion within multicellular organisms. Approximately a fifth of human genes encode membrane-tethered or secreted proteins, but they are largely absent from recent large-scale protein interaction datasets, making current interaction networks biased and incomplete. This discrepancy is due to the unsuitability of popular high-throughput methods to detect extracellular interactions because of the biochemical intractability of membrane proteins and their interactions. For example, cell surface proteins contain insoluble hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and their extracellular interactions are often highly transient, having half-lives of less than a second. To detect transient extracellular interactions on a large scale, we developed AVEXIS (avidity-based extracellular interaction screen), a high-throughput assay that overcomes these technical issues and can detect very transient interactions (half-lives ≤ 0.1 sec) with a low false-positive rate. We used it to systematically screen for receptor–ligand pairs within the zebrafish immunoglobulin superfamily and identified novel ligands for both well-known and orphan receptors. Genes encoding receptor–ligand pairs were often clustered phylogenetically and expressed in the same or adjacent tissues, immediately implying their involvement in similar biological processes. Using AVEXIS, we have determined the first systematic low–affinity extracellular protein interaction network, supported by independent biological data. This technique will now allow large-scale extracellular protein interaction mapping in a broad range of experimental contexts. PMID:18296487

  3. HUGE: a database for human large proteins identified by Kazusa cDNA sequencing project.

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, M; Nagase, T; Ohara, O

    1999-01-01

    HUGE is a database for human large proteins newly identified by Kazusa cDNA project, which aims to predict protein primary structures from sequences of human large cDNAs (>4 kb). In particular, cDNA clones capable of coding for large proteins (>50 kDa) are current targets of the project. More than 700 sequences of human cDNAs (average size, 5.1 kb) have been determined to date and deposited in the public databases. Notable information implied from the cDNAs and the predicted protein sequences can be obtained through HUGE via the World Wide Web at URL http://www.kazusa.or.jp/huge PMID:9847221

  4. Index-Based Searching of Interaction Patterns in Large Collections of Protein-Ligand Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Inhester, Therese; Bietz, Stefan; Hilbig, Matthias; Schmidt, Robert; Rarey, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    Comparison of three-dimensional interaction patterns in large collections of protein-ligand interfaces is a key element for understanding protein-ligand interactions and supports various steps in the structure-based drug design process. Different methods exist that provide query systems to search for geometrical patterns in protein-ligand complexes. However, these tools do not meet all of the requirements, which are high query variability, an adjustable search set, and high retrieval speed. Here we present a new tool named PELIKAN that is able to search for a variety of geometrical queries in large protein structure collections in a reasonably short time. The data are stored in an SQLite database that can easily be constructed from any set of protein-ligand complexes. We present different test queries demonstrating the performance of the PELIKAN approach. Furthermore, two application scenarios show the usefulness of PELIKAN in structure-based design endeavors.

  5. A Simulated MS/MS Library for Spectrum-to-spectrum Searching in Large Scale Identification of Proteins*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chia-Yu; Meyer-Arendt, Karen; Eichelberger, Brian; Sun, Shaojun; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M.; Knight, Rob; Ahn, Natalie G.; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Resing, Katheryn A.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying peptides from mass spectrometric fragmentation data (MS/MS spectra) using search strategies that map protein sequences to spectra is computationally expensive. An alternative strategy uses direct spectrum-to-spectrum matching against a reference library of previously observed MS/MS that has the advantage of evaluating matches using fragment ion intensities and other ion types than the simple set normally used. However, this approach is limited by the small sizes of the available peptide MS/MS libraries and the inability to evaluate the rate of false assignments. In this study, we observed good performance of simulated spectra generated by the kinetic model implemented in MassAnalyzer (Zhang, Z. (2004) Prediction of low-energy collision-induced dissociation spectra of peptides. Anal. Chem. 76, 3908–3922; Zhang, Z. (2005) Prediction of low-energy collision-induced dissociation spectra of peptides with three or more charges. Anal. Chem. 77, 6364–6373) as a substitute for the reference libraries used by the spectrum-to-spectrum search programs X!Hunter and BiblioSpec and similar results in comparison with the spectrum-to-sequence program Mascot. We also demonstrate the use of simulated spectra for searching against decoy sequences to estimate false discovery rates. Although we found lower score discrimination with spectrum-to-spectrum searches than with Mascot, particularly for higher charge forms, comparable peptide assignments with low false discovery rate were achieved by examining consensus between X!Hunter and Mascot, filtering results by mass accuracy, and ignoring score thresholds. Protein identification results are comparable to those achieved when evaluating consensus between Sequest and Mascot. Run times with large scale data sets using X!Hunter with the simulated spectral library are 7 times faster than Mascot and 80 times faster than Sequest with the human International Protein Index (IPI) database. We conclude that simulated spectral

  6. Aberrantly Large Single-Channel Conductance of Polyhistidine Arm-Containing Protein Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Avinash Kumar; Larimi, Motahareh Ghahari; Gooden, Kristin; Movileanu, Liviu

    2017-09-12

    There have been only a few studies reporting on the impact of polyhistidine affinity tags on the structure, function, and dynamics of proteins. Because of the relatively short size of the tags, they are often thought to have little or no effect on the conformation or activity of a protein. Here, using membrane protein design and single-molecule electrophysiology, we determined that the presence of a hexahistidine arm at the N-terminus of a truncated FhuA-based protein nanopore, leaving the C-terminus untagged, produces an unusual increase in the unitary conductance to ∼8 nS in 1 M KCl. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single-channel conductance ever recorded with a monomeric β-barrel outer membrane protein. The hexahistidine arm was captured by an anti-polyhistidine tag monoclonal antibody added to the side of the channel-forming protein addition, but not to the opposite side, documenting that this truncated FhuA-based protein nanopore inserts into a planar lipid bilayer with a preferred orientation. This finding is in agreement with the protein insertion in vivo, in which the large loops face the extracellular side of the membrane. The aberrantly large single-channel conductance, likely induced by a greater cross-sectional area of the pore lumen, along with the vectorial insertion into a lipid membrane, will have profound implications for further developments of engineered protein nanopores.

  7. A coclustering approach for mining large protein-protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Pizzuti, Clara; Rombo, Simona E

    2012-01-01

    Several approaches have been presented in the literature to cluster Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) networks. They can be grouped in two main categories: those allowing a protein to participate in different clusters and those generating only nonoverlapping clusters. In both cases, a challenging task is to find a suitable compromise between the biological relevance of the results and a comprehensive coverage of the analyzed networks. Indeed, methods returning high accurate results are often able to cover only small parts of the input PPI network, especially when low-characterized networks are considered. We present a coclustering-based technique able to generate both overlapping and nonoverlapping clusters. The density of the clusters to search for can also be set by the user. We tested our method on the two networks of yeast and human, and compared it to other five well-known techniques on the same interaction data sets. The results showed that, for all the examples considered, our approach always reaches a good compromise between accuracy and network coverage. Furthermore, the behavior of our algorithm is not influenced by the structure of the input network, different from all the techniques considered in the comparison, which returned very good results on the yeast network, while on the human network their outcomes are rather poor.

  8. MLL2 protein is a prognostic marker for gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Haige; Lu, Lu; Ge, Bei; Gao, Shenmeng; Ma, Yongyong; Liang, Bin; Yu, Kang; Yang, Kaiyan

    2015-01-01

    Mixed linage leukemia gene 2 (MLL2) is identified as a novel mutation gene in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the significance of MLL2 protein expression for the prognosis of DLBCL is unclear. In this study, we detected MLL2 protein expression in primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B cell lymphoma (PGI-DLBCL) samples by using tissue microarray immunohistochemistry, and analyzed the correlation between MLL2 protein expression and tumor proliferation activity. In addition, we investigated clinical significance of MLL2 protein expression for PGI-DLBCL prognosis. We found that there was significant difference in MLL2 protein expression between PGI-DLBCL and reactive hyperplasia of lymph node. High expression of MLL2 protein indicated higher clinical stage. In older patients (>60 years) with PGI-DLBCL, MLL2 protein expression was positively correlated with Ki-67 expression and negatively correlated with patient survival. Our data suggest that MLL2 protein is overexpressed in PGI-DLBCL and appears as a prognostic factor for patients of PGI-DLBCL, especially for those older than 60 years old. PMID:26722499

  9. Crystallization of the Large Membrane Protein Complex Photosystem I in a Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Kupitz, Christopher; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Traditional macroscale protein crystallization is accomplished non-trivially by exploring a range of protein concentrations and buffers in solution until a suitable combination is attained. This methodology is time consuming and resource intensive, hindering protein structure determination. Even more difficulties arise when crystallizing large membrane protein complexes such as photosystem I (PSI) due to their large unit cells dominated by solvent and complex characteristics that call for even stricter buffer requirements. Structure determination techniques tailored for these ‘difficult to crystallize’ proteins such as femtosecond nanocrystallography are being developed, yet still need specific crystal characteristics. Here, we demonstrate a simple and robust method to screen protein crystallization conditions at low ionic strength in a microfluidic device. This is realized in one microfluidic experiment using low sample amounts, unlike traditional methods where each solution condition is set up separately. Second harmonic generation microscopy via Second Order Nonlinear Imaging of Chiral Crystals (SONICC) was applied for the detection of nanometer and micrometer sized PSI crystals within microchannels. To develop a crystallization phase diagram, crystals imaged with SONICC at specific channel locations were correlated to protein and salt concentrations determined by numerical simulations of the time-dependent diffusion process along the channel. Our method demonstrated that a portion of the PSI crystallization phase diagram could be reconstructed in excellent agreement with crystallization conditions determined by traditional methods. We postulate that this approach could be utilized to efficiently study and optimize crystallization conditions for a wide range of proteins that are poorly understood to date. PMID:24191698

  10. Internal organization of large protein families: relationship between the sequence, structure and function based clustering

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-hui; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Wooley, John; Godzik, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The protein universe can be organized in families that group proteins sharing common ancestry. Such families display variable levels of structural and functional divergence, from homogenous families, where all members have the same function and very similar structure, to very divergent families, where large variations in function and structure are observed. For practical purposes of structure and function prediction, it would be beneficial to identify sub-groups of proteins with highly similar structures (iso-structural) and/or functions (iso-functional) within divergent protein families. We compared three algorithms in their ability to cluster large protein families and discuss whether any of these methods could reliably identify such iso-structural or iso-functional groups. We show that clustering using profile-sequence and profile-profile comparison methods closely reproduces clusters based on similarities between 3D structures or clusters of proteins with similar biological functions. In contrast, the still commonly used sequence-based methods with fixed thresholds result in vast overestimates of structural and functional diversity in protein families. As a result, these methods also overestimate the number of protein structures that have to be determined to fully characterize structural space of such families. The fact that one can build reliable models based on apparently distantly related templates is crucial for extracting maximal amount of information from new sequencing projects. PMID:21671455

  11. Internal organization of large protein families: relationship between the sequence, structure, and function-based clustering.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Hui; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Wooley, John; Godzik, Adam

    2011-08-01

    The protein universe can be organized in families that group proteins sharing common ancestry. Such families display variable levels of structural and functional divergence, from homogenous families, where all members have the same function and very similar structure, to very divergent families, where large variations in function and structure are observed. For practical purposes of structure and function prediction, it would be beneficial to identify sub-groups of proteins with highly similar structures (iso-structural) and/or functions (iso-functional) within divergent protein families. We compared three algorithms in their ability to cluster large protein families and discuss whether any of these methods could reliably identify such iso-structural or iso-functional groups. We show that clustering using profile-sequence and profile-profile comparison methods closely reproduces clusters based on similarities between 3D structures or clusters of proteins with similar biological functions. In contrast, the still commonly used sequence-based methods with fixed thresholds result in vast overestimates of structural and functional diversity in protein families. As a result, these methods also overestimate the number of protein structures that have to be determined to fully characterize structural space of such families. The fact that one can build reliable models based on apparently distantly related templates is crucial for extracting maximal amount of information from new sequencing projects.

  12. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy maps the folding landscape of a large protein.

    PubMed

    Pirchi, Menahem; Ziv, Guy; Riven, Inbal; Cohen, Sharona Sedghani; Zohar, Nir; Barak, Yoav; Haran, Gilad

    2011-10-11

    Proteins attain their function only after folding into a highly organized three-dimensional structure. Much remains to be learned about the mechanisms of folding of large multidomain proteins, which may populate metastable intermediate states on their energy landscapes. Here we introduce a novel method, based on high-throughput single-molecule fluorescence experiments, which is specifically geared towards tracing the dynamics of folding in the presence of a plethora of intermediates. We employ this method to characterize the folding reaction of a three-domain protein, adenylate kinase. Using thousands of single-molecule trajectories and hidden Markov modelling, we identify six metastable states on adenylate kinase's folding landscape. Remarkably, the connectivity of the intermediates depends on denaturant concentration; at low concentration, multiple intersecting folding pathways co-exist. We anticipate that the methodology introduced here will find broad applicability in the study of folding of large proteins, and will provide a more realistic scenario of their conformational dynamics.

  13. Visualization of Surface-tethered Large DNA Molecules with a Fluorescent Protein DNA Binding Peptide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonghyun; Jo, Kyubong

    2016-06-23

    Large DNA molecules tethered on the functionalized glass surface have been utilized in polymer physics and biochemistry particularly for investigating interactions between DNA and its binding proteins. Here, we report a method that uses fluorescent microscopy for visualizing large DNA molecules tethered on the surface. First, glass coverslips are biotinylated and passivated by coating with biotinylated polyethylene glycol, which specifically binds biotinylated DNA via avidin protein linkers and significantly reduces undesirable binding from non-specific interactions of proteins or DNA molecules on the surface. Second, the DNA molecules are biotinylated by two different methods depending on their terminals. The blunt ended DNA is tagged with biotinylated dUTP at its 3' hydroxyl terminus, by terminal transferase, while the sticky ended DNA is hybridized with biotinylated complimentary oligonucleotides by DNA ligase. Finally, a microfluidic shear flow makes single DNA molecules stretch to their full contour lengths after being stained with fluorescent protein-DNA binding peptide (FP-DBP).

  14. Therapeutic Homework Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbishley, M. Anne; Yost, Elizabeth B.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines guidelines to follow in assigning therapeutic homework to students, focusing on student preparation, including behavior change, choosing and devising assignments, and checking on homework. With modification, counseling homework can be used with all students who are beyond second or third grade. (BL)

  15. The Failed Writing Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swyt, Wendy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an unsuccessful English 101 writing assignment in which students were asked to analyze a Gary Larson cartoon. Examines critically the type of assignment that seeks to address and incorporate the student writer's "local knowledge" of cultural texts, while at the same time containing what counts as knowledge within limited parameters of…

  16. NMR study of non-structural proteins--part I: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Mayaro virus (MAYV).

    PubMed

    Melekis, Efstathios; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Chasapis, Christos T; Margiolaki, Irene; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-04-01

    Macro domains are ADP-ribose-binding modules present in all eukaryotic organisms, bacteria and archaea. They are also found in non-structural proteins of several positive strand RNA viruses such as alphaviruses. Here, we report the high yield expression and preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the macro domain from New World Mayaro Alphavirus. The recombinant protein was well-folded and in a monomeric state. An almost complete sequence-specific assignment of its (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances was obtained and its secondary structure determined by TALOS+.

  17. BCSearch: fast structural fragment mining over large collections of protein structures.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Frédéric; Martz, François; Vavrusa, Marek; Bécot, Jérôme; Rey, Julien; Tufféry, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Resources to mine the large amount of protein structures available today are necessary to better understand how amino acid variations are compatible with conformation preservation, to assist protein design, engineering and, further, the development of biologic therapeutic compounds. BCSearch is a versatile service to efficiently mine large collections of protein structures. It relies on a new approach based on a Binet-Cauchy kernel that is more discriminative than the widely used root mean square deviation criterion. It has statistics independent of size even for short fragments, and is fast. The systematic mining of large collections of structures such as the complete SCOPe protein structural classification or comprehensive subsets of the Protein Data Bank can be performed in few minutes. Based on this new score, we propose four innovative applications: BCFragSearch and BCMirrorSearch, respectively, search for fragments similar and anti-similar to a query and return information on the diversity of the sequences of the hits. BCLoopSearch identifies candidate fragments of fixed size matching the flanks of a gaped structure. BCSpecificitySearch analyzes a complete protein structure and returns information about sites having few similar fragments. BCSearch is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/BCSearch.

  18. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Large Pores for the Encapsulation and Release of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jing; Boyle, Aimee L; Friedrich, Heiner; Bomans, Paul H H; Bussmann, Jeroen; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Jiskoot, Wim; Kros, Alexander

    2016-11-30

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been explored extensively as solid supports for proteins in biological and medical applications. Small (<200 nm) MSNs with ordered large pores (>5 nm), capable of encapsulating therapeutic small molecules suitable for delivery applications in vivo, are rare however. Here we present small, elongated, cuboidal, MSNs with average dimensions of 90 × 43 nm that possess disk-shaped cavities, stacked on top of each other, which run parallel to the short axis of the particle. Amine functionalization was achieved by modifying the MSN surface with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane or 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyltrimethoxysilane (AP-MSNs and AEP-MSNs) and were shown to have similar dimensions to the nonfunctionalized MSNs. The dimensions of these particles, and their large surface areas as measured by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, make them ideal scaffolds for protein encapsulation and delivery. We therefore investigated the encapsulation and release behavior for seven model proteins (α-lactalbumin, ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin, catalase, hemoglobin, lysozyme, and cytochrome c). It was discovered that all types of MSNs used in this study allow rapid encapsulation, with a high loading capacity, for all proteins studied. Furthermore, the release profiles of the proteins were tunable. The variation in both rate and amount of protein uptake and release was found to be determined by the surface chemistry of the MSNs, together with the isoelectric point (pI), and molecular weight of the proteins, as well as by the ionic strength of the buffer. These MSNs with their large surface area and optimal dimensions provide a scaffold with a high encapsulation efficiency and controllable release profiles for a variety of proteins, enabling potential applications in fields such as drug delivery and protein therapy.

  19. Strategy for large scale solubilization of coal - characterization of Neurospora protein and gene

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Chen, Y.P.; Mishra, N.C.

    1995-12-31

    Low grade coal placed on mycelial mat of Neurospora crassa growing on Petri plate was found to be solubilized by this fungus. A heat stable protein has been purified to near homogeneity which can solubilize low grade coal in in vitro. The biochemical properties of the Neurospora protein will be presented. The nature of the product obtained after solubilization of coal by Neurospora protein in vivo and in vitro will also be presented. The N-terminus sequence of the amino acids of this protein will be used to design primer for possible cloning of gene for Neurospora protein capable of solubilization of coal in order to develop methodology for coal solubilization on a large scale.

  20. XLinkDB 2.0: integrated, large-scale structural analysis of protein crosslinking data.

    PubMed

    Schweppe, Devin K; Zheng, Chunxiang; Chavez, Juan D; Navare, Arti T; Wu, Xia; Eng, Jimmy K; Bruce, James E

    2016-09-01

    Large-scale chemical cross-linking with mass spectrometry (XL-MS) analyses are quickly becoming a powerful means for high-throughput determination of protein structural information and protein-protein interactions. Recent studies have garnered thousands of cross-linked interactions, yet the field lacks an effective tool to compile experimental data or access the network and structural knowledge for these large scale analyses. We present XLinkDB 2.0 which integrates tools for network analysis, Protein Databank queries, modeling of predicted protein structures and modeling of docked protein structures. The novel, integrated approach of XLinkDB 2.0 enables the holistic analysis of XL-MS protein interaction data without limitation to the cross-linker or analytical system used for the analysis. XLinkDB 2.0 can be found here, including documentation and help: http://xlinkdb.gs.washington.edu/ : jimbruce@uw.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Large-scale Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein purification.

    PubMed

    Duellman, Sarah J; Burgess, Richard R

    2009-02-01

    The protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) are known to play an important role in the many functions of this viral protein. Large quantities of pure EBNA1 protein would be useful in biochemical assays to elucidate such interactions. In particular, the crystal structure of the full-length protein would be important to show possible regions of interaction and/or post-translational modification. Recently, we described a novel approach to overexpress and purify EBNA1 from Escherichia coli; however, it is not ideal for large-scale production of EBNA1. We were able to optimize this protocol by (1) adding a polyethyleneimine precipitation step prior to Ni-NTA chromatography to reduce complexity of the sample and remove nucleic acid, (2) optimizing the Ni-NTA gradient to further separate EBNA1 from impurities, and (3) concluding with a MonoS cation-exchange chromatography step to further purify and concentrate EBNA1. We were able to recover 10-mg quantities of pure EBNA1 protein.

  2. Correlated motion of protein subdomains and large-scale conformational flexibility of RecA protein filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Garmay; A, Shvetsov; D, Karelov; D, Lebedev; A, Radulescu; M, Petukhov; V, Isaev-Ivanov

    2012-02-01

    Based on X-ray crystallographic data available at Protein Data Bank, we have built molecular dynamics (MD) models of homologous recombinases RecA from E. coli and D. radiodurans. Functional form of RecA enzyme, which is known to be a long helical filament, was approximated by a trimer, simulated in periodic water box. The MD trajectories were analyzed in terms of large-scale conformational motions that could be detectable by neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. The analysis revealed that large-scale RecA monomer dynamics can be described in terms of relative motions of 7 subdomains. Motion of C-terminal domain was the major contributor to the overall dynamics of protein. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the MD trajectories in the atom coordinate space showed that rotation of C-domain is correlated with the conformational changes in the central domain and N-terminal domain, that forms the monomer-monomer interface. Thus, even though C-terminal domain is relatively far from the interface, its orientation is correlated with large-scale filament conformation. PCA of the trajectories in the main chain dihedral angle coordinate space implicates a co-existence of a several different large-scale conformations of the modeled trimer. In order to clarify the relationship of independent domain orientation with large-scale filament conformation, we have performed analysis of independent domain motion and its implications on the filament geometry.

  3. Genome-scale phylogenetic function annotation of large and diverse protein families.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Barbara E; Jordan, Michael I; Srouji, John R; Brenner, Steven E

    2011-11-01

    The Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships (SIFTER) framework uses a statistical graphical model that applies phylogenetic principles to automate precise protein function prediction. Here we present a revised approach (SIFTER version 2.0) that enables annotations on a genomic scale. SIFTER 2.0 produces equivalently precise predictions compared to the earlier version on a carefully studied family and on a collection of 100 protein families. We have added an approximation method to SIFTER 2.0 and show a 500-fold improvement in speed with minimal impact on prediction results in the functionally diverse sulfotransferase protein family. On the Nudix protein family, previously inaccessible to the SIFTER framework because of the 66 possible molecular functions, SIFTER achieved 47.4% accuracy on experimental data (where BLAST achieved 34.0%). Finally, we used SIFTER to annotate all of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins with experimental functional characterizations, based on annotations from proteins in 46 fungal genomes. SIFTER precisely predicted molecular function for 45.5% of the characterized proteins in this genome, as compared with four current function prediction methods that precisely predicted function for 62.6%, 30.6%, 6.0%, and 5.7% of these proteins. We use both precision-recall curves and ROC analyses to compare these genome-scale predictions across the different methods and to assess performance on different types of applications. SIFTER 2.0 is capable of predicting protein molecular function for large and functionally diverse protein families using an approximate statistical model, enabling phylogenetics-based protein function prediction for genome-wide analyses. The code for SIFTER and protein family data are available at http://sifter.berkeley.edu.

  4. Genome-scale phylogenetic function annotation of large and diverse protein families

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Srouji, John R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships (SIFTER) framework uses a statistical graphical model that applies phylogenetic principles to automate precise protein function prediction. Here we present a revised approach (SIFTER version 2.0) that enables annotations on a genomic scale. SIFTER 2.0 produces equivalently precise predictions compared to the earlier version on a carefully studied family and on a collection of 100 protein families. We have added an approximation method to SIFTER 2.0 and show a 500-fold improvement in speed with minimal impact on prediction results in the functionally diverse sulfotransferase protein family. On the Nudix protein family, previously inaccessible to the SIFTER framework because of the 66 possible molecular functions, SIFTER achieved 47.4% accuracy on experimental data (where BLAST achieved 34.0%). Finally, we used SIFTER to annotate all of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins with experimental functional characterizations, based on annotations from proteins in 46 fungal genomes. SIFTER precisely predicted molecular function for 45.5% of the characterized proteins in this genome, as compared with four current function prediction methods that precisely predicted function for 62.6%, 30.6%, 6.0%, and 5.7% of these proteins. We use both precision-recall curves and ROC analyses to compare these genome-scale predictions across the different methods and to assess performance on different types of applications. SIFTER 2.0 is capable of predicting protein molecular function for large and functionally diverse protein families using an approximate statistical model, enabling phylogenetics-based protein function prediction for genome-wide analyses. The code for SIFTER and protein family data are available at http://sifter.berkeley.edu. PMID:21784873

  5. Interactive Effects of Indigestible Carbohydrates, Protein Type, and Protein Level on Biomarkers of Large Intestine Health in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Taciak, Marcin; Barszcz, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The effects of indigestible carbohydrates, protein type, and protein level on large intestine health were examined in rats. For 21 days, 12 groups of six 12-week-old male Wistar rats were fed diets with casein (CAS), or potato protein concentrate (PPC), providing 14% (lower protein level; LP), or 20% (higher protein level; HP) protein, and containing cellulose, resistant potato starch, or pectin. Fermentation end-products, pH, and β-glucuronidase levels in cecal digesta, and ammonia levels in colonic digesta were determined. Cecal digesta, tissue weights, cecal and colon morphology, and colonocyte DNA damage were also analyzed. Digesta pH was lower, whereas relative mass of cecal tissue and digesta were higher in rats fed pectin diets than in those fed cellulose. Cecal parameters were greater in rats fed PPC and HP diets than in those fed CAS and LP diets, respectively. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were unaffected by protein or carbohydrate type. Total SCFA, acetic acid, and propionic acid concentrations were greater in rats fed LP diets than in those fed HP. Cecal pool of isobutyric and isovaleric acids was greater in rats fed PPC than in those fed CAS diets. PPC diets decreased phenol concentration and increased ammonia concentration in cecal and colonic digesta, respectively. Cecal crypt depth was greater in rats fed PPC and HP diets, and was unaffected by carbohydrates; whereas colonic crypt depth was greater in rats fed cellulose. Myenteron thickness in the cecum was unaffected by nutrition, but was greater in the colon of rats fed cellulose. Colonocyte DNA damage was greater in rats fed LP diets than in those fed HP diets, and was unaffected by carbohydrate or protein type. It was found that nutritional factors decreasing cecal digesta weight contribute to greater phenol production, increased DNA damage, and reduced ammonia concentration in the colon. PMID:26536028

  6. Approach for growth of high-quality and large protein crystals.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirose, Mika; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Maruyama, Mihoko; Murai, Ryota; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Three crystallization methods for growing large high-quality protein crystals, i.e. crystallization in the presence of a semi-solid agarose gel, top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) and a large-scale hanging-drop method, have previously been presented. In this study the effectiveness of crystallization in the presence of a semi-solid agarose gel has been further evaluated by crystallizing additional proteins in the presence of 2.0% (w/v) agarose gel, resulting in complete gelification with high mechanical strength. In TSSG the seed crystals are hung by a seed holder protruding from the top of the growth vessel to prevent polycrystallization. In the large-scale hanging-drop method, a cut pipette tip was used to maintain large-scale droplets consisting of protein-precipitant solution. Here a novel crystallization method that combines TSSG and the large-scale hanging-drop method is reported. A large and single crystal of lysozyme was obtained by this method.

  7. Characterizing the existing and potential structural space of proteins by large-scale multiple loop permutations

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Liang; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide structural genomics projects are increasing structure coverage of sequence space but have not significantly expanded the protein structure space itself (i.e. number of unique structural folds) since 2007. Discovering new structural folds experimentally by directed evolution and random recombination of secondary-structure blocks is also proved rarely successful. Meanwhile, previous computational efforts for large-scale mapping of protein structure space are limited to simple model proteins and led to an inconclusive answer on the completeness of the existing, observed protein structure space. Here, we build novel protein structures by extending naturally occurring circular (single-loop) permutation to multiple-loop permutations (MLP). These structures are clustered by structural similarity measure called TM-Score. The computational technique allows us to produce different structural clusters on the same naturally occurring, packed, stable core but with alternatively connected secondary-structure segments. A large-scale MLP of 2936 SCOP domains reproduces those existing structural clusters (63%) mostly as hubs for many non-redundant sequences and illustrates newly discovered novel clusters as islands adopted by a few sequences only. Results further show that there exist a significant number of novel, potentially stable clusters for medium or large-size single-domain proteins, in particular (>100 amino-acid residues) that are either not yet adopted by nature or adopted only by a few sequences. This study suggests that MLP provides a simple yet highly effective tool for engineering and design of novel protein structures (including naturally knotted proteins). The implication of recovering CASP new-fold targets by MLP on template-based structure prediction is also discussed. Our MLP structures are available for download at the publication page of the website http://sparks.informatics.iupui.edu. PMID:21376059

  8. Domain decomposition-based structural condensation of large protein structures for understanding their conformational dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae In; Na, Sungsoo; Eom, Kilho

    2011-01-15

    Normal mode analysis (NMA) with coarse-grained model, such as elastic network model (ENM), has allowed the quantitative understanding of protein dynamics. As the protein size is increased, there emerges the expensive computational process to find the dynamically important low-frequency normal modes due to diagonalization of massive Hessian matrix. In this study, we have provided the domain decomposition-based structural condensation method that enables the efficient computations on low-frequency motions. Specifically, our coarse-graining method is established by coupling between model condensation (MC; Eom et al., J Comput Chem 2007, 28, 1400) and component mode synthesis (Kim et al., J Chem Theor Comput 2009, 5, 1931). A protein structure is first decomposed into substructural units, and then each substructural unit is coarse-grained by MC. Once the NMA is implemented to coarse-grained substructural units, normal modes and natural frequencies for each coarse-grained substructural unit are assembled by using geometric constraints to provide the normal modes and natural frequencies for whole protein structure. It is shown that our coarse-graining method enhances the computational efficiency for analysis of large protein complexes. It is clearly suggested that our coarse-graining method provides the B-factors of 100 large proteins, quantitatively comparable with those obtained from original NMA, with computational efficiency. Moreover, the collective behaviors and/or the correlated motions for model proteins are well delineated by our suggested coarse-grained models, quantitatively comparable with those computed from original NMA. It is implied that our coarse-grained method enables the computationally efficient studies on conformational dynamics of large protein complex.

  9. Studies on the Assembly Characteristics of Large Subunit Ribosomal Proteins in S. cerevisae

    PubMed Central

    Ohmayer, Uli; Gamalinda, Michael; Sauert, Martina; Ossowski, Julius; Pöll, Gisela; Linnemann, Jan; Hierlmeier, Thomas; Perez-Fernandez, Jorge; Kumcuoglu, Beril; Leger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Faubladier, Marlène; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Woolford, John; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    During the assembly process of ribosomal subunits, their structural components, the ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and the ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) have to join together in a highly dynamic and defined manner to enable the efficient formation of functional ribosomes. In this work, the assembly of large ribosomal subunit (LSU) r-proteins from the eukaryote S. cerevisiae was systematically investigated. Groups of LSU r-proteins with specific assembly characteristics were detected by comparing the protein composition of affinity purified early, middle, late or mature LSU (precursor) particles by semi-quantitative mass spectrometry. The impact of yeast LSU r-proteins rpL25, rpL2, rpL43, and rpL21 on the composition of intermediate to late nuclear LSU precursors was analyzed in more detail. Effects of these proteins on the assembly states of other r-proteins and on the transient LSU precursor association of several ribosome biogenesis factors, including Nog2, Rsa4 and Nop53, are discussed. PMID:23874617

  10. Comparative Proteomics of Mouse Tears and Saliva: Evidence from Large Protein Families for Functional Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Robert C.; Laukaitis, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    We produced a tear proteome of the genome mouse, C57BL/6, that contained 139 different protein identifications: 110 from a two-dimensional (2D) gel with subsequent trypsin digestion, 19 from a one-dimensional (1D) gel with subsequent trypsin digestion and ten from a 1D gel with subsequent Asp-N digestion. We compared this tear proteome with a C57BL/6 mouse saliva proteome produced previously. Sixteen of the 139 tear proteins are shared between the two proteomes, including six proteins that combat microbial growth. Among the 123 other tear proteins, were members of four large protein families that have no counterparts in humans: Androgen-binding proteins (ABPs) with different members expressed in the two proteomes, Exocrine secreted peptides (ESPs) expressed exclusively in the tear proteome, major urinary proteins (MUPs) expressed in one or both proteomes and the mouse-specific Kallikreins (subfamily b KLKs) expressed exclusively in the saliva proteome. All four families have members with suggested roles in mouse communication, which may influence some aspect of reproductive behavior. We discuss this in the context of functional adaptation involving tear and saliva proteins in the secretions of mouse lacrimal and salivary glands, respectively.

  11. The Capsid Proteins of a Large, Icosahedral dsDNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaodong; Yu, Zeyun; Zhang, Ping; Battisti, Anthony J.; Chipman, Paul R.; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Bergoin, Max; Rossmann, Michael G.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) is a large (~1850 Å diameter) insect virus with an icosahedral, T=147 capsid, a dsDNA genome, and an internal lipid membrane. The structure of CIV was determined to 13 Å resolution by means of cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and three-dimensional image reconstruction. A homology model of P50, the CIV major capsid protein (MCP), was built based on its amino acid sequence and the structure of the homologous Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) Vp54 MCP. This model was fitted into the cryoEM density for each of the 25 trimeric CIV capsomers per icosahedral asymmetric unit. A difference map, in which the fitted CIV MCP capsomers were subtracted from the CIV cryoEM reconstruction, showed that there are at least three different types of minor capsid proteins associated with the capsomers outside the lipid membrane. “Finger” proteins are situated at many, but not all, of the spaces between three adjacent capsomers within each trisymmetron, and “zip” proteins are situated between sets of three adjacent capsomers at the boundary between neighboring trisymmetrons and pentasymmetrons. Based on the results of segmentation and density correlations, there are at least eight finger proteins, and three dimeric and two monomeric zip proteins in one asymmetric unit of the CIV capsid. These minor proteins appear to stabilize the virus by acting as intercapsomer cross-links. One transmembrane “anchor” protein per icosahedral asymmetric unit, which extends from beneath one of the capsomers in the pentasymmetron to the internal leaflet of the lipid membrane, may provide additional stabilization for the capsid. These results are consistent with the observations for other large, icosahedral dsDNA viruses that also utilize minor capsid proteins for stabilization and determining their assembly. PMID:19027752

  12. Genetics of single-cell protein abundance variation in large yeast populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Frank W.; Treusch, Sebastian; Shockley, Arthur H.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2014-02-01

    Variation among individuals arises in part from differences in DNA sequences, but the genetic basis for variation in most traits, including common diseases, remains only partly understood. Many DNA variants influence phenotypes by altering the expression level of one or several genes. The effects of such variants can be detected as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Traditional eQTL mapping requires large-scale genotype and gene expression data for each individual in the study sample, which limits sample sizes to hundreds of individuals in both humans and model organisms and reduces statistical power. Consequently, many eQTL are probably missed, especially those with smaller effects. Furthermore, most studies use messenger RNA rather than protein abundance as the measure of gene expression. Studies that have used mass-spectrometry proteomics reported unexpected differences between eQTL and protein QTL (pQTL) for the same genes, but these studies have been even more limited in scope. Here we introduce a powerful method for identifying genetic loci that influence protein expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We measure single-cell protein abundance through the use of green fluorescent protein tags in very large populations of genetically variable cells, and use pooled sequencing to compare allele frequencies across the genome in thousands of individuals with high versus low protein abundance. We applied this method to 160 genes and detected many more loci per gene than previous studies. We also observed closer correspondence between loci that influence protein abundance and loci that influence mRNA abundance of a given gene. Most loci that we detected were clustered in `hotspots' that influence multiple proteins, and some hotspots were found to influence more than half of the proteins that we examined. The variants that underlie these hotspots have profound effects on the gene regulatory network and provide insights into genetic variation in cell

  13. Scale-up of isoelectric focusing. [for large scale protein fracionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, Milan

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes some applications to large scale protein fractionation using a recycling isoelectric focusing apparatus. Separation is achieved in free solution without the use of supporting media. Various alternatives for the formation of the pH gradient are discussed and results of a computer simulation are presented.

  14. Scale-up of isoelectric focusing. [for large scale protein fracionation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, Milan

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes some applications to large scale protein fractionation using a recycling isoelectric focusing apparatus. Separation is achieved in free solution without the use of supporting media. Various alternatives for the formation of the pH gradient are discussed and results of a computer simulation are presented.

  15. Two distinct SSB protein families in nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Venclovas, Česlovas

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Eukaryote-infecting nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) feature some of the largest genomes in the viral world. These viruses typically do not strongly depend on the host DNA replication systems. In line with this observation, a number of essential DNA replication proteins, such as DNA polymerases, primases, helicases and ligases, have been identified in the NCLDVs. One other ubiquitous component of DNA replisomes is the single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) protein. Intriguingly, no NCLDV homologs of canonical OB-fold-containing SSB proteins had previously been detected. Only in poxviruses, one of seven NCLDV families, I3 was identified as the SSB protein. However, whether I3 is related to any known protein structure has not yet been established. Results: Here, we addressed the case of ‘missing’ canonical SSB proteins in the NCLDVs and also probed evolutionary origins of the I3 family. Using advanced computational methods, in four NCLDV families, we detected homologs of the bacteriophage T7 SSB protein (gp2.5). We found the properties of these homologs to be consistent with the SSB function. Moreover, we implicated specific residues in single-stranded DNA binding. At the same time, we found no evolutionary link between the T7 gp2.5-like NCLDV SSB homologs and the poxviral SSB protein (I3). Instead, we identified a distant relationship between I3 and small protein B (SmpB), a bacterial RNA-binding protein. Thus, apparently, the NCLDVs have the two major distinct sets of SSB proteins having bacteriophage and bacterial origins, respectively. Contact: venclovas@ibt.lt Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23097418

  16. Large protein-induced dipoles for a symmetric carotenoid in a photosynthetic antenna complex.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, D S; Steffen, M A; Boxer, S G

    1991-02-08

    Unusually large electric field effects have been measured for the absorption spectra of carotenoids (spheroidene) in the B800-850 light-harvesting complex from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Quantitative analysis shows that the difference in the permanent dipole moment between the ground state and excited states in this protein complex is substantially larger than for pure spheroidene extracted from the protein. The results demonstrate the presence of a large perturbation on the electronic structure of this nearly symmetric carotenoid due to the organized environment in the protein. This work also provides an explanation for the seemingly anomalous dependence of carotenoid band shifts on transmembrane potential and a generally useful approach for calibrating electric field-sensitive dyes that are widely used to probe potentials in biological systems.

  17. Large-scale Top-down Proteomics of the Human Proteome: Membrane Proteins, Mitochondria, and Senescence*

    PubMed Central

    Catherman, Adam D.; Durbin, Kenneth R.; Ahlf, Dorothy R.; Early, Bryan P.; Fellers, Ryan T.; Tran, John C.; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2013-01-01

    Top-down proteomics is emerging as a viable method for the routine identification of hundreds to thousands of proteins. In this work we report the largest top-down study to date, with the identification of 1,220 proteins from the transformed human cell line H1299 at a false discovery rate of 1%. Multiple separation strategies were utilized, including the focused isolation of mitochondria, resulting in significantly improved proteome coverage relative to previous work. In all, 347 mitochondrial proteins were identified, including ∼50% of the mitochondrial proteome below 30 kDa and over 75% of the subunits constituting the large complexes of oxidative phosphorylation. Three hundred of the identified proteins were found to be integral membrane proteins containing between 1 and 12 transmembrane helices, requiring no specific enrichment or modified LC-MS parameters. Over 5,000 proteoforms were observed, many harboring post-translational modifications, including over a dozen proteins containing lipid anchors (some previously unknown) and many others with phosphorylation and methylation modifications. Comparison between untreated and senescent H1299 cells revealed several changes to the proteome, including the hyperphosphorylation of HMGA2. This work illustrates the burgeoning ability of top-down proteomics to characterize large numbers of intact proteoforms in a high-throughput fashion. PMID:24023390

  18. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Julia; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. PMID:27248802

  19. Revealing the global map of protein folding space by large-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinner, Claude; Lutz, Benjamin; Verma, Abhinav; Schug, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The full characterization of protein folding is a remarkable long-standing challenge both for experiment and simulation. Working towards a complete understanding of this process, one needs to cover the full diversity of existing folds and identify the general principles driving the process. Here, we want to understand and quantify the diversity in folding routes for a large and representative set of protein topologies covering the full range from all alpha helical topologies towards beta barrels guided by the key question: Does the majority of the observed routes contribute to the folding process or only a particular route? We identified a set of two-state folders among non-homologous proteins with a sequence length of 40-120 residues. For each of these proteins, we ran native-structure based simulations both with homogeneous and heterogeneous contact potentials. For each protein, we simulated dozens of folding transitions in continuous uninterrupted simulations and constructed a large database of kinetic parameters. We investigate folding routes by tracking the formation of tertiary structure interfaces and discuss whether a single specific route exists for a topology or if all routes are equiprobable. These results permit us to characterize the complete folding space for small proteins in terms of folding barrier ΔG‡, number of routes, and the route specificity RT.

  20. The DEAD box protein Mrh4 functions in the assembly of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Dasmanthie; Fontanesi, Flavia; Barrientos, Antoni

    2013-11-05

    Proteins in a cell are universally synthesized by ribosomes. Mitochondria contain their own ribosomes, which specialize in the synthesis of a handful of proteins required for oxidative phosphorylation. The pathway of mitoribosomal biogenesis and factors involved are poorly characterized. An example is the DEAD box proteins, widely known to participate in the biogenesis of bacterial and cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosomes as either RNA helicases or RNA chaperones, whose mitochondrial counterparts remain completely unknown. Here, we have identified the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial DEAD box protein Mrh4 as essential for large mitoribosome subunit biogenesis. Mrh4 interacts with the 21S rRNA, mitoribosome subassemblies, and fully assembled mitoribosomes. In the absence of Mrh4, the 21S rRNA is matured and forms part of a large on-pathway assembly intermediate missing proteins Mrpl16 and Mrpl39. We conclude that Mrh4 plays an essential role during the late stages of mitoribosome assembly by promoting remodeling of the 21S rRNA-protein interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kerstin; Schiffer, Philipp H; Zielinski, Julia; Wiehe, Thomas; Laird, Gavin K; Marioni, John C; Soylemez, Onuralp; Kondrashov, Fyodor; Leptin, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. My Favorite Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Robert E.; Johnson, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents two assignments that show (1) how George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" can be applied to business writing and (2) how structured student-teacher conferences can generate enthusiasm for oral expression in a business communication course. (AEA)

  3. My Favorite Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Robert E.; Johnson, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents two assignments that show (1) how George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" can be applied to business writing and (2) how structured student-teacher conferences can generate enthusiasm for oral expression in a business communication course. (AEA)

  4. Fair Package Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  5. Extra-Large G Proteins Expand the Repertoire of Subunits in Arabidopsis Heterotrimeric G Protein Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, David; Gookin, Timothy E.; Milner, Matthew J.; Yu, Yunqing; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, are a conserved signal transduction mechanism in eukaryotes. However, G protein subunit numbers in diploid plant genomes are greatly reduced as compared with animals and do not correlate with the diversity of functions and phenotypes in which heterotrimeric G proteins have been implicated. In addition to GPA1, the sole canonical Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Gα subunit, Arabidopsis has three related proteins: the extra-large GTP-binding proteins XLG1, XLG2, and XLG3. We demonstrate that the XLGs can bind Gβγ dimers (AGB1 plus a Gγ subunit: AGG1, AGG2, or AGG3) with differing specificity in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) three-hybrid assays. Our in silico structural analysis shows that XLG3 aligns closely to the crystal structure of GPA1, and XLG3 also competes with GPA1 for Gβγ binding in yeast. We observed interaction of the XLGs with all three Gβγ dimers at the plasma membrane in planta by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Bioinformatic and localization studies identified and confirmed nuclear localization signals in XLG2 and XLG3 and a nuclear export signal in XLG3, which may facilitate intracellular shuttling. We found that tunicamycin, salt, and glucose hypersensitivity and increased stomatal density are agb1-specific phenotypes that are not observed in gpa1 mutants but are recapitulated in xlg mutants. Thus, XLG-Gβγ heterotrimers provide additional signaling modalities for tuning plant G protein responses and increase the repertoire of G protein heterotrimer combinations from three to 12. The potential for signal partitioning and competition between the XLGs and GPA1 is a new paradigm for plant-specific cell signaling. PMID:26157115

  6. Group assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, Aubrey B.; Gadaleta, Sabino

    2003-12-01

    Multiple frame data association, whether it is based on multiple hypothesis tracking or multi-dimensional assignment problems, has established itself as the method of choice for difficult tracking problems, principally due to the ability to hold difficult data association decisions in abeyance until additional information is available. Over the last twenty years, these methods have focused on one-to-one assignments, many-to-one, and many-to-many assignments. Group tracking, on the other hand, introduces new complexity into the association process, especially if some soft decision making capability is desired. Thus, the goal of this work is to combine multiple grouping hypotheses for each frame of data (tracks or measurements) with matching these hypotheses across multiple frames of data using one-to-one, many-to-one, or many-to-many assignments to determine the correct hypothesis on each frame of data and connectivity across the frames. The resulting formulation is sufficiently general to cover four broad classes of problems in multiple target tracking, namely (a) group cluster tracking, (b) pixel (clump) IR cluster tracking, (c) the merged measurement problem, and (d) MHT for track-to-track fusion. What is more, the cluster assignment problem for either two or multiple dimensions represents a generalized data association problem in the sense that it reduces to the classical assignment problems when there are no overlapping groups or clusters. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate group methods for use in multiple frame group tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations of the group assignment problem are developed.

  7. Group assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, Aubrey B.; Gadaleta, Sabino

    2004-01-01

    Multiple frame data association, whether it is based on multiple hypothesis tracking or multi-dimensional assignment problems, has established itself as the method of choice for difficult tracking problems, principally due to the ability to hold difficult data association decisions in abeyance until additional information is available. Over the last twenty years, these methods have focused on one-to-one assignments, many-to-one, and many-to-many assignments. Group tracking, on the other hand, introduces new complexity into the association process, especially if some soft decision making capability is desired. Thus, the goal of this work is to combine multiple grouping hypotheses for each frame of data (tracks or measurements) with matching these hypotheses across multiple frames of data using one-to-one, many-to-one, or many-to-many assignments to determine the correct hypothesis on each frame of data and connectivity across the frames. The resulting formulation is sufficiently general to cover four broad classes of problems in multiple target tracking, namely (a) group cluster tracking, (b) pixel (clump) IR cluster tracking, (c) the merged measurement problem, and (d) MHT for track-to-track fusion. What is more, the cluster assignment problem for either two or multiple dimensions represents a generalized data association problem in the sense that it reduces to the classical assignment problems when there are no overlapping groups or clusters. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate group methods for use in multiple frame group tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations of the group assignment problem are developed.

  8. Rotary dialysis: its application to the preparation of large liposomes and large proteoliposomes (protein-lipid vesicles) with high encapsulation efficiency and efficient reconstitution of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Gould-Fogerite, S; Mannino, R J

    1985-07-01

    An apparatus for rotary dialysis is introduced and described in detail. The component parts are inexpensive, widely available, and relatively easy to modify and assemble. The apparatus achieves increased mixing of the contents of dialysis bags by constant end-over-end rotation. This technique is particularly useful in systems where maximum contact is desired between substances which would tend to partition under standard dialysis conditions. We have applied rotary dialysis to two liposome production methods. These are (i) the calcium-EDTA-chelation method of Papahadjopoulos et al. (1), which produces large unilamellar liposomes from negatively charged phospholipids, and (ii) a procedure for the reconstitution of membrane proteins into liposomes with a large internal aqueous space, which we have developed using the calcium-EDTA-chelation technique as a point of departure. In both techniques, vesicle formation occurs when a calcium-phospholipid precipitate is dissolved by the addition of EDTA. Instead of adding a 150 mM EDTA solution directly, as described in the original method, we have used overnight rotary dialysis against buffer containing 10 mM EDTA at the vesicle formation stage. Materials are encapsulated within the aqueous interior of the vesicles at much higher efficiencies when rotary dialysis is used in either method, compared to efficiencies obtained with direct addition of EDTA (up to 37% of added material vs a maximum published efficiency of 10% for direct addition). Rotary dialysis also promotes the reconstitution of a higher proportion of the membrane proteins present in the dialysis mixture into the bilayer of large liposomes (79 vs 41.6%). It also affects the content of liposomes qualitatively, allowing better reconstitution of the Sendai virus F glycoprotein than does direct addition of EDTA. These effects may be due to the slow time course, the extensive mixing of components, and the low volume-to-phospholipid ratios maintained during vesicle

  9. Understanding the Physical Properties that Control Protein Crystallization by Analysis of Large-Scale Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Price, W.; Chen, Y; Handelman, S; Neely, H; Manor, P; Karlin, R; Nair, R; Montelione, G; Hunt, J; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    Crystallization is the most serious bottleneck in high-throughput protein-structure determination by diffraction methods. We have used data mining of the large-scale experimental results of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium and experimental folding studies to characterize the biophysical properties that control protein crystallization. This analysis leads to the conclusion that crystallization propensity depends primarily on the prevalence of well-ordered surface epitopes capable of mediating interprotein interactions and is not strongly influenced by overall thermodynamic stability. We identify specific sequence features that correlate with crystallization propensity and that can be used to estimate the crystallization probability of a given construct. Analyses of entire predicted proteomes demonstrate substantial differences in the amino acid-sequence properties of human versus eubacterial proteins, which likely reflect differences in biophysical properties, including crystallization propensity. Our thermodynamic measurements do not generally support previous claims regarding correlations between sequence properties and protein stability.

  10. Photo-cross-linking and high-resolution mass spectrometry for assignment of RNA-binding sites in RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Katharina; Sachsenberg, Timo; Beckmann, Benedikt M; Qamar, Saadia; Boon, Kum-Loong; Hentze, Matthias W; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Urlaub, Henning

    2014-10-01

    RNA-protein complexes play pivotal roles in many central biological processes. Although methods based on high-throughput sequencing have advanced our ability to identify the specific RNAs bound by a particular protein, there is a need for precise and systematic ways to identify RNA interaction sites on proteins. We have developed an experimental and computational workflow combining photo-induced cross-linking, high-resolution mass spectrometry and automated analysis of the resulting mass spectra for the identification of cross-linked peptides, cross-linking sites and the cross-linked RNA oligonucleotide moieties of such RNA-binding proteins. The workflow can be applied to any RNA-protein complex of interest or to whole proteomes. We applied the approach to human and yeast mRNA-protein complexes in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating its powerful utility by identifying 257 cross-linking sites on 124 distinct RNA-binding proteins. The open-source software pipeline developed for this purpose, RNP(xl), is available as part of the OpenMS project.

  11. Engineering a large protein by combined rational and random approaches: stabilizing the Clostridium thermocellum cellobiose phosphorylase.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xinhao; Zhang, Chenming; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2012-06-01

    The Clostridium thermocellum cellobiose phosphorylase (CtCBP) is a large protein consisting of 812 amino acids and has great potential in the production of sugar phosphates, novel glycosides, and biofuels. It is relatively stable at 50 °C, but is rapidly inactivated at 70 °C. To stabilize CtCBP at elevated temperatures, two protein-engineering approaches were applied, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis based on structure-guided homology analysis and random mutagenesis at various mutation rates. The former chose substitutions by comparison of the protein sequences of CBP homologs, utilized structural information to identify key amino acid residues responsible for enhanced stability, and then created a few variants accurately. The latter constructed large libraries of random mutants at different mutagenesis frequencies. A novel combinational selection/screening strategy was employed to quickly isolate thermostability-enhanced and active variants. Several stability-enhanced mutants were obtained by both methods. Manually combining the stabilizing mutations identified from both rational and random approaches led to the best mutant (CM3) with the halftime of inactivation at 70 °C extended from 8.3 to 24.6 min. The temperature optimum of CM3 was increased from 60 to 80 °C. These results suggested that a combination of rational design and random mutagenesis could have a solid basis for engineering large proteins.

  12. Unfolding the Role of Large Heat Shock Proteins: New Insights and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Daming; Subjeck, John; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) of eukaryotes are evolutionarily conserved molecules present in all the major intracellular organelles. They mainly function as molecular chaperones and participate in maintenance of protein homeostasis in physiological state and under stressful conditions. Despite their relative abundance, the large HSPs, i.e., Hsp110 and glucose-regulated protein 170 (Grp170), have received less attention compared to other conventional HSPs. These proteins are distantly related to the Hsp70 and belong to Hsp70 superfamily. Increased sizes of Hsp110 and Grp170, due to the presence of a loop structure, result in their exceptional capability in binding to polypeptide substrates or non-protein ligands, such as pathogen-associated molecules. These interactions that occur in the extracellular environment during tissue injury or microbial infection may lead to amplification of an immune response engaging both innate and adaptive immune components. Here, we review the current advances in understanding these large HSPs as molecular chaperones in proteostasis control and immune modulation as well as their therapeutic implications in treatment of cancer and neurodegeneration. Given their unique immunoregulatory activities, we also discuss the emerging evidence of their potential involvement in inflammatory and immune-related diseases. PMID:26973652

  13. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a QM protein in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Xiao, Shijun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-05-01

    Since it was proposed to be a tumor suppressor in 1991, QM protein has attracted intensive and wide attention in plants, animals and fungi research fields. Up to date, however, the function of QM protein in fish immunity remains unknown. In this investigation, a QM gene (named as LycQM gene) was cloned from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), and LycQM protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The LycQM gene was ubiquitously transcribed in multi-tissues, including spleen, muscle, heart, liver, intestine, blood and head kidney. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, we found the highest and the lowest expression level of LycQM gene in head kidney and in heart, respectively. Time course analysis showed that LycQM expression was obviously up-regulated in blood and head kidney after immunization with polyinosinic polycytidynic acid (poly I:C), formalin-inactive Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Moreover, as demonstrated by RNAi assays, LycQM protein could regulate the activity of phenoloxidase, a key enzyme in the proPO activation system of immunity. These results suggested that LycQM protein might play an important role in the immune response against microorganisms in large yellow croaker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Why protein R-factors are so large: a self-consistent analysis.

    PubMed

    Vitkup, Dennis; Ringe, Dagmar; Karplus, Martin; Petsko, Gregory A

    2002-03-01

    The R-factor and R-free are commonly used to measure the quality of protein models obtained in X-ray crystallography. Well-refined protein structures usually have R-factors in the range of 20-25%, whereas intrinsic errors in the experimental data are usually around 5%. We use molecular dynamics simulations to perform a self-consistent analysis by which we determine the major factors contributing to large values of protein R-factors. The analysis shows that significant R-factor values can arise from the use of isotropic B-factors to model anisotropic protein motions and from coordinate errors. Even in the absence of coordinate errors, the use of isotropic B-factors can cause the R-factors to be around 10%; for coordinate errors smaller than 0.2 A, the two errors types make similar contributions. The inaccuracy of the energy function used and multistate protein dynamics are unlikely to make significant contributions to the large R-factors.

  15. Assignment of a new TGF-{beta} superfamily member, human cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1, to chromosome 20q11.2

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Keming; Thomas, J.T.; McBride, O.W.; Luyten, F.P.

    1996-05-15

    This report describes the localization of a new TGF {beta} superfamily member, human cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1, to human chromosome 20q11.2 using southern analysis, RFLP analysis and linkage analysis. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Using OrthoMCL to assign proteins to OrthoMCL-DB groups or to cluster proteomes into new ortholog groups

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Steve; Brunk, Brian P.; Chen, Feng; Gao, Xin; Harb, Omar S.; Iodice, John B.; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Roos, David S.; Stoeckert, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    OrthoMCL is an algorithm for grouping proteins into ortholog groups based on their sequence similarity. OrthoMCL-DB is a public database that allows users to browse and view ortholog groups that were pre-computed using the OrthoMCL algorithm. Version 4 of this database contained 116,536 ortholog groups clustered from 1,270,853 proteins obtained from 88 eukaryotic genomes, 16 archaeal genomes and 34 bacterial genomes. Future versions of OrthoMCL-DB will include more proteomes as more genomes are sequenced. Here, we describe how you can group your proteins of interest into ortholog clusters using two different means provided by the OrthoMCL system. The OrthoMCL-DB website has a tool for uploading and grouping a set of protein sequences, typically representing a proteome. This method maps the uploaded proteins to existing groups in OrthoMCL-DB. Alternatively, if you have proteins from a set of genomes that need to be grouped, you can download, install and run the standalone OrthoMCL software. PMID:21901743

  17. Lowest electronic states of the CP47 antenna protein complex of photosystem II: simulation of optical spectra and revised structural assignments.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Mike; Acharya, Khem; Neupane, Bhanu; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2010-09-16

    In this work, we present simulated steady-state absorption, emission, and nonresonant hole burning (HB) spectra for the CP47 antenna complex of photosystem II (PS II) based on fits to recently refined experimental data (Neupane et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 4214). Excitonic simulations are based on the 2.9 Å resolution structure of the PS II core from cyanobacteria (Guskov et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2009, 16, 334), and allow for preliminary assignment of the chlorophylls (Chls) contributing to the lowest excitonic states. The search for realistic site energies was guided by experimental constraints and aided by simple fitting algorithms. The following experimental constraints were used: (i) the oscillator strength of the lowest-energy state should be approximately ≤0.5 Chl equivalents; (ii) the excitonic structure must explain the experimentally observed red-shifted (∼695 nm) emission maximum; and (iii) the excitonic interactions of all states must properly describe the broad (non-line-narrowed, NLN) HB spectrum (including its antihole) whose shape is extremely sensitive to the excitonic structure of the complex, especially the lowest excitonic states. Importantly, our assignments differ significantly from those previously reported by Raszewski and Renger (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 4431), due primarily to differences in the experimental data simulated. In particular, we find that the lowest state localized on Chl 526 possesses too high of an oscillator strength to fit low-temperature experimental data. Instead, we suggest that Chl 523 most strongly contributes to the lowest excitonic state, with Chl 526 contributing to the second excitonic state. Since the fits of nonresonant holes are more restrictive (in terms of possible site energies) than those of absorption and emission spectra, we suggest that fits of linear optical spectra along with HB spectra provide more realistic site energies.

  18. A Review of Methods Used for Identifying Structural Changes in a Large Protein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Owen W.; Carlson, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the structural responses of a massive, hetero-oligomeric protein complex to a single allosteric activator as probed by a wide range of chemical, biochemical, and biophysical approaches. Some of the approaches used are amenable only to large protein targets, whereas others push the limits of their utility. Some of the techniques focus on individual subunits, or portions thereof, while others examine the complex as a whole. Despite the absence of crystallographic data for the complex, the diverse techniques identify and implicate a small region of its catalytic subunit as the master allosteric activation switch for the entire complex. PMID:22052488

  19. Accounting for Large Amplitude Protein Deformation during in Silico Macromolecular Docking

    PubMed Central

    Bastard, Karine; Saladin, Adrien; Prévost, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Rapid progress of theoretical methods and computer calculation resources has turned in silico methods into a conceivable tool to predict the 3D structure of macromolecular assemblages, starting from the structure of their separate elements. Still, some classes of complexes represent a real challenge for macromolecular docking methods. In these complexes, protein parts like loops or domains undergo large amplitude deformations upon association, thus remodeling the surface accessible to the partner protein or DNA. We discuss the problems linked with managing such rearrangements in docking methods and we review strategies that are presently being explored, as well as their limitations and success. PMID:21541061

  20. Accounting for large amplitude protein deformation during in silico macromolecular docking.

    PubMed

    Bastard, Karine; Saladin, Adrien; Prévost, Chantal

    2011-02-22

    Rapid progress of theoretical methods and computer calculation resources has turned in silico methods into a conceivable tool to predict the 3D structure of macromolecular assemblages, starting from the structure of their separate elements. Still, some classes of complexes represent a real challenge for macromolecular docking methods. In these complexes, protein parts like loops or domains undergo large amplitude deformations upon association, thus remodeling the surface accessible to the partner protein or DNA. We discuss the problems linked with managing such rearrangements in docking methods and we review strategies that are presently being explored, as well as their limitations and success.

  1. 42 CFR 433.146 - Rights assigned; assignment method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights assigned; assignment method. 433.146 Section 433.146 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Assignment of Rights to Benefits § 433.146 Rights assigned; assignment method. (a) Except as specified...

  2. PPS, a large multidomain protein, functions with sex-lethal to regulate alternative splicing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew L; Nagengast, Alexis A; Salz, Helen K

    2010-03-05

    Alternative splicing controls the expression of many genes, including the Drosophila sex determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl). Sxl expression is controlled via a negative regulatory mechanism where inclusion of the translation-terminating male exon is blocked in females. Previous studies have shown that the mechanism leading to exon skipping is autoregulatory and requires the SXL protein to antagonize exon inclusion by interacting with core spliceosomal proteins, including the U1 snRNP protein Sans-fille (SNF). In studies begun by screening for proteins that interact with SNF, we identified PPS, a previously uncharacterized protein, as a novel component of the machinery required for Sxl male exon skipping. PPS encodes a large protein with four signature motifs, PHD, BRK, TFS2M, and SPOC, typically found in proteins involved in transcription. We demonstrate that PPS has a direct role in Sxl male exon skipping by showing first that loss of function mutations have phenotypes indicative of Sxl misregulation and second that the PPS protein forms a complex with SXL and the unspliced Sxl RNA. In addition, we mapped the recruitment of PPS, SXL, and SNF along the Sxl gene using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which revealed that, like many other splicing factors, these proteins bind their RNA targets while in close proximity to the DNA. Interestingly, while SNF and SXL are specifically recruited to their predicted binding sites, PPS has a distinct pattern of accumulation along the Sxl gene, associating with a region that includes, but is not limited to, the SxlPm promoter. Together, these data indicate that PPS is different from other splicing factors involved in male-exon skipping and suggest, for the first time, a functional link between transcription and SXL-mediated alternative splicing. Loss of zygotic PPS function, however, is lethal to both sexes, indicating that its role may be of broad significance.

  3. Rapid large-scale purification of myofilament proteins using a cleavable His6-tag

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mengjie; Martin, Jody L.; Kumar, Mohit; de Tombe, Pieter P.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing, the number of identified cardiomyopathy-causing mutations has increased tremendously. As the majority of these mutations affect myofilament proteins, there is a need to understand their functional consequence on contraction. Permeabilized myofilament preparations coupled with protein exchange protocols are a common method for examining into contractile mechanics. However, producing large quantities of myofilament proteins can be time consuming and requires different approaches for each protein of interest. In the present study, we describe a unified automated method to produce troponin C, troponin T, and troponin I as well as myosin light chain 2 fused to a His6-tag followed by a tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease site. TEV protease has the advantage of a relaxed P1′ cleavage site specificity, allowing for no residues left after proteolysis and preservation of the native sequence of the protein of interest. After expression in Esherichia coli, cells were lysed by sonication in imidazole-containing buffer. The His6-tagged protein was then purified using a HisTrap nickel metal affinity column, and the His6-tag was removed by His6-TEV protease digestion for 4 h at 30°C. The protease was then removed using a HisTrap column, and complex assembly was performed via column-assisted sequential desalting. This mostly automated method allows for the purification of protein in 1 day and can be adapted to most soluble proteins. It has the advantage of greatly increasing yield while reducing the time and cost of purification. Therefore, production and purification of mutant proteins can be accelerated and functional data collected in a faster, less expensive manner. PMID:26386113

  4. Hydrogen exchange in a large 29 kD protein and characterization of molten globule aggregation by NMR.

    PubMed

    Kjellsson, Annika; Sethson, Ingmar; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald

    2003-01-21

    The nature of denatured ensembles of the enzyme human carbonic anhydrase (HCA) has been extensively studied by various methods in the past. The protein constitutes an interesting model for folding studies that does not unfold by a simple two-state transition, instead a molten globule intermediate is highly populated at 1.5 M GuHCl. In this work, NMR and H/D exchange studies have been conducted on one of the isozymes, HCA I. The H/D exchange studies, which were enabled by the previously obtained resonance assignment of HCA I, have been used to identify unfolded forms that are accessible from the native state. In addition, the GuHCl-induced unfolded states of HCA I have also been characterized by NMR at GuHCl concentrations in the 0-5 M range. The most important findings in this work are as follows: (1) Amide protons located in the center of the beta-sheet require global unfolding events for efficient H/D exchange. (2) The molten globule and the native state give similar protection against H/D exchange for all of the observable amide protons (i.e., water seems not to efficiently penetrate the interior of the molten globule). (3) At high protein concentrations, the molten globule can form large aggregates, which are not detectable by solution-state NMR methods. (4) The unfolded state (U), present at GuHCl concentrations above 2 M, is composed of an ensemble of conformations having residual structures with different stabilities.

  5. 1H, 13C, 15N resonance assignments of the extracellular loop 1 domain (ECL1) of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 FtsX, an essential cell division protein

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yue; Bruce, Kevin E.; Rued, Britta; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Giedroc, David P.

    2015-01-01

    FtsX is an integral membrane protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) that harbors an extracellular loop 1 domain (FtsXECL1Spn) that interacts with PcsB, an peptidoglycan hydrolase that is essential for cell growth and division. Here, we report nearly complete backbone and side chain resonance assignments and a secondary structural analysis of FtsXECL1Spn (residues 47–168 of FtsX) as first steps toward structure determination of FtsXECL1Spn. PMID:26370567

  6. A large scale Huntingtin protein interaction network implicates Rho GTPase signaling pathways in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Tourette, Cendrine; Li, Biao; Bell, Russell; O'Hare, Shannon; Kaltenbach, Linda S; Mooney, Sean D; Hughes, Robert E

    2014-03-07

    Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the HTT gene. Using yeast two-hybrid methods, we identified a large set of proteins that interact with huntingtin (HTT)-interacting proteins. This network, composed of HTT-interacting proteins (HIPs) and proteins interacting with these primary nodes, contains 3235 interactions among 2141 highly interconnected proteins. Analysis of functional annotations of these proteins indicates that primary and secondary HIPs are enriched in pathways implicated in HD, including mammalian target of rapamycin, Rho GTPase signaling, and oxidative stress response. To validate roles for HIPs in mutant HTT toxicity, we show that the Rho GTPase signaling components, BAIAP2, EZR, PIK3R1, PAK2, and RAC1, are modifiers of mutant HTT toxicity. We also demonstrate that Htt co-localizes with BAIAP2 in filopodia and that mutant HTT interferes with filopodial dynamics. These data indicate that HTT is involved directly in membrane dynamics, cell attachment, and motility. Furthermore, they implicate dysregulation in these pathways as pathological mechanisms in HD.

  7. Large-scale modulation of thermodynamic protein folding barriers linked to electrostatics

    PubMed Central

    Halskau, Øyvind; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Underhaug, Jarl; Muñoz, Victor; Martinez, Aurora; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Protein folding barriers, which range from zero to the tens of RT that result in classical two-state kinetics, are primarily determined by protein size and structural topology [Plaxco KW, Simons KT, Baker D (1998) J Mol Biol 277:985–994]. Here, we investigate the thermodynamic folding barriers of two relatively large proteins of the same size and topology: bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) and hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL). From the analysis of differential scanning calorimetry experiments with the variable-barrier model [Muñoz V, Sanchez-Ruiz JM (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:17646–17651] we obtain a high barrier for HEWL and a marginal folding barrier for BLA. These results demonstrate a remarkable tuning range of at least 30 kJ/mol (i.e., five to six orders of magnitude in population) within a unique protein scaffold. Experimental and theoretical analyses on these proteins indicate that the surprisingly small thermodynamic folding barrier of BLA arises from the stabilization of partially unfolded conformations by electrostatic interactions. Interestingly, there is clear reciprocity between the barrier height and the biological function of the two proteins, suggesting that the marginal barrier of BLA is a product of natural selection. Electrostatic surface interactions thus emerge as a mechanism for the modulation of folding barriers in response to special functional requirements within a given structural fold. PMID:18550823

  8. Reaching the protein folding speed limit with large, sub-microsecond pressure jumps.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Charles; Emilsson, Tryggvi; Gruebele, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Biomolecules are highly pressure-sensitive, but their dynamics upon return to ambient pressure are often too fast to observe with existing approaches. We describe a sample-efficient method capable of large and very fast pressure drops (<1 nanomole, >2,500 atmospheres and <0.7 microseconds). We validated the method by fluorescence-detected refolding of a genetically engineered lambda repressor mutant from its pressure-denatured state. We resolved barrierless structure formation upon return to ambient pressure; we observed a 2.1 +/- 0.7 microsecond refolding time, which is very close to the 'speed limit' for proteins and much faster than the corresponding temperature-jump refolding of the same protein. The ability to experimentally perform a large and very fast pressure drop opens up a new region of the biomolecular energy landscape for atomic-level simulation.

  9. Construction of a large extracellular protein interaction network and its resolution by spatiotemporal expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen; Söllner, Christian; Charoensawan, Varodom; Adryan, Boris; Thisse, Bernard; Thisse, Christine; Teichmann, Sarah; Wright, Gavin J

    2010-12-01

    Extracellular interactions involving both secreted and membrane-tethered receptor proteins are essential to initiate signaling pathways that orchestrate cellular behaviors within biological systems. Because of the biochemical properties of these proteins and their interactions, identifying novel extracellular interactions remains experimentally challenging. To address this, we have recently developed an assay, AVEXIS (avidity-based extracellular interaction screen) to detect low affinity extracellular interactions on a large scale and have begun to construct interaction networks between zebrafish receptors belonging to the immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat protein families to identify novel signaling pathways important for early development. Here, we expanded our zebrafish protein library to include other domain families and many more secreted proteins and performed our largest screen to date totaling 16,544 potential unique interactions. We report 111 interactions of which 96 are novel and include the first documented extracellular ligands for 15 proteins. By including 77 interactions from previous screens, we assembled an expanded network of 188 extracellular interactions between 92 proteins and used it to show that secreted proteins have twice as many interaction partners as membrane-tethered receptors and that the connectivity of the extracellular network behaves as a power law. To try to understand the functional role of these interactions, we determined new expression patterns for 164 genes within our clone library by using whole embryo in situ hybridization at five key stages of zebrafish embryonic development. These expression data were integrated with the binding network to reveal where each interaction was likely to function within the embryo and were used to resolve the static interaction network into dynamic tissue- and stage-specific subnetworks within the developing zebrafish embryo. All these data were organized into a freely accessible on

  10. Large Proteins Have a Great Tendency to Aggregate but a Low Propensity to Form Amyloid Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Ramshini, Hassan; Parrini, Claudia; Relini, Annalisa; Zampagni, Mariagioia; Mannini, Benedetta; Pesce, Alessandra; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Nemat-Gorgani, Mohsen; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of soluble proteins into ordered fibrillar aggregates with cross-β structure is an essential event of many human diseases. The polypeptides undergoing aggregation are generally small in size. To explore if the small size is a primary determinant for the formation of amyloids under pathological conditions we have created two databases of proteins, forming amyloid-related and non-amyloid deposits in human diseases, respectively. The size distributions of the two protein populations are well separated, with the systems forming non-amyloid deposits appearing significantly larger. We have then investigated the propensity of the 486-residue hexokinase-B from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YHKB) to form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. This size is intermediate between the size distributions of amyloid and non-amyloid forming proteins. Aggregation was induced under conditions known to be most effective for amyloid formation by normally globular proteins: (i) low pH with salts, (ii) pH 5.5 with trifluoroethanol. In both situations YHKB aggregated very rapidly into species with significant β-sheet structure, as detected using circular dichroism and X-ray diffraction, but a weak Thioflavin T and Congo red binding. Moreover, atomic force microscopy indicated a morphology distinct from typical amyloid fibrils. Both types of aggregates were cytotoxic to human neuroblastoma cells, as indicated by the MTT assay. This analysis indicates that large proteins have a high tendency to form toxic aggregates, but low propensity to form regular amyloid in vivo and that such a behavior is intrinsically determined by the size of the protein, as suggested by the in vitro analysis of our sample protein. PMID:21249193

  11. Large-scale analysis of intrinsic disorder flavors and associated functions in the protein sequence universe.

    PubMed

    Necci, Marco; Piovesan, Damiano; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2016-12-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins has been extensively described for the last decade; a large-scale classification of ID in proteins is mostly missing. Here, we provide an extensive analysis of ID in the protein universe on the UniProt database derived from sequence-based predictions in MobiDB. Almost half the sequences contain an ID region of at least five residues. About 9% of proteins have a long ID region of over 20 residues which are more abundant in Eukaryotic organisms and most frequently cover less than 20% of the sequence. A small subset of about 67,000 (out of over 80 million) proteins is fully disordered and mostly found in Viruses. Most proteins have only one ID, with short ID evenly distributed along the sequence and long ID overrepresented in the center. The charged residue composition of Das and Pappu was used to classify ID proteins by structural propensities and corresponding functional enrichment. Swollen Coils seem to be used mainly as structural components and in biosynthesis in both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. In Bacteria, they are confined in the nucleoid and in Viruses provide DNA binding function. Coils & Hairpins seem to be specialized in ribosome binding and methylation activities. Globules & Tadpoles bind antigens in Eukaryotes but are involved in killing other organisms and cytolysis in Bacteria. The Undefined class is used by Bacteria to bind toxic substances and mediate transport and movement between and within organisms in Viruses. Fully disordered proteins behave similarly, but are enriched for glycine residues and extracellular structures.

  12. Australia Antigen: Large-Scale Purification from Human Serum and Biochemical Studies of Its Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gerin, J. L.; Holland, P. V.; Purcell, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Biophysical techniques are described for the large-scale isolation of Australia antigen (Au) from unit quantities of human serum by using the batch-type zonal centrifuge rotors. A three-step procedure involving isopycnic banding of the particle in CsCl density gradients and rate-zonal centrifugation on sucrose gradients resulted in a highly purified Au preparation which was used for biochemical studies of Au proteins and as immunizing antigen for the production of reagent antiserum in animals. The spherical form of Au, which was devoid of detectable nucleic acid, was composed of two major proteins (AuP1 and AuP2) and a minor protein (AuP3) of 26,000, 32,000, and 40,000 molecular weight, respectively, as determined by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The significance of these findings to the possibility of Au subtypes is discussed. PMID:5105002

  13. omiXcore: a web server for prediction of protein interactions with large RNA.

    PubMed

    Armaos, Alexandros; Cirillo, Davide; Gaetano Tartaglia, Gian

    2017-10-01

    Here we introduce omiXcore, a server for calculations of protein binding to large RNAs (> 500 nucleotides). Our webserver allows (i) use of both protein and RNA sequences without size restriction, (ii) pre-compiled library for exploration of human long intergenic RNAs interactions and (iii) prediction of binding sites. omiXcore was trained and tested on enhanced UV Cross-Linking and ImmunoPrecipitation data. The method discriminates interacting and non-interacting protein-RNA pairs and identifies RNA binding sites with Areas under the ROC curve > 0.80, which suggests that the tool is particularly useful to prioritize candidates for further experimental validation. omiXcore is freely accessed on the web at http://service.tartaglialab.com/grant_submission/omixcore. gian.tartaglia@crg.es. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Proteomics studies confirm the presence of alternative protein isoforms on a large scale

    PubMed Central

    Tress, Michael L; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Aebersold, Ruedi; Valencia, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing of messenger RNA permits the formation of a wide range of mature RNA transcripts and has the potential to generate a diverse spectrum of functional proteins. Although there is extensive evidence for large scale alternative splicing at the transcript level, there have been no comparable studies demonstrating the existence of alternatively spliced protein isoforms. Results Recent advances in proteomics technology have allowed us to carry out a comprehensive identification of protein isoforms in Drosophila. The analysis of this proteomic data confirmed the presence of multiple alternative gene products for over a hundred Drosophila genes. Conclusions We demonstrate that proteomics techniques can detect the expression of stable alternative splice isoforms on a genome-wide scale. Many of these alternative isoforms are likely to have regions that are disordered in solution, and specific proteomics methodologies may be required to identify these peptides. PMID:19017398

  15. cOSPREY: A Cloud-Based Distributed Algorithm for Large-Scale Computational Protein Design.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuchao; Dong, Yuxi; Zhou, Jingtian; Hallen, Mark; Donald, Bruce R; Zeng, Jianyang; Xu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Finding the global minimum energy conformation (GMEC) of a huge combinatorial search space is the key challenge in computational protein design (CPD) problems. Traditional algorithms lack a scalable and efficient distributed design scheme, preventing researchers from taking full advantage of current cloud infrastructures. We design cloud OSPREY (cOSPREY), an extension to a widely used protein design software OSPREY, to allow the original design framework to scale to the commercial cloud infrastructures. We propose several novel designs to integrate both algorithm and system optimizations, such as GMEC-specific pruning, state search partitioning, asynchronous algorithm state sharing, and fault tolerance. We evaluate cOSPREY on three different cloud platforms using different technologies and show that it can solve a number of large-scale protein design problems that have not been possible with previous approaches.

  16. Tafazzinsfrom Drosophila and Mammalian Cells Assemble in Large Protein Complexes with a Short Half-Life

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Malhotra, Ashim; Claypool, Steven M.; Ren, Mindong; Schlame, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tafazzin is a transacylase that affects cardiolipin fatty acid composition and mitochondrial function. Mutations in human tafazzin cause Barth syndrome yet the enzyme has mostly been characterized in yeast. To study tafazzin in higher organisms, we isolated mitochondria from Drosophila and mammalian cell cultures. Our data indicate that tafazzin binds to multiple protein complexes in these organisms, and that the interactions of tafazzin lack strong specificity. Very large tafazzin complexes could only be detected in the presence of cardiolipin, but smaller complexes remained intact even upon treatment with phospholipase A2. In mammalian cells, tafazzin had a half-life of only 3–6 h, which was much shorter than the half-life of other mitochondrial proteins. The data suggest that tafazzin is a transient resident of multiple protein complexes. PMID:25598000

  17. cOSPREY: A Cloud-Based Distributed Algorithm for Large-Scale Computational Protein Design

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuchao; Dong, Yuxi; Zhou, Jingtian; Hallen, Mark; Donald, Bruce R.; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Finding the global minimum energy conformation (GMEC) of a huge combinatorial search space is the key challenge in computational protein design (CPD) problems. Traditional algorithms lack a scalable and efficient distributed design scheme, preventing researchers from taking full advantage of current cloud infrastructures. We design cloud OSPREY (cOSPREY), an extension to a widely used protein design software OSPREY, to allow the original design framework to scale to the commercial cloud infrastructures. We propose several novel designs to integrate both algorithm and system optimizations, such as GMEC-specific pruning, state search partitioning, asynchronous algorithm state sharing, and fault tolerance. We evaluate cOSPREY on three different cloud platforms using different technologies and show that it can solve a number of large-scale protein design problems that have not been possible with previous approaches. PMID:27154509

  18. Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj): updated user interfaces, resource description framework, analysis tools for large structures

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Akira R.; Bekker, Gert-Jan; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Kawabata, Takeshi; Ikegawa, Yasuyo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2017-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj, http://pdbj.org), a member of the worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB), accepts and processes the deposited data of experimentally determined macromolecular structures. While maintaining the archive in collaboration with other wwPDB partners, PDBj also provides a wide range of services and tools for analyzing structures and functions of proteins. We herein outline the updated web user interfaces together with RESTful web services and the backend relational database that support the former. To enhance the interoperability of the PDB data, we have previously developed PDB/RDF, PDB data in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) format, which is now a wwPDB standard called wwPDB/RDF. We have enhanced the connectivity of the wwPDB/RDF data by incorporating various external data resources. Services for searching, comparing and analyzing the ever-increasing large structures determined by hybrid methods are also described. PMID:27789697

  19. Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography employing a thick, large area CCD

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction of the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce a image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

  20. A Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomic Approach To Identifying Sulfur Mustard-Induced Protein Phosphorylation Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-31

    are no effective treatments for SM-induced injury, current research focuses on understanding the molecular changes upon SM exposure. Indeed, efforts...with immobilized metal affinity chromatography to study the large-scale protein phosphorylation changes resulting from SM exposure in a human... effective at probing individual pathways, they do not put into context the global changes that are occurring in response to SM and how these many

  1. An Evolutionary View of the Arms Race between Protein Kinase R and Large DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    To establish productive infections, viruses must counteract numerous cellular defenses that are poised to recognize viruses as nonself and to activate antiviral pathways. The opposing goals of host and viral factors lead to evolutionary arms races that can be illuminated by evolutionary and computational methods and tested in experimental models. Here we illustrate how this perspective has been contributing to our understanding of the interactions of the protein kinase R pathway with large DNA viruses. PMID:26792736

  2. Accelerating large-scale protein structure alignments with graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Pang, Bin; Zhao, Nan; Becchi, Michela; Korkin, Dmitry; Shyu, Chi-Ren

    2012-02-22

    Large-scale protein structure alignment, an indispensable tool to structural bioinformatics, poses a tremendous challenge on computational resources. To ensure structure alignment accuracy and efficiency, efforts have been made to parallelize traditional alignment algorithms in grid environments. However, these solutions are costly and of limited accessibility. Others trade alignment quality for speedup by using high-level characteristics of structure fragments for structure comparisons. We present ppsAlign, a parallel protein structure Alignment framework designed and optimized to exploit the parallelism of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). As a general-purpose GPU platform, ppsAlign could take many concurrent methods, such as TM-align and Fr-TM-align, into the parallelized algorithm design. We evaluated ppsAlign on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU card, and compared it with existing software solutions running on an AMD dual-core CPU. We observed a 36-fold speedup over TM-align, a 65-fold speedup over Fr-TM-align, and a 40-fold speedup over MAMMOTH. ppsAlign is a high-performance protein structure alignment tool designed to tackle the computational complexity issues from protein structural data. The solution presented in this paper allows large-scale structure comparisons to be performed using massive parallel computing power of GPU.

  3. Accelerating large-scale protein structure alignments with graphics processing units

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Large-scale protein structure alignment, an indispensable tool to structural bioinformatics, poses a tremendous challenge on computational resources. To ensure structure alignment accuracy and efficiency, efforts have been made to parallelize traditional alignment algorithms in grid environments. However, these solutions are costly and of limited accessibility. Others trade alignment quality for speedup by using high-level characteristics of structure fragments for structure comparisons. Findings We present ppsAlign, a parallel protein structure Alignment framework designed and optimized to exploit the parallelism of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). As a general-purpose GPU platform, ppsAlign could take many concurrent methods, such as TM-align and Fr-TM-align, into the parallelized algorithm design. We evaluated ppsAlign on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU card, and compared it with existing software solutions running on an AMD dual-core CPU. We observed a 36-fold speedup over TM-align, a 65-fold speedup over Fr-TM-align, and a 40-fold speedup over MAMMOTH. Conclusions ppsAlign is a high-performance protein structure alignment tool designed to tackle the computational complexity issues from protein structural data. The solution presented in this paper allows large-scale structure comparisons to be performed using massive parallel computing power of GPU. PMID:22357132

  4. pGraph: Efficient Parallel Construction of Large-Scale Protein Sequence Homology Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Changjun; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Cannon, William R.

    2012-09-15

    Detecting sequence homology between protein sequences is a fundamental problem in computational molecular biology, with a pervasive application in nearly all analyses that aim to structurally and functionally characterize protein molecules. While detecting the homology between two protein sequences is relatively inexpensive, detecting pairwise homology for a large number of protein sequences can become computationally prohibitive for modern inputs, often requiring millions of CPU hours. Yet, there is currently no robust support to parallelize this kernel. In this paper, we identify the key characteristics that make this problemparticularly hard to parallelize, and then propose a new parallel algorithm that is suited for detecting homology on large data sets using distributed memory parallel computers. Our method, called pGraph, is a novel hybrid between the hierarchical multiple-master/worker model and producer-consumer model, and is designed to break the irregularities imposed by alignment computation and work generation. Experimental results show that pGraph achieves linear scaling on a 2,048 processor distributed memory cluster for a wide range of inputs ranging from as small as 20,000 sequences to 2,560,000 sequences. In addition to demonstrating strong scaling, we present an extensive report on the performance of the various system components and related parametric studies.

  5. A Scalable Parallel Algorithm for Large-Scale Protein Sequence Homology Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Changjun; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Cannon, William R.

    2010-09-13

    Protein sequence homology detection is a fundamental problem in computational molecular biology, with a pervasive application in nearly all analyses that aim to structurally and functionally characterize protein molecules. While detecting homology between two protein sequences is computationally inexpensive, detecting pairwise homology at a large-scale becomes prohibitive, requiring millions of CPU hours. Yet, there is currently no efficient method available to parallelize this kernel. In this paper, we present the key characteristics that make this problem particularly hard to parallelize, and then propose a new parallel algorithm that is suited for large-scale protein sequence data. Our method, called pGraph, is designed using a hierarchical multiple-master multiple-worker model, where the processor space is partitioned into subgroups and the hierarchy helps in ensuring the workload is load balanced fashion despite the inherent irregularity that may originate in the input. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that our method scales linearly on all input sizes tested (up to 640K sequences) on a 1,024 node supercomputer. In addition to demonstrating strong scaling, we present an extensive study of the various components of the system and related parametric studies.

  6. Large-scale serum protein biomarker discovery in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hathout, Yetrib; Brody, Edward; Clemens, Paula R; Cripe, Linda; DeLisle, Robert Kirk; Furlong, Pat; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hache, Lauren; Henricson, Erik; Hoffman, Eric P; Kobayashi, Yvonne Monique; Lorts, Angela; Mah, Jean K; McDonald, Craig; Mehler, Bob; Nelson, Sally; Nikrad, Malti; Singer, Britta; Steele, Fintan; Sterling, David; Sweeney, H Lee; Williams, Steve; Gold, Larry

    2015-06-09

    Serum biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may provide deeper insights into disease pathogenesis, suggest new therapeutic approaches, serve as acute read-outs of drug effects, and be useful as surrogate outcome measures to predict later clinical benefit. In this study a large-scale biomarker discovery was performed on serum samples from patients with DMD and age-matched healthy volunteers using a modified aptamer-based proteomics technology. Levels of 1,125 proteins were quantified in serum samples from two independent DMD cohorts: cohort 1 (The Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy-Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center), 42 patients with DMD and 28 age-matched normal volunteers; and cohort 2 (The Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group, Duchenne Natural History Study), 51 patients with DMD and 17 age-matched normal volunteers. Forty-four proteins showed significant differences that were consistent in both cohorts when comparing DMD patients and healthy volunteers at a 1% false-discovery rate, a large number of significant protein changes for such a small study. These biomarkers can be classified by known cellular processes and by age-dependent changes in protein concentration. Our findings demonstrate both the utility of this unbiased biomarker discovery approach and suggest potential new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for ameliorating the burden of DMD and, we hope, other rare and devastating diseases.

  7. Large-scale serum protein biomarker discovery in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Hathout, Yetrib; Brody, Edward; Clemens, Paula R.; Cripe, Linda; DeLisle, Robert Kirk; Furlong, Pat; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hache, Lauren; Henricson, Erik; Hoffman, Eric P.; Kobayashi, Yvonne Monique; Lorts, Angela; Mah, Jean K.; McDonald, Craig; Mehler, Bob; Nelson, Sally; Nikrad, Malti; Singer, Britta; Steele, Fintan; Sterling, David; Sweeney, H. Lee; Williams, Steve; Gold, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Serum biomarkers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may provide deeper insights into disease pathogenesis, suggest new therapeutic approaches, serve as acute read-outs of drug effects, and be useful as surrogate outcome measures to predict later clinical benefit. In this study a large-scale biomarker discovery was performed on serum samples from patients with DMD and age-matched healthy volunteers using a modified aptamer-based proteomics technology. Levels of 1,125 proteins were quantified in serum samples from two independent DMD cohorts: cohort 1 (The Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy–Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center), 42 patients with DMD and 28 age-matched normal volunteers; and cohort 2 (The Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group, Duchenne Natural History Study), 51 patients with DMD and 17 age-matched normal volunteers. Forty-four proteins showed significant differences that were consistent in both cohorts when comparing DMD patients and healthy volunteers at a 1% false-discovery rate, a large number of significant protein changes for such a small study. These biomarkers can be classified by known cellular processes and by age-dependent changes in protein concentration. Our findings demonstrate both the utility of this unbiased biomarker discovery approach and suggest potential new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for ameliorating the burden of DMD and, we hope, other rare and devastating diseases. PMID:26039989

  8. Yeast ribosomal protein L10 helps coordinate tRNA movement through the large subunit

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Alexey N.; Meskauskas, Arturas; Roshwalb, Sara C.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Yeast ribosomal protein L10 (E. coli L16) is located at the center of a topological nexus that connects many functional regions of the large subunit. This essential protein has previously been implicated in processes as diverse as ribosome biogenesis, translational fidelity and mRNA stability. Here, the inability to maintain the yeast Killer virus was used as a proxy for large subunit defects to identify a series of L10 mutants. These mapped to roughly four discrete regions of the protein. A detailed analysis of mutants located in the N-terminal ‘hook’ of L10, which inserts into the bulge of 25S rRNA helix 89, revealed strong effects on rRNA structure corresponding to the entire path taken by the tRNA 3′ end as it moves through the large subunit during the elongation cycle. The mutant-induced structural changes are wide-ranging, affecting ribosome biogenesis, elongation factor binding, drug resistance/hypersensitivity, translational fidelity and virus maintenance. The importance of L10 as a potential transducer of information through the ribosome, and of a possible role of its N-terminal domain in switching between the pre- and post-translocational states are discussed. PMID:18824477

  9. Preparation and characterization of monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres as the matrix for protein separation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongjun; Wan, Guangping; Zhao, Junlong; Liu, Jiawei; Bai, Quan

    2016-11-04

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a kind of efficient separation technology and has been used widely in many fields. Micro-sized porous silica microspheres as the most popular matrix have been used for fast separation and analysis in HPLC. In this paper, the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres with controllable size and structure were successfully synthesized with polymer microspheres as the templates and characterized. First, the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) microspheres (PGMA-EDMA) were functionalized with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to generate amino groups which act as a catalyst in hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to form Si-containing low molecular weight species. Then the low molecular weight species diffused into the functionalized PGMA-EDMA microspheres by induction force of the amino groups to form polymer/silica hybrid microspheres. Finally, the organic polymer templates were removed by calcination, and the large-porous silica microspheres were obtained. The compositions, morphology, size distribution, specific surface area and pore size distribution of the porous silica microspheres were characterized by infrared analyzer, scanning-electron microscopy, dynamic laser scattering, the mercury intrusion method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the agglomeration of the hybrid microspheres can be overcome when the templates were functionalized with TEPA as amination reagent, and the yield of 95.7% of the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres can be achieved with high concentration of polymer templates. The resulting large-porous silica microspheres were modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) and the chromatographic evaluation was performed by separating the proteins and the digest of BSA. The baseline separation of seven kinds of protein standards was achieved, and the column delivered a better performance when separating BSA digests

  10. Case Assignment in Agrammatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruigendijk, Esther; van Zonneveld, Ron; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the omission patterns of case markers in the spontaneous speech of 12 Dutch and German adult speakers with agrammatic aphasia within the framework of Chomsky's case theory. Data supported the hypothesis that, if no case assigner is produced, the noun will receive nominative case by default or the case-marking morpheme will be…

  11. Making Effective Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Although the focus of this issue of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is on making effective assignments, most of the articles also emphasize the importance and power of writing. Articles deal with the following topics: (1) the use of I-search (as explained by Kenneth Macrorie in "Searching Writing") as a form of research paper…

  12. Principals Make Assignments Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The inner-city high school in Washington, DC, that Guillaume Gendre joined as an assistant principal had a modest reputation for achievement but was nevertheless challenged to raise expectations for student work. In other schools, Gendre had used assignments--a specific kind of instructional task in which students are charged to think about an…

  13. NMR study of non-structural proteins-part III: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Chikungunya virus (CHIKV).

    PubMed

    Lykouras, Michail V; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2017-09-05

    Macro domains are conserved protein domains found in eukaryotic organisms, bacteria, and archaea as well as in certain viruses. They consist of 130-190 amino acids and can bind ADP-ribose. Although the exact role of these domains is not fully understood, the conserved binding affinity for ADP-ribose indicates that this ligand is important for the function of the domain. Such a macro domain is also present in the non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) of Chikungunya Alphavirus (CHIKV) and consists of 160 amino acids. In this study we describe the high yield expression of the macro domain from CHIKV and its preliminary structural analysis via solution NMR spectroscopy. The macro domain seems to be folded in solution and an almost complete backbone assignment was achieved. In addition, the α/β/α sandwich topology with 4 α-helices and 6 β-strands was predicted by TALOS+.

  14. Large-scale modelling of the divergent spectrin repeats in nesprins: giant modular proteins.

    PubMed

    Autore, Flavia; Pfuhl, Mark; Quan, Xueping; Williams, Aisling; Roberts, Roland G; Shanahan, Catherine M; Fraternali, Franca

    2013-01-01

    Nesprin-1 and nesprin-2 are nuclear envelope (NE) proteins characterized by a common structure of an SR (spectrin repeat) rod domain and a C-terminal transmembrane KASH [Klarsicht-ANC-Syne-homology] domain and display N-terminal actin-binding CH (calponin homology) domains. Mutations in these proteins have been described in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and attributed to disruptions of interactions at the NE with nesprins binding partners, lamin A/C and emerin. Evolutionary analysis of the rod domains of the nesprins has shown that they are almost entirely composed of unbroken SR-like structures. We present a bioinformatical approach to accurate definition of the boundaries of each SR by comparison with canonical SR structures, allowing for a large-scale homology modelling of the 74 nesprin-1 and 56 nesprin-2 SRs. The exposed and evolutionary conserved residues identify important pbs for protein-protein interactions that can guide tailored binding experiments. Most importantly, the bioinformatics analyses and the 3D models have been central to the design of selected constructs for protein expression. 1D NMR and CD spectra have been performed of the expressed SRs, showing a folded, stable, high content α-helical structure, typical of SRs. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been performed to study the structural and elastic properties of consecutive SRs, revealing insights in the mechanical properties adopted by these modules in the cell.

  15. Breakthrough performance of large proteins on ion-exchange membrane columns.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Cisneros, Rosa Maria; Lucero-Acuña, Armando; Ortega, Jaime; Guzmán, Roberto; Tejeda-Mansir, Armando

    2007-10-01

    Protein adsorption of large proteins on ion-exchange membrane columns was theoretically and experimentally investigated using batch and fixed-bed systems. Thyroglobulin was used as the model protein. The study strongly suggests that part of the protein is physically retained inside the column during frontal mode operation. These experimental results were used to obtain a filtration function of the chromatographic system. In the theoretical analysis of the frontal protein adsorption, a model was integrated by the serial coupling of the membrane-transport model, the filtration model and the system-dispersion model. Two different techniques were employed in the estimation of the maximum adsorption capacity, the equilibrium desorption constant and the forward interaction rate constant, which are the parameters of the membrane-transport model. The fit of the model to the experimental data was not possible using the equilibrium parameters obtained in the batch experiments. The parameter estimation using a simplex optimization routine coupled to the solution of the partial differential model equations yields full prediction of the adsorption phenomena.

  16. Screening and large-scale expression of membrane proteins in mammalian cells for structural studies.

    PubMed

    Goehring, April; Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Wang, Kevin H; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Claxton, Derek P; Baconguis, Isabelle; Althoff, Thorsten; Fischer, Suzanne; Garcia, K Christopher; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Structural, biochemical and biophysical studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins are often hampered by difficulties in overexpression of the candidate molecule. Baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells (BacMam), although a powerful method to heterologously express membrane proteins, can be cumbersome for screening and expression of multiple constructs. We therefore developed plasmid Eric Gouaux (pEG) BacMam, a vector optimized for use in screening assays, as well as for efficient production of baculovirus and robust expression of the target protein. In this protocol, we show how to use small-scale transient transfection and fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) experiments using a GFP-His8-tagged candidate protein to screen for monodispersity and expression level. Once promising candidates are identified, we describe how to generate baculovirus, transduce HEK293S GnTI(-) (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-negative) cells in suspension culture and overexpress the candidate protein. We have used these methods to prepare pure samples of chicken acid-sensing ion channel 1a (cASIC1) and Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) for X-ray crystallography, demonstrating how to rapidly and efficiently screen hundreds of constructs and accomplish large-scale expression in 4-6 weeks.

  17. Screening and large-scale expression of membrane proteins in mammalian cells for structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, April; Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Wang, Kevin H.; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Claxton, Derek P.; Baconguis, Isabelle; Althoff, Thorsten; Fischer, Suzanne; Garcia, K. Christopher; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Structural, biochemical and biophysical studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins are often hampered by difficulties in over-expression of the candidate molecule. Baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells (BacMam), although a powerful method to heterologously express membrane proteins, can be cumbersome for screening and expression of multiple constructs. We therefore developed plasmid Eric Gouaux (pEG) BacMam, a vector optimized for use in screening assays, as well as for efficient production of baculovirus and robust expression of the target protein. In this protocol we show how to use small-scale transient transfection and fluorescence-detection, size-exclusion chromatography (FSEC) experiments using a GFP-His8 tagged candidate protein to screen for monodispersity and expression level. Once promising candidates are identified, we describe how to generate baculovirus, transduce HEK293S GnTI− (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-negative) cells in suspension culture, and over-express the candidate protein. We have used these methods to prepare pure samples of chicken acid-sensing ion channel 1a (cASIC1) and Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl), for X-ray crystallography, demonstrating how to rapidly and efficiently screen hundreds of constructs and accomplish large-scale expression in 4-6 weeks. PMID:25299155

  18. Large-Scale Modelling of the Divergent Spectrin Repeats in Nesprins: Giant Modular Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Autore, Flavia; Pfuhl, Mark; Quan, Xueping; Williams, Aisling; Roberts, Roland G.; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Fraternali, Franca

    2013-01-01

    Nesprin-1 and nesprin-2 are nuclear envelope (NE) proteins characterized by a common structure of an SR (spectrin repeat) rod domain and a C-terminal transmembrane KASH [Klarsicht–ANC–Syne-homology] domain and display N-terminal actin-binding CH (calponin homology) domains. Mutations in these proteins have been described in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and attributed to disruptions of interactions at the NE with nesprins binding partners, lamin A/C and emerin. Evolutionary analysis of the rod domains of the nesprins has shown that they are almost entirely composed of unbroken SR-like structures. We present a bioinformatical approach to accurate definition of the boundaries of each SR by comparison with canonical SR structures, allowing for a large-scale homology modelling of the 74 nesprin-1 and 56 nesprin-2 SRs. The exposed and evolutionary conserved residues identify important pbs for protein-protein interactions that can guide tailored binding experiments. Most importantly, the bioinformatics analyses and the 3D models have been central to the design of selected constructs for protein expression. 1D NMR and CD spectra have been performed of the expressed SRs, showing a folded, stable, high content α-helical structure, typical of SRs. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been performed to study the structural and elastic properties of consecutive SRs, revealing insights in the mechanical properties adopted by these modules in the cell. PMID:23671687

  19. Batch Immunostaining for Large-Scale Protein Detection in the Whole Monkey Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Burke, Mark W.; Chaudhuri, Avi; Ptito, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is one of the most widely used laboratory techniques for the detection of target proteins in situ. Questions concerning the expression pattern of a target protein across the entire brain are relatively easy to answer when using IHC in small brains, such as those of rodents. However, answering the same questions in large and convoluted brains, such as those of primates presents a number of challenges. Here we present a systematic approach for immunodetection of target proteins in an adult monkey brain. This approach relies on the tissue embedding and sectioning methodology of NeuroScience Associates (NSA) as well as tools developed specifically for batch-staining of free-floating sections. It results in uniform staining of a set of sections which, at a particular interval, represents the entire brain. The resulting stained sections can be subjected to a wide variety of analytical procedures in order to measure protein levels, the population of neurons expressing a certain protein. PMID:19636291

  20. Live-cell multiphoton fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with an improved large Stokes shift fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yinghua; Meurer, Matthias; Raghavan, Sarada; Rebane, Aleksander; Lindquist, Jake R.; Santos, Sofia; Kats, Ilia; Davidson, Michael W.; Mazitschek, Ralph; Hughes, Thomas E.; Drobizhev, Mikhail; Knop, Michael; Shah, Jagesh V.

    2015-01-01

    We report an improved variant of mKeima, a monomeric long Stokes shift red fluorescent protein, hmKeima8.5. The increased intracellular brightness and large Stokes shift (∼180 nm) make it an excellent partner with teal fluorescent protein (mTFP1) for multiphoton, multicolor applications. Excitation of this pair by a single multiphoton excitation wavelength (MPE, 850 nm) yields well-separable emission peaks (∼120-nm separation). Using this pair, we measure homo- and hetero-oligomerization interactions in living cells via multiphoton excitation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (MPE-FCS). Using tandem dimer proteins and small-molecule inducible dimerization domains, we demonstrate robust and quantitative detection of intracellular protein–protein interactions. We also use MPE-FCCS to detect drug–protein interactions in the intracellular environment using a Coumarin 343 (C343)-conjugated drug and hmKeima8.5 as a fluorescence pair. The mTFP1/hmKeima8.5 and C343/hmKeima8.5 combinations, together with our calibration constructs, provide a practical and broadly applicable toolbox for the investigation of molecular interactions in the cytoplasm of living cells. PMID:25877871

  1. Rice Ribosomal Protein Large Subunit Genes and Their Spatio-temporal and Stress Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moin, Mazahar; Bakshi, Achala; Saha, Anusree; Dutta, Mouboni; Madhav, Sheshu M.; Kirti, P. B.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are well-known for their role in mediating protein synthesis and maintaining the stability of the ribosomal complex, which includes small and large subunits. In the present investigation, in a genome-wide survey, we predicted that the large subunit of rice ribosomes is encoded by at least 123 genes including individual gene copies, distributed throughout the 12 chromosomes. We selected 34 candidate genes, each having 2–3 identical copies, for a detailed characterization of their gene structures, protein properties, cis-regulatory elements and comprehensive expression analysis. RPL proteins appear to be involved in interactions with other RP and non-RP proteins and their encoded RNAs have a higher content of alpha-helices in their predicted secondary structures. The majority of RPs have binding sites for metal and non-metal ligands. Native expression profiling of 34 ribosomal protein large (RPL) subunit genes in tissues covering the major stages of rice growth shows that they are predominantly expressed in vegetative tissues and seedlings followed by meiotically active tissues like flowers. The putative promoter regions of these genes also carry cis-elements that respond specifically to stress and signaling molecules. All the 34 genes responded differentially to the abiotic stress treatments. Phytohormone and cold treatments induced significant up-regulation of several RPL genes, while heat and H2O2 treatments down-regulated a majority of them. Furthermore, infection with a bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae, which causes leaf blight also induced the expression of 80% of the RPL genes in leaves. Although the expression of RPL genes was detected in all the tissues studied, they are highly responsive to stress and signaling molecules indicating that their encoded proteins appear to have roles in stress amelioration besides house-keeping. This shows that the RPL gene family is a valuable resource for manipulation of stress tolerance in

  2. Enhanced conformational sampling technique provides an energy landscape view of large-scale protein conformational transitions.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qiang

    2016-10-26

    Large-scale conformational changes in proteins are important for their functions. Tracking the conformational change in real time at the level of a single protein molecule, however, remains a great challenge. In this article, we present a novel in silico approach with the combination of normal mode analysis and integrated-tempering-sampling molecular simulation (NMA-ITS) to give quantitative data for exploring the conformational transition pathway in multi-dimensional energy landscapes starting only from the knowledge of the two endpoint structures of the protein. The open-to-closed transitions of three proteins, including nCaM, AdK, and HIV-1 PR, were investigated using NMA-ITS simulations. The three proteins have varied structural flexibilities and domain communications in their respective conformational changes. The transition state structure in the conformational change of nCaM and the associated free-energy barrier are in agreement with those measured in a standard explicit-solvent REMD simulation. The experimentally measured transition intermediate structures of the intrinsically flexible AdK are captured by the conformational transition pathway measured here. The dominant transition pathways between the closed and fully open states of HIV-1 PR are very similar to those observed in recent REMD simulations. Finally, the evaluated relaxation times of the conformational transitions of three proteins are roughly at the same level as reported experimental data. Therefore, the NMA-ITS method is applicable for a variety of cases, providing both qualitative and quantitative insights into the conformational changes associated with the real functions of proteins.

  3. Large-scale identification of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins from expressed sequence tags in insects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play an important role in chemical communication of insects. Gene discovery of these proteins is a time-consuming task. In recent years, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of many insect species have accumulated, thus providing a useful resource for gene discovery. Results We have developed a computational pipeline to identify OBP and CSP genes from insect ESTs. In total, 752,841 insect ESTs were examined from 54 species covering eight Orders of Insecta. From these ESTs, 142 OBPs and 177 CSPs were identified, of which 117 OBPs and 129 CSPs are new. The complete open reading frames (ORFs) of 88 OBPs and 123 CSPs were obtained by electronic elongation. We randomly chose 26 OBPs from eight species of insects, and 21 CSPs from four species for RT-PCR validation. Twenty two OBPs and 16 CSPs were confirmed by RT-PCR, proving the efficiency and reliability of the algorithm. Together with all family members obtained from the NCBI (OBPs) or the UniProtKB (CSPs), 850 OBPs and 237 CSPs were analyzed for their structural characteristics and evolutionary relationship. Conclusions A large number of new OBPs and CSPs were found, providing the basis for deeper understanding of these proteins. In addition, the conserved motif and evolutionary analysis provide some new insights into the evolution of insect OBPs and CSPs. Motif pattern fine-tune the functions of OBPs and CSPs, leading to the minor difference in binding sex pheromone or plant volatiles in different insect Orders. PMID:20034407

  4. Intracellular protein delivery by hollow mesoporous silica capsules with a large surface hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Kiwon; Choi, Jong-Nam; Hwang, Yong-Kyung; Yun, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Hee-Jin; Won, Yong Sun; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kwon, Hyockman; Huh, Seong

    2012-03-01

    We prepared cell membrane-permeable hollow mesoporous silica capsules (HMSCs) by a simple new method. CTAB micellar assembly in cholesterol emulsion gave rise to a novel capsular morphology of the HMSC particles. The HMSCs consisted of mesostructured silica walls with a large surface hole (25-50 nm) and the average particle dimension was 100-300 nm. They exhibited high surface areas of up to 719.3 m2 g-1 and a mesoporous range of pores of 2.4-2.7 nm. The surface-functionalized HMSCs could also be prepared by a similar co-condensation method using tetraethoxysilane with various organoalkoxysilane precursors in the presence of cholesterol. These organically modified HMSCs could be further modified on demand. For example, a carboxy-functionalized HMSC could be surface-functionalized by a green fluorescent 5-aminofluorescein (AFL) through an amidation reaction to afford a fluorescent AFL-HMSC. The hollow capsular morphology of the HMSCs with a large surface hole enabled us to develop very efficient intracellular delivery systems for membrane-impermeable ions, molecules, and various functional proteins. Non-covalent sequestration and delivery of proteins as well as covalent linkage of fluorescent molecules on the silica surface are effective for this system. The highly negatively charged green fluorescent probe mag-fluo-4 could be intracellularly delivered into HeLa cells by HMSC without any difficulty. The HMSCs could also effectively transport large functional proteins such as antibodies into HeLa cells. The efficiency of protein delivery by HMSC seems to be 3-22-fold higher than that of mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) based on confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis.

  5. Isolation, cloning and large scale expression of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) protein of Polymyxa betae.

    PubMed

    Safarpour, H; Safarnejad, M R

    2012-01-01

    The plasmodiophoromycete Polymyxa betae, an obligate parasite of sugar-beet roots, is a natural vector of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). To develop protein based diagnosis for any pathogenic agents including P. betae, a specific immunogenic protein has to be prepared. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is expressed in all the morphologically different stages of the pathogen's life cycle, and then it is a good candidate as an immunogenic agent for developing of specific antibodies and diagnostic purposes. The present study describes isolation, cloning and large scale expression and purification of P. betae GST protein. For this aim, total RNA was initially isolated from infected plants and corresponding cDNA was constructed by using reverse transcriptase and oligo-dT primer as well as mRNA as a template. The gene encoding GST was isolated and PCR-amplified from the synthesized cDNA by using specific primers. The amplified fragments were preliminary cloned into pTZ57R/T cloning vector. Intact clone containing right sequence was selected after digestion, PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing analysis. Next, GST encoding region having right sequence was recovered and sub-cloned into pET28a bacterial expression vector. Large scale expression of recombinant protein was performed in BL21-de3 strain of E. coli and purification was carried out under native situation through Immobolized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) in column containing Ni-NTA agarose beads. Successful expression and purification steps were confirmed by SDS-PAGE followed by western blotting analysis. These results confirmed the high purity and integrity of GST protein which was around 21 kDa. Generally, the total yield of the purified protein in the culture medium was estimated at around 3.5 mg/mL. After purification, a major part of the purified proteins was precipitated identified as excess GST. To improve the solubility, the final concentration of purified protein was reduced

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa2 toxin disrupts cell membranes by forming large protein aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Tharad, Sudarat; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cyt2Aa2 showed toxicity against Dipteran insect larvae and in vitro lysis activity on several cells. It has potential applications in the biological control of insect larvae. Although pore-forming and/or detergent-like mechanisms were proposed, the mechanism underlying cytolytic activity remains unclear. Analysis of the haemolytic activity of Cyt2Aa2 with osmotic stabilizers revealed partial toxin inhibition, suggesting a distinctive mechanism from the putative pore formation model. Membrane permeability was studied using fluorescent dye entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) at various protein/lipid molar ratios. Binding of Cyt2Aa2 monomer to the lipid membrane did not disturb membrane integrity until the critical protein/lipid molar ratio was reached, when Cyt2Aa2 complexes and cytolytic activity were detected. The complexes are large aggregates that appeared as a ladder when separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with Aedes albopictus cells was investigated by confocal microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF). The results showed that Cyt2Aa2 binds on the cell membrane at an early stage without cell membrane disruption. Protein aggregation on the cell membrane was detected later which coincided with cell swelling. Cyt2Aa2 aggregations on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were visualized by AFM. The AFM topographic images revealed Cyt2Aa2 aggregates on the lipid bilayer at low protein concentration and subsequently disrupts the lipid bilayer by forming a lesion as the protein concentration increased. These results supported the mechanism whereby Cyt2Aa2 binds and aggregates on the lipid membrane leading to the formation of non-specific hole and disruption of the cell membrane. PMID:27612497

  7. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  8. Large scale crystallization of protein pharmaceuticals in microgravity via temperature change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Marianna M.

    1992-01-01

    The major objective of this research effort is the temperature driven growth of protein crystals in large batches in the microgravity environment of space. Pharmaceutical houses are developing protein products for patient care, for example, human insulin, human growth hormone, interferons, and tissue plasminogen activator or TPA, the clot buster for heart attack victims. Except for insulin, these are very high value products; they are extremely potent in small quantities and have a great value per gram of material. It is feasible that microgravity crystallization can be a cost recoverable, economically sound final processing step in their manufacture. Large scale protein crystal growth in microgravity has significant advantages from the basic science and the applied science standpoints. Crystal growth can proceed unhindered due to lack of surface effects. Dynamic control is possible and relatively easy. The method has the potential to yield large quantities of pure crystalline product. Crystallization is a time honored procedure for purifying organic materials and microgravity crystallization could be the final step to remove trace impurities from high value protein pharmaceuticals. In addition, microgravity grown crystals could be the final formulation for those medicines that need to be administered in a timed release fashion. Long lasting insulin, insulin lente, is such a product. Also crystalline protein pharmaceuticals are more stable for long-term storage. Temperature, as the initiation step, has certain advantages. Again, dynamic control of the crystallization process is possible and easy. A temperature step is non-invasive and is the most subtle way to control protein solubility and therefore crystallization. Seeding is not necessary. Changes in protein and precipitant concentrations and pH are not necessary. Finally, this method represents a new way to crystallize proteins in space that takes advantage of the unique microgravity environment. The results

  9. Rapamycin-binding FKBP25 associates with diverse proteins that form large intracellular entities

    SciTech Connect

    Galat, Andrzej Thai, Robert

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • The hFKBP25 interacts with diverse components of macromolecular entities. • We show that the endogenous human FKBP25 is bound to polyribosomes. • The endogenous hFKBP25 co-immunoprecipitated with nucleosomal proteins. • FKBP25 could induce conformational switch in macromolecular complexes. - Abstract: In this paper, we show some evidence that a member of the FK506-binding proteins, FKBP25 is associated to diverse components that are part of several different intracellular large-molecular mass entities. The FKBP25 is a high-affinity rapamycin-binding immunophilin, which has nuclear translocation signals present in its PPIase domain but it was detected both in the cytoplasm compartment and in the nuclear proteome. Analyses of antiFKBP25-immunoprecipitated proteins have revealed that the endogenous FKBP25 is associated to the core histones of the nucleosome, and with several proteins forming spliceosomal complexes and ribosomal subunits. Using polyclonal antiFKBP25 we have detected FKBP25 associated with polyribosomes. Added RNAs or 0.5 M NaCl release FKBP25 that was associated with the polyribosomes indicating that the immunophilin has an intrinsic capacity to form complexes with polyribonucleotides via its charged surface patches. Rapamycin or FK506 treatments of the polyribosomes isolated from porcine brain, HeLa and K568 cells caused a residual release of the endogenous FKBP25, which suggests that the immunophilin also binds to some proteins via its PPIase cavity. Our proteomics study indicates that the nuclear pool of the FKBP25 targets various nuclear proteins that are crucial for packaging of DNA, chromatin remodeling and pre-mRNA splicing whereas the cytosolic pool of this immunophilin is bound to some components of the ribosome.

  10. Calculation of subunit stoichiometry of large, multisubunit proteins from amino acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Kapp, O H; Qabar, A N; Vinogradov, S N

    1990-01-01

    The subunit stoichiometry of a large, multisubunit protein can be determined from the molar amino acid compositions (i amino acids) of the protein and its subunits. The number of copies of the subunits (1, 2, ... j) is calculated by solving all possible combinations of simultaneous equations in j unknowns (i!/j!(i - j)!). Calculations carried out using the published amino acid compositions determined by analysis and the compositions calculated from the sequences for two proteins of known stoichiometry provided the following results: Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase (R6C6, Mr = 307.5 kDa), R = 5.6 to 6.6 and C = 5.8 to 6.3, and spinach ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (L8S8, Mr = 535 kDa), L = 7.3 to 9.1 and S = 5.6 to 10.6. Calculations were also carried out with the amino acid compositions of two much larger proteins, the E. coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Mr = 5280 kDa, subunits E1 (99.5 kDa), E2 (66 kDa), and E3 (50.6 kDa), and the extracellular hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris, Mr = 3760 kDa, subunits M (17 kDa), D1 (31 kDa), D2 (37 kDa), and T (51 kDa); the results for PDHase were E1 = 20 to 24, E2 = 18 to 31, E3 = 21 to 33 and those for Lumbricus hemoglobin were M = 34 to 46, D1 = 13 to 19, D2 = 13 to 18, and T = 34 to 36. Although the sample standard deviations of the mean values are generally high, the proposed method works surprisingly well for the two smaller proteins and provides physically reasonable results for the two larger proteins.

  11. Neandertals' large lower thorax may represent adaptation to high protein diet.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dor, Miki; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Humans are limited in their capacity to convert protein into energy. We present a hypothesis that a "bell" shaped thorax and a wide pelvis evolved in Neandertals, at least in part, as an adaptation to a high protein diet. A high protein diet created a need to house an enlarged liver and urinary system in a wider lower trunk. To test the hypothesis, we applied a model developed to identify points of nutritional stress. A ratio of obligatory dietary fat to total animal fat and protein sourced calories is calculated based on various known and estimated parameters. Stress is identified when the obligatory dietary fat ratio is higher than fat content ratios in available prey. The model predicts that during glacial winters, when carbohydrates weren't available, 74%-85% of Neandertals' caloric intake would have had to come from animal fat. Large animals contain around 50% fat calories, and their fat content is diminished during winter, so a significant stressful dietary fat deficit was identified by the model. This deficit could potentially be ameliorated by an increased capability to convert protein into energy. Given that high protein consumption is associated with larger liver and kidneys in animal models, it appears likely that the enlarged inferior section of the Neandertals thorax and possibly, in part, also his wide pelvis, represented an adaptation to provide encasement for those enlarged organs. Behavioral and evolutionary implications of the hypothesis are also discussed. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:367-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Thermal motion in proteins: Large effects on the time-averaged interaction energies

    SciTech Connect

    Goethe, Martin Rubi, J. Miguel; Fita, Ignacio

    2016-03-15

    As a consequence of thermal motion, inter-atomic distances in proteins fluctuate strongly around their average values, and hence, also interaction energies (i.e. the pair-potentials evaluated at the fluctuating distances) are not constant in time but exhibit pronounced fluctuations. These fluctuations cause that time-averaged interaction energies do generally not coincide with the energy values obtained by evaluating the pair-potentials at the average distances. More precisely, time-averaged interaction energies behave typically smoother in terms of the average distance than the corresponding pair-potentials. This averaging effect is referred to as the thermal smoothing effect. Here, we estimate the strength of the thermal smoothing effect on the Lennard-Jones pair-potential for globular proteins at ambient conditions using x-ray diffraction and simulation data of a representative set of proteins. For specific atom species, we find a significant smoothing effect where the time-averaged interaction energy of a single atom pair can differ by various tens of cal/mol from the Lennard-Jones potential at the average distance. Importantly, we observe a dependency of the effect on the local environment of the involved atoms. The effect is typically weaker for bulky backbone atoms in beta sheets than for side-chain atoms belonging to other secondary structure on the surface of the protein. The results of this work have important practical implications for protein software relying on free energy expressions. We show that the accuracy of free energy expressions can largely be increased by introducing environment specific Lennard-Jones parameters accounting for the fact that the typical thermal motion of protein atoms depends strongly on their local environment.

  13. Utility of inline milk fat and protein ratio to diagnose subclinical ketosis and to assign propylene glycol treatment in lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nicholas T.; Peña, Gustavo; Risco, Carlos; Barbosa, Carolina C.; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; Galvão, Klibs N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify a fat-to-protein ratio (FPR) cut-off to diagnose subclinical ketosis (SCK) and to evaluate the effect of propylene glycol (PPG) treatment of cows with high FPR. The optimized cut-off was > 1.42; sensitivity (Se) = 92%; specificity (Sp) = 65%. A cut-off > 1.5 was selected for the PPG trial for balanced Se-Sp. Fat-to-protein ratio cut-offs > 1.25, 1.35, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 resulted in Se-Sp of 100% to 49%, 96% to 59%, 75% to 78%, 33% to 90%, and 8% to 96%, respectively. The proportions of cows with FPR > 1.25, 1.35, 1.42, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 were 60%, 50%, 44%, 30%, 14%, and 6%, respectively. Incidences of clinical ketosis and milk yield were similar between cows that received 400 mL of PPG (n = 34) and control cows (n = 38). Prevalence of SCK at enrollment was 29.2%; therefore, FPR > 1.5 is not indicated for treatment. Lower cut-offs should be used for screening. PMID:26246632

  14. Utility of inline milk fat and protein ratio to diagnose subclinical ketosis and to assign propylene glycol treatment in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nicholas T; Peña, Gustavo; Risco, Carlos; Barbosa, Carolina C; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; Galvão, Klibs N

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to identify a fat-to-protein ratio (FPR) cut-off to diagnose subclinical ketosis (SCK) and to evaluate the effect of propylene glycol (PPG) treatment of cows with high FPR. The optimized cut-off was > 1.42; sensitivity (Se) = 92%; specificity (Sp) = 65%. A cut-off > 1.5 was selected for the PPG trial for balanced Se-Sp. Fat-to-protein ratio cut-offs > 1.25, 1.35, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 resulted in Se-Sp of 100% to 49%, 96% to 59%, 75% to 78%, 33% to 90%, and 8% to 96%, respectively. The proportions of cows with FPR > 1.25, 1.35, 1.42, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 were 60%, 50%, 44%, 30%, 14%, and 6%, respectively. Incidences of clinical ketosis and milk yield were similar between cows that received 400 mL of PPG (n = 34) and control cows (n = 38). Prevalence of SCK at enrollment was 29.2%; therefore, FPR > 1.5 is not indicated for treatment. Lower cut-offs should be used for screening.

  15. Does the DFT Self-Interaction Error Affect Energies Calculated in Proteins with Large QM Systems?

    PubMed

    Fouda, Adam; Ryde, Ulf

    2016-11-08

    We have examined how the self-interaction error in density-functional theory (DFT) calculations affects energies calculated on large systems (600-1000 atoms) involving several charged groups. We employ 18 different quantum mechanical (QM) methods, including Hartree-Fock, as well as pure, hybrid, and range-separated DFT methods. They are used to calculate reaction and activation energies for three different protein models in vacuum, in a point-charge surrounding, or with a continuum-solvent model. We show that pure DFT functionals give rise to a significant delocalization of the charges in charged groups in the protein, typically by ∼0.1 e, as evidenced from the Mulliken charges. This has a clear effect on how the surroundings affect calculated reaction and activation energies, indicating that these methods should be avoided for DFT calculations on large systems. Fortunately, methods such as CAM-B3LYP, BHLYP, and M06-2X give results that agree within a few kilojoules per mole, especially when the calculations are performed in a point-charge surrounding. Therefore, we recommend these methods to estimate the effect of the surroundings with large QM systems (but other QM methods may be used to study the intrinsic reaction and activation energies).

  16. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex

    PubMed Central

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B.; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J.; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A. P.

    2014-01-01

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes. PMID:25349383

  17. Structural basis for translational surveillance by the large ribosomal subunit-associated protein quality control complex.

    PubMed

    Lyumkis, Dmitry; Oliveira dos Passos, Dario; Tahara, Erich B; Webb, Kristofor; Bennett, Eric J; Vinterbo, Staal; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Joazeiro, Claudio A P

    2014-11-11

    All organisms have evolved mechanisms to manage the stalling of ribosomes upon translation of aberrant mRNA. In eukaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit-associated quality control complex (RQC), composed of the listerin/Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and cofactors, mediates the ubiquitylation and extraction of ribosome-stalled nascent polypeptide chains for proteasomal degradation. How RQC recognizes stalled ribosomes and performs its functions has not been understood. Using single-particle cryoelectron microscopy, we have determined the structure of the RQC complex bound to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits. The structure establishes how Ltn1 associates with the large ribosomal subunit and properly positions its E3-catalytic RING domain to mediate nascent chain ubiquitylation. The structure also reveals that a distinguishing feature of stalled 60S particles is an exposed, nascent chain-conjugated tRNA, and that the Tae2 subunit of RQC, which facilitates Ltn1 binding, is responsible for selective recognition of stalled 60S subunits. RQC components are engaged in interactions across a large span of the 60S subunit surface, connecting the tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center to the distally located nascent chain tunnel exit. This work provides insights into a mechanism linking translation and protein degradation that targets defective proteins immediately after synthesis, while ignoring nascent chains in normally translating ribosomes.

  18. Case assignment in agrammatism.

    PubMed

    Ruigendijk, E; van Zonneveld, R; Bastiaanse, R

    1999-08-01

    Agrammatic speech is characterized by the omission and substitution of grammatical morphemes. Some recent papers suggest that certain patterns of omission and substitution are ruled by linguistic, that is, syntactic processes (e.g., Hagiwara, 1995; Friedmann & Grodzinsky, 1997; Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 1998). In the present paper, the omission pattern of case markers in the spontaneous speech of Dutch and German speakers with agrammatic aphasia is analyzed within the framework of Chomsky's (1986) case theory, which says that every phonetically realized NP must receive (abstract) case. The inflected verb (I) assigns nominative case to the subject in the sentence, and the verb (V) assigns dative and accusative case to the indirect and direct object, respectively. This, in combination with the knowledge that verbs and verb inflections are notoriously difficult for speakers with agrammatism, served as the basis for this study. We hypothesize that, if no case assigner is produced, the noun will receive nominative case by default or the case marking morpheme (i.e., the determiner) will be omitted. This hypothesis has been tested and was supported by the data.

  19. Simple wavelength assignment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaputra, Stephen; Touch, Joseph D.; Bannister, Joseph A.

    2000-10-01

    IP routers can be coupled with wavelength-selective optical cross- connects to support existing Internet infrastructure in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network. Because optical wavelength routing is transparent to IP, packets can bypass traditional forwarding and pass directly through the optical cross-connect, resulting in very high throughput and low delay routing. This approach shares features with label switching, but wavelengths are much more scarce resource than labels. Because optical switches have larger switching times than electronic switches, and wavelength conversions are expensive, wavelength label swapping is not easily done. Wavelength label assignments must consider these limitations to be practical in an optical environment. The performance of an instance of this approach, called Packet over Wavelengths (POW) has been simulated and studied. A new signaling protocol, Simple Wavelength Assignment Protocol (SWAP) is devised to be POW signaling protocol. SWAP takes into account the optical device limitations, and is designed to minimize wavelength conversion, utilize wavelengths with the merging of flows, and reduce the reconfiguration of optical switches. SWAP, to our knowledge, is the first approach to combine signaling and wavelength assignment in an on- line protocol. This paper describes high level SWAP design challenges, decision, and overhead.

  20. Plant Cell Wall Proteins: A Large Body of Data, but What about Runaways?

    PubMed Central

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Hoffmann, Laurent; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell wall proteomics has been a very dynamic field of research for about fifteen years. A full range of strategies has been proposed to increase the number of identified proteins and to characterize their post-translational modifications. The protocols are still improving to enlarge the coverage of cell wall proteomes. Comparisons between these proteomes have been done based on various working strategies or different physiological stages. In this review, two points are highlighted. The first point is related to data analysis with an overview of the cell wall proteomes already described. A large body of data is now available with the description of cell wall proteomes of seventeen plant species. CWP contents exhibit particularities in relation to the major differences in cell wall composition and structure between these plants and between plant organs. The second point is related to methodology and concerns the present limitations of the coverage of cell wall proteomes. Because of the variety of cell wall structures and of the diversity of protein/polysaccharide and protein/protein interactions in cell walls, some CWPs can be missing either because they are washed out during the purification of cell walls or because they are covalently linked to cell wall components. PMID:28250379

  1. Comparative visualization of protein conformations using large high resolution displays with gestures and body tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marangoni, Matt; Wischgoll, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Automatically identifying protein conformations can yield multiple candidate structures. Potential candidates are examined further to cull false positives. Individual conformations and the collection are compared when seeking flaws. Desktop displays are ineffective due to limited size and resolution. Thus a user must sacrifice large scale content by viewing the micro level with high detail or view the macro level while forfeiting small details. We address this ultimatum by utilizing multiple, high resolution displays. Using 27, 50", high resolution displays with active, stereoscopic 3D, and modified virtual environment software, each display presents a protein users can manipulate. Such an environment enables users to gain extensive insight both at the micro and macro levels when performing structural comparisons among the candidate structures. Integrating stereoscopic 3D improves the user's ability to judge conformations spatial relationships. In order to facilitate intuitive interaction, gesture recognition as well as body tracking are used. The user is able to look at the protein of interest, select a modality via gesture, and the user's motions provide intuitive navigation functions such as panning, rotating, and zooming. Using this approach, users are able to perform protein structure comparison through intuitive controls without sacrificing important visual details at any scale.

  2. Experimental library screening demonstrates the successful application of computational protein design to large structural ensembles.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin D; Nisthal, Alex; Mayo, Stephen L

    2010-11-16

    The stability, activity, and solubility of a protein sequence are determined by a delicate balance of molecular interactions in a variety of conformational states. Even so, most computational protein design methods model sequences in the context of a single native conformation. Simulations that model the native state as an ensemble have been mostly neglected due to the lack of sufficiently powerful optimization algorithms for multistate design. Here, we have applied our multistate design algorithm to study the potential utility of various forms of input structural data for design. To facilitate a more thorough analysis, we developed new methods for the design and high-throughput stability determination of combinatorial mutation libraries based on protein design calculations. The application of these methods to the core design of a small model system produced many variants with improved thermodynamic stability and showed that multistate design methods can be readily applied to large structural ensembles. We found that exhaustive screening of our designed libraries helped to clarify several sources of simulation error that would have otherwise been difficult to ascertain. Interestingly, the lack of correlation between our simulated and experimentally measured stability values shows clearly that a design procedure need not reproduce experimental data exactly to achieve success. This surprising result suggests potentially fruitful directions for the improvement of computational protein design technology.

  3. Experimental library screening demonstrates the successful application of computational protein design to large structural ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin D.; Nisthal, Alex; Mayo, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The stability, activity, and solubility of a protein sequence are determined by a delicate balance of molecular interactions in a variety of conformational states. Even so, most computational protein design methods model sequences in the context of a single native conformation. Simulations that model the native state as an ensemble have been mostly neglected due to the lack of sufficiently powerful optimization algorithms for multistate design. Here, we have applied our multistate design algorithm to study the potential utility of various forms of input structural data for design. To facilitate a more thorough analysis, we developed new methods for the design and high-throughput stability determination of combinatorial mutation libraries based on protein design calculations. The application of these methods to the core design of a small model system produced many variants with improved thermodynamic stability and showed that multistate design methods can be readily applied to large structural ensembles. We found that exhaustive screening of our designed libraries helped to clarify several sources of simulation error that would have otherwise been difficult to ascertain. Interestingly, the lack of correlation between our simulated and experimentally measured stability values shows clearly that a design procedure need not reproduce experimental data exactly to achieve success. This surprising result suggests potentially fruitful directions for the improvement of computational protein design technology. PMID:21045132

  4. Plant Cell Wall Proteins: A Large Body of Data, but What about Runaways?

    PubMed

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Hoffmann, Laurent; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-04-17

    Plant cell wall proteomics has been a very dynamic field of research for about fifteen years. A full range of strategies has been proposed to increase the number of identified proteins and to characterize their post-translational modifications. The protocols are still improving to enlarge the coverage of cell wall proteomes. Comparisons between these proteomes have been done based on various working strategies or different physiological stages. In this review, two points are highlighted. The first point is related to data analysis with an overview of the cell wall proteomes already described. A large body of data is now available with the description of cell wall proteomes of seventeen plant species. CWP contents exhibit particularities in relation to the major differences in cell wall composition and structure between these plants and between plant organs. The second point is related to methodology and concerns the present limitations of the coverage of cell wall proteomes. Because of the variety of cell wall structures and of the diversity of protein/polysaccharide and protein/protein interactions in cell walls, some CWPs can be missing either because they are washed out during the purification of cell walls or because they are covalently linked to cell wall components.

  5. Physiological and technological aspects of large-scale heterologous-protein production with yeasts.

    PubMed

    Hensing, M C; Rouwenhorst, R J; Heijnen, J J; van Dijken, J P; Pronk, J T

    1995-01-01

    Commercial production of heterologous proteins by yeasts has gained considerable interest. Expression systems have been developed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a number of other yeasts. Generally, much attention is paid to the molecular aspects of heterologous-gene expression. The success of this approach is indicated by the high expression levels that have been obtained in shake-flask cultures. For large-scale production however, possibilities and restrictions related to host-strain physiology and fermentation technology also have to be considered. In this review, these physiological and technological aspects have been evaluated with the aid of numerical simulations. Factors that affect the choice of a carbon substrate for large-scale production involve price, purity and solubility. Since oxygen demand and heat production (which are closely linked) limit the attainable growth rate in large-scale processes, the biomass yield on oxygen is also a key parameter. Large-scale processes impose restrictions on the expression system. Many promoter systems that work well in small-scale systems cannot be implemented in industrial environments. Furthermore, large-scale fed-batch fermentations involve a substantial number of generations. Therefore, even low expression-cassette instability has a profound effect on the overall productivity of the system. Multicopy-integration systems may provide highly stable expression systems for industrial processes. Large-scale fed-batch processes are typically performed at a low growth rate. Therefore, effects of a low growth rate on the physiology and product formation rates of yeasts are of key importance. Due to the low growth rates in the industrial process, a substantial part of the substrate carbon is expended to meet maintenance-energy requirements. Factors that reduce maintenance-energy requirements will therefore have a positive effect on product yield. The relationship between specific growth rate and specific product formation

  6. On the accuracy of protein determination in large biological samples by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasviki, K.; Stamatelatos, I. E.; Yannakopoulou, E.; Papadopoulou, P.; Kalef-Ezra, J.

    2007-10-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility has been developed for the determination of nitrogen and thus total protein in large volume biological samples or the whole body of small animals. In the present work, the accuracy of nitrogen determination by PGNAA in phantoms of known composition as well as in four raw ground meat samples of about 1 kg mass was examined. Dumas combustion and Kjeldahl techniques were also used for the assessment of nitrogen concentration in the meat samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the concentrations assessed by the three techniques. The results of this work demonstrate the applicability of PGNAA for the assessment of total protein in biological samples of 0.25-1.5 kg mass, such as a meat sample or the body of small animal even in vivo with an equivalent radiation dose of about 40 mSv.

  7. Fundamentals of large-molecule protein therapeutic bioanalysis using ligand-binding assays.

    PubMed

    Thway, Theingi M

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of ligand-binding assays, including the origin and evolution of the primary concepts, in addition to reviewing commonly used assay formats. The birth of ligand-binding assays began with a radioimmunoassay developed to measure insulin in 1960. Fundamental to ligand-binding assay design is the requirement of at least one protein that interacts with the analyte of interest. Enzyme immunoassay has largely supplanted radioimmunoassay as the ligand-binding assay of choice in today's laboratory environment. This article illustrates various assay formats such as competitive, sandwich and bridging, in addition to, describing critical reagents necessary for their design. The utility of ligand-binding assays in therapeutic protein development and comparison to alternative bioanalysis platforms is discussed.

  8. Biodegradable Magnetic Silica@Iron Oxide Nanovectors with Ultra-Large Mesopores for High Protein Loading, Magnetothermal Release, and Delivery.

    PubMed

    Omar, Haneen; Croissant, Jonas G; Alamoudi, Kholod; Alsaiari, Shahad; Alradwan, Ibrahim; Majrashi, Majed A; Anjum, Dalaver H; Martins, Patricia; Moosa, Basem; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Khashab, Niveen M

    2016-11-29

    The delivery of large cargos of diameter above 15nm for biomedical applications has proved challenging since it requires biocompatible, stably-loaded, and biodegradable nanomaterials. In this study, we describe the design of biodegradable silica-iron oxide hybrid nanovectors with large mesopores for large protein delivery in cancer cells. The mesopores of the nanomaterials spanned from 20 to 60nm in diameter and post-functionalization allowed the electrostatic immobilization of large proteins (e.g. mTFP-Ferritin, ~534kDa). Half of the content of the nanovectors was based with iron oxide nanophases which allowed the rapid biodegradation of the carrier in fetal bovine serum and a magnetic responsiveness. The nanovectors released large protein cargos in aqueous solution under acidic pH or magnetic stimuli. The delivery of large proteins was then autonomously achieved in cancer cells via the silica-iron oxide nanovectors, which is thus a promising for biomedical applications.

  9. Optimal processor assignment for pipeline computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Simha, Rahul; Choudhury, Alok N.; Narahari, Bhagirath

    1991-01-01

    The availability of large scale multitasked parallel architectures introduces the following processor assignment problem for pipelined computations. Given a set of tasks and their precedence constraints, along with their experimentally determined individual responses times for different processor sizes, find an assignment of processor to tasks. Two objectives are of interest: minimal response given a throughput requirement, and maximal throughput given a response time requirement. These assignment problems differ considerably from the classical mapping problem in which several tasks share a processor; instead, it is assumed that a large number of processors are to be assigned to a relatively small number of tasks. Efficient assignment algorithms were developed for different classes of task structures. For a p processor system and a series parallel precedence graph with n constituent tasks, an O(np2) algorithm is provided that finds the optimal assignment for the response time optimization problem; it was found that the assignment optimizing the constrained throughput in O(np2log p) time. Special cases of linear, independent, and tree graphs are also considered.

  10. Recombinant Protein Production in Large-Scale Agitated Bioreactors Using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Christine M; Montes, Johnny; Aucoin, Marc G; Kamen, Amine A

    2016-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins using the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) in large-scale agitated bioreactors is discussed in this chapter. Detailed methods of the key stages of a batch process, including host cell growth, virus stock amplification and quantification, bioreactor preparation and operation, the infection process, final harvesting, and primary separation steps for recovery of the product are presented. Furthermore, methods involved with advanced on-line monitoring and bioreactor control, which have a significant impact on the overall process success, are briefly discussed.

  11. Automated resonance assignment of the 21 kDa stereo-array isotope labeled thioldisulfide oxidoreductase DsbA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Elena; Ikeya, Teppei; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Löhr, Frank; Buchner, Lena; Ito, Yutaka; Kainosho, Masatsune; Güntert, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The automated chemical shift assignment algorithm FLYA has been extended for use with stereo-array isotope labeled (SAIL) proteins to determine the sequence-specific resonance assignments of large proteins. Here we present the assignment of the backbone and sidechain chemical shifts of the 21 kDa thioldisulfide oxidoreductase DsbA from Escherichia coli that were determined with the SAIL-FLYA algorithm in conjunction with automated peak picking. No manual corrections of peak lists or assignments were applied. The assignments agreed with manually determined reference assignments in 95.4% of the cases if 16 input spectra were used, 94.1% if only 3D 13C/15N-resolved NOESY, CBCA(CO)NH, and 2D [13C/15N,1H]-HSQC were used, and 86.8% if exclusively 3D 13C/15N-resolved NOESY spectra were used. Considering only the assignments that are classified as reliable by the SAIL-FLYA algorithm, the degrees of agreement increased to 97.5%, 96.5%, and 94.2%, respectively. With our approach it is thus possible to automatically obtain almost complete and correct assignments of proteins larger than 20 kDa.

  12. A large iris-like expansion of a mechanosensitive channel protein induced by membrane tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betanzos, Monica; Chiang, Chien-Sung; Guy, H. Robert; Sukharev, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    MscL, a bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, is the first structurally characterized mechanosensor protein. Molecular models of its gating mechanisms are tested here. Disulfide crosslinking shows that M1 transmembrane alpha-helices in MscL of resting Escherichia coli are arranged similarly to those in the crystal structure of MscL from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An expanded conformation was trapped in osmotically shocked cells by the specific bridging between Cys 20 and Cys 36 of adjacent M1 helices. These bridges stabilized the open channel. Disulfide bonds engineered between the M1 and M2 helices of adjacent subunits (Cys 32-Cys 81) do not prevent channel gating. These findings support gating models in which interactions between M1 and M2 of adjacent subunits remain unaltered while their tilts simultaneously increase. The MscL barrel, therefore, undergoes a large concerted iris-like expansion and flattening when perturbed by membrane tension.

  13. A large iris-like expansion of a mechanosensitive channel protein induced by membrane tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betanzos, Monica; Chiang, Chien-Sung; Guy, H. Robert; Sukharev, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    MscL, a bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, is the first structurally characterized mechanosensor protein. Molecular models of its gating mechanisms are tested here. Disulfide crosslinking shows that M1 transmembrane alpha-helices in MscL of resting Escherichia coli are arranged similarly to those in the crystal structure of MscL from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. An expanded conformation was trapped in osmotically shocked cells by the specific bridging between Cys 20 and Cys 36 of adjacent M1 helices. These bridges stabilized the open channel. Disulfide bonds engineered between the M1 and M2 helices of adjacent subunits (Cys 32-Cys 81) do not prevent channel gating. These findings support gating models in which interactions between M1 and M2 of adjacent subunits remain unaltered while their tilts simultaneously increase. The MscL barrel, therefore, undergoes a large concerted iris-like expansion and flattening when perturbed by membrane tension.

  14. hNCOcanH pulse sequence and a robust protocol for rapid and unambiguous assignment of backbone ((1)H(N), (15)N and (13)C') resonances in (15)N/(13)C-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2011-09-01

    A three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulse sequence named as hNCOcanH has been described to aid rapid sequential assignment of backbone resonances in (15)N/(13)C-labeled proteins. The experiment has been derived by a simple modification of the previously described HN(C)N pulse sequence [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147]; t2 evolution is used to frequency label (13)C' rather than (15)N (similar trick has also been used in the design of hNCAnH pulse sequence from hNcaNH [Frueh et al., JACS, 131 (2009) 12880-12881]). The modification results in a spectrum equivalent to HNCO, but in addition to inter-residue correlation peaks (i.e. Hi , Ci-1), the spectrum also contains additional intra-residue correlation peaks (i.e. Hi-1 , Ci-1) in the direct proton dimension which has maximum resolution. This is the main strength of the experiment and thus, even a small difference in amide (1) H chemical shifts (5-6 Hz) can be used for establishing a sequential connectivity. This experiment in combination with the HNN experiment described previously [Panchal et al., J. Biomol. NMR 20 (2001) 135-147] leads to a more robust assignment protocol for backbone resonances ((1) H(N) , (15)N) than could be derived from the combination of HNN and HN(C)N experiments [Bhavesh et al., Biochemistry, 40 (2001) 14727-14735]. Further, this new protocol enables assignment of (13)C' resonances as well. We believe that the experiment and the protocol presented here will be of immense value for structural-and functional-proteomics research by NMR. Performance of this experiment has been demonstrated using (13)C/(15)N labeled ubiquitin. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Exploiting large-scale drug-protein interaction information for computational drug repurposing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite increased investment in pharmaceutical research and development, fewer and fewer new drugs are entering the marketplace. This has prompted studies in repurposing existing drugs for use against diseases with unmet medical needs. A popular approach is to develop a classification model based on drugs with and without a desired therapeutic effect. For this approach to be statistically sound, it requires a large number of drugs in both classes. However, given few or no approved drugs for the diseases of highest medical urgency and interest, different strategies need to be investigated. Results We developed a computational method termed “drug-protein interaction-based repurposing” (DPIR) that is potentially applicable to diseases with very few approved drugs. The method, based on genome-wide drug-protein interaction information and Bayesian statistics, first identifies drug-protein interactions associated with a desired therapeutic effect. Then, it uses key drug-protein interactions to score other drugs for their potential to have the same therapeutic effect. Conclusions Detailed cross-validation studies using United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for hypertension, human immunodeficiency virus, and malaria indicated that DPIR provides robust predictions. It achieves high levels of enrichment of drugs approved for a disease even with models developed based on a single drug known to treat the disease. Analysis of our model predictions also indicated that the method is potentially useful for understanding molecular mechanisms of drug action and for identifying protein targets that may potentiate the desired therapeutic effects of other drugs (combination therapies). PMID:24950817

  16. Visualisation and graph-theoretic analysis of a large-scale protein structural interactome

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Dan; Dafas, Panos; Harrington, Richard; Park, Jong; Schroeder, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Background Large-scale protein interaction maps provide a new, global perspective with which to analyse protein function. PSIMAP, the Protein Structural Interactome Map, is a database of all the structurally observed interactions between superfamilies of protein domains with known three-dimensional structure in the PDB. PSIMAP incorporates both functional and evolutionary information into a single network. Results We present a global analysis of PSIMAP using several distinct network measures relating to centrality, interactivity, fault-tolerance, and taxonomic diversity. We found the following results: Centrality: we show that the center and barycenter of PSIMAP do not coincide, and that the superfamilies forming the barycenter relate to very general functions, while those constituting the center relate to enzymatic activity. Interactivity: we identify the P-loop and immunoglobulin superfamilies as the most highly interactive. We successfully use connectivity and cluster index, which characterise the connectivity of a superfamily's neighbourhood, to discover superfamilies of complex I and II. This is particularly significant as the structure of complex I is not yet solved. Taxonomic diversity: we found that highly interactive superfamilies are in general taxonomically very diverse and are thus amongst the oldest. Fault-tolerance: we found that the network is very robust as for the majority of superfamilies removal from the network will not break up the network. Conclusions Overall, we can single out the P-loop containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases superfamily as it is the most highly connected and has the highest taxonomic diversity. In addition, this superfamily has the highest interaction rank, is the barycenter of the network (it has the shortest average path to every other superfamily in the network), and is an articulation vertex, whose removal will disconnect the network. More generally, we conclude that the graph-theoretic and taxonomic analysis of

  17. In various protein complexes, disordered protomers have large per-residue surface areas and area of protein-, DNA- and RNA-binding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhonghua; Hu, Gang; Yang, Jianyi; Peng, Zhenling; Uversky, Vladimir N; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2015-09-14

    We provide first large scale analysis of the peculiarities of surface areas of 5658 dissimilar (below 50% sequence similarity) proteins with known 3D-structures that bind to proteins, DNA or RNAs. We show here that area of the protein surface is highly correlated with the protein length. The size of the interface surface is only modestly correlated with the protein size, except for RNA-binding proteins where larger proteins are characterized by larger interfaces. Disordered proteins with disordered interfaces are characterized by significantly larger per-residue areas of their surfaces and interfaces when compared to the structured proteins. These result are applicable for proteins involved in interaction with DNA, RNA, and proteins and suggest that disordered proteins and binding regions are less compact and more likely to assume extended shape. We demonstrate that disordered protein binding residues in the interfaces of disordered proteins drive the increase in the per residue area of these interfaces. Our results can be used to predict in silico whether a given protomer from the DNA, RNA or protein complex is likely to be disordered in its unbound form.

  18. Assignment of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) gene(s) to human chromosome 2 in rodent-human somatic cell hybrids.

    PubMed

    Herbschleb-Voogt, E; Grzeschik, K H; Pearson, P L; Meera Khan, P

    1981-01-01

    The experiments reported in this paper indicate that the expression of human adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in the human-rodent somatic cell hybrids is influenced by the state of confluency of the cells and the background rodent genome. Thus, the complement of the L-cell derived A9 or B82 mouse parent apparently prevents the expression of human ADCP in the interspecific somatic cell hybrids. In the a3, E36, or RAG hybrids the human ADCP expression was not prevented by the rodent genome and was found to be proportional to the degree of confluency of the cell in the culture as in the case of primary human fibroblasts. An analysis of human chromosomes, chromosome specific enzyme markers, and ADCP in a panel of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids optimally maintained and harvested at full confluency has shown that the expression of human ADCP in the mouse (RAG)-human as well as in the hamster (E36 or a3)-human hybrids is determined by a gene(s) in human chromosome 2 and that neither chromosome 6 nor any other of the chromosomes of man carry any gene(s) involved in the formation of human ADCP at least in the Chinese hamster-human hybrids. A series of rodent-human hybrid clones exhibiting a mitotic separation of IDH1 and MDH1 indicated that ADCP is most probably situated between corresponding loci in human chromosome 2.

  19. Sequential sup 1 H NMR assignments and secondary structure of the B domain of staphylococcal protein A: Structural changes between the free B domain in solution and the Fc-bound B domain in crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Torigoe, Hidetaka; Shimada, Ichio; Arata, Yoji ); Saito, Akiko; Sato, Moriyuki )

    1990-09-18

    The recombinant B domain (FB) of staphylococcal protein A, which specifically binds to the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG), has been investigated with the use of two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All backbone and side-chain proton resonances of FB (60 amino acid residues), except the amide proton resonance of Ala2, were assigned by the sequential assignment procedures by using double-quantum-filtered correlated spectroscopy (DQF-COSY), homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopy (HOHAHA), and nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY). On the basis of the NOESY data, three helical regions, Glu9-His19, Glu25-Asp37, and Ser42-Ala55, were identified in the free FB in solution. Existence of two of the three helical regions, Glu9-His19 and Glu25-Asp37, is consistent with the X-ray crystallographic structure of the Fc-bound FB. By contrast, in the Fc-bound FB as revealed by the X-ray analysis, the Ser42-Glu48 segment and no structural information has been available in the Ala49-Ala55 segment. The authors suggest that a significant conformation change is induced in the C-terminal region of FB when it is bound to the Fc portion of IgG.

  20. Military Personnel Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-09

    of Defense, Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Defense Agencies," > f , February 4, 1970 (hereby canceled) (d) DoD Directive 1315.14...34DoD Components"). 2. Does not apply to service members in non-DoD activities covered by DoD Directive 1000.17 (reference ( f )). C. DEFINITIONS Terms...possible, shall be allowed to extend any assignment voluntarily beyond the prescribed tour. f . Through the grades of 0-5 for officers and E-8 for enlisted

  1. mBeRFP, an improved large stokes shift red fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Liang; Yang, Fei; Luo, Haiming; Xu, Lingling; Lu, Jinling; Zeng, Shaoqun; Zhang, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe the generation of a monomeric large Stokes shift (LSS) red fluorescent protein, mBeRFP, with excitation and emission peaks at 446 and 615 nm, respectively. Compared with two previously reported LSS-RFPs (mKeima and LSS-mKate2), mBeRFP is approximately three times brighter. In addition, mBeRFP is characterized by improved photostability, rapid maturation, an extended lifetime, and a monomeric nature. Additionally, mBeRFP can be paired with the Alexa 647 dye as a FRET donor to detect caspase 3 activity. This FRET pair has an extremely dynamic range and a large Förster radius (approximately 6.5 nm). To demonstrate the applicability of mBeRFP for imaging in living cells, we performed dual-color imaging of mBeRFP and CFP simultaneously excited by a single excitation source, and we demonstrated that these fluorescent proteins allow the clear visualization of the dynamics of Bax during cancer cell apoptosis. Thus, mBeRFP appears to be particularly useful for cellular imaging applications.

  2. Protein crystal growth in microgravity: Temperature induced large scale crystallization of insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Marianna M.; Delucas, Larry J.; Smith, C.; Carson, M.; Moore, K.; Harrington, Michael D.; Pillion, D. J.; Bishop, S. P.; Rosenblum, W. M.; Naumann, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major stumbling blocks that prevents rapid structure determination using x-ray crystallography is macro-molecular crystal growth. There are many examples where crystallization takes longer than structure determination. In some cases, it is impossible to grow useful crystals on earth. Recent experiments conducted in conjuction with NASA on various Space Shuttle missions have demonstrated that protein crystals often grow larger and display better internal molecular order than their earth-grown counterparts. This paper reports results from three Shuttle flights using the Protein Crystallization Facility (PCF). The PCF hardware produced large, high-quality insulin crystals by using a temperature change as the sole means to affect protein solubility and thus, crystallization. The facility consists of cylinders/containers with volumes of 500, 200, 100, and 50 ml. Data from the three Shuttle flights demonstrated that larger, higher resolution crystals (as evidenced by x-ray diffraction data) were obtained from the microgravity experiments when compared to earth-grown crystals.

  3. Protein crystal growth in microgravity: Temperature induced large scale crystallization of insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Marianna M.; Delucas, Larry J.; Smith, C.; Carson, M.; Moore, K.; Harrington, Michael D.; Pillion, D. J.; Bishop, S. P.; Rosenblum, W. M.; Naumann, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major stumbling blocks that prevents rapid structure determination using x-ray crystallography is macro-molecular crystal growth. There are many examples where crystallization takes longer than structure determination. In some cases, it is impossible to grow useful crystals on earth. Recent experiments conducted in conjuction with NASA on various Space Shuttle missions have demonstrated that protein crystals often grow larger and display better internal molecular order than their earth-grown counterparts. This paper reports results from three Shuttle flights using the Protein Crystallization Facility (PCF). The PCF hardware produced large, high-quality insulin crystals by using a temperature change as the sole means to affect protein solubility and thus, crystallization. The facility consists of cylinders/containers with volumes of 500, 200, 100, and 50 ml. Data from the three Shuttle flights demonstrated that larger, higher resolution crystals (as evidenced by x-ray diffraction data) were obtained from the microgravity experiments when compared to earth-grown crystals.

  4. Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj): updated user interfaces, resource description framework, analysis tools for large structures.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Akira R; Bekker, Gert-Jan; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Kawabata, Takeshi; Ikegawa, Yasuyo; Nakamura, Haruki

    2017-01-04

    The Protein Data Bank Japan (PDBj, http://pdbj.org), a member of the worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB), accepts and processes the deposited data of experimentally determined macromolecular structures. While maintaining the archive in collaboration with other wwPDB partners, PDBj also provides a wide range of services and tools for analyzing structures and functions of proteins. We herein outline the updated web user interfaces together with RESTful web services and the backend relational database that support the former. To enhance the interoperability of the PDB data, we have previously developed PDB/RDF, PDB data in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) format, which is now a wwPDB standard called wwPDB/RDF. We have enhanced the connectivity of the wwPDB/RDF data by incorporating various external data resources. Services for searching, comparing and analyzing the ever-increasing large structures determined by hybrid methods are also described. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Measurements of the binding of a large protein using a substrate density-controlled DNA chip.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shu-ichi; Kanzaki, Takayuki; Nakano, Mariko; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2011-08-15

    The DNA chip that immobilizes DNA oligonucleotides on a solid plate surface is used for many diagnostic applications. For maximizing the detection sensitivity and accuracy, it is important to control the DNA density on a chip surface and establish a convenient method for optimizing the density. Here, the binding of DNA mismatch-binding protein MutS to the DNA substrate on the chip was investigated, which can be applied for high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in a genome. We prepared the DNA chips where the DNA substrate density was changed simply by using a mixed DNA solution. The binding of MutS was significantly influenced by the amount of DNA substrate on the chip as a consequence of steric crowding, and the moderate density that gave the distance between the DNA substrates greater than the size of the protein was appropriate to obtain accurate kinetic parameters. The substrate density-controlled DNA chip prepared using the mixed DNA solution has distinctive advantages for maximizing the detection capability and kinetic analysis of the binding of MutS and probably also other large proteins.

  6. QuickProbs 2: Towards rapid construction of high-quality alignments of large protein families

    PubMed Central

    Gudyś, Adam; Deorowicz, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The ever-increasing size of sequence databases caused by the development of high throughput sequencing, poses to multiple alignment algorithms one of the greatest challenges yet. As we show, well-established techniques employed for increasing alignment quality, i.e., refinement and consistency, are ineffective when large protein families are investigated. We present QuickProbs 2, an algorithm for multiple sequence alignment. Based on probabilistic models, equipped with novel column-oriented refinement and selective consistency, it offers outstanding accuracy. When analysing hundreds of sequences, Quick-Probs 2 is noticeably better than ClustalΩ and MAFFT, the previous leaders for processing numerous protein families. In the case of smaller sets, for which consistency-based methods are the best performing, QuickProbs 2 is also superior to the competitors. Due to low computational requirements of selective consistency and utilization of massively parallel architectures, presented algorithm has similar execution times to ClustalΩ, and is orders of magnitude faster than full consistency approaches, like MSAProbs or PicXAA. All these make QuickProbs 2 an excellent tool for aligning families ranging from few, to hundreds of proteins. PMID:28139687

  7. NMR study of non-structural proteins--part II: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV).

    PubMed

    Makrynitsa, Garyfallia I; Ntonti, Dioni; Marousis, Konstantinos D; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    Macro domains consist of 130-190 amino acid residues and appear to be highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. Intense research on this field has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other similar molecules, but their exact function still remains intangible. Macro domains are highly conserved in the Alphavirus genus and the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a member of this genus that causes fatal encephalitis to equines and humans. In this study we report the high yield recombinant expression and preliminary solution NMR study of the macro domain of VEEV. An almost complete sequence-specific assignment of its (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances was obtained and its secondary structure predicted by TALOS+. The protein shows a unique mixed α/β-fold.

  8. Performance of hybrid methods for large-scale unconstrained optimization as applied to models of proteins.

    PubMed

    Das, B; Meirovitch, H; Navon, I M

    2003-07-30

    Energy minimization plays an important role in structure determination and analysis of proteins, peptides, and other organic molecules; therefore, development of efficient minimization algorithms is important. Recently, Morales and Nocedal developed hybrid methods for large-scale unconstrained optimization that interlace iterations of the limited-memory BFGS method (L-BFGS) and the Hessian-free Newton method (Computat Opt Appl 2002, 21, 143-154). We test the performance of this approach as compared to those of the L-BFGS algorithm of Liu and Nocedal and the truncated Newton (TN) with automatic preconditioner of Nash, as applied to the protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and a loop of the protein ribonuclease A. These systems are described by the all-atom AMBER force field with a dielectric constant epsilon = 1 and a distance-dependent dielectric function epsilon = 2r, where r is the distance between two atoms. It is shown that for the optimal parameters the hybrid approach is typically two times more efficient in terms of CPU time and function/gradient calculations than the two other methods. The advantage of the hybrid approach increases as the electrostatic interactions become stronger, that is, in going from epsilon = 2r to epsilon = 1, which leads to a more rugged and probably more nonlinear potential energy surface. However, no general rule that defines the optimal parameters has been found and their determination requires a relatively large number of trial-and-error calculations for each problem. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 24: 1222-1231, 2003

  9. Hydrogen-1, carbon-13, and nitrogen-15 NMR spectroscopy of Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin: Assignment of. beta. -sheet and flavin binding site resonances and analysis of protein-flavin interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, B.J.; Krezel, A.M.; Markley, J.L. ); Leonhardt, K.G.; Straus, N.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Sequence-specific {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR assignments have been made for residues that form the five-stranded parallel {beta}-sheet and the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding site of oxidized Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin. Interstrand nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) indicate that the {beta}-sheet arrangement is similar to that observed in the crystal structure of the 70% homologous long-chain flavodoxin from Anacystis nidulans. A total of 62 NOEs were identified: 8 between protons of bound FMN, 29 between protons of the protein in the flavin binding site, and 25 between protons of bound FMN and protons of the protein. These constraints were used to determine the localized solution structure of the FMN binding site. The electronic environment and conformation of the protein-bound flavin isoalloxazine ring were investigated by determining {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H coupling constants. The carbonyl edge of the flavin ring was found to be slightly polarized. The xylene ring was found to be nonplanar. Tyrosine 94, located adjacent to the flavin isoalloxazine ring, was shown to have a hindered aromatic ring flip rate.

  10. Assessment of a Diversity Assignment in a PR Principles Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallicano, Tiffany Derville; Stansberry, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses an assignment for incorporating diversity into the principles of public relations course. The assignment is tailored to the challenges of using an active learning approach in a large lecture class. For the assignment, students write a goal, objectives, strategies, an identification of tactics, and evaluation plans for either…

  11. Assessment of a Diversity Assignment in a PR Principles Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallicano, Tiffany Derville; Stansberry, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses an assignment for incorporating diversity into the principles of public relations course. The assignment is tailored to the challenges of using an active learning approach in a large lecture class. For the assignment, students write a goal, objectives, strategies, an identification of tactics, and evaluation plans for either…

  12. A new algorithm for reliable and general NMR resonance assignment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Elena; Güntert, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The new FLYA automated resonance assignment algorithm determines NMR chemical shift assignments on the basis of peak lists from any combination of multidimensional through-bond or through-space NMR experiments for proteins. Backbone and side-chain assignments can be determined. All experimental data are used simultaneously, thereby exploiting optimally the redundancy present in the input peak lists and circumventing potential pitfalls of assignment strategies in which results obtained in a given step remain fixed input data for subsequent steps. Instead of prescribing a specific assignment strategy, the FLYA resonance assignment algorithm requires only experimental peak lists and the primary structure of the protein, from which the peaks expected in a given spectrum can be generated by applying a set of rules, defined in a straightforward way by specifying through-bond or through-space magnetization transfer pathways. The algorithm determines the resonance assignment by finding an optimal mapping between the set of expected peaks that are assigned by definition but have unknown positions and the set of measured peaks in the input peak lists that are initially unassigned but have a known position in the spectrum. Using peak lists obtained by purely automated peak picking from the experimental spectra of three proteins, FLYA assigned correctly 96-99% of the backbone and 90-91% of all resonances that could be assigned manually. Systematic studies quantified the impact of various factors on the assignment accuracy, namely the extent of missing real peaks and the amount of additional artifact peaks in the input peak lists, as well as the accuracy of the peak positions. Comparing the resonance assignments from FLYA with those obtained from two other existing algorithms showed that using identical experimental input data these other algorithms yielded significantly (40-142%) more erroneous assignments than FLYA. The FLYA resonance assignment algorithm thus has the

  13. Structural basis for the superior activity of the large isoform of snow flea antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Mok, Yee-Foong; Lin, Feng-Hsu; Graham, Laurie A; Celik, Yeliz; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2010-03-23

    The snow flea (Hypogastrum harveyi) is protected from freezing at sub-zero temperatures by a glycine-rich antifreeze protein (AFP) that binds to seed ice crystals and prevents them from growing larger. This AFP is hyperactive and comprises two isoforms [Graham, L. A., and Davies, P. L. (2005) Science 310, 461]. The larger isoform (15.7 kDa) exhibits several-fold higher activity than the smaller isoform (6.5 kDa), although it is considerably less abundant. To establish the molecular basis for this difference in activity, we determined the sequence of the large isoform. The primary sequences of these two isoforms are surprisingly divergent. However, both contain tripeptide repeats and turn motifs that enabled us to build a three-dimensional model of the large isoform based upon the six-polyproline helix structure of the small isoform. Our model contains 13 polyproline type II helices connected by proline-containing loops stacked into two flat sheets oriented antiparallel to one another. The structure is strictly amphipathic, with a hydrophilic surface on one side and a hydrophobic, putative ice-binding surface on the other. The putative ice-binding site is approximately twice as large in area as that of the small isoform, providing an explanation for the difference in activity that is consistent with other examples noted. By tagging the recombinant AFP with green fluorescent protein, we observed its binding to multiple planes of ice, especially the basal plane. This finding supports the correlation between AFP hyperactivity and basal plane binding first observed with spruce budworm AFP.

  14. Discovery of O-GlcNAc-modified Proteins in Published Large-scale Proteome Data*

    PubMed Central

    Hahne, Hannes; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Kuster, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The attachment of N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational modification on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins with emerging roles in numerous cellular processes, such as signal transduction, transcription, and translation. It is further presumed that O-GlcNAc can exhibit a site-specific, dynamic and possibly functional interplay with phosphorylation. O-GlcNAc proteins are commonly identified by tandem mass spectrometry following some form of biochemical enrichment. In the present study, we assessed if, and to which extent, O-GlcNAc-modified proteins can be discovered from existing large-scale proteome data sets. To this end, we conceived a straightforward O-GlcNAc identification strategy based on our recently developed Oscore software that automatically analyzes tandem mass spectra for the presence and intensity of O-GlcNAc diagnostic fragment ions. Using the Oscore, we discovered hundreds of O-GlcNAc peptides not initially identified in these studies, and most of which have not been described before. Merely re-searching this data extended the number of known O-GlcNAc proteins by almost 100 suggesting that this modification exists even more widely than previously anticipated and the modification is often sufficiently abundant to be detected without enrichment. However, a comparison of O-GlcNAc and phospho-identifications from the very same data indicates that the O-GlcNAc modification is considerably less abundant than phosphorylation. The discovery of numerous doubly modified peptides (i.e. peptides with one or multiple O-GlcNAc or phosphate moieties), suggests that O-GlcNAc and phosphorylation are not necessarily mutually exclusive, but can occur simultaneously at adjacent sites. PMID:22661428

  15. Pathways to Assignment of Payees

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Marc I.; Ablondi, Karen; Black, Anne C.; Serowik, Kristin L.; Rowe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    How clients come to be assigned representative payees and/or conservators to manage their funds is not well understood. We compared clients assigned a payee during a clinical trial of a money management-based intervention to those not assigned payees and examined antecedents to payee assignment. One year after randomization, significantly more clients assigned to the ATM money management intervention were assigned payees than participants in the control condition (10 of 47 vs. 2 of 43; p=.02); those assigned payees had lower baseline GAF scores and participated more in study therapies. Several ATM clients were assigned payees after third parties paid more attention to clients’ finances, and others after having negotiated storage of their funds with the ATM money manager during the study. Assignment of payees appears to be influenced by whether third parties critically attend to how clients’ manage funds and by clients’ receptiveness to having a payee. PMID:23765182

  16. Pathways to assignment of payees.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc I; Ablondi, Karen; Black, Anne C; Serowik, Kristin L; Rowe, Michael

    2014-04-01

    How clients come to be assigned representative payees and/or conservators to manage their funds is not well understood. We compared clients assigned a payee during a clinical trial of a money management-based intervention to those not assigned payees and examined antecedents to payee assignment. One year after randomization, significantly more clients assigned to the advisor teller money manager (ATM) money management intervention were assigned payees than participants in the control condition (10 of 47 vs. 2 of 43; p = .02); those assigned payees had lower baseline GAF scores and participated more in study therapies. Several ATM clients were assigned payees after third parties paid more attention to clients' finances, and others after having negotiated storage of their funds with the ATM money manager during the study. Assignment of payees appears to be influenced by whether third parties critically attend to how clients' manage funds and by clients' receptiveness to having a payee.

  17. Automated Assignment of Proposals to Reviewers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil; Kantak, Anil

    2006-01-01

    A computer program automates the process of selecting unbiased peer reviewers of research proposals submitted to NASA. Heretofore, such selection has been performed by manual searching of two large databases subject to a set of assignment rules. One database lists proposals and proposers; the other database lists potential reviewers. The manual search takes an average of several weeks per proposal. In contrast, the present software can perform the selection in seconds. The program begins by selecting one entry from each database, then applying the assignment rules to this pair of entries. If and only if all the assignment rules are satisfied, the chosen reviewer is assigned to the chosen proposal. The assignment rules enforced by the program are (1) a maximum allowable number of proposals assigned to a single reviewer; (2) a maximum allowable number of reviewers assigned to a single proposal; (3) if the proposing team includes a member affiliated with an industry, then the reviewer must not be affiliated with any industry; and (4) the reviewer must not be a member of the proposing team or affiliated with the same institution as that of a member of the proposing team.

  18. Large size fibrillar bundles of the Alzheimer amyloid beta-protein.

    PubMed

    Carrotta, Rita; Barthès, Jennifer; Longo, Alessandro; Martorana, Vincenzo; Manno, Mauro; Portale, Giuseppe; San Biagio, Pier Luigi

    2007-09-01

    Self-assembly of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) and its deposition into senile plaques are distinctive features of Alzheimer's disease. Abeta forms typical linear aggregates known as amyloid fibrils, with a diameter of a few tens of nanometers and a length spanning from hundreds of nanometers to micrometers. Fibrils eventually assemble into large size clusters and precipitate in vivo in the brain deposits. Here, we study the late stage of aggregation of Abeta(1-40) in vitro at pH 3.1. We characterize the structure of fibrillar aggregates by a combined use of different experimental techniques. Small angle light scattering, heterodyne near field scattering, large angle light scattering, ultra small angle X-ray scattering and small angle X-ray scattering measurements have been performed to highlight the structural features of amyloid bundles over several lengthscales, from nanometers to tens of micrometers. Phase contrast optical microscopy has been used to complement scattering measurements and directly visualize some morphological details. We show that elongated fibrils of Abeta with a diameter of a few nanometers are packed into large size compact bundles having a typical size of tens of micrometers. The linear morphology of fibrils is reflected in the elongated shape of bundles.

  19. T-protein is present in large excess over the other proteins of the glycine cleavage system in leaves of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Timm, Stefan; Giese, Jonas; Engel, Nadja; Wittmiß, Maria; Florian, Alexandra; Fernie, Alisdair R; Bauwe, Hermann

    2017-09-02

    T-protein is present in large excess over the other proteins of the glycine cleavage system in leaves of Arabidopsis and therefore, exerts little control over the photorespiratory pathway. T-protein is the aminomethyltransferase of the glycine cleavage multienzyme system (GCS), also known as the glycine decarboxylase complex, and essential for photorespiration and one-carbon metabolism. Here, we studied what effects varying levels of the GCS T-protein would have on GCS activity, the operation of the photorespiratory pathway, photosynthesis, and plant growth. To this end, we examined Arabidopsis thaliana T-protein overexpression lines with up to threefold higher amounts of leaf T-protein as well as one knockdown mutant with about 5% residual leaf T-protein and one knockout mutant. Overexpression did not alter photosynthetic CO2 uptake and plant growth, and the knockout mutation was lethal even in the non-photorespiratory environment of air enriched to 1% CO2. Unexpectedly in light of this very low T-protein content, however, the knockdown mutant was able to grow and propagate in normal air and displayed only some minor changes, such as a moderate glycine accumulation in combination with somewhat delayed growth. Neither overexpression nor the knockdown of T-protein altered the amounts of the other three GCS proteins, suggesting that the biosynthesis of the GCS proteins is not synchronized at this level. We also observed that the knockdown causes less T-protein mostly in leaf mesophyll cells, but not so much in the vasculature, and discuss this phenomenon in light of the dual involvement of the GCS and hence T-protein in plant metabolism. Collectively, this work shows that T-protein is present in large excess over the other proteins of the glycine cleavage system in leaves of Arabidopsis and therefore exerts little control over the photorespiratory pathway.

  20. Analysis of the large (L) protein gene of the porcine rubulavirus LPMV: identification of possible functional domains.

    PubMed

    Svenda, M; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J; Linné, T

    1997-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the porcine rubulavirus LPMV (La Piedad Michoacan virus) large (L) protein gene was determined and analysed. The L mRNA was found to span 6,786 nucleotides, containing one single large open reading frame (ORF), putatively encoding a polypeptide of 2,251 amino acids. By aligning the amino acid sequence of the LPMV L-protein with L-protein of a number of viruses belonging to the order mononegavirale, a high degree of similarity between the LPMV L-protein and other rubula virus L-proteins was demonstrated, extending through almost the whole protein. Additionally we could identify several regions as being highly conserved among all studied viruses of the order mononegavirale. The significance of these regions are discussed.

  1. Semi-rigidity vs. flexibility in collective variables preselection for metadynamics studies of large proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, N.; Lilkova, E.; Petkov, P.; Litov, L.

    2016-10-01

    In silico investigations of biological molecules rely on the adequate sampling of the systems' conformation space. In the case of large systems, this is a highly non trivial task, which requires the development and refinement of enhanced sampling techniques. Metadynamics — one of these techniques — is based on computation of the free energy of the system as a function of a small set of collective variables (CVs) that are assumed to be able to adequately describe the investigated process. No standard procedures or selection criteria exist for the selection of the optimal set of collective variables. The purpose of our work is to develop a CV selection protocol based on the conformational rigidity of the protein in the most sensitive for the investigated process domains. The structure identification is performed using the spatiotemporal multistage consensus clustering (SMCC), with an appropriate selection of the algorithm parameters.

  2. The Caenorhabditis elegans protein SAS-5 forms large oligomeric assemblies critical for centriole formation.

    PubMed

    Rogala, Kacper B; Dynes, Nicola J; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N; Yan, Jun; Pong, Sheng Kai; Robinson, Carol V; Deane, Charlotte M; Gönczy, Pierre; Vakonakis, Ioannis

    2015-05-29

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles crucial for cell division, sensing and motility. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have functional equivalents across eukaryotic evolution. Whereas the molecular architecture of SAS-6 and its role in initiating centriole formation are well understood, the mechanisms by which SAS-5 and its relatives function is unclear. Here, we combine biophysical and structural analysis to uncover the architecture of SAS-5 and examine its functional implications in vivo. Our work reveals that two distinct self-associating domains are necessary to form higher-order oligomers of SAS-5: a trimeric coiled coil and a novel globular dimeric Implico domain. Disruption of either domain leads to centriole duplication failure in worm embryos, indicating that large SAS-5 assemblies are necessary for function in vivo.

  3. The Caenorhabditis elegans protein SAS-5 forms large oligomeric assemblies critical for centriole formation

    PubMed Central

    Rogala, Kacper B; Dynes, Nicola J; Hatzopoulos, Georgios N; Yan, Jun; Pong, Sheng Kai; Robinson, Carol V; Deane, Charlotte M; Gönczy, Pierre; Vakonakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Centrioles are microtubule-based organelles crucial for cell division, sensing and motility. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the onset of centriole formation requires notably the proteins SAS-5 and SAS-6, which have functional equivalents across eukaryotic evolution. Whereas the molecular architecture of SAS-6 and its role in initiating centriole formation are well understood, the mechanisms by which SAS-5 and its relatives function is unclear. Here, we combine biophysical and structural analysis to uncover the architecture of SAS-5 and examine its functional implications in vivo. Our work reveals that two distinct self-associating domains are necessary to form higher-order oligomers of SAS-5: a trimeric coiled coil and a novel globular dimeric Implico domain. Disruption of either domain leads to centriole duplication failure in worm embryos, indicating that large SAS-5 assemblies are necessary for function in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07410.001 PMID:26023830

  4. Survey of large protein complexes D. vulgaris reveals great structural diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.-G.; Dong, M.; Liu, H.; Camp, L.; Geller, J.; Singer, M.; Hazen, T. C.; Choi, M.; Witkowska, H. E.; Ball, D. A.; Typke, D.; Downing, K. H.; Shatsky, M.; Brenner, S. E.; Chandonia, J.-M.; Biggin, M. D.; Glaeser, R. M.

    2009-08-15

    An unbiased survey has been made of the stable, most abundant multi-protein complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) that are larger than Mr {approx} 400 k. The quaternary structures for 8 of the 16 complexes purified during this work were determined by single-particle reconstruction of negatively stained specimens, a success rate {approx}10 times greater than that of previous 'proteomic' screens. In addition, the subunit compositions and stoichiometries of the remaining complexes were determined by biochemical methods. Our data show that the structures of only two of these large complexes, out of the 13 in this set that have recognizable functions, can be modeled with confidence based on the structures of known homologs. These results indicate that there is significantly greater variability in the way that homologous prokaryotic macromolecular complexes are assembled than has generally been appreciated. As a consequence, we suggest that relying solely on previously determined quaternary structures for homologous proteins may not be sufficient to properly understand their role in another cell of interest.

  5. Formulations for modulation of protein release from large-size PLGA microparticles for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Qodratnama, Roozbeh; Serino, Lorenzo Pio; Cox, Helen C; Qutachi, Omar; White, Lisa J

    2015-02-01

    In this study we present an approach to pre-program lysozyme release from large size (100-300 μm) poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. This approach involved blending in-house synthesized triblock copolymers with a PLGA 85:15. In this work it is demonstrated that the lysozyme release rate and the total release are related to the mass of triblock copolymer present in polymer formulation. Two triblock copolymers (PLGA-PEG1500-PLGA and PLGA-PEG1000-PLGA) were synthesized and used in this study. In a like-for-like comparison, these two triblock copolymers appeared to have similar effects on the release of lysozyme. It was shown that blending resulted in the increase of the total lysozyme release and shortened the release period (70% release within 30 days). These results demonstrated that blending PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymer with PLGA 85:15 can be used as a method to pre-program protein release from microparticles. These microparticles with modulated protein release properties may be used to create microparticle-based tissue engineering constructs with pre-programmed release properties.

  6. Target-Based Drug Repositioning Using Large-Scale Chemical-Protein Interactome Data.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Ryusuke; Iwata, Hiroaki; Mizutani, Sayaka; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-28

    Drug repositioning, or the identification of new indications for known drugs, is a useful strategy for drug discovery. In this study, we developed novel computational methods to predict potential drug targets and new drug indications for systematic drug repositioning using large-scale chemical-protein interactome data. We explored the target space of drugs (including primary targets and off-targets) based on chemical structure similarity and phenotypic effect similarity by making optimal use of millions of compound-protein interactions. On the basis of the target profiles of drugs, we constructed statistical models to predict new drug indications for a wide range of diseases with various molecular features. The proposed method outperformed previous methods in terms of interpretability, applicability, and accuracy. Finally, we conducted a comprehensive prediction of the drug-target-disease association network for 8270 drugs and 1401 diseases and showed biologically meaningful examples of newly predicted drug targets and drug indications. The predictive model is useful to understand the mechanisms of the predicted drug indications.

  7. Artificial membrane-binding proteins stimulate oxygenation of stem cells during engineering of large cartilage tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, James P. K.; Shakur, Rameen; Horne, Joseph P.; Dickinson, Sally C.; Armstrong, Craig T.; Lau, Katherine; Kadiwala, Juned; Lowe, Robert; Seddon, Annela; Mann, Stephen; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Perriman, Adam W.; Hollander, Anthony P.

    2015-06-01

    Restricted oxygen diffusion can result in central cell necrosis in engineered tissue, a problem that is exacerbated when engineering large tissue constructs for clinical application. Here we show that pre-treating human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with synthetic membrane-active myoglobin-polymer-surfactant complexes can provide a reservoir of oxygen capable of alleviating necrosis at the centre of hyaline cartilage. This is achieved through the development of a new cell functionalization methodology based on polymer-surfactant conjugation, which allows the delivery of functional proteins to the hMSC membrane. This new approach circumvents the need for cell surface engineering using protein chimerization or genetic transfection, and we demonstrate that the surface-modified hMSCs retain their ability to proliferate and to undergo multilineage differentiation. The functionalization technology is facile, versatile and non-disruptive, and in addition to tissue oxygenation, it should have far-reaching application in a host of tissue engineering and cell-based therapies.

  8. Talin 2 is a large and complex gene encoding multiple transcripts and protein isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Debrand, Emmanuel; El Jai, Yasmine; Spence, Lorraine; Bate, Neil; Praekelt, Uta; Pritchard, Catrin A; Monkley, Susan J; Critchley, David R

    2009-01-01

    Talins are large adaptor proteins that link the integrin family of adhesion molecules to F-actin. In vertebrates, there are two talin genes. Talin 1 is essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesion; the role of talin 2 is unclear. Here we report a detailed analysis of mammalian talin 2. This reveals the existence of a previously unrecognized promoter associated with a CpG island, and separated from the first coding exon by numerous alternatively spliced noncoding exons spanning > 200 kb. Analysis of a mouse gene trap line shows that this promoter accounts for most of the talin 2 expression in adult tissues. We also demonstrate that testis and kidney express truncated talin 2 isoforms that lack the N-terminal half of the protein, and provide evidence for the developmentally regulated expression of the short testis-specific talin 2 isoform in elongating spermatids. Finally, we identify four tissue-specific alternative splicing events within the coding region of talin 2. PMID:19220457

  9. Large Variation in Detection of Histidine-Rich Protein 2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Pava, Zuleima; Echeverry, Diego F.; Díaz, Gustavo; Murillo, Claribel

    2010-01-01

    Most rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available use histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) as a target. However, it has been reported that sequence variations of this protein affects its sensitivity. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for HRP2 variability in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Colombia and its relationship with RDT performance. To determine possible geographic differences and their effects on the performance of RDTs, 22 blood samples from patients with P. falciparum malaria from Tumaco and Buenaventura, Colombia were assessed by measurement of HRP2 concentration by an HRP2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RDTs, and thick blood smear. Statistical analysis showed an association between RDT performance and HRP2 concentrations. No significant difference was found between locations. A large variation of antigen concentration in samples was found at same parasitemia. In contrast to previously reports, there was no correlation between initial parasitemia and HRP2 concentration. Our results indicate that antigen quantity should be studied more carefully because the sensitivity of the RDT is affected more by antigen concentration than by parasitemia. PMID:20889875

  10. Characterizing detergent mediated reconstitution of viral protein M2 in large unilamellar vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyre, Mariel; Grossman, Carl; Crouch, Catherine; Howard, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Influenza M2 is a model membrane protein whose function is to induce curvature and vesicle formation in the process of viral infection. To study embedded M2 in synthetic phospholipid vesicles (large unilamellar vesicles or LUVs), a concentration of detergent and buffer is optimized to balance protein solubility, proteolipid concentration, and LUV stability. Adding detergent also causes the LUVs to partially disassemble and form micelles, which warrants detergent removal to restore LUV integrity. We explore methods of measuring the coexistence of detergent micelles and LUVs to track the different phases of the system as detergent is removed. A combination of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and chemical analysis are used to measure the properties of this system. With detergent/LUV number densities as high as 5 we find coexistence of micelles and LUVs at 50% to 60%. As the detergent is removed, the micelle concentration drops to lower than 30% while detergent levels drop to nearly zero. These results may indicate a polydispersed LUV size distribution after detergent mediated reconstitution. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College.

  11. The Large Conductance, Calcium-activated K+ (BK) Channel is regulated by Cysteine String Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Barry D.; Ahrendt, Eva; Braun, Andrew P.; Braun, Janice E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Large-conductance, calcium-activated-K+ (BK) channels are widely distributed throughout the nervous system, where they regulate action potential duration and firing frequency, along with presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Our recent efforts to identify chaperones that target neuronal ion channels have revealed cysteine string protein (CSPα) as a key regulator of BK channel expression and current density. CSPα is a vesicle-associated protein and mutations in CSPα cause the hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, adult-onset autosomal dominant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL). CSPα null mice show 2.5 fold higher BK channel expression compared to wild type mice, which is not seen with other neuronal channels (i.e. Cav2.2, Kv1.1 and Kv1.2). Furthermore, mutations in either CSPα's J domain or cysteine string region markedly increase BK expression and current amplitude. We conclude that CSPα acts to regulate BK channel expression, and consequently CSPα-associated changes in BK activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as ANCL. PMID:23945775

  12. Demonstrating the feasibility of large-scale development of standardized assays to quantify human proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Jacob J.; Abbatiello, Susan E.; Kim, Kyunggon; Yan, Ping; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Lin, Chenwei; Kim, Jun Seok; Zhang, Yuzheng; Wang, Xianlong; Ivey, Richard G.; Zhao, Lei; Min, Hophil; Lee, Youngju; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Yang, Eun Gyeong; Lee, Cheolju; Wang, Pei; Rodriguez, Henry; Kim, Youngsoo; Carr, Steven A.; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-01-01

    The successful application of MRM in biological specimens raises the exciting possibility that assays can be configured to measure all human proteins, resulting in an assay resource that would promote advances in biomedical research. We report the results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of a large-scale, international effort in MRM assay generation. We have configured, validated across three laboratories, and made publicly available as a resource to the community 645 novel MRM assays representing 319 proteins expressed in human breast cancer. Assays were multiplexed in groups of >150 peptides and deployed to quantify endogenous analyte in a panel of breast cancer-related cell lines. Median assay precision was 5.4%, with high inter-laboratory correlation (R2 >0.96). Peptide measurements in breast cancer cell lines were able to discriminate amongst molecular subtypes and identify genome-driven changes in the cancer proteome. These results establish the feasibility of a scaled, international effort. PMID:24317253

  13. Functional response of healthy and diseased glomeruli to a large, protein-rich meal.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, A Y; Cheng, M L; Keil, L C; Myers, B D

    1988-01-01

    Differential solute clearances and hormone assays were used to characterize the effect of a large, protein-rich meal (1.5 g/kg) on glomerular function in 12 healthy volunteers (group I) and 12 patients with chronic glomerular disease (group II). Changes from baseline during 3 h after the meal included an elevation of plasma osmolality, progressive urinary concentration, and increasingly positive fluid balance. Plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin levels (measured in group II only) increased significantly. Nevertheless, the rate of peak postmeal renal plasma flow became elevated by 13 and 33% in groups I and II, respectively. Corresponding peak increases in postmeal glomerular filtration rate exceeded baseline by 10 and 16%. In the proteinuric subjects of group II the fractional clearances of albumin, IgG and uncharged dextrans in the radius interval 36-54 A, declined significantly after the meal. A similar depression of the fractional dextran-clearance profile was observed also in group I. Applying the fractional clearances of relatively permeant dextrans (radii less than or equal to 44 A) to a model of hindered solute transport through an isoporous membrane, we estimate that transmembrane hydraulic pressure difference increased by 12% in group I and by between 0 to 12% in group II after protein ingestion. We conclude (i) that oral protein ingestion increases glomerular ultrafiltration pressure and rate in both normal and diseased glomeruli, (ii) that this hemodynamic response may be mediated in part by the glomerulopressor hormones angiotensin II and arginine vasopressin, and (iii) that the foregoing hemodynamic changes exert no acute adverse effect on glomerular barrier size-selectivity. PMID:3275694

  14. HLA-G and MHC Class II Protein Expression in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Bojo, Marcin; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Jabłońska, Joanna; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kordek, Radzisław; Młynarski, Wojciech; Robak, Tadeusz; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lech-Maranda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and HLA class II protein was studied by immunohistochemical staining of lymph nodes from 148 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and related to the clinical course of the disease. Negative HLA-G expression was associated with a lower probability of achieving a complete remission (p = 0.04). Patients with negative HLA-G expression tended towards a lower 3-year overall survival (OS) rate compared to those with positive expression of HLA-G (p = 0.08). When restricting the analysis to patients receiving chemotherapy with rituximab, the estimated 3-year OS rate of patients with positive HLA-G expression was 73.3 % compared with 47.5 % (p = 0.03) in those with negative expression. Patients with negative HLA class II expression presented a lower 3-year OS rate compared to subjects with positive expression (p = 0.04). The loss of HLA class II expression (p = 0.05) and belonging to the intermediate high/high IPI risk group (p = 0.001) independently increased the risk of death. HLA class II expression also retained its prognostic value in patients receiving rituximab; the 3-year OS rate was 65.3 % in patients with positive HLA class II expression versus 29.6 % (p = 0.04) in subjects that had loss of HLA class II expression. To our knowledge, for the first time, the expression of HLA-G protein in DLBCL and its association with the clinical course of the disease was demonstrated. Moreover, the link between losing HLA class II protein expression and poor survival of patients treated with immunochemotherapy was confirmed.

  15. 76 FR 55880 - Recording Assignments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Recording Assignments ACTION: Proposed collection; comment... should be directed to Joyce R. Johnson, Manager, Assignment Division, Mail Stop 1450, United States...) to record patent and trademark assignment documents, including transfers of properties (i.e. patents...

  16. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  17. The Conserved Spore Coat Protein SpoVM Is Largely Dispensable in Clostridium difficile Spore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ribis, John W.; Ravichandran, Priyanka; Putnam, Emily E.; Pishdadian, Keyan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The spore-forming bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of health care-associated infections in the United States. In order for this obligate anaerobe to transmit infection, it must form metabolically dormant spores prior to exiting the host. A key step during this process is the assembly of a protective, multilayered proteinaceous coat around the spore. Coat assembly depends on coat morphogenetic proteins recruiting distinct subsets of coat proteins to the developing spore. While 10 coat morphogenetic proteins have been identified in Bacillus subtilis, only two of these morphogenetic proteins have homologs in the Clostridia: SpoIVA and SpoVM. C. difficile SpoIVA is critical for proper coat assembly and functional spore formation, but the requirement for SpoVM during this process was unknown. Here, we show that SpoVM is largely dispensable for C. difficile spore formation, in contrast with B. subtilis. Loss of C. difficile SpoVM resulted in modest decreases (~3-fold) in heat- and chloroform-resistant spore formation, while morphological defects such as coat detachment from the forespore and abnormal cortex thickness were observed in ~30% of spoVM mutant cells. Biochemical analyses revealed that C. difficile SpoIVA and SpoVM directly interact, similarly to their B. subtilis counterparts. However, in contrast with B. subtilis, C. difficile SpoVM was not essential for SpoIVA to encase the forespore. Since C. difficile coat morphogenesis requires SpoIVA-interacting protein L (SipL), which is conserved exclusively in the Clostridia, but not the more broadly conserved SpoVM, our results reveal another key difference between C. difficile and B. subtilis spore assembly pathways. IMPORTANCE The spore-forming obligate anaerobe Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrheal disease in the United States. When C. difficile spores are ingested by susceptible individuals, they germinate within the gut and

  18. Large molecule protein feeding during the suckling period is required for the development of pancreatic digestive functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kinouchi, Toshi; Koyama, Satomi; Harada, Etsumori; Yajima, Takaji

    2012-12-15

    We examined if large molecule protein feeding during the suckling period is prerequisite for the proper development of pancreatic digestive functions. Most amino acids in breast milk exist as the constituent of large proteins and not as oligopeptides or free amino acids. Accumulating evidence indicates the nutritional importance of large protein feeding for suckling infants; however, evidence on the physiological significance remains small. We thus artificially reared rat pups on a standard rat formula with milk protein or a formula with milk protein hydrolysate from 7 to 21 days of age, and thereafter, fed a standard solid diet until 42 days of age. Pancreas weight and the stock of pancreatic digestive enzymes in the hydrolysate-fed rats were significantly lower than those in the protein-fed rats during and also after the suckling period. Plasma insulin, a stimulator of amylase synthesis, was also significantly low in the hydrolysate-fed rats compared with the protein-fed rats. At 28 days of age, we evaluated the pancreatic secretory ability in response to dietary protein and cholecystokinin (CCK) by means of pancreatic duct cannulation. Pancreatic secretion stimulated by dietary protein in the hydrolysate-fed rats was significantly weaker than that in the protein-fed rats. No significant difference was observed in the increasing rate of pancreatic enzyme secretion in response to CCK between the two groups. These results suggest that the presence of large proteins in breast milk is significant for the development of pancreatic digestive functions and the outcomes could remain even later on in life.

  19. Systematic Sorting: Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Although prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined the extent to which teacher sorting occurs within schools. This study uses data from one large urban school district and compares the class assignments of teachers who…

  20. Effects of Assigning Raters to Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; Ito, Kyoko; Wang, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Student responses to a large number of constructed response items in three Math and three Reading tests were scored on two occasions using three ways of assigning raters: single reader scoring, a different reader for each response (item-specific), and three readers each scoring a rater item block (RIB) containing approximately one-third of a…

  1. Systematic Sorting: Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Although prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined the extent to which teacher sorting occurs within schools. This study uses data from one large urban school district and compares the class assignments of teachers who…

  2. Effects of Assigning Raters to Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; Ito, Kyoko; Wang, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Student responses to a large number of constructed response items in three Math and three Reading tests were scored on two occasions using three ways of assigning raters: single reader scoring, a different reader for each response (item-specific), and three readers each scoring a rater item block (RIB) containing approximately one-third of a…

  3. istar: A Web Platform for Large-Scale Protein-Ligand Docking

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Ballester, Pedro J.; Wong, Man-Hon

    2014-01-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a key computational method in the design of starting points for the drug discovery process. We are motivated by the desire to automate large-scale docking using our popular docking engine idock and thus have developed a publicly-accessible web platform called istar. Without tedious software installation, users can submit jobs using our website. Our istar website supports 1) filtering ligands by desired molecular properties and previewing the number of ligands to dock, 2) monitoring job progress in real time, and 3) visualizing ligand conformations and outputting free energy and ligand efficiency predicted by idock, binding affinity predicted by RF-Score, putative hydrogen bonds, and supplier information for easy purchase, three useful features commonly lacked on other online docking platforms like DOCK Blaster or iScreen. We have collected 17,224,424 ligands from the All Clean subset of the ZINC database, and revamped our docking engine idock to version 2.0, further improving docking speed and accuracy, and integrating RF-Score as an alternative rescoring function. To compare idock 2.0 with the state-of-the-art AutoDock Vina 1.1.2, we have carried out a rescoring benchmark and a redocking benchmark on the 2,897 and 343 protein-ligand complexes of PDBbind v2012 refined set and CSAR NRC HiQ Set 24Sept2010 respectively, and an execution time benchmark on 12 diverse proteins and 3,000 ligands of different molecular weight. Results show that, under various scenarios, idock achieves comparable success rates while outperforming AutoDock Vina in terms of docking speed by at least 8.69 times and at most 37.51 times. When evaluated on the PDBbind v2012 core set, our istar platform combining with RF-Score manages to reproduce Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient of as high as 0.855 and 0.859 respectively between the experimental binding affinity and the predicted binding affinity of the docked conformation. istar

  4. istar: a web platform for large-scale protein-ligand docking.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Ballester, Pedro J; Wong, Man-Hon

    2014-01-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a key computational method in the design of starting points for the drug discovery process. We are motivated by the desire to automate large-scale docking using our popular docking engine idock and thus have developed a publicly-accessible web platform called istar. Without tedious software installation, users can submit jobs using our website. Our istar website supports 1) filtering ligands by desired molecular properties and previewing the number of ligands to dock, 2) monitoring job progress in real time, and 3) visualizing ligand conformations and outputting free energy and ligand efficiency predicted by idock, binding affinity predicted by RF-Score, putative hydrogen bonds, and supplier information for easy purchase, three useful features commonly lacked on other online docking platforms like DOCK Blaster or iScreen. We have collected 17,224,424 ligands from the All Clean subset of the ZINC database, and revamped our docking engine idock to version 2.0, further improving docking speed and accuracy, and integrating RF-Score as an alternative rescoring function. To compare idock 2.0 with the state-of-the-art AutoDock Vina 1.1.2, we have carried out a rescoring benchmark and a redocking benchmark on the 2,897 and 343 protein-ligand complexes of PDBbind v2012 refined set and CSAR NRC HiQ Set 24Sept2010 respectively, and an execution time benchmark on 12 diverse proteins and 3,000 ligands of different molecular weight. Results show that, under various scenarios, idock achieves comparable success rates while outperforming AutoDock Vina in terms of docking speed by at least 8.69 times and at most 37.51 times. When evaluated on the PDBbind v2012 core set, our istar platform combining with RF-Score manages to reproduce Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient of as high as 0.855 and 0.859 respectively between the experimental binding affinity and the predicted binding affinity of the docked conformation. istar

  5. Molecular importance of prawn large heat shock proteins 60, 70 and 90.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Nizam, Faizal; Ravichandran, Gayathri; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arshad, Aziz; Elumalai, Preetham; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the innate immune system of prawn, a comparative molecular approach was proposed to study the crustacean large HSPs 60, 70 and 90. Three different large HSPs were identified from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr) cDNA library during screening. The structural and functional characteristic features of HSPs were studied using various bioinformatics tools. Also, their gene expression and mRNA regulation upon various pathogenic infections was studied by relative quantification using 2(-ΔΔCT) method. MrHSP60 contains a long chaperonin 60 domain at 46-547 which carries a chaperonin 60 signature motif between 427 and 438, whereas MrHSP70 contains a long HSP70 domain at 21-624 and MrHSP90 carries a HSP90 domain at 188-719. The two dimensional analysis showed that MrHSP60 contains more amino acids (52%) in helices, whereas MrHSP70 (40.6%) and MrHSP90 (51.8%) carried more residues in coils. Gene expression results showed significant (P < 0.05) expression of MrHSP60, 70 and 90 in haemocyte, gill and hepatopancreas, respectively. Further, the expression level was up-regulated upon bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophilla and Vibrio harveyi) and viral [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and M. rosenbergii nodo virus (MrNV)] infections during various time periods. The gene expression results exhibited the potential involvement of these three HSPs in the immune system of prawn. The study indicated the potentiality of these molecules, thereby protecting cells against pathogens as well as severe cellular and environmental stresses in crustaceans.

  6. Identification of a cytoplasmic interaction partner of the large regulatory proteins Rep78/Rep68 of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, Stefan . E-mail: stefan.weger@charite.de; Hammer, Eva; Goetz, Anne; Heilbronn, Regine

    2007-05-25

    Through yeast two-hybrid analysis and coimmunoprecipitation studies, we have identified a novel cellular AAV-2 Rep78/Rep68 interaction partner located predominantly in the cytoplasm. In public databases, it has been assigned as KCTD5, because of a region of high similarity to the cytoplasmic tetramerization domain of voltage-gated potassium channels. Whereas Rep/KCTD5 interaction relied on the region surrounding the Rep nuclear localization signal, nuclear accumulation of Rep was not required. Wildtype Rep78/Rep68 proteins induced the translocation of large portions of KCTD5 into the nucleus pointing to functional interactions both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In line with an anticipated functional interference in the cytoplasm, KCTD5 overexpression completely abrogated Rep68-mediated posttranscriptional activation of a HIV-LTR driven luciferase reporter gene. Our study expands the panel of already identified nuclear Rep interaction partners to a cytoplasmic protein, which raises the awareness that important steps in the AAV life cycle may be regulated in this compartment.

  7. Expanding the chemical toolbox for the synthesis of large and uniquely modified proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondalapati, Somasekhar; Jbara, Muhammad; Brik, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Methods to prepare proteins that include a specific modification at a desired position are essential for understanding their cellular functions and physical properties in living systems. Chemical protein synthesis, which relies on the chemoselective ligation of unprotected peptides, enables the preparation of modified proteins that are not easily fabricated by other methods. In contrast to recombinant approaches, chemical synthesis can be used to prepare protein analogues such as D-proteins, which are useful in protein structure determination and the discovery of novel therapeutics. Post-translationally modifying proteins is another example where chemical protein synthesis proved itself as a powerful approach for preparing samples with high homogeneity and in workable quantities. In this Review, we discuss the basic principles of the field, focusing on novel chemoselective peptide ligation approaches such as native chemical ligation and the recent advances based on this method with a proven record of success in the synthesis of highly important protein targets.

  8. Protein-peptide molecular docking with large-scale conformational changes: the p53-MDM2 interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciemny, Maciej Pawel; Debinski, Aleksander; Paczkowska, Marta; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kurcinski, Mateusz; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Protein-peptide interactions are often associated with large-scale conformational changes that are difficult to study either by classical molecular modeling or by experiment. Recently, we have developed the CABS-dock method for flexible protein-peptide docking that enables large-scale rearrangements of the protein chain. In this study, we use CABS-dock to investigate the binding of the p53-MDM2 complex, an element of the cell cycle regulation system crucial for anti-cancer drug design. Experimental data suggest that p53-MDM2 binding is affected by significant rearrangements of a lid region - the N-terminal highly flexible MDM2 fragment; however, the details are not clear. The large size of the highly flexible MDM2 fragments makes p53-MDM2 intractable for exhaustive binding dynamics studies using atomistic models. We performed extensive dynamics simulations using the CABS-dock method, including large-scale structural rearrangements of MDM2 flexible regions. Without a priori knowledge of the p53 peptide structure or its binding site, we obtained near-native models of the p53-MDM2 complex. The simulation results match well the experimental data and provide new insights into the possible role of the lid fragment in p53 binding. The presented case study demonstrates that CABS-dock methodology opens up new opportunities for protein-peptide docking with large-scale changes of the protein receptor structure.

  9. Analyzing Large-Scale Structural Change in Proteins: Comparison of Principal Component Projection and Sammon Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Mesentean, Sidonia; Fischer, S.; Smith, Jeremy C

    2006-04-01

    Effective analysis of large-scale conformational transitions in macromolecules requires transforming them into a lower dimensional representation that captures the dominant motions. Herein, we apply and compare two different dimensionality reduction techniques, namely, principal component analysis (PCA), a linear method, and Sammon mapping, which is nonlinear. The two methods are used to analyze four different protein transition pathways of varying complexity, obtained by using either the conjugate peak refinement method or constrained molecular dynamics. For the return-stroke in myosin, both Sammon mapping and PCA show that the conformational change is dominated by a simple rotation of a rigid body. Also, in the case of the T{yields}R transition in hemoglobin, both methods are able to identify the two main quaternary transition events. In contrast, in the cases of the unfolding transition of staphylococcal nuclease or the signaling switch of Ras p21, which are both more complex conformational transitions, only Sammon mapping is able to identify the distinct phases of motion.

  10. [Study on relationship between hepatitis B virus DNA load and genotype with large envelope protein].

    PubMed

    Rao, Gao-feng; Chen, En-fu; Yan, Ming-he; Zheng, Min-qiao

    2008-10-01

    To explore the relation between hepatitis B virus DNA load and genotype with the level of large envelope protein. Serum HBV DNA was quantitively detected by using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The LHBs were detected by using enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) and HBV markers were detected by time differentiate immunofluorescence assay in 140 serum samples collected from chronic hepatitis B patients.The genotypes of HBV were identified by DNA sequencing; and analyze their relationship. There was no significant difference between positive rate of LHBs and that of HBV DNA in HBeAg negative and positive group (P > 0.05); The HBV LHBs absorbency was markedly correlated with the HBV DNA load ( R2 = 0.9267). The difference of HBV LHBs absorbency between HBV genotype B and C was not significant. The close correlation between HBV LHBs absorbence and HBV DNA load illustrated that he level of serum LHBs can be used to estimate the state of HBV replication; and there is no relationship between HBV LHBs absorbency and genotypes. So HBV LHBs may be used as a new serological marker to detect HBV replication.

  11. Oct4-enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic pigs: a new large animal model for reprogramming studies.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Imialek, Monika; Kues, Wilfried A; Petersen, Bjoern; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Herrmann, Doris; Haridoss, Srividyameena; Oropeza, Marianne; Lemme, Erika; Schöler, Hans R; Carnwath, Joseph W; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-09-01

    The domesticated pig has emerged as an important tool for development of surgical techniques, advancement of xenotransplantation, creation of important disease models, and preclinical testing of novel cell therapies. However, germ line-competent pluripotent porcine stem cells have not yet been derived. This has been a major obstacle to genetic modification of pigs. The transcription factor Oct4 is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency and for reprogramming somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Here, we report the production of transgenic pigs carrying an 18 kb genomic sequence of the murine Oct4 gene fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) cDNA (OG2 construct) to allow identification of pluripotent cells by monitoring Oct4 expression by EGFP fluorescence. Eleven viable transgenic piglets were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Expression of the EGFP reporter construct was confined to germ line cells, the inner cell mass and trophectoderm of blastocysts, and testicular germ cells. Reprogramming of fibroblasts from these animals by fusion with pluripotent murine embryonic stem cells or viral transduction with human OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC cDNAs resulted in Oct4-EGFP reactivation. The OG2 pigs have thus proved useful for monitoring reprogramming and the induction and maintenance of pluripotency in porcine cells. In conclusion, the OG2 transgenic pigs are a new large animal model for studying the derivation and maintenance of pluripotent cells, and will be valuable for the development of cell therapy.

  12. The Roles of Water in the Protein Matrix: A Largely Untapped Resource for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Spyrakis, Francesca; Ahmed, Mostafa H; Bayden, Alexander S; Cozzini, Pietro; Mozzarelli, Andrea; Kellogg, Glen E

    2017-08-24

    The value of thoroughly understanding the thermodynamics specific to a drug discovery/design study is well known. Over the past decade, the crucial roles of water molecules in protein structure, function, and dynamics have also become increasingly appreciated. This Perspective explores water in the biological environment by adopting its point of view in such phenomena. The prevailing thermodynamic models of the past, where water was seen largely in terms of an entropic gain after its displacement by a ligand, are now known to be much too simplistic. We adopt a set of terminology that describes water molecules as being "hot" and "cold", which we have defined as being easy and difficult to displace, respectively. The basis of these designations, which involve both enthalpic and entropic water contributions, are explored in several classes of biomolecules and structural motifs. The hallmarks for characterizing water molecules are examined, and computational tools for evaluating water-centric thermodynamics are reviewed. This Perspective's summary features guidelines for exploiting water molecules in drug discovery.

  13. Methods for comprehensive identification of membrane proteins recognized by a large number of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Gene; Sumitomo, Mariko; Akahori, Yasushi; Matsuda, Kazuki; Muramatsu, Chiho; Takasaki, Akihiko; Iba, Yoshitaka; Eguchi, Keiko; Tanaka, Miho; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Morita, Miwa; Sato, Noriko; Sugiura, Mototaka; Sugioka, Atsushi; Hayashi, Nobuhiro; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu

    2009-12-31

    In order to isolate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to tumor-associated antigens (Ags) we developed the following strategy. Using the phage-display Ab library we isolated a large number of mAbs that bind to the surface of human tumor cells. The mAbs were individually screened by immunostaining, and clones that preferentially and strongly stained the malignant cells were chosen. Thereafter, the Ags recognized by the mAbs were identified. For identification of the Ags by MS candidate molecules had to be purified either by immunoprecipitation or by affinity chromatography. We isolated several hundred mAbs that showed cancer-specific staining patterns. In order to identify the Ags that were recognized by the numerous mAbs within a short time we developed two methods. Using the GFC [grouping of clones by flow cytometry (FCM)] method many Abs could be grouped by comparing the staining patterns of FCM. Members in each group turned out to bind to the same molecule in many cases. After a candidate Ag was revealed, the polypeptide corresponding to its extracellular portion was prepared and used for identification of clones that bound to the Ag among all the mAbs by SITE (simultaneous identification of clones through three dimensional ELISA) method. Both methods can be generally applicable to various kinds of membrane proteins and the mAbs against them.

  14. Relaxin secretion by porcine large luteal cells: effect of protein synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Clark, C L

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of the experiments reported herein was to investigate the relative importance of new hormone synthesis to basal and prostaglandin E2-stimulated rates of relaxin release. A relaxin-reverse hemolytic plaque assay was used to monitor relaxin release from individual large luteal cells (LLC) in which new protein synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. These treatments significantly decreased the rate of relaxin release. In addition, cycloheximide reduced the total fraction of LLC possessing the ability to form plaques by about 10%, suggesting complete suppression of relaxin from this subset of cells. Exposure of inhibitor-treated LLC to prostaglandin E2 (a relaxin stimulatory secretagogue) enhanced relaxin release, and restored suppressed LLC back into the secretory population. Taken overall, these results demonstrate that the majority of relaxin-releasing LLC exploit a mixture of newly synthesized and older, stored hormone to achieve basal secretion. A minority of relaxin-releasing LLC, however, appear to depend wholly on newly synthesized hormone for basal secretion. The differential activity (and interaction) of these pathways in individual LLC may provide a potential explanation for the markedly heterogenous manner of hormone release observed in this (and other) cell types, and for the action of relaxin secretagogues.

  15. Mutations at protein-protein interfaces: Small changes over big surfaces have large impacts on human health.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Harry C; Pandurangan, Arun P; Turner, Meghan A; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Blundell, Tom L; Ascher, David B

    2017-09-01

    Many essential biological processes including cell regulation and signalling are mediated through the assembly of protein complexes. Changes to protein-protein interaction (PPI) interfaces can affect the formation of multiprotein complexes, and consequently lead to disruptions in interconnected networks of PPIs within and between cells, further leading to phenotypic changes as functional interactions are created or disrupted. Mutations altering PPIs have been linked to the development of genetic diseases including cancer and rare Mendelian diseases, and to the development of drug resistance. The importance of these protein mutations has led to the development of many resources for understanding and predicting their effects. We propose that a better understanding of how these mutations affect the structure, function, and formation of multiprotein complexes provides novel opportunities for tackling them, including the development of small-molecule drugs targeted specifically to mutated PPIs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A large-scale conformation sampling and evaluation server for protein tertiary structure prediction and its assessment in CASP11.

    PubMed

    Li, Jilong; Cao, Renzhi; Cheng, Jianlin

    2015-10-23

    With more and more protein sequences produced in the genomic era, predicting protein structures from sequences becomes very important for elucidating the molecular details and functions of these proteins for biomedical research. Traditional template-based protein structure prediction methods tend to focus on identifying the best templates, generating the best alignments, and applying the best energy function to rank models, which often cannot achieve the best performance because of the difficulty of obtaining best templates, alignments, and models. We developed a large-scale conformation sampling and evaluation method and its servers to improve the reliability and robustness of protein structure prediction. In the first step, our method used a variety of alignment methods to sample relevant and complementary templates and to generate alternative and diverse target-template alignments, used a template and alignment combination protocol to combine alignments, and used template-based and template-free modeling methods to generate a pool of conformations for a target protein. In the second step, it used a large number of protein model quality assessment methods to evaluate and rank the models in the protein model pool, in conjunction with an exception handling strategy to deal with any additional failure in model ranking. The method was implemented as two protein structure prediction servers: MULTICOM-CONSTRUCT and MULTICOM-CLUSTER that participated in the 11th Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP11) in 2014. The two servers were ranked among the best 10 server predictors. The good performance of our servers in CASP11 demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of the large-scale conformation sampling and evaluation. The MULTICOM server is available at: http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/multicom_cluster/.

  17. mRNA and protein expression levels of four candidate genes for ear size in Erhualian and Large White pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L C; Liang, J; Pu, L; Zhang, Y B; Wang, L G; Liu, X; Yan, H; Wang, L X

    2017-04-13

    Porcine ear size is an important characteristic for distinguishing among pig breeds. In a previous genome-wide association study of porcine ear size, LEM domain-containing 3 (LEMD3), methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3), high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) were implicated as important candidate genes for ear size. This study investigated the expression levels of four candidate genes for ear size in Erhualian and Large White pigs. Ten Erhualian pigs with large ears and eight Large White pigs with small ears at 60 days of age were examined. The mRNA expression levels of the four candidate genes were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. WIF1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in Large White than in Erhualian pigs (P < 0.05), whereas the expression levels of the other three genes were not significantly different between the two breeds. The protein expression levels of the four genes were analyzed using western blot. WIF1 protein expression was significantly higher in Large White than in Erhualian pigs (P < 0.01), whereas MSRB3 protein expression was significantly higher in Erhualian than in Large White pigs (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two breeds in residual protein expression. These results suggest that WIF1 is the main causal gene for ear size in pigs.

  18. Fast and Accurate Protein False Discovery Rates on Large-Scale Proteomics Data Sets with Percolator 3.0.

    PubMed

    The, Matthew; MacCoss, Michael J; Noble, William S; Käll, Lukas

    2016-11-01

    Percolator is a widely used software tool that increases yield in shotgun proteomics experiments and assigns reliable statistical confidence measures, such as q values and posterior error probabilities, to peptides and peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) from such experiments. Percolator's processing speed has been sufficient for typical data sets consisting of hundreds of thousands of PSMs. With our new scalable approach, we can now also analyze millions of PSMs in a matter of minutes on a commodity computer. Furthermore, with the increasing awareness for the need for reliable statistics on the protein level, we compared several easy-to-understand protein inference methods and implemented the best-performing method-grouping proteins by their corresponding sets of theoretical peptides and then considering only the best-scoring peptide for each protein-in the Percolator package. We used Percolator 3.0 to analyze the data from a recent study of the draft human proteome containing 25 million spectra (PM:24870542). The source code and Ubuntu, Windows, MacOS, and Fedora binary packages are available from http://percolator.ms/ under an Apache 2.0 license. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Optimizing Marine Security Guard Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Bangkok , Thailand East Asia and Pacific 18 4 Fort Lauderdale, Florida Western Hemisphere - South 13 5 Frankfurt, Germany Western Europe and Scandinavia 15...2008). Each 7 stationing plan satisfies a myriad of unit requirements, such as building and land availability. Similarly, each assignment solution...optimize the assignment of enlisted Marines to billets. EAM-GLOBAL seeks to assign the best Marine-billet fit while balancing staffing shortages

  20. Large-scale Analysis of Thermo-stable, Mammalian Proteins Provides Insights into the Intrinsically Disordered Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Charles A.; High, Anthony; Obenauer, John C.; Mishra, Ashutosh; Park, Cheon-Gil; Punta, Marco; Schlessinger, Avner; Ma, Jing; Rost, Burkhard; Slaughter, Clive A.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are predicted to be highly abundant and play broad biological roles in eukaryotic cells. In particular, by virtue of their structural malleability and propensity to interact with multiple binding partners, disordered proteins are thought to be specialized for roles in signaling and regulation. However, these concepts are based on in silico analyses of translated whole genome sequences, not on large-scale analyses of proteins expressed in living cells. Therefore, whether these concepts broadly apply to expressed proteins is currently unknown. Previous studies have shown that heat-treatment of cell extracts lead to partial enrichment of soluble, disordered proteins. Based on this observation, we sought to address the current dearth of knowledge about expressed, disordered proteins by performing a large-scale proteomics study of thermo-stable proteins isolated from mouse fibroblast cells. Using novel multidimensional chromatography methods and mass spectrometry, we identified a total of 1,320 thermo-stable proteins from these cells. Further, we used a variety of bioinformatics methods to analyze the structural and biological properties of these proteins. Interestingly, more than 900 of these expressed proteins were predicted to be substantially disordered. These were divided into two categories, with 514 predicted to be predominantly disordered and 395 predicted to exhibit both disordered and ordered/folded features. In addition, 411 of the thermo-stable proteins were predicted to be folded. Despite the use of heat treatment (60 min. at 98 °C) to partially enrich for disordered proteins, which might have been expected to select for small proteins, the sequences of these proteins exhibited a wide range of lengths (622 ± 555 residues (average length ± standard deviation) for disordered proteins and 569 ± 598 residues for folded proteins). Computational structural analyses revealed several unexpected features of the thermo

  1. Large-Scale Identification of Putative Exported Proteins in Candida albicans by Genetic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Monteoliva, L.; López Matas, M.; Gil, C.; Nombela, C.; Pla, J.

    2002-01-01

    In all living organisms, secreted proteins play essential roles in different processes. Of special interest is the construction of the fungal cell wall, since this structure is absent from mammalian cells. The identification of the proteins involved in its biogenesis is therefore a primary goal in antifungal research. To perform a systematic identification of such proteins in Candida albicans, we carried out a genetic screening in which in-frame fusions with an intracellular allele of invertase gene SUC2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used to select and identify putatively exported proteins in the heterologous host S. cerevisiae. Eighty-three clones were selected, including 11 previously identified genes from C. albicans as well as 41 C. albicans genes that encode proteins homologous to already described proteins from related organisms. They include enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis and protein secretion. We also found membrane receptors and transporters presumably related to the interaction of C. albicans with the environment as well as extracellular enzymes and proteins involved in different morphological transitions. In addition, 11 C. albicans open reading frames (ORFs) identified in this screening encode proteins homologous to unknown or putative proteins, while 5 ORFs encode novel secreted proteins without known homologues in other organisms. This screening procedure therefore not only identifies a set of targets of interest in antifungal research but also provides new clues for understanding the topological locations of many proteins involved in processes relevant to the pathogenicity of this microorganism. PMID:12456000

  2. Large-scale identification of putative exported proteins in Candida albicans by genetic selection.

    PubMed

    Monteoliva, L; Matas, M López; Gil, C; Nombela, C; Pla, J

    2002-08-01

    In all living organisms, secreted proteins play essential roles in different processes. Of special interest is the construction of the fungal cell wall, since this structure is absent from mammalian cells. The identification of the proteins involved in its biogenesis is therefore a primary goal in antifungal research. To perform a systematic identification of such proteins in Candida albicans, we carried out a genetic screening in which in-frame fusions with an intracellular allele of invertase gene SUC2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used to select and identify putatively exported proteins in the heterologous host S. cerevisiae. Eighty-three clones were selected, including 11 previously identified genes from C. albicans as well as 41 C. albicans genes that encode proteins homologous to already described proteins from related organisms. They include enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis and protein secretion. We also found membrane receptors and transporters presumably related to the interaction of C. albicans with the environment as well as extracellular enzymes and proteins involved in different morphological transitions. In addition, 11 C. albicans open reading frames (ORFs) identified in this screening encode proteins homologous to unknown or putative proteins, while 5 ORFs encode novel secreted proteins without known homologues in other organisms. This screening procedure therefore not only identifies a set of targets of interest in antifungal research but also provides new clues for understanding the topological locations of many proteins involved in processes relevant to the pathogenicity of this microorganism.

  3. Debottlenecking recombinant protein production in Bacillus megaterium under large-scale conditions--targeted precursor feeding designed from metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Korneli, Claudia; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Godard, Thibault; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Wittmann, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    In the present work the impact of large production scale was investigated for Bacillus megaterium expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Specifically designed scale-down studies, mimicking the intermittent and continuous nutrient supply of large- and small-scale processes, were carried out for this purpose. The recombinant strain revealed a 40% reduced GFP yield for the large-scale conditions. In line with extended carbon loss via formation of acetate and carbon dioxide, this indicated obvious limitations in the underlying metabolism of B. megaterium under the large-scale conditions. Quantitative analysis of intracellular amino acids via validated fast filtration protocols revealed that their level strongly differed between the two scenarios. During cultivation in large-scale set-up, the availability of most amino acids, serving as key building blocks of the recombinant protein, was substantially reduced. This was most pronounced for tryptophan, aspartate, histidine, glutamine, and lysine. In contrast alanine was increased, probably related to a bottleneck at the level of pyruvate which also triggered acetate overflow metabolism. The pre-cursor quantifications could then be exploited to verify the presumed bottlenecks and improve recombinant protein production under large-scale conditions. Addition of only 5 mM tryptophan, aspartate, histidine, glutamine, and lysine to the feed solution increased the GFP yield by 100%. This rational concept of driving the lab scale productivity of recombinant microorganisms under suboptimal feeding conditions emulating large scale can easily be extended to other processes and production hosts.

  4. Large oncosomes contain distinct protein cargo and represent a separate functional class of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Minciacchi, Valentina R; You, Sungyong; Spinelli, Cristiana; Morley, Samantha; Zandian, Mandana; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Cavallini, Lorenzo; Ciardiello, Chiara; Reis Sobreiro, Mariana; Morello, Matteo; Kharmate, Geetanjali; Jang, Su Chul; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Hosseini-Beheshti, Elham; Tomlinson Guns, Emma; Gleave, Martin; Gho, Yong Song; Mathivanan, Suresh; Yang, Wei; Freeman, Michael R; Di Vizio, Dolores

    2015-05-10

    Large oncosomes (LO) are atypically large (1-10 µm diameter) cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), originating from the shedding of membrane blebs and associated with advanced disease. We report that 25% of the proteins, identified by a quantitative proteomics analysis, are differentially represented in large and nano-sized EVs from prostate cancer cells. Proteins enriched in large EVs included enzymes involved in glucose, glutamine and amino acid metabolism, all metabolic processes relevant to cancer. Glutamine metabolism was altered in cancer cells exposed to large EVs, an effect that was not observed upon treatment with exosomes. Large EVs exhibited discrete buoyant densities in iodixanol (OptiPrep(TM)) gradients. Fluorescent microscopy of large EVs revealed an appearance consistent with LO morphology, indicating that these structures can be categorized as LO. Among the proteins enriched in LO, cytokeratin 18 (CK18) was one of the most abundant (within the top 5th percentile) and was used to develop an assay to detect LO in the circulation and tissues of mice and patients with prostate cancer. These observations indicate that LO represent a discrete EV type that may play a distinct role in tumor progression and that may be a source of cancer-specific markers.

  5. Folding 19 proteins to their native state and stability of large proteins from a coarse-grained model.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Abhijeet; Travesset, Alex

    2014-03-01

    We develop an intermediate resolution model, where the backbone is modeled with atomic resolution but the side chain with a single bead, by extending our previous model (Proteins (2013) DOI: 10.1002/prot.24269) to properly include proline, preproline residues and backbone rigidity. Starting from random configurations, the model properly folds 19 proteins (including a mutant 2A3D sequence) into native states containing β sheet, α helix, and mixed α/β. As a further test, the stability of H-RAS (a 169 residue protein, critical in many signaling pathways) is investigated: The protein is stable, with excellent agreement with experimental B-factors. Despite that proteins containing only α helices fold to their native state at lower backbone rigidity, and other limitations, which we discuss thoroughly, the model provides a reliable description of the dynamics as compared with all atom simulations, but does not constrain secondary structures as it is typically the case in more coarse-grained models. Further implications are described. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An expression vector taolored for large-scale, high-throughput purification of recombinant proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, M.; Zhou, M.; Sanville Millard, C.; Clancy, S.; Stols, L.; Eschenfeldt, W.; Collart, F.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division

    2006-01-01

    Production of milligram quantities of numerous proteins for structural and functional studies requires an efficient purification pipeline. We found that the dual tag, his(6)-tag-maltose-binding protein (MBP), intended to facilitate purification and enhance proteins' solubility, disrupted such a pipeline, requiring additional screening and purification steps. Not all proteins rendered soluble by fusion to MBP remained soluble after its proteolytic removal, and in those cases where the protein remained soluble, standard purification protocols failed to remove completely the stoichiometric amount of his(6)-tagged MBP generated by proteolysis. Both liabilities were alleviated by construction of a vector that produces fusion proteins in which MBP, the his(6)-tag and the target protein are separated by highly specific protease cleavage sites in the configuration MBP-site-his(6)-site-protein. In vivo cleavage at the first site by co-expressed protease generated untagged MBP and his(6)-tagged target protein. Proteins not truly rendered soluble by transient association with MBP precipitated, and untagged MBP was easily separated from the his-tagged target protein by conventional protocols. The second protease cleavage site allowed removal of the his(6)-tag.

  7. Proteomic and genetic analyses demonstrate that Plasmodium berghei blood stages export a large and diverse repertoire of proteins.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Erica M; Braks, Joanna A; Fonager, Jannik; Klop, Onny; Aime, Elena; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Otto, Thomas D; Berriman, Matt; Hiss, Jan A; Thomas, Alan W; Mann, Matthias; Janse, Chris J; Kocken, Clemens H M; Franke-Fayard, Blandine

    2013-02-01

    Malaria parasites actively remodel the infected red blood cell (irbc) by exporting proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. The human parasite Plasmodium falciparum exports particularly large numbers of proteins, including proteins that establish a vesicular network allowing the trafficking of proteins onto the surface of irbcs that are responsible for tissue sequestration. Like P. falciparum, the rodent parasite P. berghei ANKA sequesters via irbc interactions with the host receptor CD36. We have applied proteomic, genomic, and reverse-genetic approaches to identify P. berghei proteins potentially involved in the transport of proteins to the irbc surface. A comparative proteomics analysis of P. berghei non-sequestering and sequestering parasites was used to determine changes in the irbc membrane associated with sequestration. Subsequent tagging experiments identified 13 proteins (Plasmodium export element (PEXEL)-positive as well as PEXEL-negative) that are exported into the irbc cytoplasm and have distinct localization patterns: a dispersed and/or patchy distribution, a punctate vesicle-like pattern in the cytoplasm, or a distinct location at the irbc membrane. Members of the PEXEL-negative BIR and PEXEL-positive Pb-fam-3 show a dispersed localization in the irbc cytoplasm, but not at the irbc surface. Two of the identified exported proteins are transported to the irbc membrane and were named erythrocyte membrane associated proteins. EMAP1 is a member of the PEXEL-negative Pb-fam-1 family, and EMAP2 is a PEXEL-positive protein encoded by a single copy gene; neither protein plays a direct role in sequestration. Our observations clearly indicate that P. berghei traffics a diverse range of proteins to different cellular locations via mechanisms that are analogous to those employed by P. falciparum. This information can be exploited to generate transgenic humanized rodent P. berghei parasites expressing chimeric P. berghei/P. falciparum proteins on the surface of

  8. On eigensystem assignment with dissipativity constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep

    1993-01-01

    Stability of the closed-loop system is of vital importance when controller synthesis is being performed using a reduced order model of the open-loop plant. For passive systems such as flexible space structures, closed-loop stability is often ensured by low-authority dissipative controllers using collocated and compatible sensors and actuators. This paper considers the problem of eigensystem assignment for flexible structures using constant-gain output feedback, under the dissipativity constraints requiring that the gain matrices be nonnegative definite. A novel method is developed in which a sequential procedure is used to assign one complex-conjugate pair of closed-loop eigenvalues in each step. At each step, an iterative technique is employed for generating a nonnegative definite gain matrix that assigns a new pair while keeping the previously assigned pairs unchanged. This method can assign up to m closed-loop system eigenvalues, where m is the number of control inputs. A numerical example of damping enhancement for a large flexible structure is presented to demonstrate the approach.

  9. Contact replacement for NMR resonance assignment.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fei; Pandurangan, Gopal; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2008-07-01

    Complementing its traditional role in structural studies of proteins, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in functional studies. NMR dynamics experiments characterize motions involved in target recognition, ligand binding, etc., while NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments identify and localize protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. The key bottleneck in these studies is to determine the backbone resonance assignment, which allows spectral peaks to be mapped to specific atoms. This article develops a novel approach to address that bottleneck, exploiting an available X-ray structure or homology model to assign the entire backbone from a set of relatively fast and cheap NMR experiments. We formulate contact replacement for resonance assignment as the problem of computing correspondences between a contact graph representing the structure and an NMR graph representing the data; the NMR graph is a significantly corrupted, ambiguous version of the contact graph. We first show that by combining connectivity and amino acid type information, and exploiting the random structure of the noise, one can provably determine unique correspondences in polynomial time with high probability, even in the presence of significant noise (a constant number of noisy edges per vertex). We then detail an efficient randomized algorithm and show that, over a variety of experimental and synthetic datasets, it is robust to typical levels of structural variation (1-2 AA), noise (250-600%) and missings (10-40%). Our algorithm achieves very good overall assignment accuracy, above 80% in alpha-helices, 70% in beta-sheets and 60% in loop regions. Our contact replacement algorithm is implemented in platform-independent Python code. The software can be freely obtained for academic use by request from the authors.

  10. Extra Large G-Protein Interactome Reveals Multiple Stress Response Function and Partner-Dependent XLG Subcellular Localization

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Ying; Gao, Yajun; Jones, Alan M.

    2017-06-13

    The three-member family of Arabidopsis extra-large G proteins (XLG1-3) defines the prototype of an atypical Ga subunit in the heterotrimeric G protein complex. Some recent evidence indicate that XLG subunits operate along with its Gbg dimer in root morphology, stress responsiveness, and cytokinin induced development, however downstream targets of activated XLG proteins in the stress pathways are rarely known. In order to assemble a set of candidate XLG-targeted proteins, a yeast two-hybrid complementation-based screen was performed using XLG protein baits to query interactions between XLG and partner protein found in glucose-treated seedlings, roots, and Arabidopsis cells in culture. Seventy twomore » interactors were identified and >60% of a test set displayed in vivo interaction with XLG proteins. Gene co-expression analysis shows that >70% of the interactors are positively correlated with the corresponding XLG partners. Gene Ontology enrichment for all the candidates indicates stress responses and posits a molecular mechanism involving a specific set of transcription factor partners to XLG. Genes encoding two of these transcription factors, SZF1 and 2, require XLG proteins for full NaCl-induced expression. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of the XLG proteins in the nucleus, endosome, and plasma membrane is dependent on the specific interacting partner.« less

  11. [Clinicopathologic features and expression of OCT4 protein in testicular diffuse large B cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y P; Zhu, W F; Chen, L F; Lu, J P; He, T M; Fu, W D; Xu, C W; Chen, G

    2017-06-08

    Objective: To evaluate the expression of OCT4 and SALL4 in testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and the utility of an immunohistochemical (IHC) panel of OCT4, SALL4 and CD20 in the differential diagnosis of DLBCL and GCT of the testis. Methods: Eighteen cases of testicular DLBCL were selected.IHC method was used to detect the protein expression of CD20, CD3, CD5, CD10, bcl-6, MUM1, Ki-67, bcl-2, c-MYC, OCT4 and SALL4. Results: Among the 18 cases, CD20 and PAX5 were strongly and diffusely expressed in all cases, while CD21, CD3, cyclinD1, SALL4, CD117 and PLAP were all negative. CD5, bcl-2 and c-myc were expressed in 3, 16 and 8 cases, respectively. Ki-67 proliferation index ranged from 40%-95%. Bcl-2 and c-MYC were co-expressed in seven cases. Four cases were GCB-DLBCL and the remaining 14 cases were non-GCB-DLBCL, according to Hans algorithm. Nuclear OCT4 expression was present in two cases, which demonstrated moderate expression in >50% of neoplastic cells. Univariate analysis showed that clinical stage, CD5 and OCT4 expression were relevant to prognosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis further confirmed that clinical stage, CD5 and OCT4 were independent prognostic factors in patients with testicular DLBCL. Conclusions: Care should be exercised in using OCT4 as the sole marker of germ cell differentiation in the testis. The association of OCT4 and CD5, bcl-2 co-expression raises the question of whether OCT4 expression in DLBCL may reflect more aggressive biology.

  12. Influence of fermentable carbohydrates or protein on large intestinal and urinary metabolomic profiles in piglets.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R; Neumann, K; Kröger, S; Richter, J F; Wang, J; Martin, L; Bindelle, J; Htoo, J K; Vahjen, V; Van Kessel, A G; Zentek, J

    2012-12-01

    It was recently shown that variations in the ratio of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (fCHO) and fermentable protein (fCP) differentially affect large intestinal microbial ecology and the mucosal response. Here we investigated the use of mass spectrometry to profile changes in metabolite composition in colon and urine associated with variation in dietary fCHO and fCP composition and mucosal physiology. Thirty-two weaned piglets were fed 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design with low fCP and low fCHO, low fCP and high fCHO, high fCP and low fCHO, and high fCP and high fCHO. After 21 to 23 d, all pigs were euthanized and colon digesta and urine metabolite profiles were obtained by mass spectrometry. Analysis of mass spectra by partial least squares approach indicated a clustering of both colonic and urinary profiles for each pig by feeding group. Metabolite identification and annotation using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways revealed increased abundance of metabolites associated with arachidonic acid metabolism in colon of pigs fed a high concentration of fCP irrespective of dietary fCHO. Urinary metabolites did not show as clear patterns. Mass spectrometry can effectively differentiate metabolite profiles in colon contents and urine associated with changes in dietary composition. Whether metabolite profiling is an effective tool to identify specific metabolites (biomarkers) or metabolite profiles associated with gut function and integrity needs further elucidation.

  13. Prevalent abnormal prion protein in human appendixes after bovine spongiform encephalopathy epizootic: large scale survey.

    PubMed

    Gill, O Noel; Spencer, Yvonne; Richard-Loendt, Angela; Kelly, Carole; Dabaghian, Reza; Boyes, Lynnette; Linehan, Jacqueline; Simmons, Marion; Webb, Paul; Bellerby, Peter; Andrews, Nick; Hilton, David A; Ironside, James W; Beck, Jon; Poulter, Mark; Mead, Simon; Brandner, Sebastian

    2013-10-15

    To carry out a further survey of archived appendix samples to understand better the differences between existing estimates of the prevalence of subclinical infection with prions after the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epizootic and to see whether a broader birth cohort was affected, and to understand better the implications for the management of blood and blood products and for the handling of surgical instruments. Irreversibly unlinked and anonymised large scale survey of archived appendix samples. Archived appendix samples from the pathology departments of 41 UK hospitals participating in the earlier survey, and additional hospitals in regions with lower levels of participation in that survey. 32,441 archived appendix samples fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin and tested for the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrP). Of the 32,441 appendix samples 16 were positive for abnormal PrP, indicating an overall prevalence of 493 per million population (95% confidence interval 282 to 801 per million). The prevalence in those born in 1941-60 (733 per million, 269 to 1596 per million) did not differ significantly from those born between 1961 and 1985 (412 per million, 198 to 758 per million) and was similar in both sexes and across the three broad geographical areas sampled. Genetic testing of the positive specimens for the genotype at PRNP codon 129 revealed a high proportion that were valine homozygous compared with the frequency in the normal population, and in stark contrast with confirmed clinical cases of vCJD, all of which were methionine homozygous at PRNP codon 129. This study corroborates previous studies and suggests a high prevalence of infection with abnormal PrP, indicating vCJD carrier status in the population compared with the 177 vCJD cases to date. These findings have important implications for the management of blood and blood products and for the handling of surgical instruments.

  14. Evolutionary mechanisms driving the evolution of a large polydnavirus gene family coding for protein tyrosine phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplications have been proposed to be the main mechanism involved in genome evolution and in acquisition of new functions. Polydnaviruses (PDVs), symbiotic viruses associated with parasitoid wasps, are ideal model systems to study mechanisms of gene duplications given that PDV genomes consist of virulence genes organized into multigene families. In these systems the viral genome is integrated in a wasp chromosome as a provirus and virus particles containing circular double-stranded DNA are injected into the parasitoids’ hosts and are essential for parasitism success. The viral virulence factors, organized in gene families, are required collectively to induce host immune suppression and developmental arrest. The gene family which encodes protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) has undergone spectacular expansion in several PDV genomes with up to 42 genes. Results Here, we present strong indications that PTP gene family expansion occurred via classical mechanisms: by duplication of large segments of the chromosomally integrated form of the virus sequences (segmental duplication), by tandem duplications within this form and by dispersed duplications. We also propose a novel duplication mechanism specific to PDVs that involves viral circle reintegration into the wasp genome. The PTP copies produced were shown to undergo conservative evolution along with episodes of adaptive evolution. In particular recently produced copies have undergone positive selection in sites most likely involved in defining substrate selectivity. Conclusion The results provide evidence about the dynamic nature of polydnavirus proviral genomes. Classical and PDV-specific duplication mechanisms have been involved in the production of new gene copies. Selection pressures associated with antagonistic interactions with parasitized hosts have shaped these genes used to manipulate lepidopteran physiology with evidence for positive selection involved in adaptation to host targets. PMID

  15. Hierarchical and helical self-assembly of ADP-ribosyl cyclase into large-scale protein microtubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qun; Kriksunov, Irina A; Wang, Zhongwu; Graeff, Richard; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan

    2008-11-27

    Proteins are macromolecules with characteristic structures and biological functions. It is extremely challenging to obtain protein microtube structures through self-assembly as proteins are very complex and flexible. Here we present a strategy showing how a specific protein, ADP-ribosyl cyclase, helically self-assembles from monomers into hexagonal nanochains and further to highly ordered crystalline microtubes. The structures of protein nanochains and consequently self-assembled superlattice were determined by X-ray crystallography at 4.5 A resolution and imaged by scanning electron microscopy. The protein initially forms into dimers that have a fixed size of 5.6 nm, and then, helically self-assembles into 35.6 nm long hexagonal nanochains. One such nanochain consists of six dimers (12 monomers) that stack in order by a pseudo P6(1) screw axis. Seven nanochains produce a series of large-scale assemblies, nanorods, forming the building blocks for microrods. A proposed aging process of microrods results in the formation of hollow microstructures. Synthesis and characterization of large scale self-assembled protein microtubes may pave a new pathway, capable of not only understanding the self-assembly dynamics of biological materials, but also directing design and fabrication of multifunctional nanobuilding blocks with particular applications in biomedical engineering.

  16. Large differences in proportions of harmful