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Sample records for assist solubility limits

  1. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    products, complex stability constants, and redox potentials for radionuclides in different oxidation states, form the underlying database to be used for those calculations. The potentially low solubilities of many radionuclides in natural waters constitute the first barrier for their migration from the repository into the environment. Evaluation of this effect requires a knowledge of the site-specific water chemistry and the expected spatial and temporal ranges of its variability. Quantitative determinations of radionuclide solubility in waters within the range of chemistry must be made. Speciation and molecular complexation must be ascertained to interpret and apply solubility results. The solubilities thus determined can be used to assess the effectiveness of solubility in limiting radionuclide migration. These solubilities can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of other retardation processes expected to occur once dissolution of the source material and migration begin. Understanding the solubility behavior of radionuclides will assist in designing valuable sorption experiments that must be conducted below the solubility limit since only soluble species participate in surface reactions and sorption processes. The present strategy for radionuclide solubility tasks has been to provide a solubility model from bulk-experiments that attempt to bracket the estimate made for this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) of water conditions on site. The long-term goal must be to develop a thermodynamic database for solution speciation and solid-state determination as a prerequisite for transport calculations and interpretation of empirical solubility data. The model has to be self-consistent and tested against known solubility studies in order to predict radionuclide solubilities over the continuous distribution ranges of potential water compositions for performance assessment of the site. Solubility studies upper limits for radionuclide concentrations in natural waters. The

  2. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  3. 12 CFR 1805.402 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.402 Assistance limits. (a..., more than $5 million, in the aggregate, in financial and technical assistance to an Awardee and its... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1805.402 Section...

  4. Effervescence Assisted Fusion Technique to Enhance the Solubility of Drugs.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Ali, Raisuddin

    2015-12-01

    The solubility of five poorly soluble drugs was enhanced by using an effervescence assisted solid dispersion (EASD) technique. EASDs were prepared by using modified fusion method. Drug and hydrophilic carrier were melted, and in this molten mixture, effervescence was generated by adding effervescence couple comprising organic acid (citric acid) and carbonic base (sodium bicarbonate). Solubility of drug powders, solid dispersions, and EASDs was determined at 25°C using shake flask method. Atorvastatin calcium, cefuroxime axetil, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, and metronidazole benzoate were estimated using a spectrophotometer at 246, 280, 260, 230, and 232 nm (λ max), respectively. Solubility of atorvastatin calcium (from 100 to 345 μg/ml), cefuroxime axetil (from 441 to 1948 μg/ml), clotrimazole (from 63 to 677 μg/ml), ketoconazole (from 16 to 500 μg/ml), and metronidazole benzoate (from 112 to 208 μg/ml) in EASDs was enhanced by 3.45-, 4.4-, 10.7-, 31.2-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs of drug powder, solid dispersion, and EASDs were compared. Scanning electron micrographs of EASDs showed a uniform distribution of drug particles in the carrier matrix. Morphology (size and shape) of cefuroxime axetil particles was altered in solid dispersion as well as in EASD. EASDs showed better solubility enhancement than conventional solid dispersions. The present technique is better suitable for drugs having a low melting point or melt without charring. Effervescence assisted fusion technique of preparing solid dispersions can be employed for enhancing solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.

  5. Cloud condensation nuclei activation of limited solubility organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff Hartz, Kara E.; Tischuk, Joshua E.; Chan, Man Nin; Chan, Chak K.; Donahue, Neil M.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation of 19 organic species with water solubilities ( Csat) ranging from 10 -4 to 10 2 g solute 100 g -1 H 2O was measured. The organic particles were generated by nebulization of an aqueous or an alcohol solution. Use of alcohols as solvents enables the measurement of low solubility, non-volatile organic CCN activity and reduces the likelihood of residual water in the aerosol. The activation diameter of organic species with very low solubility in water ( Csat<0.3 g 100 g -1 H 2O) is in agreement with Köhler theory using the bulk solubility (limited solubility case) of the organic in water. Many species, including 2-acetylbenzoic acid, aspartic acid, azelaic acid, glutamic acid, homophthalic acid, phthalic acid, cis-pinonic acid, and salicylic acid are highly CCN active in spite of their low solubility (0.3 g 100 g -1 H 2O< Csat<1 g 100 g -1 H 2O), and activate almost as if completely water soluble. The CCN activity of most species is reduced, if the particles are produced using non-aqueous solvents. The existence of the particles in a metastable state at low RH can explain the observed enhancement in CCN activity beyond the levels suggested by their solubility.

  6. 12 CFR 1807.502 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1807.502 Section 1807.502 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.502 Assistance limits. An eligible Applicant...

  7. 12 CFR 1807.502 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1807.502 Section 1807.502 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.502 Assistance limits. An eligible Applicant...

  8. 12 CFR 1807.502 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1807.502 Section 1807.502 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.502 Assistance limits. An eligible Applicant...

  9. 12 CFR 1805.402 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1805.402 Section 1805.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.402 Assistance limits. (a...

  10. 12 CFR 1807.502 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1807.502 Section 1807.502 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.502 Assistance limits. An eligible Applicant and...

  11. 12 CFR 1805.402 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1805.402 Section 1805.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.402 Assistance limits. (a...

  12. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility limit. The

  13. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that are...

  14. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that are...

  15. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that are...

  16. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that are...

  17. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that are...

  18. Arginine-assisted solubilization system for drug substances: solubility experiment and simulation.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Atsushi; Kameda, Tomoshi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2010-10-28

    The poor aqueous solubility of drug substances hampers their broader applications. This paper describes a de novo strategy to increase the aqueous solubility of drug substances using an arginine-assisted solubilization system (AASS) with alkyl gallates as model drug substances. Solubility experiments of alkyl gallates showed that arginine greatly increases the aqueous solubility of different alkyl gallates, whose aqueous solubilities differ widely. In contrast, lysine showed marginal effects on alkyl gallates solubility. Molecular dynamic simulation indicated a greater interaction of arginine with alkyl gallates than that of lysine, which reflects favorable interaction between the guanidinium group of arginine and the aromatic ring of alkyl gallates. Such interaction apparently disrupts association of alkyl gallate molecules, leading to solubilization. These results indicate AASS as a promising approach to solubilize poorly soluble drug substances containing aromatic ring structures.

  19. Overcoming the Solubility Limit with Solubility-Enhancement Tags: Successful Applications in Biomolecular NMR Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pei; Wagner, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although the rapid progress of NMR technology has significantly expanded the range of NMR-trackable systems, preparation of NMR-suitable samples that are highly soluble and stable remains a bottleneck for studies of many biological systems. The application of solubility-enhancement tags (SETs) has been highly effective in overcoming solubility and sample stability issues and has enabled structural studies of important biological systems previously deemed unapproachable by solution NMR techniques. In this review, we provide a brief survey of the development and successful applications of the SET strategy in biomolecular NMR. We also comment on the criteria for choosing optimal SETs, such as for differently charged target proteins, and recent new developments on NMR-invisible SETs. PMID:19731047

  20. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of

  1. Ultimate Limits to Thermally Assisted Magnetic Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Terry

    2004-03-01

    The application of thermal energy to enable recording on extremely high anisotropy magnetic media appears to be a viable means of extending the density of stored information. The central physical issue facing the technology is what gain can be realized in writability along with long- term data stability using imaginable media materials. We reasonably expect the material properties M(T) and H_k(T) to determine this, since a stability metric for media with characteristic magnetization switching unit volume V is MVH_k/2kT. This matter is controversial owing to still open questions related to thermomagnetic recording with temperature elevation above the Curie point and optimal cooling rates. There are indications that multi-component magnetic media may offer advantages in achieving performance goals. Beyond the physical issues lie engineering matters related to the correct system architecture to yield a practical storage device to meet future customer expectations. Here one must address a detailed means of delivering localized heating to the magnetic medium to perform efficient recording. To date, magnetic recording devices have been highly mechanical systems, so it is natural to inquire how a need for an aggressively heated head-medium interface could impact the evolution of future systems. Eventually elements of thermally assisted recording could be combined with patterned media approaches such as self-organized magnetic arrays to push toward ultimate limits where the thermal instability of bits overtakes engineered media materials. Finally, a practical recording system cannot be realized unless a means of finding, following, and reading the smallest bits with a usable signal-to-noise ratio exists - engineering issues separate from an ability to reliably record those bits.

  2. 49 CFR 80.5 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.5 Limitations on assistance. (a) The total amount of credit assistance offered to any project under this part shall not exceed 33 percent of the anticipated eligible project costs, as measured on an...

  3. Soluble molecules in intravenous immunoglobulin: benefits and limitations.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Maryam; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Ochs, Hans D; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Because of its predominance, the main immunomodulatory function of IVIg is carried out by the IgG molecules; while, based on multiple studies, the immunomodulatory role of other soluble molecules in commercial IVIg products is impossible to ignore. Although the existence of these molecules and their suppressive effects on the immune response may be considered a positive contribution to the treatment of autoimmune disorders, their presence, half-life, accumulation and immunosuppressive actions in immunocompromised patients should be monitored by physicians and manufacturing companies.

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis of highly water-soluble graphene towards electrical DNA sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Park, Hoseok; Yang, Min Ho; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Park, Tae Jung

    2010-12-01

    Graphene sheets have the potential for practical applications in electrochemical devices, but their development has been impeded by critical problems with aggregation of graphene sheets. Here, we demonstrated a facile and bottom-up approach for fabrication of DNA sensor device using water-soluble sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) sheets via microwave-assisted sulfonation (MAS), showing enhanced sensitivity, reliability, and low detection limit. Key to achieving these performances is the fabrication of the SRGOs, where the MAS method enabled SRGOs to be highly dispersed in water (10 mg mL-1) due to the acidic sulfonated groups generated within 3 min of the functionalization reaction. The water-soluble SRGO-DNA (SRGOD) hybrids prepared by electrostatic interactions between a flat single layer of graphene sheets and DNAs are suitable for fabrication of electrical DNA sensor devices because of the unique electrical characteristics of SRGODs. The high sensing performance of SRGOD sensors was demonstrated with detection ofDNA hybridization using complementary DNAs, single base mismatched DNAs, and noncomplementary DNAs, with results showing higher sensitivity and lower detection limit than those of reduced graphene oxide-based DNA sensors. Simple and easy fabrication of DNA sensor devices using SRGODs is expected to provide an effective way for electrical detection ofDNA hybridization using miniature sensors without the labor-intensive labeling of the sensor and complex measurement equipment.Graphene sheets have the potential for practical applications in electrochemical devices, but their development has been impeded by critical problems with aggregation of graphene sheets. Here, we demonstrated a facile and bottom-up approach for fabrication of DNA sensor device using water-soluble sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) sheets via microwave-assisted sulfonation (MAS), showing enhanced sensitivity, reliability, and low detection limit. Key to achieving these

  5. 20 CFR 628.535 - Limitations on job search assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations on job search assistance. 628.535... UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Program Design Requirements for Programs Under Title II of the Job Training Partnership Act § 628.535 Limitations on job search assistance. (a)...

  6. Solubility limits in quaternary SnTe-based alloys [Metastability and solubility limits in quaternary SnTe-based alloys guided by combinatorial sputtering

    DOE PAGES

    Siol, Sebastian; Holder, Aaron; Ortiz, Brenden R.; ...

    2017-05-09

    Here, the controlled decomposition of metastable alloys is an attractive route to form nanostructured thermoelectric materials with reduced thermal conductivity. The ternary SnTe–MnTe and SnTe–SnSe heterostructural alloys have been demonstrated as promising materials for thermoelectric applications. In this work, the quaternary Sn1–yMnyTe1–xSex phase space serves as a relevant model system to explore how a combination of computational and combinatorial-growth methods can be used to study equilibrium and non-equilibrium solubility limits. Results from first principle calculations indicate low equilibrium solubility for x,y < 0.05 that are in good agreement with results obtained from bulk equilibrium synthesis experiments and predict significantly highermore » spinodal limits. An experimental screening using sputtered combinatorial thin film sample libraries showed a remarkable increase in non-equilibrium solubility for x,y > 0.2. These theoretical and experimental results were used to guide the bulk synthesis of metastable alloys. The ability to reproduce the non-equilibrium solubility levels in bulk materials indicates that such theoretical calculations and combinatorial growth can inform bulk synthetic routes. Further, the large difference between equilibrium and non-equilibrium solubility limits in Sn1–yMnyTe1–xSex indicates these metastable alloys are attractive in terms of nano-precipitate formation for potential thermoelectric applications.« less

  7. Solubility Limits of Cholesterol, Lanosterol, Ergosterol, Stigmasterol, and β-Sitosterol in Electroformed Lipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Mark M.; Honerkamp-Smith, Aurelia R.; Keller, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance to measure the solubility limit of several biologically relevant sterols in electroformed giant unilamellar vesicle membranes containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids in ratios of 1:1:X DOPC:DPPC:sterol. We find solubility limits of cholesterol, lanosterol, ergosterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol to be 65-70%, ~35%, 30-35%, 20-25%, and ~40%, respectively. The low solubilities of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol, which differ from cholesterol only in their alkyl tails, show that subtle differences in tail structure can strongly affect sterol solubility. Below the solubility limits, the fraction of sterol to PC-lipid in electroformed vesicles linearly reflects the fraction in the original stock solutions used in the electroformation process. PMID:21731574

  8. Solubility Limits of Cholesterol, Lanosterol, Ergosterol, Stigmasterol, and β-Sitosterol in Electroformed Lipid Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Mark M; Honerkamp-Smith, Aurelia R; Keller, Sarah L

    2010-12-07

    Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance to measure the solubility limit of several biologically relevant sterols in electroformed giant unilamellar vesicle membranes containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids in ratios of 1:1:X DOPC:DPPC:sterol. We find solubility limits of cholesterol, lanosterol, ergosterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol to be 65-70%, ~35%, 30-35%, 20-25%, and ~40%, respectively. The low solubilities of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol, which differ from cholesterol only in their alkyl tails, show that subtle differences in tail structure can strongly affect sterol solubility. Below the solubility limits, the fraction of sterol to PC-lipid in electroformed vesicles linearly reflects the fraction in the original stock solutions used in the electroformation process.

  9. Determination of the Solubility Limit of Tris(dibenzylideneacetone) Dipalladium(0) in Tetrahydrofuran/Water Mixtures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the solubility limit of a strongly colored organometallic reagent in a mixed-solvent system provides an example of quantitative solubility measurement appropriate to understand polymer, nanoparticle, and other macromolecular aggregation processes. The specific example chosen involves a solution of tris(dibenzylideneacetone)…

  10. Determination of the Solubility Limit of Tris(dibenzylideneacetone) Dipalladium(0) in Tetrahydrofuran/Water Mixtures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the solubility limit of a strongly colored organometallic reagent in a mixed-solvent system provides an example of quantitative solubility measurement appropriate to understand polymer, nanoparticle, and other macromolecular aggregation processes. The specific example chosen involves a solution of tris(dibenzylideneacetone)…

  11. Soluble epoxide hydrolase limits mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) epoxygenases metabolise arachidonic acid (AA) into four different biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers. Three of the EETs (i.e., 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET) are rapidly hydrolysed by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Here, we investigated the role of sEH in nociceptive processing during peripheral inflammation. Results In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we found that sEH is expressed in medium and large diameter neurofilament 200-positive neurons. Isolated DRG-neurons from sEH-/- mice showed higher EET and lower DHET levels. Upon AA stimulation, the largest changes in EET levels occurred in culture media, indicating both that cell associated EET concentrations quickly reach saturation and EET-hydrolyzing activity mostly effects extracellular EET signaling. In vivo, DRGs from sEH-deficient mice exhibited elevated 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET-levels. Interestingly, EET levels did not increase at the site of zymosan-induced inflammation. Cellular imaging experiments revealed direct calcium flux responses to 8,9-EET in a subpopulation of nociceptors. In addition, 8,9-EET sensitized AITC-induced calcium increases in DRG neurons and AITC-induced calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sciatic nerve axons, indicating that 8,9-EET sensitizes TRPA1-expressing neurons, which are known to contribute to mechanical hyperalgesia. Supporting this, sEH-/- mice showed increased nociceptive responses to mechanical stimulation during zymosan-induced inflammation and 8,9-EET injection reduced mechanical thresholds in naive mice. Conclusion Our results show that the sEH can regulate mechanical hyperalgesia during inflammation by inactivating 8,9-EET, which sensitizes TRPA1-expressing nociceptors. Therefore we suggest that influencing the CYP450 pathway, which is actually highly considered to treat cardiovascular diseases, may cause pain side effects. PMID:21970373

  12. The solubility limited source term for cement-conditioned wastes: A status report

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, F.P.

    1999-07-01

    An important function of the cement backfill in a nuclear waste repository is to react with aqueous waste species and reduce their solubility. However, to quantify backfill performance it is first necessary to prove the existence and establish the nature of the chemical solubility controls. This can be done by characterizing the solubility-limiting phases, determining their solubility and thermodynamic functions, and assessing their stability and persistence and solubility during backfill degradation. Much of the necessary data must be acquired experimentally. The title paper describes briefly the progress of experimental work on selected species including nickel, chromium(III,VI), tin(IV), molybdenum(VI), uranium(VI), Ce(III,IV), thorium, actinide simulants (III,IV) and chloride. Data needs are assessed and although much experimental work remains to be done, methodologies have been developed which will expedite progress. The expectation of a more quantitative performance assessment of cement barriers is, therefore, attainable.

  13. Predicting the solid solubility limit in high-entropy alloys using the molecular orbital approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Saad; Klement, Uta; Guo, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are currently at the research frontier of metallic materials. Understanding the solid solubility limit in HEAs, such a highly concentrated multicomponent alloy system, is scientifically intriguing. It is also technically important to achieve desirable mechanical properties by controlling the formation of topologically or geometrically closed packed phases. Previous approaches to describe the solid solubilities in HEAs could not accurately locate the solubility limit and have to utilize at least two parameters. Here, we propose to use a single parameter, the average energy of d-orbital levels, Md, to predict the solid solubility limit in HEAs. It is found that Md can satisfactorily describe the solid solubilities in fcc structured HEAs containing 3 d transition metals, and also in bcc structured HEAs. This finding will greatly simplify the alloys design and lends more flexibility to control the mechanical properties of HEAs. When 4 d transition metals are alloyed, Md alone cannot describe the solid solubility limit in fcc structured HEAs, due to the large increase of the bond strength that can be gauged by the bond order, Bo. The potential opportunities and challenges with applying the molecular orbital approach to HEAs are discussed.

  14. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of highly stable dispersions of water-soluble copper nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jing; Wu, Xue-dong; Xue, Qun-ji

    2013-01-15

    Water-soluble and highly stable dispersions of copper nanoparticles were obtained using a biomolecule-assisted synthetic method. Dopamine was utilized as both reducing and capping agent in aqueous medium. The successful formation of DA-stabilized copper particles was demonstrated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The mechanism of dopamine on the effective reduction and excellent stability of copper nanoparticles was also discussed. This facile biomolecule-assisted technique may provide a useful tool to synthesize other nanoparticles that have potential application in biotechnology.

  15. Kinetics of silver release from microfuel with taking into account the limited-solubility effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. S. Rusinkevich, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of a limited solubility of silver in silicon carbide on silver release from a microfuel with a TRISO coating is studied. It is shown that a limited solubility affects substantially both concentration profiles and silver release from a microfuel over a broad range of temperatures. A procedure is developed for obtaining fission-product concentration profiles in a microfuel and graphs representing the flow and integrated release of fission products on the basis of data from neutron-physics calculations and results obtained by calculating thermodynamics with the aid of the Ivtanthermo code and kinetics with the aid of the FP-Kinetics code. This procedure takes into account a limited solubility of fission products in protective coatings of microfuel.

  16. Physician-assisted death with limited access to palliative care.

    PubMed

    Barutta, Joaquín; Vollmann, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Even among advocates of legalising physician-assisted death, many argue that this should be done only once palliative care has become widely available. Meanwhile, according to them, physician-assisted death should be banned. Four arguments are often presented to support this claim, which we call the argument of lack of autonomy, the argument of existing alternatives, the argument of unfair inequalities and the argument of the antagonism between physician-assisted death and palliative care. We argue that although these arguments provide strong reasons to take appropriate measures to guarantee access to good quality palliative care to everyone who needs it, they do not justify a ban on physician-assisted death until we have achieved this goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  18. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION...

  19. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  20. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION...

  1. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  2. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  3. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION...

  4. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  5. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  6. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  7. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION...

  8. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  9. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  10. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY...

  11. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION...

  12. Scalable exfoliation process for highly soluble boron nitride nanoplatelets by hydroxide-assisted ball milling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongju; Lee, Bin; Park, Kwang Hyun; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2015-02-11

    The scalable preparation of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is essential for practical applications. Despite intense research in this area, high-yield production of two-dimensional h-BN with large-size and high solubility remains a key challenge. In the present work, we propose a scalable exfoliation process for hydroxyl-functionalized BN nanoplatelets (OH-BNNPs) by a simple ball milling of BN powders in the presence of sodium hydroxide via the synergetic effect of chemical peeling and mechanical shear forces. The hydroxide-assisted ball milling process results in relatively large flakes with an average size of 1.5 μm with little damage to the in-plane structure of the OH-BNNP and high yields of 18%. The resultant OH-BNNP samples can be redispersed in various solvents and form stable dispersions that can be used for multiple purposes. The incorporation of the BNNPs into the polyethylene matrix effectively enhanced the barrier properties of the polyethylene due to increased tortuosity of the diffusion path of the gas molecules. Hydroxide-assisted ball milling process can thus provide simple and efficient approaches to scalable preparation of large-size and highly soluble BNNPs. Moreover, this exfoliation process is not only easily scalable but also applicable to other layered materials.

  13. Robotic-assisted surgery in children: advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Al-Bassam, Abdulrahman

    2010-05-01

    The use of surgical robots in minimally invasive surgery was developed to overcome difficulties seen with conventional laparoscopic surgery. I report my experience with pediatric robotic-assisted surgery and highlight its feasibility, safety, advantages, and limitations. Children and infants included in this study underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic procedures performed by the author, using the original da Vinci surgical system, between July 2005 and July 2008. Their medical records were reviewed with respect to demographic data, robot setup times, techniques and operative procedures, complications, outcomes, and follow-up duration. Forty-three patients (20 female, 23 male), ranging in age from 2.5 months to 16 years, underwent 46 robotic-assisted procedures. Mean setup time was 17.6 min. One primary and two to four working ports were used, allowing insertion of 5- and 8-mm robotic instruments. Five- and 11-mm telescopes were used based on patient size. All procedures were successfully completed except for two. The most common procedure was Nissen fundoplication (N = 26). There were no intraoperative complications or deaths, but three patients developed postoperative complications. Mean follow-up time was 12 months. Robotic-assisted surgery in children is safe, feasible, and applicable to a wide range of procedures. Advantages include improved visibility, dexterity, and ergonomics, although it does have certain limitations. Technological refinements will allow its use in more complex procedures, with probable greater use of robots in pediatric surgery.

  14. In vitro determination of the solubility limit of cholesterol in phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Epand, Richard M; Bach, Diana; Wachtel, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol has limited solubility in phospholipid bilayers. The solubility limit is strongly dependent on the nature of the lipid with which the cholesterol is mixed while properties of the crystals formed can be modified by phospholipid-cholesterol interactions. In this review we summarize the various methods that have been developed to prepare hydrated mixtures of cholesterol and phospholipid. We point out some of the factors that determine the form adopted when cholesterol crystallizes in such mixtures, i.e. two- or three-dimensional, monohydrate or anhydrous. These differences can greatly affect the ability to experimentally detect the presence of these crystals in a membrane. Several methods for detecting cholesterol crystals are discussed and compared including DSC, X-ray and GIXRD diffraction methods, NMR and EPR spectroscopy. The importance of the history of the sample in determining the amount and nature of the cholesterol crystals formed is emphasized.

  15. Application of hot melt extrusion for poorly water-soluble drugs: limitations, advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Guo, Zhefei; Li, Yongcheng; Pang, Huishi; Lin, Ling; Liu, Xu; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2014-01-01

    Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a powerful technology to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by producing amorphous solid dispersions. Although the number of articles and patents about HME increased dramatically in the past twenty years, there are very few commercial products by far. The three main obstacles limiting the commercial application of HME are summarized as thermal degradation of heat-sensitive drugs at high process temperature, recrystallization of amorphous drugs during storage and dissolving process, and difficulty to obtain products with reproducible physicochemical properties. Many efforts have been taken in recent years to understand the basic mechanism underlying these obstacles and then to overcome them. This article reviewed and summarized the limitations, recent advances, and future prospects of HME.

  16. Growth and Magnetic Properties of Mn-doped Germanium near the Kinetic Solubility Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Ozer, Mustafa M; Thompson, James R; Weitering, Harm H

    2012-01-01

    Growth of high-quality dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material is often compromised by the low solubility of magnetic dopants, leading to formation of precipitates. Here, we explore the feasibility of growing precipitate-free Mn-doped Ge at doping levels near the kinetic solubility limit. Ge:Mn DMS films were grown at low temperature so as to minimize precipitate formation. Meanwhile, epitaxial quality was maintained by employing a very low growth rate. The magnetic properties of these lightly doped films exhibit both interesting contrasts and similarities with those of heavily-doped DMS reported in the literature, indicating that the substitutional Mn contents are very similar. Films grown at 95 degree C are free of intermetallic precipitates, offering useful opportunities for studying the fundamentals of carrier mediated exchange and metal insulator transitions without complications arising from precipitate formation.

  17. Is experimental data quality the limiting factor in predicting the aqueous solubility of druglike molecules?

    PubMed

    Palmer, David S; Mitchell, John B O

    2014-08-04

    We report the results of testing quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) that were trained upon the same druglike molecules but two different sets of solubility data: (i) data extracted from several different sources from the published literature, for which the experimental uncertainty is estimated to be 0.6-0.7 log S units (referred to mol/L); (ii) data measured by a single accurate experimental method (CheqSol), for which experimental uncertainty is typically <0.05 log S units. Contrary to what might be expected, the models derived from the CheqSol experimental data are not more accurate than those derived from the "noisy" literature data. The results suggest that, at the present time, it is the deficiency of QSPR methods (algorithms and/or descriptor sets), and not, as is commonly quoted, the uncertainty in the experimental measurements, which is the limiting factor in accurately predicting aqueous solubility for pharmaceutical molecules.

  18. Limitations on post-processing assisted quantum programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Miyadera, Takayuki; Tukiainen, Mikko

    2017-03-01

    A quantum multimeter is a programmable device that can implement measurements of different observables depending on the programming quantum state inserted into it. The advantage of this arrangement over a single-purpose device is in its versatility: one can realize various measurements simply by changing the programming state. The classical manipulation of measurement output data is known as post-processing. In this work we study the post-processing assisted quantum programming, which is a protocol where quantum programming and classical post-processing are combined. We provide examples showing that these two processes combined can be more efficient than either of them used separately. Furthermore, we derive an inequality relating the programming resources to their corresponding programmed observables, thereby enabling us to study the limitations on post-processing assisted quantum programming.

  19. Assistive technology in resource-limited environments: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Matter, Rebecca; Harniss, Mark; Oderud, Tone; Borg, Johan; Eide, Arne H

    2017-02-01

    It is estimated that only 5-15% of people in low and middle income countries (LMICs) who need assistive technologies (AT) have access to them. This scoping review was conducted to provide a comprehensive picture of the current evidence base on AT within LMICs and other resource limited environments. The scoping review involved locating evidence, extracting data, and summarizing characteristics of all included research publications. Of the 252 publications included, over 80% focused on types of AT that address mobility (45.2%) and vision (35.5%) needs, with AT types of spectacles and prosthetics comprising over 50% of all publications. Evidence on AT that addresses hearing, communication, and cognition is the most underrepresented within the existing evidence base. The vast majority of study designs are observational (63%). Evidence on AT in resource-limited environments is limited in quantity and quality, and not evenly distributed across types of AT. To advance this field, we recommend using appropriate evidence review approaches that allow for heterogeneous study designs, and developing a common language by creating a typology of AT research focus areas. Funders and researchers must commit much greater resources to the AT field to ameliorate the paucity of evidence available. Implications for Rehabilitation An increase in the quality and quantity of research is required in resource limited environments, where 80% of the global population of people with disabilities reside. Improved and increased evidence is needed to identify and understand needs, inform policy and practice, and assess progress made in increasing access to and availability of appropriate AT. Over 80% of the existing research publications on assistive technologies in resource limited environments address mobility and vision. More research is needed on AT that address hearing, communication and cognition. The use of a common language would facilitate the advancement of the global AT research field

  20. Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and total metal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Apak, R.; Hizal, J.; Ustaer, C.

    1999-03-15

    As an alternative to species distribution diagrams (pM vs pH curves in aqueous solution) drawn for a fixed total metal concentration, this work has developed simple linear models for correlating the limiting pH of metal ion solubility -- in equilibrium with the least soluble amorphous metal hydroxide solid phase -- to the total metal concentration. Thus adsorptive metal removal processes in complex systems can be better designed once the limiting pH of heavy metal solubility (i.e., pH{sup *}) in such a complex environment can be envisaged by simple linear equations. pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} (M{sub t} = total metal concentration that can exist in aqueous solution in equilibrium with M(OH){sub 2(s)}) linear curves for uranyl-hydroxide, uranyl-carbonate-hydroxide, and mercuric-chloride-hydroxide simple and mixed-ligand systems and cupric-carbonate-hydroxide complexes in equilibrium with mixed hydroxide solid phases may enable the experimental chemist to distinguish true adsorption (e.g., onto hydrous oxide sorbents) from bulk precipitation removal of the metal and to interpret some anomalous metal fixation data -- usually attributed to pure adsorption in the literature -- with precipitation if the pM{sub t} at the studied pH is lower than that tolerated by pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} curves. This easily predictable pH{sup *} corresponding to a given pM{sub t} may aid the design of desorptive mobilization experiments for certain metals as well as their adsorptive removal with the purpose of simulating metal adsorption and desorption cycles in real complex environments with changing groundwater pH.

  1. NO-independent stimulation or activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase during early reperfusion limits infarct size.

    PubMed

    Bice, Justin S; Keim, Yvonne; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Baxter, Gary F

    2014-02-01

    Guanylyl cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signalling plays an important role in endogenous cardioprotective signalling. The aim was to assess the potential of direct pharmacological activation and stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, targeting different redox states of the enzyme, to limit myocardial necrosis during early reperfusion. Rat isolated hearts were subjected to reversible left coronary artery occlusion (ischaemia-reperfusion) and infarct size was assessed by the tetrazolium staining technique. Administration during early reperfusion of BAY 41-2272, an NO-independent, haem-dependent stimulator of soluble guanylyl cyclase targeting the reduced state, or BAY 60-2770, an NO-independent, haem-independent activator targeting the oxidized state, significantly limited infarct size. Inhibition of NO synthesis did not abrogate this protection, but exogenous perfusion of NO with BAY 41-2272 produced a synergistic effect. The haem site oxidiser, ODQ abrogated the protection afforded by BAY 41-2272 but potentiated the protection afforded by BAY 60-2770. Targeting both the reduced and oxidized forms of sGC together did not afford additive protection. Targeting either reduced or oxidized forms of sGC during early reperfusion affords cardioprotection, providing support for the concept that direct sGC manipulation at reperfusion has therapeutic potential for the management of acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Solubility Limits in Lennard-Jones Mixtures: Effects of Disparate Molecule Geometries.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kippi M; Perkyns, John S; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2015-07-23

    In order to better understand general effects of the size and energy disparities between macromolecules and solvent molecules in solution, especially for macromolecular constructs self-assembled from smaller molecules, we use the first- and second-order exact bridge diagram extensions of the HNC integral equation theory to investigate single-component, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of Lennard-Jones fluids. For pure fluids, we find that the HNCH3 bridge function integral equation (i.e., exact to third order in density) is necessary to quantitatively predict the pure gas and pure liquid sides of the coexistence region of the phase diagram of the Lennard-Jones fluid. For the mixtures, we find that the HNCH2 bridge function integral equation is sufficient to qualitatively predict solubility in the binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures, up to the nominal solubility limit. The results, as limiting cases, should be useful to several problems, including accurate phase diagram predictions for complex mixtures, design of self-assembling nanostructures via solvent controls, and the solvent contributions to the conformational behavior of macromolecules in complex fluids.

  3. Simulating herbicide volatilization from bare soil affected by atmospheric conditions and limited solubility in water.

    PubMed

    Yates, S R

    2006-11-15

    A numerical model that simulates pesticide fate was developed to predictthe behavior of triallate after application to a field soil. The model has options that allow water and/ or heat transport and can limit simulated aqueous-phase concentrations to triallate solubility in water. Several methods for describing the volatilization boundary condition were tested to assess the accuracy in predicting the volatilization rate, including an approach that requires no atmospheric information and an approach that couples soil and atmospheric processes. Four scenarios were constructed and simulated, to compare with measured volatilization rates. The peak measured volatilization rate (168 g ha(-1) h(-1)) was most accurately predicted with the scenario that included the most complex model (100 g ha(-1) h(-1)). The simplest model overpredicted the peak rate (251 g ha(-1) h(-1)), and the others underpredicted the peak rate (16-67 g ha(-1) h(-1)). The simulations that limited aqueous solubility provided relatively similar values for the total emissions (21-37% of applied triallate), indicating that simplified models may compare well with measurements (31% of applied). A prospective simulation over a period of 100 days showed that applying triallate to the soil surface would ultimately lead to atmospheric emissions of 80% of the applied material with 6% remaining in soil. Incorporating triallate to a depth of 10 cm would reduce emissions to less than 5% and lead to 41% remaining in soil.

  4. Heme-assisted S-Nitrosation Desensitizes Ferric Soluble Guanylate Cyclase to Nitric Oxide*

    PubMed Central

    Fernhoff, Nathaniel B.; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Underbakke, Eric S.; Marletta, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) signaling regulates key processes in cardiovascular physiology, specifically vasodilation, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte rolling. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), the mammalian NO sensor, transduces an NO signal into the classical second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP). NO binds to the ferrous (Fe2+) oxidation state of the sGC heme cofactor and stimulates formation of cGMP several hundred-fold. Oxidation of the sGC heme to the ferric (Fe3+) state desensitizes the enzyme to NO. The heme-oxidized state of sGC has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism of NO desensitization and find that sGC undergoes a reductive nitrosylation reaction that is coupled to the S-nitrosation of sGC cysteines. We further characterize the kinetics of NO desensitization and find that heme-assisted nitrosothiol formation of β1Cys-78 and β1Cys-122 causes the NO desensitization of ferric sGC. Finally, we provide evidence that the mechanism of reductive nitrosylation is gated by a conformational change of the protein. These results yield insights into the function and dysfunction of sGC in cardiovascular disease. PMID:23093402

  5. Ultrasound assisted method to increase soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of sewage sludge for digestion.

    PubMed

    Grönroos, Antti; Kyllönen, Hanna; Korpijärvi, Kirsi; Pirkonen, Pentti; Paavola, Teija; Jokela, Jari; Rintala, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the possibilities to increase the amount of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and methane production of sludge using ultrasound technologies with and without oxidising agents. The study was done using multivariate data analyses. The most important factors affected were discovered. Ultrasonically assisted disintegration increased clearly the amount of SCOD of sludge. Also more methane was produced from treated sludge in anaerobic batch assays compared to the sludge with no ultrasonic treatment. Multivariate data analysis showed that ultrasonic power, dry solid content of sludge (DS), sludge temperature and ultrasonic treatment time have the most significant effect on the disintegration. It was also observed that in the reactor studied energy efficiency with high ultrasound power together with short treatment time was higher than with low ultrasound power with long treatment time. When oxidising agents were used together with ultrasound no increase in SCOD was achieved compared the ultrasonic treatment alone and only a slight increase in total organic carbon of sludge was observed. However, no enhancement in methane production was observed when using oxidising agents together with ultrasound compared the ultrasonic treatment alone. Ultrasound propagation is an important factor in ultrasonic reactor scale up. Ultrasound efficiency rose linearly with input power in sludge at small distances from the transducer. Instead, ultrasound efficiency started even to decrease with input power at long distances from the transducer.

  6. Morphology control of lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles by soluble starch-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaoyong; Xu, Ming; Du, Binglin; Zhu, Huali; Xie, Tian; Wang, Wenhua

    2014-12-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potentially high efficiency cathode material for lithium ion batteries, but the low electronic conductivity and one-dimensional diffusion channel for lithium ions require small particle size and shape control during the synthesis. In this paper, well-crystallized and morphology-controlled LiFePO4 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries is successfully synthesized via a soluble starch-assisted hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 5 h, followed by calcining with phenolic resin at 750 °C for 6 h. In this study, we investigate the effect of five different concentrations of starch solution on controlling morphology of LiFePO4. Interestingly, the nano-sized LiFePO4 particles obtained in 0.075 mol L-1 starch solution exhibit a spheroidal microstructure, while the platelet shape LiFePO4 particles are synthesized in lower or higher concentration of starch solution. The mechanism and process of forming such spheroidal microstructure is discussed. These unique structural and morphological properties of LiFePO4 lead to high specific capacity and stable cycling performance. Analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that nano-sized carbon/polyacene coated LiFePO4 cathode materials play an critical role in achieving excellent electrochemical performance.

  7. Enhancements and limits in drug membrane transport using supersaturated solutions of poorly water soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Raina, Shweta A; Zhang, Geoff G Z; Alonzo, David E; Wu, Jianwei; Zhu, Donghua; Catron, Nathaniel D; Gao, Yi; Taylor, Lynne S

    2014-09-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) give rise to supersaturated solutions (solution concentration greater than equilibrium crystalline solubility). We have recently found that supersaturating dosage forms can exhibit the phenomenon of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). Thus, the high supersaturation generated by dissolving ASDs can lead to a two-phase system wherein one phase is an initially nanodimensioned and drug-rich phase and the other is a drug-lean continuous aqueous phase. Herein, the membrane transport of supersaturated solutions, at concentrations above and below the LLPS concentration has been evaluated using a side-by-side diffusion cell. Measurements of solution concentration with time in the receiver cell yield the flux, which reflects the solute thermodynamic activity in the donor cell. As the nominal concentration of solute in the donor cell increases, a linear increase in flux was observed up to the concentration where LLPS occurred. Thereafter, the flux remained essentially constant. Both nifedipine and felodipine solutions exhibit such behavior as long as crystallization is absent. This suggests that there is an upper limit in passive membrane transport that is dictated by the LLPS concentration. These results have several important implications for drug delivery, especially for poorly soluble compounds requiring enabling formulation technologies.

  8. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase limits niacin-induced vasodilation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Inceoglu, A. B.; Clifton, H.L.; Yang, J.; Hegedus, C.; Hammock, B. D.; Schaefer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of niacin in the treatment of dyslipidemias is limited by the common side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly termed flushing. Flushing is thought to be due to release of the vasodilatory prostanoids PGD2 and PGE2 from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Arachidonic acid is also metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system which is regulated, in part, by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Methods: These experiments used an established murine model in which ear tissue perfusion was measured by laser Doppler to test the hypothesis that inhibition of sEH would limit niacin-induced flushing. Results: Niacin-induced flushing was reduced from 506 ± 126 to 213 ± 39 % in sEH knockout animals. Pharmacologic treatment with 3 structurally distinct sEH inhibitors similarly reduced flushing in a dose dependent manner, with maximal reduction to 143±15% of baseline flow using a concentration of 1 mg/kg TPAU (1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl) urea). Systemically administered PGD2 caused ear vasodilation which was not changed by either pharmacologic sEH inhibition or by sEH gene deletion. Conclusions: Inhibition of sEH markedly reduces niacin-induced flushing in this model without an apparent effect on the response to PGD2. sEH inhibition may be a new therapeutic approach to limit flushing in humans. PMID:22526297

  9. Non-Sink Dissolution Behavior and Solubility Limit of Commercial Tacrolimus Amorphous Formulations.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Purohit, Hitesh S; Wen, Hong; Sun, Dajun D; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of drugs with low aqueous solubility are being formulated and marketed as amorphous solid dispersions because the amorphous form can generate a higher solubility compared to the crystalline solid. The amorphous solubility of a drug can be determined experimentally using various techniques. Most studies in this area investigate the drug in its pure form and do not evaluate any effects from other formulation ingredients. In this study, we use 6 marketed amorphous oral drug products, capsules containing 5 mg of tacrolimus, and various excipients, consisting of 1 innovator product and 5 generics. The amorphous solubility of tacrolimus was evaluated using different techniques and was compared to the crystalline solubility of the drug. Dissolution of the different products was conducted under non-sink conditions to compare the maximum achieved concentration with the amorphous solubility. Diffusion studies were performed to elucidate the maximum flux across a membrane and to evaluate whether there was any difference in the thermodynamic activity of the drug released from the formulation and the pure drug. The amorphous solubility of tacrolimus was found to be a factor of 35 higher than the crystalline solubility. The maximum concentration obtained after dissolution of the capsule contents in non-sink conditions was found to match the experimentally determined amorphous solubility of the pure drug. Furthermore, the membrane flux of tacrolimus following dissolution of the various formulations was found to be similar and maximized. This study demonstrates a link between key physicochemical properties (amorphous solubility) and in vitro formulation performance.

  10. Kinetic effects and mechanisms limiting substitutional solubility in the formation of supersaturated alloys by pulsed laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.W.; Appleton, B.R.; Stritzker, B.; Zehner, D.M.; Wilson, S.R.

    1980-11-01

    Pulsed laser annealing of silicon implanted by Group (III,V) dopants leads to the formation of supersaturated alloys by nonequilibrium processes occurring in the interfacial region during liquid phase epitaxial regrowth. The distribution coefficient from the melt (k') and the maximum dopant substitutional solubility (C/sub s//sup max/) are far greater than equilibrium values and both are functions of growth velocity. Substitutional solubility is limited by lattice strain and by constitutional supercooling at the interface during regrowth. Values for C/sub s//sup max/ obtained at different velocities are compared with predictions of thermodynamic limits for solute trapping.

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultimate limits to thermally assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Terry W.

    2005-02-01

    The application of thermal energy to enable recording on extremely high anisotropy magnetic media appears to be a viable means of extending the density of stored information. The central physical issue facing the technology is what gain can be realized in writability along with long-term data stability using imaginable media materials. We reasonably expect the material properties M(T) and Hk(T) to determine this, since a stability metric for media with characteristic magnetization switching unit volume V is MV Hk/2kBT. This matter is controversial owing to still open questions related to thermomagnetic recording with temperature elevation above the Curie point and optimal cooling rates. There are indications that multi-component magnetic media may offer advantages in achieving performance goals. Beyond the physical issues lie engineering matters related to the correct system architecture to yield a practical storage device to meet future customer expectations. Here one must address a detailed means of delivering localized heating to the magnetic medium to perform efficient recording. To date, magnetic recording devices have been highly mechanical systems, so it is natural to inquire how a need for an aggressively heated head-medium interface could impact the evolution of future systems. Eventually elements of thermally assisted recording could be combined with patterned media approaches such as self-organized magnetic arrays to push toward ultimate limits where the thermal instability of bits overtakes engineered media materials. Finally, a practical recording system cannot be realized unless a means of finding, following, and reading the smallest bits with a usable signal-to-noise ratio exists—engineering issues separate from an ability to reliably record those bits. This paper is based on an invited presentation of the same title given at the meeting of the American Physical Society, 22-26 March 2004, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

  12. Limitations of polyethylene glycol-induced precipitation as predictive tool for protein solubility during formulation development.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Melanie; Winzer, Matthias; Weber, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2017-01-20

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced protein precipitation is often used to extrapolate apparent protein solubility at specific formulation compositions. The procedure was used for several fields of application such as protein crystal growth but also protein formulation development. Nevertheless, most studies focused on applicability in protein crystal growth. In contrast, this study focuses on applicability of PEG-induced precipitation during high-concentration protein formulation development. In this study, solubility of three different model proteins was investigated over a broad range of pH. Solubility values predicted by PEG-induced precipitation were compared to real solubility behaviour determined by either turbidity or content measurements. Predicted solubility by PEG-induced precipitation was confirmed for an Fc fusion protein and a monoclonal antibody. In contrast, PEG-induced precipitation failed to predict solubility of a single-domain antibody construct. Applicability of PEG-induced precipitation as indicator of protein solubility during formulation development was found to be not valid for one of three model molecules. Under certain conditions, PEG-induced protein precipitation is not valid for prediction of real protein solubility behaviour. The procedure should be used carefully as tool for formulation development, and the results obtained should be validated by additional investigations. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. THE LATTICE PARAMETERS AND SOLUBILITY LIMITS OF ALPHA IRON AS AFFECTED BY SOME BINARY TRANSITION-ELEMENT ADDITIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The lattice parameters of alpha iron with binary additions of all the transition metals, except technetium, have been accurately determined on solid...samples. No direct correlation with solute size is observed, but an effect of electron configuration is noted. The solubility limits of alpha iron with

  14. Tb3+ ion doping into Al2O3: Solubility limit and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-11-01

    Tb3+-activated Al2O3 phosphors with a molar ratio of \\text{Al}:\\text{Tb} = (1 - x):x are synthesized by metal organic decomposition (x = 0-0.15) and subsequent calcination at T c = 200-1200 °C for 1 h in air. The material properties of the synthesized phosphors are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) analyses, PL excitation spectroscopy, and luminescence lifetime measurements. At x = 0.015, the metastable phase of γ-Al2O3 is obtained by calcination at T c ˜ 300-1050 °C and a mixture of γ, θ, and α phases at T c ˜ 1050-1150 °C. The high-temperature stable phase of α-Al2O3 is obtained only at T c ≥ 1150 °C. Below T c ˜ 300 °C, the XRD data suggest the formation of boehmite (AlOOH). The solubility limit of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is also clearly determined to be x ˜ 0.015 (1.5%). The PL decay time of the Tb3+ green emission in α-Al2O3 is ˜1.1 ms for x < 0.015 and slowly decreases with further increase in x (Tb3+). The schematic energy-level diagram of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is proposed for a better understanding of the present phosphor system. Finally, the temperature dependence of the PL intensity is examined between T = 20 and 450 K, yielding quenching energies of E q ˜ 0.28 eV (α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3).

  15. 20 CFR 628.535 - Limitations on job search assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... excluding tutoring, standalone skill assessment, counseling, work experience and case management. (See § 627.... Job search assistance is designed to give a participant skills in acquiring full time employment. (See... training services listed in JTPA section 204(b)(1) of the Act, excluding standalone skill...

  16. 20 CFR 628.535 - Limitations on job search assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Program Design Requirements for Programs Under Title.... Job search assistance is designed to give a participant skills in acquiring full time employment. (See... other training or educational services designed to increase the participant's ability to acquire...

  17. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot-micelles.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Bunge, Scott D.; Gabaldon, John; Fan, Hongyou; Scullin, Chessa; Leve, Erik W.; Wilson, Michael C.; Tallant, David Robert; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid approach to synthesize water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent quantum dot (QD) micelles by encapsulation of monodisperse, hydrophobic QDs within surfactant/lipid micelles. Analyses of UV-vis and photo luminescence spectra, along with transmission electron microscopy, indicate that the water-soluble semiconductor QD micelles are monodisperse and retain the optical properties of the original hydrophobic QDs. The QD micelles were shown to be biocompatible and exhibited little or no aggregation when taken up by cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  18. Potential for radionuclide immobilization in the EBS/NFE: solubility limiting phases for neptunium, plutonium, and uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J. A., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    Retardation and dispersion in the far field of radionuclides released from the engineered barrier system/near field environment (EBS/NFE) may not be sufficient to prevent regulatory limits being exceeded at the accessible environment. Hence, a greater emphasis must be placed on retardation and/or immobilization of radionuclides in the EBS/NFE. The present document represents a survey of radionuclide-bearing solid phases that could potentially form in the EBS/NFE and immobilize radionuclides released from the waste package and significantly reduce the source term. A detailed literature search was undertaken for experimental solubilities of the oxides, hydroxides, and various salts of neptunium, plutonium, and uranium in aqueous solutions as functions of pH, temperature, and the concentrations of added electrolytes. Numerous solubility studies and reviews were identified and copies of most of the articles were acquired. However, this project was only two months in duration, and copies of some the identified solubility studies could not be obtained at short notice. The results of this survey are intended to be used to assess whether a more detailed study of identified low- solubility phase(s) is warranted, and not as a data base suitable for predicting radionuclide solubility. The results of this survey may also prove useful in a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of incorporating chemical additives to the EBS/NFE that will enhance radionuclide immobilization.

  19. Observation of oxide particles below the apparent oxygen solubility limit in tantalum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1974-01-01

    The apparent solubility of oxygen in polycrystalline tantalum as determined by the X-ray diffraction lattice parameter technique is about 1.63 at. pct at 820 C. However, oxide particles were identified in samples containing as low as 0.5 at. pct oxygen. These particles were present at the grain boundaries and within the grains. The number of oxide particles increased with increasing oxygen concentration in tantalum. The presence of oxide particles suggests that the true solubility in the polycrystalline tantalum metal is probably lower than that reported in the literature.

  20. Observation of oxide particles below the apparent oxygen solubility limit in tantalum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1973-01-01

    The apparent solubility of oxygen in polycrystalline tantalum as determined by the X-ray diffraction lattice parameter technique is about 1.63 atomic percent at 820 C. However, oxide particles were identified in samples containing as low as 0.5 atomic percent of oxygen. These oxide particles were present at the grain boundaries and within the grains. The number of oxide particles increased with increasing oxygen concentration in tantalum. The presence of oxide particles suggests that the true solubility of oxygen in the polycrystalline tantalum metal is probably significantly lower than that reported in the literature.

  1. Solubility limits and phase diagrams for fatty alcohols in anionic (SLES) and zwitterionic (CAPB) micellar surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Tzocheva, Sylvia S; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Georgieva, Gergana S; Post, Albert J; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P

    2015-07-01

    By analysis of experimental data, a quantitative theoretical interpretation of the solubility limit of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols in micellar solutions of water-soluble surfactants is presented. A general picture of the phase behavior of the investigated systems is given in the form of phase diagrams. The limited solubility of the fatty alcohols in the micelles of conventional surfactants is explained with the precipitation of their monomers in the bulk, rather than with micelle phase separation. The long chain fatty alcohols (with n=14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms) exhibit an ideal mixing in the micelles of the anionic surfactant sodium laurylethersulfate (SLES) and the zwitterionic surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. Deviations from ideality are observed for the alcohols of shorter chain (n=10 and 12), which can be explained by a mismatch with the longer chains of the surfactant molecules. Using the determined thermodynamic parameters of the systems, their phase diagrams are constructed. Such a diagram consists of four domains, viz. mixed micelles; coexistent micelles and precipitate (dispersed crystallites or droplets); precipitate without micelles, and molecular solution. The four boundary lines intersect in a quadruple point, Q. For ionic surfactants (like SLES), a detailed theory for calculating the boundary lines of the phase diagrams is developed and verified against data for the positions of the kinks in surface tension isotherms. The theory takes into account the electrostatic interactions in the micellar solutions and the effect of counterion binding. The results can be useful for a quantitative interpretation and prediction of the phase behavior of mixed solutions of two (or more) surfactants, one of them being water soluble and forming micelles, whereas the other one has a limited water solubility, but readily forms mixed micelles with the former surfactant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters to predict drug-nail interactions, which can assist the design of nail medicines.

    PubMed

    Hossin, B; Rizi, K; Murdan, S

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesised that Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) can be used to predict drug-nail affinities. Our aims were to: (i) determine the HSPs (δD, δP, δH) of the nail plate, the hoof membrane (a model for the nail plate), and of the drugs terbinafine HCl, amorolfine HCl, ciclopirox olamine and efinaconazole, by measuring their swelling/solubility in organic liquids, (ii) predict nail-drug interactions by comparing drug and nail HSPs, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of these predictions using literature reports of experimentally-determined affinities of these drugs for keratin, the main constituent of the nail plate and hoof. Many solvents caused no change in the mass of nail plates, a few solvents deswelled the nail, while others swelled the nail to varying extents. Fingernail and toenail HSPs were almost the same, while hoof HSPs were similar, except for a slightly lower δP. High nail-terbinafine HCl, nail-amorolfine HCl and nail-ciclopirox olamine affinities, and low nail-efinaconazole affinities were then predicted, and found to accurately match experimental reports of these drugs' affinities to keratin. We therefore propose that drug and nail Hansen Solubility Parameters may be used to predict drug-nail interactions, and that these results can assist in the design of drugs for the treatment of nail diseases, such as onychomycosis and psoriasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of HSPs in ungual research.

  3. Scalable preparation and characterization of GaN nanopowders with high crystallinity by soluble salts-assisted route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yingying; Yu, Leshu; Ai, Wenwen; Li, Chungen

    2014-11-01

    By using Na3PO4 as a dispersant, soluble salt-assisted route has been further developed to prepare high-crystalline GaN nanoparticles powder on a large scale through the direct nitridation of Ga-Na3PO4 mixture at 750-950 °C and followed by washing with water. The systematical characterizations including XRD, Raman, IR, TEM, XPS, and PL spectrum showed that the as-prepared nanopowders were composed of nanoparticles in diameters of 8-18 nm, hexagonal phase, pure GaN, and had a broad UV centered at 388 nm and blue emissions band centered at around 547 nm. Because of the utilization of the simple reaction between metallic Ga and NH3, the preparation of pure GaN nanopowders becomes very easy, economical, and scalable, suggesting broad application in optoelectronic device material. The interesting results indicate the wide range of soluble salt-assisted route for promising industrial production of GaN nanopowders.

  4. Challenges and Limitations of Intelligent Ambient Assisted Living Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichert, Reiner

    As a result of changing demographics, residing and being cared for in one's own familiar environment versus in an institutionalised inpatient setting is becoming the more attractive alternative for an ever increasing portion of the population. Despite its tremendous market potential, the AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) branch is still on the cusp of a mainstream breakthrough. A lack of viable business models is considered almost unanimously to be the greatest market obstacle to a broad implementation of innovative AAL systems. This paper highlights possible explanations for this deficit and shows why the AAL community has yet to arrive at joint solutions based on a unified AAL reference platform. Furthermore, this paper describes the enormous potential of AmI and AAL, as the first real opportunity for their success is provided through universAAL and AALOA.

  5. Phase diagram, solubility limit and hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in binary solvents with ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Le, Kim Anh; Rudaz, Cyrielle; Budtova, Tatiana

    2014-05-25

    Cellulose solubility phase diagrams in two binary solvents based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) mixed with water and with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were built. The minimal amount of EmimAc molecules needed to dissolve cellulose is 2.5-3moles per anhydroglucose unit. This proportion allows calculation of the maximal cellulose concentration soluble in EmimAc-DMSO at any composition; in EmimAc it is around 25-27wt%. Water forms hydrogen bonds with EmimAc and thus competes with cellulose for ionic liquid; the solubility of cellulose in EmimAc-water is much lower than that in EmimAc-DMSO. Hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in two solvent systems were compared. In EmimAc-DMSO cellulose intrinsic viscosity practically does not depend on DMSO content as predicted by the phase diagram. The intrinsic viscosity in EmimAc-water first increases with water content due to cellulose self-aggregation and then abruptly decreases due to coagulation.

  6. 24 CFR 4.13 - Limitation of assistance subject to section 102(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation of assistance subject to section 102(d). 4.13 Section 4.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD Assistance §...

  7. Low aqueous solubility of 11-cis-retinal limits the rate of pigment formation and dark adaptation in salamander rods.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Rikard; Boyer, Nicholas P; Nickle, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Kalyan S; Koutalos, Yiannis; Crouch, Rosalie K; Oprian, Daniel; Cornwall, M Carter

    2012-06-01

    We report experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the aqueous solubility of 11-cis-retinoids plays a significant role in the rate of visual pigment regeneration. Therefore, we have compared the aqueous solubility and the partition coefficients in photoreceptor membranes of native 11-cis-retinal and an analogue retinoid, 11-cis 4-OH retinal, which has a significantly higher solubility in aqueous medium. We have then correlated these parameters with the rates of pigment regeneration and sensitivity recovery that are observed when bleached intact salamander rod photoreceptors are treated with physiological solutions containing these retinoids. We report the following results: (a) 11-cis 4-OH retinal is more soluble in aqueous buffer than 11-cis-retinal. (b) Both 11-cis-retinal and 11-cis 4-OH retinal have extremely high partition coefficients in photoreceptor membranes, though the partition coefficient of 11-cis-retinal is roughly 50-fold greater than that of 11-cis 4-OH retinal. (c) Intact bleached isolated rods treated with solutions containing equimolar amounts of 11-cis-retinal or 11-cis 4-OH retinal form functional visual pigments that promote full recovery of dark current, sensitivity, and response kinetics. However, rods treated with 11-cis 4-OH retinal regenerated on average fivefold faster than rods treated with 11-cis-retinal. (d) Pigment regeneration from recombinant and wild-type opsin in solution is slower when treated with 11-cis 4-OH retinal than with 11-cis-retinal. Based on these observations, we propose a model in which aqueous solubility of cis-retinoids within the photoreceptor cytosol can place a limit on the rate of visual pigment regeneration in vertebrate photoreceptors. We conclude that the cytosolic gap between the plasma membrane and the disk membranes presents a bottleneck for retinoid flux that results in slowed pigment regeneration and dark adaptation in rod photoreceptors.

  8. Low aqueous solubility of 11-cis-retinal limits the rate of pigment formation and dark adaptation in salamander rods

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Nicholas P.; Nickle, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Kalyan S.; Koutalos, Yiannis; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Oprian, Daniel; Cornwall, M. Carter

    2012-01-01

    We report experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the aqueous solubility of 11-cis-retinoids plays a significant role in the rate of visual pigment regeneration. Therefore, we have compared the aqueous solubility and the partition coefficients in photoreceptor membranes of native 11-cis-retinal and an analogue retinoid, 11-cis 4-OH retinal, which has a significantly higher solubility in aqueous medium. We have then correlated these parameters with the rates of pigment regeneration and sensitivity recovery that are observed when bleached intact salamander rod photoreceptors are treated with physiological solutions containing these retinoids. We report the following results: (a) 11-cis 4-OH retinal is more soluble in aqueous buffer than 11-cis-retinal. (b) Both 11-cis-retinal and 11-cis 4-OH retinal have extremely high partition coefficients in photoreceptor membranes, though the partition coefficient of 11-cis-retinal is roughly 50-fold greater than that of 11-cis 4-OH retinal. (c) Intact bleached isolated rods treated with solutions containing equimolar amounts of 11-cis-retinal or 11-cis 4-OH retinal form functional visual pigments that promote full recovery of dark current, sensitivity, and response kinetics. However, rods treated with 11-cis 4-OH retinal regenerated on average fivefold faster than rods treated with 11-cis-retinal. (d) Pigment regeneration from recombinant and wild-type opsin in solution is slower when treated with 11-cis 4-OH retinal than with 11-cis-retinal. Based on these observations, we propose a model in which aqueous solubility of cis-retinoids within the photoreceptor cytosol can place a limit on the rate of visual pigment regeneration in vertebrate photoreceptors. We conclude that the cytosolic gap between the plasma membrane and the disk membranes presents a bottleneck for retinoid flux that results in slowed pigment regeneration and dark adaptation in rod photoreceptors. PMID:22641642

  9. P2O5 assisted green synthesis of multicolor fluorescent water soluble carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Tripathi, Kumud Malika; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2014-03-01

    A low cost synthesis of multicolor fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) from edible sugars is described here. Common sugars like dextrose, lactose or maltose in aqueous medium gets dehydrated using phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5). The reaction is facile and completed within few minutes to form insoluble carbon (C-dots) mostly having the graphitic (G-band, Raman) sp2 hybridized carbon atoms (C-atoms). This insoluble carbon on oxidative treatment with nitric acid produced disordered sp3 (D-band retaining G-band, Raman) hybridized C-atoms, originated from the graphitic pool with sp2 hybridized C-atoms. This high density assimilation of self passivated "surfacial defects" become emissive during electronic transitions. Surfacial defects due to high degree of electrophilic carboxylation create the water soluble version of multicolor fluorescent C-dots as "water soluble fluorescent carbon dots" (wsFCDs). wsFCDs being itself self-passivated imposes the tunable multicolor emission throughout the visible spectrum without having any external coating and surface passivation and could be used as multicolor fluorescent probe especially in the emerging field of optical bio-imaging.

  10. Simultaneous separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in isocratic pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography using a methacrylate-based monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2013-06-01

    A method of simultaneous separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins using pressure-assisted CEC with a methacrylate-based capillary monolithic column was developed. In the proposed method, water-soluble vitamins were mainly separated electrophoretically, while fat soluble-ones were separated chromatographically by the interaction with a methacrylate-based monolith. A mixture of six water-soluble and four fat-soluble vitamins was separated simultaneously within 20 min with an isocratic elution using 1 M formic acid (pH 1.9)/acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) containing 10 mM ammonium formate as a mobile phase. When the method was applied to a commercial multivitamin tablet and a spiked one, the vitamins were successfully analyzed, and no influence of the matrix contained in the tablet was observed.

  11. Electrically assisted extraction of soluble matter from chardonnay grape skins for polyphenol recovery.

    PubMed

    Boussetta, Nadia; Lebovka, Nikolaï; Vorobiev, Eugène; Adenier, Hervé; Bedel-Cloutour, Catherine; Lanoisellé, Jean-Louis

    2009-02-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and high-voltage electrical discharges (HVED) application on the efficiency of aqueous extraction of total soluble matter and polyphenols from grape skins ( Vitis vinifera L.) at different temperatures within 20-60 degrees C. The highest level of polyphenol concentration C was reached after about 60 min of extraction for HVED treatment: C(HVED) = 21.4 +/- 0.8 micromol of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dry matter (DM). Almost the same level of C was reached after 180 min of extraction for the PEF-treated skins. These levels exceeded the value C = 19.1 +/- 0.5 micromol of GAE/g of DM for the untreated samples. The difference between degrees Brix values for HVED-treated and untreated systems decreased with temperature increase (from 40 to 60 degrees C), but a large difference in the total amount of polyphenols was observed for HVED-treated and untreated systems. The activation energies were W(u) = 31.3 +/- 3.7 kJ/mol and W(PEF) = 28.9 +/- 5.5 kJ/mol for untreated and PEF-treated systems, respectively.

  12. 24 CFR 200.106 - Projects with limited distribution mortgagors and program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Projects with limited distribution... Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Regulation of Mortgagors § 200.106 Projects with limited distribution mortgagors and program assistance. (a...

  13. Bile Acids Act as Soluble Host Restriction Factors Limiting Cytomegalovirus Replication in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schupp, Anna-Kathrin; Trilling, Mirko; Rattay, Stephanie; Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Haselow, Katrin; Stindt, Jan; Zimmermann, Albert; Häussinger, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The liver constitutes a prime site of cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication and latency. Hepatocytes produce, secrete, and recycle a chemically diverse set of bile acids, with the result that interactions between bile acids and cytomegalovirus inevitably occur. Here we determined the impact of naturally occurring bile acids on mouse CMV (MCMV) replication. In primary mouse hepatocytes, physiological concentrations of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDC), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, and to a lesser extent taurocholic acid significantly reduced MCMV-induced gene expression and diminished the generation of virus progeny, while several other bile acids did not exert antiviral effects. The anticytomegalovirus activity required active import of bile acids via the sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and was consistently observed in hepatocytes but not in fibroblasts. Under conditions in which alpha interferon (IFN-α) lacks antiviral activity, physiological TCDC concentrations were similarly effective as IFN-γ. A detailed investigation of distinct steps of the viral life cycle revealed that TCDC deregulates viral transcription and diminishes global translation in infected cells. IMPORTANCE Cytomegaloviruses are members of the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. Primary infection leads to latency, from which cytomegaloviruses can reactivate under immunocompromised conditions and cause severe disease manifestations, including hepatitis. The present study describes an unanticipated antiviral activity of conjugated bile acids on MCMV replication in hepatocytes. Bile acids negatively influence viral transcription and exhibit a global effect on translation. Our data identify bile acids as site-specific soluble host restriction factors against MCMV, which may allow rational design of anticytomegalovirus drugs using bile acids as lead compounds. PMID:27170759

  14. Activity Limitations, Use of Assistive Devices or Personal Help, and Well-Being: Variation by Education

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsueh-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the associations among self-care or mobility limitations, use of assistive devices or personal help, and well-being while giving special attention to 3 dimensions of well-being and older adults’ educational attainment. Method. The analysis was based on 4,456 community-dwelling older adults with self-care or mobility limitations who completed interviews in the first round of the National Health and Aging Trends Study. Path models were estimated to examine the associations among limitations, use of assistive devices or personal help, and 3 dimensions of well-being (positive affect, self-realization, and self-efficacy) for different educational groups of older adults. Results. Self-care or mobility limitations had a negative association with 3 dimensions of well-being. The use of assistive devices was positively related, but the use of personal help was negatively related to well-being. Older adults with more education demonstrated weaker associations between assistive devices and well-being and stronger inverse associations between personal help and well-being than those with less education. Discussion. The use of coping strategies to address self-care or mobility limitations is not necessarily associated with better well-being, and education does not seem to play a protective role once limitations develop. More research is needed to unpack population heterogeneity in the association between coping strategies and well-being. PMID:25342819

  15. Practical limitations of the slope assisted BOTDA method in dynamic strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minardo, A.; Catalano, E.; Zeni, L.

    2016-05-01

    By analyzing the operation of the slope assisted Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis (BOTDA) method, it comes out that the acquisition rate is practically limited by two fundamental factors: the polarization scrambling frequency and the phase noise from the laser. As regards polarization scrambling, we show experimentally that the scrambling frequency poses a limit on the maximum acquisition rate for a given averaging factor. As regards phase noise, we show numerically and experimentally that the slope assisted method is particularly sensitive to the laser phase noise, due to the specific positioning of the pump-probe frequency shift on the Brillouin Gain Spectrum (BGS).

  16. Properties of soluble dietary fiber-polysaccharide from papaya peel obtained through alkaline or ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Zeng, Guanglin; Pan, Yonggui; Chen, Wenxue; Huang, Wuyang; Chen, Haiming; Li, Yuansong

    2017-09-15

    Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from the peel of papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) was recovered through alkaline extraction (alkaline-extracted SDF, a-SDF) and ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction (ultrasound-treated SDF, u-SDF) processes, and the composition, structure and properties of the extracts were compared. The optimal parameters for obtaining the maximum extraction yield of u-SDF were evaluated through response surface methodology. Under optimal conditions, the maximum yield of u-SDF was 36.99%, and u-SDF had a lower total amino acid content but a higher essential amino acid (16.18%) than a-SDF. A monosaccharide analysis indicated that the primary sugars in a-SDF and u-SDF were neutral sugars and pectic saccharides, respectively. An X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that u-SDF was less crystalline than a-SDF. Moreover, a thermal analysis indicated that u-SDF exhibited higher thermal stability. In addition, u-SDF exhibited higher water-holding, oil-holding and swelling capacities than a-SDF. These results indicate that papaya peel is a potential inexpensive source of natural dietary fiber and a potential functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  18. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  19. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  20. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  1. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  2. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for national endorsement as assistant engineer (limited) of steam, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assistant engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522... requirements for national endorsement as assistant engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine... engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels is 3 years of service in...

  3. Activity limitations, use of assistive devices or personal help, and well-being: variation by education.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Fen; Wu, Hsueh-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the associations among self-care or mobility limitations, use of assistive devices or personal help, and well-being while giving special attention to 3 dimensions of well-being and older adults' educational attainment. The analysis was based on 4,456 community-dwelling older adults with self-care or mobility limitations who completed interviews in the first round of the National Health and Aging Trends Study. Path models were estimated to examine the associations among limitations, use of assistive devices or personal help, and 3 dimensions of well-being (positive affect, self-realization, and self-efficacy) for different educational groups of older adults. Self-care or mobility limitations had a negative association with 3 dimensions of well-being. The use of assistive devices was positively related, but the use of personal help was negatively related to well-being. Older adults with more education demonstrated weaker associations between assistive devices and well-being and stronger inverse associations between personal help and well-being than those with less education. The use of coping strategies to address self-care or mobility limitations is not necessarily associated with better well-being, and education does not seem to play a protective role once limitations develop. More research is needed to unpack population heterogeneity in the association between coping strategies and well-being. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  5. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  6. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  7. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  8. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  9. [Study on absorption spectra and optical limiting properties of soluble polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xue-Qiong; Wu, Hui-Xia; Tong, Rui; Qian, Shi-Xiong; Lin, Yang-Hui; Cai, Rui-Fang

    2008-07-01

    Three kinds of soluble polymer grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), including poly(N-vinylcarbazole)-MWNTs (MWNTs-PVK), polystyrene-MWNTs (MWNTs-PSt) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-MWNTs (MWNTs-PMMA) were synthesized. The TEM images of these samples show that polymers are coated outside the carbon nanotubes. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the samples in CHCl3 were taken on a HP8452 spectrophotometer at room temperature. Compared with that of MWNTs suspension, there is a characteristic absorption peak in the ultraviolet region, which can be attributed to the polymers linked covalently with MWNTs. Their nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting (OL) performances were investigated by Z-scan method with 527 nm nanosecond laser pulses. These MWNTs dissolved in chloroform possess similar optical limiting properties, which are better than that of raw MWNT suspension and C60 in toluene solution. Nonlinear refraction, nonlinear absorption and nonlinear scattering mechanism were taken into consideration for explaining the observed results. The analysis of the experimental results shows that nonlinear absorption is the dominant mechanism behind the OL performance of these samples.

  10. Effects of phosphate limitation on soluble microbial products and microbial community structure in semi-continuous Synechocystis-based photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zevin, Alexander S; Nam, Taekgul; Rittmann, Bruce; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    All bacteria release organic compounds called soluble microbial products (SMP) as a part of their normal metabolism. In photobioreactor (PBR) settings, SMP produced by cyanobacteria represent a major pool of carbon and electrons available to heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, SMP in PBRs are a major driver for the growth of heterotrophic bacteria, and understanding the distribution of SMP in PBRs is an important step toward proper management of PBR microbial communities. Here, we analyzed the SMP and microbial communities in two Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-based PBRs. The first PBR (PBRP0) became phosphate limited after several days of operation, while the second PBR (PBRP+) did not have phosphate limitation. Heterotrophic bacteria were detected in both PBRs, but PBRP0 had a much higher proportion of heterotrophic bacteria than PBRP+. Furthermore, PBRP+ had greater biomass production and lower SMP production per unit biomass than PBRP0. Carbohydrates that were most likely derived from hydrolysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) dominated the SMP in PBRP0, while products resulting from cell lysis or decay dominated the SMP in PBRP+. Together, our data support that maintaining phosphate availability in Synechocystis-based PBRs is important for managing SMP and, thus, the heterotrophic community.

  11. Brilliant blue G-assisted peeling of the internal limiting membrane in macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Prashant; Vashisht, Naginder; Khanduja, Sumeet; Sinha, Subijay; Garg, Satpal

    2011-01-01

    Dye-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and gas tamponade is the surgery of choice for idiopathic macular holes. Indocyanine green and trypan blue have been extensively used to stain the ILM. However, the retinal toxicity of indocyanine green and non-uniform staining with trypan blue has necessitated development of newer vital dyes. Brilliant blue G has recently been introduced as one such dye with adequate ILM staining and no reported retinal toxicity. We performed a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling in six patients with idiopathic macular holes, to assess the staining characteristics and short-term adverse effects of this dye. Adequate staining assisted in the complete removal of ILM and closure of macular holes in all cases. There was no evidence of intraoperative or postoperative dye-related toxicity. Brilliant blue G appears to be safe dye for ILM staining in macular hole surgery.

  12. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.522 Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of... assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in the...

  13. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.522 Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of... assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in the...

  14. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.522 Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of... assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in the...

  15. Efficiency limits of rectenna solar cells: Theory of broadband photon-assisted tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret

    2013-02-01

    Because rectifiers can convert a wide range of frequencies to dc it was thought that rectenna solar cells-antennas coupled to ultra-high speed diodes-could efficiently harvest the entire solar spectrum and exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. We show that there are efficiency limits to broadband optical conversion and provide a quantitative analysis using the theory of photon-assisted tunneling. This quantum-based approach differs from classical rectification in lower frequency rectennas. The conversion efficiency approaches 100% for monochromatic illumination. For broadband illumination at terrestrial solar intensities, the diode operating voltage plays the role that bandgap plays in conventional solar cells.

  16. Colloidal Organolead Halide Perovskite with a High Mn Solubility Limit: A Step Toward Pb-Free Luminescent Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Paulraj; Gil, Kyeong Hun; Won, Seob; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Kim, Yoon Hwa; Kim, Ha Jun; Im, Won Bin

    2017-09-07

    Organolead halide perovskites have emerged as a promising optoelectronic material for lighting due to its high quantum yield, color-tunable, and narrow emission. Despite their unique properties, toxicity has intensified the search for ecofriendly alternatives through partial or complete replacement of lead. Herein, we report a room-temperature synthesized Mn(2+)-substituted 3D-organolead perovskite displacing ∼90% of lead, simultaneously retaining its unique excitonic emission, with an additional orange emission of Mn(2+) via energy transfer. A high Mn solubility limit of 90% was attained for the first time in lead halide perovskites, facilitated by the flexible organic cation (CH3NH3)(+) network, preserving the perovskite structure. The emission intensities of the exciton and Mn were influenced by the halide identity that regulates the energy transfer to Mn. Homogeneous emission and electron spin resonance characteristics of Mn(2+) indicate a uniform distribution of Mn. These results suggest that low-toxicity 3D-CH3NH3Pb1-xMnxBr3-(2x+1)Cl2x+1 nanocrystals may be exploited as magnetically doped quantum dots with unique optoelectronic properties.

  17. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the

  18. Comparison of field-enhanced and pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection techniques for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins using CZE.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yaling; Guan, Yu; Jia, Li

    2009-04-01

    A new online concentration method, namely pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection (PA-FESI), was developed and compared with FESI for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins by CZE with UV detection. In PA-FESI, negative voltage and positive pressure were simultaneously applied to initialize PA-FESI. PA-FESI uses the hydrodynamic flow generated by the positive pressure to counterbalance the reverse EOF in the capillary column during electrokinetic sample injection, which allowed a longer injection time than usual FESI mode without compromising the separation efficiency. Using the PA-FESI method, the LODs of the vitamins were at ng/mL level based on the S/N of 3 and the RSDs of migration time and peak area for each vitamin (1 microg/mL) were less than 5.1%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of water-soluble vitamins in corns.

  19. Computer Simulation Studies of the Mechanism of Hydrotrope-Assisted Solubilization of a Sparingly Soluble Drug Molecule.

    PubMed

    Das, Shubhadip; Paul, Sandip

    2016-04-14

    The effect of hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate (SCS) on the solubility of a sparingly water-soluble drug, griseofulvin, is studied by employing classical molecular dynamics simulation technique. We mainly focus on the underlying mechanism by which SCS enhances the solubility of a sparingly soluble or insoluble solute in water. The main observations are the following: (a) The self-aggregation of SCS molecules (through its hydrophobic tail) above the minimum hydrotrope concentration (MHC) causes the formation of micellar-like frameworks. Interestingly, though the drug griseofulvin possesses both polar and nonpolar groups, it prefers to get encapsulated inside the hydrophobic core of SCS aggregates. The decomposition of total SCS-drug interaction energy into van der Waals and electrostatic components suggests that the former plays a major role in this interaction. (b) The calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter values give a strong indication of the mixing ability of hydrotrope SCS and griseofulvin drug molecules. (c) As expected, we do not observe any strong effect of SCS aggregates on SCS-water and water-water average hydrogen-bond number, but it affects water-drug griseofulvin average hydrogen-bond number. With the help of these observations we try to elucidate the hydrotropic action of hydrotrope SCS on the solubility of drug griseofulvin.

  20. Absorption contrast imaging beyond the diffraction limit with electron-beam excitation assisted optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Wataru; Fukuta, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated that the high spatial resolution absorption contrast imaging of the crystal of vitamin B9 having absorption at UV wavelengths. The absorption wavelength matches with the wavelength of the emission of the fluorescent thin film of an electron-beam excitation assisted (EXA) optical microscope. The fine crystal structure was imaged beyond the optical diffraction limit. The image contrast corresponded with the thickness of the crystal. The illumination light is absorbed with the vitamin B9 crystal and the intensity of the transmitted light depends on the thickness of the vitamin B9 crystal. The EXA optical microscope is useful for analysis of growth of a crystal, bioimaging, and so on.

  1. Voice-Activated Lightweight Reacher to Assist with Upper Extremity Movement Limitations: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Umer; Conti, Gerry E; Erlandson, Robert F; Ellis, Richard D; Brown, Vince; Pandya, Abhilash K

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research was to design a functional and user-friendly reacher for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Engineering advancements have taken assistive robotics to new dimensions. Technologies such as wheelchair robotics and myo-electronically controlled systems have opened up a wide range of new applications to assist people with physical disabilities. Similarly, exo-skeletal limbs and body suits have provided new foundations from which technologies can aid function. Unfortunately, these devices have issues of usability, weight, and discomfort with donning. The Smart Assistive Reacher Arm (SARA) system, developed in this research, is a voice-activated, lightweight, mobile device that can be used when needed. SARA was built to help overcome daily reach challenges faced by individuals with limited arm and hand movement capability, such as people with cervical level 5-6 (C5-6) SCI. This article shows that a functional reacher arm with voice control can be beneficial for this population. Comparison study with healthy participants and an SCI participant shows that, when using SARA, a person with SCI can perform simple reach and grasp tasks independently, without someone else's help. This suggests that the interface is intuitive and can be easily used to a high level of proficiency by a SCI individual.

  2. Viscoat Assisted Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique for Large Macular Holes Associated with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zongming; Li, Mei; Liu, Junjie; Hu, Xuting; Hu, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the surgical outcomes of Viscoat® assisted inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for large macular holes (MHs) associated with high myopia. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with high myopia underwent vitrectomy and Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique to treat MH without RD. Patients were followed up over 6 months. The main outcome measures were MH closure evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs). Result. MH closure was observed in all eyes (100%) following the initial surgery. Type 1 closure was observed in 13 eyes (86.7%); type 2 closure was observed in the remaining 2 eyes (13.3%). Compared to the preoperative baseline, the mean BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) improved significantly at 3 months and 6 months after surgery (P = 0.025, 0.019, resp.). The final BCVA improved in 10 eyes (66.7%), remained unchanged in 3 eyes (20.0%), and worsened in 2 eyes (13.3%). Conclusion. Vitrectomy combined with Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique is an effective treatment for large MHs in highly myopic eyes. It may increase the success rate of the initial surgery and enhance the anatomical and functional outcomes. PMID:27047686

  3. Chaperone-Assisted Soluble Expression of a Humanized Anti-EGFR ScFv Antibody in E. Coli

    PubMed Central

    Veisi, Kamal; Farajnia, Safar; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Khoram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Samadi, Nasser; Ahdi Khosroshahi, Shiva; Zarei Jaliani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Formation of inclusion bodies is a considerable obstacle threatening the advantages of E. coli expression system to serve as the most common and easiest system in recombinant protein production. To solve this problem, several strategies have been proposed among which application of molecular chaperones is of remarkable consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of molecular chaperones on soluble expression of aggregation-prone humanized single chain antibody. Methods: To increase the solubility of a humanized single chain antibody (hscFv), different chaperone plasmids including PG-tf2 (GroES- GroEL- tig), ptf16 (tig) and pGro7 (GroES- GroEL) were co-expressed in BL21 cells containing pET-22b- hscFv construct. The solubility of recombinant hscFv was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. After purification of soluble hscFv by Ni-NTA column, the biological activity and cytotoxicity of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and MTT assay, respectively. Results: SDS-PAGE analysis of the hscFv revealed that chaperone utility remarkably increased (up to 50%) the solubility of the protein. ELISA test and MTT assay analyses also confirmed the biological activity of the gained hscFv in reaction with A431 cells (OD value: 2.6) and inhibition of their proliferation, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that co-expression of chaperones with hscFv leads to remarkable increase in the solubility of the recombinant hscFv, which could be of great consideration for large scale production of recombinant single chain antibodies. PMID:26793607

  4. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation rate? 286.105... vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation... 12 months. (b) There are two limitations concerning job search and job readiness: (1) Job search and...

  5. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation rate? 286.105... vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation... 12 months. (b) There are two limitations concerning job search and job readiness: (1) Job search...

  6. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation rate?...

  7. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation rate? 286.105... vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation... 12 months. (b) There are two limitations concerning job search and job readiness: (1) Job search and...

  8. Solvent selection for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic polymers employing solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Heike; Ehmann, Thomas; Otto, Matthias

    2010-08-30

    The principle relating to the selection of a proper matrix, cationization reagent, and solvent for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of synthetic polymers is still a topic of research. In this work we focused on the selection of a suitable MALDI solvent. Polystyrene PS7600 and poly(ethylene glycol) PEG4820 were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS using various solvents which were selected based on the Hansen solubility parameter system. For polystyrene (PS), dithranol was used as the matrix and silver trifluoroacetate as the cationization reagent whereas, for poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), the combination of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and sodium trifluoroacetate was used for all experiments. When employing solvents which dissolve PS and PEG, reliable MALDI mass spectra were obtained while samples in non-solvents (solvents which are not able to dissolve the polymer) failed to provide spectra. It seems that the solubility of the matrix and the cationization reagent are less important than the polymer solubility.

  9. Development of Communication Assistive Technology for Persons with Deaf-Blindness and Physical Limitation.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takuro; Watanabe, Takashi; Takahashi, Kiriko; Doi, Kouki; Fukuda, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system that will provide communication assistance to persons with deaf-blindness and physical limitation, so that they will be able to communicate with others without the help of an interpreter. With this communication system, a person with deaf-blindness and physical limitation uses a control switch to perform input operations based on the duration of the operating time and combination of long and short pulses. When the input is correctly performed, the user receives a feedback from the tablet computer as vibratory stimuli. Similarly, the message that other person's input with a Bluetooth keyboard is transmitted to the user as vibration stimuli. Following the development, we conducted a one-year assessment of the developed communication system in an actual environment with the cooperation of one person with deaf-blindness and physical limitation. . We confirmed that our developed system was useful for such a person, and understood that we must improve upon several aspects. We shall pursue further study, and will aim at providing a better communication environment for persons with deaf-blindness and physical limitation in future.

  10. Dissolution of unirradiated UO{sub 2} fuel under oxidizing conditions: Evaluation of solubility (steady state) limiting factors (EQ3/6)

    SciTech Connect

    Ollila, K.

    1997-12-31

    The solubility behavior of unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets was studied under oxic, air-saturated conditions in deionized water, in NaHCO{sub 3} solutions and in two types of synthetic groundwater (25 C). The Allard groundwater represents natural fresh groundwater conditions at great depths in granite bedrock and bentonite groundwater simulates the effects of bentonite on granitic fresh groundwater. The release of uranium was measured during static batch dissolution experiments of long duration (6 years). A comparison was made with the theoretical solubility data calculated with the geochemical code, EQ3/6, in order to evaluate solubility (steady state) limiting factors. Various hypotheses for redox control (redox potential of the bulk solution or redox potential at the surface) were tested in the modeling of calculations. The measured concentrations for uranium at steady-state in deionized water were equal to the solubility of schoepite (pO{sub 2} = 0.2 atm). In NaHCO{sub 3} solutions with lower carbonate concentrations (0.98--1.96 mmol/l) and in Allard groundwater they were close to the calculated solubilities of U at the U{sub 3}O{sub 7}/U{sub 3}O{sub 8} redox potential. In bentonite groundwater, the results suggest the formation of a secondary phase with a lower solubility. Only uranium oxide with a crystal structure of uraninite (UO{sub 2}-U{sub 3}O{sub 7}) was identified in all waters, when analyzing particulate material in the solutions after contact with UO{sub 2} pellets.

  11. Determination of the solubility of low volatility liquid organic compounds in water using volatile-tracer assisted headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Barnes, Donald G

    2016-02-26

    This study reports a new headspace gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for the determination of water solubility of low volatility liquid organic compounds (LVLOs). The HS-GC analysis was performed on a set of aqueous solutions containing a range of concentrations of toluene-spiked (as a tracer) LVLOs, from under-saturation to over-saturation. A plot of the toluene tracer GC signal vs. the concentration of the LVLO results in two lines of different slopes that intersect at the concentration corresponding to the compound's solubility in water. The results showed that the HS-GC method has good precision (RSD <6.3%) and good accuracy, in which the relative deference between the data measured by the HS-GC method and the reference method were within 6.0%. The HS-GC method is simple and particularly suitable for measuring the solubility of LVLOs at elevated temperatures. This approach should be of special interest to those concerned about the impact of the presence of low-volatility organic liquids in waters of environmental and biological systems.

  12. Solubility as a limiting factor for expression of hepatitis A virus proteins in insect cell-baculovirus system.

    PubMed

    Silva, Haroldo Cid da; Pestana, Cristiane Pinheiro; Galler, Ricardo; Medeiros, Marco Alberto

    2016-08-01

    The use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative model to inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The present study aimed to express the VP1 protein of HAV in baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). The VP1 was expressed intracellularly with molecular mass of 35 kDa. The VP1 was detected both in the soluble fraction and in the insoluble fraction of the lysate. The extracellular expression of VP1 was also attempted, but the protein remained inside the cell. To verify if hydrophobic characteristics would also be present in the HAV structural polyprotein, the expression of P1-2A protein was evaluated. The P1-2A polyprotein remained insoluble in the cellular extract, even in the early infection stages. These results suggest that HAV structural proteins are prone to form insoluble aggregates. The low solubility represents a drawback for production of large amounts of HAV proteins in BEVS.

  13. Solubility as a limiting factor for expression of hepatitis A virus proteins in insect cell-baculovirus system

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Haroldo Cid; Pestana, Cristiane Pinheiro; Galler, Ricardo; Medeiros, Marco Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative model to inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The present study aimed to express the VP1 protein of HAV in baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). The VP1 was expressed intracellularly with molecular mass of 35 kDa. The VP1 was detected both in the soluble fraction and in the insoluble fraction of the lysate. The extracellular expression of VP1 was also attempted, but the protein remained inside the cell. To verify if hydrophobic characteristics would also be present in the HAV structural polyprotein, the expression of P1-2A protein was evaluated. The P1-2A polyprotein remained insoluble in the cellular extract, even in the early infection stages. These results suggest that HAV structural proteins are prone to form insoluble aggregates. The low solubility represents a drawback for production of large amounts of HAV proteins in BEVS. PMID:27581123

  14. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  15. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  16. Projecting the number of older singaporeans with activity of daily living limitations requiring human assistance through 2030.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James; Malhotra, Rahul; Love, Sean; Ostbye, Truls; Chan, Angelique; Matchar, David

    2014-01-01

    In the context of rapid population ageing and the increase in number of activity of daily living (ADL) limitations with age, the number of older persons requiring human assistance in Singapore is likely to grow. To promote informed planning for the needs of these elderly, we project the number of resident Singaporeans 60 years of age and older with 1 or more ADL limitations requiring human assistance through 2030. The proportion of community-dwelling older adults with ADL limitations requiring human assistance, stratified by gender and age group, was calculated utilising a recent nationally-representative survey of older Singaporeans. The proportion of older adults in nursing homes with ADL limitations was estimated based on available literature. Together, these prevalence estimates were applied to a simulation of the future population of older adults in Singapore to derive an estimate of the number of individuals with ADL limitations requiring human assistance through 2030. By 2030, the number of resident Singaporeans aged 60 years or older with 1 or more ADL limitations requiring human assistance is projected to be 82,968 persons (7% of the total population aged 60 years or older). Of this number, 38,809 (47%) are estimated to have 1 or 2 ADL limitations, and 44,159 (53%) are estimated to have 3 or more. The number of elderly Singaporeans with activity limitations is expected grow rapidly from 31,738 in 2010 to 82,968 in 2030. Estimates of the number of older individuals with ADL limitations requiring human assistance are of value for policymakers as well as acute and long-term care capacity planners as they seek to meet demand for health and social services in Singapore.

  17. 34 CFR 270.6 - What limitation is imposed on providing race and national origin desegregation assistance under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What limitation is imposed on providing race and... EDUCATION DESEGREGATION OF PUBLIC EDUCATION § 270.6 What limitation is imposed on providing race and... this section, a recipient of a grant for race or national origin desegregation assistance under these...

  18. 34 CFR 270.6 - What limitation is imposed on providing race and national origin desegregation assistance under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What limitation is imposed on providing race and... EDUCATION DESEGREGATION OF PUBLIC EDUCATION § 270.6 What limitation is imposed on providing race and... this section, a recipient of a grant for race or national origin desegregation assistance under these...

  19. 34 CFR 270.6 - What limitation is imposed on providing race and national origin desegregation assistance under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What limitation is imposed on providing race and... EDUCATION DESEGREGATION OF PUBLIC EDUCATION § 270.6 What limitation is imposed on providing race and... this section, a recipient of a grant for race or national origin desegregation assistance under these...

  20. 34 CFR 270.6 - What limitation is imposed on providing race and national origin desegregation assistance under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What limitation is imposed on providing race and... EDUCATION DESEGREGATION OF PUBLIC EDUCATION § 270.6 What limitation is imposed on providing race and... this section, a recipient of a grant for race or national origin desegregation assistance under these...

  1. 34 CFR 270.6 - What limitation is imposed on providing race and national origin desegregation assistance under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What limitation is imposed on providing race and... EDUCATION DESEGREGATION OF PUBLIC EDUCATION § 270.6 What limitation is imposed on providing race and... this section, a recipient of a grant for race or national origin desegregation assistance under these...

  2. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search and...

  3. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search and...

  4. Preparation and physicochemical properties of soluble dietary fiber from orange peel assisted by steam explosion and dilute acid soaking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Honggao; Yuan, Fang; Fan, Rui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-10-15

    The coupled pretreatment of orange peel with steam explosion (SE) and sulfuric-acid soaking (SAS) was investigated to enhance the yield and improve the functionality of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). When orange peel was pretreated by SE at 0.8MPa for 7 min, combined with 0.8% SAS, the content of SDF was increased from 8.04% to 33.74% in comparison to the control and SDF prepared with SE-SAS showed the high water solubility, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, swelling capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability and foam stability. SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher binding capacity for three toxic cations (Pb, As and Cu) and smaller molecular weight (Mw = 174 kDa). Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement showed that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS had a higher peak temperature (170.7 ± 0.4 °C) than that of the untreated sample (163.4 ± 0.3 °C). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images demonstrated that the surface of SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS was rough and collapsed. It can be concluded that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS has the higher potential to be applied as a functional ingredient in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fast, easy ethanomethanolysis of Jatropha curcus oil for biodiesel production due to the better solubility of oil with ethanol in reaction mixture assisted by ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Gajendra; Johari, Rajeev; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-07-01

    Biodiesel was obtained by transesterification of Jatropha curcus oil with anhydrous methanol, ethanol, and various mixtures of methanol/ethanol system. The present research work ultrasonic assisted transesterification of J. curcus oil was carried out in the presence of various mixtures of methanol/ethanol system and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst, keeping the molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:6. The methodology allows for the reaction to be run under atmospheric conditions. The ethanomethanolysis and ultrasonic mixing promote the rate of transesterification reaction due to the better solubility of oil with ethanol in reaction mixture and obtained methyl esters as well as ethyl esters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Observation of Aqueous Cm(III)/Eu(III) and UO22+ Nanoparticulates at Concentrations Approaching Solubility Limit by Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R.; Xia, Yuanxian; Buck, Edgar C.

    2006-07-20

    Eu(III), Cm(III) and the uranyl ion display intense fluorescence spectra in the visible range and the spectroscopic characteristics are dependent on the composition and structure of the individual metal complexes. In this work, we demonstrate the application of laser-induced time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in identification of nanoparticles of (1) Eu(III) and Cm(III) in basic solutions (pH > 10) in the presence of organic chelates including EDTA, HEDTA, NTA and oxalate and (2) sodium uranyl phosphate after equilibration with synthetic sodium uranyl phosphate suspensions. Fluorescence spectral and SEM results indicate that Eu(III) and Cm(III) can exist as colloidal nanoparticles in filtered 0.1 M NaOH solutions. Such nanoparticles, which display largely red-shifted fluorescence spectra as compared with the aqueous complexes and unusually short fluorescence lifetimes, contribute to the measured concentrations of Eu(III)/Cm(III) in the aqueous solutions. Similarly, uranyl spectroscopic signatures indicate that the determination of the solubility of uranium phosphate minerals is prone to the presence of uranyl phosphate nanoparticles. Due to the presence of such nanoparticles, the common solubility measurements may only indicate an upper limit of the ''true'' solubility.

  7. Intelligent Assistive Technology Applications to Dementia Care: Current Capabilities, Limitations, and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Ashok J.; Anand, Vivek; Forlizzi, Jodi; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F.; Stevens, Scott; Wactlar, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The number of older Americans afflicted by Alzheimer disease and related dementias will triple to 13 million persons by 2050, thus greatly increasing healthcare needs. An approach to this emerging crisis is the development and deployment of intelligent assistive technologies that compensate for the specific physical and cognitive deficits of older adults with dementia, and thereby also reduce caregiver burden. The authors conducted an extensive search of the computer science, engineering, and medical databases to review intelligent cognitive devices, physiologic and environmental sensors, and advanced integrated sensor networks that may find future applications in dementia care. Review of the extant literature reveals an overwhelming focus on the physical disability of younger persons with typically nonprogressive anoxic and traumatic brain injuries, with few clinical studies specifically involving persons with dementia. A discussion of the specific capabilities, strengths, and limitations of each technology is followed by an overview of research methodological challenges that must be addressed to achieve measurable progress to meet the healthcare needs of an aging America. PMID:18849532

  8. Intelligent assistive technology applications to dementia care: current capabilities, limitations, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Ashok J; Anand, Vivek; Forlizzi, Jodi; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F; Stevens, Scott; Wactlar, Howard

    2009-02-01

    The number of older Americans afflicted by Alzheimer disease and related dementias will triple to 13 million persons by 2050, thus greatly increasing healthcare needs. An approach to this emerging crisis is the development and deployment of intelligent assistive technologies that compensate for the specific physical and cognitive deficits of older adults with dementia, and thereby also reduce caregiver burden. The authors conducted an extensive search of the computer science, engineering, and medical databases to review intelligent cognitive devices, physiologic and environmental sensors, and advanced integrated sensor networks that may find future applications in dementia care. Review of the extant literature reveals an overwhelming focus on the physical disability of younger persons with typically nonprogressive anoxic and traumatic brain injuries, with few clinical studies specifically involving persons with dementia. A discussion of the specific capabilities, strengths, and limitations of each technology is followed by an overview of research methodological challenges that must be addressed to achieve measurable progress to meet the healthcare needs of an aging America.

  9. Improving Nutrition by Limiting Choice in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    PubMed

    Klerman, Jacob A; Collins, Ann M; Olsho, Lauren E W

    2017-02-01

    In contrast to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) currently allows the purchase of almost any food. This paper reconsiders the role of two forms of limiting choice in SNAP. Using economic theory, descriptive analysis of survey data, and discussion of random assignment evaluation evidence from the Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children Demonstration, the paper argues that because households can substitute cash for SNAP, banning the use of SNAP for less nutritionally desirable foods (e.g., soda, candy) is unlikely to have a large impact. By contrast, because many households currently consume so little of more nutritionally desirable foods (e.g., whole grains, fruits, and vegetables), requiring that some portion of SNAP benefits be spent on those foods is likely to improve dietary intake. Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children Demonstration impact estimates are consistent with this conjecture. Furthermore, these data and evidence from the Healthy Incentives Pilot implementation suggest that such a policy can be feasibly integrated into existing operational processes.

  10. 24 CFR 200.106 - Projects with limited distribution mortgagors and program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care... the extent provided in section 524(f) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability...

  11. 24 CFR 200.106 - Projects with limited distribution mortgagors and program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care... the extent provided in section 524(f) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability...

  12. 24 CFR 200.106 - Projects with limited distribution mortgagors and program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care... the extent provided in section 524(f) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability...

  13. 24 CFR 200.106 - Projects with limited distribution mortgagors and program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care... the extent provided in section 524(f) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability...

  14. Docking Prediction of a Water Soluble Porphyrin and Tubulin Assisted with Resonance Raman and Vibrational Mode Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMicken, Brady; Brancaleon, Lorenzo; Thomas, Robert; Parker, James

    2015-03-01

    The ability to modify protein conformation by controlling its partial unfolding may have practical applications such as diminishing its function or blocking its activity. One method used to induce partial unfolding of a protein involves the use of a photosensitizer non-covalently bound to a protein that triggers photochemical reactions upon irradiation leading to protein conformational changes. We are investigating the photoinduced conformational changes of tubulin mediated by a bound water-soluble porphyrin that acts as a photosensitizer. Analysis of how tubulin conformational changes affect its function including polymeric assembly forming microtubules is of interest to uncover the mechanism responsible for the structural change. Our approach to better understand the conformational change, we first plan to discover the binding location between the porphyrin and protein. Use of vibrational mode analysis using density functional theory and resonance Raman experiments targeting the porphyrin molecule will be used to correlate Raman peaks with vibrational modes. The relative intensities of the porphyrin bound to tubulin can be used to calculate the equilibrium geometry observed from Raman spectra. These data will provide the relative distortion of the porphyrin when bound to tubulin, which will subsequently be used in docking simulations to find the most likely binding configuration.

  15. Modeling and simulation of oxygen-limited partial nitritation in a membrane-assisted bioreactor (MBR).

    PubMed

    Wyffels, Stijn; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Boeckx, Pascal; Volcke, Eveline I P; Van Cleemput, Oswald; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Verstraete, Willy

    2004-06-05

    Combination of a partial nitritation process and an anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the treatment of sludge reject water has some general cost-efficient advantages compared to nitrification-denitrification. The integrated process features two-stage autotrophic conversion of ammonium via nitrite to dinitrogen gas with lower demand for oxygen and no external carbon requirement. A nitrifying membrane-assisted bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of sludge reject water was operated under continuous aeration at low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations with the purpose of generating nitrite accumulation. Microfiltration was applied to allow a high sludge retention time (SRT), resulting in a stable partial nitritation process. During start-up of the MBR, oxygen-limited conditions were induced by increasing the ammonium loading rate and decreasing the oxygen transfer. At a loading rate of 0.9 kg N m(-3) d(-1) and an oxygen concentration below 0.1 mg DO L(-1), conversion to nitrite was close to 50% of the incoming ammonium, thereby yielding an optimal effluent within the stoichiometric requirements for subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation. A mathematical model for ammonium oxidation to nitrite and nitrite oxidation to nitrate was developed to describe the oxygen-limited partial nitritation process within the MBR. The model was calibrated with in situ determinations of kinetic parameters for microbial growth, reflecting the intrinsic characteristics of the ammonium oxidizing growth system at limited oxygen availability and high sludge age. The oxygen transfer coefficient (K(L)a) and the ammonium-loading rate were shown to be the appropriate operational variables to describe the experimental data accurately. The validated model was used for further steady state simulation under different operational conditions of hydraulic retention time (HRT), K(L)a, temperature and SRT, with the intention to support optimized process design. Simulation results indicated that

  16. Plant Closings. Limited Advance Notice and Assistance Provided Dislocated Workers. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This is the final report in a series issued to assist Congress in assessing the problems of worker dislocation and employer practices related to advance notice and assistance provided to workers. A national survey of 2,600 business establishments was conducted to determine: (1) the extent of business closures and permanent layoffs between January…

  17. Determination of solubility limit of Sn(4+) in fluorite structured terbia with simultaneous evaluation of photocatalytic function.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Vikash Kumar; Nagarajan, Rajamani

    2016-07-05

    Although the fluorite structure is highly common among stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric terbia compositions, high pressures are necessary to stabilize SnO2 in the fluorite structure. With this objective, the extent of solubility of Sn(4+) in terbia possessing the fluorite structure has been determined by conducting its synthesis via an epoxide mediated sol-gel method. Up to 40% of Sn(4+) can be incorporated in terbia, which retains its fluorite structure, as concluded from PXRD, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM, HR-TEM and SAED measurements. The cubic lattice constant decreases systematically, as inferred from successful Rietveld refinements of PXRD patterns. The stretching vibration of the Tb-O bond is manifested as broad band at 734 cm(-1) for the terbia, and moves to lower wavenumber for the tin substituted samples. The broad band at 611 cm(-1) in the Raman spectrum of terbia became even broader with the maxima shifting towards higher values, which indicated the strain of the lattice and generation of oxygen vacancies with progressive tin substitution. The band gap value increased from 1.78 eV for terbia to 2.05 eV for the 40% tin substituted sample. Emission in the blue region became intense upon tin substitution, which was indicative of increased oxygen vacancies and this has been constructively utilized for environmental remediation as a catalyst to degrade aqueous Rhodamine-6G and Methylene Blue dye solutions.

  18. Trichuris suis soluble products induce Rab7b expression and limit TLR4 responses in human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Klaver, E J; van der Pouw Kraan, T C T M; Laan, L C; Kringel, H; Cummings, R D; Bouma, G; Kraal, G; van Die, I

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory immune disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis are major health problems. Currently, the intestinal whipworm Trichuris suis is being explored in clinical trials to reduce inflammation in these diseases; however, the mechanisms by which the parasite affects the host immune system are not known. Here we determined the effects of T. suis soluble products (SPs) on Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-stimulated human dendritic cells (DCs) using Illumina bead chip gene arrays. Pathway analysis of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated DCs with or without T. suis treatment showed that co-stimulation with T. suis SPs resulted in a downregulation of both the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent and the TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β-dependent signalling pathways triggered by TLR4. These data were verified using quantitative real-time PCR of several key genes within these pathways and/or defining their protein levels. In addition, T. suis SPs induce Rab7b, a negative regulator of TLR4 signalling that interferes with its trafficking, which coincided with a reduced surface expression of TLR4. These data indicate that the mechanism by which T. suis SPs reduce inflammatory responses is through suppression of both TLR4 signalling and surface expression on DCs.

  19. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably

  20. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... steam and/or motor vessels. The minimum service required to qualify an applicant for endorsement as assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in...

  1. Solubility limit of Mn2+ ions in Zn1- x Mn x Te nanocrystals grown within an ultraviolet-transparent glass template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Alessandra dos Santos; da Silva, Sebastião William; de Morais, Paulo Cesar; Dantas, Noelio Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on the synthesis of Zn1- x Mn x Te nanocrystals (NCs) (with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.800) within a PZABP glass system (P2O5-ZnO-Al2O3-BaO-PbO) using the fusion method. The as-grown samples were investigated by optical absorption measurements, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. The mean radius of the as-produced NCs (around R ≈ 2.2 nm) was well below the exciton Bohr radius of the bulk ZnTe (5.2 nm). All the characterization techniques employed in this report confirmed the successful inclusion of Mn2+ ions in the ZnTe-based NCs (Zn1- x Mn x Te NCs) up to the nominal solubility limit of x = 0.100. Above this solubility limit (around x = 0.100), one can observe the formation of MnO and α-MnO2 NCs, since the nucleation rate for the formation of these NCs is greater than that of Zn1- x Mn x Te NCs, at high x concentrations.

  2. Extending the applicability of pressurized hot water extraction to compounds exhibiting limited water solubility by pH control: curcumin from the turmeric rhizome.

    PubMed

    Euterpio, Maria Anna; Cavaliere, Chiara; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE, also known as subcritical water extraction) is commonly considered to be an environmentally friendly extraction technique that could potentially replace traditional methods that use organic solvents. Unfortunately, the applicability of this technique is often limited by the very low water solubility of the target compounds, even at high temperatures. In this paper, the scope for broadening the applicability of PHWE by adjusting the pH of the water used in the extraction is demonstrated in the extraction of curcumin (which exhibits very limited water solubility) from untreated turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes. Although poor extraction yields were obtained, even at high temperatures when using degassed water or neutral phosphate buffer as the extraction medium, yields exceeding those obtained by Soxhlet extraction were achieved using highly acidic pH buffers due to curcumin protonation. The influence of the temperature, pH, and buffer concentration on the extraction yield were investigated in detail by means of a series of designed experiments. Optimized conditions for the extraction of curcumin from turmeric by PHWE were estimated at 197 °C using 62 g/L buffer concentration at pH 1.6. The relationships between these variables were subjected to statistical analysis using response surface methodology.

  3. Indocyanine Green-Assisted Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling in Macular Hole Surgery: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ding; Li, Yan-Hong; Ba, Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Fang; Yu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background The opinion of application of indocyanine green (ICG) in the macular hole surgery was contradictory. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of in internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for macular hole surgery. Methods and Findings We searched electronic databases for comparative studies published before July 2012 of ILM peeling with and without ICG. Twenty-two studies including 1585 eyes were included. Visual acuity (VA) improvement, including the postoperative rate of ≥20/40 VA gained (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.97; P = 0.033) and increased LogMAR (WMD, −0.09; 95% CI, −0.16 to −0.02; P = 0.011), was less in the ICG group. The risk of visual field defects was greater in the ICG group than in the non-ICG group. There was no significant difference in the rate of anatomical outcomes between ILM peeling procedures performed with and without ICG. RPE changes and other postoperative complications were not significantly different between the ICG and non-ICG groups. An additional analysis showed that the VA improvement of the ICG group was less than the non-ICG group only within the first year of follow up. A subgroup analysis showed that the rate of VA improvement was lower in the ICG group than in other adjuncts group. A higher rate of secondary closure and less VA improvement were observed in a high proportion (>0.1%) of the ICG group. A sensitivity analysis after the randomized-controlled trials were excluded from the meta-analysis demonstrated no differences compared with the overall results. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated that there is no evidence of clinical superiority in outcomes for ICG-assisted ILM peeling procedure over the non-ICG one. The toxicity of ICG should be considered when choosing the various staining methods. PMID:23144875

  4. Indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling in macular hole surgery: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Ding; Li, Yan-Hong; Ba, Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Fang; Yu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The opinion of application of indocyanine green (ICG) in the macular hole surgery was contradictory. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of in internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for macular hole surgery. We searched electronic databases for comparative studies published before July 2012 of ILM peeling with and without ICG. Twenty-two studies including 1585 eyes were included. Visual acuity (VA) improvement, including the postoperative rate of ≥20/40 VA gained (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.97; P = 0.033) and increased LogMAR (WMD, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.02; P = 0.011), was less in the ICG group. The risk of visual field defects was greater in the ICG group than in the non-ICG group. There was no significant difference in the rate of anatomical outcomes between ILM peeling procedures performed with and without ICG. RPE changes and other postoperative complications were not significantly different between the ICG and non-ICG groups. An additional analysis showed that the VA improvement of the ICG group was less than the non-ICG group only within the first year of follow up. A subgroup analysis showed that the rate of VA improvement was lower in the ICG group than in other adjuncts group. A higher rate of secondary closure and less VA improvement were observed in a high proportion (>0.1%) of the ICG group. A sensitivity analysis after the randomized-controlled trials were excluded from the meta-analysis demonstrated no differences compared with the overall results. This meta-analysis demonstrated that there is no evidence of clinical superiority in outcomes for ICG-assisted ILM peeling procedure over the non-ICG one. The toxicity of ICG should be considered when choosing the various staining methods.

  5. Determination of fat-soluble vitamins in vegetable oils through microwave-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Silvia; Prats, Soledad; Maestre, Salvador; Todolí, José-Luis

    2015-04-01

    In this manuscript, a study of the effect of microwave radiation on the high-performance liquid chromatography separation of tocopherols and vitamin K1 was conducted. The novelty of the application was the use of a relatively low polarity mobile phase in which the dielectric heating effect was minimized to evaluate the nonthermal effect of the microwave radiation over the separation process. Results obtained show that microwave-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography had a shorter analysis time from 31.5 to 13.3 min when the lowest microwave power was used. Moreover, narrower peaks were obtained; hence the separation was more efficient maintaining or even increasing the resolution between the peaks. This result confirms that the increase in mobile phase temperature is not the only variable for improving the separation process but also other nonthermal processes must intervene. Fluorescence detection demonstrated better signal-to-noise compared to photodiode arrayed detection mainly due to the independent effect of microwave pulses on the baseline noise, but photodiode array detection was finally chosen as it allowed a simultaneous detection of nonfluorescent compounds. Finally, a determination of the content of the vitamin E homologs was carried out in different vegetable oils. Results were coherent with those found in the literature.

  6. Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording: Fundamental Limits to Inverse Electromagnetic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Samarth

    In this dissertation, we address the burgeoning fields of diffractive optics, metals-optics and plasmonics, and computational inverse problems in the engineering design of electromagnetic structures. We focus on the application of the optical nano-focusing system that will enable Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR), a higher density magnetic recording technology that will fulfill the exploding worldwide demand of digital data storage. The heart of HAMR is a system that focuses light to a nano- sub-diffraction-limit spot with an extremely high power density via an optical antenna. We approach this engineering problem by first discussing the fundamental limits of nano-focusing and the material limits for metal-optics and plasmonics. Then, we use efficient gradient-based optimization algorithms to computationally design shapes of 3D nanostructures that outperform human designs on the basis of mass-market product requirements. In 2014, the world manufactured ˜1 zettabyte (ZB), ie. 1 Billion terabytes (TBs), of data storage devices, including ˜560 million magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs). Global demand of storage will likely increase by 10x in the next 5-10 years, and manufacturing capacity cannot keep up with demand alone. We discuss the state-of-art HDD and why industry invented Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) to overcome the data density limitations. HAMR leverages the temperature sensitivity of magnets, in which the coercivity suddenly and non-linearly falls at the Curie temperature. Data recording to high-density hard disks can be achieved by locally heating one bit of information while co-applying a magnetic field. The heating can be achieved by focusing 100 microW of light to a 30nm diameter spot on the hard disk. This is an enormous light intensity, roughly ˜100,000,000x the intensity of sunlight on the earth's surface! This power density is ˜1,000x the output of gold-coated tapered optical fibers used in Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopes

  7. Microscale Solubility Measurements of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization (MALDI) Matrices Using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) Coupled with Partial Least Squares (PLS) Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gorre, Elsa; Owens, Kevin G

    2016-11-01

    In this work an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption based method is used to measure the solubility of two matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) matrices in a few pure solvents and mixtures of acetonitrile and water using low microliter amounts of solution. Results from a method that averages the values obtained from multiple calibration curves created by manual peak picking are compared to those predicted using a partial least squares (PLS) chemometrics approach. The PLS method provided solubility values that were in good agreement with the manual method with significantly greater ease of analysis. As a test, the solubility of adipic acid in acetone was measured using the two methods of analysis, and the values are in good agreement with solubility values reported in literature. The solubilities of the MALDI matrices α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHCA) and sinapinic acid (SA) were measured in a series of mixtures made from acetonitrile (ACN) and water; surprisingly, the results show a highly nonlinear trend. While both CHCA and SA show solubility values of less than 10 mg/mL in the pure solvents, the solubility value for SA increases to 56.3 mg/mL in a 75:25 v/v ACN:water mixture. This can have a significant effect on the matrix-to-analyte ratios in the MALDI experiment when sample protocols call for preparation of a saturated solution of the matrix in the chosen solvent system.

  8. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya... including, but not limited to, agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil, carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya... including, but not limited to, agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil, carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

  10. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya... including, but not limited to, agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil, carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

  11. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya... including, but not limited to, agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil, carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

  12. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya..., carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carrageenan, chondrus, glucomannan ((B-1,4 linked) polymannose acetate), guar gum, karaya... including, but not limited to, agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil, carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

  13. 45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit? 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  14. 45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit? 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  15. 45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit? 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  16. 45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit? 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  17. 45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit? 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  18. Assistive technology access and service delivery in resource-limited environments: introduction to a special issue of Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology.

    PubMed

    Harniss, Mark; Samant Raja, Deepti; Matter, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    This special issue addresses access to and service delivery of assistive technology (AT) in resource-limited environments (RLEs). Access to AT is complicated not simply by limited funds to purchase AT, but by larger ecosystem weaknesses in RLEs related to legislation and policy, supply, distribution, human resources, consumer demand and accessible design. We present eight diverse articles that address various aspects of the AT ecosystem. These articles represent a wide range of AT, many different countries and different research methods. Our goal is to highlight a topic that has received scant research investigation and limited investment in international development efforts, and offer an insight into how different countries and programs are promoting access to AT. We encourage researchers, funders and non-profit organizations to invest additional effort and resources in this area.

  19. The cooperativity effect in the reaction of soluble quinoprotein (PQQ-containing) glucose dehydrogenase is not due to subunit interaction but to substrate-assisted catalysis.

    PubMed

    Duine, Johannis A; Strampraad, Marc J F; Hagen, Wilfred R; de Vries, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Soluble quinoprotein (PQQ-containing) glucose dehydrogenase (sGDH, EC 1.1.99.35) catalyzes the oxidation of β-d-glucose to d-glucono-δ-lactone. Although sGDH has many analytical applications, the relationship between activity and substrate concentration is not well established. Previous steady-state kinetic studies revealed a negative cooperativity effect which has recently been ascribed to subunit interaction. To investigate this conclusion, stopped-flow kinetic experiments were carried out on the reaction in which oxidized enzyme (Eox ) was reduced with substrates to Ered . The appearance of Ered is observed to be preceded by formation of an intermediate enzyme form, Int, which is mono-exponentially formed from Eox . However, the rate of conversion of Int into Ered depends hyperbolically on the concentration of substrate (leading to a 35-fold stimulation in the case of glucose). Evidence is provided that substrate not only binds to Eox but also to Int and Ered as well, and that the binding to Int causes the significant stimulation of Int decay. It is proposed that a proton shuffling step is involved in the decay, which is facilitated by binding of substrate to Int. Substituting the PQQ-activating Ca by a Ba ion lowered all reaction rates but did not change the stimulation factor. In summary, the previous proposal that the cooperativity effect of sGDH is due to interaction between its substrate-loaded subunits is incorrect; it is due to substrate-assisted catalysis of the enzyme.

  20. Extraction of α-humulene-enriched oil from clove using ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and studies of its fictitious solubility.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Chi; Xiao, Jianbo; Yang, Yu-Chiao

    2016-11-01

    Clove buds are used as a spice and food flavoring. In this study, clove oil and α-humulene was extracted from cloves using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction with and without ultrasound assistance (USC-CO2 and SC-CO2, respectively) at different temperatures (32-50°C) and pressures (9.0-25.0MPa). The results of these extractions were compared with those of heat reflux extraction and steam distillation methods conducted in parallel. The extracts obtained using these four techniques were analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results demonstrated that the USC-CO2 extraction procedure may extract clove oil and α-humulene from clove buds with better yields and shorter extraction times than conventional extraction techniques while utilizing less severe operating parameters. Furthermore, the experimental fictitious solubility data obtained using the dynamic method were well correlated with density-based models, including the Chrastil model, the Bartle model and the Kumar and Johnston model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the potential of amphiphilic conetworks based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) as new platforms for delivery of drugs with limited solubility.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova-Mileva, Krasimira; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

    2013-03-01

    Thermoresponsive amphiphilic conetworks comprising poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate segments have been studied as new platforms for delivery of drug with limited solubility. Series of conetworks of varied composition were synthesized and swelling kinetics in aqueous media and ethanol were followed. The platforms were loaded with the hydrophobic drug ibuprofen by swelling in its ethanol solution. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The release kinetics profiles of ibuprofen from the studied platform were established. The investigation proved the feasibility of the PEtOx-based amphiphilic conetworks as highly effective platforms for sustained ibuprofen delivery.

  2. "Not Just a Business Transaction": The Logic and Limits of Grandparental Childcare Assistance in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shirley Hsiao-Li

    2008-01-01

    How does the presence of grandparents in the household impact the gendered division of childcare responsibilities between spouses? How does it compare with market-based care? Drawing on in-depth interview data, this study finds that Taiwanese grandparents treat childcare assistance as their moral responsibility. Mothers express more appreciation…

  3. Pushing the Limits: Making Dance Accessible to Different Bodies through Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Merry Lynn

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I draw critical attention to the assistive mobility devices that individuals who are differently bodied often use in dance and suggest that the dance genre presents the opportunity for reimagining the technological possibilities of these devices and creating more diverse repertoires. As an intervention and example, I describe the…

  4. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  5. "Not Just a Business Transaction": The Logic and Limits of Grandparental Childcare Assistance in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shirley Hsiao-Li

    2008-01-01

    How does the presence of grandparents in the household impact the gendered division of childcare responsibilities between spouses? How does it compare with market-based care? Drawing on in-depth interview data, this study finds that Taiwanese grandparents treat childcare assistance as their moral responsibility. Mothers express more appreciation…

  6. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  7. Speech Technology in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Strengths and Limitations of a New CALL Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehsani, Farzad; Knodt, Eva

    1998-01-01

    Investigates suitability of deploying speech technology in computer-based systems that can be used to teach foreign language skills. In reviewing the current state of speech recognition and speech processing technology and by examining a number of voice-interactive computer-assisted language learning applications, suggests how to create robust…

  8. Pushing the Limits: Making Dance Accessible to Different Bodies through Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Merry Lynn

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I draw critical attention to the assistive mobility devices that individuals who are differently bodied often use in dance and suggest that the dance genre presents the opportunity for reimagining the technological possibilities of these devices and creating more diverse repertoires. As an intervention and example, I describe the…

  9. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  10. Efficacy of vitrectomy with triamcinolone assistance versus internal limiting membrane peeling for highly myopic macular hole retinal detachment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yong; Wang, Ningli; Zu, Zhongqiao; Bi, Chuncao; Wang, Huaizhou; Chen, Fenghua; Yang, Xingguang

    2013-06-01

    To compare the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with or without the adjuvant surgical procedures: triamcinolone acetonide (TA) assistance and/or internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for the treatment of highly myopic macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). Case-control study. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with 2 kinds of adjuvant surgical procedures were used on 96 highly myopic eyes with MHRD. These eyes were assigned to 4 groups randomly: Group 1, non-TA-assisted PPV and without ILM peeling; Group 2, non-TA-assisted PPV with ILM peeling; Group 3, TA-assisted PPV and without ILM peeling; Group 4, TA-assisted PPV with ILM peeling. Anatomical reattachment of the retina, macular hole closure, and best-corrected visual acuity were measured. The rates of both retinal reattachment and macular hole closure were higher in Group 2 (84.0 and 44.0%) and Group 3 (80.8 and 46.2%) than Group 1 (73.9 and 17.4%); however, there were no differences between Group 2 and Group 3 (P > 0.05). The rates of macular hole closure were extremely low in Group 1 and also in eyes with extreme long axial lengths (≥29.0 mm), "severe" chorioretinal atrophy, and posterior staphyloma. Pars plana vitrectomy with either TA assistance or ILM peeling was effective for the treatment of highly myopic MHRD. If you peel the ILM, adding TA does not affect closure rates; and if TA is used to visualize the vitreous, ILM peeling may not be necessary in MHRD. There was a lower anatomical success rate in MHRD with extreme long axial lengths, severe chorioretinal atrophy, and posterior staphyloma.

  11. Current status of device-assisted enteroscopy: Technical matters, indication, limits and complications.

    PubMed

    Elena, Riccioni Maria; Riccardo, Urgesi; Rossella, Cianci; Bizzotto, Alessandra; Domenico, Galasso; Guido, Costamagna

    2012-10-16

    Enteroscopy, defined as direct visualization of the small bowel with the use of a fiberoptic or capsule endoscopy, has progressed considerably over the past several years. The need for endoscopic access to improve diagnosis and treatment of small bowel disease has led to the development of novel technologies one of which is non-invasive, the video capsule, and a type of invasive technique, the device-assisted enteroscopy. In particular, the device-assisted enteroscopy consists then of three different types of instruments all able to allow, in skilled hands, to display partially or throughout its extension (if necessary) the small intestine. Newer devices, double balloon, single balloon and spiral endoscopy, are just entering clinical use. The aim of this article is to review recent advances in small bowel enteroscopy, focusing on indications, modifications to improve imaging and techniques, pitfalls, and clinical applications of the new instruments. With new technologies, the trials and tribulations of learning new endoscopic skills and determining their role in the diagnosis and treatment of small bowel disease come. Identification of small bowel lesions has dramatically improved. Studies are underway to determine the best strategy to apply new enteroscopy technologies for the diagnosis and management of small bowel disease, particularly obscure bleeding. Vascular malformations such as angiectasis and small bowel neoplasms as adenocarcinoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Complete enteroscopy of the small bowel is now possible. However, because of the length of the small bowel, endoscopic examination and therapeutic maneuvers require significant skill, radiological assistance, the use of deep sedation with the assistance of the anesthetist. Prospective randomized studies are needed to guide diagnostic testing and therapy with these new endoscopic techniques.

  12. Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: German Protestantism, conscience, and the limits of purely ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    Bartmann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this essay I shall describe and analyse the current debate on physician assisted suicide in contemporary German Protestant church and theology. It will be shown that the Protestant (mainly Lutheran) Church in Germany together with her Roman Catholic sister church has a specific and influential position in the public discussion: The two churches counting the majority of the population in Germany among their members tend to "organize" a social and political consensus on end-of-life questions. This cooperation is until now very successful: Speaking with one voice on end-of-life questions, the two churches function as the guardians of a moral consensus which is appreciated even by many non-believers. Behind this joint service to society the lines of the theological debate have to be ree-discovered. First it will be argued that a Protestant reading of the joint memoranda has to be based on the concept of individual conscience. The crucial questions are then: Whose conscience has the authority to decide? and: Can the physician assisted suicide be desired faithfully? Prominent in the current debate are Ulrich Eibach as a strict defender of the sanctity of life, and on the other side Walter Jens and Hans Kung, who argue for a right to physician assisted suicide under extreme conditions. I shall argue that it will be necessary to go beyond this actual controversy to the works of Gerhard Ebeling and Karl Barth for a clear and instructive account of conscience and a theological analysis of the concepts of life and suicide. On the basis of their considerations, a conscience-related approach to physician assisted suicide is developed.

  13. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  14. Use of a water-soluble fullerene derivative as precipitating reagent and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix to selectively detect charged species in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Shiea, Jentaie; Huang, Jen-Pan; Teng, Chia-Fong; Jeng, Jingyueh; Wang, Lee Y; Chiang, Long Y

    2003-07-15

    A starlike water-soluble fullerene derivative, hexa(sulfonbutyl)fullerene (C60[(CH2)4SO3-]6; HSBF), consisting of a C60 cage covalently bonded with six negatively charged sulfonate arms, was synthesized and used to selectively precipitate positively charged surfactants, amino acids, peptides, and proteins. The affinity of HSBF to the analytes depends on the charge, structure, and hydrophobic characteristics of the analytes. The ion pair precipitate was easily removed from the solution by centrifugation. After washing, the precipitate was redissolved in the solvent or buffer solution and the analyte was characterized by laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF). HSBF shows strong optical absorbance in the UV range, so no additional organic matrix was required to conduct LD-TOF analysis of small analytes. For the solution that contained five quaternary amines differing only in alkyl chain length, HSBF exhibits the highest affinity to the amine with the longest alkyl chain. Only the arginine signal was detected from the solution that contained 14 amino acids. The peptides with arginine as the end groups interacted most strongly with HSBF and could be selectively precipitated from a solution of a mixture of five peptides. The signals associated with a trace amount of charged peptides derived from the digestion of proteins by trypsin were greatly enhanced after concentration with HSBF. Among eight proteins in the sample solution, insulin had the strongest affinity to the HSBF and exhibited the strongest signal on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrum.

  15. Is age the limit for human-assisted reproduction techniques? 'Yes', said an Italian judge.

    PubMed

    Gulino, Matteo; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Frati, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Although use of assisted reproduction techniques was examined by an ad hoc act in 2004 in Italy, there are many opposing views about ethical and economic implications of the technologies dealing with infertility and sterility problems. In this paper, the authors examine a recent judge's decision that ordered the removal and subsequent adoption of a 1-year-old child because her parents were considered too old to be parents. The couple had had recourse to heterologous artificial insemination abroad and decided to give birth in Italy. The judgement deals with and discusses the complex issue of the right to procreate in order to balance the opportunities offered by scientific progress with the unborn child's condition.

  16. Intra-Abdominal Cooling System Limits Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury During Robot-Assisted Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meier, R P H; Piller, V; Hagen, M E; Joliat, C; Buchs, J-B; Nastasi, A; Ruttimann, R; Buchs, N C; Moll, S; Vallée, J-P; Lazeyras, F; Morel, P; Bühler, L

    2017-06-21

    Robot-assisted kidney transplantation is feasible; however, concerns have been raised about possible increases in warm ischemia times. We describe a novel intra-abdominal cooling system to continuously cool the kidney during the procedure. Porcine kidneys were procured by standard open technique. Groups were as follows: Robotic renal transplantation with (n = 11) and without (n = 6) continuous intra-abdominal cooling and conventional open technique with intermittent 4°C saline cooling (n = 6). Renal cortex temperature, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology were analyzed. Robotic renal transplantation required a longer anastomosis time, either with or without the cooling system, compared to the open approach (70.4 ± 17.7 min and 74.0 ± 21.5 min vs. 48.7 ± 11.2 min, p-values < 0.05). The temperature was lower in the robotic group with cooling system compared to the open approach group (6.5 ± 3.1°C vs. 22.5 ± 6.5°C; p = 0.001) or compared to the robotic group without the cooling system (28.7 ± 3.3°C; p < 0.001). Magnetic resonance imaging parenchymal heterogeneities and histologic ischemia-reperfusion lesions were more severe in the robotic group without cooling than in the cooled (open and robotic) groups. Robot-assisted kidney transplantation prolongs the warm ischemia time of the donor kidney. We developed a novel intra-abdominal cooling system that suppresses the noncontrolled rewarming of donor kidneys during the transplant procedure and prevents ischemia-reperfusion injuries. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. A d-band bonding theory of the relative heats of solution of transition metal alloys and its relationship to solubility limits

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.E.; Bennett, L.H.; Goodman, D.A.

    1983-08-01

    The relative heats of solution of a transition metal in another and vice versa are derived within a Friedel d-band bonding model. The trend found in the heats parallels the trend observed previously in experimental relative solubilities. The implication of the solubility trend for surface segregation is also discussed.

  18. Aspirin Has Limited Ability to Modulate Shear-Mediated Platelet Activation Associated with Elevated Shear Stress of Ventricular Assist Devices

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Lorenzo; Tran, Phat L.; Sheriff, Jawaad; Brengle, William; Ghosh, Ram; Chiu, Wei-Che; Redaelli, Alberto; Fiore, Gianfranco B.; Pappalardo, Federico; Bluestein, Danny; Slepian, Marvin J.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous flow ventricular assist devices (cfVADs) while effective in advanced heart failure, remain plagued by thrombosis related to abnormal flows and elevated shear stress. To limit cfVAD thrombosis, patients utilize complex anti-thrombotic regimens built upon a foundation of aspirin (ASA). While much data exists on ASA as a modulator of biochemically-mediated platelet activation, limited data exists as to the efficacy of ASA as a means of limiting shear-mediated platelet activation, particularly under elevated shear stress common within cfVADs. We investigated the ability of ASA (20, 25 and 125 μM) to limit shear-mediated platelet activation under conditions of: 1) constant shear stress (30 dyne/cm2 and 70 dyne/cm2); 2) dynamic shear stress, and 3) initial high shear exposure (70 dyne/cm2) followed by low shear exposure – i.e. a platelet sensitization protocol, utilizing a hemodynamic shearing device providing uniform shear stress in vitro. The efficacy of ASA to limit platelet activation mediated via passage through a clinical cfVAD system (DeBakey Micromed) in vitro was also studied. ASA reduced platelet activation only under conditions of low shear stress (38% reduction compared to control, n = 10, p < 0.004), with minimal protection at higher shear stress and under dynamic conditions (n = 10, p > 0.5) with no limitation of platelet sensitization. ASA had limited ability (25.6% reduction in platelet activation rate) to modulate shear-mediated platelet activation induced via cfVAD passage. These findings, while performed under “deconstructed” non-clinical conditions by utilizing purified platelets alone in vitro, provide a potential contributory mechanistic explanation for the persistent thrombosis rates experienced clinically in cfVAD patients despite ASA therapy. An opportunity exists to develop enhanced pharmacologic strategies to limit shear-mediated platelet activation at elevated shear levels associated with mechanical circulatory support

  19. Public assistance, drug testing, and the law: the limits of population-based legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Player, Candice T

    2014-01-01

    In Populations, Public Health and the Law, legal scholar Wendy Parmet urges courts to embrace population-based legal analysis, a public health inspired approach to legal reasoning. Parmet contends that population-based legal analysis offers a way to analyze legal issues--not unlike law and economics--as well as a set of values from which to critique contemporary legal discourse. Population-based analysis has been warmly embraced by the health law community as a bold new way of analyzing legal issues. Still, population-based analysis is not without its problems. At times, Parmet claims too much territory for the population perspective. Moreover, Parmet urges courts to recognize population health as an important norm in legal reasoning. What should we do when the insights of public health and conventional legal reasoning conflict? Still in its infancy, population-based analysis offers little in the way of answers to these questions. This Article applies population-based legal analysis to the constitutional problems that arise when states condition public assistance benefits on passing a drug test, thereby highlighting the strengths of the population perspective and exposing its weaknesses.

  20. Overcome the process limitation by using inverse lithography technology with assist feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Yeon-Ah; Jun, Sungho; Choi, Jaeyoung; Choi, Kwangseon; Han, Jae-won; Wang, Kechang; McCarthy, John; Xiao, Guangming; Dai, Grace; Son, DongHwan; Zhou, Xin; Cecil, Tom; Kim, David; Baik, Ki-Ho

    2011-04-01

    Patterning of contact hole using KrF lithography system for the sub 90nm technology node is one of the most challenging tasks. Contact hole pattern can be printed using Off-Axis Illumination(OAI) such as dipole or Quasar or Quadrupole at KrF lithography system. However this condition usually offer poor image contrast and poor Depth Of Focus(DOF), especially isolated contact hole. Sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have been shown to provide significant process window enhancement and across chip CD variation reduction. The insertion of SRAF in a contact design is mostly done using rule based scripting. However the rule based SRAF strategy that has been followed historically is not always able to increase the process window of these 'forbidden pitches' sufficiently to allow sustainable manufacturing. Especially in case of random contact hole, rule-based SRAF placement is almost impossible task. We have used an inverse lithography technique to treat random contact hole. In this paper we proved the impact of SRAF configuration. Inverse lithography technique was successfully used to treat random contact holes. It is also shown that the experimental data are easily predicted by calibrating aerial image simulation results. Finally, a methodology for optimizing SRAF rules using inverse lithography technology is described. As a conclusion, we suggest methodology to set up optimum SRAF configuration with rule and inverse lithography technology.

  1. Early pleural fluid dynamics following video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy has limited clinical value.

    PubMed

    Holbek, Bo Laksáfoss; Petersen, René Horsleben; Kehlet, Henrik; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of predicting the pleural fluid output in patients after video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy of the lung. Detailed measurements of continuous fluid output were obtained prospectively using an electronic thoracic drainage device (Thopaz+™, Medela AG, Switzerland). Patients were divided into high (≥500 mL) and low (<500 mL) 24-hour fluid output, and detailed flow curves were plotted graphically to identify arithmetic patterns predicting fluid output in the early (≤24 hours) and later (24-48 hours) post-operative phase. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict high 24-hour fluid output using baseline data. Data were obtained from 50 patients, where 52% had a fluid output of <500 mL/24 hours. From visual assessment of flow curves, patients were grouped according to fluid output 6 hours postoperatively. An output ≥200 mL/6 hours was predictive of 'high 24-hour fluid output' (P<0.0001). However, 33% of patients with <200 mL/6 hours ended with a 'high 24-hour fluid output'. Baseline data showed no predictive value of fluid production, and 24-hour fluid output had no predictive value of fluid output between 24 and 48 hours. Assessment of initial fluid production may predict high 24-hour fluid output (≥500 mL) but seems to lack clinical value in drain removal criteria.

  2. Extending lean operating limit and reducing emissions of methane spark-ignited engines using a microwave-assisted spark plug

    DOE PAGES

    Rapp, Vi H.; DeFilippo, Anthony; Saxena, Samveg; ...

    2012-01-01

    Amore » microwave-assisted spark plug was used to extend the lean operating limit (lean limit) and reduce emissions of an engine burning methane-air. In-cylinder pressure data were collected at normalized air-fuel ratios of λ = 1.46, λ = 1.51, λ = 1.57, λ = 1.68, and λ = 1.75. For each λ, microwave energy (power supplied to the magnetron per engine cycle) was varied from 0 mJ (spark discharge alone) to 1600 mJ. At lean conditions, the results showed adding microwave energy to a standard spark plug discharge increased the number of complete combustion cycles, improving engine stability as compared to spark-only operation. Addition of microwave energy also increased the indicated thermal efficiency by 4% at λ = 1.68. At λ = 1.75, the spark discharge alone was unable to consistently ignite the air-fuel mixture, resulting in frequent misfires. Although microwave energy produced more consistent ignition than spark discharge alone at λ = 1.75, 59% of the cycles only partially burned. Overall, the microwave-assisted spark plug increased engine performance under lean operating conditions (λ = 1.68) but did not affect operation at conditions closer to stoichiometric.« less

  3. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  4. Extinction Limits of Nonadiabatic, Catalyst-Assisted Flames in Stagnation-Point Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen B. Margolis; Timothy J. Gardner

    2001-02-01

    An idealized geometry corresponding to a premixed flame in stagnation-point flow is used to investigate the effects of catalysis on extending the extinction limits of on adiabatic stretched flames. Specifically, a surface catalytic reaction is assumed to occur on the stagnation plane, thereby augmenting combustion in the bulk gas with a exothermic surface reaction characterized by a reduced activation energy. Assuming the activation energies remain large, an asymptotic analysis of the resulting flame structure yields a formula for the extinction limit as a function of various parameters. In particular, it is demonstrated that the presence of a surface catalyst can extend the burning regime, thus counterbalancing the effects of heat loss and flame stretch that tend to shrink it. The analysis is relevant to small-volume combustors, where the increased surface-to-volume ratio can lead to extinction of the nonadiabatic flame in the absence of a catalyst.

  5. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR... tracking, data entry and monitoring, including personnel and other costs associated with the...

  6. [Possibilities, limitations and errors with ultrasound tomography in computer-assisted treatment planning (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Quast, U; Glaeser, L; Heckemann, R

    1978-07-01

    Ultrasound tomography provides two-dimensional images, true in scale, of sonographic interfaces within nearly every sectional plane desired; it has become especially important, therefore, in irradiation planning. Complementary to results from a therapy simulator, an improvement in localization of tumor and target volume or of critical organs and of tissue inhomogeneities is possible. The hard-copy of gray-scale sonotomograms furnishes all essential geometric and anatomical input data needed for electronic systems used in irradiation planning. Technical, physical and diagnostic limitations of the method are stated. The possible systematic or technical-instrumental errors in sonographic treatment planning are discussed and the necessary calibration controls specified.

  7. Formation of multiferroic PbTiO3/PbFe12O19 composite by exceeding the solubility limit of Fe in PbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffari, G. Hassnain; Bilal, M.; Ur Rahman, Jamil; Lee, Soonil

    2017-09-01

    PbTiO3/PbFe12O19 composites have been synthesized by keeping the Fe concentration (x) in PbFexTi1-xO3 beyond solubility limit, i.e., x > 0.1% and 5% Pb excess. Both these factors have been successfully utilized to extract Fe doped PbTiO3 tetragonal phase which is composited with Magnetoplumbite (PbFe12O19) phase. A systematic evolution of the tetragonality of the former and improved stoichiometry of the later constituent has been observed. As x increases, emergence of additional Raman mode around 650 cm-1 with Fe addition was observed. Systematic increase in the relative intensity of this mode with x, showed that this mode corresponds to the magnetoplumbite phase. In addition to that resultant composite exhibited noticeable systematic decrease in the value of the energy gap as a function of x. Increasing Fe concentration in PbTiO3 constituent, led to monotonic decrease in c/a and increase in strain experienced by PbTiO3. Increase in the value of the saturation polarization was observed up to x = 0.4, which is identified to be associated with the strain induced by the dopant. A comprehensive magnetic characterization revealed monotonic decrease in magnetization with temperature for all compositions. Finally, we found an anomalous temperature dependent trend in the magnetic coercivity which is explained in terms of low temperature decrease in effective magnetic anisotropy by including magneto-electric coupling. Both constituent phases in the composite being ferroelectric and ferromagnetic at room temperature led to formation of better multiferroic properties and exhibited tunable physical properties with x.

  8. Inner retinal thinning after Brilliant Blue G-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for vitreoretinal interface disorders.

    PubMed

    Ambiya, Vikas; Goud, Abhilash; Khodani, Mitali; Chhablani, Jay

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ganglion cell layer and nerve fiber layer thickness after Brilliant Blue G (BBG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for vitreomacular disorders. Retrospective analysis of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of 42 eyes of 42 patients, who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with BBG-assisted ILM peeling, was performed. Inclusion criteria were idiopathic macular hole, idiopathic vitreomacular traction, and idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Key exclusion criteria were vitreoretinal interface abnormalities secondary to any other diseases, follow-up period of less than 3 months, and any other associated retinal pathology. Average, minimum, and sectoral ganglion cell, and inner plexiform layers (GCIPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters were collected. Changes in these parameters from baseline to 3- and 6-month visits after surgery were analyzed. At 3 months after surgery, we found a statistically significant reduction in the average GCIPL thickness (P = 0.031) and also in the superior sectors (P < 0.05) compared to the baseline values. A similar reduction was observed in the minimum RNFL thickness (P = 0.028) as well as in the superior sectoral RNFL thickness (P < 0.05). In 14 eyes with 6 months of follow-up, a similar statistically significant thinning of the GCIPL and RNFL was observed. However, the difference between the 3-month and 6-month values was not statistically significant (P = 0.679). BBG-assisted ILM peeling for vitreomacular interface disorders leads to thinning of the inner retina including GCIPL and RNFL. These structural changes should be correlated with retinal function tests to explore the pros and cons of this surgical step.

  9. A model of photothermally induced damage to the retina during indocyanine-green-assisted peeling of the inner limiting membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Roberto; Toci, Guido; Rossi, Francesca; Giansanti, Fabrizio; Menchini, Ugo

    2004-07-01

    Intentional removal of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) in macular hole surgery is becoming a well-recognized procedure. It is usually performed with the assistance of Indocyanine Green (ICG), which selectively stains the membrane, in order to facilitate the visual control of surgery operations. In this theoretical study we investigate the possibility of heat damage to the retina being caused by the combination of ICG staining with the illumination provided by a standard light source for vitreo-retinal surgery, composed of a Xenon lamp and an optical fiber delivery system. For this purpose, we set up a bi-dimensional analytical model that describes light absorption and heat conduction in ICG-stained ILM and in retinal structures.

  10. Impact of Dendrimers on Solubility of Hydrophobic Drug Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Sonam; Gupta, Lokesh; Rani, Sarita; Dave, Kaushalkumar; Gupta, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Adequate aqueous solubility has been one of the desired properties while selecting drug molecules and other bio-actives for product development. Often solubility of a drug determines its pharmaceutical and therapeutic performance. Majority of newly synthesized drug molecules fail or are rejected during the early phases of drug discovery and development due to their limited solubility. Sufficient permeability, aqueous solubility and physicochemical stability of the drug are important for achieving adequate bioavailability and therapeutic outcome. A number of different approaches including co-solvency, micellar solubilization, micronization, pH adjustment, chemical modification, and solid dispersion have been explored toward improving the solubility of various poorly aqueous-soluble drugs. Dendrimers, a new class of polymers, possess great potential for drug solubility improvement, by virtue of their unique properties. These hyper-branched, mono-dispersed molecules have the distinct ability to bind the drug molecules on periphery as well as to encapsulate these molecules within the dendritic structure. There are numerous reported studies which have successfully used dendrimers to enhance the solubilization of poorly soluble drugs. These promising outcomes have encouraged the researchers to design, synthesize, and evaluate various dendritic polymers for their use in drug delivery and product development. This review will discuss the aspects and role of dendrimers in the solubility enhancement of poorly soluble drugs. The review will also highlight the important and relevant properties of dendrimers which contribute toward drug solubilization. Finally, hydrophobic drugs which have been explored for dendrimer assisted solubilization, and the current marketing status of dendrimers will be discussed. PMID:28559844

  11. Identification of a self-limiting reaction layer in Ni 3 at.% W rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, K. J.; Goyal, A.; Kang, S.; Yarborough, K. A.; Kroeger, D. M.

    2004-11-01

    Analytical transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the presence of a self-limiting reaction layer developed within rolling-assisted biaxially textured Ni-3 at.% W substrates during the pulsed laser deposition of thick YBa2Cu3O7-dgr (YBCO) films. Improvements in YBCO film quality and physical properties were attributed in part to the development of a NiWO4 layer at the buffer-substrate interface. The formation of NiWO4 between NiO and the Ni-3 at.% W substrate was observed to restrict the growth of NiO within the coated conductor during YBCO deposition at elevated temperatures. A 5-8 nm thick NiWO4 layer, identified through both electron diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, was found to limit NiO growth to between 20 and 25 nm in thickness. The NiWO4 layer was found to have a [100] orientation relationship to the substrate normal, with multiple variants observed.

  12. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L.; Reina, Antonio J.; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers. PMID:23552102

  13. Functional Limitations, Depression, and Cash Assistance are Associated with Food Insecurity among Older Urban Adults in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Martínez-Martínez, Oscar; Orta-Alemán, Dania; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    To examine factors associated with food insecurity among urban older adults (65 years and older). Three hundred and fifty two older adults attending community centers in a neighborhood of Mexico City were surveyed for food insecurity, functional impairments, health and mental health status, cash-transfer assistance, socio-demographic characteristics, social isolation, and the built food environment. Having at least primary education and receiving cash-transfers were significantly associated with a lower probability of being moderately-severely food insecure (OR=0.478 and 0.597, respectively). The probability of moderate-severe food insecurity was significantly higher among elderly at risk of depression (OR=2.843), those with at least one activity of daily living impaired (OR=2.177) and those with at least one instrumental activity of daily living impaired (OR=1.785). Higher educational attainment and cash-transfers may have a positive influence on reducing food insecurity. Depression and functional limitations may increase the likelihood of food insecurity among older adults.

  14. Marker-assisted selection to improve drought adaptation in maize: the backcross approach, perspectives, limitations, and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Ragot, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A number of different marker-assisted selection (MAS) approaches do exist for the improvement of polygenic traits. Results of a marker-assisted backcross (MABC) selection experiment aimed at improving grain yield under drought conditions in tropical maize are presented and compared with alternative MAS strategies. The introgression of favourable alleles at five target regions involved in the expression of yield components and flowering traits increased grain yield and reduced the asynchrony between male and female flowering under water-limited conditions. Eighty-five per cent of the recurrent parent's genotype at non-target loci was recovered in only four generations of MABC by screening large segregating populations (2200 individuals) for three of the four generations. Selected MABC-derived BC(2)F(3) families were crossed with two testers and evaluated under different water regimes. Mean grain yield of MABC-derived hybrids was consistently higher than that of control hybrids (crosses from the recurrent parent to the same two testers as the MABC-derived families) under severe water stress conditions. Under those conditions, the best five MABC-derived hybrids yielded, on average, at least 50% more than control hybrids. Under mild water stress, defined as resulting in <50% yield reduction, no difference was observed between MABC-derived hybrids and the control plants, thus confirming that the genetic regulation for drought tolerance is dependent on stress intensity. MABC conversions involving several target regions are likely to result in partial rather than complete line conversion. Simulations were conducted to assess the utility of such partial conversions, i.e. containing favourable donor alleles at non-target regions, for subsequent phenotypic selection. The results clearly showed that selecting several genotypes (10-20) at each MABC cycle was most efficient. In the light of these results, alternative approaches to MABC are discussed, including recurrent

  15. The use of mobile devices as assistive technology in resource-limited environments: access for learners with visual impairments in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Foley, Alan R; Masingila, Joanna O

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the use of mobile devices as assistive technology for students with visual impairments in resource-limited environments. This paper provides initial data and analysis from an ongoing project in Kenya using tablet devices to provide access to education and independence for university students with visual impairments in Kenya. The project is a design-based research project in which we have developed and are refining a theoretically grounded intervention--a model for developing communities of practice to support the use of mobile technology as an assistive technology. We are collecting data to assess the efficacy and improve the model as well as inform the literature that has guided the design of the intervention. In examining the impact of the use of mobile devices for the students with visual impairments, we found that the devices provide the students with (a) access to education, (b) the means to participate in everyday life and (c) the opportunity to create a community of practice. Findings from this project suggest that communities of practice are both a viable and a valuable approach for facilitating the diffusion and support of mobile devices as assistive technology for students with visual impairments in resource-limited environments. Implications for Rehabilitation The use of mobile devices as assistive technology in resource-limited environments provides students with visual impairments access to education and enhanced means to participate in everyday life. Communities of practice are both a viable and a valuable approach for facilitating the diffusion and support of mobile devices as assistive technology for students with visual impairments in resource-limited environments. Providing access to assistive technology early and consistently throughout students' schooling builds both their skill and confidence and also demonstrates the capabilities of people with visual impairments to the larger society.

  16. The Use of Audio Prompting to Assist Mothers with Limited English Proficiency in Tutoring Their Pre-Kindergarten Children on English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy L.; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore; Wood, Charles L.; Helf, Shawnna

    2009-01-01

    Parents with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) may find it difficult to become involved in their children's education due to their lack of English proficiency. The present study examined the effects of using audio prompting to assist mothers with LEP in teaching their preschool children English vocabulary. Mothers were trained to tutor their…

  17. Two Cases of Severe Degeneration of the Macula Following Vitrectomy with Indocyanine Green-Assisted Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Macular Hole

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Junji; Sakuma, Toshiro; Kiyokawa, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Mizota, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    We describe three eyes of two cases of severe degeneration of the macula following vitrectomy with indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole. We need to remember the possibility of these complications and have to select the procedures that are safest to use for macular hole surgery. PMID:19478927

  18. Proteomic study of the soluble proteins from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 using automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Simon, William J; Hall, John J; Suzuki, Iwane; Murata, Norio; Slabas, Antoni R

    2002-12-01

    The unicellular cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. (PCC6803) has become a model organism for a range of biochemical and molecular biology studies aimed at investigating environmental stress responses. In this study the soluble proteins of Synechocystis were analysed using narrow pH range (pH 4.5-5.5) zoom gels, automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry acquisition, spectral processing and database searching. The work sets the foundation for investigations of proteomic changes following stress treatment. One hundred and ninety-two protein spots were analysed and 105 proteins identified, of these 37 were novel proteins not previously seen on two-dimensional gels. Proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism and protein modification were identified using this fully automated procedure demonstrating that automated acquisition and processing will be a useful tool for proteomic analyses on this organism.

  19. Syringe pump-assisted synthesis of water-soluble cubic structure Ag2Se nanocrystals by a cation-exchange reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shang-Bing; Hu, Bo; Liu, Chang-Chang; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2008-09-15

    Water-soluble cubic structure Ag(2)Se (alpha-Ag(2)Se) nanocrystals smaller than 5 nm can be obtained by cation-exchange reaction at room temperature, using water-dispersed ZnSe nanocrystals as precursors, which is achieved by controlling the injection speed of AgNO(3) solutions via a syringe pump in the presence of the stabilizer of trisodium citrate. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of the product Ag(2)Se nanocrystals is studied. The results show that the mean sizes and shapes of the precursor ZnSe and product Ag(2)Se nanocrystals are similar, and Se anion sublattices between them are topotaxial. In addition, no phase transition is observed for the product Ag(2)Se (cubic structure) nanocrystals below 180 degrees C. The present synthetic method based on cation-exchange reactions can also be applied to the syntheses of PbSe and CuSe nanocrystals.

  20. Optimization of simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted extraction of water-soluble and fat-soluble characteristic constituents from Forsythiae Fructus Using response surface methodology and high-performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Yang, Bing-You; Liang, Jun; Wang, Di; Yang, Qi; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Background: The compounds (+)-pinoresinol-β-glucoside (1) forsythiaside, (2) phillyrin (3) and phillygenin (4) were elucidated to be the characteristic constituents for quality control of Forsythiae Fructus extract by chromatographic fingerprint in 2010 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia due to their numerous important pharmacological actions. It is of great interest to extract these medicinally active constituents from Forsythiae Fructus simultaneously. Materials and Methods: In this study, a new ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of biological components 1-4 in Forsythiae Fructus. The quantitative effects of extraction time, ratio of liquid to solid, extraction temperature, and methanol concentration on yield of these four important biological constituents from Forsythiae Fructus were investigated using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design. The compounds 1-4 extracted by UAE were quantitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detect (HPLC-PAD), and overall desirability (OD), the geometric mean of the contents of four major biological components, was used as a marker to evaluate the extraction efficiency. Results: By solving the regression equation and analyzing 3-D plots, the optimum condition was at extraction temperature 70°C, time 60 min, ratio of liquid to solid 20, and methanol concentration 76.6%. Under these conditions, extraction yields of compounds 1-4 were 2.92 mg/g, 52.10 mg/g, 0.90 mg/g and 0.57 mg/g, respectively, which were in good agreement with the predicted OD values. In order to achieve a similar yield as UAE, soxhlet extraction required at least 6 h and maceration extraction required much longer time of 24 h. Established UAE method has been successfully applied to sample preparation for the quality control of Forsythiae Fructus. Additionally, a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to the structural confirmation of analytes

  1. The behaviour of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in the presence of magnesium(II) and calcium(II): protein-free soluble InsP6 is limited to 49 microM under cytosolic/nuclear conditions.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Nicolás; Torres, Julia; Domínguez, Sixto; Mederos, Alfredo; Irvine, Robin F; Díaz, Alvaro; Kremer, Carlos

    2006-11-01

    Progress in the biology of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) has been delayed by the lack of a quantitative description of its multiple interactions with divalent cations. Our recent initial description of these [J. Torres, S. Dominguez, M.F. Cerda, G. Obal, A. Mederos, R.F. Irvine, A. Diaz, C. Kremer, J. Inorg. Biochem. 99 (2005) 828-840] predicted that under cytosolic/nuclear conditions, protein-free soluble InsP(6) occurs as Mg(5)(H(2)L), a neutral complex that exists thanks to a significant, but undefined, window of solubility displayed by solid Mg(5)(H(2)L).22H(2)O (L is fully deprotonated InsP(6)). Here we complete the description of the InsP(6)-Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) system, defining the solubilities of the Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) (Ca(5)(H(2)L).16H(2)O) solids in terms of K(s0)=[M(2+)](5)[H(2)L(10-)], with pK(s0)=32.93 for M=Mg and pK(s0)=39.3 for M=Ca. The concentration of soluble Mg(5)(H(2)L) at 37 degrees C and I=0.15M NaClO(4) is limited to 49muM, yet InsP(6) in mammalian cells may reach 100muM. Any cytosolic/nuclear InsP(6) in excess of 49muM must be protein- or membrane-bound, or as solid Mg(5)(H(2)L).22H(2)O, and any extracellular InsP(6) (e.g. in plasma) is surely protein-bound.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of water-soluble, fluorescent gold nanoclusters capped with small organic molecules and a revealing fluorescence and X-ray absorption study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, C.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frank, W.

    2015-03-01

    Colourless solutions of blue light-emitting, water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNC) were synthesized from gold colloids under microwave irradiation using small organic molecules as ligands. Stabilized by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (TPA) or l-glutamine (GLU), fluorescence quantum yields up to 5% were obtained. AuNC are considered to be very promising for biological labelling, optoelectronic devices and light-emitting materials but the structure-property relationships have still not been fully clarified. To expand the knowledge about the AuNC apart from their fluorescent properties they were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidating the oxidation state of the nanoclusters' gold atoms. Based on curve fitting of the XANES spectra in comparison to several gold references, optically transparent fluorescent AuNC are predicted to be ligand-stabilized Au5+ species. Additionally, their near edge structure compared with analogous results of polynuclear clusters known from the literature discloses an increasing intensity of the feature close to the absorption edge with decreasing cluster size. As a result, a linear relationship between the cluster size and the X-ray absorption coefficient can be established for the first time.Colourless solutions of blue light-emitting, water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNC) were synthesized from gold colloids under microwave irradiation using small organic molecules as ligands. Stabilized by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (TPA) or l-glutamine (GLU), fluorescence quantum yields up to 5% were obtained. AuNC are considered to be very promising for biological labelling, optoelectronic devices and light-emitting materials but the structure-property relationships have still not been fully clarified. To expand the knowledge about the AuNC apart from their fluorescent properties they were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidating the oxidation state of the nanoclusters' gold atoms. Based on curve fitting of the XANES

  3. Microwave-assisted synthesis of water-soluble, fluorescent gold nanoclusters capped with small organic molecules and a revealing fluorescence and X-ray absorption study.

    PubMed

    Helmbrecht, C; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D; Frank, W

    2015-03-21

    Colourless solutions of blue light-emitting, water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNC) were synthesized from gold colloids under microwave irradiation using small organic molecules as ligands. Stabilized by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (TPA) or L-glutamine (GLU), fluorescence quantum yields up to 5% were obtained. AuNC are considered to be very promising for biological labelling, optoelectronic devices and light-emitting materials but the structure-property relationships have still not been fully clarified. To expand the knowledge about the AuNC apart from their fluorescent properties they were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidating the oxidation state of the nanoclusters' gold atoms. Based on curve fitting of the XANES spectra in comparison to several gold references, optically transparent fluorescent AuNC are predicted to be ligand-stabilized Au5(+) species. Additionally, their near edge structure compared with analogous results of polynuclear clusters known from the literature discloses an increasing intensity of the feature close to the absorption edge with decreasing cluster size. As a result, a linear relationship between the cluster size and the X-ray absorption coefficient can be established for the first time.

  4. Molecular mechanism of polymer-assisting supersaturation of poorly water-soluble loratadine based on experimental observations and molecular dynamic simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenwu; Sun, Mengchi; Zhao, Yongshan; Song, Xuyang; He, Zhonggui; Wang, Jian; Sun, Jin

    2017-07-05

    Polymers have been usually used to retard nucleation and crystal growth in order to maintain supersaturation, yet their roles in inhibition of nucleation and crystal growth are poorly understood. In our work, the polymer-based supersaturation performances and molecular mechanisms of poorly aqueous soluble loratadine were investigated. Two common hydrophilic polymers (hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl-acetate) (PVP-VA)) were used. It was found that HPMC-AS was a better polymer to prevent drug molecules from aggregation and to maintain the supersaturated state in solution than PVP-VA. The in vitro dissolution experiments showed that HPMC-AS solid dispersions had more rapid release at pH 4.5 and 6.8 media than PVP-VA solid dispersions under the un-sink condition. Moreover, molecular dynamic simulation results showed that HPMC-AS was more firmly absorbed onto a surface of the drug nanoparticles than PVP-VA due to bigger hydrophobic areas of HPMC-AS. Thereby, crystallization process of loratadine was inhibited in the presence of water to provide prolonged stability of the supersaturated state. In conclusion, polymers played a key role in maintaining supersaturation state of loratadine solid dispersions by strong drug-polymer interactions and the hydrophobic characteristic of polymers.

  5. Microwave-assisted synthesis of water soluble thiol capped CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and its interaction with sulfonylurea herbicides.

    PubMed

    Durán, Gema M; Plata, María R; Zougagh, Mohammed; Contento, Ana M; Ríos, Ángel

    2014-08-15

    A simple and fast procedure for water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) using microwave irradiation (MW) has been optimized. The CdSe/ZnS QDs were synthesized in organic media and water solubilization was achieved by replacing the initial hydrophobic ligands (TOPO and TOP) with hydrophilic heterobifunctional thiol ligands, such as L-cysteine (L-Cys), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) and cysteamine (CTAM). The use of MW irradiation allowed carrying out the modification of the surface thiol of QDs in a simple and fast way (only 40 s was required). Different optimization studies based on activation-time, irradiation-time, concentration of ligands, pH and lifetime fluorescent properties were carried out in order to obtain the best results for the solubilization of QDs. By the proposed method, the resulting water-soluble QDs exhibit a strong fluorescence emission at about 590 nm, with a high and reproducible photostability and acceptable yields. With the aim of contributing to exploiting the advantages of synthetized QDs from an analytical point of view, the different behavior with sulfonylurea herbicides (SUHs) were studied.

  6. The impact of threshold language assistance programming on the accessibility of mental health services for persons with limited English proficiency in the Medi-Cal setting.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Sean R; Wu, Frances M; Snowden, Lonnie R

    2012-06-01

    Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits federal funds recipients from providing care to limited English proficiency (LEP) persons more limited in scope or lower in quality than care provided to others. In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health implemented a "threshold language access policy" to meet its Title VI obligations. Under this policy, Medi-Cal agencies must provide language assistance programming in a non-English language where a county's Medical population contains either 3000 residents or 5% speakers of that language. We examine the impact of threshold language policy-required language assistance programming on LEP persons' access to mental health services by analyzing the county-level penetration rate of services for Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese speakers across 34 California counties, over 10 years of quarterly data. Exploiting a time series with nonequivalent control group study design, we studied this phenomena using linear regression with random county effects to account for trends over time. Threshold language policy-required assistance programming led to an immediate and significant increase in the penetration rate of mental health services for Russian (8.2, P < 0.01) and Vietnamese (3.3, P < 0.01) language speaking persons. Threshold language assistance programming was effective in increasing mental health access for Russian and Vietnamese, but not for Spanish-speaking LEP persons.

  7. Quantification of surface area and intrinsic mass transfer coefficient for ultrasound-assisted dissolution process of a sparingly soluble solid dispersed in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Durbha, Krishna Sandilya; Aravamudan, Kannan

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of power ultrasound of 20 kHz in enhancing the volumetric mass transfer coefficient was investigated in this study. Breakage and dissolution of sparingly soluble benzoic acid dispersed in either water or 24% aqueous glycerol was monitored as a function of time and ultrasound power input. Particle size measurements were carried out at intermediate times during the experiment to estimate the mean particle size and surface area. Linear combination of lognormal distributions was found to fit the experimental particle size distribution data. The De Brouckere mean diameters (d(43)) obtained from the particle size distributions decreased with increase in the ultrasonic power level. Empirical correlations were developed for the evolution of surface area as a function of ultrasonic energy input per unit mass. The effect of ultrasound on the intrinsic mass transfer coefficient (k(c)) could be decoupled from the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(c)a) as the surface area was also estimated. Different approaches involving either constant or variable intrinsic mass transfer coefficients were employed when carrying out the delineation. Mass transfer rates were enhanced due to both higher ultrasound induced intrinsic convective mass transfer coefficient and additional surface area created from particle breakage. To delineate the effects of particle breakage from solid dissolution, experiments were also carried out under non-mass transfer conditions by pre-saturating the solvents with benzoic acid. Both the solid-liquid systems examined in the present study attained saturation concentration when the ultrasonic energy input per unit mass was approximately 60 kJ/kg, irrespective of the ultrasonic power level setting.

  8. Assisted reproductive techniques for cattle breeding in developing countries: a critical appraisal of their value and limitations.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnologies, including those related to reproduction [also known as assisted reproductive techniques (ARTS)], is an increasing reality in developing countries, following the enormous flow of information around us and the increasing global commercial interests in areas where cattle production has its major assets. The present review discusses the achievements of various biotechnological tools for reproduction in cattle including semen handling for artificial insemination (AI), superovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro handling of oocytes and production of embryos, reproductive cloning and emerging technologies (sex selection, gene targeting and nuclear transfer for livestock transgenesis, genomics for marker-assisted selection, etc.). The application of these technologies for cattle breeding is critically discussed in relation to their impact in the improvement of the efficiency of dairy and beef production in developed and - particularly - in developing countries, which ultimately rule the possibilities of a competitive and sound production of food for human consumption. Despite the remarkable progress made and the punctual importance of some of the above-mentioned technologies, AI remains the most important assisted reproductive technology (ART) in developing countries. Any attempt to gain widespread of any other ART under the predominant economical conditions in developing countries ought to match the simplicity and the success of AI as a breeding tool. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rate? (a) Tribes are not required to limit vocational education for any one individual to a period of... unemployment rate for that fiscal year, then an individual's participation in job search or job readiness... part of another activity, then there is no limitation on counting the time spent in job...

  10. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  11. Development of a technical assistance framework for building organizational capacity of health programs in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Reyes, E Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Thomas, Kate K; Kuehn, Chuck; Morales, José Rafael

    2014-09-17

    Little information exists on the technical assistance needs of local indigenous organizations charged with managing HIV care and treatment programs funded by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This paper describes the methods used to adapt the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) framework, which has successfully strengthened HIV primary care services in the US, into one that could strengthen the capacity of local partners to deliver priority health programs in resource-constrained settings by identifying their specific technical assistance needs. Qualitative methods and inductive reasoning approaches were used to conceptualize and adapt the new Clinical Assessment for Systems Strengthening (ClASS) framework. Stakeholder interviews, comparisons of existing assessment tools, and a pilot test helped determine the overall ClASS framework for use in low-resource settings. The framework was further refined one year post-ClASS implementation. Stakeholder interviews, assessment of existing tools, a pilot process and the one-year post- implementation assessment informed the adaptation of the ClASS framework for assessing and strengthening technical and managerial capacities of health programs at three levels: international partner, local indigenous partner, and local partner treatment facility. The PCAT focus on organizational strengths and systems strengthening was retained and implemented in the ClASS framework and approach. A modular format was chosen to allow the use of administrative, fiscal and clinical modules in any combination and to insert new modules as needed by programs. The pilot led to refined pre-visit planning, informed review team composition, increased visit duration, and restructured modules. A web-based toolkit was developed to capture three years of experiential learning; this kit can also be used for independent implementation of the ClASS framework. A systematic adaptation process has produced a qualitative framework that can

  12. 34 CFR 668.20 - Limitations on remedial coursework that is eligible for Title IV, HEA program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... course in English as a second language, the educational level of instruction provided in that course is...) Courses in English as a second language do not count against the one-year academic limitation contained in... credit remedial course is a course of study designed to increase the ability of a student to pursue a...

  13. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Funding... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  14. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Funding... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  15. Estimation of Japanese international financial assistance for HIV/AIDS control for 2003-2007: difficulties and limitations of data collection.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koichiro; Yonemoto, Kiyoshi; Takei, Teiji; Izazola-Licea, Jose; Gobet, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to: (1) collect relevant data and estimate Japanese international financial assistance for HIV/AIDS control; (2) discuss the difficulties in collecting relevant data and the limitations of the collected data; and (3) conduct a comparative analysis on the estimated data with OECD and Kaiser Family Foundation aggregate data. The point is that we have comprehensively collected and estimated the data on Japanese international expenditures for HIV/AIDS control while there is no reliable data that is totally managed and published. In addition, we discuss the difficulties and limitations of data collection: unpublished data; insufficient data; inseparable data; problems of exchange rates; gaps between disbursement and commitment; and difference in year period among calendar, fiscal and organization-specific years. Furthermore, we show the risk of underestimating the Japanese international contribution to HIV/AIDS control on the basis of OECD and Kaiser data. In this respect, it is significant to comprehensively collect and estimate the data on Japanese international assistance for HIV/AIDS control. Finally, we derive the implication that it is crucial for a relevant international organization and/or individual countries to comprehensively collect and administer data for international cooperation in the development of health policies for HIV/AIDS.

  16. Minimally invasive surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion with limited approach under sedation: a report of 283 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Alfaro, Federico; Mareque Bueno, Javier; Diaz, Artur; Pagés, Carles Martí

    2010-09-01

    An adequate transverse maxillary dimension is one of the critical aspects of a functional and stable occlusion. Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion consists of a surgical liberation of the sites of resistance combined using orthopedic forces. Most technical descriptions advocate the use of general anesthesia with hospital admission. Between March 2000 and July 2008, surgery was performed on 283 consecutive cases with transverse skeletal maxillary hypoplasia. The incision ran horizontally to reach the level of the laterals. Osteotomies of lateral walls and pterygoid disjunction were performed in all cases. A V-Y closure was performed in 2 layers. Patients were discharged after recovery from sedation. One hundred seventy-two of the 283 patients were male. Mean age was 18.3 years. Mean surgical time from incision to last suture was 19 minutes. Expanders were Hyrax in 221 cases and Haas in 61, and a bone-borne expander was used in 1 case. At the 1-year follow-up visit, mean expansion was 8.0 at the canines and 8.9 at the mesiovestibular cuspid of the first molar. General anesthesia has been classically advocated for these procedures, the argument being that pterygomaxillary disjunction was too traumatic to be performed under sedation. The surgical technique used sought to attain a balance between maximum mobilization of the maxilla with a complete liberation of all the buttresses and minimum morbidity to avoid further complications. The new technique that we report seeks to combine both aspects and allows for rapid intervention with local anesthesia plus sedation and a minimal approach with a total liberation of the maxillary resistances (piriform aperture pillars, zygomatic buttresses, midpalatal suture, and pterygoid junctions). The minimal approach and incision used in the technique guarantee vascular support to the maxilla via the vestibular corridors. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Fundamental limits in heat-assisted magnetic recording and methods to overcome it with exchange spring structures

    SciTech Connect

    Suess, D.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Windl, R.; Vogler, C.; Breth, L.; Fidler, J.

    2015-04-28

    The switching probability of magnetic elements for heat-assisted recording with pulsed laser heating was investigated. It was found that FePt elements with a diameter of 5 nm and a height of 10 nm show, at a field of 0.5 T, thermally written-in errors of 12%, which is significantly too large for bit-patterned magnetic recording. Thermally written-in errors can be decreased if larger-head fields are applied. However, larger fields lead to an increase in the fundamental thermal jitter. This leads to a dilemma between thermally written-in errors and fundamental thermal jitter. This dilemma can be partly relaxed by increasing the thickness of the FePt film up to 30 nm. For realistic head fields, it is found that the fundamental thermal jitter is in the same order of magnitude of the fundamental thermal jitter in conventional recording, which is about 0.5–0.8 nm. Composite structures consisting of high Curie top layer and FePt as a hard magnetic storage layer can reduce the thermally written-in errors to be smaller than 10{sup −4} if the damping constant is increased in the soft layer. Large damping may be realized by doping with rare earth elements. Similar to single FePt grains in composite structure, an increase of switching probability is sacrificed by an increase of thermal jitter. Structures utilizing first-order phase transitions breaking the thermal jitter and writability dilemma are discussed.

  18. Protons are one of the limiting factors in determining sensitivity of nano surface-assisted (+)-mode LDI MS analyses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunji; Ahn, Miri; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-10-01

    A proton source employing a nanostructured gold surface for use in (+)-mode laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) was evaluated. Analysis of perdeuterated polyaromatic hydrocarbon compound dissolved in regular toluene, perdeuterated toluene, and deuterated methanol all showed that protonated ions were generated irregardless of solvent system. Therefore, it was concluded that residual water on the surface of the LDI plate was the major source of protons. The fact that residual water remaining after vacuum drying was the source of protons suggests that protons may be the limiting reagent in the LDI process and that overall ionization efficiency can be improved by incorporating an additional proton source. When extra proton sources, such as thiolate compounds and/or citric acid, were added to a nanostructured gold surface, the protonated signal abundance increased. These data show that protons are one of the limiting components in (+)-mode LDI MS analyses employing nanostructured gold surfaces. Therefore, it has been suggested that additional efforts are required to identify compounds that can act as proton donors without generating peaks that interfere with mass spectral interpretation.

  19. Protons are One of the Limiting Factors in Determining Sensitivity of Nano Surface-Assisted (+)-Mode LDI MS Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Eunji; Ahn, Miri; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-10-01

    A proton source employing a nanostructured gold surface for use in (+)-mode laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) was evaluated. Analysis of perdeuterated polyaromatic hydrocarbon compound dissolved in regular toluene, perdeuterated toluene, and deuterated methanol all showed that protonated ions were generated irregardless of solvent system. Therefore, it was concluded that residual water on the surface of the LDI plate was the major source of protons. The fact that residual water remaining after vacuum drying was the source of protons suggests that protons may be the limiting reagent in the LDI process and that overall ionization efficiency can be improved by incorporating an additional proton source. When extra proton sources, such as thiolate compounds and/or citric acid, were added to a nanostructured gold surface, the protonated signal abundance increased. These data show that protons are one of the limiting components in (+)-mode LDI MS analyses employing nanostructured gold surfaces. Therefore, it has been suggested that additional efforts are required to identify compounds that can act as proton donors without generating peaks that interfere with mass spectral interpretation.

  20. Excited state assisted three-photon absorption based optical limiting in nanocrystalline Cu2Se and FeSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Benoy; Molli, Muralikrishna; Aditha, Saikiran; Mimani Rattan, Tanu; Siva Sankara Sai, S.; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2013-09-01

    Transition metal selenides (FeSe2 and Cu2Se) are synthesized by the hydrothermal co-reduction method. XRD results revealed the crystalline nature of their single phase and the elemental compositions are obtained using EDS. TEM images of the as-prepared samples show the formation of nanorods of 10-20 nm diameter in case of iron selenide and nanoparticles of 10-35 nm diameter in case of copper selenide. The energy bandgap values are calculated using tauc plots obtained from UV-Visible absorption spectra. The open aperture Z-scan measurements carried out using 5 ns pulses at 532 nm revealed that the samples showed excellent optical limiting behavior owing to strong nonlinear absorption (NLA). Through numerical simulations, the mechanism of NLA is found to be effective three-photon absorption which has significant contribution from excited state absorption.

  1. Retinal function assessment of trypan blue versus indocyanine green assisted internal limiting membrane peeling during macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Bellerive, Claudine; Cinq-Mars, Benoit; Louis, Mélissa; Tardif, Yvon; Giasson, Marcelle; Francis, Kathy; Hébert, Marc

    2013-04-01

    To compare multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) retinal function and the anatomical and visual outcomes of macular hole surgery performed with indocyanine green (ICG) or trypan blue (TB). Prospective, randomized study. Twenty-five eyes of 24 patients. Patients underwent a pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the internal limiting membrane. In 14 eyes, internal limiting membrane visualization during macular hole repair was performed using TB, and ICG was used in 11 eyes. The examination protocol (performed before surgery and at 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery) included optical coherence tomography, mfERG (mfERG-103 hexagons), and assessment of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and contrast sensitivity (CS). Closure of macular hole was achieved in 100% of the cases. In the TB group, P1 amplitude and implicit time improved significantly at 12 months after surgery (P < 0.05), whereas in the ICG group, significant improvement occurred at both 6 (P < 0.05) and 12 months (P < 0.01). BCVA improved significantly in both groups at 6 and 12 months (P < 0.01). Both groups also showed a statistically significant CS improvement at spatial frequency of 6 cycles per degree (P = 0.01) 1 year postoperatively. At 12 months, improvement of P1 amplitude and implicit time, BCVA, and CS was not different between groups. In this study, the use of TB or ICG appears to yield similar improvement in terms of BCVA, CS, and mfERG amplitude and implicit time changes at 12 months. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brilliant blue G assisted macular surgery: the effect of air infusion on contrast recognisability in internal limiting membrane peeling.

    PubMed

    Totan, Yüksel; Güler, Emre; Gürağaç, Fatma B; Uzun, Erkam; Doğdu, Erdoğan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the potential efficacy and safety of inner limiting membrane (ILM) staining with brilliant blue G (BBG) under air infusion. 63 patients, treated by one surgeon with macular hole or idiopathic epiretinal membrane were evaluated prospectively. BBG was applied under air infusion in 38 patients (group 1), and injected into the vitreous cavity in 25 (group 2). Main outcome measures were the chromaticity difference between the stained ILM and the unstained underlying retina, anatomical-functional outcomes and complications of the surgery. Chromaticity difference was measured by an objective and quantitative analysis method to describe colour contrast strengths as they are perceived by the human eye. Anatomical and functional outcomes were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT), visual field analyses (VFA) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). CIELAB scores showed a significantly superior contrast for group 1 (16.72±2.36) than group 2 (10.34±1.29) (p<0.001). Visual acuity had increased in 28 eyes and remained stable in 10 eyes in group 1. In group 2, visual acuity had improved in 17 patients and remained unchanged in 8 patients. Based on postoperative OCT, anatomical success rate was 100%. During the follow-up period, mfERG and VFA demonstrated no case of BBG toxicity in either group. Cataract progression was the main postoperative complication (six eyes in group 1 and four eyes in group 2) and did not show a significant difference between the groups (p=0.45). BBG under air infusion yields a significantly higher contrast staining and easy peeling of ILM associated with anatomical and functional improvement and no retinal toxicity after macular surgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. [Assisted living: possibilities, limits and architectural requirements--considerations from the viewpoint of an architect with ecopsychological orientation].

    PubMed

    Heeg, S

    1994-01-01

    In Germany, existing experiences with "sheltered housing" are not sufficient in order to precisely define the role of this new type of housing the aged within the overall network of care for the elderly. First, this article provides an overview of how different the needs for help in old age can be, and which types of supportive environments and services fit to different situations. In this context the potential and the limits of the "sheltered home" concept are described. Second, based on some policy considerations, a program of seven design directives for the planning of sheltered homes is proposed that integrates selected theoretical approaches of environmental psychology and geropsychology. As an example for the implementation of some of the design directives, the floor-plan of a recent project is described. Finally, the resistance of architects to a design, which is also based on psychological considerations is discussed. It is argued that the architects' philosophy about the fit between architecture and users' needs has a certain similarity to the "complementary-similarity-model," developed by Carp and Carp (1984).

  4. Analysis of the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 in internal limiting membranes after indocyanine-green assisted peeling.

    PubMed

    Peters, Swaantje; Tatar, Olcay; Spitzer, Martin S; Szurman, Peter; Aisenbrey, Sabine; Lüke, Matthias; Adam, Annemarie; Yoeruek, Efdal; Grisanti, Salvatore

    2009-02-01

    Indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling was suspected to disrupt the innermost layer of the neural retina. We examined whether surgically excised specimens contain remnants of neuronal tissue. Ten patients with macular hole underwent pars plana vitrectomy and indocyanine green-assisted ILM peeling. A total of 0.1 mL of a 0.5% indocyanine green solution was applied for 15 seconds. The ILM specimens were prepared for immunohistochemistry, using a polyclonal antibody against protein gene product 9.5. Protein gene product 9.5 is a pan-neuronal marker labeling human neuronal cells. Appropriate controls to show selectivity of the antibody were performed on neuronal tissue of donor eyes. One ILM was prepared for electron microscopy. A selective expression of protein gene product 9.5 was found in neuronal fibers of the retina and optic nerve of donor eyes. Only 1 of the 10 surgical ILM specimens showed a minimal focal positivity for protein gene product 9.5. No neuronal tissue was detected on the ILM by electron microscopy. Focal expression of protein gene product 9.5 in only 1 of 10 surgical ILM specimens argues against a general indocyanine green-related disruption of the innermost retinal layers. However, higher concentrations of the dye, longer incubation times or different solvents than used in this study may lead to different results.

  5. The limitation of the human neutrophil chemiluminescence response by extracellular peroxidase is stimulus dependent: effect of added horse radish peroxidase on the response induced by both soluble and particulate stimuli.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, C; Lock, R

    1988-05-01

    When polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) interact with soluble and particulate stimuli, the cells increase their production of oxidative metabolites. This increased production can be measured as luminol amplified light emission or chemiluminescence (CL). The CL response of human PMNL has been investigated, and it was found that the formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced responses were limited by the amount of available peroxidase, whereas the ionomycin induced response was unaffected by the amount of extracellular peroxidase. A small increase in the response induced by the Salmonella typhimurium MR10 bacteria upon addition of peroxidase was also observed. The results indicate that stimuli inducing an intracellular response in PMNL are insensitive to the amount of extracellularly released peroxidase, whereas the response induced by stimuli also generating an extracellularly located production of oxidative metabolites are highly influenced by the amount of peroxidase available extracellularly. Furthermore, the extracellularly localized peroxidase dependency is reduced at higher luminol concentrations. The use of the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence technique in various types of scientific investigations is discussed.

  6. [To investigate the safety and efficacy of indocyanine green-assisted vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for treatment of idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Sun, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    To observe the efficacy of indocyanine green-assisted vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for treatment of idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes(IMEM). Retrospectively studied 60 patients with IMEM who all underwent the surgery of vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling from 2011 to 2013. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure(NCT), slit-lamp examination, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) were committed. Patients were followed for 6 months. They were divided into two groups according to whether indocyanine green(ICG) was used or not with 32 members in ICG group and 28 members in none ICG group. They were divided into two groups according to the intergrity or disruption of the ellipsoid zone (EZ band) with 26 members in EZ band intergrity group and 34 members in EZ band disruption group. Age ranged from 28 to 79 years and the average age was 60.3 ± 10.9. Twenty-five males and 35 females were included. Twenty-five left eyes and 35 right eyes were incorporate. Among the 60 patients, 38 cases (63.33%) underwent visual acuity improvement after operation(BCVA improved at least 2 rows) and 21 (35%)patients' vision remained the same(BCVA changes less than 2 rows), while only one patient(1.67%) experienced decreased visual acuity(BCVA decline at least 2 rows). Average best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMar)and central retina thickness(CRT) (μm)of all patients preoperationwere 0.85 ± 0.44 and 578.45±144.61 respectively, which were 0.57±0.40 , 466.31±87.80 for one month and 0.54±0.42, 442.33± 98.92 three and six months postoperation(P<0.05). Compared to group of disruption EZ band, the BCVA of group of integral EZ band was better(P<0.05). 15 of 26 members in group of integral EZ band came up with EZ band cells loss in one month after operation and recovered by three or six months later. There was no statistical significance in BCVA and CRT between ICG group and none ICG group

  7. 45 CFR 286.50 - Is there a limit on the percentage of a Tribal Family Assistance Grant that can be used for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Family Assistance Grant that can be used for administrative costs? 286.50 Section 286.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS Tribal TANF Funding...

  8. 45 CFR 286.115 - What information on time limits for the receipt of assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.115 Section 286.115 Public Welfare... Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? (a) The TFAP must include the Tribe's proposal for... family includes an individual who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (b) The Tribe must...

  9. 45 CFR 286.115 - What information on time limits for the receipt of assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.115 Section 286.115 Public Welfare... Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? (a) The TFAP must include the Tribe's proposal for... family includes an individual who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (b) The Tribe must...

  10. 45 CFR 286.115 - What information on time limits for the receipt of assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.115 Section 286.115 Public Welfare... Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? (a) The TFAP must include the Tribe's proposal for... family includes an individual who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (b) The Tribe must...

  11. 45 CFR 286.115 - What information on time limits for the receipt of assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.115 Section 286.115 Public Welfare... Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? (a) The TFAP must include the Tribe's proposal for... family includes an individual who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (b) The Tribe must...

  12. 45 CFR 286.115 - What information on time limits for the receipt of assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.115 Section 286.115 Public Welfare... Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? (a) The TFAP must include the Tribe's proposal for... family includes an individual who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (b) The Tribe must...

  13. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  14. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  15. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  16. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  17. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  18. Retinal sensitivity and fixation changes 1 year after triamcinolone acetonide assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery--a MP-1 microperimetric study.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Hakan; Karacorlu, Murat; Senturk, Fevzi; Karacorlu, Serra A; Uysal, Omer

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate microperimetric changes 1year after macular hole surgery with triamcinolone acetonide assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with stage 3 and 4 idiopathic macular holes of <6months' duration underwent vitrectomy with triamcinolone acetonide assisted ILM peeling. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution), and central retinal sensitivity were documented before and 1, 3, 6, and 12months after surgery. Macular sensitivity (mean sensitivity in decibels -dB), and stability and location of fixation (preferred retinal locus) were determined using MP-1 microperimetry (Nidek). The MP-1 microperimetry sensitivity map was overlaid onto infrared images recorded on a Heidelberg scanning laser ophthalmoscope using dedicated MP-1 software to evaluate the fixation location before surgery. Anatomical success was evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Optical coherence tomography scans were recorded on an OCT 3000 scanner. Anatomical success was achieved in all 22 eyes. All patients completed 1year follow-up. No recurrence of macular hole was seen in any patients in the follow-up period. The mean BCVA improved from 0.75±0.2 before surgery to 0.31±0.1 logMAR at the last visit (p<0.001). Mean sensitivity improved from 3.7±0.6 to 5.3±1.0dB at the last visit (p<0.001). Before surgery, the preferred retinal locus was located on the margin of the hole in all, in 18 eyes on its upper part and in four eyes to the side or on its lower part. Preoperatively, 12 eyes were stable and 10 were relatively unstable, but 12month after surgery, fixation stability had improved, and 20 eyes were stable and two were relatively unstable.   MP-1 microperimetry sensitivity map overlaid onto an infrared image using dedicated MP-1 software can be used successfully to evaluate fixation location in patients with a macular hole before surgery. With microperimetry findings, we can also measure

  19. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  20. Toward a molecular understanding of protein solubility: increased negative surface charge correlates with increased solubility.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ryan M; Shende, Varad R; Motl, Nicole; Pace, C Nick; Scholtz, J Martin

    2012-04-18

    Protein solubility is a problem for many protein chemists, including structural biologists and developers of protein pharmaceuticals. Knowledge about how intrinsic factors influence solubility is limited due to the difficulty of obtaining quantitative solubility measurements. Solubility measurements in buffer alone are difficult to reproduce, because gels or supersaturated solutions often form, making it impossible to determine solubility values for many proteins. Protein precipitants can be used to obtain comparative solubility measurements and, in some cases, estimations of solubility in buffer alone. Protein precipitants fall into three broad classes: salts, long-chain polymers, and organic solvents. Here, we compare the use of representatives from two classes of precipitants, ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 8000, by measuring the solubility of seven proteins. We find that increased negative surface charge correlates strongly with increased protein solubility and may be due to strong binding of water by the acidic amino acids. We also find that the solubility results obtained for the two different precipitants agree closely with each other, suggesting that the two precipitants probe similar properties that are relevant to solubility in buffer alone. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Toward a Molecular Understanding of Protein Solubility: Increased Negative Surface Charge Correlates with Increased Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Ryan M.; Shende, Varad R.; Motl, Nicole; Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protein solubility is a problem for many protein chemists, including structural biologists and developers of protein pharmaceuticals. Knowledge about how intrinsic factors influence solubility is limited due to the difficulty of obtaining quantitative solubility measurements. Solubility measurements in buffer alone are difficult to reproduce, because gels or supersaturated solutions often form, making it impossible to determine solubility values for many proteins. Protein precipitants can be used to obtain comparative solubility measurements and, in some cases, estimations of solubility in buffer alone. Protein precipitants fall into three broad classes: salts, long-chain polymers, and organic solvents. Here, we compare the use of representatives from two classes of precipitants, ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol 8000, by measuring the solubility of seven proteins. We find that increased negative surface charge correlates strongly with increased protein solubility and may be due to strong binding of water by the acidic amino acids. We also find that the solubility results obtained for the two different precipitants agree closely with each other, suggesting that the two precipitants probe similar properties that are relevant to solubility in buffer alone. PMID:22768947

  2. Does video-assisted thoracic surgery provide a safe alternative to conventional techniques in patients with limited pulmonary function who are otherwise suitable for lung resection?

    PubMed

    Oparka, Jonathan; Yan, Tristan D; Ryan, Eilise; Dunning, Joel

    2013-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: does video-assisted thoracic surgery provide a safe alternative to conventional techniques in patients with limited pulmonary function who are otherwise suitable for lung resection? Altogether, more than 280 papers were found using the reported search, of which 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. One of the largest studies reviewed was a retrospective review of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. The authors compared 4531 patients who underwent lobectomy by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) with 8431 patients who had thoracotomy. In patients with a predicted postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppoFEV1%) of <60, it was demonstrated that thoracotomy patients have markedly increased pulmonary complications when compared with VATS patients (P = 0.023). Another study compared perioperative outcomes in patients with a ppoFEV1% of <40% who underwent thoracoscopic resection with similar patients who underwent open resection. Patients undergoing thoracoscopic resection as opposed to open thoracotomy had a lower incidence of pneumonia (4.3 vs 21.7%, P < 0.05), a shorter intensive care stay (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.05) and a shorter hospital stay (7 vs 10 days, P = 0.058). A similar study compared recurrence and survival in patients with a ppoFEV1% of <40% who underwent resection by VATS or anatomical segmentectomy (study group) with open resection (control group). Relative to the control group, patients in the study group had a shorter length of hospital stay (8 vs 12 days, P = 0.054) and an improved 5-year survival (42 vs 18%, P = 0.02). Analysis suggested that VATS lobectomy was the principal driver of survival benefit in the study group. We conclude that

  3. Attitudes Towards and Limitations to ICT Use in Assisted and Independent Living Communities: Findings from a Specially-Designed Technological Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Berkowsky, Ronald W.; Cotten, Shelia R.; Yost, Elizabeth A.; Winstead, Vicki P.

    2012-01-01

    While much literature has been devoted to theoretical explanations of the learning processes of older adults and to the methods of teaching best utilized in older populations, less has focused on the education of older adults who reside in assisted and independent living communities (AICs), especially with regards to information and communication technology (ICT) education. The purpose of this study is to determine whether participants’ attitudes and views towards computers and the Internet are affected as a result of participating in an eight-week training program designed to enhance computer and Internet use among older adults in such communities. Specifically, we examine if ICT education specially designed for AIC residents results in more positive attitudes towards ICTs and a perceived decrease in factors that may limit or prevent computer and Internet use. We discuss the implications of these results for enhancing the quality of life for older adults in AICs and make recommendations for those seeking to decrease digital inequality among older adults in these communities through their own ICT classes. PMID:24244065

  4. Attitudes Towards and Limitations to ICT Use in Assisted and Independent Living Communities: Findings from a Specially-Designed Technological Intervention.

    PubMed

    Berkowsky, Ronald W; Cotten, Shelia R; Yost, Elizabeth A; Winstead, Vicki P

    2013-11-01

    While much literature has been devoted to theoretical explanations of the learning processes of older adults and to the methods of teaching best utilized in older populations, less has focused on the education of older adults who reside in assisted and independent living communities (AICs), especially with regards to information and communication technology (ICT) education. The purpose of this study is to determine whether participants' attitudes and views towards computers and the Internet are affected as a result of participating in an eight-week training program designed to enhance computer and Internet use among older adults in such communities. Specifically, we examine if ICT education specially designed for AIC residents results in more positive attitudes towards ICTs and a perceived decrease in factors that may limit or prevent computer and Internet use. We discuss the implications of these results for enhancing the quality of life for older adults in AICs and make recommendations for those seeking to decrease digital inequality among older adults in these communities through their own ICT classes.

  5. Virtual retinectomy: indocyanine green-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling as a surgical adjunct in repair of recurrent rhegmatogenous retinal detachment due to PVR

    PubMed Central

    Minarcik, John R; von Fricken, Manfred A

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a surgical approach, known as internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, as an adjunct to repair of recurrent retinal detachment due to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Methods This was a retrospective case series. All eyes underwent repair of recurrent PVR-related rhegmatogenous retinal detachment incorporating macular indocyanine green-assisted ILM peeling. Patients with primary detachments, diabetes, staphyloma, or macular holes were excluded. The main outcome measure was the anatomic success of single surgery. The characteristics of the group were studied, including the number and types of previous detachment repair attempts, as well as the subsequent surgeries. Results Fourteen eyes from 14 patients were included. Anatomic success with single surgery was achieved in 11 of 14 (79%) of the operated eyes using this technique, and eventual success was achieved in all eyes (100%). Among the failed repairs prior to ILM peeling, 8/14 eyes had scleral buckles, 7/14 had silicone oil tamponade, and two had inferior retinectomies. There was no subsequent development of epiretinal membranes after ILM peeling. Conclusion ILM peeling in conjunction with vitrectomy and peeling of peripheral membranes is an effective technique with a high anatomic success rate in the challenging scenario of PVR-related recurrent detachments. We describe the technique as an alternative to the traditional retinectomy. PMID:22570543

  6. Cancer and soluble FAS.

    PubMed

    Abbasova, S G; Vysotskii, M M; Ovchinnikova, L K; Obusheva, M N; Digaeva, M A; Britvin, T A; Bahoeva, K A; Karabekova, Z K; Kazantzeva, I A; Mamedov, U R; Manuchin, I B; Davidov, M I

    2009-10-01

    A test system developed by the authors was used to measure serum concentrations of soluble Fas in patients with malignant and benign tumors of different location and morphology. Relationships between soluble Fas levels and the main clinical and morphological characteristics of cancer were evaluated. It is proven that the concentrations and incidence of detection of soluble Fas in the sera of patients with tumors are significantly higher than in normal subjects. No appreciable differences in the concentrations of soluble Fas were detected in malignant and benign tumors of the mammary gland, bones, ovaries, and adrenals. In thyroid cancer, soluble Fas levels were higher than in benign and hyperplastic processes in this organ. High level of soluble Fas is associated with late stages of the disease (ovarian cancer, cancer of the corpus uteri, adrenocortical and colorectal cancer) and with poor differentiation of the tumor (ovarian cancer and cancer of the corpus uteri), with local metastases (colorectal and adrenocortical cancer), and with tumor invasion into the myometrial tissue, intestinal wall, and adjacent tissues (cancer of the corpus uteri and colorectal cancer). A significantly high level of soluble Fas was detected in colorectal and adrenocortical cancer in the presence of at least 2 local metastases. Soluble Fas levels depended on tumor histogenesis in malignant and benign ovarian tumors. High concentration of soluble Fas was detected in large tumors in patients with ovarian cancer, cancer of the corpus uteri, colorectal cancer, thyroid cancer and adenoma, and in adrenocortical cancer. Initially high levels of soluble Fas are characteristic of patients whose tumors are little sensitive to nonadjuvant radiotherapy. The overall 5-year survival of patients with low levels of soluble Fas is better in osteosarcoma, cancer of the corpus uteri, ovarian and adrenocortical cancer.

  7. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  8. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  9. Doppler-limited high-resolution spectrum and VPT2 assisted assignment of the C-H stretch of CH2Br2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiek, Ibrahim; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2017-06-01

    The Doppler limited non-saturated rotationally resolved infrared spectra of the symmetric and asymmetric CH-stretch bands of CH2Br2 have been measured. A continuous wave cavity ringdown setup with a widely tunable Mid-IR-OPO laser light source yielded a single-shot minimum absorption of 4.9 × 10-8 cm-1. In contrast to the heavily congested ν1 band, the ν6 band showed partially resolved rotational features that may serve as suitable absorption targets in future environmental detection schemes for CH2Br2. A straightforward, VPT2 (second-order vibrational perturbation theory) assisted quantum-chemical approach for assigning the rotational structure has been tested using different model chemistries. The molecular structures, anharmonic frequencies and the structural changes upon vibrational excitation of CH2Br2 have been investigated. The predicted changes of the anharmonic rotational constants have been used together with available spectroscopic ground state constants to simulate the rovibrational structures of the ν1 and ν6 bands of CH2Br2. A refined analysis of the ν6 band is presented yielding accurate values for the band origin and the rotational constants. A fit of the line positions of 312 prominent transitions of the three isotopologues revealed a low standard error of 0.00056 cm-1, hence within the absolute 0.0009 cm-1 wavelength accuracy of the used spectrometer setup. A combined analysis of the predicted line strengths and positions of the strong Q sub-branches of the ν6 band has been performed to test the ability of the different density functionals for VPT2 prediction of anharmonic molecular constants. The M06/6-311++G(d,p) model chemistry turned out to yield reliable state-dependent rotational constants that are accurate enough to reproduce the overall rotational structure even without fitting.

  10. Chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND) to measure kinetic aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Kestranek, Aimee; Chervenak, Andrew; Longenberger, Justin; Placko, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Solubility is the dose-limiting property for in vitro studies, and therefore is a critical physicochemical property to measure in drug discovery. Solubility data can be used to guide lead optimization, troubleshoot erratic bioassay results, and identify potential downstream liabilities such as insufficient solubility for bioassays or oral bioavailability. Typically, early in vitro studies are performed using library compounds prepared as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) stock solutions, resulting in in vitro test solutions containing DMSO at low concentration (<5% v/v). Since DMSO can affect the apparent solubility, it is desirable to obtain solubility data under conditions mimicking the in vitro study. Kinetic solubility (from DMSO stock solutions) is often preferred over thermodynamic solubility (from dry powder) in early drug discovery. The protocols in this article describe a general procedure for assessing kinetic aqueous solubility of early drug discovery compounds using a miniaturized shake flask method with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND).

  11. Cocrystal Transition Points: Role of Cocrystal Solubility, Drug Solubility, and Solubilizing Agents.

    PubMed

    Lipert, Maya P; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír

    2015-10-05

    In this manuscript we bring together concepts that are relevant to the solubilization and thermodynamic stability of cocrystals in the presence of drug solubilizing agents. Simple equations are derived that allow calculation of cocrystal solubilization and transition point solubility. Analysis of 10 cocrystals in 6 different solubilizing agents shows that cocrystal solubilization is quantitatively predicted from drug solubilization. Drug solubilizing agents such as surfactants and lipid-based media are also shown to induce cocrystal transition points, where drug and cocrystal solubilities are equal, and above which the cocrystal solubility advantage over drug is eliminated. We have discovered that cocrystal solubility at the transition point (S*) is independent of solubilizing agent, and can be predicted from knowledge of only the aqueous solubilities of drug and cocrystal. For 1:1 cocrystals, S* = (Scocrystal,aq)(2)/Sdrug,aq. S* is a key indicator of cocrystal thermodynamic stability and establishes the upper solubility limit below which cocrystal is more soluble than the constituent drug. These findings have important implications to tailor cocrystal solubility and stability in pharmaceutical formulations from commonly available drug solubility descriptors.

  12. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  13. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  14. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  15. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  16. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  17. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Optimizing solubility: kinetic versus thermodynamic solubility temptations and risks.

    PubMed

    Saal, Christoph; Petereit, Anna Christine

    2012-10-09

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of kinetic and thermodynamic solubility data in guiding medicinal chemistry during lead optimization. The solubility of 465 research compounds was measured using a kinetic and a thermodynamic solubility assay. In the thermodynamic assay, polarized-light microscopy was used to investigate whether the result referred to the crystalline or to the amorphous compound. From the comparison of kinetic and thermodynamic solubility data it was noted that kinetic solubility measurements frequently yielded results which show considerably higher solubility compared to thermodynamic solubility. This observation is ascribed to the fact that a kinetic solubility assay typically delivers results which refer to the amorphous compound. In contrast, results from thermodynamic solubility determinations more frequently refer to a crystalline phase. Accordingly, thermodynamic solubility data--especially when used together with an assessment of the solid state form--are deemed to be more useful in guiding solubility optimization for research compounds.

  19. GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S

    2008-01-30

    Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

  20. Attitudes towards and Limitations to ICT Use in Assisted and Independent Living Communities: Findings from a Specially-Designed Technological Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowsky, Ronald W.; Cotton, Shelia R.; Yost, Elizabeth A.; Winstead, Vicki P.

    2013-01-01

    Much literature has been devoted to theoretical explanations of the learning processes of older adults and to the methods of teaching best utilized in older populations. However, there has been less focus on the education of older adults who reside in assisted and independent living communities (AICs), especially with regards to information and…

  1. Attitudes towards and Limitations to ICT Use in Assisted and Independent Living Communities: Findings from a Specially-Designed Technological Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowsky, Ronald W.; Cotton, Shelia R.; Yost, Elizabeth A.; Winstead, Vicki P.

    2013-01-01

    Much literature has been devoted to theoretical explanations of the learning processes of older adults and to the methods of teaching best utilized in older populations. However, there has been less focus on the education of older adults who reside in assisted and independent living communities (AICs), especially with regards to information and…

  2. Comparative investigation on clinical outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy between experienced open prostatic surgeons and novice open surgeons in a laparoscopically naïve center with a limited caseload.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Makoto; Kanao, Kent; Kato, Yoshiharu; Yoshizawa, Takahiko; Watanabe, Masahito; Zennami, Kenji; Nakamura, Kogenta

    2015-05-01

    To compare perioperative, oncological and functional outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy between experienced and novice open radical prostatectomy surgeons in a laparoscopically naïve center with a limited caseload. Six surgeons carried out robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in 154 patients, which were divided into the following three groups: group 1 (n = 90), including patients operated on by a surgeon with experience in both open radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy; group 2 (n = 36), including patients operated on by two surgeons with experience in open radical prostatectomy only; and group 3 (n = 28), including patients operated on by three surgeons with limited experience in both open radical prostatectomy or robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly in their median values of external blood loss (P = 0.165) or console time (P = 0.103). Positive surgical margin rates for pT2 patients were also similar in these two groups: 21.2% (7/33) in group 2 and 22.7% (5/22) in group 3 (P = 0.894). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 12 months after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy the prostate-specific antigen-free rate for pT2 patients was 96.0% in group 2 and 100% in group 3, but the pad-free continence rate was just 91.0% in group 1, 88.0% in group 2 and 75.5% in group 3 (group 1 vs group 3, P = 0.037; group 2 vs group 3, P = 0.239). The major complication rate after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy was 3.3% (3/90) in group 1, 11.1% (4/36) in group 2 and 17.9% (5/28) in group 3 (group 1 vs group 3, P = 0.008; group 2 vs group 3; P = 0.441). Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy offers satisfactory postoperative outcomes even when carried out by surgeons with limited experience in open radical prostatectomy. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Assisting the Assistant Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James

    2008-01-01

    Retaining quality staff members is a hot topic in the public school arena. Although teachers are often the focus of concern, hiring and retaining quality assistant principals must be addressed as well. Interviewing and hiring the right assistant principal--and then ensuring that he or she remains on in a campus for several years--can do a great…

  4. [Study on solubility of Chinese herbal compound by solubility parameter].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dezhi; Chen, Lihua; Wang, Sen; Zhu, Weifeng; Guan, Yongmei

    2010-02-01

    To demonstrate the solubility of Chinese herbal compound with solubility parameters. The solubility parameters of Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound were determined by inverse gas chromatograph (IGC) and group contribution. Hansen ball was plotting by HSPiP, which could be used to investigate the solubility of Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound in different solvents. And the results were verified by approximate solubility. Liangfu effective components and Liangfu compound could be dissolved in chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, octanol and ether, and were slightly soluble in glycerol, methanol, ethanol and propanediol, but could not be dissolved in water. They were all liposoluble, and the results were the same as the test results of the approximate solubility. The solubility of Chinese herbal compound can be expressed by solubility parameters, and it is accurate, convenient and visual.

  5. Predicting the solubility of drugs in solvent mixtures: multiple solubility maxima and the chameleonic effect.

    PubMed

    Escalera, J B; Bustamante, P; Martin, A

    1994-03-01

    An approach to reproduce the solubility profile of a drug in several solvent mixtures showing two solubility maxima is proposed in this work. The solubility of sulphamethoxypyridazine was determined at 25 degrees C in several mixtures of varying polarity (hexane:ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate:ethanol and ethanol:water). Sulphamethoxypyridazine was chosen as a model drug because of its proton-donor and proton-acceptor properties. A plot of the mole fraction of the drug vs the solubility parameter of the solvent mixtures shows two solubility peaks. The two peaks found for sulphamethoxypyridazine demonstrate the chameleonic effect as described by Hoy and suggest that the solute-solvent interaction does not vary uniformly from one mixture to another. The different behaviour of the drug in mixtures of two proton-donor and proton-acceptor solvents (alcohol and water), and in mixtures of one proton acceptor (ethyl acetate) and one proton donor-proton acceptor (ethanol) is rationalized in terms of differences in the proton donor-acceptor ability of the solvent mixtures. An approach based on the acidic and basic partial solubility parameters together with the Hildebrand solubility parameter of the solvent mixtures is developed to reproduce the experimental results quantitatively. The equation predicts the two solubility maxima as found experimentally, and the calculated values closely correspond to the experimental values through the range composition of the solvent mixtures. These results show that the chameleonic effect can be described in a quantitative way in terms of Lewis acid-base interactions; this approach can assist the product formulator to choose the proper solvent mixture for a new drug.

  6. Foreign assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that providing energy assistance to developing countries remains a relatively low priority of the Agency for International Development. AID is helping some developing countries meet their energy needs, but this assistance varies substantially because of the agency's decentralized structure. Most AID energy funding has gone to a handful of countries-primarily Egypt and Pakistan. With limited funding in most other countries, AID concentrates on providing technical expertise and promoting energy policy reforms that will encourage both energy efficiency and leverage investment by the private sector and other donors. Although a 1989 congressional directive to pursue a global warming initiative has had a marginal impact on the agency's energy programming, many AID energy programs, including those directed at energy conservation, help address global warming concerns.

  7. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  8. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  10. Planar limit-assisted structural interpretation of saturates/aromatics/resins/asphaltenes fractionated crude oil compounds observed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yunju; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2011-08-01

    Planar limits, defined as lines generated by connecting maximum double-bond equivalence (DBE) values at given carbon numbers, are proposed as a means of predicting and understanding the molecular structure of compounds in crude oil. The slopes and y-intercepts of the lines are determined by the DBE/carbon number ratios of functional groups defining the planar limits. For example, the planar limit generated by a serial addition of saturated cyclic rings has a slope of 0.25. The planar limit formed by the linear and nonlinear addition of benzene rings yields lines with slopes of 0.75 and 1, respectively. The y-intercepts of these lines were determined by additional functional groups added within a series of molecules. Plots of DBE versus carbon number for S(1) class compounds observed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) showed that saturates/aromatics/resins/asphaltenes (SARA) fractions exhibited unique slopes and y-intercepts. The slope of the planar limit observed from a saturates fraction matched well with the slope of a planar limit generated by the serial addition of saturated cyclic rings. The slopes of planar limits of aromatics and resins fractions were very similar to that obtained from the linear addition of benzene rings. Finally, the slope of the asphaltenes fraction was almost identical to the slope obtained from the nonlinear addition of benzene rings. Simulated and experimental data show that SARA fractions exhibit different molecular structure characteristics. On the basis of the slope and y-intercept of the planar limit, the structures of molecules in SARA fractions were predicted and suggested. The use of planar limits for structural interpretation is not limited to crude oil compounds but can also be used to study other organic mixtures such as humic substances or metabolites.

  11. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited

  12. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  13. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-18

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  14. [Dynamic QTL and correlated characters of tomato soluble solid content.].

    PubMed

    Jia, Jun-Zhong; Tian, Li-Ping; Xue, Lin; Wei, Yi-Nong

    2010-10-01

    Two hundred and six F2:3 families from the cross between TD22 and HT-1-1-1-1 were used for dynamic QTL research of tomato soluble solid content and correlative traits, and correlation analysis of soluble solid content (SSC) with fruit weight (FW), fruit shape index (FSI), soluble sugar, vitamin C (VC), and organic acid at three different development stages. The results showed that there were differences in QTL loci for soluble solid content during the three stages of tomato fruit development. Four and eight QTLs were detected in green ripe stage and red ripe stage, respectively. These QTLs showed dynamic changes, and two markers LEaat006 and Tomato|TC162363 were detected in two stages, which might be useful in molecular-marker assisted selection (MAS). The result also showed that there was extremely significant difference in SSC at the three different stages, and its main correlative traits were different at different stages. Soluble solid content was positively correlated with soluble sugar, but negatively correlated with FW at green ripe stage; SSC was positively correlated with soluble sugar and organic acid at yellow ripe stage; SSC was positively correlated with soluble sugar and organic acid, but negatively correlated with fruit weight at red ripe stage. Based on correlation analysis of these traits, linear regression model was constructed. Non-tested varieties were used to test the fitness, and the result showed that it is well fitted, and the fitness is above 95%.

  15. Quantification of contrast recognizability in sequential epiretinal membrane removal and internal limiting membrane peeling in trypan blue-assisted macular surgery.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Paul B; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Haritoglou, Christos; Schumann, Ricarda G; Strauss, Rupert W; Schneider, Ulrike; Josifova, Tatjana; Cattin, Philippe C

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the selectivity and strength of intraoperative trypan blue staining during removal of epiretinal membranes (ERMs) and the internal limiting membrane. Based on intraoperative videos, 51 consecutive chromovitrectomies in 51 patients with macular holes, macular pucker, vitreomacular traction syndromes, or persistent macular edema were retrospectively studied. Fifteen subjects underwent trypan blue, 14 indocyanine green, and 22 brilliant blue G chromovitrectomy. The main outcome measure was the color contrast between stained internal limiting membrane or ERM and the underlying unstained tissue by means of objective, quantitative, semiautomated chromaticity difference measurements. Trypan blue stains both ERM and the internal limiting membrane (average chromaticity scores 8.51 and 7.09, respectively; P = 0.48). Internal limiting membrane chromaticity scores were similar for trypan blue (7.09) and brilliant blue G (6.81; P = 0.71) but clearly higher for indocyanine green (15.81; P = 2.45 × 10). Under the premises of our study, trypan blue stains both ERM and the internal limiting membrane. Trypan blue's staining capacity of the internal limiting membrane is similar to that of brilliant blue G but significantly inferior compared with indocyanine green. Trypan blue, thus, represents a useful vital dye for chromovitrectomy, particularly in the presence of ERM, where it allows a sequential approach.

  16. Dry season aerosol iron solubility in tropical northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. Holly L.; Edwards, Ross; Bowie, Andrew R.; Keywood, Melita; Williams, Alistair G.; Chambers, Scott D.; Selleck, Paul W.; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Mallet, Marc D.; Paton-Walsh, Clare

    2016-10-01

    Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe) and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED) campaign in northern Australia that reflects coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble aerosol Fe. The mean soluble and total aerosol Fe concentrations were 40 and 500 ng m-3 respectively. Our results show that while biomass burning species may not be a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust. We observed fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols. Thus, Fe in dust may be more soluble in the tropics compared to higher latitudes due to higher concentrations of biomass-burning-derived reactive organic species in the atmosphere. In addition, biomass-burning-derived particles can act as a surface for aerosol Fe to bind during atmospheric transport and subsequently be released to the ocean upon deposition. As the aerosol loading is dominated by biomass burning emissions over the tropical waters in the dry season, additions of biomass-burning-derived soluble Fe could have harmful consequences for initiating nitrogen-fixing toxic algal blooms. Future research is required to quantify biomass-burning-derived particle sources of soluble Fe over tropical waters.

  17. Transport of soluble species in backfill and rock

    SciTech Connect

    Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Light, W.B.; Pigford, T.H.

    1992-03-01

    In this report we study the release and transport of soluble species from spent nuclear fuel. By soluble species we mean a fraction of certain fission product species. Our previously developed methods for calculating release rates of solubility-limited species need to be revised for these soluble species. Here we provide methods of calculating release rates of soluble species directly into rock and into backfill and then into rock. Section 2 gives a brief discussion of the physics of fission products dissolution from U0{sub 2} spent fuel. Section 3 presents the mathematics for calculating release rates of soluble species into backfill and then into rock. The calculation of release rates directly into rock is a special case. Section 4 presents numerical illustrations of the analytic results.

  18. Diffusion and solubility of oxygen in silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenauer, W.; Miller, G.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion and solubility of oxygen in Ag in the temperature range between 412 and 862 C was determined. The following interpolation formula was found for the solubility: L = 8.19.1/100.exp(-11 860/RT)Mol O2/g.At.Ag.at 1/.5. The process obeys the Sieverts square root law within the limits of error. The dissolution of oxygen in Ag may be accompanied by the dissociation of the oxygen molecules into atoms. The tests on Ag-foils reveal that below a temperature of about 500 C a higher solubility is simulated by the adsorption of oxygen. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in silver obeys the following equation: D = 2.72.1/100.exp(-11 000/RT)sq cm/s. The relatively low activation energy of 11 kcal/g.At suggests that the diffusion of oxygen takes places over interstitial sites.

  19. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  20. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

  1. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  2. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-02-26

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model.

  3. No Child Left Behind Act: Assistance from Education Could Help States Better Measure Progress of Students with Limited English Proficiency. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-06-815

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    2006-01-01

    In school year 2003-2004, state data showed that the percentage of students with limited English proficiency scoring proficient on a state's language arts and mathematics tests was lower than the state's annual progress goals in nearly two-thirds of the 48 states for which data was obtained. To help these students progress academically, state and…

  4. Bioconcentration factors and lipid solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S. ); Baughman, G.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The log-log relationship between bioconcentration and hydrophobicity breaks down for several medium and high molecular weight solutes that bioconcentrate either to a small extent or not at all. Much of the failure is attributed to the relatively low solubility of these compounds in lipid. Inclusion of a term in octanol solubility (in place of lipid solubility, which is generally unavailable) considerably improves the quality of the relationship (r = 0.95). It is speculated that the octanol solubility term compensates for the relatively low solubility of large compounds in lipid.

  5. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  6. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  7. Developing soluble polymers for high-throughput synthetic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Spanka, Carsten; Wentworth, Paul; Janda, Kim D

    2002-05-01

    Soluble polymers have emerged as viable alternatives to resin supports across the broad spectrum of high-throughput organic chemistry. As the application of these supports become more widespread, issues such as broad-spectrum solubility and loading are becoming limiting factors and therefore new polymers are required to overcome such limitations. This article details the approach made within our group to new soluble polymer supports and specifically focuses on parallel libraries of block copolymers, de novo poly(styrene-co-chloromethylstyrene), PEG- stealth stars, and substituted poly(norbornylene)s.

  8. Valence effects on solubility and sorption: the solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.

    1986-03-01

    The solubilities of technetium (IV) oxides have been determined in solutions of NaCl, HCl, and synthetic groundwaters in the pH range 0 to 10. Oxides were prepared either by electroreduction from Tc(VII) solutions onto platinum electrodes or by precipitation of Tc from Tc(VII) solutions using hydrazine. In some of the determinations, the oxide was precipitated onto purified sand by use of hydrazine. The oxide-covered sand was then placed into a column and the test solution continuously recirculated through the column. The oxide plated on platinum was placed into a small cell and the test solution stirred. Solubilities were determined by measuring the beta radiation of /sup 99/Tc in the stirred or circulated solution in contact with the oxide. In the pH range 4 to 10, solubilities were in the range 7.5 x 10/sup -9/ to 5 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L, and most of the determinations were in the range 1 x 10/sup -8/ to 2 x 10/sup -8/ mol/L. In acid solutions the solubilities were generally higher for hydrazine-precipitated oxide than for the electrodeposited oxide, and they increased as the pH was lowered. Solubilities of Tc(IV) oxides will be useful for calculation of transport rates of technetium for the case of solubility-limited transport in nuclear waste repository environments.

  9. A comparison of brilliant blue G, trypan blue, and indocyanine green dyes to assist internal limiting membrane peeling during macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dhananjay; Kalliath, Jay; Neelakantan, Nithya; Naresh, Kannan B; Ramasamy, Kim

    2011-11-01

    To compare surgical outcomes with three dyes, brilliant blue G (BBG), trypan blue (TB) and indocyanine green (ICG), used to facilitate internal limiting membrane peeling during macular hole surgery. This comparative, interventional cases series consisted of 50 eyes of 50 patients with senile idiopathic macular holes, who underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling using BBG (n = 15), TB (n = 20), or ICG (n = 15). The cases involving use of BBG and TB were enrolled prospectively and concurrently, and the cases using ICG were selected through chart reviews. We compared the intraoperative surgical facilitation with the 3 dyes and the surgical outcomes in terms of macular hole closure and visual improvement at 6 months. The 3 groups were similar in mean age, sex distribution, preoperative best-corrected visual acuity, and duration of follow-up (P = 0.957, 0.974, 0.939, and 0.5524, respectively). Of the 3 dyes, BBG appeared to provide greatest intraoperative facilitation: most convenient to use and remove, and similar to ICG in terms of internal limiting membrane staining. Six months postoperatively, macular hole closed in 100%, 95%, and 86% eyes (P = 0.48) and visual improvement occurred in 80%, 85%, and 33% eyes (P = 0.005) in BBG, TB, and ICG groups, respectively. The BBG and TB groups also had a better final best-corrected visual acuity than ICG group (P = 0.05) and smaller percentage of visual decline (5% and 6.7% vs. 40% respectively; P = 0.049). Brilliant blue G was comparable with TB in optimizing visual and functional outcomes, while it was similar to ICG in ease of internal limiting membrane peeling.

  10. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    DOEpatents

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  11. ICG-assisted blood vessel detection during stereotactic neurosurgery: simulation study on excitation power limitations due to thermal effects in human brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Rühm, Adrian; Göbel, Werner; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative blood vessel detection based on intraluminal indocyanin-green (ICG) would allow to minimize the risk of blood vessel perforation during stereotactic brain tumor biopsy. For a fiber-based approach compatible with clinical conditions, the maximum tolerable excitation light power was derived from simulations of the thermal heat load on the tissue. Using the simulation software LITCIT, the temperature distribution in human brain tissue was calculated as a function of time for realistic single-fiber probes (0.72mm active diameter, numerical aperture 0.35, optional focusing to 0.29mm diameter) and for the optimum ICG excitation wavelength of 785nm. The asymptotic maximum temperature in the simulated tissue region was derived for different radiant fluxes at the distal fiber end. Worst case values were assumed for all other parameters. In addition to homogeneous (normal and tumor) brain tissue with homogeneous blood perfusion, models with localized extra blood vessels incorporated ahead of the distal fiber end were investigated. If one demands that destruction of normal brain tissue must be excluded by limiting the tissue heating to 42°C, then the radiant flux at the distal fiber end must be limited to 33mW with and 43mW without focusing. When considering extra blood vessels of 0.1mm diameter incorporated into homogeneously perfused brain tissue, the tolerable radiant flux is reduced to 22mW with and 32mW without focusing. The threshold value according to legal laser safety regulations for human skin tissue is 28.5mW. For the envisaged modality of blood vessel detection, light power limits for an application-relevant fiber configuration were determined and found to be roughly consistent with present legal regulations for skin tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion as a potential carrier of sparingly soluble drug: characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Tamura, Miki; Tahara, Yoshiro; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2010-11-15

    Pharmaceutical industries have posed challenges in the topical and transdermal administration of drugs which are poorly soluble or insoluble in water and most of organic solvents. In an approach to overcome this limitation, ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/o) microemulsions (MEs) were employed to increase the solubility of a sparingly soluble drug to enhance its topical and transdermal delivery. The formulation of MEs was composed of a blend of nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and sorbitan laurate (Span-20), isopropyl myristate (IPM) as an oil phase, and IL [C(1)mim] [(CH(3)O)(2)PO(2)] (dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate) as a pseudophase. Among various weight ratios of Tween-80 to Span-20 investigated in the ME systems, the ratio 3:2 showed excellent solubility and skin permeation enhancing effect for acyclovir (ACV) used as a model sparingly soluble drug. The size and size distribution of the ME droplets with and without drug were determined by dynamic light scattering. The permeability study of ACV incorporated in IL droplets as well as other formulations was performed into and across the Yucatan micropig (YMP) porcine skin, and the use of IL/o MEs has been shown to dramatically increase ACV administration. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the new carrier was evaluated in vitro using the reconstructed human epidermal model LabCyte™ EPI-MODEL12. It was found that the cell viability of IL/o MEs containing 4wt% IL was over 80% compared to Dulbecco's Phosphate-Buffered Salines, indicating low cytotoxicity of the carrier. Taken together these results, it can be assumed that IL-assisted nonaqueous ME could serve as a versatile and efficient nanodelivery system for insoluble or sparingly soluble drug molecules that require solubilizing agents for delivery.

  13. γ-Irradiation assisted synthesis of graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution from interlamellar limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yunhao; Zhou, Baoming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Liu, Liangsen; Kuang, Liyun; Ma, Meijun; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-05-01

    This paper reported a method to fabricate graphene oxide sheets supported Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs/GOS) with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution without surfactant or functional agent. We used imidazole silver nitrate as intercalation precursor into the layers of graphite oxide, and subsequently reduction and growth of interlamellar AgNPs were induced via γ-irradiation. The results illustrated that the synergism of interlamellar limitation of graphite oxide and fragmentation ability of γ-irradiation could prevent coalescent reaction of AgNPs with other oligomeric clusters, and the single crystalline and small-sized (below 13.9 nm) AgNPs were prepared. Moreover, the content and size of AgNPs exhibited parabolic distribution on GOS surface because the graphite oxide exfoliated to GOS from the edge to the central area of layers. In addition, complete exfoliation degree of GOS and large-sized AgNPs were obtained simultaneously under suitable silver ions concentration. Optimized composites exhibited outstanding surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties for crystal violet with enhancement factor of 1.3 × 106 and detection limit of 1.0 × 10-7 M, indicating that the AgNPs/GOS composites could be applied to trace detection of organic dyes molecules. Therefore, this study presented a strategy for developing GOS supported nanometal with single crystalline structure and parabolic distribution based on γ-irradiation.

  14. Microwave-Assisted Superheating and/or Microwave-Specific Superboiling (Nucleation-Limited Boiling) of Liquids Occurs under Certain Conditions but is Mitigated by Stirring.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anthony; Hunt, Jacob; Stiegman, Albert; Dudley, Gregory B

    2015-12-04

    Temporary superheating and sustained nucleation-limited "superboiling" of unstirred liquids above the normal atmospheric boiling point have been documented during microwave heating. These phenomena are reliably observed under prescribed conditions, although the duration (of superheating) and magnitude (of superheating and superboiling) vary according to system parameters such as volume of the liquid and the size and shape of the vessel. Both phenomena are mitigated by rapid stirring with an appropriate stir bar and/or with the addition of boiling chips, which provide nucleation sites to support the phase-change from liquid to gas. With proper experimental design and especially proper stirring, the measured temperature of typical organic reaction mixtures heated at reflux will be close to the normal boiling point temperature of the solvent, whether heated using microwave radiation or conventional convective heat transfer. These observations are important to take into consideration when comparing reaction rates under conventional and microwave heating.

  15. BRILLIANT BLUE G-ASSISTED INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING FOR MACULAR HOLE: A Systematic Review of Literature and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kunihiro; Noda, Yasuo; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Ueta, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane peeling with brilliant blue G (BBG) for the treatment of macular hole compared with peeling procedures with other dyes or without dye. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were systematically reviewed. Outcome measures were the primary closure rate and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity. Nine studies that included 846 eyes were selected. There was no significant difference in preoperative best-corrected visual acuity between the BBG and no BBG (i.e., other dyes or no dye) groups (mean difference -0.02 logMAR [equivalent to 1 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letter]; 95% confidence interval -0.09 to 0.04 [-2-4.5 ETDRS letters]; P = 0.45). The macular hole closure rate using BBG was not significantly different from that using indocyanine green (odds ratio 1.98; 95% confidence interval 0.71-5.48; P = 0.19). The postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was more favorable with BBG than with indocyanine green (mean difference -0.10 logMAR [5 ETDRS letters]; 95% confidence interval -0.16 to -0.03 [1.5-8 ETDRS letters]; P = 0.004) or with no BBG (mean difference -0.11 [5.5 ETDRS letters]; 95% confidence interval -0.18 to -0.04 [2-9 ETDRS letters]; P = 0.003). BBG could contribute to better visual acuity outcome than other dyes for internal limiting membrane peeling in patients with macular hole; however, it does not significantly influence the closure rate.

  16. The removal of soluble species by warm stratiform clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, YU; Chameides, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a one-dimensional, time-dependent model to study the removal of soluble gases from a warm, precipitating stratiform cloud is reported. The model calculates the distributions of water vapor and condensed water, in the form of cloud drops and raindrops, as well as the in-cloud concentration of a soluble species in the gas and aqueous phases for a specified profile of pressure and temperature and an assumed updraft velocity. Highly soluble gases are found to be rapidly dissolved into cloud droplets and then slowly incorporated into raindrops as cloudwater is converted to rainwater. The rainout rate for highly soluble species is found to be ultimately limited by the rate at which new gaseous material can be transferred from the cloud-free air into the cloud. The model calculations indicate that turbulence represents an important mechanism by which highly soluble gases are transported into stratiform clouds.

  17. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  18. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  19. Surface shear inviscidity of soluble surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Zell, Zachary A.; Nowbahar, Arash; Mansard, Vincent; Leal, L. Gary; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Mecca, Jodi M.; Tucker, Christopher J.; Squires, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Foam and emulsion stability has long been believed to correlate with the surface shear viscosity of the surfactant used to stabilize them. Many subtleties arise in interpreting surface shear viscosity measurements, however, and correlations do not necessarily indicate causation. Using a sensitive technique designed to excite purely surface shear deformations, we make the most sensitive and precise measurements to date of the surface shear viscosity of a variety of soluble surfactants, focusing on SDS in particular. Our measurements reveal the surface shear viscosity of SDS to be below the sensitivity limit of our technique, giving an upper bound of order 0.01 μN·s/m. This conflicts directly with almost all previous studies, which reported values up to 103–104 times higher. Multiple control and complementary measurements confirm this result, including direct visualization of monolayer deformation, for SDS and a wide variety of soluble polymeric, ionic, and nonionic surfactants of high- and low-foaming character. No soluble, small-molecule surfactant was found to have a measurable surface shear viscosity, which seriously undermines most support for any correlation between foam stability and surface shear rheology of soluble surfactants. PMID:24563383

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness After Conventional Brilliant Blue Assisted Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling Versus Brilliant Blue Selective Staining Using Whole Blood in Macular Hole Surgery.

    PubMed

    Arora, Supriya; Goel, Neha; Arora, Tarun; Sharma, Prateeksha; Raina, Usha Kaul; Thakar, Meenakshi; Ghosh, Basudeb

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness after conventional brilliant blue (BB) assisted macular hole (MH) surgery versus BB selective staining using whole blood (WB) in MH surgery. Sixty eyes with stage 4 idiopathic MH with a clear media were randomly divided into two equal groups. Group A eyes underwent sequential intraoperative use of autologous heparinized WB followed by BB dye for staining internal limiting membrane, whereas eyes in group B were subjected to conventional BB staining. Clinical examination and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography was done preoperatively and postoperatively up to 6 months. Mean global RNFL thickness and mean temporal RNFL thickness decreased in both groups postoperatively, but the reduction in RNFL thickness in group B was greater than group A at all postoperative visits (P < .05). BB toxicity may be responsible for reduction of RNFL thickness and WB appears to protect RNFL against dye toxicity. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:436-442.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Using a limited mapping strategy to identify major QTLs for resistance to grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) and their use in marker-assisted breeding.

    PubMed

    Riaz, S; Tenscher, A C; Ramming, D W; Walker, M A

    2011-04-01

    A limited genetic mapping strategy based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker data was used with five grape populations segregating for powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) resistance in an effort to develop genetic markers from multiple sources and enable the pyramiding of resistance loci. Three populations derived their resistance from Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Magnolia'. The first population (06708) had 97 progeny and was screened with 137 SSR markers from seven chromosomes (4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 15, and 18) that have been reported to be associated with powdery or downy mildew resistance. A genetic map was constructed using the pseudo-testcross strategy and QTL analysis was carried out. Only markers from chromosome 13 and 18 were mapped in the second (04327) and third (06712) populations, which had 47 and 80 progeny, respectively. Significant QTLs for powdery mildew resistance with overlapping genomic regions were identified for different tissue types (leaf, stem, rachis, and berry) on chromosome 18, which distinguishes the resistance in 'Magnolia' from that present in other accessions of M. rotundifolia and controlled by the Run1 gene on chromosome 12. The 'Magnolia' resistance locus was termed as Run2.1. Powdery mildew resistance was also mapped in a fourth population (08391), which had 255 progeny and resistance from M. rotundifolia 'Trayshed'. A locus accounting for 50% of the phenotypic variation mapped to chromosome 18 and was named Run2.2. This locus overlapped the region found in the 'Magnolia'-based populations, but the allele sizes of the flanking markers were different. 'Trayshed' and 'Magnolia' shared at least one allele for 68% of the tested markers, but alleles of the other 32% of the markers were not shared indicating that the two M. rotundifolia selections were very different. The last population, 08306 with 42 progeny, derived its resistance from a selection Vitis romanetii C166-043. Genetic mapping discovered a major powdery mildew resistance locus

  2. Physico-chemical characterization of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have studied the global structure of microwave-assisted alkaline soluble polysaccharides (ASP) isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp. The objective was to minimize the disassembly and possibly the degradation of these polysaccharides during extraction. Prior to ASP microwave assisted-extraction (...

  3. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  4. Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as acetamide, Nmethylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  5. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  6. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  7. Assistive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... at3center.net/home . Some Area Agencies on Aging (AAA) have programs or link to services that assist ... obtain low-cost assistive technology. To locate your AAA, call the Eldercare Locator at 1-800-677- ...

  8. Anesthesiologist Assistant

    MedlinePlus

    ... QUIZ Anesthesiologist Assistant Occupational description The Anesthesiologist Assistant (AA) is a skilled person qualified by advanced academic ... anesthesiologist. The anesthesiologist who is responsible for the AA is available to prescribe and direct particular therapeutic ...

  9. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  10. Assistive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  11. Assistive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  12. Low-volume solubility assessment during high-concentration protein formulation development.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Melanie; Winzer, Matthias; Weber, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2016-08-21

    Solubility is often one of the limiting factors for high-concentration protein formulation (HCF) development. Determination of protein solubility is challenging and requires high amount of material. Therefore, low-volume and predictive approaches are desired. This work presents a simple and material-saving approach using static light scattering to describe non-ideal solution behaviour of HCF. Non-ideality can be related to protein-protein interactions in solution. The type and strength of these interactions indicate maximum protein solubility at actual formulation compositions. Interactions of four therapeutic model proteins at multiple formulation compositions were investigated, and deduced solubility was compared to apparent solubility behaviour determined by ether turbidity or content measurements. Protein-protein interactions and deduced solubilities matched actual solubility data for all tested formulations. Protein solubility was found to be lowest at pH values near the isoelectric point of each model protein. Buffer salts and ionic strength were also found to strongly influence protein solubility. In addition, sucrose and a combination of arginine and glycine enhanced protein solubility, whereas surfactants such as polysorbate 20 did not influence protein solubility. The introduced screening procedure is a powerful tool during (early) protein formulation development. It meets several requirements of HCF development and enables reliable prediction of protein solubility based on determination of protein interactions. In addition, rare data about the influence of several common excipients on apparent solubility of therapeutic proteins were shown. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Students' mental models on the solubility and solubility product concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmi, Chusnur; Katmiati, Siti; Wiji, Mulyani, Sri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to obtain some information regarding profile of students' mental models on the solubility and solubility product concept. A descriptive qualitative method was the method employed in the study. The participants of the study were students XI grade of a senior high school in Bandung. To collect the data, diagnostic test on mental model-prediction, observation, explanation (TDM-POE) instrument was employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that on the concept of precipitation formation of a reaction, 30% of students were not able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, but they were not able to explain the interaction of particles that involved in the reaction and to calculate Qsp; 26% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the particles involved, but they did not have the knowledge about the interactions occured and were uncapable of calculating Qsp; and 18% of students were able to explain the precipitation formation of a reaction based on the relation of Qsp and Ksp, and determine the interactions of the particles involved in the reactions but they were not able to calculate Qsp. On the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility concept, 96% of students were not able to explain the effect of adding common ions and decreasing pH towards the solubility either in submicroscopic or symbolic level although the microscopic have been shown; while 4% of students were only able to explain the effect of adding common ions towards the solubility based on the chemical equilibrium shifts and predict the effect of decreasing pH towards the solubility. However, they were not able to calculate the solubility before and after

  14. Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Pamela

    2001-02-01

    This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. Le Châtelier's principle, solubility, unit conversion, and thermodynamics are tied together to calculate heats of solution by two methods: heats of formation and an application of the van't Hoff equation. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting. Background information on the value of understanding and predicting solubility is provided.

  15. Phenylated Polyimides With Greater Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    In experiments, 3,6-diphenylpyromellitic dianhydride monomer prepared and polymerized with several different diamines. Polyimides with pendent phenyl groups along polymer backbones considerably more soluble than PMDA-based materials. Increased solubility eases processing, providing increased potential use in variety of applications. Because most polymers soluble in organic solvents, usable in microelectronics applications. Excellent thermal stabilities and high transition temperatures make them ideally suited. Many polymers extremely rigid and useful as reinforcing polymers in molecular composites. More flexible compositions useful as matrix resins in carbon-reinforced composites.

  16. Optical limiting materials

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  17. Bipiperidine conjugates as soluble sugar surrogates in DNA-intercalating antiproliferative polyketides.

    PubMed

    Ueberschaar, Nico; Meyer, Florian; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2016-04-07

    DNA-intercalating polyketide glycosides are important leads for cancer therapeutics, yet their use is often limited by their low solubility and challenging synthetic protocols. To overcome these limitations, we employed 1,4'-bipiperidine-1'-carbamate residues as sugar surrogates in daunorubicin and chartreusin, yielding water-soluble derivatives and prodrugs with dramatically improved antiproliferative activities.

  18. Method for estimating solubility parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Ingham, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Semiempirical correlations have been developed between solubility parameters and refractive indices for series of model hydrocarbon compounds and organic polymers. Measurement of intermolecular forces is useful for assessment of material compatibility, glass-transition temperature, and transport properties.

  19. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  20. water-soluble fluorocarbon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

  1. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  2. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  3. Soluble ferrous iron (Fe (II)) enrichment in airborne dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, Abinash; Reche, Isabel; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The input of soluble iron in dust delivered to the ocean and lakes is critical to their biogeochemistry and phytoplankton productivity. Most iron in soils and sediment deposits is insoluble, while only a tiny fraction is soluble and therefore suitable to meet the phytoplankton's requirements for photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation. Aerosol deposition constitutes a major source of soluble iron to oceans and lakes, and in some regions the low phytoplankton productivity has been related to limitations in the supply of soluble iron from terrestrial sources. It is suggested that during atmospheric transport part of the insoluble iron is converted into soluble form. While the understanding of increased bioavailability of iron during atmospheric transport is improving, there are only a limited number of studies that actually quantify the increase in iron bioavailability in dust. In this study we compare the soluble ferrous iron, Fe (II) content in dust collected at deposition sites in the high-altitude mountains of the Sierra Nevada, Spain, to the source of dust in North Africa. We found that the dust is greatly enriched (on average 15 times) in Fe (II) relative to the fine fraction (<45 µm) of the parent soil collected from North African dust sources.

  4. Experimental Studies on Rutile Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Klemme, S.; Butler, I. B.; Harley, S. L.

    2007-12-01

    Rutile (TiO2) is an important high field strength element (HFSE) sequestering mineral, and has been implicated in the observed depletion of HFSE in arc magmas. It is thought that rutile is insoluble in slab-derived fluids, and remains residual in the subducted slab. Indeed, experimental data indicates a very low solubility of rutile in pure H2O (Tropper and Manning, 2005), and this low solubility may result in HFSE depleted fluids imparting a depleted signature to arc magmas. However, there is scant experimental data available on rutile solubility in fluids of more complex compositions (Ayers and Watson, 1993). We are carrying out a systematic experimental study into the effect of specific chemical components on rutile solubility in fluids and also silicate melts. This should further our understanding of HFSE mobility in metamorphic rocks within subduction zones. References: J. C. Ayers and E. B. Watson (1993) Rutile solubility in supercritical aqueous fluids and the high P-T mobility of elements it concentrates. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 114, 321-330. P. Tropper and C. E. Manning (2005) Very low solubility of rutile in H2O at high pressure and temperature, and its implications for Ti mobility in subduction zones. American Mineralogist 90(2-3), 502-505.

  5. Solubilities in supercritical fluids: the application of chromatographic measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Udseth, H.R.; Wright, B.W.; Yonker, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    New methods are described for the measurement of the solubilities of solids in supercritical fluids. These methods utilize instrumentation developed for capillary supercritical fluid chromatography consisting of deactivated, small diameter, fused silica tubing, coupled with detection methods based upon on flame ionization and mass spectrometric detectors. The methods involve (a) direct solubility determination where the fused silica capillary is used as an equilibrium cell, and (b) a pressure of threshold solubility technique which resembles chromatography and uses a programmed pressure increase and sensitive detection to determine the onset of solute migration. Results are also presented which suggest that solubilities can be determined, within certain limitations, from actual chromatographic experiments. The methods are illustrated using aromatic hydrocarbons and complex mycotoxins of the trichothecene group.

  6. Gravitational Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, R.

    1995-01-01

    Deep-space missions some times use close gravity-assist 'swingbys' of planets and moons to gain or lose velocity. These maneuvers increase the amount of mass that can be delivered and/or decrease mission flight times. The two Voyager spacecraft used gravity assists to leave the solar system. The Galileo spacecraft is using gravity assists to move among the various moons of Jupiter and the Cassini spacecraft will do similar maneuvers around Saturn.

  7. Optimization of Amide-Based Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase with Improved Water Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Hae; Heirtzler, Fenton R.; Morisseau, Christophe; Nishi, Kosuke; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays an important role in the metabolism of endogenous chemical mediators involved in the regulation of blood pressure and inflammation. 1,3-Disubstituted ureas with a polar group located on the fifth atom from the carbonyl group of urea function are active inhibitors of sEH both in vitro and in vivo. However, their limited solubility in water and relatively high melting point lead to difficulties in formulating the compounds and poor in vivo efficacy. To improve these physical properties, the effect of structural modification of the urea pharmacophore on the inhibition potencies, water solubilities, octanol/water partition coefficients (log P), and melting points of a series of compounds was evaluated. For murine sEH, no loss of inhibition potency was observed when the urea pharmacophore was modified to an amide function, while for human sEH 2.5-fold decreased inhibition was obtained in the amide compounds. In addition, a NH group on the right side of carbonyl group of the amide pharmacophore substituted with an adamantyl group (such as compound 14) and a methylene carbon present between the adamantyl and amide groups were essential to produce potent inhibition of sEH. The resulting amide inhibitors have 10–30-fold better solubility and lower melting point than the corresponding urea compounds. These findings will facilitate synthesis of sEH inhibitors that are easier to formulate and more bioavailable. PMID:15887969

  8. Calcium and phosphorus solubility in neonatal intravenous feeding solutions.

    PubMed Central

    MacMahon, P; Mayne, P D; Blair, M; Pope, C; Kovar, I Z

    1990-01-01

    The limited solubility of calcium and phosphorus in standard parenteral nutrition formulations has restricted the ability to provide sufficient minerals to preterm infants to prevent substrate deficient metabolic bone disease. We determined the solubility limits of calcium and phosphorus in a total of 160 formulations under carefully controlled conditions. By increasing the concentrations of dextrose, amino acids, and by using Addiphos instead of 8.7% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus source, higher concentrations of both calcium and phosphorus were held in solution. This should permit the delivery of increased concentrations of these minerals at rates which approximate fetal accretion. PMID:2110803

  9. Calcium and phosphorus solubility in neonatal intravenous feeding solutions.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, P; Mayne, P D; Blair, M; Pope, C; Kovar, I Z

    1990-04-01

    The limited solubility of calcium and phosphorus in standard parenteral nutrition formulations has restricted the ability to provide sufficient minerals to preterm infants to prevent substrate deficient metabolic bone disease. We determined the solubility limits of calcium and phosphorus in a total of 160 formulations under carefully controlled conditions. By increasing the concentrations of dextrose, amino acids, and by using Addiphos instead of 8.7% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as the phosphorus source, higher concentrations of both calcium and phosphorus were held in solution. This should permit the delivery of increased concentrations of these minerals at rates which approximate fetal accretion.

  10. 48 CFR 919.7011 - Developmental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... limited to— (1) Management guidance relating to— (i) Financial management, (ii) Organizational management, (iii) Overall business management planning, (iv) Business development, and (v) Marketing assistance; (2) Engineering and other technical assistance; (3) Noncompetitive award of subcontracts under DOE or other...

  11. Dental Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... the direction of a dentist . They may prepare materials for dental impressions or to create temporary crowns. All dental ... Nursing assistants, sometimes called nursing aides , help provide basic care for patients in hospitals and residents of ... more information about becoming a dental assistant and for a list of accredited dental ...

  12. Nanoparticle-assisted high photoconductive gain in composites of polymer and fullerene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Lo, Michael K F; Yang, Guanwen; Monbouquette, Harold G; Yang, Yang

    2008-09-01

    Polymer-inorganic nanocrystal composites offer an attractive means to combine the merits of organic and inorganic materials into novel electronic and photonic systems. However, many applications of these composites are limited by the solubility and distribution of the nanocrystals in the polymer matrices. Here we show that blending CdTe nanoparticles into a polymer-fullerene matrix followed by solvent annealing can achieve high photoconductive gain under low applied voltages. The surface capping ligand renders the nanoparticles highly soluble in the polymer blend, thereby enabling high CdTe loadings. An external quantum efficiency as high as approximately 8,000% at 350 nm was achieved at -4.5 V. Hole-dominant devices coupled with atomic force microscopy images show a higher concentration of nanoparticles near the cathode-polymer interface. The nanoparticles and trapped electrons assist hole injection into the polymer under reverse bias, contributing to efficiency values in excess of 100%.

  13. Constraining the Solubility of Aerosol Fe using US GEOTRACES Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Islas, A. M.; Buck, C. S.; Rember, R.; Landing, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric deposition represents an important input of micronutrients to surface waters, and is of particular interest as an input for the limiting micronutrient iron. The solubility of aerosol iron after deposition is not well constrained, and it has been shown to vary principally with aerosol composition, although dissolution methodologies also contribute to the observed variability. To address procedural artifacts and arrive at a better constrained estimate of aerosol iron fractional solubility, a flow-through on-board protocol designed to minimize experimental artifacts and to simulate conditions experienced by deposited aerosols was used during the US Atlantic GEOTRACES cruises and compared to laboratory leaching methods. Here we present results of the fractional solubility of aerosol iron obtained during the US GEOTRACES Atlantic and Pacific cruises, and suggest revising estimates for this parameter. Our data provides a more constrained upwardly adjusted estimate in the range of 8% to 14% solubility for iron in aerosols dominated by lithogenic sources, and a fractional solubility of 15% to 25% for iron in aerosols from air masses impacted by anthropogenic sources. Greater variability (6% to 55%) was observed in the solubility of iron in aerosols from maritime air masses.

  14. Determination of solubility parameters for poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates).

    PubMed

    Terada, M; Marchessault, R H

    1999-01-01

    The three dimensional solubility parameters defined by Hansen are based on dispersion forces between structural units, interaction between polar groups and hydrogen bonding. For polar polymers such as poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), P(3HA), this approach was used to obtain the three coordinates of a solubility parameter in terms of: a dispersion part, a polar part and a hydrogen bonding part. Thirty-eight different solvents for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, which are mentioned in the literature are examined by this method and the theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental reports. Another overall comparison between PHA polymers provides their Hansen and Hildebrand parameters for side chain lengths up to C13. In this series a linear progression in calculated solubility parameters with side chain length was found. An Appendix provides information and data on calculation of the solubility parameters. While the solubility information is limited and only covers homopolymers, it should help to highlight some of the contradictions regarding PHB solubility. This semi-empirical approach is only valid for amorphous polymers hence crystallinity effects, which are important with PHB, as well as molecular weight effects still require analysis.

  15. Solubility determination as an alternative to migration measurements.

    PubMed

    Bodai, Zsolt; Jakab, Péter Pál; Novák, Márton; Nyiri, Zoltán; Szabó, Bálint Sámuel; Rikker, Tamás; Eke, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Solubility values for six UV stabilisers (Cyasorb UV-1164, Tinuvin P, Tinuvin 234, Tinuvin 326, Tinuvin 327 and Tinuvin 1577) and five antioxidants (Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Irganox 3114, Irganox 3790 and Irganox 565) were determined in all the liquid food simulants (3% (m/V) acetic acid-water mixture, 10% (V/V), 20% (V/V), 50% (V/V) ethanol-water mixture and vegetable oil) proposed in European Union Regulation No. 10/2011/EC, as well as in fruit juice and cola drink. The applied method was obtained by modification of the method for the determination of water solubility as described in OECD guideline Test No. 105. By using ultrasonication and shorter equilibration time, the time demand of the solubility determinations were decreased notably. Solubility values proved to be lower than the specific migration limits (as specified in 10/2011/EC) at 25 °C for almost all target compounds in food simulants A, B, C and D1 as well as in fruit juice and cola drink. The exceptions were Tinuvin P and Irganox 3790 in simulant D1. The solubility in food simulant D2 was higher than 1000 µg ml(-1) for all target compounds. These results show that the solubility of some additives in food simulants can be so low that it makes migration studies for certain additive-food simulant pairs dispensable.

  16. The Solubility Rules: Why Are All Acetates Soluble?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sluys, William G.

    2001-01-01

    According to the solubility rules presented in many introductory chemistry texts, all (or most) acetate salts are soluble in aqueous solution. The thermodynamic factors that contribute to the solubility of acetates are compared with those of other slightly basic anions. In particular, the hydration enthalpy of acetate is calculated using the Born-Haber approach, from lattice energies, heats of solution, and the hydration energies of several cations. The hydration enthalpy of acetate (-375 kJ/mol) is similar to that of chloride ({355 kJ/mol), nitrite ({383 kJ/mol), and nitrate ({370 kJ/mol), which are all considerably less exothermic than fluoride ({497 kJ/mol). This was somewhat unexpected, since hydration enthalpies generally correlate well with the acid-base properties of an ion, and acetate is more basic than fluoride. Factors influencing the solubility and acid-base properties of acetates, such as the electron donating and hydrophobic nature of the methyl group, are discussed in light of the thermodynamic data.

  17. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  18. Microemulsions as drug delivery systems to improve the solubility and the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    He, Cai-Xia; He, Zhong-Gui; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2010-04-01

    Microemulsions have been studied extensively as potential drug delivery vehicles for poorly water-soluble drugs. An understanding of the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical characteristics of the microemulsions according to administration routes will provide guidance for designing the formulations of microemulsions. In this paper, the use and the characteristics of microemulsions as drug delivery vehicles are reviewed. As the formulations of the microemulsion always include a great amount of surfactant and co-surfactant, which may cause hemolysis or histopathological alterations of the tissue, the potential toxicity or the irritancy of microemulsions is also discussed in this paper. Developments of microemulsions for poorly water-soluble drugs in recent years are included in this review. Several factors limiting the commercial or clinical use of microemulsions are also discussed. Considering the potential in enhanced drug uptake/permeation and facing the limitations, their unique properties make microemulsions a promising vehicle for poorly water-soluble drugs.

  19. [Good laboratory practice of equilibrium solubility measurement II. Study of pH-dependent solubility of ionizable compounds].

    PubMed

    Völgyi, Gergely; Baka, Edit; Kovács, Márta; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the pH-equilibrium solubility profiles of ionizable drugs are presented. The aim of the present work was to study the validity of the Henderson-Hasselbalch (HH) relationship in the case of structurally diverse weak bases. In the case of monoprotic bases, namely papaverine, promethazine and propafenone the experimental equilibrium solubility data precisely follow the theoretical HH curve until the limit of salt solubility. The common ion effect on salt solubility was found to be significant at low pHs. Deviation from the HH equation in the case of dibasic quetiapine hydrogen fumarate can be easily interpreted with the formation of different salt compositions. The significance of pH control and the effect of the salt form (e.g., fumarate) was also investigated. It is critical that the pKa value and the intrinsic solubility are accurately determined when the HH relationship is used to predict the pH-dependent aqueous solubility of drugs.

  20. Solubility at the molecular level: development of a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) assay for estimating compound monomer solubility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Matayoshi, Edmund

    2012-07-01

    In drug discovery research the formation of soluble compound aggregates is a major cause of false positives, false negatives, and distorted values in High-Throughput Screening assays that measure either binding or functional activity. These aggregation-based artifacts lead to serious distortions in the SAR which are critical to successful lead optimization. In this work we introduce a new approach by which the "critical aggregation concentration" (CAC) is determined, thereby overcoming limitations inherent to traditional solubility methods and enabling estimation of small molecule monomer solubility. The theoretical and experimental basis of a new confocal Static Light Scattering plate reader assay is presented. Tests conducted with model systems, commercial compounds, and Abbott library compounds show that the CAC assay can measure aqueous monomer solubilities reproducibly and reliably, achieving a sensitivity of ~0.2 μm, which is an improvement of approximately two orders of magnitude over nephelometry. Determination of compound monomer solubilities in a screening format is possible for the first time with the cSLS-CAC methodology. It is currently in routine use in Abbott's drug discovery program, and has enabled identification of many compound induced artifacts in binding or activity assays that are missed by traditional kinetic solubility measurements.

  1. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  2. Solubility of commercial milk protein concentrates and milk protein isolates.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Roy, S; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Murray, B A

    2011-12-01

    High-protein milk protein concentrate (MPC) and milk protein isolate (MPI) powders may have lower solubility than low-protein MPC powders, but information is limited on MPC solubility. Our objectives in this study were to (1) characterize the solubility of commercially available powder types with differing protein contents such as MPC40, MPC80, and MPI obtained from various manufacturers (sources), and (2) determine if such differences could be associated with differences in mineral, protein composition, and conformational changes of the powders. To examine possible predictors of solubility as measured by percent suspension stability (%SS), mineral analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and quantitative protein analysis by HPLC was performed. After accounting for overall differences between powder types, %SS was found to be strongly associated with the calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sodium content of the powders. The FTIR score plots were in agreement with %SS results. A principal component analysis of FTIR spectra clustered the highly soluble MPC40 separately from the rest of samples. Furthermore, 2 highly soluble MPI samples were clustered separately from the rest of the MPC80 and MPI samples. We found that the 900 to 1,200 cm⁻¹ region exhibited the highest discriminating power, with dominant bands at 1,173 and 968 cm⁻¹, associated with phosphate vibrations. The 2 highly soluble MPI powders were observed to have lower κ-casein and α-(S1)-casein contents and slightly higher whey protein contents than the other powders. The differences in the solubility of MPC and MPI were associated with a difference in mineral composition, which may be attributed to differences in processing conditions. Additional studies on the role of minerals composition on MPC80 solubility are warranted. Such a study would provide a greater understanding of factors associated with differences in solubility and can provide insight on methods to improve

  3. Assisted Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear.

  4. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  5. Synthesis of oligonucleotides on a soluble support

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Oligonucleotides are usually prepared in lab scale on a solid support with the aid of a fully automated synthesizer. Scaling up of the equipment has allowed industrial synthesis up to kilogram scale. In spite of this, solution-phase synthesis has received continuous interest, on one hand as a technique that could enable synthesis of even larger amounts and, on the other hand, as a gram scale laboratory synthesis without any special equipment. The synthesis on a soluble support has been regarded as an approach that could combine the advantageous features of both the solution and solid-phase syntheses. The critical step of this approach is the separation of the support-anchored oligonucleotide chain from the monomeric building block and other small molecular reagents and byproducts after each coupling, oxidation and deprotection step. The techniques applied so far include precipitation, extraction, chromatography and nanofiltration. As regards coupling, all conventional chemistries, viz. phosphoramidite, H-phosphonate and phosphotriester strategies, have been attempted. While P(III)-based phosphoramidite and H-phosphonate chemistries are almost exclusively used on a solid support, the “outdated” P(V)-based phosphotriester chemistry still offers one major advantage for the synthesis on a soluble support; the omission of the oxidation step simplifies the coupling cycle. Several of protocols developed for the soluble-supported synthesis allow the preparation of both DNA and RNA oligomers of limited length in gram scale without any special equipment, being evidently of interest for research groups that need oligonucleotides in large amounts for research purposes. However, none of them has really tested at such a scale that the feasibility of their industrial use could be critically judged. PMID:28781703

  6. Partially PEGylated PAMAM dendrimers as solubility enhancers of Silybin.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Carola; Guzmán, José L; Jiménez, Verónica A; Alderete, Joel B

    2017-04-03

    PEGylated PAMAM-G4 dendrimers with substitution percentages of 50% and intermediate size PEG chains (0.55 and 2.0 kDa) were synthesized and evaluated as solubility enhancers and potential supramolecular carriers for the poorly soluble drug Silybin (SIL). Aqueous solubility profiles revealed that the PEGylated system with 2.0 kDa chains induced a five-fold solubility increase for SIL and the largest drug-loading capacity within the systems under study with an average complex stoichiometry of 71:1 according to the Higuchi-Connors formulation for multiple binding sites. The supramolecular interaction between SIL and PEGylated PAMAM-G4 dendrimers was confirmed by 2D-NOESY experiments, which evidenced the simultaneous complexation of the drug in both PAMAM-G4 branches and outermost PEG chains. In vitro release studies showed that 2.0 kDa PEG chains induced a more extended release time compared to 0.5 kDa PEG chains. This result was attributed to the enhancement of PEG-assistance to SIL complexation in systems with longer PEG chains, which are able to self-penetrate into dendrimer cavities and cooperate in the stabilization of SIL complexes, thus delaying the release of SIL from the supramolecular host. These results are valuable for the future design and development of novel PAMAM-based systems for SIL complexation and delivery.

  7. The solubility of rhenium in silicate melts: Implications for the geochemical properties of rhenium at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, W.; O'Neill, H. St. C.; Sylvester, P. J.; Dingwell, D. B.; Spettel, B.

    2001-07-01

    The solubility of rhenium (Re) in a haplobasaltic melt (anorthite-diopside eutectic composition) has been experimentally determined using the mechanically assisted equilibration technique at 1400°C as a function of oxygen fugacity (10 -12 < fO 2 ≤ 10 -7 bar), imposed by CO-CO 2 gas mixtures. Samples were analysed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This is a true microanalytical technique, which allows small-scale sample heterogeneity to be detected, while providing a limit of detection of 2 ppb Re. Time-resolved LA-ICP-MS spectra revealed the presence of suboptically sized micronuggets of Re in all samples, which, because they are present at the 0.5 to 10 ppm level, dominate the true solubilities of Re (<1 ppm at the conditions of the experiment) in bulk analyses of the samples. Nevertheless, the micronuggets could be filtered out from the time-resolved spectra to reveal accurate values of the true Re solubility. A number of time series of samples were taken at constant fO 2 to demonstrate that the solubilities converge to a constant value. In addition, solubilities were measured after increasing and decreasing the imposed fO 2. The results show that Re dissolves in the silicate melt as ReO 2 (Re 4+) and ReO 3 (Re 6+) species, with the latter predominating at typical terrestrial upper-mantle oxygen fugacities. The total solubility of Re is described by the following expression (fO 2 in bars): [Re/ppb] = 9.7(±1.9) × 10 9 (fO 2) + 4.2 (±0.3) × 10 14 (fO 2) 1.5Assuming an activity coefficient for Re in Fe-rich metal of 1, this gives a value of D Remet/sil of 5 × 10 10 at log fO 2 = IW-2, appropriate for metal-silicate partitioning in an homogenously accreting Earth. Thus, Re is indeed very highly siderophile, and the mantle's abundance cannot be explained by homogenous accretion.

  8. Solubility of sparingly soluble drug derivatives of anthranilic acid.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra

    2011-03-24

    This work is a continuation of our systematic study of the solubility of pharmaceuticals (Pharms). All substances here are derivatives of anthranilic acid, and have an anti-inflammatory direction of action (niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, and diclofenac sodium). The basic thermal properties of pure Pharms, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as the enthalpy of melting, have been measured with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The equilibrium mole fraction solubilities of three pharmaceuticals were measured in a range of temperatures from 285 to 355 K in three important solvents for Pharm investigations: water, ethanol, and 1-octanol using a dynamic method and spectroscopic UV-vis method. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of the commonly known G(E) equation: the NRTL, with the assumption that the systems studied here have revealed simple eutectic mixtures. pK(a) precise measurement values have been investigated with the Bates-Schwarzenbach spectrophotometric method.

  9. Fissile solubility and monosodium titanate loading tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubilities of plutonium and uranium have been determined for alkaline salt solutions having compositions which bound those which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Loadings of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) have been determined at temperatures bounding those expected to occur during ITP and using a salt solution which was determined to have the maximum solubility for uranium and plutonium. Fissile loadings increase with decreasing amounts of MST in contact with the salt solutions saturated in plutonium and uranium. At MST concentrations bounding those which are planned for the ITP process, expressions for the maximum loadings (wt %) are determined to be 0.29 - 0.20x[MST] for plutonium and 1.8 - 0.29x[MST] for uranium, where [MST] is the concentration of MST in grams/liter. These expressions are valid over the range of MST concentrations from 0.05 to 0.51 g/L and temperatures of 17{degrees}--74{degrees}C. These loadings are below the individual infinitely safe limits for plutonium and uranium. Additional confirmatory experiments are planned to verify the effects of temperature and multiple contacts of the MST with fresh salt solution on the fissile loadings.

  10. Fissile solubility and monosodium titanate loading tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubilities of plutonium and uranium have been determined for alkaline salt solutions having compositions which bound those which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Loadings of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) have been determined at temperatures bounding those expected to occur during ITP and using a salt solution which was determined to have the maximum solubility for uranium and plutonium. Fissile loadings increase with decreasing amounts of MST in contact with the salt solutions saturated in plutonium and uranium. At MST concentrations bounding those which are planned for the ITP process, expressions for the maximum loadings (wt %) are determined to be 0.29 - 0.20x[MST] for plutonium and 1.8 - 0.29x[MST] for uranium, where [MST] is the concentration of MST in grams/liter. These expressions are valid over the range of MST concentrations from 0.05 to 0.51 g/L and temperatures of 17[degrees]--74[degrees]C. These loadings are below the individual infinitely safe limits for plutonium and uranium. Additional confirmatory experiments are planned to verify the effects of temperature and multiple contacts of the MST with fresh salt solution on the fissile loadings.

  11. Overexpression of Soluble Recombinant Human Lysyl Oxidase by Using Solubility Tags: Effects on Activity and Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Madison A.; Gonzalez, Jesica; Hussain, Anjum; Oldfield, Rachel N.; Johnston, Kathryn A.; Lopez, Karlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase is an important extracellular matrix enzyme that has not been fully characterized due to its low solubility. In order to circumvent the low solubility of this enzyme, three solubility tags (Nus-A, Thioredoxin (Trx), and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)) were engineered on the N-terminus of mature lysyl oxidase. Total enzyme yields were determined to be 1.5 mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme (0.75 mg/L of media), 7.84 mg for the Trx tagged enzyme (3.92 mg/L of media), and 9.33 mg for the GST tagged enzyme (4.67 mg/L of media). Enzymatic activity was calculated to be 0.11 U/mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme and 0.032 U/mg for the Trx tagged enzyme, and no enzymatic activity was detected for the GST tagged enzyme. All three solubility-tagged forms of the enzyme incorporated copper; however, the GST tagged enzyme appears to bind adventitious copper with greater affinity than the other two forms. The catalytic cofactor, lysyl tyrosyl quinone (LTQ), was determined to be 92% for the Nus-A and Trx tagged lysyl oxidase using the previously reported extinction coefficient of 15.4 mM−1 cm−1. No LTQ was detected for the GST tagged lysyl oxidase. Given these data, it appears that Nus-A is the most suitable tag for obtaining soluble and active recombinant lysyl oxidase from E. coli culture. PMID:26942005

  12. Sugar monomer and oligomer solubility: data and predictions for application to biomass hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew C; Converse, Alvin O; Wyman, Charles E

    2003-01-01

    Oligomer solubility could potentially play an important role in controlling the rates and yields in the thermochemical hydrolysis of hemicellulose as a pretreatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion of cellulose. However, limited data or models are available to describe the aqueous solubility of sugar monomers and oligomers. In this work, we measured the solubilities of sugars common to many biomass feedstocks in the temperature range of 25-30 degrees C. Then we reviewed solubility models for sugars from the open literature. Finally, we applied models to test their ability to describe this and other data reported in the literature. It was found that the solubility of sugar monomers was not well described by the ideal solubility law or other more complex models. However, with an empirical adjustment to the enthalpy of fusion, the ideal solubility law was able to approximately predict the solubility of cello-oligomers. Based on these results, solubilities for low molecular weight xylo-oligomers are predicted to investigate their possible importance in pretreatment and define further experimental measurements needed to improve our understanding of sugar and oligomer solubility.

  13. Impacts of Sample Preparation Methods on Solubility and Antilisterial Characteristics of Essential Oil Components in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Davidson, P. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil components (EOCs) have limited water solubility and are used at much higher concentrations in complex food matrices than in growth media to inhibit pathogens. However, the correlation between solubility and activity has not been studied. The objective of this work was to characterize the solubility of EOCs in solvents and milk and correlate solubility with antilisterial activity. The solubilities of four EOCs, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde, in water was significantly increased in the presence of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. In milk, the solubility of EOCs was lower than in water, with lower solubility in higher-fat milk. EOCs applied to milk as stock solutions (in 95% aqueous ethanol) enabled quicker dissolution and higher solubility in milk serum than other methods of mixing, such as end to end, and greater reductions of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A after 0 and 24 h. When the EOC concentration detected in milk serum was above the minimum bactericidal concentration, complete inhibition of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth resulted. Therefore, the antilisterial properties in milk could be correlated with the solubility by comparison to the minimum inhibitory or bactericidal concentrations of EOCs. While the EOCs applied using ethanol generally had solubility and activity characteristics superior to those of other mixing methods, ethanol is not used to a great extent in nonfermented foods. Therefore, mixing methods without an organic solvent may be more readily adaptable to enhancing the distribution of EOCs in complex food systems. PMID:24271170

  14. Development of a salt drug with improved solubility: Ethionamide nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, Luan F.; Carvalho, Paulo S.; de Melo, Cristiane C.; Ellena, Javier

    2017-06-01

    To avoid drug resistance, an adequate tuberculosis treatment should include not only a first-line drug but also at least one second-line drug such as, for example, Ethionamide (ETH). However, the dissolution rate and oral absorption of ETH is highly limited by its low aqueous solubility. Considering that a salt is in general more soluble than its parent compound, herein we depicted a new supramolecular modification of ETH, an Ethionamide nitrate salt (ETHNO3). This salt is the first ETH structure that has been crystallized with four independent ionic pairs (ETH+NO3-) in the asymmetric unit. In addition to the structural study, the salt formation was also identified on the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The thermal behavior of ETHNO3 was also investigated here together with its solubility profile in three dissolution media (purified water, pH 4.0 and 7.0).

  15. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible.

  16. Micro-apparatus for rapid determinations of protein solubilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Munson, Sibyl

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a column-based micro-technique for rapid determinations of protein solubilities. While retaining a large crystal surface area, the column dead volume has been reduced to equal to or less than 5 micro liters. The technique was tested with tetragonal lysozyme (pH 4.5, 0.1 M acetate, 3.0 percent NaCl, 5-25 C) and column volumes of about 60, 300, and 900 micro liters. Identical solubility data were obtained, indicating that equilibration was obtained even in the smallest columns. In addition, solubility data for Br- and I- salts of lysozyme (pH 4.5, 0.1 M acetate buffer, 0.5 M salt concentrations) were obtained. It appears that the technique can be further miniaturized. The limit in further reducing the crystalline column volume is determined by the minimum solution sample size needed to determine the protein concentration.

  17. Improved solubility of replication factor C (RFC) Walker A mutants.

    PubMed

    Marzahn, Melissa R; Bloom, Linda B

    2012-06-01

    Protein insolubility often poses a significant problem during purification protocols and in enzyme assays, especially for eukaryotic proteins expressed in a recombinant bacterial system. The limited solubility of replication factor C (RFC), the clamp loader complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been previously documented. We found that mutant forms of RFC harboring a single point mutation in the Walker A motif were even less soluble than the wild-type complex. The addition of maltose at 0.75 M to the storage and assay buffers greatly increases protein solubility and prevents the complex from falling apart. Our analysis of the clamp loading reaction is dependent on fluorescence-based assays, which are environmentally sensitive. Using wt RFC as a control, we show that the addition of maltose to the reaction buffers does not affect fluorophore responses in the assays or the enzyme activity, indicating that maltose can be used as a buffer additive for further downstream analysis of these mutants.

  18. Micro-apparatus for rapid determinations of protein solubilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Munson, Sibyl

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a column-based micro-technique for rapid determinations of protein solubilities. While retaining a large crystal surface area, the column dead volume has been reduced to equal to or less than 5 micro liters. The technique was tested with tetragonal lysozyme (pH 4.5, 0.1 M acetate, 3.0 percent NaCl, 5-25 C) and column volumes of about 60, 300, and 900 micro liters. Identical solubility data were obtained, indicating that equilibration was obtained even in the smallest columns. In addition, solubility data for Br- and I- salts of lysozyme (pH 4.5, 0.1 M acetate buffer, 0.5 M salt concentrations) were obtained. It appears that the technique can be further miniaturized. The limit in further reducing the crystalline column volume is determined by the minimum solution sample size needed to determine the protein concentration.

  19. Drug Resinates an Attractive Approach of Solubility Enhancement of Atorvastatin Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Kulthe, V. V.; Chaudhari, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of new chemical entities and marketed drugs show poor solubility characteristics and amorphisation is one of the favorable approaches to enhance solubility characteristics of such poorly soluble drugs. Formulation efforts in the present study were devoted to investigate amorphisation of a model poorly soluble drug, atorvastatin calcium by molecular complexation with anion exchange resin, Duolite®AP 143/1093 and hence enhancement in its solubility characteristics. Drug resinates in 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4 weight ratios were prepared by simple batch operation and subsequently studied for drug content, residual solvent content, molecular interactions, solid state characterisation and solubility characteristics. During initial characterisation, all the proportions of drug resinates, except 1:1 proportion showed partial amorphisation of the drug, whereas 1:1 proportion showed complete amorphisation of the drug. This proportion reported distinctly enhanced solubility characteristics over pure drug and other proportions. Such amorphisation and solubility enhancement could be attributed to the binding of individual drug molecules to the functional sites of the resin molecules, either partially or completely, resulting in reduction of crystal lattice energy, a main barrier to dissolution. Hydrophilic nature of ion exchange resin matrices also assisted in enhancing dissolution of the drug from the resinates. During accelerated stability study, there was an insignificant decrease in solubility characteristics of the drug and its amorphous form was also found to be stable in 1:1 proportion. Atorvastatin resinates formed in 1:1 weight ratio were in stoichiometric proportion and such drug resinates in stoichiometric proportion showed to have tremendous potential in conversion of crystalline form of drug substances to its amorphous form and subsequent stabilisation. It hence proved to be a very effective, yet simple approach for improving solubility

  20. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  1. Soluble metalloendopeptidases and neuroendocrine signaling.

    PubMed

    Shrimpton, Corie N; Smith, A Ian; Lew, Rebecca A

    2002-10-01

    Peptidases play a vital and often highly specific role in the physiological and pathological generation and termination of peptide hormone signals. The thermolysin-like family of metalloendopeptidases involved in the extracellular processing of neuroendocrine and cardiovascular peptides are of particular significance, reflecting both their specificity for particular peptide substrates and their utility as therapeutic targets. Although the functions of the membrane-bound members of this family, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase, are well established, a role for the predominantly soluble family members in peptide metabolism is only just emerging. This review will focus on the biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology of the soluble metalloendopeptidases EC 3.4.24.15 (thimet oligopeptidase) and EC 3.4.24.16 (neurolysin), as well as presenting evidence that both peptidases play an important role in such diverse functions as reproduction, nociception, and cardiovascular homeostasis.

  2. Tough soluble aromatic thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. Alternatively, these copolyimides may be prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydiisocyanate. Also, the copolyimide may be prepared by reacting the corresponding tetra acid and ester precursors of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride with 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  3. Synthesis of water soluble graphene.

    PubMed

    Si, Yongchao; Samulski, Edward T

    2008-06-01

    A facile and scalable preparation of aqueous solutions of isolated, sparingly sulfonated graphene is reported. (13)C NMR and FTIR spectra indicate that the bulk of the oxygen-containing functional groups was removed from graphene oxide. The electrical conductivity of thin evaporated films of graphene (1250 S/m) relative to similarly prepared graphite (6120 S/m) implies that an extended conjugated sp (2) network is restored in the water soluble graphene.

  4. Soluble Precursor Route to Polyanilines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    goal of producing a processible form of the conducting polymer polyaniline ( PANI ), the Phase I program concentrated on development of the synthesis of... polyaniline , on the other hand, has not only been successful in every respect, but makes other attempts towards processing PAni seem awkward and obsolete...29/92 TITLE AND SUBTITLE .... 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Soluble Precursor Route to Polyanilines 6. AUTHOR(S) - 63218C 1602 0O Dr Floyd L. Klavetter 7

  5. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated. PMID:20559495

  6. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  7. [Soluble of Metals within TSP in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan; Feng, Chong; Qu, Jian-guo; Zhang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The dissolution of metals within aerosol particles is meaningful to evaluate the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected in Shanghai. We extracted the water soluble and acid soluble (pH = 2) metals by the mini-recirculation-leach-system and measured their concentrations by the high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The dissolution kinetics were rapid, the maximum solubility of metals could be reached in a few minutes. Overall, the average water-soluble concentrations were low for Co, Cr, Cd, V and Ni, median for Cu, Pb and Mn and high for Fe, Al, Zn and Mg. Combine the soluble metal concentrations with the back trajectory, the original air mass had significant impacts on water soluble metal concentrations. The water solubility and acid solubility were different for various metals, the water solubility of Fe was the lowest (2.0%), others followed an order: Al, Cr, V, Pb, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Mn, Mg, Zn. The metals' solubility was increased with the decrease of the solvent pH value. While the chemical speciation of metals was the internal cause of metals' solubility, the metals' ionic potential and the water solubility was negatively correlated.

  8. Solubility Enhanced Oxidation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boving, T. B.; Eberle, D. E.; Ball, R.

    2012-12-01

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation technique considered to be effective at overcoming some of the limitations of conventional subsurface treatment processes for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants (VOC, SVOC). ISCO reactions occur predominately in the aqueous phase and as a result, contaminant availability is a major limiting factor, i.e. contaminants with higher aqueous solubility's are typically more accessible for oxidation than more hydrophobic, sorbed compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new integrated desorption-oxidation process for the remediation of contaminated waters and sediments. Specifically, this study examined the potential of using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a modified cyclic sugar, and a blend of oxidants commercially known as OxyZone® (U.S. patent No. 7,667,087) for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Laboratory scale batch experiments confirmed prior studies that HPCD increases the aqueous concentration of these contaminants, making a greater mass of contaminant available for subsequent oxidation. When exposed to the same amount of oxidant, the mass of PAH destroyed increased linearly with increasing HPCD concentration. Relative to PAH saturated solutions without HPCD, 11 times more PAH mass was destroyed when a PAH saturated 15 g/L HPCD solution was treated with the same mass of oxidant. Destruction of the aqueous phase contaminants followed first order exponential decay kinetics in both deionized water and HPCD solutions. However, the destruction of complexed PAH was slower than for uncomplexed PAH. The cause of this is likely due to the preferential destruction of the HPCD molecule by the oxidant, followed by the subsequent oxidation of the PAH. The destruction of the cyclodextrin was minimized by modifying the oxidant formulation. Overall, these findings establish the potential of utilizing HPCD and OxyZone® as an integrated desorption

  9. Influence of solvent type on the solubility of low-solubility electrolytes in protic and aprotic dipolar solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Abakshin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The authors consider that the linear correlation between the logarithm of the solubility (ln C) and the logarithm of the dielectric constant (ln epsilon) of the solvent proposed previously by Davis and Ricci, based on the equality of the activity coefficients of low-solubility electrolytes in saturated solution, makes it possible to avoid the limitations of the Ismailov and Chernyi method. This is connected with the fact that the correlation is supported by the Debye-Huckel theory which allows for change in the potential of the central ion under the influence of the ionic atmosphere. Bearing in mind that the effects of long-range forces will exceed the effects of short-range at concentration of the order of 0.001 M, the authors selected, as the subjects for study, the salts AgCl and KCl, CsClO/sub 4/, KClO/sub 4/ which have low solubility in different types of solvent.

  10. PREDICTION OF THE SOLUBILITY OF HYDROPHOBIC COMPOUNDS IN NONIDEAL SOLVENT MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The solubility of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in partially-miscible solvent mixtures was investigated. In agreement with previous findings, it was observed that there is a limited domain in which nonideality effects are important; appreciable concentrations of partially-...

  11. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    °C is about 10 g/L. Gadolinium nitrate is very soluble in HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd is linear as a function of HNO{sub 3} from 343 g/L Gd in 2.88 M HNO{sub 3} to 149 g/L in 8.16 M HNO{sub 3}. Below 2.88 M HNO{sub 3}, the solubility of Gd approaches a limit of about 360 g/L. However, there are no data available below 1.40 M HNO{sub 3}, which has a Gd solubility of 353 g/L.

  12. Student Aid and Postsecondary Tax Preferences. Limited Research Exists on Effectiveness of Tools to Assist Students and Families through Title IV Student Aid and Tax Preferences. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. GAO05-684

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Federal assistance helps students and families pay for postsecondary education through several policy tools--grant and loan programs authorized by title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 and more recently enacted tax preferences. In fiscal year 2004, about $14 billion in grants and $56 billion in loans were made under title IV while…

  13. 77 FR 74121 - Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ...; ] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 110 Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) AGENCY: Federal Election... the treatment of limited liability partnerships (``LLPs'') for purposes of the Federal Election... Federal Election Commission, Attn.: Robert M. Knop, Assistant General Counsel, 999 E Street...

  14. pH-dependent solubility of indomethacin-saccharin and carbamazepine-saccharin cocrystals in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Roy, Lilly; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2012-09-04

    Cocrystals constitute an important class of pharmaceutical solids for their remarkable ability to modulate solubility and pH dependence of water insoluble drugs. Here we show how cocrystals of indomethacin-saccharin (IND-SAC) and carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) enhance solubility and impart a pH-sensitivity different from that of the drugs. IND-SAC exhibited solubilities 13 to 65 times higher than IND at pH values of 1 to 3, whereas CBZ-SAC exhibited a 2 to 10 times higher solubility than CBZ dihydrate. Cocrystal solubility dependence on pH predicted from mathematical models using cocrystal K(sp), and cocrystal component K(a) values, was in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The cocrystal solubility increase relative to drug was predicted to reach a limiting value for a cocrystal with two acidic components. This limiting value is determined by the ionization constants of cocrystal components. Eutectic constants are shown to be meaningful indicators of cocrystal solubility and its pH dependence. The two contributions to solubility, cocrystal lattice and solvation, were evaluated by thermal and solubility determinations. The results show that solvation is the main barrier for the aqueous solubility of these drugs and their cocrystals, which are orders of magnitude higher than their lattice barriers. Cocrystal increase in solubility is thus a result of decreasing the solvation barrier compared to that of the drug. This work demonstrates the favorable properties of cocrystals and strategies that facilitate their meaningful characterization.

  15. Alkane Soluble Transition Metal Complexes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Al I7 𔃼 AKANE SOLUBLE TRANSITION METAL COUP rA’(U ROYAL3 MIARY COL OF SCIENCE SHRIVENHAM (ENGLAND) DEP O CHEMISTRY AND METALLURGY F R HARTLEY OCT 83...Associate Investigator B.G. Murray Chemistry and Metallurgy Departmnt TeRylMilitary College of Science Shrlveahau ftindou1 Wiltshire, UK This work woo...Plenary lecture at the 17th International Conference on Coordination Chemistry , saw" 1376. 2. D.3. Webster, Ady. Oranometal Chbe., 1977, 15,147. 3

  16. Thermodynamic approach to boron nitride nanotube solubility and dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiano, A. L.; Gibbons, L.; Tsui, M.; Applin, S. I.; Silva, R.; Park, C.; Fay, C. C.

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to improve dispersion include surface functionalization, surfactants, polymer wrapping, and sonication. Although these approaches have proven effective, they often achieve dispersion by altering the surface or structure of the nanomaterial and ultimately, their intrinsic properties. Co-solvents are commonly utilized in the polymer, paint, and art conservation industries to selectively dissolve materials. These co-solvents are utilized based on thermodynamic interaction parameters and are chosen so that the original materials are not affected. The same concept was applied to enhance the dispersion of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to facilitate the fabrication of BNNT nanocomposites. Of the solvents tested, dimethylacetamide (DMAc) exhibited the most stable, uniform dispersion of BNNTs, followed by N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Utilizing the known Hansen solubility parameters of these solvents in comparison to the BNNT dispersion state, a region of good solubility was proposed. This solubility region was used to identify co-solvent systems that led to improved BNNT dispersion in poor solvents such as toluene, hexane, and ethanol. Incorporating the data from the co-solvent studies further refined the proposed solubility region. From this region, the Hansen solubility parameters for BNNTs are thought to lie at the midpoint of the solubility sphere: 16.8, 10.7, and 9.0 MPa1/2 for δd, δp, and δh, respectively, with a calculated Hildebrand parameter of 21.8 MPa1/2.Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to

  17. 40 CFR 35.9065 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations. 35.9065 Section 35.9065... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9065 Limitations. (a) Management... cost share of the aggregate costs of research, surveys, studies, modeling, and other technical work...

  18. 44 CFR 11.72 - Time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limitations. 11.72 Section 11.72 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.72 Time limitations. (a) A claim under...

  19. Solubility behavior and prediction for antihelmintics at several temperatures in aqueous and nonaqueous mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Pilar; Muela, Susana; Escalera, Begoña; Peña, Angeles

    2010-05-01

    A model based on solubility parameters is proposed to predict the solubility curves of antihelmintic drugs at several temperatures, including aqueous and non-aqueous mixtures. The solubility of the drugs was measured in ethanol-water and ethanol-ethyl acetate mixtures at 15-35 degrees C (mebendazole) and at 25 degrees C (thiabendazole and metronidazole). The solid phases were analyzed by differential scanning calorimerty. The polymorphic form A of mebendazole was also characterized from infrared spectroscopy. Markedly different solubility profile shapes were obtained against the solubility parameter of the mixtures: two symmetrical peaks (metronidazole), two maxima of different height (mebendazole) and a single peak (thiabendazole). The solubility parameter of the drugs was related to the co-solvent action of both mixtures and to the solubility peaks. The single equation proposed was able to predict solubility profiles of different shape, including both mixtures and all temperatures, providing reasonable physical meaning for the regression coefficients. The model was successfully tested for its predictive capability using a limited number of experimental data. More than 100 solubilities were predicted at several temperatures using 20 data point for each drug.

  20. Cocrystals of Hydrochlorothiazide: Solubility and Diffusion/Permeability Enhancements through Drug-Coformer Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Devi, V Kusum; Clara, Deepa; Malviya, Nidhi; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-05-04

    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) is a diuretic and a BCS class IV drug with low solubility and low permeability, exhibiting poor oral absorption. The present study attempts to improve the physicochemical properties of the drug using a crystal engineering approach with cocrystals. Such multicomponent crystals of HCT with nicotinic acid (NIC), nicotinamide (NCT), 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), succinamide (SAM), and resorcinol (RES) were prepared using liquid-assisted grinding, and their solubilities in pH 7.4 buffer were evaluated. Diffusion and membrane permeability were studied using a Franz diffusion cell. Except for the SAM and NIC cocrystals, all other binary systems exhibited improved solubility. All of the cocrystals showed improved diffusion/membrane permeability compared to that of HCT with the exception of the SAM cocrystal. When the solubility was high, as in the case of PABA, NCT, and RES cocrystals, the flux/permeability dropped slightly. This is in agreement with the expected interplay between solubility and permeability. Improved solubility/permeability is attributed to new drug-coformer interactions. Cocrystals of SAM, however, showed poor solubility and flux. This cocrystal contains a primary sulfonamide dimer synthon similar to that of HCT polymorphs, which may be a reason for its unusual behavior. Hirshfeld surface analysis was carried out in all cases to determine whether a correlation exists between cocrystal permeability and drug-coformer interactions.

  1. Thermodynamic Approach to Boron Nitride Nanotube Solubility and Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiano, A. L.; Gibbons, L.; Tsui, M.; Applin, S. I.; Silva, R.; Park, C.; Fay, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to improve dispersion include surface functionalization, surfactants, polymer wrapping, and sonication. Although these approaches have proven effective, they often achieve dispersion by altering the surface or structure of the nanomaterial and ultimately, their intrinsic properties. Co-solvents are commonly utilized in the polymer, paint, and art conservation industries to selectively dissolve materials. These co-solvents are utilized based on thermodynamic interaction parameters and are chosen so that the original materials are not affected. The same concept was applied to enhance the dispersion of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to facilitate the fabrication of BNNT nanocomposites. Of the solvents tested, dimethylacetamide (DMAc) exhibited the most stable, uniform dispersion of BNNTs, followed by N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Utilizing the known Hansen solubility parameters of these solvents in comparison to the BNNT dispersion state, a region of good solubility was proposed. This solubility region was used to identify co-solvent systems that led to improved BNNT dispersion in poor solvents such as toluene, hexane, and ethanol. Incorporating the data from the co-solvent studies further refined the proposed solubility region. From this region, the Hansen solubility parameters for BNNTs are thought to lie at the midpoint of the solubility sphere: 16.8, 10.7, and 9.0 MPa(exp 1/2) for delta d, delta p, and delta h, respectively, with a calculated Hildebrand parameter of 21.8 MPa)exp 1/2).

  2. Water sorption and solubility of polyamide denture base materials.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long G; Kopperud, Hilde M; Øilo, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Some patients experience adverse reactions to poly(methyl methacrylate)-based (PMMA) dentures. Polyamide (PA) as an alternative to PMMA has, however, not been well documented with regard to water sorption and water solubility. The aim of this in vitro study was to measure water sorption and water solubility of two PA materials compared with PMMA, and to evaluate the major components released from the PA materials and the effect on hardness of the materials. Methods: Ten discs (40.0 mm diameter, 2.0 mm thick) of each material (PA: Valplast and Breflex; PMMA: SR Ivocap HIP) were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations. The specimens were tested for water sorption and water solubility, according to a modification of ISO 20795-1:2008. Released substances were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results: There were statistically significant differences among the materials regarding water sorption, water solubility and time to water saturation. Breflex had the highest water sorption (30.4 μg/mm(3)), followed by PMMA-material (25.8 μg/mm(3)) and Valplast (13.6 μg/mm(3)). Both PA materials had statistically significant lower water solubility than the PMMA. Both PA had a net increase in weight. Analysis by GC/MS identified release of the compound 12-aminododecanolactam from the material Valplast. No release was found from the Breflex material. Conclusions: The PA denture materials show differences in water sorption and solubility, but within the limits of the standard requirements. The PA showed a net increase in weight after long-term water sorption. The clinical implications of the findings are not elucidated.

  3. Thermodynamic approach to boron nitride nanotube solubility and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Tiano, A L; Gibbons, L; Tsui, M; Applin, S I; Silva, R; Park, C; Fay, C C

    2016-02-21

    Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to improve dispersion include surface functionalization, surfactants, polymer wrapping, and sonication. Although these approaches have proven effective, they often achieve dispersion by altering the surface or structure of the nanomaterial and ultimately, their intrinsic properties. Co-solvents are commonly utilized in the polymer, paint, and art conservation industries to selectively dissolve materials. These co-solvents are utilized based on thermodynamic interaction parameters and are chosen so that the original materials are not affected. The same concept was applied to enhance the dispersion of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to facilitate the fabrication of BNNT nanocomposites. Of the solvents tested, dimethylacetamide (DMAc) exhibited the most stable, uniform dispersion of BNNTs, followed by N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Utilizing the known Hansen solubility parameters of these solvents in comparison to the BNNT dispersion state, a region of good solubility was proposed. This solubility region was used to identify co-solvent systems that led to improved BNNT dispersion in poor solvents such as toluene, hexane, and ethanol. Incorporating the data from the co-solvent studies further refined the proposed solubility region. From this region, the Hansen solubility parameters for BNNTs are thought to lie at the midpoint of the solubility sphere: 16.8, 10.7, and 9.0 MPa(1/2) for δd, δp, and δh, respectively, with a calculated Hildebrand parameter of 21.8 MPa(1/2).

  4. Thermodynamic Approach to Boron Nitride Nanotube Solubility and Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiano, A. L.; Gibbons, L.; Tsui, M.; Applin, S. I.; Silva, R.; Park, C.; Fay, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to improve dispersion include surface functionalization, surfactants, polymer wrapping, and sonication. Although these approaches have proven effective, they often achieve dispersion by altering the surface or structure of the nanomaterial and ultimately, their intrinsic properties. Co-solvents are commonly utilized in the polymer, paint, and art conservation industries to selectively dissolve materials. These co-solvents are utilized based on thermodynamic interaction parameters and are chosen so that the original materials are not affected. The same concept was applied to enhance the dispersion of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to facilitate the fabrication of BNNT nanocomposites. Of the solvents tested, dimethylacetamide (DMAc) exhibited the most stable, uniform dispersion of BNNTs, followed by N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Utilizing the known Hansen solubility parameters of these solvents in comparison to the BNNT dispersion state, a region of good solubility was proposed. This solubility region was used to identify co-solvent systems that led to improved BNNT dispersion in poor solvents such as toluene, hexane, and ethanol. Incorporating the data from the co-solvent studies further refined the proposed solubility region. From this region, the Hansen solubility parameters for BNNTs are thought to lie at the midpoint of the solubility sphere: 16.8, 10.7, and 9.0 MPa(exp 1/2) for delta d, delta p, and delta h, respectively, with a calculated Hildebrand parameter of 21.8 MPa)exp 1/2).

  5. Mechanical cardiac assistance.

    PubMed

    Sezai, Y

    1998-08-01

    In our institute, we have intensively introduced both pulsatile and non-pulsatile mechanical cardiac assist devices, such as the pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD) and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS), using a centrifugal pump. From various kinds of clinical views, these cases were estimated and evaluated retrospectively according to the weaning results, long-term survival rate and cause of death. Based upon our experiences and clinical results, an alternate strategy of mechanical cardiac assistance for severe heart failure is suggested as follows. In the case of post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock or low output syndrome, PCPS system should be applied firstly under intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) assist for a maximum of 2-3 days. If the native cardiac function does not recover and more long-term support is needed, several types of VAD, which are more powerful and durable devices should be introduced, according to end organ function and expected support duration. In order to obtain better clinical results, we have to select an appropriate device depending on the limited availability of supporting duration. Generally speaking, centrifugal pumps can support in short-term duration, while pulsatile devices cover the broad spectrum of the supporting period. Pneumatic VADs can cover short-term to long-term support up to a year, and electric VADs can cover over 1 year, and can be used as a bridge to heart transplantation.

  6. One-to-One Assistant Engagement in Autism Support Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Gazi F.; Locke, Jill; Downey, Margaret Mary; Xie, Ming; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Classroom assistants and one-to-one assistants are an important part of the staffing structure of many autism support classrooms. Limited studies, however, have examined how one-to-one assistants spend their time in the classroom. The purpose of this article was to examine the percentage of time one-to-one assistants were engaged in instruction or…

  7. Optical Limiting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave EPO RT D A TE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Optical Limiting 6. AUTHOR(S) , 1 oS...to nanoseconds and find that, since the excited state absorption is cummulative, that the dyes can limit well for nanosecond pulses but not for...over which the device limits . In addition, we find that the dynamic range of limiting devices can be substantially increased using two elements without

  8. Aerosol iron solubility: Observations from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Clifton Stryker

    Large portions of the world ocean are less productive than they should be based on their nutrient concentrations. Dubbed high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions, primary productivity in these areas may be limited by any number of factors including high zooplankton grazing rates as well as light and silicon limitation but, in general, iron (Fe) appears to most often be the factor limiting production. With approximately 30% of the world ocean comprised of Fe-limited HNLC waters, it is clear that the input of Fe to these waters, and its subsequent bioavailability, has an important role in stimulating primary productivity and lowering pCO2 possibly moderating the rise of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and therefore could influence the planet's climate. The work described in this dissertation represents an effort to characterize the elemental solubility, including Fe, of marine aerosols. The research was conducted on four oceanographic research cruises in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In total, over 170 aerosol samples were collected in both total and size-fractionated samples. Precipitation events were sampled when possible to characterize the wet deposition of marine aerosols. The data will constrain estimates of aerosol Fe deposition to HNLC regions and improve models of the global carbon cycle. Elemental solubilities were measured using both seawater and ultrapure deionized water leaching methods under trace metal clean conditions. Leaching of the aerosol samples was conducted using a rapid exposure, small volume technique. Ultrapure deionized water leaches were analyzed directly by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), a relatively simple analysis technique. Soluble Fe in seawater leaches was analyzed by HR-ICP-MS following column extraction. Additionally, soluble aerosol Fe(II) was measured on four of the cruises. The sampling and analytical methods will be discussed in this dissertation and the results compared

  9. A Path to Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Abhilasha; Murray, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imprinting is a technique for making a selective binding site for a specific chemical. The technique involves building a polymeric scaffold of molecular complements containing the target molecule. Subsequent removal of the target leaves a cavity with a structural “memory” of the target. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be employed as selective adsorbents of specific molecules or molecular functional groups. In addition, sensors for specific molecules can be made using optical transduction through lumiphores residing in the imprinted site. We have found that the use of metal ions as chromophores can improve selectivity due to selective complex formation. The combination of molecular imprinting and spectroscopic selectivity can result in sensors that are highly sensitive and nearly immune to interferences. A weakness of conventional MIPs with regard to processing is the insolubility of crosslinked polymers. Traditional MIPs are prepared either as monoliths and ground into powders or are prepared in situ on a support. This limits the applicability of MIPs by imposing tedious or difficult processes for their inclusion in devices. The size of the particles hinders diffusion and slows response. These weaknesses could be avoided if a means were found to prepare individual macromolecules with crosslinked binding sites with soluble linear polymeric arms. This process has been made possible by controlled free radical polymerization techniques that can form pseudo-living polymers. Modern techniques of controlled free radical polymerization allow the preparation of block copolymers with potentially crosslinkable substituents in specific locations. The inclusion of crosslinkable mers proximate to the binding complex in the core of a star polymer allows the formation of molecularly imprinted macromolecules that are soluble and processable. Due to the much shorter distance for diffusion, the polymers exhibit rapid responses. This paper reviews the methods

  10. Protein solubilities determined by a rapid technique and modification of that technique to a micro-method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacioppo, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc Lee; Munson, Sibyl

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid method for determination of protein solubilities has been developed which is based upon maximization of the free solution volume to be brought into equilibrium. The tetragonal lysozome solubility diagram has been determined from pH 4.0 to 5.2 (0.1 M sodium acetate), 2-7 percent NaCl, 3-25 C, and portions of the orthorhombic solubility diagram using this technique. Both tetragonal and orthorhombic solubilities were found to increase smoothly with decreasing salt concentration and increasing temperature; no retrograde solubilities were observed. Using column volumes of 75, 300, and 900 microliters, identical tetragonal lysozyme solubility diagrams were obtained. Chymotrypsinogen solubilities have also been determined using this apparatus, being retrograde over the temperature range tested. It is noted that the primary limiting factor in reducing the crystalline volume is the minimum solution sample size needed to accurately quantitate the protein.

  11. Protein solubilities determined by a rapid technique and modification of that technique to a micro-method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacioppo, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc Lee; Munson, Sibyl

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid method for determination of protein solubilities has been developed which is based upon maximization of the free solution volume to be brought into equilibrium. The tetragonal lysozome solubility diagram has been determined from pH 4.0 to 5.2 (0.1 M sodium acetate), 2-7 percent NaCl, 3-25 C, and portions of the orthorhombic solubility diagram using this technique. Both tetragonal and orthorhombic solubilities were found to increase smoothly with decreasing salt concentration and increasing temperature; no retrograde solubilities were observed. Using column volumes of 75, 300, and 900 microliters, identical tetragonal lysozyme solubility diagrams were obtained. Chymotrypsinogen solubilities have also been determined using this apparatus, being retrograde over the temperature range tested. It is noted that the primary limiting factor in reducing the crystalline volume is the minimum solution sample size needed to accurately quantitate the protein.

  12. In vitro solubility assays in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Edward H; Di, Li; Carter, Guy T

    2008-11-01

    The solubility of a compound depends on its structure and solution conditions. Structure determines the lipophilicity, hydrogen bonding, molecular volume, crystal energy and ionizability, which determine solubility. Solution conditions are affected by pH, co-solvents, additives, ionic strength, time and temperature. Many drug discovery experiments are conducted under "kinetic" solubility conditions. In drug discovery, solubility has a major impact on bioassays, formulation for in vivo dosing, and intestinal absorption. A good goal for the solubility of drug discovery compounds is >60 ug/mL. Equilibrium solubility assays can be conducted in moderate throughput, by incubating excess solid with buffer and agitating for several days, prior to filtration and HPLC quantitation. Kinetic solubility assays are performed in high throughput with shorter incubation times and high throughput analyses using plate readers. The most frequently used of these are the nephelometric assay and direct UV assay, which begin by adding a small volume of DMSO stock solution of each test compound to buffer. In nephelometry, this solution is serially diluted across a microtitre plate and undissolved particles are detected via light scattering. In direct UV, undissolved particles are separated by filtration, after which the dissolved material is quantitated using UV absorption. Equilibrium solubility is useful for preformulation. Kinetic solubility is useful for rapid compound assessment, guiding optimization via structure modification, and diagnosing bioassays. It is often useful to customize solubility experiments using conditions that answer specific research questions of drug discovery teams, such as compound selection and vehicle development for pharmacology and PK studies.

  13. Assistive technology--behaviourally assisted.

    PubMed

    Benton, S; Manning, B

    2006-01-01

    In considering the recurrent problems involved in technology led initiatives within the public sector, this paper seeks to identify change management requirements needed to help avoid these latent pitfalls in the widespread introduction of Assistive Technology. It develops a change process approach based on current clinical psychology techniques used in assessing sources and level of resistance to behavioural change and applies them to managing effective benefits realisation.

  14. 44 CFR 206.67 - Requirement when limitation is exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement when limitation is exceeded. 206.67 Section 206.67 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Emergency...

  15. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  16. Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Savjani, Ketan T.; Gajjar, Anuradha K.; Savjani, Jignasa K.

    2012-01-01

    Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous system, is one of the important parameters to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for desired (anticipated) pharmacological response. Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for the generic development. More than 40% NCEs (new chemical entities) developed in pharmaceutical industry are practically insoluble in water. Solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of solution at the site of absorption. Various techniques are used for the enhancement of the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which include physical and chemical modifications of drug and other methods like particle size reduction, crystal engineering, salt formation, solid dispersion, use of surfactant, complexation, and so forth. Selection of solubility improving method depends on drug property, site of absorption, and required dosage form characteristics. PMID:22830056

  17. A Promising New Method to Estimate Drug-Polymer Solubility at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Gannon, Natasha; Porsch, Ilona; Rask, Malte Bille; Olesen, Niels Erik; Langguth, Peter; Holm, René; Rades, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The established methods to predict drug-polymer solubility at room temperature either rely on extrapolation over a long temperature range or are limited by the availability of a liquid analogue of the polymer. To overcome these issues, this work investigated a new methodology where the drug-polymer solubility is estimated from the solubility of the drug in a solution of the polymer at room temperature using the shake-flask method. Thus, the new polymer in solution method does not rely on temperature extrapolations and only requires the polymer and a solvent, in which the polymer is soluble, that does not affect the molecular structure of the drug and polymer relative to that in the solid state. Consequently, as this method has the potential to provide fast and precise estimates of drug-polymer solubility at room temperature, we encourage the scientific community to further investigate this principle both fundamentally and practically.

  18. Metal Oxide Solubility and Molten Salt Corrosion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-29

    METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT CORROSION.(U) MAR 82 K H STERN UNCLASSI E DL R L-4772NL EL .2. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BURALU...METAL OXIDE SOLUBILITY AND MOLTEN SALT Interim report on a continuing CORROSION NRL problem. S. PERFORMING a4. REPORT NUMlER 7. AuTtwORr) S. CONTRACT OR...EQUILIBRIA AND OXIDE SOLUTION RELATIONS IN MOLTEN SALTS ............................................. 2 IV. METHODS FOR DETERMINING SOLUBILITIES

  19. 13 CFR 120.315 - Interest rate and loan limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interest rate and loan limit. 120.315 Section 120.315 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Disabled Assistance Loan Program (dal) § 120.315 Interest rate and loan limit. The interest rate on direct DAL loans is three...

  20. 13 CFR 120.315 - Interest rate and loan limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rate and loan limit. 120.315 Section 120.315 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Disabled Assistance Loan Program (dal) § 120.315 Interest rate and loan limit. The interest rate on direct DAL loans is three...

  1. 13 CFR 120.315 - Interest rate and loan limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest rate and loan limit. 120.315 Section 120.315 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Disabled Assistance Loan Program (dal) § 120.315 Interest rate and loan limit. The interest rate on direct DAL loans is three...

  2. 13 CFR 120.315 - Interest rate and loan limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate and loan limit. 120.315 Section 120.315 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Disabled Assistance Loan Program (dal) § 120.315 Interest rate and loan limit. The interest rate on direct DAL loans is three...

  3. 13 CFR 120.315 - Interest rate and loan limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interest rate and loan limit. 120.315 Section 120.315 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Disabled Assistance Loan Program (dal) § 120.315 Interest rate and loan limit. The interest rate on direct DAL loans is three...

  4. 44 CFR 78.8 - Grant funding limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant funding limitations. 78.8 Section 78.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.8 Grant funding limitations. (a) The Administrator will allocate the available...

  5. 44 CFR 206.66 - Limitation on expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitation on expenditures. 206.66 Section 206.66 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Limitation on expenditures. Total assistance provided in any given emergency declaration may not exceed $5...

  6. 44 CFR 206.66 - Limitation on expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitation on expenditures. 206.66 Section 206.66 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Limitation on expenditures. Total assistance provided in any given emergency declaration may not exceed $5...

  7. 44 CFR 206.66 - Limitation on expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitation on expenditures. 206.66 Section 206.66 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Limitation on expenditures. Total assistance provided in any given emergency declaration may not exceed $5...

  8. 44 CFR 206.66 - Limitation on expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Limitation on expenditures. 206.66 Section 206.66 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Limitation on expenditures. Total assistance provided in any given emergency declaration may not exceed $5...

  9. 44 CFR 206.66 - Limitation on expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on expenditures. 206.66 Section 206.66 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Limitation on expenditures. Total assistance provided in any given emergency declaration may not exceed...

  10. Filtrates & Residues: An Experiment on the Molar Solubility and Solubility Product of Barium Nitrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse

    1989-01-01

    Provides a two hour experiment using direct gravimetric methods to determine solubility constants. Provides methodology and sample results. Discusses the effect of the common ion on the solubility constant. (MVL)

  11. Filtrates & Residues: An Experiment on the Molar Solubility and Solubility Product of Barium Nitrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse

    1989-01-01

    Provides a two hour experiment using direct gravimetric methods to determine solubility constants. Provides methodology and sample results. Discusses the effect of the common ion on the solubility constant. (MVL)

  12. Soluble iron nutrients in Saharan dust over the central Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzolo, Joana A.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Manzi, Antônio O.; Sá, Marta O.; Alves, Eliane G.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Angelis, Isabella H.; Ditas, Florian; Saturno, Jorge; Moran-Zuloaga, Daniel; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Santos, Rosa M. N.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Taylor, Philip E.; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2017-02-01

    The intercontinental transport of aerosols from the Sahara desert plays a significant role in nutrient cycles in the Amazon rainforest, since it carries many types of minerals to these otherwise low-fertility lands. Iron is one of the micronutrients essential for plant growth, and its long-range transport might be an important source for the iron-limited Amazon rainforest. This study assesses the bioavailability of iron Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the particulate matter over the Amazon forest, which was transported from the Sahara desert (for the sake of our discussion, this term also includes the Sahel region). The sampling campaign was carried out above and below the forest canopy at the ATTO site (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory), a near-pristine area in the central Amazon Basin, from March to April 2015. Measurements reached peak concentrations for soluble Fe(III) (48 ng m-3), Fe(II) (16 ng m-3), Na (470 ng m-3), Ca (194 ng m-3), K (65 ng m-3), and Mg (89 ng m-3) during a time period of dust transport from the Sahara, as confirmed by ground-based and satellite remote sensing data and air mass backward trajectories. Dust sampled above the Amazon canopy included primary biological aerosols and other coarse particles up to 12 µm in diameter. Atmospheric transport of weathered Saharan dust, followed by surface deposition, resulted in substantial iron bioavailability across the rainforest canopy. The seasonal deposition of dust, rich in soluble iron, and other minerals is likely to assist both bacteria and fungi within the topsoil and on canopy surfaces, and especially benefit highly bioabsorbent species. In this scenario, Saharan dust can provide essential macronutrients and micronutrients to plant roots, and also directly to plant leaves. The influence of this input on the ecology of the forest canopy and topsoil is discussed, and we argue that this influence would likely be different from that of nutrients from the weathered Amazon bedrock, which otherwise provides the

  13. Soluble methane monooxygenase component B gene probe for identification of methanotrophs that rapidly degrade trichloroethylene.

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, H C; Hanson, R S

    1992-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, Western blot (immunoblot) analysis, and fluorescence-labelled signature probes were used for the characterization of methanotrophic bacteria as well as for the identification of methanotrophs which contained the soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) gene and were able to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE). The gene encoding a soluble MMO component B protein from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b was cloned. It contained a 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment. With this cloned component B gene as probe, methanotroph types I, II, and X and environmental and bioreactor samples were screened for the presence of the gene encoding soluble MMO. Fragments produced by digestion of DNA with rare cutting restriction endonucleases were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and transferred to Zeta-Probe membrane (Bio-Rad) for Southern blot analysis. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of soluble MMO by Western blot analysis and the ability to degrade TCE. The physiological groups of methanotrophs in each sample were determined by hybridizing cells with fluorescence-labelled signature probes. Among twelve pure or mixed cultures, DNA fragments of seven methanotrophs hybridized with the soluble MMO B gene probe. When grown in media with limited copper, all of these bacteria degraded TCE. All of them are type II methanotrophs. The soluble MMO component B gene of the type X methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, did not hybridize to the M. trichosporium OB3b soluble MMO component B gene probe, although M. capsulatus Bath also produces a soluble MMO. Images PMID:1349468

  14. Solubility of iron and other trace elements over the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimburger, A.; Losno, R.; Triquet, S.

    2013-03-01

    The fraction of soluble aerosols that is deposited on the open ocean is vital for phytoplankton growth. It is believed that a large proportion of this dissolved fraction is bioavailable for marine biota and thus plays an important role in primary production, especially in HNLC oceanic areas where this production is limited by micronutrient supply. There is still much uncertainty surrounding the solubility of atmospheric particles in global biogeochemical cycles and it is not well understood. In this study, we present the solubilities of seven elements (Al, Ce, Fe, La, Mn, Nd, Ti) in rainwater on Kerguelen Islands, in the middle of the Southern Indian Ocean. The solubilities exhibit high values, generally greater than 70%, and Ti remains the least soluble element. Because the Southern Indian Ocean is remote from its dust sources, only the fraction of smaller aerosols reaches Kerguelen Islands after undergoing several cloud and chemical processes during their transport resulting in a drastic increase in solubility. Finally, we deduced an average soluble iron deposition flux of 23 μg m-2 d-1 (0.4 μmol m-2 d-1) for the studied oceanic area, taking into account a~median iron solubility of 82% ± 18%.

  15. Low solubility in drug development: de-convoluting the relative importance of solvation and crystal packing.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Robert; Pencheva, Klimentina; Abramov, Yuriy A

    2015-06-01

    An increasing trend towards low solubility is a major issue for drug development as formulation of low solubility compounds can be problematic. This paper presents a model which de-convolutes the solubility of pharmaceutical compounds into solvation and packing properties with the intention to understand the solubility limiting features. The Cambridge Crystallographic Database was the source of structural information. Lattice energies were calculated via force-field based approaches using Materials Studio. The solvation energies were calculated applying quantum chemistry models using Cosmotherm software. The solubilities of 54 drug-like compounds were mapped onto a solvation energy/crystal packing grid. Four quadrants were identified were different balances of solvation and packing were defining the solubility. A version of the model was developed which allows for the calculation of the two features even in absence of crystal structure. Although there are significant number of in-silico models, it has been proven very difficult to predict aqueous solubility accurately. Therefore, we have taken a different approach where the solubility is not predicted directly but is de-convoluted into two constituent features. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Infertility, assisted reproduction and rights.

    PubMed

    Chan, C C W; Ho, P-C

    2006-06-01

    The rights to reproduce and found a family are recognized as basic human rights. Infertile couples should enjoy the same right to reproduce as those who have the ability to do so without assistance. Both positive and negative rights to access to assisted reproductive technologies are required in order to fully realize the reproductive rights. However, there is a limit to such a claim. The positive right of individuals to have state-funded assisted reproductive treatments has to be balanced against the provision of other societal goods and healthcare rationing. The negative right to acquire access to assisted reproductive technologies by individuals' own resources is also restrained. The barrier to such access is often of a moral nature, the standard of which depends on the values of the society.

  17. Simultaneous enhancements of solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble febuxostat via salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Rui; Zhang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Novel crystalline forms of febuxostat (HFEB) salts were synthesized by liquid-assisted cogrinding with 2-methylimidazole (2MI) and di-2-pyridylamine (DPA) and characterized by Hirshfeld surface analysis, IR, 1H NMR, single crystal and powder X-ray diffractions, TGA and DSC. Two new HFEB salts featured different stoichiometries: 2:1 molecular ratio in HFEB-2MI and 1:1 molecular ratio in HFEB-DPA. For HFEB-2MI salt, two HFEB molecules lost one proton forming a singly charged hydrogen carboxylate anion H(FEB)2-, which interacted with the disordered 2MI cation via the N3sbnd H3A⋯O1i (i: -x, -y, -z+1) and N4sbnd H4B⋯O1ii (ii: x, y+1, z-1) hydrogen bonds to form one-dimensional structure. For HFEB-DPA salt, one proton transferred from one HFEB to DPA, which were further connected by N4sbnd H1⋯O1 and N3sbnd H2⋯O2 hydrogen bonds to form an R22(8) ring motif. HFEB-2MI and HFEB-DPA salts exhibited increased equilibrium solubilities and intrinsic dissolution rates compared to those of HFEB in aqueous medium.

  18. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN SIMULATED SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Hobbs, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-09-27

    measured or values predicted by the SRNL model and values predicted by the OLI AG model was very poor. The much higher predicted concentrations by the OLI AQ model appears to be the result of the model predicting the predominate Pu oxidation state is Pu(V) which is reported as unstable below sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations of 6 M. There was very good agreement between the predicted Pu concentrations using the SRNL model and the model developed by Delegard and Gallagher with the exception of solutions that had very high OH{sup -} (15 M) concentrations. The lower Pu solubilities in these solutions were attributed to the presence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NO{sub 2}{sup -} which limit the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(V).

  19. Amorphous solid dispersion enhances permeation of poorly soluble ABT-102: true supersaturation vs. apparent solubility enhancement.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kerstin J; Rosenblatt, Karin M; Westedt, Ulrich; Hölig, Peter; Rosenberg, Jörg; Mägerlein, Markus; Fricker, Gert; Brandl, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) represent a promising formulation approach for poorly soluble drugs. We explored the formulation-related impact of ASDs on permeation rate, apparent solubility and molecular solubility of the poorly soluble drug ABT-102. The influence of fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) as dispersion medium was also studied. ASDs were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. Permeation rate was assessed by the Caco-2 transwell assay. Cell viability and barrier integrity were assured by AlamarBlue©, TEER and permeability of the hydrophilic marker carboxyfluorescein. Apparent solubility and molecular solubility were evaluated by using centrifugation and inverse dialysis, respectively. The in vitro permeation rate of ABT-102 from aqueous dispersions of the ASD was found 4 times faster than that from the dispersions of the crystals, while apparent solubility and molecular solubility of ABT-102 were increased. Yet, a further increase in apparent solubility due to micellar solubilization as observed when dispersing the ASD in FaSSIF, did not affect molecular solubility or permeation rate. Overall, a good correlation between permeation rate and molecular solubility but not apparent solubility was seen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrocarbon solubility and its migration processes: a look at the present status

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, C.K.; Ohkuma, H.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1985-12-01

    In this study we review the present status of knowledge of solubility of hydrocarbons and its implications on primary migration processes. The intent is to examine the solubility and the transportation mechanisms relevant to geopressured-geothermal reservoirs, although the discussion included here accommodates a wide range of related aspects. Influences of parameters associated with hydrocarbon (especially methane) solubility have been studied. We have sought to evaluate several primary hydrocarbon migration processes and to point out their attractive features as well as their limitations. A brief discussion of hydrocarbon generation processes is also included.

  1. Solubility Characteristics of PCBM and C60.

    PubMed

    Boucher, David; Howell, Jason

    2016-11-10

    Empirical data indicate that several good solvents for C60 and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have substantial polar and hydrogen-bonding components, which are not intrinsic to the structure of the C60 and PCBM molecules themselves. Functional solubility parameter (FSP) and convex solubility parameter (CSP) computations are performed on C60 and PCBM using solubility data available in the literature. The CSP and FSP results are compared to previously reported Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) and to the parameters calculated using additive functional group contribution methods. The CSP and FSP methods confirm the anomalously large polar and hydrogen-bonding parameters, δP and δH, obtained experimentally for C60 and PCBM. This behavior, which is quite irregular given the structure of the molecules, is due to the fact that several good solvents have high δP and δH values. Thus, these irregularities are highlighted by the CSP and FSP calculations. Additional contradictory solubility characteristics are disclosed by comparing the experimental solubility parameters to a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) model, additive functional group calculations, and COSMO-RS computations. The FSP solubility function strongly suggests that the solubility parameters do not accurately represent the cohesive energy density properties of C60 and PCBM, as intended, but rather they manifest the properties of the solvents, e.g., high δP and δH values, that are necessary to accommodate these molecules in the liquid phase.

  2. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  3. Calculation of Drug Solubilities by Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Lindley A.

    1981-01-01

    A method of estimating the solubilities of drugs in water is reported that is based on a principle applied in quantitative structure-activity relationships. This procedure involves correlation of partition coefficient values using the octanol/water system and aqueous solubility. (Author/MLW)

  4. Airway exchange of highly soluble gases

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Frank L.; Anderson, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Highly blood soluble gases exchange with the bronchial circulation in the airways. On inhalation, air absorbs highly soluble gases from the airway mucosa and equilibrates with the blood before reaching the alveoli. Highly soluble gas partial pressure is identical throughout all alveoli. At the end of exhalation the partial pressure of a highly soluble gas decreases from the alveolar level in the terminal bronchioles to the end-exhaled partial pressure at the mouth. A mathematical model simulated the airway exchange of four gases (methyl isobutyl ketone, acetone, ethanol, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether) that have high water and blood solubility. The impact of solubility on the relative distribution of airway exchange was studied. We conclude that an increase in water solubility shifts the distribution of gas exchange toward the mouth. Of the four gases studied, ethanol had the greatest decrease in partial pressure from the alveolus to the mouth at end exhalation. Single exhalation breath tests are inappropriate for estimating alveolar levels of highly soluble gases, particularly for ethanol. PMID:23305981

  5. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  6. Soluble proteins of chemical communication: an overview across arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Paolo; Iovinella, Immacolata; Felicioli, Antonio; Dani, Francesca R.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of chemical signals both in insects and in vertebrates is mediated by soluble proteins, highly concentrated in olfactory organs, which bind semiochemicals and activate, with still largely unknown mechanisms, specific chemoreceptors. The same proteins are often found in structures where pheromones are synthesized and released, where they likely perform a second role in solubilizing and delivering chemical messengers in the environment. A single class of soluble polypeptides, called Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) is known in vertebrates, while two have been identified in insects, OBPs and CSPs (Chemosensory Proteins). Despite their common name, OBPs of vertebrates bear no structural similarity with those of insects. We observed that in arthropods OBPs are strictly limited to insects, while a few members of the CSP family have been found in crustacean and other arthropods, where however, based on their very limited numbers, a function in chemical communication seems unlikely. The question we address in this review is whether another class of soluble proteins may have been adopted by other arthropods to perform the role of OBPs and CSPs in insects. We propose that lipid-transporter proteins of the Niemann-Pick type C2 family could represent likely candidates and report the results of an analysis of their sequences in representative species of different arthropods. PMID:25221516

  7. Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150/sup 0/C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables. (DLC)

  8. Soluble proteins of chemical communication: an overview across arthropods.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Paolo; Iovinella, Immacolata; Felicioli, Antonio; Dani, Francesca R

    2014-01-01

    Detection of chemical signals both in insects and in vertebrates is mediated by soluble proteins, highly concentrated in olfactory organs, which bind semiochemicals and activate, with still largely unknown mechanisms, specific chemoreceptors. The same proteins are often found in structures where pheromones are synthesized and released, where they likely perform a second role in solubilizing and delivering chemical messengers in the environment. A single class of soluble polypeptides, called Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) is known in vertebrates, while two have been identified in insects, OBPs and CSPs (Chemosensory Proteins). Despite their common name, OBPs of vertebrates bear no structural similarity with those of insects. We observed that in arthropods OBPs are strictly limited to insects, while a few members of the CSP family have been found in crustacean and other arthropods, where however, based on their very limited numbers, a function in chemical communication seems unlikely. The question we address in this review is whether another class of soluble proteins may have been adopted by other arthropods to perform the role of OBPs and CSPs in insects. We propose that lipid-transporter proteins of the Niemann-Pick type C2 family could represent likely candidates and report the results of an analysis of their sequences in representative species of different arthropods.

  9. Design of a positive-tone water-soluble resist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havard, Jennifer M.; Frechet, Jean M. J.; Pasini, Dario; Mar, Brenda; Yamada, Shintaro; Medeiros, David R.; Willson, C. Grant

    1997-07-01

    We report the study of a novel class of resists designed to be coated from and developed in pure water, avoiding both the need for the traditional organic solvents and the developers containing organic bases in aqueous solution. We have previously reported on the design of several negative tone resists that operate on the basis of radiation-induced crosslinking. The performance of these negative tone systems meets our fundamental objective of coating from and development in pure water, but their design involving the crosslinking of a matrix polymer limits the resolution that may be achieved because of the swelling that occurs during development. We have now explored novel designs involving positive tone water developable resists that may help alleviate this limitation. For example, water-soluble polymers containing pendant oxazoline units may be insolubilized in situ through their heat-activated reaction with additives containing carboxylic acid groups. Exposure to UV radiation is then used to cleave these solubility modifiers hence restoring solubility to the exposed areas. Analogous materials that involve the addition of divinyl ethers to poly(acrylic acid), followed by photogenerated acid cleavage of the crosslinks have been used generate water-developed positive tone images.

  10. 40 CFR 35.925 - Limitations on award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925 Limitations on award. Before awarding initial grant assistance for any project for a treatment works through...

  11. Light extinction method for solubility measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shui; Wang, Jingkang; Yin, Qiuxiang; Wang, Yongli

    2005-03-01

    A novel measurement method for chemical solubility determination is brought forward, in which the advantages of two kinds of traditional methods are united. The results show that the concentration of unsolved particles suspending in the solution can be determined by measuring I/I0 (ratio of the transmission intensity to the incident intensity) of the laser beam permeating through the solution according to Lamben-Beer law. The biggest relative deviation for the solubility data determined is less than 1.5% for the sparingly soluble substances and 0.3% for the opulently soluble substances. By comparison of the experimental solubility data with previous data, the light extinction method is demonstrated to be stable and reliable.

  12. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  13. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  14. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  15. Physician-assisted death.

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Physician-assisted death includes both euthanasia and assistance in suicide. The CMA urges its members to adhere to the principles of palliative care. It does not support euthanasia and assisted suicide. The following policy summary includes definitions of euthanasia and assisted suicide, background information, basic ethical principles and physician concerns about legalization of physician-assisted death. PMID:7632208

  16. Use of the GPA solubility program in cryogenic plant design

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, D.G.; Janowski, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Although the GPA Solid Solubility Program has existed in various forms for some time, little has been written about its application to cryogenic NGL plant design. The natural gas component that poses the biggest problem for plant designers is carbon dioxide. Although the GPSA Engineering Data Book gives a CO/sub 2/ solid design chart, it is based on limited multicomponent data. Some multicomponent data have been available from some time, but there is a great deal of inconsistency in these data. The Solid Solubility Program is a systematic attempt to correlate these available data. Examples demonstrate the use of this systematic approach. In either the design phase of a project, or after start-up when problems occur, the new program can be used to adjust the design and operating parameters.

  17. Hydrogen permeation, diffusion and solubility in IN-100 and Waspaloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, A. S.; Peterson, D. T.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen in IN-100 and Waspaloy by determining the evolution rate of hydrogen from a closed capsule of the test materials. Enclosed vanadium hydride was the source of hydrogen in the capsule. The presentation discusses the treatment of data and assesses the validity of the techniques in permeation measurement. In addition to permeation experiments, the solubility and diffusion of hydrogen in IN-100 and Waspaloy were also determined. For hydrogen diffusion in Waspaloy, Delta H was 38.5 kJ and D(0) was 0.0026 sq cm/sec. For IN-100, Delta H was 68.2 kJ and D(0) was 0.059 sq cm /sec. Both IN-100 and Waspaloy exhibited limited solubility of hydrogen at pressures up to 340 atmospheres hydrogen.

  18. Hydrogen permeation, diffusion and solubility in IN-100 and Waspaloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, A. S.; Peterson, D. T.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen in IN-100 and Waspaloy by determining the evolution rate of hydrogen from a closed capsule of the test materials. Enclosed vanadium hydride was the source of hydrogen in the capsule. The presentation discusses the treatment of data and assesses the validity of the techniques in permeation measurement. In addition to permeation experiments, the solubility and diffusion of hydrogen in IN-100 and Waspaloy were also determined. For hydrogen diffusion in Waspaloy, Delta H was 38.5 kJ and D(0) was 0.0026 sq cm/sec. For IN-100, Delta H was 68.2 kJ and D(0) was 0.059 sq cm /sec. Both IN-100 and Waspaloy exhibited limited solubility of hydrogen at pressures up to 340 atmospheres hydrogen.

  19. 29 CFR 36.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or...) On the basis of sex, provide different amounts or types of such assistance, limit eligibility...

  20. 10 CFR 1042.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or...: (1) On the basis of sex, provide different amounts or types of such assistance, limit eligibility...

  1. STUDY OF NEEDS IN TRAINING MEDICAL ASSISTANTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BECKER, GEORGE L.

    TO OBTAIN PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENTS ON TRAINING MEDICAL ASSISTANTS, 800 4-PAGE QUESTIONNAIRES WERE SENT TO DOCTORS IN THE LONG BEACH AREA. TABLES SHOW THE DATA FROM THE 193 RETURNS. MOST SAID THEY (1) DO NOT WANT STATE LICENSING OF ASSISTANTS, (2) PREFER THOSE TRAINED IN COURSES ACCREDITED BY THE COUNCIL ON MEDICAL EDUCATION, (3) DO NOT LIMIT THEIR…

  2. Endoscopic-assisted infraorbital nerve release

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael; De La Cruz, Carla; Christy, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic-assisted techniques in plastic and craniofacial surgeries are limited. We present a patient with infraorbital nerve entrapment following traumatic facial injury that failed conservative management. Compression of the nerve was treated with an endoscopic-assisted nerve release of the surrounding soft tissue with a circumferential foraminal osteotomy. PMID:27252952

  3. 10 CFR 1042.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or...: (1) On the basis of sex, provide different amounts or types of such assistance, limit eligibility...

  4. Solubility prediction of drugs in mixed solvents using partial solubility parameters.

    PubMed

    Jouyban, Abolghasem; Shayanfar, Ali; Panahi-Azar, Vahid; Soleymani, Jafar; Yousefi, Behrooz H; Acree, William E; York, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Solubility of drugs in binary and ternary solvent mixtures composed of water and pharmaceutical cosolvents at different temperatures were predicted using the Jouyban-Acree model and a combination of partial solubility parameters as interaction descriptors in the solution. The generally trained version of the model produced the overall mean percentage deviation values for the back-calculated solubility of drugs in binary solvents of 34.3% and the predicted solubilities in ternary solvent mixtures of 38.0%. In addition, the applicability of the trained model for predicting the solvent composition providing the maximum solubility of a drug was investigated. The results of collected solubility data of drugs in various mixed solvents and the newly measured solubility data of five drugs in ethanol + propylene glycol + water mixtures at 25°C showed that the model provided acceptable predictions and could be used in the pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Initial Sulfate Solubility Study for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this task is to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) with an assessment of the viability of using the current 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and/or the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility limit to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit was implemented for processing of Frit 418-Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) to avoid the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten sulfate-rich phase on the melt pool in the DWPF melter. The presence of such a phase on the surface of the melt pool increases corrosion rates of melter components, enhances the potential for steam excursions in a slurry-fed waste glass melter, and creates the potential for undesirable current paths that could deplete energy delivered to the melter due to the electrical conductivity of the molten salt layer. This suite of sulfate-solubility tests began by testing the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case for SB4 (as defined by Lilliston and Shah, 2004)--based on this being the most conservative (having the highest predicted viscosity when coupled with specific frits, it could potentially have the greatest impact on SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility) blending scenario of SB4 with the heel of SB3 for SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility. Frits 320 and 418 were tested with SB4 and the tests indicated that at the current SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and the tested waste loadings (30% and 40%), neither Frit 320 nor Frit 418 could be utilized with SB4 (for the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case composition originally provided). More specifically, SO{sub 4}{sup =} was observed on the surface with the SB4 composition and Frit 320 at 40% waste loading (WL) and 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and with Frit 418 at 30% and 40% WL and 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}. As alternative frits were being developed--Frits 447, 448, and 449, that contained CaO and/or V

  6. Solubility of Structurally Complicated Materials: II. Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Ari L.

    2006-12-01

    Bone is a structurally complex material, formed of both organic and inorganic chemicals. The organic compounds constitute mostly collagen and other proteins. The inorganic or bone mineral components constitute predominantly calcium, phosphate, carbonate, and a host of minor ingredients. The mineralized bone is composed of crystals which are closely associated with a protein of which collagen is an acidic polysaccharide material. This association is very close and the protein integrates into the crystalline structure. The mineralization involves the deposition of relatively insoluble crystals on an organic framework. The solubility process takes place when the outermost ions in the crystal lattice breakaway from the surface and become separated from the crystal. This is characteristic for ions dissolving in water or aqueous solutions at the specified temperature. The magnitude of solubility is temperature and pH dependent. Bone is sparingly soluble in most solvents. Enamel is less soluble than bone and fluoroapatite is the least soluble of all apatites in acid buffers. Collagen is less soluble in neutral salt solution than in dilute acid solutions at ambient temperatures. The solubility of collagens in solvents gradually decreases with increasing age of the bone samples.

  7. Salt formation to improve drug solubility.

    PubMed

    Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2007-07-30

    Salt formation is the most common and effective method of increasing solubility and dissolution rates of acidic and basic drugs. In this article, physicochemical principles of salt solubility are presented, with special reference to the influence of pH-solubility profiles of acidic and basic drugs on salt formation and dissolution. Non-ideality of salt solubility due to self-association in solution is also discussed. Whether certain acidic or basic drugs would form salts and, if salts are formed, how easily they would dissociate back into their free acid or base forms depend on interrelationships of several factors, such as S0 (intrinsic solubility), pH, pKa, Ksp (solubility product) and pHmax (pH of maximum solubility). The interrelationships of these factors are elaborated and their influence on salt screening and the selection of optimal salt forms for development are discussed. Factors influencing salt dissolution under various pH conditions, and especially in reactive media and in presence of excess common ions, are discussed, with practical reference to the development of solid dosage forms.

  8. [Good laboratory practice of equilibrium solubility measurement].

    PubMed

    Baka, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The biggest part of my PhD work was the standardization of the classical saturation shake-flask solubility method. During the experiments we examined systematically which parameters have significant influence on the solubility value and how large experimental error (standard deviation) is caused by them in the solubility method. Hydrochlorothiazide was used as model compound. Modification in temperature, sedimentation time, composition of aqueous buffer and the technique of separation of solid and liquid phases were found to influence the equilibrium solubility results strongly. However, variations in the amount of solid excess and stirring time were found to have less influence. Based on this standardization study, we developed a new shorter (36 hours) protocol for measurements of equilibrium solubility of drug molecules. The new protocol was validated with the aid of 6 structurally different compounds. The equilibrium solubility was measured by both (standard and new) protocols. The results were in good agreement, so the shorter protocol can be applied to measure the equilibrium solubility of drug compounds.

  9. On Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the last 3 decades or so, the size of systems we have been able to verify formally with automated tools has increased dramatically. At each point in this development, we encountered a different set of limits -- many of which we were eventually able to overcome. Today, we may have reached some limits that may be much harder to conquer. The problem I will discuss is the following: given a hypothetical machine with infinite memory that is seamlessly shared among infinitely many CPUs (or CPU cores), what is the largest problem size that we could solve?

  10. Zirconia solubility in boroaluminosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.; Bopp, R.; Batcheller, T.A.; Yan, Q.

    1995-12-31

    In the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste streams, zirconia is often the waste load limiting species. It modifies the glass network, enhances durability, increases viscosity and induces crystallization. The limits of its dissolution in boroaluminosilicate glass, with magnesia and soda additions were experimentally determined. A ternary compositional surface is evolved to present the isothermal regimes of liquid, liquid + zircon, liquid + forsterite, and liquid phase sintered ceramic. The potential of partitioning the transuranics, transition elements and solutes in these regimes is discussed. The visible Raman spectroscopic results are presented to elucidate the dependence among glass composition, structure and chemical durability.

  11. 77 FR 37265 - Lending Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... national banks to consolidate the lending limit rules applicable to national banks and savings associations... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jonathan Fink, Assistant Director, Bank Activities and Structure Division... extensions of credit by a national bank to a person outstanding at one time shall not exceed 15 percent...

  12. Complex Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Releases Antioxidative Phenolic Compositions from Guava Leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-09-30

    Phenolics in food and fruit tree leaves exist in free, soluble-conjugate, and insoluble-bound forms. In this study, in order to enhance the bioavailability of insoluble-bound phenolics from guava leaves (GL), the ability of enzyme-assisted extraction in improving the release of insoluble-bound phenolics was investigated. Compared to untreated GL, single xylanase-assisted extraction did not change the composition and yield of soluble phenolics, whereas single cellulase or β-glucosidase-assisted extraction significantly enhanced the soluble phenolics content of PGL. However, complex enzyme-assisted extraction (CEAE) greatly improved the soluble phenolics content, flavonoids content, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP by 103.2%, 81.6%, 104.4%, 126.5%, and 90.3%, respectively. Interestingly, after CEAE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form, and rarely in the insoluble-bound form. Especially, the contents of quercetin and kaempferol with higher bio-activity were enhanced by 3.5- and 2.2-fold, respectively. More importantly, total soluble phenolics extracts of GL following CEAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and protective effect against supercoiled DNA damage. This enzyme-assisted extraction technology can be useful for extracting biochemical components from plant matrix, and has good potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Solid Solubilities of Pu, U, Gd and Hf in Candidate Ceramic Nuclear Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Eric R.; Carter, M. L.; Lumpkin, G. R.; Day, R. A.; Begg, B. D.

    2001-04-02

    This goal of this research project was to determine the solid solubility of Pu, U, Gd, and Hf in candidate ceramics for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste. The experimental approach was to saturate each phase by adding more than the solid solubility limit of the given cation, using a nominated substitution scheme, and then analyzing the candidate phase that formed to evaluate the solid solubility limit under firing conditions. Confirmation that the solid solution limit had been reached insofar as other phases rich in the cation of interest was also required. The candidate phases were monazite, titanite, zirconolite, perovskite, apatite, pyrochlore, and brannerite. The valences of Pu and U were typically deduced from the firing atmosphere, and charge balancing in the candidate phase composition as evaluated from electron microscopy, although in some cases it was measured directly by x-ray absorption and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies (for U). Tetravalent Pu and U have restricted (< 0.1 formula units) solid solubility in apatite, titanite, and perovskite. Trivalent Pu has a larger solubility in apatite and perovskite than Pu4+. U3+ appears to be a credible species in reduced perovskite with a solubility of {approximately} 0.25 f.u. as opposed to {approximately} 0.05 f.u. for U4+. Pu4+ is a viable species in monazite and is promoted at lower firing temperatures ({approximately} 800 C) in an air atmosphere. Hf solubility is restricted in apatite, monazite (< 0.1 f.u.), but is {approximately} 0.2 and 0.5 f.u. in brannerite and titanite, respectively. Gd solubility is extended in all phases except for titanite ({approximately} 0.3 f.u.). U5+ was identified by DRS observations of absorption bands in the visible/near infrared photon energy ranges in brannerite and zirconolite, and U4+ in zirconolite was similarly identified.

  14. Oxygen solubility and permeability of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Whitcombe, Michael J; Parker, Roger; Ring, Stephen G

    2005-06-13

    The saturated oxygen concentration in a series of aqueous solutions of sorbitol (up to 35% w/w) and maltitol (up to 50% w/w) was measured using colorimetric reagent vials based on Rhodazine D. The results indicate that the solubility of oxygen in low-water carbohydrates is considerably lower than its solubility in pure water. It was concluded that the low-oxygen solubility is a major factor contributing to the barrier properties of low-water content carbohydrates used in the encapsulation of flavours, lipids, peptides and other oxidisable species.

  15. 40 CFR 35.148 - Award limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitations. 35.148 Section 35.148 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) §...

  16. 40 CFR 35.348 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.348 Section 35.348 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pollution Prevention State Grants (section 6605) § 35.348...

  17. 40 CFR 35.668 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.668 Section 35.668 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Pollution Prevention Grants (section 6605) § 35.668...

  18. 40 CFR 35.148 - Award limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award limitations. 35.148 Section 35.148 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) §...

  19. 40 CFR 35.668 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.668 Section 35.668 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Pollution Prevention Grants (section 6605) § 35.668...

  20. 40 CFR 35.348 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.348 Section 35.348 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pollution Prevention State Grants (section 6605) § 35.348...

  1. 40 CFR 35.668 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Pollution Prevention Grants (section 6605) § 35.668 Award limitation. If the Pollution Prevention Grant funds are included in a Performance Partnership Grant, the...

  2. 40 CFR 35.348 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pollution Prevention State Grants (section 6605) § 35.348 Award limitation. If a State includes a Pollution Prevention State Grant in a Performance Partnership Grant, the...

  3. 40 CFR 35.668 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Pollution Prevention Grants (section 6605) § 35.668 Award limitation. If the Pollution Prevention Grant funds are included in a Performance Partnership Grant, the...

  4. 40 CFR 35.348 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pollution Prevention State Grants (section 6605) § 35.348 Award limitation. If a State includes a Pollution Prevention State Grant in a Performance Partnership Grant, the...

  5. 40 CFR 35.9065 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9065 Limitations. (a) Management... the estuary for which the work is proposed. (b) Elements of annual workplans. Annual Work Plans to be prepared by estuary Management Conferences must be reviewed by the Regional Administrator before final...

  6. 40 CFR 35.9065 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9065 Limitations. (a) Management... the estuary for which the work is proposed. (b) Elements of annual workplans. Annual Work Plans to be prepared by estuary Management Conferences must be reviewed by the Regional Administrator before final...

  7. Solid Phospholipid Dispersions for Oral Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs: Investigation Into Celecoxib Incorporation and Solubility-In Vitro Permeability Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Martins, Susana M; Brandl, Martin; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    Celecoxib (CXB) is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug in which its oral bioavailability is limited by poor aqueous solubility. Although a range of formulations aiming to increase the solubility of CXB have been developed, it is not completely understood, whether (1) an increase in CXB solubility leads to a subsequent increase in permeability across intestinal barrier and (2) the presence of bile salts affects the solubility and permeability behavior of CXB formulations. By formulating CXB solid phospholipid (PL) dispersions with various PL-to-drug ratios using freeze drying, the present study illustrated that the enhancement of CXB solubility was not proportionally translated into enhanced permeability; both parameters were highly dependent on the PL-to-drug ratios as well as the dispersion media (i.e., the presence of 3-mM sodium taurocholate). This study highlights the importance of evaluating both, solubility and permeability, and the use of biorelevant medium for testing the candidate-enabling performance of liposomal formulations. Mechanisms at molecular level that may explain the effect of PL formulations on the permeability of CXB are also discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Protein recovery from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybean.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kerry A; Glatz, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous oil extraction from soybean is a "green" alternative to hexane extraction that must realize potential revenues from a value-added protein co-product. Three technologies were investigated to recover protein from the skim fraction of an aqueous extraction process. Ultrafiltration achieved overall protein yields between 60% and 64%, with solids protein content of 70%, and was effective in reducing stachyose content, with fluxes between 4 and 10 L/m(2) hr. Protein content was limited because of high retention of lipids and the loss of polypeptides below 13.6 kDa. Isoelectric precipitation was effective in recovering the minimally hydrolyzed proteins of skim, with a protein content of 70%, again limited by lipid content. However, protein recovery was only 30% because of the greater solubility of the hydrolyzed proteins. Recovery by the alternative of protein capture on dextran-grafted agarose quaternary-amine expanded bed adsorption resins decreased with decreasing polypeptide molecular weight. Proteins with molecular mass greater than 30 kDa exhibited slow adsorption rates. Expanded bed adsorption was most effective for recovery of proteins with molecular weight between 30 and 12 kDa. Overall, adsorption protein yields were between 14% and 17%.

  9. Effect of Cyclodextrin Types and Co-Solvent on Solubility of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    PubMed Central

    Charumanee, Suporn; Okonogi, Siriporn; Sirithunyalug, Jakkapan; Wolschann, Peter; Viernstein, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the solubility of piroxicam (Prx) depending on the inclusion complexation with various cyclodextrins (CDs) and on ethanol as a co-solvent. The phase-solubility method was applied to determine drug solubility in binary and ternary systems. The results showed that in systems consisting of the drug dissolved in ethanol–water mixtures, the drug solubility increased exponentially with a rising concentration of ethanol. The phase solubility measurements of the drug in aqueous solutions of CDs, β-CD and γ-CD exhibited diagrams of AL-type, whereas 2,6-dimethyl-β-CD revealed AP-type. The destabilizing effect of ethanol as a co-solvent was observed for all complexes regardless of the CD type, as a consequence of it the lowering of the complex formation constants. In systems with a higher concentration of ethanol, the drug solubility was increased in opposition to the decreasing complex formation constants. According to this study, the type of CDs played a more important role on the solubility of Prx, and the use of ethanol as a co-solvent exhibited no synergistic effect on the improvement of Prx solubility. The Prx solubility was increased again due to the better solubility in ethanol. PMID:27763573

  10. Plasma Soluble Prion Protein, a Potential Biomarker for Sport-Related Concussions: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Nam; Akonasu, Hungbo; Shishkin, Rhonda; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2015-01-01

    Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrPC) as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI) in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrPC in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrPC in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrPC is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making. PMID:25643046

  11. Plasma soluble prion protein, a potential biomarker for sport-related concussions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pham, Nam; Akonasu, Hungbo; Shishkin, Rhonda; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2015-01-01

    Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI) in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrP(C) in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrP(C) in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrP(C) is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making.

  12. Use of amino acids as counterions improves the solubility of the BCS II model drug, indomethacin.

    PubMed

    ElShaer, Amr; Khan, Sheraz; Perumal, Dhaya; Hanson, Peter; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2011-07-01

    The number of new chemical entities (NCE) is increasing every day after the introduction of combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening to the drug discovery cycle. One third of these new compounds have aqueous solubility less than 20µg/mL [1]. Therefore, a great deal of interest has been forwarded to the salt formation technique to overcome solubility limitations. This study aims to improve the drug solubility of a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II (BCS II) model drug (Indomethacin; IND) using basic amino acids (L-arginine, L-lysine and L-histidine) as counterions. Three new salts were prepared using freeze drying method and characterised by FT-IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)HNMR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of pH on IND solubility was also investigated using pH-solubility profile. Both arginine and lysine formed novel salts with IND, while histidine failed to dissociate the free acid and in turn no salt was formed. Arginine and lysine increased IND solubility by 10,000 and 2296 fold, respectively. An increase in dissolution rate was also observed for the novel salts. Since these new salts have improved IND solubility to that similar to BCS class I drugs, IND salts could be considered for possible waivers of bioequivalence.

  13. Hansen solubility parameter as a tool to predict cocrystal formation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2011-04-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the miscibility of a drug and coformer, as predicted by Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs), can indicate cocrystal formation and guide cocrystal screening. It was also our aim to evaluate various HSPs-based approaches in miscibility prediction. HSPs for indomethacin (the model drug) and over thirty coformers were calculated according to the group contribution method. Differences in the HSPs between indomethacin and each coformer were then calculated using three established approaches, and the miscibility was predicted. Subsequently, differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the experimental miscibility and cocrystal formation. The formation of cocrystals was also verified using liquid-assisted grinding. All except one of the drug-coformers that were predicted to be miscible were confirmed experimentally as miscible. All tested theoretical approaches were in agreement in predicting miscibility. All systems that formed cocrystals were miscible. Remarkably, two new cocrystals of indomethacin were discovered in this study. Though it may be necessary to test this approach in a wide range of different coformer and drug compound types for accurate generalizations, the trends with tested systems were clear and suggest that the drug and coformer should be miscible for cocrystal formation. Thus, predicting the miscibility of cocrystal components using solubility parameters can guide the selection of potential coformers prior to exhaustive cocrystal screening work.

  14. 10 CFR 800.302 - Loan limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  15. 10 CFR 800.302 - Loan limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan limitation. 800.302 Section 800.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.302 Loan limitation. The Secretary may limit the loan...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan limitation. 800.302 Section 800.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.302 Loan limitation. The Secretary may limit the loan...

  17. 10 CFR 800.302 - Loan limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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  19. 44 CFR 11.72 - Time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time limitations. 11.72... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.72 Time limitations. (a) A claim under... after it accrues; (2) or if it cannot be filed within the time limits of paragraph (a)(1) of this...

  20. 44 CFR 11.72 - Time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time limitations. 11.72... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.72 Time limitations. (a) A claim under... after it accrues; (2) or if it cannot be filed within the time limits of paragraph (a)(1) of this...