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Sample records for assist solubility limits

  1. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    products, complex stability constants, and redox potentials for radionuclides in different oxidation states, form the underlying database to be used for those calculations. The potentially low solubilities of many radionuclides in natural waters constitute the first barrier for their migration from the repository into the environment. Evaluation of this effect requires a knowledge of the site-specific water chemistry and the expected spatial and temporal ranges of its variability. Quantitative determinations of radionuclide solubility in waters within the range of chemistry must be made. Speciation and molecular complexation must be ascertained to interpret and apply solubility results. The solubilities thus determined can be used to assess the effectiveness of solubility in limiting radionuclide migration. These solubilities can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of other retardation processes expected to occur once dissolution of the source material and migration begin. Understanding the solubility behavior of radionuclides will assist in designing valuable sorption experiments that must be conducted below the solubility limit since only soluble species participate in surface reactions and sorption processes. The present strategy for radionuclide solubility tasks has been to provide a solubility model from bulk-experiments that attempt to bracket the estimate made for this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) of water conditions on site. The long-term goal must be to develop a thermodynamic database for solution speciation and solid-state determination as a prerequisite for transport calculations and interpretation of empirical solubility data. The model has to be self-consistent and tested against known solubility studies in order to predict radionuclide solubilities over the continuous distribution ranges of potential water compositions for performance assessment of the site. Solubility studies upper limits for radionuclide concentrations in natural waters. The

  2. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  3. Ionic liquid-assisted transdermal delivery of sparingly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Tahara, Yoshiro; Tamura, Miki; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    We report the first successful application of a novel IL-assisted non-aqueous microemulsion stabilized by a blend of two nontoxic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80), and sorbitan laurate (Span-20) for transdermal delivery of acyclovir, which is insoluble or sparingly soluble in water and most common organic liquids. PMID:20162145

  4. Effervescence Assisted Fusion Technique to Enhance the Solubility of Drugs.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Ali, Raisuddin

    2015-12-01

    The solubility of five poorly soluble drugs was enhanced by using an effervescence assisted solid dispersion (EASD) technique. EASDs were prepared by using modified fusion method. Drug and hydrophilic carrier were melted, and in this molten mixture, effervescence was generated by adding effervescence couple comprising organic acid (citric acid) and carbonic base (sodium bicarbonate). Solubility of drug powders, solid dispersions, and EASDs was determined at 25°C using shake flask method. Atorvastatin calcium, cefuroxime axetil, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, and metronidazole benzoate were estimated using a spectrophotometer at 246, 280, 260, 230, and 232 nm (λ max), respectively. Solubility of atorvastatin calcium (from 100 to 345 μg/ml), cefuroxime axetil (from 441 to 1948 μg/ml), clotrimazole (from 63 to 677 μg/ml), ketoconazole (from 16 to 500 μg/ml), and metronidazole benzoate (from 112 to 208 μg/ml) in EASDs was enhanced by 3.45-, 4.4-, 10.7-, 31.2-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs of drug powder, solid dispersion, and EASDs were compared. Scanning electron micrographs of EASDs showed a uniform distribution of drug particles in the carrier matrix. Morphology (size and shape) of cefuroxime axetil particles was altered in solid dispersion as well as in EASD. EASDs showed better solubility enhancement than conventional solid dispersions. The present technique is better suitable for drugs having a low melting point or melt without charring. Effervescence assisted fusion technique of preparing solid dispersions can be employed for enhancing solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.

  5. Cloud condensation nuclei activation of limited solubility organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff Hartz, Kara E.; Tischuk, Joshua E.; Chan, Man Nin; Chan, Chak K.; Donahue, Neil M.; Pandis, Spyros N.

    The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation of 19 organic species with water solubilities ( Csat) ranging from 10 -4 to 10 2 g solute 100 g -1 H 2O was measured. The organic particles were generated by nebulization of an aqueous or an alcohol solution. Use of alcohols as solvents enables the measurement of low solubility, non-volatile organic CCN activity and reduces the likelihood of residual water in the aerosol. The activation diameter of organic species with very low solubility in water ( Csat<0.3 g 100 g -1 H 2O) is in agreement with Köhler theory using the bulk solubility (limited solubility case) of the organic in water. Many species, including 2-acetylbenzoic acid, aspartic acid, azelaic acid, glutamic acid, homophthalic acid, phthalic acid, cis-pinonic acid, and salicylic acid are highly CCN active in spite of their low solubility (0.3 g 100 g -1 H 2O< Csat<1 g 100 g -1 H 2O), and activate almost as if completely water soluble. The CCN activity of most species is reduced, if the particles are produced using non-aqueous solvents. The existence of the particles in a metastable state at low RH can explain the observed enhancement in CCN activity beyond the levels suggested by their solubility.

  6. 12 CFR 1805.402 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1805.402 Section 1805.402 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Investment Instruments § 1805.402 Assistance limits....

  7. 12 CFR 1807.502 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1807.502 Section 1807.502 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.502 Assistance limits. An eligible Applicant...

  8. 12 CFR 1807.502 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1807.502 Section 1807.502 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.502 Assistance limits. An eligible Applicant...

  9. 12 CFR 1807.502 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1807.502 Section 1807.502 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.502 Assistance limits. An eligible Applicant...

  10. 12 CFR 1807.502 - Assistance limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assistance limits. 1807.502 Section 1807.502 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Leveraging and Commitment Requirement § 1807.502 Assistance limits. An eligible Applicant...

  11. Manipulating electrochemical performance through doping beyond the solubility limit.

    PubMed

    Yatom, Natav; Toroker, Maytal Caspary

    2016-06-28

    Improving water splitting efficiency has been the holy grail of hydrogen fuel production. Major efforts have been invested in an attempt to enhance efficiency of a common water oxidation catalyst, α-Fe2O3, through doping and alloying. Recent experiments show that higher efficiency is achieved when niobium (Nb) is added beyond the solubility limit to generate a mixture of two phases: Nb-doped and Nb-alloyed α-Fe2O3. In order to understand why adding high concentrations of Nb is beneficial, we provide a thorough first principles study of the bulk and the surface of pure, Nb-doped, and Nb-alloyed α-Fe2O3 with several surface facets and terminations. We find that the addition of Nb changes the band edge and Fermi level positions. Therefore, we propose a mechanism by which having different Nb doping levels within and above the solubility limit has an advantage: electrons and holes could separate better between doped and alloyed regions that have different band edge positions or between regions with different doping concentrations. Furthermore, the holes' driving force to oxidize water can be increased by placing on the surface the undoped or alloyed phases, since they have a lower valence band maximum. We suggest that obtaining two material phases or gradual doping can be used as a design strategy for next generation catalysts. PMID:27080975

  12. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    SciTech Connect

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility limit. The

  13. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that...

  14. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that...

  15. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that...

  16. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that...

  17. 40 CFR 35.3125 - Limitations on SRF assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3125 Limitations on... financing. (e) Water quality management planning. The SRF may provide assistance only to projects that...

  18. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of

  19. 24 CFR 582.115 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitations on assistance. 582.115 Section 582.115 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SHELTER PLUS CARE Assistance Provided § 582.115 Limitations...

  20. 38 CFR 17.158 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on assistance. 17.158 Section 17.158 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.158 Limitations on assistance. (a) An eligible person shall...

  1. 38 CFR 17.158 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on assistance. 17.158 Section 17.158 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.158 Limitations on assistance. (a) An eligible person shall...

  2. 38 CFR 17.158 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on assistance. 17.158 Section 17.158 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.158 Limitations on assistance. (a) An eligible person shall...

  3. 38 CFR 17.158 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on assistance. 17.158 Section 17.158 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.158 Limitations on assistance. (a) An eligible person shall...

  4. 38 CFR 17.158 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitations on assistance. 17.158 Section 17.158 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.158 Limitations on assistance. (a) An eligible person shall...

  5. 20 CFR 628.535 - Limitations on job search assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on job search assistance. 628.535... UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Program Design Requirements for Programs Under Title II of the Job Training Partnership Act § 628.535 Limitations on job search assistance. (a)...

  6. 20 CFR 628.535 - Limitations on job search assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitations on job search assistance. 628.535... UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Program Design Requirements for Programs Under Title II of the Job Training Partnership Act § 628.535 Limitations on job search assistance. (a)...

  7. 20 CFR 628.535 - Limitations on job search assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations on job search assistance. 628.535... UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Program Design Requirements for Programs Under Title II of the Job Training Partnership Act § 628.535 Limitations on job search assistance. (a)...

  8. Determination of the Solubility Limit of Tris(dibenzylideneacetone) Dipalladium(0) in Tetrahydrofuran/Water Mixtures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the solubility limit of a strongly colored organometallic reagent in a mixed-solvent system provides an example of quantitative solubility measurement appropriate to understand polymer, nanoparticle, and other macromolecular aggregation processes. The specific example chosen involves a solution of tris(dibenzylideneacetone)…

  9. 24 CFR 583.150 - Limitations on use of assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitations on use of assistance. 583.150 Section 583.150 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SUPPORTIVE HOUSING PROGRAM Assistance Provided §...

  10. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAM Assistance to Single-Proposer U.S. Businesses § 295.32 Limitations on assistance. (a) The Program... or independent research organization. (b) For proposals submitted to ATP after December 31, 1997, awards to large businesses made under this subpart shall not exceed 40 percent of the total project...

  11. Predicting the solid solubility limit in high-entropy alloys using the molecular orbital approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Saad; Klement, Uta; Guo, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are currently at the research frontier of metallic materials. Understanding the solid solubility limit in HEAs, such a highly concentrated multicomponent alloy system, is scientifically intriguing. It is also technically important to achieve desirable mechanical properties by controlling the formation of topologically or geometrically closed packed phases. Previous approaches to describe the solid solubilities in HEAs could not accurately locate the solubility limit and have to utilize at least two parameters. Here, we propose to use a single parameter, the average energy of d-orbital levels, Md, to predict the solid solubility limit in HEAs. It is found that Md can satisfactorily describe the solid solubilities in fcc structured HEAs containing 3 d transition metals, and also in bcc structured HEAs. This finding will greatly simplify the alloys design and lends more flexibility to control the mechanical properties of HEAs. When 4 d transition metals are alloyed, Md alone cannot describe the solid solubility limit in fcc structured HEAs, due to the large increase of the bond strength that can be gauged by the bond order, Bo. The potential opportunities and challenges with applying the molecular orbital approach to HEAs are discussed.

  12. Kinetics of silver release from microfuel with taking into account the limited-solubility effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. S. Rusinkevich, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of a limited solubility of silver in silicon carbide on silver release from a microfuel with a TRISO coating is studied. It is shown that a limited solubility affects substantially both concentration profiles and silver release from a microfuel over a broad range of temperatures. A procedure is developed for obtaining fission-product concentration profiles in a microfuel and graphs representing the flow and integrated release of fission products on the basis of data from neutron-physics calculations and results obtained by calculating thermodynamics with the aid of the Ivtanthermo code and kinetics with the aid of the FP-Kinetics code. This procedure takes into account a limited solubility of fission products in protective coatings of microfuel.

  13. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  14. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  15. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  16. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  17. 15 CFR 296.4 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 296.4 Section 296.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  18. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  19. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  20. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  1. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  2. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  3. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  4. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  5. 15 CFR 295.22 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.22 Section 295.22 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  6. 15 CFR 295.32 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on assistance. 295.32 Section 295.32 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED...

  7. Pitfalls in the use of solubility limits for radioactive waste disposal: The case of nickel in sulfidic groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Thoenen, T.

    1999-04-01

    Solubility limitation of radionuclides by solid phases in aqueous environments is a key factor in performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories. Although the modeling of solubility limits is a standard procedure, results are often questionable because the basic data used are either irrelevant, inaccurate, or incomplete. This is illustrated by discussing the potential solubility limitation of Ni in sulfidic groundwaters, which is of some importance to the planned low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository at Wellenberg, Switzerland. Calculated solubility limits for Ni may be in error if a solubility-limiting sulfide mineral is chosen that is irrelevant for the considered geochemical conditions. Solubility data need to be carefully evaluated: In the case of millerite (NiS), the most likely Ni sulfide mineral to form, widely used solubility product constants turn out to be based on crude estimates only, and accurate solubility data are missing. The formation of Ni sulfide complexes may considerably enhance the solubility of Ni. Although reliable complexation constants for Ni sulfide complexes are missing, their neglect may result in a severe underestimation of Ni solubility in sulfidic environments, by analogy with Zn sulfide complexes whose complexation constants are reliably known.

  8. Application of hot melt extrusion for poorly water-soluble drugs: limitations, advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Guo, Zhefei; Li, Yongcheng; Pang, Huishi; Lin, Ling; Liu, Xu; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin

    2014-01-01

    Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a powerful technology to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by producing amorphous solid dispersions. Although the number of articles and patents about HME increased dramatically in the past twenty years, there are very few commercial products by far. The three main obstacles limiting the commercial application of HME are summarized as thermal degradation of heat-sensitive drugs at high process temperature, recrystallization of amorphous drugs during storage and dissolving process, and difficulty to obtain products with reproducible physicochemical properties. Many efforts have been taken in recent years to understand the basic mechanism underlying these obstacles and then to overcome them. This article reviewed and summarized the limitations, recent advances, and future prospects of HME. PMID:23651401

  9. Sonication-Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly for Low Solubility Drug Nanoformulation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana C; Pattekari, Pravin; Jesus, Sandra; Veiga, Francisco; Lvov, Yuri; Ribeiro, António J

    2015-06-10

    Sonication-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly is a nanoencapsulation technique based on the alternate adsorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, enabling the encapsulation of low solubility drugs. In this work, a top-down LbL technique was performed using a washless approach and ibuprofen (IBF) as a model class II drug. For each saturated layer deposition, polyelectrolyte concentration was determined by titration curves. The first layer was constituted by cationic poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), given the IBF negative surface charge, followed by anionic polystyrenesulfonate (PSS). This polyelectrolyte sequence was made up with 2.5, 5.5, and 7.5 bilayer nanoshells. IBF nanoparticles (NPs) coated with 7.5 bilayers of PAH/PSS showed 127.5 ± 38.0 nm of particle size, a PDI of 0.24, and a high zeta potential (+32.7 ± 0.6 mV), allowing for a stable aqueous nanocolloid of the drug. IBF entrapment efficiency of 72.1 ± 5.8% was determined by HPLC quantification. In vitro MTT assay showed that LbL NPs were biocompatible. According to the number of coating layers, a controlled release of IBF from LbL NPs was achieved under simulated intestinal conditions (from 5 h up to 7 days). PAH/PSS-LbL NPs constitute a potential delivery system to improve biopharmaceutical parameters of water low solubility drugs.

  10. Modelling radionuclide speciation and solubility limits in the near-field of a deep repository

    SciTech Connect

    Wanner, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the safety analysis recently reported for a potential Swiss high-level waste repository, radionuclide speciation and solubility limits are calculated for expected granitic groundwater conditions. With the objective of deriving a more realistic description of radionuclide release from the near-field, an investigation has been initiated to quantitatively specify the chemistry of the near-field. In the Swiss case, the main components of the near-field are the glass waste-matrix, a thick cast steel canister horizontally stored in a drift, and a backfill of highly compacted bentonite. Based on available experimental data, an ion-exchange model for sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium has been developed, in order to simulate the reaction of sodium bentonite backfill with groundwater. The model assumes equilibrium with calcite as long as sufficient carbonates remain in the bentonite, as well as quartz saturation. The application of this model to the reference groundwater used in Project Gewaehr 85 results in a significant rise in pH (by up to 3 units) as well as a marked increase in the carbonate concentration. Neptunium and plutonium speciation and solubility limits are calculated for the reference groundwater chemistry gradually altered to that of saturated bentonite water and back again by a water exchange cycle model. The solubility limits estimated in this way generally turn out to be higher for the bentonite water than for the reference groundwater, mainly due to carbonate complexation of the actinide components AnO/sub 2//sup +/ and AnO/sub 2//sup 2 +/. Uncertainties are particularly large for neptunium solubility due to its strong Eh dependence in bentonite water.

  11. Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and total metal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Apak, R.; Hizal, J.; Ustaer, C.

    1999-03-15

    As an alternative to species distribution diagrams (pM vs pH curves in aqueous solution) drawn for a fixed total metal concentration, this work has developed simple linear models for correlating the limiting pH of metal ion solubility -- in equilibrium with the least soluble amorphous metal hydroxide solid phase -- to the total metal concentration. Thus adsorptive metal removal processes in complex systems can be better designed once the limiting pH of heavy metal solubility (i.e., pH{sup *}) in such a complex environment can be envisaged by simple linear equations. pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} (M{sub t} = total metal concentration that can exist in aqueous solution in equilibrium with M(OH){sub 2(s)}) linear curves for uranyl-hydroxide, uranyl-carbonate-hydroxide, and mercuric-chloride-hydroxide simple and mixed-ligand systems and cupric-carbonate-hydroxide complexes in equilibrium with mixed hydroxide solid phases may enable the experimental chemist to distinguish true adsorption (e.g., onto hydrous oxide sorbents) from bulk precipitation removal of the metal and to interpret some anomalous metal fixation data -- usually attributed to pure adsorption in the literature -- with precipitation if the pM{sub t} at the studied pH is lower than that tolerated by pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} curves. This easily predictable pH{sup *} corresponding to a given pM{sub t} may aid the design of desorptive mobilization experiments for certain metals as well as their adsorptive removal with the purpose of simulating metal adsorption and desorption cycles in real complex environments with changing groundwater pH.

  12. Solubility Limits in Lennard-Jones Mixtures: Effects of Disparate Molecule Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Perkyns, John S.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand general effects of the size and energy disparities between macromolecules and solvent molecules in solution, especially for macromolecular constructs self-assembled from smaller molecules, we use the first- and second-order exact bridge diagram extensions of the HNC integral equation theory to investigate single-component, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of Lennard-Jones fluids. For pure fluids, we find that the HNCH3 bridge function integral equation (i.e., exact to third order in density) is necessary to quantitatively predict the pure gas and pure liquid sides of the coexistence region of the phase diagram of the Lennard-Jones fluid. For the mixtures, we find that the HNCH2 bridge function integral equation is sufficient to qualitatively predict solubility in the binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures, up to the nominal solubility limit. The results, as limiting cases, should be useful to several problems, including accurate phase diagram predictions for complex mixtures, design of self-assembling nanostructures via solvent controls, and the solvent contributions to the conformational behavior of macromolecules in complex fluids. PMID:25621892

  13. Solubility Limits in Lennard-Jones Mixtures: Effects of Disparate Molecule Geometries.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kippi M; Perkyns, John S; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2015-07-23

    In order to better understand general effects of the size and energy disparities between macromolecules and solvent molecules in solution, especially for macromolecular constructs self-assembled from smaller molecules, we use the first- and second-order exact bridge diagram extensions of the HNC integral equation theory to investigate single-component, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of Lennard-Jones fluids. For pure fluids, we find that the HNCH3 bridge function integral equation (i.e., exact to third order in density) is necessary to quantitatively predict the pure gas and pure liquid sides of the coexistence region of the phase diagram of the Lennard-Jones fluid. For the mixtures, we find that the HNCH2 bridge function integral equation is sufficient to qualitatively predict solubility in the binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures, up to the nominal solubility limit. The results, as limiting cases, should be useful to several problems, including accurate phase diagram predictions for complex mixtures, design of self-assembling nanostructures via solvent controls, and the solvent contributions to the conformational behavior of macromolecules in complex fluids.

  14. Morphology control of lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles by soluble starch-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaoyong; Xu, Ming; Du, Binglin; Zhu, Huali; Xie, Tian; Wang, Wenhua

    2014-12-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potentially high efficiency cathode material for lithium ion batteries, but the low electronic conductivity and one-dimensional diffusion channel for lithium ions require small particle size and shape control during the synthesis. In this paper, well-crystallized and morphology-controlled LiFePO4 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries is successfully synthesized via a soluble starch-assisted hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 5 h, followed by calcining with phenolic resin at 750 °C for 6 h. In this study, we investigate the effect of five different concentrations of starch solution on controlling morphology of LiFePO4. Interestingly, the nano-sized LiFePO4 particles obtained in 0.075 mol L-1 starch solution exhibit a spheroidal microstructure, while the platelet shape LiFePO4 particles are synthesized in lower or higher concentration of starch solution. The mechanism and process of forming such spheroidal microstructure is discussed. These unique structural and morphological properties of LiFePO4 lead to high specific capacity and stable cycling performance. Analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveals that nano-sized carbon/polyacene coated LiFePO4 cathode materials play an critical role in achieving excellent electrochemical performance.

  15. Physician-assisted death with limited access to palliative care.

    PubMed

    Barutta, Joaquín; Vollmann, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Even among advocates of legalising physician-assisted death, many argue that this should be done only once palliative care has become widely available. Meanwhile, according to them, physician-assisted death should be banned. Four arguments are often presented to support this claim, which we call the argument of lack of autonomy, the argument of existing alternatives, the argument of unfair inequalities and the argument of the antagonism between physician-assisted death and palliative care. We argue that although these arguments provide strong reasons to take appropriate measures to guarantee access to good quality palliative care to everyone who needs it, they do not justify a ban on physician-assisted death until we have achieved this goal. PMID:25614156

  16. Physician-assisted death with limited access to palliative care.

    PubMed

    Barutta, Joaquín; Vollmann, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Even among advocates of legalising physician-assisted death, many argue that this should be done only once palliative care has become widely available. Meanwhile, according to them, physician-assisted death should be banned. Four arguments are often presented to support this claim, which we call the argument of lack of autonomy, the argument of existing alternatives, the argument of unfair inequalities and the argument of the antagonism between physician-assisted death and palliative care. We argue that although these arguments provide strong reasons to take appropriate measures to guarantee access to good quality palliative care to everyone who needs it, they do not justify a ban on physician-assisted death until we have achieved this goal.

  17. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot-micelles.

    SciTech Connect

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Bunge, Scott D.; Gabaldon, John; Fan, Hongyou; Scullin, Chessa; Leve, Erik W.; Wilson, Michael C.; Tallant, David Robert; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-04-01

    We report a simple, rapid approach to synthesize water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent quantum dot (QD) micelles by encapsulation of monodisperse, hydrophobic QDs within surfactant/lipid micelles. Analyses of UV-vis and photo luminescence spectra, along with transmission electron microscopy, indicate that the water-soluble semiconductor QD micelles are monodisperse and retain the optical properties of the original hydrophobic QDs. The QD micelles were shown to be biocompatible and exhibited little or no aggregation when taken up by cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  18. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of water-soluble and biocompatible semiconductor quantum dot-micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hongyou; Leve, Erik W.; Scullin, Chessa; Tallant, David; Wilson, Michael C.; Brinker, C. J.

    2005-04-01

    We report a simple and rapid method to synthesize water-soluble and biocompatible fluorescent quantum dot (QD)-micelles by encapsulation of monodisperse, hydrophobic QDs inside surfactant/lipid micelles. Analysis of UV-vis spectra, transmission electron microscopy, and photo luminescence spectra indicate that the water-soluble semiconductor QD-micelles are monodisperse and retain the optical properties of the original hydrophobic QDs. The QD-micelles were shown to be biocompatible and exhibited little or no aggregation when taken up by cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  19. Tb3+ ion doping into Al2O3: Solubility limit and luminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-11-01

    Tb3+-activated Al2O3 phosphors with a molar ratio of \\text{Al}:\\text{Tb} = (1 - x):x are synthesized by metal organic decomposition (x = 0–0.15) and subsequent calcination at T c = 200–1200 °C for 1 h in air. The material properties of the synthesized phosphors are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) analyses, PL excitation spectroscopy, and luminescence lifetime measurements. At x = 0.015, the metastable phase of γ-Al2O3 is obtained by calcination at T c ∼ 300–1050 °C and a mixture of γ, θ, and α phases at T c ∼ 1050–1150 °C. The high-temperature stable phase of α-Al2O3 is obtained only at T c ≥ 1150 °C. Below T c ∼ 300 °C, the XRD data suggest the formation of boehmite (AlOOH). The solubility limit of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is also clearly determined to be x ∼ 0.015 (1.5%). The PL decay time of the Tb3+ green emission in α-Al2O3 is ∼1.1 ms for x < 0.015 and slowly decreases with further increase in x (Tb3+). The schematic energy-level diagram of Tb3+ in α-Al2O3 is proposed for a better understanding of the present phosphor system. Finally, the temperature dependence of the PL intensity is examined between T = 20 and 450 K, yielding quenching energies of E q ∼ 0.28 eV (α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3).

  20. Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Limits Mitochondrial Damage and Preserves Function Following Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akhnokh, Maria K.; Yang, Feng Hua; Samokhvalov, Victor; Jamieson, Kristi L.; Cho, Woo Jung; Wagg, Cory; Takawale, Abhijit; Wang, Xiuhua; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Seubert, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Myocardial ischemia can result in marked mitochondrial damage leading to cardiac dysfunction, as such identifying novel mechanisms to limit mitochondrial injury is important. This study investigated the hypothesis that inhibiting soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), responsible for converting epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids protects mitochondrial from injury caused by myocardial infarction. Methods: sEH null and WT littermate mice were subjected to surgical occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery or sham operation. A parallel group of WT mice received an sEH inhibitor, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-y1-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (tAUCB; 10 mg/L) or vehicle in the drinking water 4 days prior and 7 days post-MI. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography prior- and 7-days post-surgery. Heart tissues were dissected into infarct, peri-, and non-infarct regions to assess ultrastructure by electron microscopy. Complexes I, II, IV, citrate synthase, PI3K activities, and mitochondrial respiration were assessed in non-infarct regions. Isolated working hearts were used to measure the rates of glucose and palmitate oxidation. Results: Echocardiography revealed that tAUCB treatment or sEH deficiency significantly improved systolic and diastolic function post-MI compared to controls. Reduced infarct expansion and less adverse cardiac remodeling were observed in tAUCB-treated and sEH null groups. EM data demonstrated mitochondrial ultrastructure damage occurred in infarct and peri-infarct regions but not in non-infarct regions. Inhibition of sEH resulted in significant improvements in mitochondrial respiration, ATP content, mitochondrial enzymatic activities and restored insulin sensitivity and PI3K activity. Conclusion: Inhibition or genetic deletion of sEH protects against long-term ischemia by preserving cardiac function and maintaining mitochondrial efficiency. PMID:27375480

  1. 49 CFR 80.5 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... under this part shall not exceed 33 percent of the anticipated eligible project costs, as measured on an aggregate cash (year-of-expenditure) basis. (b) Costs incurred prior to a project sponsor's submission of an application for credit assistance may be considered in calculating eligible project costs only upon...

  2. 49 CFR 80.5 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under this part shall not exceed 33 percent of the anticipated eligible project costs, as measured on an aggregate cash (year-of-expenditure) basis. (b) Costs incurred prior to a project sponsor's submission of an application for credit assistance may be considered in calculating eligible project costs only upon...

  3. Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters to predict drug-nail interactions, which can assist the design of nail medicines.

    PubMed

    Hossin, B; Rizi, K; Murdan, S

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesised that Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) can be used to predict drug-nail affinities. Our aims were to: (i) determine the HSPs (δD, δP, δH) of the nail plate, the hoof membrane (a model for the nail plate), and of the drugs terbinafine HCl, amorolfine HCl, ciclopirox olamine and efinaconazole, by measuring their swelling/solubility in organic liquids, (ii) predict nail-drug interactions by comparing drug and nail HSPs, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of these predictions using literature reports of experimentally-determined affinities of these drugs for keratin, the main constituent of the nail plate and hoof. Many solvents caused no change in the mass of nail plates, a few solvents deswelled the nail, while others swelled the nail to varying extents. Fingernail and toenail HSPs were almost the same, while hoof HSPs were similar, except for a slightly lower δP. High nail-terbinafine HCl, nail-amorolfine HCl and nail-ciclopirox olamine affinities, and low nail-efinaconazole affinities were then predicted, and found to accurately match experimental reports of these drugs' affinities to keratin. We therefore propose that drug and nail Hansen Solubility Parameters may be used to predict drug-nail interactions, and that these results can assist in the design of drugs for the treatment of nail diseases, such as onychomycosis and psoriasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of HSPs in ungual research.

  4. Application of the soluble salt-assisted route to scalable synthesis of ZnO nanopowder with repeated photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yingying; Yu, Leshu; Huang, Heyong; Feng, Yuying; Chen, Dongzhen; Xie, Xin

    2012-02-17

    In this paper, the soluble salt-assisted route has been extended to the low-cost and scalable preparation of ZnO nanostructures via the simple oxidation of Zn-Na2SO4 mixture followed by washing with water. The as-prepared ZnO nanopowders are of nanoscaled size, hexagonal phase, and pure, without being stained by Na2SO4. Their optical band gap is 3.22 eV, exhibiting a red-shift of 0.15 eV in comparison with pure ZnO bulk, and their optical absorbance is strong in the region of 200-400 nm, suggesting their full utilization of most of the UV light in sunlight. The product shows evident photocatalytic activity in degradation of RhB under solar light irradiation, and then its solar light degradation efficiency is close to that under UV irradiation, indicating that there is a possibility of practical application. More importantly, the obtained ZnO nanoparticles, because of the quick precipitation by themselves in solution with no stirring, could be easily recycled without any accessorial means such as high-speed centrifuge. The low-cost and scalable preparation, high photocatalytic activity, and convenient recycling of this ZnO nanomaterial gives it potential in purifying waste water. Hence the interesting results in this study indicate the wide range of the soluble salt-assisted route for the industrial preparation of many other advanced nanomaterials.

  5. Application of the soluble salt-assisted route to scalable synthesis of ZnO nanopowder with repeated photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yingying; Yu, Leshu; Huang, Heyong; Feng, Yuying; Chen, Dongzhen; Xie, Xin

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, the soluble salt-assisted route has been extended to the low-cost and scalable preparation of ZnO nanostructures via the simple oxidation of Zn-Na2SO4 mixture followed by washing with water. The as-prepared ZnO nanopowders are of nanoscaled size, hexagonal phase, and pure, without being stained by Na2SO4. Their optical band gap is 3.22 eV, exhibiting a red-shift of 0.15 eV in comparison with pure ZnO bulk, and their optical absorbance is strong in the region of 200-400 nm, suggesting their full utilization of most of the UV light in sunlight. The product shows evident photocatalytic activity in degradation of RhB under solar light irradiation, and then its solar light degradation efficiency is close to that under UV irradiation, indicating that there is a possibility of practical application. More importantly, the obtained ZnO nanoparticles, because of the quick precipitation by themselves in solution with no stirring, could be easily recycled without any accessorial means such as high-speed centrifuge. The low-cost and scalable preparation, high photocatalytic activity, and convenient recycling of this ZnO nanomaterial gives it potential in purifying waste water. Hence the interesting results in this study indicate the wide range of the soluble salt-assisted route for the industrial preparation of many other advanced nanomaterials.

  6. Potential for radionuclide immobilization in the EBS/NFE: solubility limiting phases for neptunium, plutonium, and uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J. A., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    Retardation and dispersion in the far field of radionuclides released from the engineered barrier system/near field environment (EBS/NFE) may not be sufficient to prevent regulatory limits being exceeded at the accessible environment. Hence, a greater emphasis must be placed on retardation and/or immobilization of radionuclides in the EBS/NFE. The present document represents a survey of radionuclide-bearing solid phases that could potentially form in the EBS/NFE and immobilize radionuclides released from the waste package and significantly reduce the source term. A detailed literature search was undertaken for experimental solubilities of the oxides, hydroxides, and various salts of neptunium, plutonium, and uranium in aqueous solutions as functions of pH, temperature, and the concentrations of added electrolytes. Numerous solubility studies and reviews were identified and copies of most of the articles were acquired. However, this project was only two months in duration, and copies of some the identified solubility studies could not be obtained at short notice. The results of this survey are intended to be used to assess whether a more detailed study of identified low- solubility phase(s) is warranted, and not as a data base suitable for predicting radionuclide solubility. The results of this survey may also prove useful in a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of incorporating chemical additives to the EBS/NFE that will enhance radionuclide immobilization.

  7. Observation of oxide particles below the apparent oxygen solubility limit in tantalum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1973-01-01

    The apparent solubility of oxygen in polycrystalline tantalum as determined by the X-ray diffraction lattice parameter technique is about 1.63 atomic percent at 820 C. However, oxide particles were identified in samples containing as low as 0.5 atomic percent of oxygen. These oxide particles were present at the grain boundaries and within the grains. The number of oxide particles increased with increasing oxygen concentration in tantalum. The presence of oxide particles suggests that the true solubility of oxygen in the polycrystalline tantalum metal is probably significantly lower than that reported in the literature.

  8. Observation of oxide particles below the apparent oxygen solubility limit in tantalum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1974-01-01

    The apparent solubility of oxygen in polycrystalline tantalum as determined by the X-ray diffraction lattice parameter technique is about 1.63 at. pct at 820 C. However, oxide particles were identified in samples containing as low as 0.5 at. pct oxygen. These particles were present at the grain boundaries and within the grains. The number of oxide particles increased with increasing oxygen concentration in tantalum. The presence of oxide particles suggests that the true solubility in the polycrystalline tantalum metal is probably lower than that reported in the literature.

  9. Solubility limits and phase diagrams for fatty alcohols in anionic (SLES) and zwitterionic (CAPB) micellar surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Tzocheva, Sylvia S; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Georgieva, Gergana S; Post, Albert J; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P

    2015-07-01

    By analysis of experimental data, a quantitative theoretical interpretation of the solubility limit of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols in micellar solutions of water-soluble surfactants is presented. A general picture of the phase behavior of the investigated systems is given in the form of phase diagrams. The limited solubility of the fatty alcohols in the micelles of conventional surfactants is explained with the precipitation of their monomers in the bulk, rather than with micelle phase separation. The long chain fatty alcohols (with n=14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms) exhibit an ideal mixing in the micelles of the anionic surfactant sodium laurylethersulfate (SLES) and the zwitterionic surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. Deviations from ideality are observed for the alcohols of shorter chain (n=10 and 12), which can be explained by a mismatch with the longer chains of the surfactant molecules. Using the determined thermodynamic parameters of the systems, their phase diagrams are constructed. Such a diagram consists of four domains, viz. mixed micelles; coexistent micelles and precipitate (dispersed crystallites or droplets); precipitate without micelles, and molecular solution. The four boundary lines intersect in a quadruple point, Q. For ionic surfactants (like SLES), a detailed theory for calculating the boundary lines of the phase diagrams is developed and verified against data for the positions of the kinks in surface tension isotherms. The theory takes into account the electrostatic interactions in the micellar solutions and the effect of counterion binding. The results can be useful for a quantitative interpretation and prediction of the phase behavior of mixed solutions of two (or more) surfactants, one of them being water soluble and forming micelles, whereas the other one has a limited water solubility, but readily forms mixed micelles with the former surfactant.

  10. Limitations to Chronic Right Ventricular Assist Device Support.

    PubMed

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Starling, Randall C; Moazami, Nader

    2016-08-01

    Failure of the right ventricle represents a significant clinical problem and may have different causes, with rates varying between 5% and 50% in patients supported by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). However, treatment options and device development for right ventricular failure (RVF) have significantly lagged behind those for LVADs. Newer technologies designed or adapted for RV support are needed to provide adequate long-term circulatory support. In this review, we discuss (1) the significance of RVF and its physiologic implications, (2) device constraints affecting treatment options for RVF, and (3) implantable VADs potentially available for RV support. PMID:27106620

  11. Challenges and Limitations of Intelligent Ambient Assisted Living Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichert, Reiner

    As a result of changing demographics, residing and being cared for in one's own familiar environment versus in an institutionalised inpatient setting is becoming the more attractive alternative for an ever increasing portion of the population. Despite its tremendous market potential, the AAL (Ambient Assisted Living) branch is still on the cusp of a mainstream breakthrough. A lack of viable business models is considered almost unanimously to be the greatest market obstacle to a broad implementation of innovative AAL systems. This paper highlights possible explanations for this deficit and shows why the AAL community has yet to arrive at joint solutions based on a unified AAL reference platform. Furthermore, this paper describes the enormous potential of AmI and AAL, as the first real opportunity for their success is provided through universAAL and AALOA.

  12. 24 CFR 4.13 - Limitation of assistance subject to section 102(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation of assistance subject to section 102(d). 4.13 Section 4.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD Assistance §...

  13. 24 CFR 4.13 - Limitation of assistance subject to section 102(d).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitation of assistance subject to section 102(d). 4.13 Section 4.13 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD REFORM ACT Accountability in the Provision of HUD Assistance §...

  14. 24 CFR 200.106 - Projects with limited distribution mortgagors and program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Projects with limited distribution mortgagors and program assistance. 200.106 Section 200.106 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  15. Simultaneous separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in isocratic pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography using a methacrylate-based monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2013-06-01

    A method of simultaneous separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins using pressure-assisted CEC with a methacrylate-based capillary monolithic column was developed. In the proposed method, water-soluble vitamins were mainly separated electrophoretically, while fat soluble-ones were separated chromatographically by the interaction with a methacrylate-based monolith. A mixture of six water-soluble and four fat-soluble vitamins was separated simultaneously within 20 min with an isocratic elution using 1 M formic acid (pH 1.9)/acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) containing 10 mM ammonium formate as a mobile phase. When the method was applied to a commercial multivitamin tablet and a spiked one, the vitamins were successfully analyzed, and no influence of the matrix contained in the tablet was observed.

  16. Phase diagram, solubility limit and hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in binary solvents with ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Le, Kim Anh; Rudaz, Cyrielle; Budtova, Tatiana

    2014-05-25

    Cellulose solubility phase diagrams in two binary solvents based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) mixed with water and with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were built. The minimal amount of EmimAc molecules needed to dissolve cellulose is 2.5-3moles per anhydroglucose unit. This proportion allows calculation of the maximal cellulose concentration soluble in EmimAc-DMSO at any composition; in EmimAc it is around 25-27wt%. Water forms hydrogen bonds with EmimAc and thus competes with cellulose for ionic liquid; the solubility of cellulose in EmimAc-water is much lower than that in EmimAc-DMSO. Hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in two solvent systems were compared. In EmimAc-DMSO cellulose intrinsic viscosity practically does not depend on DMSO content as predicted by the phase diagram. The intrinsic viscosity in EmimAc-water first increases with water content due to cellulose self-aggregation and then abruptly decreases due to coagulation. PMID:24708976

  17. Low aqueous solubility of 11-cis-retinal limits the rate of pigment formation and dark adaptation in salamander rods.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Rikard; Boyer, Nicholas P; Nickle, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Kalyan S; Koutalos, Yiannis; Crouch, Rosalie K; Oprian, Daniel; Cornwall, M Carter

    2012-06-01

    We report experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the aqueous solubility of 11-cis-retinoids plays a significant role in the rate of visual pigment regeneration. Therefore, we have compared the aqueous solubility and the partition coefficients in photoreceptor membranes of native 11-cis-retinal and an analogue retinoid, 11-cis 4-OH retinal, which has a significantly higher solubility in aqueous medium. We have then correlated these parameters with the rates of pigment regeneration and sensitivity recovery that are observed when bleached intact salamander rod photoreceptors are treated with physiological solutions containing these retinoids. We report the following results: (a) 11-cis 4-OH retinal is more soluble in aqueous buffer than 11-cis-retinal. (b) Both 11-cis-retinal and 11-cis 4-OH retinal have extremely high partition coefficients in photoreceptor membranes, though the partition coefficient of 11-cis-retinal is roughly 50-fold greater than that of 11-cis 4-OH retinal. (c) Intact bleached isolated rods treated with solutions containing equimolar amounts of 11-cis-retinal or 11-cis 4-OH retinal form functional visual pigments that promote full recovery of dark current, sensitivity, and response kinetics. However, rods treated with 11-cis 4-OH retinal regenerated on average fivefold faster than rods treated with 11-cis-retinal. (d) Pigment regeneration from recombinant and wild-type opsin in solution is slower when treated with 11-cis 4-OH retinal than with 11-cis-retinal. Based on these observations, we propose a model in which aqueous solubility of cis-retinoids within the photoreceptor cytosol can place a limit on the rate of visual pigment regeneration in vertebrate photoreceptors. We conclude that the cytosolic gap between the plasma membrane and the disk membranes presents a bottleneck for retinoid flux that results in slowed pigment regeneration and dark adaptation in rod photoreceptors.

  18. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Hromádková, Z; Ebringerová, A; Valachovic, P

    2002-01-01

    The insoluble plant residues, obtained after preparation of medicinal tinctures from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction with aqueous ethanol in a pilot plant, were subsequently treated with hot water to isolate the accessible polysaccharide cell wall components. At almost equal amounts of the hot-water extractable material, the yields of the recovered polysaccharides were lower in the ultrasonical experiment. This is due to the fact that a part of accessible polysaccharides were already solubilised by the aqueous ethanol and recoverable from the medicinal tincture. Therefore, the net yield of extracted polysaccharides was enhanced in the ultrasonical procedure. This fact as well as the sugar composition and structural features of the isolated polysaccharides suggest that ultrasonication have attacked the integrity of cell walls, released and degraded its most accessible polysaccharides (pectic polysaccharides and starch) and increased also the extractibility of its less accessible components--xylan, mannan and glucan. The water-soluble polysaccharide fractions from both the conventional and ultrasonical experiments exhibit significant immunostimulatory activities in mitogenic and comitogenic thymocyte tests. PMID:11602994

  19. Practical limitations of the slope assisted BOTDA method in dynamic strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minardo, A.; Catalano, E.; Zeni, L.

    2016-05-01

    By analyzing the operation of the slope assisted Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis (BOTDA) method, it comes out that the acquisition rate is practically limited by two fundamental factors: the polarization scrambling frequency and the phase noise from the laser. As regards polarization scrambling, we show experimentally that the scrambling frequency poses a limit on the maximum acquisition rate for a given averaging factor. As regards phase noise, we show numerically and experimentally that the slope assisted method is particularly sensitive to the laser phase noise, due to the specific positioning of the pump-probe frequency shift on the Brillouin Gain Spectrum (BGS).

  20. Performance limits for smooth-wall, gravity-assisted heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, F.C.; Kemme, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Performance limits for vertical, smooth-wall heat pipes were obtained from experiments performed at the IKE of the University of Stuttgart and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data are correlated with parameters derived from flooding in countercurrent, two-phase flows. Tests using smooth-walled, wickless heat pipes demonstrate the applicability of two-phase flow correlations for predicting performance limits in gravity-assisted heat pipes.

  1. Performance limits for smooth-wall gravity-assisted heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, F.C.; Kemme, J.E.; Groll, M.; Spendel, T.

    1983-01-01

    Performance limits for vertical, smooth-wall heat pipes were obtained from experiments performed at the IKE of the University of Stuttgart and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data are correlated with parameters derived from flooding in countercurrent, two-phase flows. Tests using smooth-walled, wickless heat pipes demonstrate the applicability of two-phase flow correlations for predicting performance limits in gravity-assisted heat pipes.

  2. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  3. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  4. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  5. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  6. 38 CFR 21.9510 - Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims, VA's duty to assist, and time limits. 21.9510 Section 21.9510 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Claims...

  7. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for national endorsement as assistant engineer (limited) of steam, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assistant engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522... requirements for national endorsement as assistant engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine... engineer (limited) of steam, motor, and/or gas turbine-propelled vessels is 3 years of service in...

  8. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance Grant funds? 286.55 Section 286.55 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  9. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss?☆

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  10. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.522 Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of... assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in...

  11. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.522 Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of... assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in...

  12. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.522 Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of... assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in...

  13. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the

  14. A technique for obtaining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of poorly soluble and insoluble aromatic polyamides.

    PubMed

    Gies, Anthony P; Nonidez, William K

    2004-04-01

    Wet grinding methods for obtaining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of poorly soluble and insoluble low molecular mass oligomers (<4600 Da) of Nomex and Kevlar are described. Optimum conditions for sample preparation are given along with a detailed analysis of the spectra obtained. Two matrix materials were employed in this analysis, 1,8-dihydroxyanthrone (dithranol) and 3-aminoquinoline with potassium trifluoroacetate used as the cationizing agent. The spectra obtained in this study are sensitive to the matrix, molar mixing ratios of matrix/polymer/cationizing agent, and the sample preparation method. PMID:15053662

  15. Chaperone-Assisted Soluble Expression of a Humanized Anti-EGFR ScFv Antibody in E. Coli

    PubMed Central

    Veisi, Kamal; Farajnia, Safar; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Khoram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Samadi, Nasser; Ahdi Khosroshahi, Shiva; Zarei Jaliani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Formation of inclusion bodies is a considerable obstacle threatening the advantages of E. coli expression system to serve as the most common and easiest system in recombinant protein production. To solve this problem, several strategies have been proposed among which application of molecular chaperones is of remarkable consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of molecular chaperones on soluble expression of aggregation-prone humanized single chain antibody. Methods: To increase the solubility of a humanized single chain antibody (hscFv), different chaperone plasmids including PG-tf2 (GroES- GroEL- tig), ptf16 (tig) and pGro7 (GroES- GroEL) were co-expressed in BL21 cells containing pET-22b- hscFv construct. The solubility of recombinant hscFv was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. After purification of soluble hscFv by Ni-NTA column, the biological activity and cytotoxicity of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and MTT assay, respectively. Results: SDS-PAGE analysis of the hscFv revealed that chaperone utility remarkably increased (up to 50%) the solubility of the protein. ELISA test and MTT assay analyses also confirmed the biological activity of the gained hscFv in reaction with A431 cells (OD value: 2.6) and inhibition of their proliferation, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that co-expression of chaperones with hscFv leads to remarkable increase in the solubility of the recombinant hscFv, which could be of great consideration for large scale production of recombinant single chain antibodies. PMID:26793607

  16. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation rate? 286.105... vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation... 12 months. (b) There are two limitations concerning job search and job readiness: (1) Job search...

  17. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation rate? 286.105... vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation... 12 months. (b) There are two limitations concerning job search and job readiness: (1) Job search...

  18. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation rate? 286.105... vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation... 12 months. (b) There are two limitations concerning job search and job readiness: (1) Job search...

  19. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation rate? 286.105... vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation... 12 months. (b) There are two limitations concerning job search and job readiness: (1) Job search...

  20. 45 CFR 286.105 - What limitations concerning vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation rate? 286.105... vocational education, job search and job readiness assistance exist with respect to the work participation... 12 months. (b) There are two limitations concerning job search and job readiness: (1) Job search...

  1. Determination of the solubility of low volatility liquid organic compounds in water using volatile-tracer assisted headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Barnes, Donald G

    2016-02-26

    This study reports a new headspace gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for the determination of water solubility of low volatility liquid organic compounds (LVLOs). The HS-GC analysis was performed on a set of aqueous solutions containing a range of concentrations of toluene-spiked (as a tracer) LVLOs, from under-saturation to over-saturation. A plot of the toluene tracer GC signal vs. the concentration of the LVLO results in two lines of different slopes that intersect at the concentration corresponding to the compound's solubility in water. The results showed that the HS-GC method has good precision (RSD <6.3%) and good accuracy, in which the relative deference between the data measured by the HS-GC method and the reference method were within 6.0%. The HS-GC method is simple and particularly suitable for measuring the solubility of LVLOs at elevated temperatures. This approach should be of special interest to those concerned about the impact of the presence of low-volatility organic liquids in waters of environmental and biological systems. PMID:26850316

  2. Determination of the solubility of low volatility liquid organic compounds in water using volatile-tracer assisted headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Barnes, Donald G

    2016-02-26

    This study reports a new headspace gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for the determination of water solubility of low volatility liquid organic compounds (LVLOs). The HS-GC analysis was performed on a set of aqueous solutions containing a range of concentrations of toluene-spiked (as a tracer) LVLOs, from under-saturation to over-saturation. A plot of the toluene tracer GC signal vs. the concentration of the LVLO results in two lines of different slopes that intersect at the concentration corresponding to the compound's solubility in water. The results showed that the HS-GC method has good precision (RSD <6.3%) and good accuracy, in which the relative deference between the data measured by the HS-GC method and the reference method were within 6.0%. The HS-GC method is simple and particularly suitable for measuring the solubility of LVLOs at elevated temperatures. This approach should be of special interest to those concerned about the impact of the presence of low-volatility organic liquids in waters of environmental and biological systems.

  3. Development of Communication Assistive Technology for Persons with Deaf-Blindness and Physical Limitation.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takuro; Watanabe, Takashi; Takahashi, Kiriko; Doi, Kouki; Fukuda, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a system that will provide communication assistance to persons with deaf-blindness and physical limitation, so that they will be able to communicate with others without the help of an interpreter. With this communication system, a person with deaf-blindness and physical limitation uses a control switch to perform input operations based on the duration of the operating time and combination of long and short pulses. When the input is correctly performed, the user receives a feedback from the tablet computer as vibratory stimuli. Similarly, the message that other person's input with a Bluetooth keyboard is transmitted to the user as vibration stimuli. Following the development, we conducted a one-year assessment of the developed communication system in an actual environment with the cooperation of one person with deaf-blindness and physical limitation. . We confirmed that our developed system was useful for such a person, and understood that we must improve upon several aspects. We shall pursue further study, and will aim at providing a better communication environment for persons with deaf-blindness and physical limitation in future. PMID:26294595

  4. Preparation and physicochemical properties of soluble dietary fiber from orange peel assisted by steam explosion and dilute acid soaking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Honggao; Yuan, Fang; Fan, Rui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-10-15

    The coupled pretreatment of orange peel with steam explosion (SE) and sulfuric-acid soaking (SAS) was investigated to enhance the yield and improve the functionality of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). When orange peel was pretreated by SE at 0.8MPa for 7 min, combined with 0.8% SAS, the content of SDF was increased from 8.04% to 33.74% in comparison to the control and SDF prepared with SE-SAS showed the high water solubility, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, swelling capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability and foam stability. SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher binding capacity for three toxic cations (Pb, As and Cu) and smaller molecular weight (Mw = 174 kDa). Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement showed that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS had a higher peak temperature (170.7 ± 0.4 °C) than that of the untreated sample (163.4 ± 0.3 °C). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images demonstrated that the surface of SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS was rough and collapsed. It can be concluded that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS has the higher potential to be applied as a functional ingredient in food products.

  5. Preparation and physicochemical properties of soluble dietary fiber from orange peel assisted by steam explosion and dilute acid soaking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Honggao; Yuan, Fang; Fan, Rui; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-10-15

    The coupled pretreatment of orange peel with steam explosion (SE) and sulfuric-acid soaking (SAS) was investigated to enhance the yield and improve the functionality of soluble dietary fiber (SDF). When orange peel was pretreated by SE at 0.8MPa for 7 min, combined with 0.8% SAS, the content of SDF was increased from 8.04% to 33.74% in comparison to the control and SDF prepared with SE-SAS showed the high water solubility, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, swelling capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability and foam stability. SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher binding capacity for three toxic cations (Pb, As and Cu) and smaller molecular weight (Mw = 174 kDa). Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement showed that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS had a higher peak temperature (170.7 ± 0.4 °C) than that of the untreated sample (163.4 ± 0.3 °C). Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images demonstrated that the surface of SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS was rough and collapsed. It can be concluded that SDF from orange peel treated by SE-SAS has the higher potential to be applied as a functional ingredient in food products. PMID:25952845

  6. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  7. Conception and limits of robust perceptual hashing: towards side information assisted hash functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshynovskiy, Sviatoslav; Koval, Oleksiy; Beekhof, Fokko; Pun, Thierry

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we consider some basic concepts behind the design of existing robust perceptual hashing techniques for content identification. We show the limits of robust hashing from the communication perspectives as well as propose an approach that is able to overcome these shortcomings in certain setups. The consideration is based on both achievable rate and probability of error. We use the fact that most robust hashing algorithms are based on dimensionality reduction using random projections and quantization. Therefore, we demonstrate the corresponding achievable rate and probability of error based on random projections and compare with the results for the direct domain. The effect of dimensionality reduction is studied and the corresponding approximations are provided based on the Johnson-Lindenstrauss lemma. Side-information assisted robust perceptual hashing is proposed as a solution to the above shortcomings.

  8. Solubility as a limiting factor for expression of hepatitis A virus proteins in insect cell-baculovirus system

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Haroldo Cid; Pestana, Cristiane Pinheiro; Galler, Ricardo; Medeiros, Marco Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative model to inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The present study aimed to express the VP1 protein of HAV in baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). The VP1 was expressed intracellularly with molecular mass of 35 kDa. The VP1 was detected both in the soluble fraction and in the insoluble fraction of the lysate. The extracellular expression of VP1 was also attempted, but the protein remained inside the cell. To verify if hydrophobic characteristics would also be present in the HAV structural polyprotein, the expression of P1-2A protein was evaluated. The P1-2A polyprotein remained insoluble in the cellular extract, even in the early infection stages. These results suggest that HAV structural proteins are prone to form insoluble aggregates. The low solubility represents a drawback for production of large amounts of HAV proteins in BEVS. PMID:27581123

  9. Solubility as a limiting factor for expression of hepatitis A virus proteins in insect cell-baculovirus system.

    PubMed

    Silva, Haroldo Cid da; Pestana, Cristiane Pinheiro; Galler, Ricardo; Medeiros, Marco Alberto

    2016-08-01

    The use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative model to inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The present study aimed to express the VP1 protein of HAV in baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). The VP1 was expressed intracellularly with molecular mass of 35 kDa. The VP1 was detected both in the soluble fraction and in the insoluble fraction of the lysate. The extracellular expression of VP1 was also attempted, but the protein remained inside the cell. To verify if hydrophobic characteristics would also be present in the HAV structural polyprotein, the expression of P1-2A protein was evaluated. The P1-2A polyprotein remained insoluble in the cellular extract, even in the early infection stages. These results suggest that HAV structural proteins are prone to form insoluble aggregates. The low solubility represents a drawback for production of large amounts of HAV proteins in BEVS. PMID:27581123

  10. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil..., and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil... including, but not limited to, agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil, carboxymethylcellulose...

  11. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil..., and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil... including, but not limited to, agar, alginic acid, calcium polycarbophil, carboxymethylcellulose...

  12. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  13. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  14. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  15. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  16. 45 CFR 261.34 - Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Are there any limitations in counting job search and job readiness assistance toward the participation rates? 261.34 Section 261.34 Public Welfare... Work Activities and How Do They Count? § 261.34 Are there any limitations in counting job search...

  17. Docking Prediction of a Water Soluble Porphyrin and Tubulin Assisted with Resonance Raman and Vibrational Mode Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMicken, Brady; Brancaleon, Lorenzo; Thomas, Robert; Parker, James

    2015-03-01

    The ability to modify protein conformation by controlling its partial unfolding may have practical applications such as diminishing its function or blocking its activity. One method used to induce partial unfolding of a protein involves the use of a photosensitizer non-covalently bound to a protein that triggers photochemical reactions upon irradiation leading to protein conformational changes. We are investigating the photoinduced conformational changes of tubulin mediated by a bound water-soluble porphyrin that acts as a photosensitizer. Analysis of how tubulin conformational changes affect its function including polymeric assembly forming microtubules is of interest to uncover the mechanism responsible for the structural change. Our approach to better understand the conformational change, we first plan to discover the binding location between the porphyrin and protein. Use of vibrational mode analysis using density functional theory and resonance Raman experiments targeting the porphyrin molecule will be used to correlate Raman peaks with vibrational modes. The relative intensities of the porphyrin bound to tubulin can be used to calculate the equilibrium geometry observed from Raman spectra. These data will provide the relative distortion of the porphyrin when bound to tubulin, which will subsequently be used in docking simulations to find the most likely binding configuration.

  18. Intelligent Assistive Technology Applications to Dementia Care: Current Capabilities, Limitations, and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Ashok J.; Anand, Vivek; Forlizzi, Jodi; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F.; Stevens, Scott; Wactlar, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The number of older Americans afflicted by Alzheimer disease and related dementias will triple to 13 million persons by 2050, thus greatly increasing healthcare needs. An approach to this emerging crisis is the development and deployment of intelligent assistive technologies that compensate for the specific physical and cognitive deficits of older adults with dementia, and thereby also reduce caregiver burden. The authors conducted an extensive search of the computer science, engineering, and medical databases to review intelligent cognitive devices, physiologic and environmental sensors, and advanced integrated sensor networks that may find future applications in dementia care. Review of the extant literature reveals an overwhelming focus on the physical disability of younger persons with typically nonprogressive anoxic and traumatic brain injuries, with few clinical studies specifically involving persons with dementia. A discussion of the specific capabilities, strengths, and limitations of each technology is followed by an overview of research methodological challenges that must be addressed to achieve measurable progress to meet the healthcare needs of an aging America. PMID:18849532

  19. Determination of fat-soluble vitamins in vegetable oils through microwave-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Silvia; Prats, Soledad; Maestre, Salvador; Todolí, José-Luis

    2015-04-01

    In this manuscript, a study of the effect of microwave radiation on the high-performance liquid chromatography separation of tocopherols and vitamin K1 was conducted. The novelty of the application was the use of a relatively low polarity mobile phase in which the dielectric heating effect was minimized to evaluate the nonthermal effect of the microwave radiation over the separation process. Results obtained show that microwave-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography had a shorter analysis time from 31.5 to 13.3 min when the lowest microwave power was used. Moreover, narrower peaks were obtained; hence the separation was more efficient maintaining or even increasing the resolution between the peaks. This result confirms that the increase in mobile phase temperature is not the only variable for improving the separation process but also other nonthermal processes must intervene. Fluorescence detection demonstrated better signal-to-noise compared to photodiode arrayed detection mainly due to the independent effect of microwave pulses on the baseline noise, but photodiode array detection was finally chosen as it allowed a simultaneous detection of nonfluorescent compounds. Finally, a determination of the content of the vitamin E homologs was carried out in different vegetable oils. Results were coherent with those found in the literature.

  20. Modeling and simulation of oxygen-limited partial nitritation in a membrane-assisted bioreactor (MBR).

    PubMed

    Wyffels, Stijn; Van Hulle, Stijn W H; Boeckx, Pascal; Volcke, Eveline I P; Van Cleemput, Oswald; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Verstraete, Willy

    2004-06-01

    Combination of a partial nitritation process and an anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the treatment of sludge reject water has some general cost-efficient advantages compared to nitrification-denitrification. The integrated process features two-stage autotrophic conversion of ammonium via nitrite to dinitrogen gas with lower demand for oxygen and no external carbon requirement. A nitrifying membrane-assisted bioreactor (MBR) for the treatment of sludge reject water was operated under continuous aeration at low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations with the purpose of generating nitrite accumulation. Microfiltration was applied to allow a high sludge retention time (SRT), resulting in a stable partial nitritation process. During start-up of the MBR, oxygen-limited conditions were induced by increasing the ammonium loading rate and decreasing the oxygen transfer. At a loading rate of 0.9 kg N m(-3) d(-1) and an oxygen concentration below 0.1 mg DO L(-1), conversion to nitrite was close to 50% of the incoming ammonium, thereby yielding an optimal effluent within the stoichiometric requirements for subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation. A mathematical model for ammonium oxidation to nitrite and nitrite oxidation to nitrate was developed to describe the oxygen-limited partial nitritation process within the MBR. The model was calibrated with in situ determinations of kinetic parameters for microbial growth, reflecting the intrinsic characteristics of the ammonium oxidizing growth system at limited oxygen availability and high sludge age. The oxygen transfer coefficient (K(L)a) and the ammonium-loading rate were shown to be the appropriate operational variables to describe the experimental data accurately. The validated model was used for further steady state simulation under different operational conditions of hydraulic retention time (HRT), K(L)a, temperature and SRT, with the intention to support optimized process design. Simulation results indicated that

  1. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... respect to transportation to which 14 CFR part 254 applies, the limits to liability for loss, damage, or... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other...

  2. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... respect to transportation to which 14 CFR Part 254 applies, the limits to liability for loss, damage, or... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other...

  3. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... respect to transportation to which 14 CFR part 254 applies, the limits to liability for loss, damage, or... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other...

  4. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... respect to transportation to which 14 CFR Part 254 applies, the limits to liability for loss, damage, or... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other...

  5. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... respect to transportation to which 14 CFR part 254 applies, the limits to liability for loss, damage, or... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other...

  6. 46 CFR 11.522 - Service requirements for assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels. 11.522 Section 11.522 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... steam and/or motor vessels. The minimum service required to qualify an applicant for endorsement as assistant engineer (limited oceans) of steam and/or motor vessels is three years of service in...

  7. 12 CFR 614.4580 - Limitation on the extension of funding, discount and other similar financial assistance to an OFI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation on the extension of funding, discount and other similar financial assistance to an OFI. 614.4580 Section 614.4580 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Farm Credit Bank and Agricultural Credit Bank Financing of Other...

  8. Determination of solubility limit of Sn(4+) in fluorite structured terbia with simultaneous evaluation of photocatalytic function.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Vikash Kumar; Nagarajan, Rajamani

    2016-07-01

    Although the fluorite structure is highly common among stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric terbia compositions, high pressures are necessary to stabilize SnO2 in the fluorite structure. With this objective, the extent of solubility of Sn(4+) in terbia possessing the fluorite structure has been determined by conducting its synthesis via an epoxide mediated sol-gel method. Up to 40% of Sn(4+) can be incorporated in terbia, which retains its fluorite structure, as concluded from PXRD, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, FESEM, HR-TEM and SAED measurements. The cubic lattice constant decreases systematically, as inferred from successful Rietveld refinements of PXRD patterns. The stretching vibration of the Tb-O bond is manifested as broad band at 734 cm(-1) for the terbia, and moves to lower wavenumber for the tin substituted samples. The broad band at 611 cm(-1) in the Raman spectrum of terbia became even broader with the maxima shifting towards higher values, which indicated the strain of the lattice and generation of oxygen vacancies with progressive tin substitution. The band gap value increased from 1.78 eV for terbia to 2.05 eV for the 40% tin substituted sample. Emission in the blue region became intense upon tin substitution, which was indicative of increased oxygen vacancies and this has been constructively utilized for environmental remediation as a catalyst to degrade aqueous Rhodamine-6G and Methylene Blue dye solutions. PMID:27328282

  9. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably

  10. Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording: Fundamental Limits to Inverse Electromagnetic Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Samarth

    In this dissertation, we address the burgeoning fields of diffractive optics, metals-optics and plasmonics, and computational inverse problems in the engineering design of electromagnetic structures. We focus on the application of the optical nano-focusing system that will enable Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR), a higher density magnetic recording technology that will fulfill the exploding worldwide demand of digital data storage. The heart of HAMR is a system that focuses light to a nano- sub-diffraction-limit spot with an extremely high power density via an optical antenna. We approach this engineering problem by first discussing the fundamental limits of nano-focusing and the material limits for metal-optics and plasmonics. Then, we use efficient gradient-based optimization algorithms to computationally design shapes of 3D nanostructures that outperform human designs on the basis of mass-market product requirements. In 2014, the world manufactured ˜1 zettabyte (ZB), ie. 1 Billion terabytes (TBs), of data storage devices, including ˜560 million magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs). Global demand of storage will likely increase by 10x in the next 5-10 years, and manufacturing capacity cannot keep up with demand alone. We discuss the state-of-art HDD and why industry invented Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) to overcome the data density limitations. HAMR leverages the temperature sensitivity of magnets, in which the coercivity suddenly and non-linearly falls at the Curie temperature. Data recording to high-density hard disks can be achieved by locally heating one bit of information while co-applying a magnetic field. The heating can be achieved by focusing 100 microW of light to a 30nm diameter spot on the hard disk. This is an enormous light intensity, roughly ˜100,000,000x the intensity of sunlight on the earth's surface! This power density is ˜1,000x the output of gold-coated tapered optical fibers used in Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopes

  11. Extraction of α-humulene-enriched oil from clove using ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and studies of its fictitious solubility.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Chi; Xiao, Jianbo; Yang, Yu-Chiao

    2016-11-01

    Clove buds are used as a spice and food flavoring. In this study, clove oil and α-humulene was extracted from cloves using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction with and without ultrasound assistance (USC-CO2 and SC-CO2, respectively) at different temperatures (32-50°C) and pressures (9.0-25.0MPa). The results of these extractions were compared with those of heat reflux extraction and steam distillation methods conducted in parallel. The extracts obtained using these four techniques were analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results demonstrated that the USC-CO2 extraction procedure may extract clove oil and α-humulene from clove buds with better yields and shorter extraction times than conventional extraction techniques while utilizing less severe operating parameters. Furthermore, the experimental fictitious solubility data obtained using the dynamic method were well correlated with density-based models, including the Chrastil model, the Bartle model and the Kumar and Johnston model.

  12. Extraction of α-humulene-enriched oil from clove using ultrasound-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and studies of its fictitious solubility.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming-Chi; Xiao, Jianbo; Yang, Yu-Chiao

    2016-11-01

    Clove buds are used as a spice and food flavoring. In this study, clove oil and α-humulene was extracted from cloves using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction with and without ultrasound assistance (USC-CO2 and SC-CO2, respectively) at different temperatures (32-50°C) and pressures (9.0-25.0MPa). The results of these extractions were compared with those of heat reflux extraction and steam distillation methods conducted in parallel. The extracts obtained using these four techniques were analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results demonstrated that the USC-CO2 extraction procedure may extract clove oil and α-humulene from clove buds with better yields and shorter extraction times than conventional extraction techniques while utilizing less severe operating parameters. Furthermore, the experimental fictitious solubility data obtained using the dynamic method were well correlated with density-based models, including the Chrastil model, the Bartle model and the Kumar and Johnston model. PMID:27211636

  13. Extending resolution of scanning optical microscopy beyond the Abbe limit through the assistance of InSb thin layers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chenliang; Wei, Jingsong; Li, Qisong; Liang, Xin; Wei, Tao

    2016-04-01

    The resolution of light imaging is required to extend beyond the Abbe limit to the subdiffraction, or even nanoscale. In this Letter, we propose to extend the resolution of scanning optical microscopy (SOM) beyond the Abbe limit as a kind of subdiffraction imaging technology through the assistance of InSb thin layers due to obvious nonlinear saturation absorption and reversible formation of an optical pinhole channel. The results show that the imaging resolution is greatly improved compared with the SOM itself. This work provides a way to improve the resolution of SOM without changing the SOM itself, but through the assistance of InSb thin layers. This is also a simple and practical way to extend the resolution of SOM beyond the Abbe limit.

  14. Laser assisted conical spin forming of dual phase automotive steel. Experimental demonstration of work hardening reduction and forming limit extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, P.; Otero, N.; Cabrera, J. M.; Masagué, D.

    Laser Assisted Spin Forming is investigated for improving the poor formability of Advanced High Strength Steel DP-800 and Aeronautic Grade Titanium alloy, with minor or no change in microstructure, final properties improvements and no damage to coating, thanks to controlled energy input and fast thermal cycles. IR imaging and force-torque monitoring are used to characterise the forming process. Residual stress measurement, microstructure, microhardness and EBSD are used to study the formed parts under the combined action of laser and mechanical force. A micromechanism of laser assisted spinning is proposed, as well as advantages and limitations of the technique.

  15. 45 CFR 286.50 - Is there a limit on the percentage of a Tribal Family Assistance Grant that can be used for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is there a limit on the percentage of a Tribal Family Assistance Grant that can be used for administrative costs? 286.50 Section 286.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

  16. "Not Just a Business Transaction": The Logic and Limits of Grandparental Childcare Assistance in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shirley Hsiao-Li

    2008-01-01

    How does the presence of grandparents in the household impact the gendered division of childcare responsibilities between spouses? How does it compare with market-based care? Drawing on in-depth interview data, this study finds that Taiwanese grandparents treat childcare assistance as their moral responsibility. Mothers express more appreciation…

  17. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  18. Pushing the Limits: Making Dance Accessible to Different Bodies through Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Merry Lynn

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I draw critical attention to the assistive mobility devices that individuals who are differently bodied often use in dance and suggest that the dance genre presents the opportunity for reimagining the technological possibilities of these devices and creating more diverse repertoires. As an intervention and example, I describe the…

  19. Research on Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: The Promise and Limitations of Peer-Mediated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcmaster, Kristen L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews research evaluating the effectiveness of Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) for reading. Nearly fifteen years of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of this classwide peer tutoring program in improving the reading performance of high-, average-, and low-performing students, including students with disabilities,…

  20. Physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: German Protestantism, conscience, and the limits of purely ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    Bartmann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this essay I shall describe and analyse the current debate on physician assisted suicide in contemporary German Protestant church and theology. It will be shown that the Protestant (mainly Lutheran) Church in Germany together with her Roman Catholic sister church has a specific and influential position in the public discussion: The two churches counting the majority of the population in Germany among their members tend to "organize" a social and political consensus on end-of-life questions. This cooperation is until now very successful: Speaking with one voice on end-of-life questions, the two churches function as the guardians of a moral consensus which is appreciated even by many non-believers. Behind this joint service to society the lines of the theological debate have to be ree-discovered. First it will be argued that a Protestant reading of the joint memoranda has to be based on the concept of individual conscience. The crucial questions are then: Whose conscience has the authority to decide? and: Can the physician assisted suicide be desired faithfully? Prominent in the current debate are Ulrich Eibach as a strict defender of the sanctity of life, and on the other side Walter Jens and Hans Kung, who argue for a right to physician assisted suicide under extreme conditions. I shall argue that it will be necessary to go beyond this actual controversy to the works of Gerhard Ebeling and Karl Barth for a clear and instructive account of conscience and a theological analysis of the concepts of life and suicide. On the basis of their considerations, a conscience-related approach to physician assisted suicide is developed.

  1. Robotic-assisted, ultrasound-guided abdominal cerclage during pregnancy: overcoming minimally invasive surgery limitations?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Teresa M; Borahay, Mostafa A; Fox, Karin A; Kilic, Gokhan S

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report robotic abdominal cerclage placement under ultrasound guidance. The da Vinci Si system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) allows a simultaneous display of the operative field and transvaginal ultrasound images. Additionally, the vaginal ultrasound probe assisted in the manipulation of the uterus to improve visualization without placing excessive pressure on the gravid uterus. Ultrasound guidance improves needle placement accuracy and reduces potential for injuries.

  2. How old is too old? A contribution to the discussion on age limits for assisted reproduction technique access.

    PubMed

    Kocourková, Jiřina; Konečná, Hana; Burcin, Boris; Kučera, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, the Czech Republic established the women's age limit for access to assisted reproduction techniques at age 49 years. In this paper, the acceptability of this age limit from the children's perspective in the Czech Republic is assessed. Although the necessity of balancing the interests of parents and children is acknowledged, little research has taken children's interests into account. We have attempted to map out 'children's interests', asking older children and adolescents (aged 11-25 years) how old they would prefer their parents to be: Czech respondents would prefer to have younger parents. This finding is consistent with the optimal biological childbearing age rather than with the current postponement to a later age. So far, assisted reproduction techniques have been largely regarded as a medical treatment justifying the current women's age limit of 49 years. Had the children's perspective been taken into account, this age limit might have been lower than 49 years. We propose that reproductive health policy should adequately reflect multiple perspectives as an integral part of a multi-layered support system of a society.

  3. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  4. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  5. Is age the limit for human-assisted reproduction techniques? 'Yes', said an Italian judge.

    PubMed

    Gulino, Matteo; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Frati, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Although use of assisted reproduction techniques was examined by an ad hoc act in 2004 in Italy, there are many opposing views about ethical and economic implications of the technologies dealing with infertility and sterility problems. In this paper, the authors examine a recent judge's decision that ordered the removal and subsequent adoption of a 1-year-old child because her parents were considered too old to be parents. The couple had had recourse to heterologous artificial insemination abroad and decided to give birth in Italy. The judgement deals with and discusses the complex issue of the right to procreate in order to balance the opportunities offered by scientific progress with the unborn child's condition.

  6. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  7. 24 CFR 200.106 - Projects with limited distribution mortgagors and program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care... below-market rents as affordable housing. The increased distribution will be limited to a maximum amount... authorized to retain under section 236(g)(2) of the National Housing Act are not considered distributions...

  8. Retrospective Validation of a Protocol to Limit Unnecessary Transport of Assisted-living Residents Who Fall.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jefferson G; Bachman, Michael W; Jones, A Wooten; Myers, J Brent; Kronhaus, Alan K; Miller, Diane L; Currie, Benjamin; Lyons, Michael; Zalkin, Joseph; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Tibbo-Valeriote, Holly; De Maio, Valerie J

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) often transports patients who suffer simple falls in assisted-living facilities (ALFs). An EMS "falls protocol" could avoid unnecessary transport for many of these patients, while ensuring that patients with time-sensitive conditions are transported. Our objective was to retrospectively validate an EMS protocol to assist decision making regarding the transport of ALF patients with simple falls. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients transported to the emergency department from July 2010 to June 2011 for a chief complaint of "fall" within a subset of ALFs served by a specific primary care group in our urban EMS system (population 900,000). The primary outcome, "time-sensitive intervention" (TSI), was met by patients who had wound repair or fracture, admission to the ICU, OR, or cardiac cath lab, death during hospitalization, or readmission within 48 hours. EMS and primary care physicians developed an EMS protocol, a priori and by consensus, to require transport for patients needing TSI. The protocol utilizes screening criteria, including history and exam findings, to recommend transport versus nontransport with close primary care follow-up. The EMS protocol was retrospectively applied to determine which patients required transport. Protocol performance was estimated using sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value (NPV). Results. Of 653 patients transported across 30 facilities, 644 had sufficient data. Of these, 197 (31%) met the primary outcome. Most patients who required TSI had fracture (73) or wound repair (92). The EMS protocol identified 190 patients requiring TSI, for a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI: 93-98%), specificity of 54% (95% CI: 50-59%), and NPV of 97% (95% CI: 94-99%). Of 7 patients with false negatives, 3 were readmitted (and redischarged) after another fall, 3 sustained hip fractures that were surgically repaired, and 1 had a lumbar compression fracture and was

  9. Sugar-Assisted Glycopeptide Ligation with Complex Oligosaccharides: Scope and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Clay S.; Dean, Stephen M.; Payne, Richard J.; Ficht, Simon; Brik, Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown sugar-assisted ligation (SAL) to be a useful method for the convergent construction of glycopeptides. However to date SAL has only been carried out on systems where the thiol auxiliary is attached to a monosaccharide. For SAL to be truly applicable to the construction of fully elaborated glycopeptides and glycoproteins it must be possible to carry out the reaction when the thiol auxiliary is attached to more elaborate sugars, as these are frequently what are observed in nature. Here we examine the effects of glycosylation at C-3, C-4 and C-6 of the C-2 auxiliary-containing glycan. Model glycopeptides where synthesized chemoenzymatically and reacted with peptide thioesters used in our previous work. These studies reveal that SAL is sensitive to extended glycosylation on the auxiliary-containing sugar. While it is possible to carry out SAL with extended glycosylation at C-4 and C-6, the presence of glycosylation at C-3 prevents the ligation from occurring. Additionally, with glycosylation at C-4 the ligation efficiency is affected by the identity of the N-terminal AA, while the nature of the C-terminal residue of the peptide thioester does not appear affect ligation efficiency. These studies provide useful guidelines in deciding when it is appropriate to use SAL in the synthesis of complex glycopeptides and glycoproteins, and how to design ligation junctions for optimal yield. PMID:18698778

  10. Extending lean operating limit and reducing emissions of methane spark-ignited engines using a microwave-assisted spark plug

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rapp, Vi H.; DeFilippo, Anthony; Saxena, Samveg; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Dibble, Robert W.; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Moon, Ahsa; Ikeda, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Amore » microwave-assisted spark plug was used to extend the lean operating limit (lean limit) and reduce emissions of an engine burning methane-air. In-cylinder pressure data were collected at normalized air-fuel ratios of λ = 1.46, λ = 1.51, λ = 1.57, λ = 1.68, and λ = 1.75. For each λ, microwave energy (power supplied to the magnetron per engine cycle) was varied from 0 mJ (spark discharge alone) to 1600 mJ. At lean conditions, the results showed adding microwave energy to a standard spark plug discharge increased the number of complete combustion cycles, improving engine stability as compared to spark-only operation. Addition of microwave energy also increased the indicated thermal efficiency by 4% at λ = 1.68. At λ = 1.75, the spark discharge alone was unable to consistently ignite the air-fuel mixture, resulting in frequent misfires. Although microwave energy produced more consistent ignition than spark discharge alone at λ = 1.75, 59% of the cycles only partially burned. Overall, the microwave-assisted spark plug increased engine performance under lean operating conditions (λ = 1.68) but did not affect operation at conditions closer to stoichiometric.« less

  11. N-terminal domains of native multidomain proteins have the potential to assist de novo folding of their downstream domains in vivo by acting as solubility enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Woo; Han, Kyoung Sim; Ryu, Ki-Sun; Kim, Byung Hee; Kim, Kyun-Hwan; Choi, Seong Il; Seong, Baik L.

    2007-01-01

    The fusion of soluble partner to the N terminus of aggregation-prone polypeptide has been popularly used to overcome the formation of inclusion bodies in the E. coli cytosol. The chaperone-like functions of the upstream fusion partner in the artificial multidomain proteins could occur in de novo folding of native multidomain proteins. Here, we show that the N-terminal domains of three E. coli multidomain proteins such as lysyl-tRNA synthetase, threonyl-tRNA synthetase, and aconitase are potent solubility enhancers for various C-terminal heterologous proteins. The results suggest that the N-terminal domains could act as solubility enhancers for the folding of their authentic C-terminal domains in vivo. Tandem repeat of N-terminal domain or insertion of aspartic residues at the C terminus of the N-terminal domain also increased the solubility of fusion proteins, suggesting that the solubilizing ability correlates with the size and charge of N-terminal domains. The solubilizing ability of N-terminal domains would contribute to the autonomous folding of multidomain proteins in vivo, and based on these results, we propose a model of how N-terminal domains solubilize their downstream domains. PMID:17384228

  12. The Social and Economic Impact of Sanctions and Time Limits on Recipients of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families

    PubMed Central

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Mancoske, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    A central feature of the reforms enacted through the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (welfare reform) has been the adoption of strategies to involuntarily remove Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients from the welfare rolls, including increased use of sanctions and time limits on welfare receipt. Drawing on data from a three year panel study of women who had been receiving welfare in a state which adopted stringent sanctioning and time limit policies, we investigate predictors of recipients’ TANF status after implementation of welfare reform, and identify differences in post-reform material resources, hardships and quality of life based on TANF status. Almost half of all welfare case closures during the first time period after reforms were implemented through involuntary strategies. Relatively few baseline characteristics predicted different outcomes once welfare time limits and sanctions were implemented. Those who were timed off welfare had substantially lower incomes in the year following their removal. One third of all respondents, regardless of reason for leaving TANF reported having insufficient food, housing problems and lack of access to needed medical care. PMID:18080002

  13. 34 CFR 270.6 - What limitation is imposed on providing race and national origin desegregation assistance under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... national origin desegregation assistance under these programs? 270.6 Section 270.6 Education Regulations of... national origin desegregation assistance under these programs? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a recipient of a grant for race or national origin desegregation assistance under...

  14. 34 CFR 270.6 - What limitation is imposed on providing race and national origin desegregation assistance under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... national origin desegregation assistance under these programs? 270.6 Section 270.6 Education Regulations of... national origin desegregation assistance under these programs? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a recipient of a grant for race or national origin desegregation assistance under...

  15. 34 CFR 270.6 - What limitation is imposed on providing race and national origin desegregation assistance under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... national origin desegregation assistance under these programs? 270.6 Section 270.6 Education Regulations of... national origin desegregation assistance under these programs? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a recipient of a grant for race or national origin desegregation assistance under...

  16. Effects of limit feeding corn or dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 intakes during the growing phase on the performance of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C

    2011-07-01

    Energy density in growing diets may affect carcass quality of cattle; however, few reports have described the impact of energy source. The objectives of this research were to determine effects of source [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) vs. corn] and amount (limit-fed to gain 0.9 vs. 1.4 kg of BW/d) of energy during the growing phase on feedlot performance and marbling. Angus-cross steers (144 head) were blocked by BW (average initial BW = 252 ± 36 kg), allotted within each block to 8 pens (6 steers/pen, 24 pens total), and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 feeding systems in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) 65% DDGS fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d, 2) 65% DDGS fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d, 3) 65% corn fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d, and 4) 65% corn fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d. Fecal grab samples were collected on d 52 of the growing phase to determine digestibility of DM, ADF, NDF, ether extract (EE), and CP. After the 98-d growing phase, all steers were fed the same finishing diet. Steers were slaughtered by pen when average BW within the pen was 544, 522, and 499 kg for the large, medium, and small BW blocks, respectively. Average daily gain and DMI differed (P<0.01) by design during the growing phase. Compared with the corn-based diets, digestibilities of DM, NDF, and EE were decreased (P<0.02) when DDGS-based diets were fed during the growing phase, whereas the digestibility of N was increased (P<0.01). The ADG was greatest (P=0.02) during the finishing phase for steers fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d initially, but source of energy during the growing phase did not affect (P=0.24) finishing phase ADG. Steers fed to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d during the growing phase also had less backfat (P=0.08), decreased USDA yield grades (P=0.03), and greater LM area (P<0.01) than steers fed to gain 1.4 kg of BW/d. There was an interaction between energy source and amount for marbling scores (P=0.02). Steers fed corn-based diets to gain 0.9 kg of BW/d during the growing

  17. Driver assistance system for passive multi-trailer vehicles with haptic steering limitations on the leading unit.

    PubMed

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L; Reina, Antonio J; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers. PMID:23552102

  18. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L.; Reina, Antonio J.; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers. PMID:23552102

  19. Driver assistance system for passive multi-trailer vehicles with haptic steering limitations on the leading unit.

    PubMed

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L; Reina, Antonio J; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  20. Optimization of simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted extraction of water-soluble and fat-soluble characteristic constituents from Forsythiae Fructus Using response surface methodology and high-performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Yang, Bing-You; Liang, Jun; Wang, Di; Yang, Qi; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Background: The compounds (+)-pinoresinol-β-glucoside (1) forsythiaside, (2) phillyrin (3) and phillygenin (4) were elucidated to be the characteristic constituents for quality control of Forsythiae Fructus extract by chromatographic fingerprint in 2010 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia due to their numerous important pharmacological actions. It is of great interest to extract these medicinally active constituents from Forsythiae Fructus simultaneously. Materials and Methods: In this study, a new ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of biological components 1-4 in Forsythiae Fructus. The quantitative effects of extraction time, ratio of liquid to solid, extraction temperature, and methanol concentration on yield of these four important biological constituents from Forsythiae Fructus were investigated using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design. The compounds 1-4 extracted by UAE were quantitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detect (HPLC-PAD), and overall desirability (OD), the geometric mean of the contents of four major biological components, was used as a marker to evaluate the extraction efficiency. Results: By solving the regression equation and analyzing 3-D plots, the optimum condition was at extraction temperature 70°C, time 60 min, ratio of liquid to solid 20, and methanol concentration 76.6%. Under these conditions, extraction yields of compounds 1-4 were 2.92 mg/g, 52.10 mg/g, 0.90 mg/g and 0.57 mg/g, respectively, which were in good agreement with the predicted OD values. In order to achieve a similar yield as UAE, soxhlet extraction required at least 6 h and maceration extraction required much longer time of 24 h. Established UAE method has been successfully applied to sample preparation for the quality control of Forsythiae Fructus. Additionally, a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to the structural confirmation of analytes

  1. The Use of Audio Prompting to Assist Mothers with Limited English Proficiency in Tutoring Their Pre-Kindergarten Children on English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy L.; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore; Wood, Charles L.; Helf, Shawnna

    2009-01-01

    Parents with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) may find it difficult to become involved in their children's education due to their lack of English proficiency. The present study examined the effects of using audio prompting to assist mothers with LEP in teaching their preschool children English vocabulary. Mothers were trained to tutor their…

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of water-soluble, fluorescent gold nanoclusters capped with small organic molecules and a revealing fluorescence and X-ray absorption study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, C.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frank, W.

    2015-03-01

    Colourless solutions of blue light-emitting, water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNC) were synthesized from gold colloids under microwave irradiation using small organic molecules as ligands. Stabilized by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (TPA) or l-glutamine (GLU), fluorescence quantum yields up to 5% were obtained. AuNC are considered to be very promising for biological labelling, optoelectronic devices and light-emitting materials but the structure-property relationships have still not been fully clarified. To expand the knowledge about the AuNC apart from their fluorescent properties they were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidating the oxidation state of the nanoclusters' gold atoms. Based on curve fitting of the XANES spectra in comparison to several gold references, optically transparent fluorescent AuNC are predicted to be ligand-stabilized Au5+ species. Additionally, their near edge structure compared with analogous results of polynuclear clusters known from the literature discloses an increasing intensity of the feature close to the absorption edge with decreasing cluster size. As a result, a linear relationship between the cluster size and the X-ray absorption coefficient can be established for the first time.Colourless solutions of blue light-emitting, water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNC) were synthesized from gold colloids under microwave irradiation using small organic molecules as ligands. Stabilized by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (TPA) or l-glutamine (GLU), fluorescence quantum yields up to 5% were obtained. AuNC are considered to be very promising for biological labelling, optoelectronic devices and light-emitting materials but the structure-property relationships have still not been fully clarified. To expand the knowledge about the AuNC apart from their fluorescent properties they were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidating the oxidation state of the nanoclusters' gold atoms. Based on curve fitting of the XANES

  3. Quantification of surface area and intrinsic mass transfer coefficient for ultrasound-assisted dissolution process of a sparingly soluble solid dispersed in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Durbha, Krishna Sandilya; Aravamudan, Kannan

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of power ultrasound of 20 kHz in enhancing the volumetric mass transfer coefficient was investigated in this study. Breakage and dissolution of sparingly soluble benzoic acid dispersed in either water or 24% aqueous glycerol was monitored as a function of time and ultrasound power input. Particle size measurements were carried out at intermediate times during the experiment to estimate the mean particle size and surface area. Linear combination of lognormal distributions was found to fit the experimental particle size distribution data. The De Brouckere mean diameters (d(43)) obtained from the particle size distributions decreased with increase in the ultrasonic power level. Empirical correlations were developed for the evolution of surface area as a function of ultrasonic energy input per unit mass. The effect of ultrasound on the intrinsic mass transfer coefficient (k(c)) could be decoupled from the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(c)a) as the surface area was also estimated. Different approaches involving either constant or variable intrinsic mass transfer coefficients were employed when carrying out the delineation. Mass transfer rates were enhanced due to both higher ultrasound induced intrinsic convective mass transfer coefficient and additional surface area created from particle breakage. To delineate the effects of particle breakage from solid dissolution, experiments were also carried out under non-mass transfer conditions by pre-saturating the solvents with benzoic acid. Both the solid-liquid systems examined in the present study attained saturation concentration when the ultrasonic energy input per unit mass was approximately 60 kJ/kg, irrespective of the ultrasonic power level setting.

  4. Computer Assisted Instruction for Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gifford L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two computer assisted tutorials, one on acid ionization constants (Ka), and the other on solubility product constants (Ksp). Discusses framework to be used in writing computer assisted instruction programs. Lists topics covered in the programs. (MVL)

  5. 12 CFR 614.4580 - Limitation on the extension of funding, discount and other similar financial assistance to an OFI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitation on the extension of funding... CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Farm Credit Bank and Agricultural Credit Bank Financing of Other Financing Institutions § 614.4580 Limitation on the extension of...

  6. 12 CFR 614.4580 - Limitation on the extension of funding, discount and other similar financial assistance to an OFI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitation on the extension of funding... CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Farm Credit Bank and Agricultural Credit Bank Financing of Other Financing Institutions § 614.4580 Limitation on the extension of...

  7. 12 CFR 614.4580 - Limitation on the extension of funding, discount and other similar financial assistance to an OFI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitation on the extension of funding... CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Farm Credit Bank and Agricultural Credit Bank Financing of Other Financing Institutions § 614.4580 Limitation on the extension of...

  8. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  9. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  10. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  11. 45 CFR 286.55 - What types of costs are subject to the administrative cost limit on Tribal Family Assistance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subject to the limit determined under § 286.50. (b) Information technology and computerization for..., administering, monitoring, and controlling a sample are not inherent parts of information technology...

  12. 34 CFR 668.20 - Limitations on remedial coursework that is eligible for Title IV, HEA program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... course in English as a second language, the educational level of instruction provided in that course is...) Courses in English as a second language do not count against the one-year academic limitation contained...

  13. 34 CFR 668.20 - Limitations on remedial coursework that is eligible for Title IV, HEA program assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... course in English as a second language, the educational level of instruction provided in that course is...) Courses in English as a second language do not count against the one-year academic limitation contained...

  14. [Video-assisted patient education in anaesthesiology: possibilities and limits of a new procedure for improvement of patient information].

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, C; Marz, S; Bauer, M; Schuster, M

    2008-06-01

    In video-assisted patient education (ViPa), patients watch an educational video about the process and the risks of anaesthesia in addition to the preanaesthetic interview with the anaesthesiologist. Used as a supplement to the preanaesthetic visit, the videos can increase patients' knowledge and satisfaction without having any negative effect on perioperative anxiety. Because the video graphically depicts the basic information, the preanaesthetic visit can then focus on specific aspects of the individual patient, i.e. high anxiety or specific questions. The redundant and monotonous explanations about the procedures and risks of anaesthesia by the interviewing anaesthesiologist are partly replaced by the video, but for medico-legal reasons the ViPa cannot totally replace the preanesthetic interview. It can be used in pediatric anaesthesia and reduces parental anxiety. Because of the lack of studies, the effects of the ViPa on perioperative patient compliance, especially for outpatient surgery, and on the economics of anaesthesia clinics are unclear.

  15. Fundamental limits in heat-assisted magnetic recording and methods to overcome it with exchange spring structures

    SciTech Connect

    Suess, D.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Windl, R.; Vogler, C.; Breth, L.; Fidler, J.

    2015-04-28

    The switching probability of magnetic elements for heat-assisted recording with pulsed laser heating was investigated. It was found that FePt elements with a diameter of 5 nm and a height of 10 nm show, at a field of 0.5 T, thermally written-in errors of 12%, which is significantly too large for bit-patterned magnetic recording. Thermally written-in errors can be decreased if larger-head fields are applied. However, larger fields lead to an increase in the fundamental thermal jitter. This leads to a dilemma between thermally written-in errors and fundamental thermal jitter. This dilemma can be partly relaxed by increasing the thickness of the FePt film up to 30 nm. For realistic head fields, it is found that the fundamental thermal jitter is in the same order of magnitude of the fundamental thermal jitter in conventional recording, which is about 0.5–0.8 nm. Composite structures consisting of high Curie top layer and FePt as a hard magnetic storage layer can reduce the thermally written-in errors to be smaller than 10{sup −4} if the damping constant is increased in the soft layer. Large damping may be realized by doping with rare earth elements. Similar to single FePt grains in composite structure, an increase of switching probability is sacrificed by an increase of thermal jitter. Structures utilizing first-order phase transitions breaking the thermal jitter and writability dilemma are discussed.

  16. Protons are one of the limiting factors in determining sensitivity of nano surface-assisted (+)-mode LDI MS analyses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunji; Ahn, Miri; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-10-01

    A proton source employing a nanostructured gold surface for use in (+)-mode laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) was evaluated. Analysis of perdeuterated polyaromatic hydrocarbon compound dissolved in regular toluene, perdeuterated toluene, and deuterated methanol all showed that protonated ions were generated irregardless of solvent system. Therefore, it was concluded that residual water on the surface of the LDI plate was the major source of protons. The fact that residual water remaining after vacuum drying was the source of protons suggests that protons may be the limiting reagent in the LDI process and that overall ionization efficiency can be improved by incorporating an additional proton source. When extra proton sources, such as thiolate compounds and/or citric acid, were added to a nanostructured gold surface, the protonated signal abundance increased. These data show that protons are one of the limiting components in (+)-mode LDI MS analyses employing nanostructured gold surfaces. Therefore, it has been suggested that additional efforts are required to identify compounds that can act as proton donors without generating peaks that interfere with mass spectral interpretation.

  17. Single drop solution electrode glow discharge for plasma assisted-chemical vapor generation: sensitive detection of zinc and cadmium in limited amounts of samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-ang; Tan, Qing; Hou, Xiandeng; Xu, Kailai; Zheng, Chengbin

    2014-12-16

    A simple and sensitive approach is proposed and evaluated for determination of ultratrace Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or tens of cells based on a novel single drop (5-20 μL) solution electrode glow discharge assisted-chemical vapor generation technique. Volatile species of Zn and Cd were immediately generated and separated from the liquid phase for transporting to atomic fluorescence or atomic mass spectrometric detectors for their determination only using hydrogen when the glow discharge was ignited between the surface of a liquid drop and the tip of a tungsten electrode. Limits of detection are better than 0.01 μg L(-1) (0.2 pg) for Cd and 0.1 μg L(-1) (2 pg) for Zn, respectively, and comparable or better than the previously reported results due to only a 20 μL sampling volume required, which makes the proposed technique convenient for the determination of Zn and Cd in limited amounts of samples or even only tens of cells. The proposed method not only retains the advantages of conventional chemical vapor generation but also provides several unique advantages, including better sensitivity, lower sample and power consumption, higher chemical vapor generation efficiencies and simpler setup, as well as greener analytical chemistry. The utility of this technique was demonstrated by the determination of ultratrace Cd and Zn in several single human hair samples, Certified Reference Materials GBW07601a (human hair powder) and paramecium cells. PMID:25409265

  18. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general. PMID:26496385

  19. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  20. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  1. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  2. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  3. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  4. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  5. Attitudes Towards and Limitations to ICT Use in Assisted and Independent Living Communities: Findings from a Specially-Designed Technological Intervention.

    PubMed

    Berkowsky, Ronald W; Cotten, Shelia R; Yost, Elizabeth A; Winstead, Vicki P

    2013-11-01

    While much literature has been devoted to theoretical explanations of the learning processes of older adults and to the methods of teaching best utilized in older populations, less has focused on the education of older adults who reside in assisted and independent living communities (AICs), especially with regards to information and communication technology (ICT) education. The purpose of this study is to determine whether participants' attitudes and views towards computers and the Internet are affected as a result of participating in an eight-week training program designed to enhance computer and Internet use among older adults in such communities. Specifically, we examine if ICT education specially designed for AIC residents results in more positive attitudes towards ICTs and a perceived decrease in factors that may limit or prevent computer and Internet use. We discuss the implications of these results for enhancing the quality of life for older adults in AICs and make recommendations for those seeking to decrease digital inequality among older adults in these communities through their own ICT classes. PMID:24244065

  6. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  7. Chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND) to measure kinetic aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Kestranek, Aimee; Chervenak, Andrew; Longenberger, Justin; Placko, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Solubility is the dose-limiting property for in vitro studies, and therefore is a critical physicochemical property to measure in drug discovery. Solubility data can be used to guide lead optimization, troubleshoot erratic bioassay results, and identify potential downstream liabilities such as insufficient solubility for bioassays or oral bioavailability. Typically, early in vitro studies are performed using library compounds prepared as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) stock solutions, resulting in in vitro test solutions containing DMSO at low concentration (<5% v/v). Since DMSO can affect the apparent solubility, it is desirable to obtain solubility data under conditions mimicking the in vitro study. Kinetic solubility (from DMSO stock solutions) is often preferred over thermodynamic solubility (from dry powder) in early drug discovery. The protocols in this article describe a general procedure for assessing kinetic aqueous solubility of early drug discovery compounds using a miniaturized shake flask method with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND).

  8. Resveratrol cocrystals with enhanced solubility and tabletability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengzheng; Li, Wanying; Sun, Wei-Jhe; Lu, Tongbu; Tong, Henry H Y; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Zheng, Ying

    2016-07-25

    Two new 1:1 cocrystals of resveratrol (RES) with 4-aminobenzamide (RES-4ABZ) and isoniazid (RES-ISN) were synthesized by liquid assisted grinding (LAG) and rapid solvent removal (RSR) methods using ethanol as solvent. Their physiochemical properties were characterized using PXRD, DSC, solid state and solution NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC. Pharmaceutically relevant properties, including tabletability, solubility, intrinsic dissolution rate, and hygroscopicity, were evaluated. Temperature-composition phase diagram for RES-ISN cocrystal system was constructed from DSC data. Both cocrystals show higher solubility than resveratrol over a broad range of pH. They are phase stable and non-hygroscopic even under high humidity conditions. Importantly, both cocrystals exhibit improved solubility and tabletability compared with RES, which make them more suitable candidates for tablet formulation development. PMID:27282539

  9. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  10. 45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash... and Processing § 286.130 Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a... as well as the penalty provision at § 286.195(a)(1), WtW cash assistance counts towards a...

  11. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and turns to gel during ... and nutrient absorption from the stomach and intestine. Soluble fiber is found in foods such as oat ...

  12. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Solubility of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines factors to be considered in choosing suitable solvents for non-electrolytes and salts of weak acids and bases. Describes how, in some simple situation, the degree of solubility can be estimated. (Author/DF)

  14. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  15. GADOLINIUM SOLUBILITY AND VOLATILITY DURING DWPF PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S

    2008-01-30

    Understanding of gadolinium behavior, as it relates to potential neutron poisoning applications at the DWPF, has increased over the past several years as process specific data have been generated. Of primary importance are phenomena related to gadolinium solubility and volatility, which introduce the potential for gadolinium to be separated from fissile materials during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) and Melter operations. Existing data indicate that gadolinium solubilities under moderately low pH conditions can vary over several orders of magnitude, depending on the quantities of other constituents that are present. With respect to sludge batching processes, the gadolinium solubility appears to be highly affected by iron. In cases where the mass ratio of Fe:Gd is 300 or more, the gadolinium solubility has been observed to be low, one milligram per liter or less. In contrast, when the ratio of Fe:Gd is 20 or less, the gadolinium solubility has been found to be relatively high, several thousands of milligrams per liter. For gadolinium to serve as an effective neutron poison in CPC operations, the solubility needs to be limited to approximately 100 mg/L. Unfortunately, the Fe:Gd ratio that corresponds to this solubility limit has not been identified. Existing data suggest gadolinium and plutonium are not volatile during melter operations. However, the data are subject to inherent uncertainties preventing definitive conclusions on this matter. In order to determine if gadolinium offers a practical means of poisoning waste in DWPF operations, generation of additional data is recommended. This includes: Gd solubility testing under conditions where the Fe:Gd ratio varies from 50 to 150; and Gd and Pu volatility studies tailored to quantifying high temperature partitioning. Additional tests focusing on crystal aging of Gd/Pu precipitates should be pursued if receipt of gadolinium-poisoned waste into the Tank Farm becomes routine.

  16. Attitudes towards and Limitations to ICT Use in Assisted and Independent Living Communities: Findings from a Specially-Designed Technological Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowsky, Ronald W.; Cotton, Shelia R.; Yost, Elizabeth A.; Winstead, Vicki P.

    2013-01-01

    Much literature has been devoted to theoretical explanations of the learning processes of older adults and to the methods of teaching best utilized in older populations. However, there has been less focus on the education of older adults who reside in assisted and independent living communities (AICs), especially with regards to information and…

  17. Solubility and secretability.

    PubMed

    Schein, C H

    1993-08-01

    The solubility and secretability of proteins can often be affected by extremely small changes in their primary structure. Attempts to determine empirical rules for the alteration of protein structure to improve either of these characteristics have met with only partial success. Those (mostly serendipitous) improvements in solubility that have been obtained via mutagenesis cannot be considered to be 'protein engineering'. The most successful examples where directed mutagenesis has been used to alter protein solubility, hemoglobin and insulin, have relied on established crystal structures and a wealth of data about the relationship between sequence and structure of the targeted protein. Currently, optimizing culture growth conditions by trial and error remains the fastest way to improve expression.

  18. Foreign assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that providing energy assistance to developing countries remains a relatively low priority of the Agency for International Development. AID is helping some developing countries meet their energy needs, but this assistance varies substantially because of the agency's decentralized structure. Most AID energy funding has gone to a handful of countries-primarily Egypt and Pakistan. With limited funding in most other countries, AID concentrates on providing technical expertise and promoting energy policy reforms that will encourage both energy efficiency and leverage investment by the private sector and other donors. Although a 1989 congressional directive to pursue a global warming initiative has had a marginal impact on the agency's energy programming, many AID energy programs, including those directed at energy conservation, help address global warming concerns.

  19. Comparison of solubility databases used for HLW performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Ian G.; Savage, David

    1996-02-01

    Elemental solubility limits are employed in many performance assessment studies of the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. A comparison of solubility databases used in a number of recent assessments from Canada, Finland, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.S.A. is presented. Despite similarities in the chemical conditions under which such solubilities are defined, there are very large ranges in the values selected for most elements (several orders of magnitude). In some cases, differences in solubilities can be attributed to differences in the thermodynamic databases used but, due to generally incomplete documentation, both of such databases and the criteria for data selection, detailed analysis of the reason for such discrepancies is precluded. A key factor, however, is the fairly subjective choice of the solid phase considered to be "solubility-limiting". Procedures are recommended which would increase the transparency of solubility database compilation in future analyses.

  20. 38 CFR 21.3020 - Educational assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Under... definition contained in § 21.3021. (b) 45 months limitation. Educational assistance may not exceed a...

  1. Determination of soluble toxic arsenic species in alga samples by microwave-assisted extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García Salgado, S; Quijano Nieto, M A; Bonilla Simón, M M

    2006-09-29

    A microwave-based procedure for arsenic species extraction in alga samples (Sargassum fulvellum, Chlorella vulgaris, Hizikia fusiformis and Laminaria digitata) is described. Extraction time and temperature were tested in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of the process. Arsenic compounds were extracted in 8 ml of deionised water at 90 degrees C for 5 min. The process was repeated three times. Soluble arsenic compounds extracted accounted for about 78-98% of total arsenic. The results were compared with those obtained in a previous work, where the extraction process was carried out by ultrasonic focussed probe for 30 s. Speciation studies were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-AES). The chromatographic method allowed us to separate As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid in less than 13 min. The chromatographic analysis of the samples allowed us to identify and quantify As(V) in Hizikia sample and Sargasso material, while the four arsenic species studied were found in Chlorella sample. In the case of Laminaria sample, none of these species was identified by HPLC-HG-ICP-AES. However, in the chromatographic analysis of this alga by HPLC-ICP-AES, an unknown arsenic species was detected.

  2. Determination of soluble toxic arsenic species in alga samples by microwave-assisted extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García Salgado, S; Quijano Nieto, M A; Bonilla Simón, M M

    2006-09-29

    A microwave-based procedure for arsenic species extraction in alga samples (Sargassum fulvellum, Chlorella vulgaris, Hizikia fusiformis and Laminaria digitata) is described. Extraction time and temperature were tested in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of the process. Arsenic compounds were extracted in 8 ml of deionised water at 90 degrees C for 5 min. The process was repeated three times. Soluble arsenic compounds extracted accounted for about 78-98% of total arsenic. The results were compared with those obtained in a previous work, where the extraction process was carried out by ultrasonic focussed probe for 30 s. Speciation studies were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-AES). The chromatographic method allowed us to separate As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid in less than 13 min. The chromatographic analysis of the samples allowed us to identify and quantify As(V) in Hizikia sample and Sargasso material, while the four arsenic species studied were found in Chlorella sample. In the case of Laminaria sample, none of these species was identified by HPLC-HG-ICP-AES. However, in the chromatographic analysis of this alga by HPLC-ICP-AES, an unknown arsenic species was detected. PMID:16876177

  3. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Thallium (I), soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium ( I ) , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  5. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  6. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  7. Adulteration of soluble coffee with coffee husks and parchments.

    PubMed

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M; Blanc, M B; Leloup, V; Cherix, G; Donnelly, C M; Viani, R

    1995-01-01

    Commercial soluble coffee can be adulterated with coffee husks or parchments. Xylose is a good tracer for this type of mispractice. The analysis of total xylose in a wide selection of green beans and the assessment of its fate during processing allowed the derivation of a maximum total xylose limit of 0.40%, above which a soluble coffee should be considered as adulterated. Out of the 700 commercial soluble coffees analyzed, 81 exhibited a total xylose level above this limit. Of the samples with total xylose level lower than the limit, 99% displayed concentrations in free mannitol and total glucose below 0.30 and 2.10%, respectively.

  8. Water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were <6.5%. The concentrations of vitamins found in premixes with the method were comparable to the values declared. A disadvantage of the methods mentioned above is that sample composition has to be known in advance. According to European legislation, for example, foods might be fortified with riboflavin phosphate or thiamin phosphate, vitamers which are not included in the simultaneous separations described. Vitamin B2.--Viñas et al. elaborated an LC analysis of riboflavin vitamers in foods. Vitamin B2 can be found in nature as the free riboflavin, but in most biological materials it occurs predominantly in the form of 2 coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Several methods usually involve the conversion of these coenzymes into free riboflavin before quantification of total riboflavin. According to the authors, there is growing interest to know flavin composition of foods. The described method separates the individual vitamers isocratically. Accuracy of the method is tested with 2 certified reference materials (CRMs). Vitamin B5.-Methods for the determination of vitamin B5 in foods are limited

  9. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams of... susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations. Prepare a fresh solution daily. (ii) Amount. 200 to...

  10. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams of... susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations. Prepare a fresh solution daily. (ii) Amount. 200 to...

  11. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams of... susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations. Prepare a fresh solution daily. (ii) Amount. 200 to...

  12. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams of... susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations. Prepare a fresh solution daily. (ii) Amount. 200 to...

  13. 21 CFR 520.154c - Bacitracin zinc soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc soluble powder. 520.154c Section... zinc soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each pound contains the equivalent of not less than 5 grams of... susceptible to bacitracin zinc. (B) Limitations. Prepare a fresh solution daily. (ii) Amount. 200 to...

  14. Biochemical synthesis of water soluble conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Ferdinando F.; Bernabei, Manuele

    2016-05-01

    An efficient biomimetic route for the synthesis of conducting polymers/copolymers complexed with lignin sulfonate and sodium (polystyrenesulfonate) (SPS) will be presented. This polyelectrolyte assisted PEG-hematin or horseradish peroxidase catalyzed polymerization of pyrrole (PYR), 3,4 ethyldioxithiophene (EDOT) and aniline has provided a route to synthesize water-soluble conducting polymers/copolymers under acidic conditions. The UV-vis, FTIR, conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies for the polymers/copolymer complex indicated the presence of a thermally stable and electroactive polymers. Moreover, the use of water-soluble templates, used as well as dopants, provided a unique combination of properties such as high electronic conductivity, and processability. These polymers/copolymers are nowadays tested/evaluated for antirust features on airplanes and helicopters. However, other electronic applications, such as photovoltaics, for transparent conductive polyaniline, actuators, for polypyrrole, and antistatic films, for polyEDOT, will be proposed.

  15. Modeling aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Butina, Darko; Gola, Joelle M R

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an aqueous solubility model based on solubility data from the Syracuse database, calculated octanol-water partition coefficient, and 51 2D molecular descriptors. Two different statistical packages, SIMCA and Cubist, were used and the results were compared. The Cubist model, which comprises a collection of rules, each of which has an associated Multiple Linear Regression model (MLR), gave better overall results on a test set of 640 compounds with an overall squared correlation coefficient of 0.74 and an absolute average error of 0.68 log units. Both training and independent test sets had similar distributions of structures in terms of the different functionalities present-60% neutral, 14% acidic, 8% phenolic, 11% monobasic, 4% polybasic, and 3% zwitterionic molecules. Sets were designed by random selection, with 2688 (81%) and 640 (19%) molecules, respectively, forming the training and the test sets.

  16. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry mapping of human immunodeficiency virus-gp120 epitopes recognized by a limited polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Jeyarajah, S; Parker, C E; Summer, M T; Tomer, K B

    1998-02-01

    In this study we have applied epitope excision and epitope extraction strategies, combined with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, to determine the fine structure of epitopes recognized by a polyclonal antibody to human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120. This is the first application of this approach to epitope mapping on a large, heavily glycosylated protein. In the epitope excision method, gp120 in the native form is first bound to the antibody immobilized on sepharose beads and cleaved with endoproteinase enzymes. In the epitope extraction method, the gp120 was first proteolytically cleaved and then allowed to react with the immobilized antibody. The fragments that remain bound to the antibody, after repeated washing to remove the unbound peptides, contain the antigenic region that is recognized by the antibody, and the bound peptides in both methods can be characterized by direct analysis of the immobilized antibody by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry. In this study we have carried out epitope excision and extraction experiments with three different enzymes and have identified residues 472-478 as a major epitope. In addition, antigenic regions containing minor epitopes have also been identified.

  17. Diffusion and solubility of oxygen in silver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenauer, W.; Miller, G.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion and solubility of oxygen in Ag in the temperature range between 412 and 862 C was determined. The following interpolation formula was found for the solubility: L = 8.19.1/100.exp(-11 860/RT)Mol O2/g.At.Ag.at 1/.5. The process obeys the Sieverts square root law within the limits of error. The dissolution of oxygen in Ag may be accompanied by the dissociation of the oxygen molecules into atoms. The tests on Ag-foils reveal that below a temperature of about 500 C a higher solubility is simulated by the adsorption of oxygen. The diffusion coefficient of oxygen in silver obeys the following equation: D = 2.72.1/100.exp(-11 000/RT)sq cm/s. The relatively low activation energy of 11 kcal/g.At suggests that the diffusion of oxygen takes places over interstitial sites.

  18. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  19. 45 CFR 286.115 - What information on time limits for the receipt of assistance must a Tribe include in its Tribal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... family includes an individual who has been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty. (b) The Tribe must... include, but are not limited to: Poverty, unemployment, jobless and job surplus rates; education levels...

  20. Solubility increases associated with crystalline drug nanoparticles: methodologies and significance.

    PubMed

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Vermant, Jan; Martens, Johan A; Froyen, Ludo; Humbeeck, Jan Van; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick

    2010-10-01

    In this manuscript, the determination of solubility of crystalline drug nanosuspensions by a range of methods is critically investigated. As the determinations of solubility were performed in the presence of the solubilizing nanosuspension stabilizer d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), the potential effects of this excipient on the measurements were studied first. Solubility data of nanosuspensions of itraconazole, loviride, phenytoin and naproxen were generated using different methodologies. Data obtained using separation-based methodologies (centrifugation, filtration and ultracentrifugation) proved to be of limited use, due to poor nanoparticle separation efficiencies and/or significant adsorption of TPGS onto the nanoparticle surfaces. Light scattering and turbidity were found to be more suitable for the determination of nanosuspension solubility. The obtained data show that, unlike earlier reports, the solubility increases due to nanosizing are small, with measured increases of only 15%. These solubility increases are in fair agreement with what would be predicted based on the Ostwald-Freundlich equation.

  1. Dry season aerosol iron solubility in tropical northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. Holly L.; Edwards, Ross; Bowie, Andrew R.; Keywood, Melita; Williams, Alistair G.; Chambers, Scott D.; Selleck, Paul W.; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Mallet, Marc D.; Paton-Walsh, Clare

    2016-10-01

    Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe) and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED) campaign in northern Australia that reflects coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble aerosol Fe. The mean soluble and total aerosol Fe concentrations were 40 and 500 ng m-3 respectively. Our results show that while biomass burning species may not be a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust. We observed fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols. Thus, Fe in dust may be more soluble in the tropics compared to higher latitudes due to higher concentrations of biomass-burning-derived reactive organic species in the atmosphere. In addition, biomass-burning-derived particles can act as a surface for aerosol Fe to bind during atmospheric transport and subsequently be released to the ocean upon deposition. As the aerosol loading is dominated by biomass burning emissions over the tropical waters in the dry season, additions of biomass-burning-derived soluble Fe could have harmful consequences for initiating nitrogen-fixing toxic algal blooms. Future research is required to quantify biomass-burning-derived particle sources of soluble Fe over tropical waters.

  2. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-02-26

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model.

  3. Scope and Limitations of Auxiliary-Assisted, Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation and Alkylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Nadres, Enrico T.; Santos, Gerson Ivan Franco; Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2013-01-01

    The scope of palladium-catalyzed, auxiliary-assisted direct arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H bonds of amine and carboxylic acid derivatives has been investigated. The method employs a palladium acetate catalyst, substrate, aryl, alkyl, benzyl, or allyl halide, and inorganic base in t-amyl alcohol or water solvent at 100-140 °C. Aryl and alkyl iodides as well as benzyl and allyl bromides are competent reagents in this transformation. Picolinic acid auxiliary is used for amine γ-functionalization and 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary is used for carboxylic acid β-functionalization. Some optimization of base, additives, and solvent is required for achieving best results. PMID:24090404

  4. Comparison of a miniaturized shake-flask solubility method with automated potentiometric acid/base titrations and calculated solubilities.

    PubMed

    Glomme, A; März, J; Dressman, J B

    2005-01-01

    Solubility is one of the most important parameters for lead selection and optimization during drug discovery. Its determination should therefore take place as early as possible in the process. Because of the large numbers of compounds involved and the very low amounts of each compound available in the early development stage, it is highly desirable to measure the solubility with as little compound as possible and to be able to improve the throughput of the methods used. In this work, a miniaturized shake-flask method was developed and the solubility results were compared with those measured by semiautomated potentiometric acid/base titrations and computational methods for 21 poorly soluble compounds with solubilities mostly in the range 0.03-30 microg/mL. The potentiometric method is very economical (approximately 100 microg of a poorly soluble compound is needed) and is able to create a pH/solubility profile with one single determination, but is limited to ionizable compounds. The miniaturized shake-flask method can be used for all compounds and a wide variety of media. Its precision and throughput proved superior to the potentiometric method for very poorly soluble compounds. Up to 20 compounds a week can be studied with one set-up. Calculated solubility data seem to be sufficient for a first estimate of the solubility, but they cannot currently be used as a substitute for experimental measurements at key decision points in the development process.

  5. Solubilities of Toluene, Benzene and TCE in High-Biomass Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, John W.; Vodraska, Christopher D; Flanary, Sandie A.; Davison, Brian H

    2008-01-01

    We report measurements of solubility limits for benzene, toluene, and TCE in systems that contain varying levels of biomass up to 0.13 g/mL. The solubility limit increased from 20 to 48 mM when biomass (in the form of yeast) was added to aqueous batch systems containing benzene. The toluene solubility limit increased from 4.9 to greater than 20 mM. For TCE, the solubility increased from 8 mM to more than 1000 mM. Solubility for TCE was most heavily impacted by biomass levels, changing by two orders of magnitude.

  6. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  7. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  8. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided. PMID:12426143

  9. Ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion as a potential carrier of sparingly soluble drug: characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Tamura, Miki; Tahara, Yoshiro; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2010-11-15

    Pharmaceutical industries have posed challenges in the topical and transdermal administration of drugs which are poorly soluble or insoluble in water and most of organic solvents. In an approach to overcome this limitation, ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/o) microemulsions (MEs) were employed to increase the solubility of a sparingly soluble drug to enhance its topical and transdermal delivery. The formulation of MEs was composed of a blend of nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and sorbitan laurate (Span-20), isopropyl myristate (IPM) as an oil phase, and IL [C(1)mim] [(CH(3)O)(2)PO(2)] (dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate) as a pseudophase. Among various weight ratios of Tween-80 to Span-20 investigated in the ME systems, the ratio 3:2 showed excellent solubility and skin permeation enhancing effect for acyclovir (ACV) used as a model sparingly soluble drug. The size and size distribution of the ME droplets with and without drug were determined by dynamic light scattering. The permeability study of ACV incorporated in IL droplets as well as other formulations was performed into and across the Yucatan micropig (YMP) porcine skin, and the use of IL/o MEs has been shown to dramatically increase ACV administration. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the new carrier was evaluated in vitro using the reconstructed human epidermal model LabCyte™ EPI-MODEL12. It was found that the cell viability of IL/o MEs containing 4wt% IL was over 80% compared to Dulbecco's Phosphate-Buffered Salines, indicating low cytotoxicity of the carrier. Taken together these results, it can be assumed that IL-assisted nonaqueous ME could serve as a versatile and efficient nanodelivery system for insoluble or sparingly soluble drug molecules that require solubilizing agents for delivery. PMID:20813174

  10. The Evaluation of Vertical Pole Configuration and Location on Assisting the Sit-to-Stand Movement in Older Adults with Mobility Limitations.

    PubMed

    Vena, Daniel; Novak, Alison C; King, Emily C; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff R

    2015-01-01

    Grab-bars and transfer poles are common sit-to-stand aids for mobility limited older adults. This study investigated differences in kinetics and kinematics to characterize the lower-limb strength and dynamic balance requirements across different pole configurations and positions in nine mobility limited older adults. Poles were varied by location (near and far) and configuration (single vertical pole, double vertical poles, vertical pole with a horizontal bar). Results indicated that the far pole condition resulted in increased trunk (p < 0.001) and hip flexion (p < 0.01 and < 0.0001 for contralateral and ipsilateral sides, respectively), and a reduced peak vertical force applied to the pole (p < 0.001). Peak extension moments at the hip and knee were unchanged, and, therefore, pole position had no effect on task demands. Placing the pole unilaterally introduced a small kinetic asymmetry, which significantly increased peak knee extension moments on the ipsilateral side (p < 0.05). Finally, dynamic balance was relatively unchanged across pole conditions. These findings offer novel insight into pole use and the effect of varying pole location and configuration in a sample of older adults with mobility impairment, and provide the basis for future work.

  11. Continuous-flow left ventricular assist device therapy in patients with preoperative hepatic failure: are we pushing the limits too far?

    PubMed

    Weymann, Alexander; Patil, Nikhil P; Sabashnikov, Anton; Mohite, Phrashant N; Garcia Saez, Diana; Bireta, Christian; Wahlers, Thorsten; Karck, Matthias; Kallenbach, Klaus; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Fatullayev, Javid; Amrani, Mohamed; De Robertis, Fabio; Bahrami, Toufan; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, Andre R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects and outcome of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (cf-LVAD) therapy in patients with preoperative acute hepatic failure. The study design was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Included were 42 patients who underwent cf-LVAD implantation (64.3% HeartMate II, 35.7% HeartWare) between July 2007 and May 2013 with preoperative hepatic failure defined as elevation of greater than or equal to two liver function parameters above twice the upper normal range. Mean patient age was 35 ± 12.5 years, comprising 23.8% females. Dilated cardiomyopathy was present in 92.9% of patients (left ventricular ejection fraction 17.3 ± 5.9%). Mean support duration was 511 ± 512 days (range: 2-1996 days). Mean preoperative laboratory parameters for blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, total bilirubin, and alanine aminotransferase were 9.5 ± 5.4 mg/dL, 110.3 ± 42.8 μmol/L, 51.7 ± 38.3 mmol/L, and 242.1 ± 268.6 U/L, respectively. All parameters decreased significantly 1 month postoperatively. The mean preoperative modified Model for Endstage Liver Disease excluding international normalized ratio score was 16.03 ± 5.57, which improved significantly after cf-LVAD implantation to 10.62 ± 5.66 (P < 0.001) at 7 days and 5.83 ± 4.98 (P < 0.001) at 30 days postoperatively. One-year and 5-year survival was 75.9 and 48.1%, respectively. 21.4% of the patients underwent LVAD explantation for myocardial recovery, 16.7% were successfully transplanted, and 7.1% underwent LVAD exchange for device failure over the follow-up period. Patients with preexisting acute hepatic failure are reasonable candidates for cf-LVAD implantation, with excellent rates of recovery and survival, suggesting that cf-LVAD therapy should not be denied to patients merely on grounds of "preoperative elevated liver enzymes/hepatopathy."

  12. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  13. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  14. Effects of firing schedule on solubility limits and transport properties of ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} fluorites

    SciTech Connect

    Fagg, D.P. Frade, J.R.; Mogensen, M.; Irvine, J.T.S.

    2007-08-15

    The low Y/high Zr edge of the cubic defect fluorite solid solution in the system ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in air is reassessed, as it is these compositions which have been suggested to offer the highest levels of mixed conductivity. Vegard's law is obeyed for values of x which lie within the cubic defect fluorite phase in Zr{sub 1-x-y}Y{sub y}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2-{delta}} for values of y=0.2 and 0.25. Measured lattice parameters show good agreement with those calculated from the Kim relation. Deviation from Vegard's law places the limit of the solid solution at x=0.18 and 0.20 for values of y=0.2 and 0.25, respectively, at 1500 deg. C. Discrepancies in current literature data can be shown to be due to differences in firing schedule such as slight temperature fluctuations and/or different cooling rates. A high level of care of sintering temperature and cooling profile is essential to form the most promising single-phase materials which contain maximum Ti-contents with low Y-contents. Contraction of the phase limit as a result of poor synthesis control leads to erroneously high values of bulk ionic conductivity while values of electronic conductivity are shown to be less affected. - Graphical abstract: The composition dependence of lattice parameter for compositions containing 20 mol% YO{sub 1.5} as a function of Ti-content in the system ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-YO{sub 1.5} showing contraction of the cubic defect fluorite-phase field upon slight temperature fluctuations or slow cooling rates.

  15. Microwave-Assisted Superheating and/or Microwave-Specific Superboiling (Nucleation-Limited Boiling) of Liquids Occurs under Certain Conditions but is Mitigated by Stirring.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anthony; Hunt, Jacob; Stiegman, Albert; Dudley, Gregory B

    2015-12-04

    Temporary superheating and sustained nucleation-limited "superboiling" of unstirred liquids above the normal atmospheric boiling point have been documented during microwave heating. These phenomena are reliably observed under prescribed conditions, although the duration (of superheating) and magnitude (of superheating and superboiling) vary according to system parameters such as volume of the liquid and the size and shape of the vessel. Both phenomena are mitigated by rapid stirring with an appropriate stir bar and/or with the addition of boiling chips, which provide nucleation sites to support the phase-change from liquid to gas. With proper experimental design and especially proper stirring, the measured temperature of typical organic reaction mixtures heated at reflux will be close to the normal boiling point temperature of the solvent, whether heated using microwave radiation or conventional convective heat transfer. These observations are important to take into consideration when comparing reaction rates under conventional and microwave heating.

  16. Microwave-Assisted Superheating and/or Microwave-Specific Superboiling (Nucleation-Limited Boiling) of Liquids Occurs under Certain Conditions but is Mitigated by Stirring.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anthony; Hunt, Jacob; Stiegman, Albert; Dudley, Gregory B

    2015-01-01

    Temporary superheating and sustained nucleation-limited "superboiling" of unstirred liquids above the normal atmospheric boiling point have been documented during microwave heating. These phenomena are reliably observed under prescribed conditions, although the duration (of superheating) and magnitude (of superheating and superboiling) vary according to system parameters such as volume of the liquid and the size and shape of the vessel. Both phenomena are mitigated by rapid stirring with an appropriate stir bar and/or with the addition of boiling chips, which provide nucleation sites to support the phase-change from liquid to gas. With proper experimental design and especially proper stirring, the measured temperature of typical organic reaction mixtures heated at reflux will be close to the normal boiling point temperature of the solvent, whether heated using microwave radiation or conventional convective heat transfer. These observations are important to take into consideration when comparing reaction rates under conventional and microwave heating. PMID:26690096

  17. Soluble arsenic removal at water treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic profiles were obtained from full-scale conventional treatment (coagulation, Fe-Mn oxidation, or softening) plants, facilitating testing of theories regarding arsenic removal. Soluble As(V) removal efficiency was controlled primarily by pH during coagulation, be Fe{sup +2} oxidation and Fe(OH){sub 3} precipitation during Fe-Mn oxidation, and by Mg(OH){sub 2} formation during softening. Insignificant soluble As(V) removal occurred during calcite precipitation at softening plants or during Mn{sup +2} oxidation-precipitation at Fe-Mn oxidation plants. The extent of soluble As(V) removal during coagulation and softening treatments was lower than expected. Somewhat surprisingly, during coagulation As(V) removal efficiencies were limited by particulate aluminum formation and removal, because much of the added coagulant was not removed by 0.45-{mu}m-pore-size filters. At one utility, reducing the coagulation pH from 7.4 to 6.8 (at constant alum dose) improved removal of particulate aluminum, thereby enhancing soluble As(V) removal during treatment.

  18. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  19. Assistive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  20. Assistive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  1. What is modulating solubility in simulated intestinal fluids?

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Giorgio; Gosling, Daniel J; Patissier, Celine; Rodde, Stephane; Zhou, Liping; Faller, Bernard

    2010-11-20

    The aim of this study was to understand which parameters are responsible for the selective modulation of compounds solubility in simulated intestinal fluids. The solubility of 25 chemically diverse reference compounds was measured in simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF-V2) and in aqueous phosphate and maleate buffers. Electrostatic interactions between compounds and the bio-relevant medium components seem to explain the different solubility behavior observed for acids and bases. The solubility of ionized acids is not increased in FaSSIF-V2 probably due to electrostatic repulsions with the media components. Lipophilicity plays an important role but mainly for charged bases with a logP>4 (or logD(6.5)>1.9). When the aqueous solubility is mainly driven by lipophilicity, the FaSSIF-V2 components seem to improve the solubility of basic compounds to a greater extent than for compounds whose solubility is limited by crystal packing. These results suggest that ionization, lipophilicity and crystal packing play important but peculiar roles in controlling solubility in FaSSIF-V2 compared to that in aqueous buffer and this information could be useful to guide medicinal chemists and formulation scientists. PMID:20656026

  2. Relative solubility of cations in Class F fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ann G; Kazonich, George; Dahlberg, Michael

    2003-10-01

    Coal utilization byproducts (CUB), such as fly ash, contain cations that may be released during exposure to fluids such as acid rain or acid mine drainage. Researchers at the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) have conducted a long-term column leaching study of 32 Class F fly ash samples from pulverized coal (PC) combustion, and quantified the release of 19 cations in four leachants with a pH between 1.2 and 12. The relative solubility (M(L/T)) of each cation was defined as the total mass leached (M(L)) relative to the concentration (M(T)) of that element in the fly ash sample. A frequency distribution of relative solubility values was computed with ranges defined as insoluble, slightly soluble, moderately soluble, and very soluble. On the basis of this sample set, Ba, Cd, Fe, Pb, Sb, and Se in PC fly ash are insoluble. The elements Al, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn are slightly to moderately acid soluble. Only Ca and Na are water soluble; As and Ca are soluble in the basic solution, The results of this study indicate that the extent to which cations in Class F PC fly ash can be leached by naturally occurring fluids is very limited.

  3. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  4. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  5. Comparative Calculations of Solubility Equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.

    2000-07-25

    The uncertainties in calculated solubilities in the Na-F-PO{sub 4}-HPO{sub 4}-OH system. at 25 C for NaOH concentrations up to 5 mol/kg were assessed. These uncertainties were based on an evaluation of the range of values for the Gibbs energies of the solids. Comparative calculations using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) and SOLGASMIX indicated that the variation in activity coefficients with NaOH concentration is much greater in the ESP code than in SOLGASMIX. This resulted in ESP calculating a higher solubility in water and a lower solubility in NaOH concentrations above 1 mol/kg: There was a marked discrepancy in the solubilities of the pure components sodium fluoride and trisodium phosphate predicted by ESP and SOLGASMIX. In addition, different solubilities for these components were obtained using different options in ESP. Because of these observations, a Best Practices Guide for ESP will be assembled.

  6. Barium solubility in colquiriite fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Yaobo Yin; Keszler, D.A. )

    1993-12-01

    Several crystals in the family of Colquiriite fluorides LiAEMF[sub 6] (AE = Ca, Sr; M = Al, Ga, Cr) have been reported to function as efficient, broadly tunable laser materials when doped with the ion Cr[sup 3+]. The optical characteristics of the Cr[sup 3+] ion are considerably affected by the specific AE atom in the crystal. In this paper the systems LiSr[sub 1[minus]x]Ba[sub x]MF[sub 6](M = Al, Ga) have been studied by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Solubility limits of x = 0.06 for the Al compound and x = 0.20 for the Ga compound have been established. The structures of LiSr[sub 0.94(1)]Ba[sub 0.06]AlF[sub 6] and LiSr[sub 0.80(1)]Ba[sub 0.20]GaF[sub 6] corresponding to these limits are isotypic to the mineral Colquiriite. Each crystallizes in space group P[bar 3]1c: LiSr[sub 0.94]Ba[sub 0.06]AlF[sub 6]: a = 5.096(1) [angstrom], c = 10.269(2) [angstrom], R = 0.034, R[sub w] = 0.041; and LiSr[sub 0.80]Ba[sub 0.20]GaF[sub 6]: a = 5.173(1) [angstrom], c = 10.415(1) [angstrom], R = 0.028, R[sub w] = 0.033. The trigonal F planes about the Al and Ga atoms are rotated, one relative to the other, by 68.0 and 69.0[degrees], respectively.

  7. Ventricular assist device

    MedlinePlus

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  8. Phenylated Polyimides With Greater Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    In experiments, 3,6-diphenylpyromellitic dianhydride monomer prepared and polymerized with several different diamines. Polyimides with pendent phenyl groups along polymer backbones considerably more soluble than PMDA-based materials. Increased solubility eases processing, providing increased potential use in variety of applications. Because most polymers soluble in organic solvents, usable in microelectronics applications. Excellent thermal stabilities and high transition temperatures make them ideally suited. Many polymers extremely rigid and useful as reinforcing polymers in molecular composites. More flexible compositions useful as matrix resins in carbon-reinforced composites.

  9. Understanding Solubility through Excel Spreadsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Pamela

    2001-02-01

    This article describes assignments related to the solubility of inorganic salts that can be given in an introductory general chemistry course. Le Châtelier's principle, solubility, unit conversion, and thermodynamics are tied together to calculate heats of solution by two methods: heats of formation and an application of the van't Hoff equation. These assignments address the need for math, graphing, and computer skills in the chemical technology program by developing skill in the use of Microsoft Excel to prepare spreadsheets and graphs and to perform linear and nonlinear curve-fitting. Background information on the value of understanding and predicting solubility is provided.

  10. Gravitational Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, R.

    1995-01-01

    Deep-space missions some times use close gravity-assist 'swingbys' of planets and moons to gain or lose velocity. These maneuvers increase the amount of mass that can be delivered and/or decrease mission flight times. The two Voyager spacecraft used gravity assists to leave the solar system. The Galileo spacecraft is using gravity assists to move among the various moons of Jupiter and the Cassini spacecraft will do similar maneuvers around Saturn.

  11. Single-component and mixture solubilities of hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, W.M. Jr.; Akgerman, A.

    1998-04-01

    Mixture solubilities are of particular importance when considering supercritical processes for separation of multicomponent mixtures and extraction of mixtures from solid matrixes, such as cleaning of spent adsorbents or remediation of contaminated soils. An investigation of the solubility limits of two priority pollutants, hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorophenol, was performed using a novel solubility apparatus. Mixture solubilities were found to decrease substantially in the case of hexachlorobenzene. A thermodynamic model employing the Wong-Sandler mixing rules was used for prediction of the solubility data. This model was shown to work better than the traditional van der Waals quadratic mixing rule for the binary systems and correlated well with measured pentachlorophenol partial molar volumes.

  12. Method for estimating solubility parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Ingham, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Semiempirical correlations have been developed between solubility parameters and refractive indices for series of model hydrocarbon compounds and organic polymers. Measurement of intermolecular forces is useful for assessment of material compatibility, glass-transition temperature, and transport properties.

  13. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  14. water-soluble fluorocarbon coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    Water-soluble fluorocarbon proves durable nonpolluting coating for variety of substrates. Coatings can be used on metals, masonry, textiles, paper, and glass, and have superior hardness and flexibility, strong resistance to chemicals fire, and weather.

  15. Comparative evaluation of various solubility enhancement strategies for furosemide.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Hussain, Izhar

    2014-07-01

    Drugs with good solubility exhibit good oral absorption, and subsequently good bioavailability. Thus, most exigent phase of drug development practice particularly for oral dosage forms is the enhancement of drug solubility. This review describes various traditional and novel methodologies proposed for the solubility enhancement of furosemide. For furosemide, solubility and permeability are crucial rate limiting factors to achieve its desired level in systemic circulation for pharmacological response. Thus, problematic solubility of furosemide is one of the main challenges for dosage form developing researchers. Various procedures, illustrated in this review, have been successfully employed to improve the furosemide solubility; however successful improvement essentially depends on the assortment of technique. It is concluded from the results that dissolution rate of drug increases by increasing the quantity of solubility enhancer. Dissolution rate also depends upon the type of enhancer and dissolution medium. In order to achieve relatively enhanced percentage drug release after 30 min (DP30), complexation by solvent evaporation using β-cyclodextrin is the best method. Solid dispersion is found the best if polyethylene glycol is used as enhancer along with microcrystalline cellulose as hydrophilic adsorbent. All the approaches narrated in this article possess good perceptions for additional research i.e. in-vivo studies should be carried out focusing on delivery system development.

  16. Tough, Soluble, Aromatic, Thermoplastic Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  17. [Assisted peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Klarić, Dragan; Prkačin, Ingrid

    2014-04-01

    According to the National Registry of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT), the incidence of chronic kidney disease (end-stage renal disease) and the need of RRT have declined in the last decade renal. One of the reasons for this tendency certainly is transplantation as the best choice. However, transplant procedure has limitations in elderly patients due to the number of comorbidities. This study was designed as retrospective analysis of outcomes in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis for a period of eleven years. Patients were divided into those who had been assisted or unassisted. Out of 100 patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), 77 completed the treatment, including 26 assisted and 51 unassisted patients. Peritonitis was recorded in 20 assisted and 26 unassisted patients. Peritonitis was more common in unassisted patients, who were more frequently lost from PD. Assisted PD could be a good and safe choice of RRT in this special group of patients.

  18. Development of a research method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane factory and refinery products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar factory and refinery products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated: 1) conductiv...

  19. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home care, it is still ... of services an older person chooses, the price costs can range from less than $25,000 a ...

  20. Optical limiting materials

    DOEpatents

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  1. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... meals, medication management or assistance, bathing, dressing and transportation. Some residents may have memory disorders including Alzheimer's, ... served in a common dining area Housekeeping services Transportation 24-hour security Exercise and wellness programs Personal ...

  2. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  3. Financial Assistance

    MedlinePlus

    Health care can be costly. If you have health insurance, it usually pays at least part of your medical costs. If you don't have insurance or need help with costs that aren't covered, financial assistance ...

  4. Solubility of Nd in brine

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, F.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1993-12-31

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl{sub 2}, with an ionic strength of 7.8M (9.4m). The experimental solubility is much less than that estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. The predominant solid compound of Nd (III) at each pcH was determined from X-ray diffraction patterns.

  5. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  6. Solubility determination as an alternative to migration measurements.

    PubMed

    Bodai, Zsolt; Jakab, Péter Pál; Novák, Márton; Nyiri, Zoltán; Szabó, Bálint Sámuel; Rikker, Tamás; Eke, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Solubility values for six UV stabilisers (Cyasorb UV-1164, Tinuvin P, Tinuvin 234, Tinuvin 326, Tinuvin 327 and Tinuvin 1577) and five antioxidants (Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Irganox 3114, Irganox 3790 and Irganox 565) were determined in all the liquid food simulants (3% (m/V) acetic acid-water mixture, 10% (V/V), 20% (V/V), 50% (V/V) ethanol-water mixture and vegetable oil) proposed in European Union Regulation No. 10/2011/EC, as well as in fruit juice and cola drink. The applied method was obtained by modification of the method for the determination of water solubility as described in OECD guideline Test No. 105. By using ultrasonication and shorter equilibration time, the time demand of the solubility determinations were decreased notably. Solubility values proved to be lower than the specific migration limits (as specified in 10/2011/EC) at 25 °C for almost all target compounds in food simulants A, B, C and D1 as well as in fruit juice and cola drink. The exceptions were Tinuvin P and Irganox 3790 in simulant D1. The solubility in food simulant D2 was higher than 1000 µg ml(-1) for all target compounds. These results show that the solubility of some additives in food simulants can be so low that it makes migration studies for certain additive-food simulant pairs dispensable.

  7. 48 CFR 919.7011 - Developmental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... limited to— (1) Management guidance relating to— (i) Financial management, (ii) Organizational management, (iii) Overall business management planning, (iv) Business development, and (v) Marketing assistance;...

  8. 48 CFR 919.7011 - Developmental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... limited to— (1) Management guidance relating to— (i) Financial management, (ii) Organizational management, (iii) Overall business management planning, (iv) Business development, and (v) Marketing assistance;...

  9. 48 CFR 919.7011 - Developmental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... limited to— (1) Management guidance relating to— (i) Financial management, (ii) Organizational management, (iii) Overall business management planning, (iv) Business development, and (v) Marketing assistance;...

  10. 48 CFR 919.7011 - Developmental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... limited to— (1) Management guidance relating to— (i) Financial management, (ii) Organizational management, (iii) Overall business management planning, (iv) Business development, and (v) Marketing assistance;...

  11. Optimizing solubility and permeability of a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class 4 antibiotic drug using lipophilic fragments disturbing the crystal lattice.

    PubMed

    Tehler, Ulrika; Fagerberg, Jonas H; Svensson, Richard; Larhed, Mats; Artursson, Per; Bergström, Christel A S

    2013-03-28

    Esterification was used to simultaneously increase solubility and permeability of ciprofloxacin, a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class 4 drug (low solubility/low permeability) with solid-state limited solubility. Molecular flexibility was increased to disturb the crystal lattice, lower the melting point, and thereby improve the solubility, whereas lipophilicity was increased to enhance the intestinal permeability. These structural changes resulted in BCS class 1 analogues (high solubility/high permeability) emphasizing that simple medicinal chemistry may improve both these properties.

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required in § 63.11498(a), you must comply with emission limits for wastewater streams that contain...

  13. [Good laboratory practice of equilibrium solubility measurement II. Study of pH-dependent solubility of ionizable compounds].

    PubMed

    Völgyi, Gergely; Baka, Edit; Kovács, Márta; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the pH-equilibrium solubility profiles of ionizable drugs are presented. The aim of the present work was to study the validity of the Henderson-Hasselbalch (HH) relationship in the case of structurally diverse weak bases. In the case of monoprotic bases, namely papaverine, promethazine and propafenone the experimental equilibrium solubility data precisely follow the theoretical HH curve until the limit of salt solubility. The common ion effect on salt solubility was found to be significant at low pHs. Deviation from the HH equation in the case of dibasic quetiapine hydrogen fumarate can be easily interpreted with the formation of different salt compositions. The significance of pH control and the effect of the salt form (e.g., fumarate) was also investigated. It is critical that the pKa value and the intrinsic solubility are accurately determined when the HH relationship is used to predict the pH-dependent aqueous solubility of drugs.

  14. 45 CFR 618.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Financial assistance. 618.430 Section 618.430 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION... or types of such assistance, limit eligibility for such assistance that is of any particular type...

  15. Hearing Assistive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Public / Hearing and Balance Hearing Assistive Technology Hearing Assistive Technology: FM Systems | Infrared Systems | Induction ... Assistive Technology Systems Solutions What are hearing assistive technology systems (HATS)? Hearing assistive technology systems (HATS) are ...

  16. New ideas about the solubility of drugs.

    PubMed

    Box, Karl; Comer, John E; Gravestock, Tom; Stuart, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Methods are described for detecting precipitation of ionisable drugs under conditions of changing pH, estimating kinetic solubility from the onset of precipitation, and measuring solubility by chasing equilibrium. Definitions are presented for kinetic, equilibrium, and intrinsic solubility of ionisable drugs, supersaturation and subsaturation, and for chasers and non-chasers, which are two classes of ionisable drug with significantly different solubility properties. The use of Bjerrum Curves and Neutral-Species Concentration Profiles to depict solubility properties are described and illustrated with case studies showing super-dissolving behaviour, conversion between crystalline forms and enhancement of solubility through supersaturation, and the use of additives and simulated gastrointestinal fluids. PMID:19937815

  17. 44 CFR 206.66 - Limitation on expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitation on expenditures. 206.66 Section 206.66 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Emergency Assistance §...

  18. Selective Water-Soluble Gelatinase Inhibitor Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Gooyit, Major; Lee, Mijoon; Schroeder, Valerie A.; Ikejiri, Masahiro; Suckow, Mark A.; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland

    2011-01-01

    SB-3CT (1), a selective and potent thiirane-based gelatinase inhibitor, is effective in animal models of cancer metastasis and stroke; however, it is limited by poor aqueous solubility and extensive metabolism. We addressed these issues by blocking the primary site of metabolism and capitalizing on a prodrug strategy to achieve >5000-fold increased solubility. The amide prodrugs were quantitatively hydrolyzed in human blood to a potent gelatinase inhibitor, ND-322 (3). The arginyl amide prodrug (ND-478, 5d) was metabolically stable in mouse, rat, and human liver microsomes. Both 5d and 3 were non-mutagenic in the Ames II mutagenicity assay. The prodrug 5d showed moderate clearance of 0.0582 L/min/kg, remained mostly in the extracellular fluid compartment (Vd = 0.0978 L/kg), and had a terminal half-life of >4 h. The prodrug 5d had superior pharmacokinetic properties than 3, making the thiirane class of selective gelatinase inhibitors suitable for intravenous administration in treatment of acute gelatinase-dependent diseases. PMID:21866961

  19. Overexpression of Soluble Recombinant Human Lysyl Oxidase by Using Solubility Tags: Effects on Activity and Solubility.

    PubMed

    Smith, Madison A; Gonzalez, Jesica; Hussain, Anjum; Oldfield, Rachel N; Johnston, Kathryn A; Lopez, Karlo M

    2016-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase is an important extracellular matrix enzyme that has not been fully characterized due to its low solubility. In order to circumvent the low solubility of this enzyme, three solubility tags (Nus-A, Thioredoxin (Trx), and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)) were engineered on the N-terminus of mature lysyl oxidase. Total enzyme yields were determined to be 1.5 mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme (0.75 mg/L of media), 7.84 mg for the Trx tagged enzyme (3.92 mg/L of media), and 9.33 mg for the GST tagged enzyme (4.67 mg/L of media). Enzymatic activity was calculated to be 0.11 U/mg for the Nus-A tagged enzyme and 0.032 U/mg for the Trx tagged enzyme, and no enzymatic activity was detected for the GST tagged enzyme. All three solubility-tagged forms of the enzyme incorporated copper; however, the GST tagged enzyme appears to bind adventitious copper with greater affinity than the other two forms. The catalytic cofactor, lysyl tyrosyl quinone (LTQ), was determined to be 92% for the Nus-A and Trx tagged lysyl oxidase using the previously reported extinction coefficient of 15.4 mM(-1 )cm(-1). No LTQ was detected for the GST tagged lysyl oxidase. Given these data, it appears that Nus-A is the most suitable tag for obtaining soluble and active recombinant lysyl oxidase from E. coli culture. PMID:26942005

  20. Dental Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide, developed for use in dental assistant education programs in Michigan, describes a task-based curriculum that can help a teacher to develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. It is based on task analysis and reflects the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that employers expect entry-level dental…

  1. Tough soluble aromatic thermoplastic copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Tough, soluble, aromatic, thermoplastic copolyimides were prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride, 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydianiline. Alternatively, these copolyimides may be prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,4'-oxydiisocyanate. Also, the copolyimide may be prepared by reacting the corresponding tetra acid and ester precursors of 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 3,4,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride with 3,4'-oxydianiline. These copolyimides were found to be soluble in common amide solvents such as N,N'-dimethyl acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidinone, and dimethylformamide allowing them to be applied as the fully imidized copolymer and to be used to prepare a wide range of articles.

  2. Surface bound VEGF mimicking peptide maintains endothelial cell proliferation in the absence of soluble VEGF in vitro.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, Guillaume; Plawinski, Laurent; Parrot, Camila; Nlate, Sylvain; Servant, Laurent; Teichmann, Martin; Buffeteau, Thierry; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2016-06-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring is an efficient method for the management of diabetes and in limiting the complications induced by large fluctuations in glucose levels. For this, intravascular systems may assist in producing more reliable and accurate devices. However, neovascularization is a key factor to be addressed in improving their biocompatibility. In this scope, the perennial modification of the surface of an implant with the proangiogenic Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor mimic peptide (SVVYGLR peptide sequence) holds great promise. Herein, we report on the preparation of gold substrates presenting the covalently grafted SVVYGLR peptide sequence and their effect on HUVEC behavior. Effective coupling was demonstrated using XPS and PM-IRRAS. The produced surfaces were shown to be beneficial for HUVEC adhesion. Importantly, surface bound SVVYGLR is able to maintain HUVEC proliferation even in the absence of soluble VEGF. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1425-1436, 2016. PMID:26845245

  3. Environmental Compliance Assistance Tool

    1999-04-16

    ENVIROCAT is a database/knowledge base software system designed to assist in environment, safety and health (ES&H) regulatory compliance assessments of manufacturing processes. Materials and processes are mapped to ES&H regulations. The regulations database identifies materials'' quantities and limits of compliance. Materials are identified per descriptive name or CAS number. ENVIROCAT has an interactive user/tool capability such that a question and answer session on materials and processes is custom tailored to a particular manufacturing site.

  4. Micro-apparatus for rapid determinations of protein solubilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Munson, Sibyl

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a column-based micro-technique for rapid determinations of protein solubilities. While retaining a large crystal surface area, the column dead volume has been reduced to equal to or less than 5 micro liters. The technique was tested with tetragonal lysozyme (pH 4.5, 0.1 M acetate, 3.0 percent NaCl, 5-25 C) and column volumes of about 60, 300, and 900 micro liters. Identical solubility data were obtained, indicating that equilibration was obtained even in the smallest columns. In addition, solubility data for Br- and I- salts of lysozyme (pH 4.5, 0.1 M acetate buffer, 0.5 M salt concentrations) were obtained. It appears that the technique can be further miniaturized. The limit in further reducing the crystalline column volume is determined by the minimum solution sample size needed to determine the protein concentration.

  5. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble drugs using solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao T-D; Tran, Phuong H-L; Khanh, Tran N; Van, Toi V; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Many new drugs have been discovered in pharmaceutical industry and exposed their surprised potential therapeutic effects. Unfortunately, these drugs possess low absorption and bioavailability since their solubility limitation in water. Solid dispersion (SD) is the current technique gaining so many attractions from scientists due to its effect on improving solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. A number of patents including the most recent inventions have been undertaken in this review to address various respects of this strategy in solubilization of poorly watersoluble drugs including type of carriers, preparation methods and view of technologies used to detect SD properties and mechanisms with the aim to accomplish a SD not only effective on enhanced bioavailability but also overcome difficulties associated with stability and production. Future prospects are as well discussed with an only hope that many developments and researches in this field will be successfully reached and contributed to commercial use for treatment as much as possible.

  6. Actinide solubility and spectroscopic speciation in alkaline Hanford waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, L.; Felmy, A.R.; Rai, D.

    1996-10-01

    Information on the solubility and the speciation of actinide elements, especially plutonium and neptunium, in alkaline solutions is of importance in the development of separation techniques for the Hanford tank HLW supernatant. In the present study, experimental data on the solubilities of plutonium in simulated Hanford tank solutions were analyzed with Pitzer`s specific ion-interaction approach, which is applicable in dilute to highly concentrated electrolyte solutions. In order to investigate the formation of actinide species in alkaline solutions with ligands (e.g., hydroxide, aluminate and carbonate), spectroscopic measurements of neptunium (V), as a chemical analog of plutonium (V), were conducted. Based on the solubility data and available information on both solid and aqueous species, a thermodynamic model was proposed. The applicability and limitations of this model are discussed.

  7. Impacts of Sample Preparation Methods on Solubility and Antilisterial Characteristics of Essential Oil Components in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Davidson, P. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil components (EOCs) have limited water solubility and are used at much higher concentrations in complex food matrices than in growth media to inhibit pathogens. However, the correlation between solubility and activity has not been studied. The objective of this work was to characterize the solubility of EOCs in solvents and milk and correlate solubility with antilisterial activity. The solubilities of four EOCs, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde, in water was significantly increased in the presence of 5% (vol/vol) ethanol. In milk, the solubility of EOCs was lower than in water, with lower solubility in higher-fat milk. EOCs applied to milk as stock solutions (in 95% aqueous ethanol) enabled quicker dissolution and higher solubility in milk serum than other methods of mixing, such as end to end, and greater reductions of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A after 0 and 24 h. When the EOC concentration detected in milk serum was above the minimum bactericidal concentration, complete inhibition of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth resulted. Therefore, the antilisterial properties in milk could be correlated with the solubility by comparison to the minimum inhibitory or bactericidal concentrations of EOCs. While the EOCs applied using ethanol generally had solubility and activity characteristics superior to those of other mixing methods, ethanol is not used to a great extent in nonfermented foods. Therefore, mixing methods without an organic solvent may be more readily adaptable to enhancing the distribution of EOCs in complex food systems. PMID:24271170

  8. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  9. Drug resinates an attractive approach of solubility enhancement of atorvastatin calcium.

    PubMed

    Kulthe, V V; Chaudhari, P D

    2013-09-01

    A substantial number of new chemical entities and marketed drugs show poor solubility characteristics and amorphisation is one of the favorable approaches to enhance solubility characteristics of such poorly soluble drugs. Formulation efforts in the present study were devoted to investigate amorphisation of a model poorly soluble drug, atorvastatin calcium by molecular complexation with anion exchange resin, Duolite(®)AP 143/1093 and hence enhancement in its solubility characteristics. Drug resinates in 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4 weight ratios were prepared by simple batch operation and subsequently studied for drug content, residual solvent content, molecular interactions, solid state characterisation and solubility characteristics. During initial characterisation, all the proportions of drug resinates, except 1:1 proportion showed partial amorphisation of the drug, whereas 1:1 proportion showed complete amorphisation of the drug. This proportion reported distinctly enhanced solubility characteristics over pure drug and other proportions. Such amorphisation and solubility enhancement could be attributed to the binding of individual drug molecules to the functional sites of the resin molecules, either partially or completely, resulting in reduction of crystal lattice energy, a main barrier to dissolution. Hydrophilic nature of ion exchange resin matrices also assisted in enhancing dissolution of the drug from the resinates. During accelerated stability study, there was an insignificant decrease in solubility characteristics of the drug and its amorphous form was also found to be stable in 1:1 proportion. Atorvastatin resinates formed in 1:1 weight ratio were in stoichiometric proportion and such drug resinates in stoichiometric proportion showed to have tremendous potential in conversion of crystalline form of drug substances to its amorphous form and subsequent stabilisation. It hence proved to be a very effective, yet simple approach for improving solubility

  10. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  11. [Soluble of Metals within TSP in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan; Feng, Chong; Qu, Jian-guo; Zhang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The dissolution of metals within aerosol particles is meaningful to evaluate the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected in Shanghai. We extracted the water soluble and acid soluble (pH = 2) metals by the mini-recirculation-leach-system and measured their concentrations by the high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The dissolution kinetics were rapid, the maximum solubility of metals could be reached in a few minutes. Overall, the average water-soluble concentrations were low for Co, Cr, Cd, V and Ni, median for Cu, Pb and Mn and high for Fe, Al, Zn and Mg. Combine the soluble metal concentrations with the back trajectory, the original air mass had significant impacts on water soluble metal concentrations. The water solubility and acid solubility were different for various metals, the water solubility of Fe was the lowest (2.0%), others followed an order: Al, Cr, V, Pb, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Mn, Mg, Zn. The metals' solubility was increased with the decrease of the solvent pH value. While the chemical speciation of metals was the internal cause of metals' solubility, the metals' ionic potential and the water solubility was negatively correlated.

  12. Bridging solubility between drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Di, Li; Fish, Paul V; Mano, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Solubility has a crucial role in the success of a drug candidate. Compounds with low solubility not only cause problems for in vitro and in vivo assays, but also add significant burdens to drug development. Drug discovery and drug development often have different solubility screening requirements and methodologies have been developed to meet the needs of these different stages.

  13. Will assisted suicide kill hospice?

    PubMed

    Caplan, A L

    1997-01-01

    Hospice is often held out as an alternative to the need for assisted suicide. To date, those in the hospice movement have made any discussion of assistance in dying off-limits on the grounds that proper palliative care can address the concerns about pain that the terminally ill face. But, the movement toward assisted suicide raises questions about the future viability of the hospice movement in its current form. Many who see assistance in dying are concerned, not about pain, but about suffering and loss of dignity. Many are not terminally ill but terrified at the prospect of disability and loss of cognitive capacities. Unless hospice addresses these concerns it is not likely to survive in the face of pressures to legalize assisted suicide.

  14. Tuning solubility and stability of hydrochlorothiazide co-crystals.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Rajput, Lalit

    2014-02-01

    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), C7H8ClN3O4S2, is a diuretic BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System) class IV drug which has primary and secondary sulfonamide groups. To modify the aqueous solubility of the drug, co-crystals with biologically safe co-formers were screened. Multi-component molecular crystals of HCT were prepared with nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, succinamide, p-aminobenzoic acid, resorcinol and pyrogallol using liquid-assisted grinding. The co-crystals were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry. Single crystal structures were obtained for four of them. The N-H...O sulfonamide catemer synthons found in the stable polymorph of pure HCT are replaced in the co-crystals by drug-co-former heterosynthons. Isostructural co-crystals with nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are devoid of the common sulfonamide dimer/catemer synthons. Solubility and stability experiments were carried out for the co-crystals in water (neutral pH) under ambient conditions. Among the six binary systems, the co-crystal with p-aminobenzoic acid showed a sixfold increase in solubility compared with pure HCT, and stability up to 24 h in an aqueous medium. The co-crystals with nicotinamide, resorcinol and pyrogallol showed only a 1.5-2-fold increase in solubility and transformed to HCT within 1 h of the dissolution experiment. An inverse correlation is observed between the melting points of the co-crystals and their solubilities.

  15. GADOLINIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.

    2012-03-12

    °C is about 10 g/L. Gadolinium nitrate is very soluble in HNO{sub 3}. The solubility of Gd is linear as a function of HNO{sub 3} from 343 g/L Gd in 2.88 M HNO{sub 3} to 149 g/L in 8.16 M HNO{sub 3}. Below 2.88 M HNO{sub 3}, the solubility of Gd approaches a limit of about 360 g/L. However, there are no data available below 1.40 M HNO{sub 3}, which has a Gd solubility of 353 g/L.

  16. Connecting the solubility and CCN activation of complex organic aerosols: A theoretical study using the Solubility Basis Set (SBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastak, Narges; Riipinen, Ilona; Pandis, Spyros

    2015-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Organic aerosol particles often consist of thousands of compounds with different properties. One of these properties is solubility, which affects the hygroscopic growth and CCN activation of the organic particles. Here we investigate the CCN activation behavior of complex organic aerosols accounting for the distribution of solubilities present in these mixtures. METHODS We considered a monodisperse population of spherical aerosol particles consisting of an internal mixture of organic compounds. When exposed to water vapor, these particles were assumed to grow reaching a thermodynamic equilibrium between the water vapor and the particle phase. The composition of the organic and aqueous phases was determined on one hand by the equilibrium between the aqueous phase and water vapor, and on the other hand by the equilibrium of the aqueous phase with the organic insoluble phase. We modelled the mixtures with the help of a solubility basis set (SBS, analogous to the volatility basis set VBS, Donahue et al. 2006, 2011, 2012), describing the mixture with n surrogate compounds with varying solubilities. We varied the range and shape of the solubility distribution, and the number of components n in the distribution, we also assumed two different kinds of interactions between the organic compounds in the insoluble phase 1) ideal mixture, where organics limit each other's dissolution; 2) unity activity, where organics behave as pure compounds and do not influence each other's dissolution. Critical supersaturations and the dissolution behavior at the point of CCN activation were calculated utilizing the Köhler theory for all organic mixtures (denoted here as the "full model"). The full model predictions were compared with the three simplified models: 1) assuming complete dissolution of all compounds; 2) treating the organic mixture solubility with the hygroscopicity parameter κ and 3) assuming a fixed soluble fraction ɛ for each mixture. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

  17. Dissolved Concentration Limits of Radioactive Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Chen; E.R. Thomas; F.J. Pearson; P.L. Cloke; T.L. Steinborn; P.V. Brady

    2003-06-20

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of radioactive elements under possible repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, and measurements made in laboratory experiments and field work. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 radioactive elements (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium), which are important to calculated dose. Model outputs are mainly in the form of look-up tables plus one or more uncertainty terms. The rest are either in the form of distributions or single values. The results of this analysis are fundamental inputs for total system performance assessment to constrain the release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Solubilities of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, lead, and radium have been re-evaluated using the newly updated thermodynamic database (Data0.ymp.R2). For all of the actinides, identical modeling approaches and consistent environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models in this revision. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, activity coefficients, and selection of solubility controlling phase have been quantified or otherwise addressed. Moreover, a new blended plutonium solubility model has been developed in this revision, which gives a mean solubility that is three orders of magnitude lower than the plutonium solubility model used for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation. Two alternative neptunium solubility models have also been

  18. Marangoni Flow of Soluble Amphiphiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roché, Matthieu; Li, Zhenzhen; Griffiths, Ian M.; Le Roux, Sébastien; Cantat, Isabelle; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-05-01

    Surfactant distribution heterogeneities at a fluid-fluid interface trigger the Marangoni effect, i.e., a bulk flow due to a surface tension gradient. The influence of surfactant solubility in the bulk on these flows remains incompletely characterized. Here we study Marangoni flows sustained by injection of hydrosoluble surfactants at the air-water interface. We show that these flows have a finite size that increases with a decrease of the critical micelle concentration of the surfactants. We document the universality of the surface velocity field of these finite flows and predict scaling laws based on hydrodynamics and surfactant physical chemistry that capture the flow features.

  19. Student Aid and Postsecondary Tax Preferences. Limited Research Exists on Effectiveness of Tools to Assist Students and Families through Title IV Student Aid and Tax Preferences. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. GAO05-684

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Federal assistance helps students and families pay for postsecondary education through several policy tools--grant and loan programs authorized by title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 and more recently enacted tax preferences. In fiscal year 2004, about $14 billion in grants and $56 billion in loans were made under title IV while…

  20. pH-dependent solubility of indomethacin-saccharin and carbamazepine-saccharin cocrystals in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Roy, Lilly; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2012-09-01

    Cocrystals constitute an important class of pharmaceutical solids for their remarkable ability to modulate solubility and pH dependence of water insoluble drugs. Here we show how cocrystals of indomethacin-saccharin (IND-SAC) and carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) enhance solubility and impart a pH-sensitivity different from that of the drugs. IND-SAC exhibited solubilities 13 to 65 times higher than IND at pH values of 1 to 3, whereas CBZ-SAC exhibited a 2 to 10 times higher solubility than CBZ dihydrate. Cocrystal solubility dependence on pH predicted from mathematical models using cocrystal K(sp), and cocrystal component K(a) values, was in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The cocrystal solubility increase relative to drug was predicted to reach a limiting value for a cocrystal with two acidic components. This limiting value is determined by the ionization constants of cocrystal components. Eutectic constants are shown to be meaningful indicators of cocrystal solubility and its pH dependence. The two contributions to solubility, cocrystal lattice and solvation, were evaluated by thermal and solubility determinations. The results show that solvation is the main barrier for the aqueous solubility of these drugs and their cocrystals, which are orders of magnitude higher than their lattice barriers. Cocrystal increase in solubility is thus a result of decreasing the solvation barrier compared to that of the drug. This work demonstrates the favorable properties of cocrystals and strategies that facilitate their meaningful characterization.

  1. One-to-One Assistant Engagement in Autism Support Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Gazi F.; Locke, Jill; Downey, Margaret Mary; Xie, Ming; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Classroom assistants and one-to-one assistants are an important part of the staffing structure of many autism support classrooms. Limited studies, however, have examined how one-to-one assistants spend their time in the classroom. The purpose of this article was to examine the percentage of time one-to-one assistants were engaged in instruction or…

  2. Thermodynamic approach to boron nitride nanotube solubility and dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiano, A. L.; Gibbons, L.; Tsui, M.; Applin, S. I.; Silva, R.; Park, C.; Fay, C. C.

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to improve dispersion include surface functionalization, surfactants, polymer wrapping, and sonication. Although these approaches have proven effective, they often achieve dispersion by altering the surface or structure of the nanomaterial and ultimately, their intrinsic properties. Co-solvents are commonly utilized in the polymer, paint, and art conservation industries to selectively dissolve materials. These co-solvents are utilized based on thermodynamic interaction parameters and are chosen so that the original materials are not affected. The same concept was applied to enhance the dispersion of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to facilitate the fabrication of BNNT nanocomposites. Of the solvents tested, dimethylacetamide (DMAc) exhibited the most stable, uniform dispersion of BNNTs, followed by N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Utilizing the known Hansen solubility parameters of these solvents in comparison to the BNNT dispersion state, a region of good solubility was proposed. This solubility region was used to identify co-solvent systems that led to improved BNNT dispersion in poor solvents such as toluene, hexane, and ethanol. Incorporating the data from the co-solvent studies further refined the proposed solubility region. From this region, the Hansen solubility parameters for BNNTs are thought to lie at the midpoint of the solubility sphere: 16.8, 10.7, and 9.0 MPa1/2 for δd, δp, and δh, respectively, with a calculated Hildebrand parameter of 21.8 MPa1/2.Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to

  3. Genotoxicity of poorly soluble particles.

    PubMed

    Schins, Roel P F; Knaapen, Ad M

    2007-01-01

    Poorly soluble particles such as TiO2, carbon black, and diesel exhaust particles have been evaluated for their genotoxicity using both in vitro and in vivo assays, since inhalation of these compounds by rats at high concentrations has been found to lead to tumor formation. Two principle modes of genotoxic action can be considered for particles, referred to as primary and secondary genotoxicity. Primary genotoxicity is defined as genetic damage elicited by particles in the absence of pulmonary inflammation, whereas secondary genotoxicity implies a pathway of genetic damage resulting from the oxidative DNA attack by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), generated during particle-elicited inflammation. Conceptually, primary genotoxicity might operate via various mechanisms, such as the actions of ROS (e.g., as generated from reactive particle surfaces), or DNA-adduct formation by reactive metabolites of particle-associated organic compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Currently available literature data, however, merely indicate that the tumorigenesis of poorly soluble particles involves a mechanism of secondary genotoxicity. However, further research is urgently required, since (1) causality between pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity has not yet been established, and (2) effects of inflammation on fundamental DNA damage responses that orchestrate mutagenesis and carcinogenic outcome,that is, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, proliferation, and apoptosis, are currently poorly understood. PMID:17886067

  4. Study of pH-dependent solubility of organic bases. Revisit of Henderson-Hasselbalch relationship.

    PubMed

    Völgyi, Gergely; Baka, Edit; Box, Karl J; Comer, John E A; Takács-Novák, Krisztina

    2010-07-12

    In this paper the pH-equilibrium solubility profiles of six organic drugs are presented. The equilibrium solubility values were determined using the saturation shake-flask and the Chasing Equilibrium Solubility (CheqSol) methods. Results obtained by the two methods are in good agreement. The aim of the present work was to study the validity of the Henderson-Hasselbalch (HH) relationship in the case of structurally diverse weak bases. The significance of pH control and the effect of the salt form (e.g., fumarate) was also investigated. In the case of monoprotic bases, namely papaverine, promethazine, propafenone and ticlopidine the experimental solubility data precisely follow the HH equation until the limit of salt solubility. The common ion effect on salt solubility was found to be significant at low pHs. Deviation from the HH equation in the case of dibasic quetiapine hydrogen fumarate and the ampholyte desvenlafaxine hydrogen fumarate can be easily interpreted with the formation of different salt compositions. It was concluded that precise pH control is essential in shake-flask solubility measurements. It is also critical that the pK(a) value and the intrinsic solubility are accurately determined when the HH relationship is used to predict the pH-dependent aqueous solubility of drugs.

  5. Thermodynamic approach to boron nitride nanotube solubility and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Tiano, A L; Gibbons, L; Tsui, M; Applin, S I; Silva, R; Park, C; Fay, C C

    2016-02-21

    Inadequate dispersion of nanomaterials is a critical issue that significantly limits the potential properties of nanocomposites and when overcome, will enable further enhancement of material properties. The most common methods used to improve dispersion include surface functionalization, surfactants, polymer wrapping, and sonication. Although these approaches have proven effective, they often achieve dispersion by altering the surface or structure of the nanomaterial and ultimately, their intrinsic properties. Co-solvents are commonly utilized in the polymer, paint, and art conservation industries to selectively dissolve materials. These co-solvents are utilized based on thermodynamic interaction parameters and are chosen so that the original materials are not affected. The same concept was applied to enhance the dispersion of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) to facilitate the fabrication of BNNT nanocomposites. Of the solvents tested, dimethylacetamide (DMAc) exhibited the most stable, uniform dispersion of BNNTs, followed by N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), acetone, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Utilizing the known Hansen solubility parameters of these solvents in comparison to the BNNT dispersion state, a region of good solubility was proposed. This solubility region was used to identify co-solvent systems that led to improved BNNT dispersion in poor solvents such as toluene, hexane, and ethanol. Incorporating the data from the co-solvent studies further refined the proposed solubility region. From this region, the Hansen solubility parameters for BNNTs are thought to lie at the midpoint of the solubility sphere: 16.8, 10.7, and 9.0 MPa(1/2) for δd, δp, and δh, respectively, with a calculated Hildebrand parameter of 21.8 MPa(1/2). PMID:26839175

  6. A Path to Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Abhilasha; Murray, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imprinting is a technique for making a selective binding site for a specific chemical. The technique involves building a polymeric scaffold of molecular complements containing the target molecule. Subsequent removal of the target leaves a cavity with a structural “memory” of the target. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be employed as selective adsorbents of specific molecules or molecular functional groups. In addition, sensors for specific molecules can be made using optical transduction through lumiphores residing in the imprinted site. We have found that the use of metal ions as chromophores can improve selectivity due to selective complex formation. The combination of molecular imprinting and spectroscopic selectivity can result in sensors that are highly sensitive and nearly immune to interferences. A weakness of conventional MIPs with regard to processing is the insolubility of crosslinked polymers. Traditional MIPs are prepared either as monoliths and ground into powders or are prepared in situ on a support. This limits the applicability of MIPs by imposing tedious or difficult processes for their inclusion in devices. The size of the particles hinders diffusion and slows response. These weaknesses could be avoided if a means were found to prepare individual macromolecules with crosslinked binding sites with soluble linear polymeric arms. This process has been made possible by controlled free radical polymerization techniques that can form pseudo-living polymers. Modern techniques of controlled free radical polymerization allow the preparation of block copolymers with potentially crosslinkable substituents in specific locations. The inclusion of crosslinkable mers proximate to the binding complex in the core of a star polymer allows the formation of molecularly imprinted macromolecules that are soluble and processable. Due to the much shorter distance for diffusion, the polymers exhibit rapid responses. This paper reviews the methods

  7. Cocrystals of Hydrochlorothiazide: Solubility and Diffusion/Permeability Enhancements through Drug-Coformer Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Devi, V Kusum; Clara, Deepa; Malviya, Nidhi; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-05-01

    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) is a diuretic and a BCS class IV drug with low solubility and low permeability, exhibiting poor oral absorption. The present study attempts to improve the physicochemical properties of the drug using a crystal engineering approach with cocrystals. Such multicomponent crystals of HCT with nicotinic acid (NIC), nicotinamide (NCT), 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), succinamide (SAM), and resorcinol (RES) were prepared using liquid-assisted grinding, and their solubilities in pH 7.4 buffer were evaluated. Diffusion and membrane permeability were studied using a Franz diffusion cell. Except for the SAM and NIC cocrystals, all other binary systems exhibited improved solubility. All of the cocrystals showed improved diffusion/membrane permeability compared to that of HCT with the exception of the SAM cocrystal. When the solubility was high, as in the case of PABA, NCT, and RES cocrystals, the flux/permeability dropped slightly. This is in agreement with the expected interplay between solubility and permeability. Improved solubility/permeability is attributed to new drug-coformer interactions. Cocrystals of SAM, however, showed poor solubility and flux. This cocrystal contains a primary sulfonamide dimer synthon similar to that of HCT polymorphs, which may be a reason for its unusual behavior. Hirshfeld surface analysis was carried out in all cases to determine whether a correlation exists between cocrystal permeability and drug-coformer interactions. PMID:25800383

  8. Cocrystals of Hydrochlorothiazide: Solubility and Diffusion/Permeability Enhancements through Drug-Coformer Interactions.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Devi, V Kusum; Clara, Deepa; Malviya, Nidhi; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-05-01

    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) is a diuretic and a BCS class IV drug with low solubility and low permeability, exhibiting poor oral absorption. The present study attempts to improve the physicochemical properties of the drug using a crystal engineering approach with cocrystals. Such multicomponent crystals of HCT with nicotinic acid (NIC), nicotinamide (NCT), 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), succinamide (SAM), and resorcinol (RES) were prepared using liquid-assisted grinding, and their solubilities in pH 7.4 buffer were evaluated. Diffusion and membrane permeability were studied using a Franz diffusion cell. Except for the SAM and NIC cocrystals, all other binary systems exhibited improved solubility. All of the cocrystals showed improved diffusion/membrane permeability compared to that of HCT with the exception of the SAM cocrystal. When the solubility was high, as in the case of PABA, NCT, and RES cocrystals, the flux/permeability dropped slightly. This is in agreement with the expected interplay between solubility and permeability. Improved solubility/permeability is attributed to new drug-coformer interactions. Cocrystals of SAM, however, showed poor solubility and flux. This cocrystal contains a primary sulfonamide dimer synthon similar to that of HCT polymorphs, which may be a reason for its unusual behavior. Hirshfeld surface analysis was carried out in all cases to determine whether a correlation exists between cocrystal permeability and drug-coformer interactions.

  9. Protein solubilities determined by a rapid technique and modification of that technique to a micro-method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cacioppo, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc Lee; Munson, Sibyl

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid method for determination of protein solubilities has been developed which is based upon maximization of the free solution volume to be brought into equilibrium. The tetragonal lysozome solubility diagram has been determined from pH 4.0 to 5.2 (0.1 M sodium acetate), 2-7 percent NaCl, 3-25 C, and portions of the orthorhombic solubility diagram using this technique. Both tetragonal and orthorhombic solubilities were found to increase smoothly with decreasing salt concentration and increasing temperature; no retrograde solubilities were observed. Using column volumes of 75, 300, and 900 microliters, identical tetragonal lysozyme solubility diagrams were obtained. Chymotrypsinogen solubilities have also been determined using this apparatus, being retrograde over the temperature range tested. It is noted that the primary limiting factor in reducing the crystalline volume is the minimum solution sample size needed to accurately quantitate the protein.

  10. 40 CFR 35.548 - Award limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitations. 35.548 Section 35... Assistance Program (gap) § 35.548 Award limitations. (a) Each grant awarded under the General Assistance... available for award to the same Tribe or Intertribal Consortium. (b) The Regional Administrator shall...

  11. Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Savjani, Ketan T.; Gajjar, Anuradha K.; Savjani, Jignasa K.

    2012-01-01

    Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous system, is one of the important parameters to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for desired (anticipated) pharmacological response. Low aqueous solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for the generic development. More than 40% NCEs (new chemical entities) developed in pharmaceutical industry are practically insoluble in water. Solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of solution at the site of absorption. Various techniques are used for the enhancement of the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which include physical and chemical modifications of drug and other methods like particle size reduction, crystal engineering, salt formation, solid dispersion, use of surfactant, complexation, and so forth. Selection of solubility improving method depends on drug property, site of absorption, and required dosage form characteristics. PMID:22830056

  12. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2008-04-29

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  13. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell; Anthony K.; Jia; Quanxi; Lin; Yuan

    2009-10-20

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films and the like. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  14. Letter report (T-418): Progress report on solubility measurements, October 1, 1987--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Nitsche, H.

    1989-03-21

    This letter report describes the technical activities of the waste element solubility study during Fiscal Year (FY88, October 1, 1987 to September 30, 1988). This experimental waste element solubility study provides experimentally determined limits on radionuclide concentrations in groundwater from Yucca Mountain. Furthermore, the results of this study are essential for verifying the validity of radionuclide transport calculations, and for providing the maximum concentrations for the radionuclide sorption tests. Solubility is the source term for radionuclide transport calculations. The solubility in this study is controlled by fewer variables than are used in the multiparameter transport model. Therefore, modeling must be capable of predicting the results of this waste element solubility study. Agreement between the experimental result and the modeling predictions will validate the geochemical module of the transport model. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Improving the soluble expression of recombinant proteins by randomly shuffling 5' and 3' coding-sequence ends.

    PubMed

    Bignon, Christophe; Li, Changqing; Lichière, Julie; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Many structural genomics (SG) programmes rely on the design of soluble protein domains. The production and screening of large libraries to experimentally select these soluble protein-encoding constructs are limited by the technologies and efforts that can be devoted to a single target. Using basic technologies available in any laboratory, a method named `boundary shuffling' was devised to generate orientated libraries for soluble domain selection without impeding the target flow. PMID:24311598

  16. 44 CFR 206.67 - Requirement when limitation is exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement when limitation is exceeded. 206.67 Section 206.67 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE...

  17. Filtrates & Residues: An Experiment on the Molar Solubility and Solubility Product of Barium Nitrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wruck, Betty; Reinstein, Jesse

    1989-01-01

    Provides a two hour experiment using direct gravimetric methods to determine solubility constants. Provides methodology and sample results. Discusses the effect of the common ion on the solubility constant. (MVL)

  18. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN SIMULATED SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Hobbs, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-09-27

    measured or values predicted by the SRNL model and values predicted by the OLI AG model was very poor. The much higher predicted concentrations by the OLI AQ model appears to be the result of the model predicting the predominate Pu oxidation state is Pu(V) which is reported as unstable below sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations of 6 M. There was very good agreement between the predicted Pu concentrations using the SRNL model and the model developed by Delegard and Gallagher with the exception of solutions that had very high OH{sup -} (15 M) concentrations. The lower Pu solubilities in these solutions were attributed to the presence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NO{sub 2}{sup -} which limit the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(V).

  19. Spreadsheet Techniques for Evaluating the Solubility of Sparingly Soluble Salts of Weak Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinón, José L.; García-Antón, José; Pérez-Herranz, Valentín

    1999-08-01

    A spreadsheet of Microsoft Excel for determining the solubility of sparingly soluble salts is described. The chart and worksheet are shown simultaneously on the screen. The worksheet can be used for any salt by merely changing the data for the solubility product constant and ionization constants. Practical examples of calculations are given and discussed.

  20. A Colorful Solubility Exercise for Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugrue, Christopher R.; Mentzen, Hans H., II; Linton, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    A discovery chemistry laboratory has been developed for the introductory organic chemistry student to investigate the concepts of polarity, miscibility, solubility, and density. The simple procedure takes advantage of the solubility of two colored dyes in a series of solvents or solvent mixtures, and the diffusion of colors can be easily…

  1. Calculation of Drug Solubilities by Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Lindley A.

    1981-01-01

    A method of estimating the solubilities of drugs in water is reported that is based on a principle applied in quantitative structure-activity relationships. This procedure involves correlation of partition coefficient values using the octanol/water system and aqueous solubility. (Author/MLW)

  2. Acid-Soluble Material of Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, P. A.; Jaume, F.; Flamencourt, P.; Biserte, G.

    1970-01-01

    Two methods are described for adenovirus capsid disruption and extraction of acid-soluble proteins from the viral core. The acid-soluble material of adenovirus consisted of three major proteins, one of them being selectively extracted after mild disruption of the virus particle. Some chemical properties of these proteins are reported. Images PMID:4986288

  3. 44 CFR 78.8 - Grant funding limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant funding limitations. 78.8 Section 78.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.8 Grant funding limitations. (a) The Administrator will allocate the...

  4. 44 CFR 78.8 - Grant funding limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant funding limitations. 78.8 Section 78.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.8 Grant funding limitations. (a) The Administrator will allocate the...

  5. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  6. Experimental evaluation of solid solubility of lanthanide and transuranium nitrides into ZrN matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Masahide

    2013-09-01

    The solid solution formation between ZrN and some selected lanthanide/transuranium (TRU) nitrides was examined by powder metallurgy of the nitride mixtures and simultaneous carbothermic nitridation of the oxide mixtures. The solid solubility into ZrN was determined by powder X-ray diffraction measurements as a function of relative lattice parameter difference (RLPD). The upper limit of RLPD value for the complete solid solubility was evaluated to be 8.6-8.9% in the temperature range of 1773-1973 K from the results of powder metallurgy. The solid solubility into ZrN decreases sharply in the greater RLPD value range. The solid solubility into ZrN in the products of carbothermic nitridation was lower, according to the influence of dissolved carbon impurity. The TRU composition limits for (Zr,TRU)N single-phase solid solution formation were simulated for the basis of fuel design works.

  7. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  8. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  9. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  10. Soluble proteins of chemical communication: an overview across arthropods.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Paolo; Iovinella, Immacolata; Felicioli, Antonio; Dani, Francesca R

    2014-01-01

    Detection of chemical signals both in insects and in vertebrates is mediated by soluble proteins, highly concentrated in olfactory organs, which bind semiochemicals and activate, with still largely unknown mechanisms, specific chemoreceptors. The same proteins are often found in structures where pheromones are synthesized and released, where they likely perform a second role in solubilizing and delivering chemical messengers in the environment. A single class of soluble polypeptides, called Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) is known in vertebrates, while two have been identified in insects, OBPs and CSPs (Chemosensory Proteins). Despite their common name, OBPs of vertebrates bear no structural similarity with those of insects. We observed that in arthropods OBPs are strictly limited to insects, while a few members of the CSP family have been found in crustacean and other arthropods, where however, based on their very limited numbers, a function in chemical communication seems unlikely. The question we address in this review is whether another class of soluble proteins may have been adopted by other arthropods to perform the role of OBPs and CSPs in insects. We propose that lipid-transporter proteins of the Niemann-Pick type C2 family could represent likely candidates and report the results of an analysis of their sequences in representative species of different arthropods. PMID:25221516

  11. Soluble proteins of chemical communication: an overview across arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Paolo; Iovinella, Immacolata; Felicioli, Antonio; Dani, Francesca R.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of chemical signals both in insects and in vertebrates is mediated by soluble proteins, highly concentrated in olfactory organs, which bind semiochemicals and activate, with still largely unknown mechanisms, specific chemoreceptors. The same proteins are often found in structures where pheromones are synthesized and released, where they likely perform a second role in solubilizing and delivering chemical messengers in the environment. A single class of soluble polypeptides, called Odorant-Binding Proteins (OBPs) is known in vertebrates, while two have been identified in insects, OBPs and CSPs (Chemosensory Proteins). Despite their common name, OBPs of vertebrates bear no structural similarity with those of insects. We observed that in arthropods OBPs are strictly limited to insects, while a few members of the CSP family have been found in crustacean and other arthropods, where however, based on their very limited numbers, a function in chemical communication seems unlikely. The question we address in this review is whether another class of soluble proteins may have been adopted by other arthropods to perform the role of OBPs and CSPs in insects. We propose that lipid-transporter proteins of the Niemann-Pick type C2 family could represent likely candidates and report the results of an analysis of their sequences in representative species of different arthropods. PMID:25221516

  12. Evaluation of the chemiluminescent nitrogen detector for solubility determinations to support drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Wesley, James A; Seadeek, Christopher

    2006-04-11

    Solubility measurements using chemiluminescent nitrogen detection (CLND) has advantages of reduced compound requirement and increased throughput compared to UV-spectrophotometric and HPLC-based measurements. CLND with direct flow injection was evaluated for the measurement of thermodynamic solubility to support drug discovery. The limit of quantitation (LOQ), accuracy, and day-to-day reproducibility of the detector were measured. Measurements made on CLND were compared to those obtained from UV spectrophotometry and HPLC. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the CLND performs satisfactorily for discovery stage thermodynamic solubility measurements.

  13. Hydrocarbon solubility and its migration processes: a look at the present status

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, C.K.; Ohkuma, H.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1985-12-01

    In this study we review the present status of knowledge of solubility of hydrocarbons and its implications on primary migration processes. The intent is to examine the solubility and the transportation mechanisms relevant to geopressured-geothermal reservoirs, although the discussion included here accommodates a wide range of related aspects. Influences of parameters associated with hydrocarbon (especially methane) solubility have been studied. We have sought to evaluate several primary hydrocarbon migration processes and to point out their attractive features as well as their limitations. A brief discussion of hydrocarbon generation processes is also included.

  14. 10 CFR 1042.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or...: (1) On the basis of sex, provide different amounts or types of such assistance, limit eligibility...

  15. 29 CFR 36.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or...) On the basis of sex, provide different amounts or types of such assistance, limit eligibility...

  16. 29 CFR 36.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or...) On the basis of sex, provide different amounts or types of such assistance, limit eligibility...

  17. 29 CFR 36.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or...) On the basis of sex, provide different amounts or types of such assistance, limit eligibility...

  18. Hydrogen permeation, diffusion and solubility in IN-100 and Waspaloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, A. S.; Peterson, D. T.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen in IN-100 and Waspaloy by determining the evolution rate of hydrogen from a closed capsule of the test materials. Enclosed vanadium hydride was the source of hydrogen in the capsule. The presentation discusses the treatment of data and assesses the validity of the techniques in permeation measurement. In addition to permeation experiments, the solubility and diffusion of hydrogen in IN-100 and Waspaloy were also determined. For hydrogen diffusion in Waspaloy, Delta H was 38.5 kJ and D(0) was 0.0026 sq cm/sec. For IN-100, Delta H was 68.2 kJ and D(0) was 0.059 sq cm /sec. Both IN-100 and Waspaloy exhibited limited solubility of hydrogen at pressures up to 340 atmospheres hydrogen.

  19. The mobile order solubility equation applied to polyfunctional molecules: The non-hydroxysteroids in aqueous and non aqueous solvents.

    PubMed

    Ruelle; Farina-Cuendet; Kesselring

    1997-11-28

    The solubility equation for real solutions derived from the thermodynamics of mobile order in liquids is used to predict the solubility of non-hydroxysteroids in water and in common polar and nonpolar organic solvents. Strictly obtained on a thermodynamic basis, the model allows not only correct predictions of the solubilities from the knowledge of a limited number of characteristics of solutes and solvents, but also enables a better understanding of the solution process and of the factors that determine solubility. Some practical rules are derived which might help to orient the choice of a solvent for liquid pharmaceutical forms.

  20. Zirconia solubility in boroaluminosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.; Bopp, R.; Batcheller, T.A.; Yan, Q.

    1995-12-31

    In the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste streams, zirconia is often the waste load limiting species. It modifies the glass network, enhances durability, increases viscosity and induces crystallization. The limits of its dissolution in boroaluminosilicate glass, with magnesia and soda additions were experimentally determined. A ternary compositional surface is evolved to present the isothermal regimes of liquid, liquid + zircon, liquid + forsterite, and liquid phase sintered ceramic. The potential of partitioning the transuranics, transition elements and solutes in these regimes is discussed. The visible Raman spectroscopic results are presented to elucidate the dependence among glass composition, structure and chemical durability.

  1. Zirconia solubility in boroaluminosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.; Bopp, R.; Batcheller, T.A.; Yan, Q.

    1996-08-01

    In the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste streams, zirconia is often the waste load limiting species. It modifies the glass network, enhances durability, increases viscosity and induces crystallization. The limits of its dissolution in boroaluminosilicate glass, with magnesia and soda additions were experimentally determined. A ternary compositional surface is evolved to present the isothermal regimes of liquid, liquid+zircon, liquid+forsterite, and liquid phase sintered ceramic. The potential of partitioning the transuranics, transition elements and solutes in these regimes is discussed. The visible Raman spectroscopic results are presented to elucidate the dependence among glass composition, structure and chemical durability.

  2. Initial Sulfate Solubility Study for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this task is to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) with an assessment of the viability of using the current 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and/or the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility limit to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit was implemented for processing of Frit 418-Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) to avoid the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten sulfate-rich phase on the melt pool in the DWPF melter. The presence of such a phase on the surface of the melt pool increases corrosion rates of melter components, enhances the potential for steam excursions in a slurry-fed waste glass melter, and creates the potential for undesirable current paths that could deplete energy delivered to the melter due to the electrical conductivity of the molten salt layer. This suite of sulfate-solubility tests began by testing the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case for SB4 (as defined by Lilliston and Shah, 2004)--based on this being the most conservative (having the highest predicted viscosity when coupled with specific frits, it could potentially have the greatest impact on SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility) blending scenario of SB4 with the heel of SB3 for SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility. Frits 320 and 418 were tested with SB4 and the tests indicated that at the current SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and the tested waste loadings (30% and 40%), neither Frit 320 nor Frit 418 could be utilized with SB4 (for the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case composition originally provided). More specifically, SO{sub 4}{sup =} was observed on the surface with the SB4 composition and Frit 320 at 40% waste loading (WL) and 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and with Frit 418 at 30% and 40% WL and 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}. As alternative frits were being developed--Frits 447, 448, and 449, that contained CaO and/or V

  3. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Elless, M P; Armstrong, A Q; Lee, S Y

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the U.S. Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment. We recommend that characterization and measurement of target radionuclides/metals solubilities should also be required by the regulatory

  4. Solubility of aerosol trace elements: sources and deposition fluxes in the Canary Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelado-Caballero, María Dolores; López-García, Patricia; Patey, Matthew; Prieto, Sandra; Collado, Cayetano; Santana, Desire; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    To date there have been no long-term aerosol studies in the Canary Basin, and current estimates of soluble fluxes of Al, Mn, Fe, P and N for the region are based on limited data available from several oceanographic research cruises which have crossed the region during large transects of the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, aerosol samples have been collected at two stations on the island of Gran Canaria regularly since 2006 (Taliarte, at sea level, and Pico de la Gorra, at 1930 m altitude). Samples have been analysed for total and soluble trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Ti). The high temporal resolution of this dataset represents a valuable contribution to the understanding of aerosol deposition of trace metals to the region. Solubility measurements from acetate buffer leaching experiments showed the same tendency in the percentage of soluble metals in the samples: a higher percentage solubility of metals in anthropogenic aerosols and at low dust loading. Moreover, categorisation of aerosol samples with a continental African origin according to air-mass back-trajectories (North of Africa, Central and Western Sahara and Sahel) showed a decreasing tendency in the percentage of soluble Al and Fe to the south. In addition, factors that can affect the percentage solubility values for crustal elements and comparisons with different methods were studied. Freezing the samples stored affects the measurements of Al and Fe solubility. This last result is important for the design of future aerosol sampling programmes and aerosol solubility experiments. Flux estimates for aerosol-derived soluble metals reveal that phosphate is highly depleted relative to Fe and N when compared with Redfield values. It appears that aerosol deposition is an important source of N and trace metals (Fe, Co, Mn and Al) to the NE subtropical Atlantic Ocean. This work has been supported by the European Commission FEDER funds (PCT MAC 2007-2013, ESTRAMAR Mac/3/C177).

  5. Dioxygen Activation in Soluble Methane Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Tinberg, Christine E.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The controlled oxidation of methane to methanol is a chemical transformation of great industrial importance that is underutilized because of inefficient and costly synthetic procedures. Methane monooxygenase enzymes (MMOs) from methanotrophic bacteria achieve this chemistry efficiently under ambient conditions. In this Account we discuss the first step in the oxidation of methane at the carboxylate-bridged diiron active site of the soluble MMO (sMMO), namely, the reductive activation of atmospheric O2. The results provide benchmarks against which the dioxygen activation mechanisms of other bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases can be measured. Molecular oxygen reacts rapidly with the reduced, diiron(II) center of the hydroxylase component of sMMO (MMOH). The first spectroscopically characterized intermediate that results from this process is an antiferromagnetically coupled peroxodiiron(III) species, P*, in which the iron atoms have identical environments. P* converts to a second peroxodiiron(III) unit, Hperoxo, in a process accompanied by the transfer of a proton, probably with the assistance of a residue near the active site. Proton-promoted O–O bond scission and rearrangement of the diiron core then leads to a diiron(IV) unit termed Q that is directly responsible for the oxidation of methane to methanol. In the first half of this Account we provide a detailed discussion of these processes, with particular emphasis on possible structures of the intermediates. The geometries of P* and Hperoxo are currently unknown, and recent synthetic modeling chemistry has highlighted the need for further structural characterization of Q, previously assigned as a di(μ-oxo)diiron(IV) `diamond core'. In the second half of the Account, we discuss in detail proton transfer during the O2 activation events. The role of protons in promoting O–O bond cleavage, thereby initiating the conversion of Hperoxo to Q, was previously a controversial topic. Recent studies

  6. The solubility of nickel and its migration through the cementitious backfill of a geological disposal facility for nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Felipe-Sotelo, M; Hinchliff, J; Field, L P; Milodowski, A E; Holt, J D; Taylor, S E; Read, D

    2016-08-15

    This work describes the solubility of nickel under the alkaline conditions anticipated in the near field of a cementitious repository for intermediate level nuclear waste. The measured solubility of Ni in 95%-saturated Ca(OH)2 solution is similar to values obtained in water equilibrated with a bespoke cementitious backfill material, on the order of 5×10(-7)M. Solubility in 0.02M NaOH is one order of magnitude lower. For all solutions, the solubility limiting phase is Ni(OH)2; powder X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy indicate that differences in crystallinity are the likely cause of the lower solubility observed in NaOH. The presence of cellulose degradation products causes an increase in the solubility of Ni by approximately one order of magnitude. The organic compounds significantly increase the rate of Ni transport under advective conditions and show measurable diffusive transport through intact monoliths of the cementitious backfill material.

  7. Oxygen solubility and permeability of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Whitcombe, Michael J; Parker, Roger; Ring, Stephen G

    2005-06-13

    The saturated oxygen concentration in a series of aqueous solutions of sorbitol (up to 35% w/w) and maltitol (up to 50% w/w) was measured using colorimetric reagent vials based on Rhodazine D. The results indicate that the solubility of oxygen in low-water carbohydrates is considerably lower than its solubility in pure water. It was concluded that the low-oxygen solubility is a major factor contributing to the barrier properties of low-water content carbohydrates used in the encapsulation of flavours, lipids, peptides and other oxidisable species.

  8. Solid Solubilities of Pu, U, Gd and Hf in Candidate Ceramic Nuclear Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Eric R.; Carter, M. L.; Lumpkin, G. R.; Day, R. A.; Begg, B. D.

    2001-04-02

    This goal of this research project was to determine the solid solubility of Pu, U, Gd, and Hf in candidate ceramics for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste. The experimental approach was to saturate each phase by adding more than the solid solubility limit of the given cation, using a nominated substitution scheme, and then analyzing the candidate phase that formed to evaluate the solid solubility limit under firing conditions. Confirmation that the solid solution limit had been reached insofar as other phases rich in the cation of interest was also required. The candidate phases were monazite, titanite, zirconolite, perovskite, apatite, pyrochlore, and brannerite. The valences of Pu and U were typically deduced from the firing atmosphere, and charge balancing in the candidate phase composition as evaluated from electron microscopy, although in some cases it was measured directly by x-ray absorption and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies (for U). Tetravalent Pu and U have restricted (< 0.1 formula units) solid solubility in apatite, titanite, and perovskite. Trivalent Pu has a larger solubility in apatite and perovskite than Pu4+. U3+ appears to be a credible species in reduced perovskite with a solubility of {approximately} 0.25 f.u. as opposed to {approximately} 0.05 f.u. for U4+. Pu4+ is a viable species in monazite and is promoted at lower firing temperatures ({approximately} 800 C) in an air atmosphere. Hf solubility is restricted in apatite, monazite (< 0.1 f.u.), but is {approximately} 0.2 and 0.5 f.u. in brannerite and titanite, respectively. Gd solubility is extended in all phases except for titanite ({approximately} 0.3 f.u.). U5+ was identified by DRS observations of absorption bands in the visible/near infrared photon energy ranges in brannerite and zirconolite, and U4+ in zirconolite was similarly identified.

  9. Mn solubility tested in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    It has been known for the past 2 or 3 years that the concentration of manganese in the upper several hundred meters of ocean water is unlike that of other trace metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel. Trace metals are needed as a sort of ‘vitamin supplement’ by marine plants and animals; the surface supply is biologically scavenged and regenerated at depth. Thus ocean concentrations of trace metals increase with depth.Manganese, by contrast, appears to be concentrated in the photic zone and becomes relatively depleted in the depth interval 50-100 m from the surface. W. Landing and K. Bruland (Ear. Planet. Sci. Lett. 49, 45-56, 1980) described their observations of vertical distributions of manganese in a study of samples from the north Pacific. Recently, W. Sunda, S. A. Huntsman, and A. Harvey, in a study supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have found similar behavior of manganese in samples of coastal seawater and offshore seawater collected off North Carolina (Nature, 20, January 1983). They suggest on the basis of experiments conducted with these samples that the marine biological community itself serves to condition the surface seawater and, with the assistance of photoreduction, cause manganese to dissolve in the otherwise oxygenated zones.

  10. Solubility prediction of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures using extended hildebrand solubility approach.

    PubMed

    Rathi, P B

    2011-11-01

    Extended Hildebrand solubility approach is used to estimate the solubility of satranidazole in binary solvent systems. The solubility of satranidazole in various propylene glycol-water mixtures was analyzed in terms of solute-solvent interactions using a modified version of Hildebrand-Scatchard treatment for regular solutions. The solubility equation employs term interaction energy (W) to replace the geometric mean (δ(1)δ(2)), where δ(1) and δ(2) are the cohesive energy densities for the solvent and solute, respectively. The new equation provides an accurate prediction of solubility once the interaction energy, W, is obtained. In this case, the energy term is regressed against a polynomial in δ(1) of the binary mixture. A quartic expression of W in terms of solvent solubility parameter was found for predicting the solubility of satranidazole in propylene glycol-water mixtures. The expression yields an error in mole fraction solubility of ~3.74%, a value approximating that of the experimentally determined solubility. The method has potential usefulness in preformulation and formulation studies during which solubility prediction is important for drug design. PMID:23112403

  11. Solubility of drugs in aqueous solutions. Part 5. Thermodynamic consistency test for the solubility data.

    PubMed

    Ruckenstein, E; Shulgin, I

    2005-03-23

    This paper is devoted to the verification of the quality of experimental data regarding the solubility of sparingly soluble solids, such as drugs, environmentally important substances, etc. in mixed solvents. A thermodynamic consistency test based on the Gibbs-Duhem equation for ternary mixtures is suggested. This test has the form of an equation, which connects the solubilities of the solid, and the activity coefficients of the constituents of the solute-free mixed solvent in two mixed solvents of close compositions. The experimental data regarding the solubility of sparingly soluble substances can be verified with the suggested test if accurate data for the activity coefficients of the constituents of the solute-free mixed solvent are available. The test was applied to a number of systems representing the solubilities of sparingly soluble substances in mixed solvents. First, the test was scrutinized for four nonaqueous systems for which accurate solubility data were available. Second, the suggested test was applied to a number of systems representing experimental data regarding the solubility of sparingly soluble substances in aqueous mixed solvents.

  12. Solid Phospholipid Dispersions for Oral Delivery of Poorly Soluble Drugs: Investigation Into Celecoxib Incorporation and Solubility-In Vitro Permeability Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Martins, Susana M; Brandl, Martin; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2016-03-01

    Celecoxib (CXB) is a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug in which its oral bioavailability is limited by poor aqueous solubility. Although a range of formulations aiming to increase the solubility of CXB have been developed, it is not completely understood, whether (1) an increase in CXB solubility leads to a subsequent increase in permeability across intestinal barrier and (2) the presence of bile salts affects the solubility and permeability behavior of CXB formulations. By formulating CXB solid phospholipid (PL) dispersions with various PL-to-drug ratios using freeze drying, the present study illustrated that the enhancement of CXB solubility was not proportionally translated into enhanced permeability; both parameters were highly dependent on the PL-to-drug ratios as well as the dispersion media (i.e., the presence of 3-mM sodium taurocholate). This study highlights the importance of evaluating both, solubility and permeability, and the use of biorelevant medium for testing the candidate-enabling performance of liposomal formulations. Mechanisms at molecular level that may explain the effect of PL formulations on the permeability of CXB are also discussed. PMID:26886329

  13. Plasma soluble prion protein, a potential biomarker for sport-related concussions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pham, Nam; Akonasu, Hungbo; Shishkin, Rhonda; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2015-01-01

    Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI) in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrP(C) in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrP(C) in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrP(C) is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making.

  14. Soluble endoglin, hypercholesterolemia and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rathouska, Jana; Jezkova, Katerina; Nemeckova, Ivana; Nachtigal, Petr

    2015-12-01

    A soluble form of endoglin (sEng) is known to be an extracellular domain of the full-length membrane endoglin, which is elevated during various pathological conditions related to vascular endothelium. In the current review, we tried to summarize a possible role of soluble endoglin in cardiovascular pathologies, focusing on its relation to endothelial dysfunction and cholesterol levels. We discussed sEng as a proposed biomarker of cardiovascular disease progression, cardiovascular disease treatment and endothelial dysfunction. We also addressed a potential interaction of sEng with TGF-β/eNOS or BMP-9 signaling. We suggest soluble endoglin levels to be monitored, because they reflect the progression/treatment efficacy of cardiovascular diseases related to endothelial dysfunction and hypercholesterolemia. A possible role of soluble endoglin as an inducer of endothelial dysfunction however remains to be elucidated. PMID:26520890

  15. Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1970-01-01

    High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

  16. An Introduction to the Understanding of Solubility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Trevor M.; Battino, Rubin

    2001-01-01

    Explores different solubility processes and related issues, including the second law of thermodynamics and ideal mixtures, real liquids, intermolecular forces, and solids in liquids or gases in liquids. (Contains 22 references.) (ASK)

  17. Predicting the octanol solubility of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Admire, Brittany; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2013-07-01

    The molar octanol solubility of an organic nonelectrolytes can be reasonably predicted solely from its melting point provided that its liquid (or a hypothetical super-cooled liquid) form is miscible with octanol. The aim of this work is to develop criteria to determine if the real or hypothetical liquid form of a given compound will be miscible with octanol based on its molar volume and solubility parameter. Fortunately, most organic compounds (including most drugs) conform to the criteria for complete liquid miscibility, and therefore have solubilities that are proportional to their melting points. The results show that more than 95% of the octanol solubilities studied are predicted with an error of less than 1 logarithmic unit.

  18. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. PMID:22480785

  19. The Solubility of Phenylborate Compounds in Benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    The original goal of this scoping study was to determine if the solubility of sodium and potassium tetraphenylborates in benzene was sufficiently large to justify designing and performing kinetic studies on a benzene-phase catalytic reaction.

  20. Acid soluble, pepsin resistant platelet aggregating material

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1982-08-31

    Disclosed is an acid soluble, pepsin resistant, platelet aggregating material isolated from equine arterial tissue by extraction with dilute aqueous acid. The method of isolation and use to control bleeding are described. 4 figs.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLUBILITY PRODUCT VISUALIZATION TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Turner; A.T. Pauli; J.F. Schabron

    2004-05-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed software for the visualization of data acquired from solubility tests. The work was performed in conjunction with AB Nynas Petroleum, Nynashamn, Sweden who participated as the corporate cosponsor for this Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) task. Efforts in this project were split between software development and solubility test development. The Microsoft Windows-compatible software developed inputs up to three solubility data sets, calculates the parameters for six solid body types to fit the data, and interactively displays the results in three dimensions. Several infrared spectroscopy techniques have been examined for potential use in determining bitumen solubility in various solvents. Reflectance, time-averaged absorbance, and transmittance techniques were applied to bitumen samples in single and binary solvent systems. None of the techniques were found to have wide applicability.

  2. Development of an analytical method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane and sweet sorghum products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, quantitative research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to facilitate the determination of total insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar crop products. Several variables that affect starch solubilization were evaluated, 1) conductive boiling time, 2...

  3. Zircon solubility and of Zr species in subduction zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, M.; Schmidt, C.; Rickers, K.; Pascarelli, S.; Manning, C. E.; Stechern, A.

    2009-12-01

    The geochemical signature of igneous rocks at convergent plate margins is thought to result from complex melt formation processes involving aqueous solutions derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. In these processes, the depletion of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) may be controlled by the presence of accessory phases such as zircon and rutile, which can strongly fractionate these elements; however, the stability and solubility of these phases depends strongly on the fluid composition, including concentration and stoichiometry of Na-Al silicate components. Here we present new data on the influence of the fluid composition on zircon solubility as well as data on the Zr complexation in these fluids at P&T. Experiments were conducted using a modified hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC). Zr contents at P&T were determined using SR-µXRF spectra. Zr K-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectra were acquired to investigate the Zr complexation in-situ at P&T. A grain of synthetic crystalline zircon was equilibrated with an aqueous fluid containing Na2Si2O5 or Na2Si2O5 + Al2O3 components. XAFS and SR-µXRF spectra were taken at the dispersive beamline ID24 of the ESRF, Grenoble, France. Some additional SR-µXRF spectra were taken at HASYLAB, Hamburg, beamline L. The observed Zr concentrations in fluids containing 7-33 wt% Na2Si2O5 and variable Al contents were between 75 and 720 ppm at 500 to 750°C and ~300 MPa to ~700 MPa. These values match expected solubilities calculated from linear interpolation of the maximum solubility in pure H2O (from the detection limit) and the solubility in the most alkaline high-silica melts reported by Ellison and Hess (1986, CMP, 94, 343). The high Zr solubility in sodium silicate-bearing solutions signifies that aqueous fluids with alkali silicates offer an efficient mechanism for HFSE transport. This can be explained by complexation of HFSE with Si, Na, and perhaps also Al, via formation of polymerized solutes

  4. Soluble Manganese(III) in the Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, G. W., III; Oldham, V.; Madison, A.; Tebo, B.; Jones, M.; Jensen, L.; Owings, S.; Mucci, A.; Sundby, B.

    2014-12-01

    Recent field studies have confirmed the presence of soluble manganese(III), which along with Mn(II) passes through a 0.2 μm filter, in suboxic marine waters. Here we applied a spectrophotometric method using a soluble porphyrin as a competitive ligand to calculate the concentrations and kinetics of Mn(II) and Mn(III) recovery. Data will be presented from the suboxic porewaters of the Saint Lawrence estuary, the suboxic and anoxic waters of the Chesapeake Bay and the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) accounts for up to 100% of the dissolved Mn pool with concentrations ranging from the detection limit of 50 nM to 80 μM at the oxic/anoxic interface of the non-sulfidic porewaters from the hemipelagic sediments of the St. Lawrence Estuary. Data indicate weak-ligand complexation of Mn(III) formed from Mn(II) oxidation as well as reduction of MnO2. Complexation of Mn(III) in the anoxic waters of Chesapeake Bay appears stronger as the porphyrin could not outcompete the natural ligands binding Mn(III). Mn(III) complexes were reduced in the presence of hydroxylamine or hydrogen sulfide and detected as Mn(II). Soluble Mn(III) comprised up to 52 % of total dissolved Mn. Profiles over the course of a five day cruise showed that high Mn(III) concentrations (7.3 μM) were observed at low H2S (4.9 μM) whereas low Mn(III) (1.1 μM) was detected at high H2S (40 μM). The presence of Mn(III) in sulfidic waters indicated that it is kinetically stabilized in situ by strong ligands so reduction to Mn(II) was incomplete. One electron reductive dissolution of solid MnO2 particles formed at the oxic-anoxic interface appear to be the source of Mn(III). Lastly, soluble Mn(III) was detected in the oxygenated surface waters of a coastal waterway (salinity ranging from freshwater to 31) bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. Soluble Mn(III) made up 0-49 % of the total dissolved Mn (maximum of 1.92

  5. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  6. Correlation of Catalytic Rates With Solubility Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; England, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Catalyst maximizes activity when its solubility parameter equals that of reactive species. Catalytic activities of some binary metal alloys at maximum when alloy compositions correspond to Hildebrand solubility parameters equal to those of reactive atomic species on catalyst. If this suggestive correlation proves to be general, applied to formulation of other mixed-metal catalysts. Also used to identify reactive species in certain catalytic reactions.

  7. Cosolvent effects of oxygenated fuels on PAH solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.S.; Delfino, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    Cosolvents have been recognized to have a significant impact on the redistribution and movement of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in the environment. The cosolvent effect of oxygenated compounds (methanol, ethanol, and methyl tert-butyl ether) on the solubility of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined by laboratory experiments. Coal-tar-contaminated sediment was used to study the redistribution and facilitated solubilization of 18 PAH compounds in both sediment and aqueous phases caused by cosolvent effects when oxygenated fuel spills occur. A batch dilution experiment was designed to represent the dilution effect of the cosolvent in a simulated river system. The results indicate that PAH solubility increased essentially in a long-linear manner with an increased volume fraction of methanol and ethanol. Deviations from a log-linear relationship were observed for methyl tert-butyl ether due to its limited aqueous solubility, and the cosolvent effect was seen only at the simulated fuel spill site. A linear relationship between the cosolvency power and logarithm of octanol/water partition coefficient was observed.

  8. Supersaturation of poorly soluble drugs induced by mesoporous magnesium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa; Welch, Ken; Bergström, Christel; Strømme, Maria

    2016-10-10

    This work investigates whether the solubility of poorly soluble compounds can be improved by using mesoporous magnesium carbonate (MMC) as the drug delivery system. A solvent evaporation method was used to load structurally diverse model drugs (celecoxib, cinnarizine and griseofulvin) into the pores of MMC. The drug-loaded carrier system was then characterized in terms of porosity, crystallinity, and release profiles by a variety of experimental techniques, including X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, UV absorption spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. All three drugs were in a non-crystalline state after loading into the pores of MMC. The concentrations of the drugs in solution over time (a measure of the release rates from loaded MMC) were higher than the corresponding concentrations (dissolution rates) of equal amounts of the crystalline drugs. The release rates were five (celecoxib), three (cinnarizine) and two times (griseofulvin) higher than the dissolution rates of their crystalline counterparts. Supersaturation release profiles were also observed; the areas under the concentration-time curves (0-240min) were 25- (celecoxib), 5- (cinnarizine) and 2-fold (griseofulvin) greater than those of the crystalline drugs. Hence, MMC shows promise as a general drug delivery vehicle for increasing the bioavailability of compounds with dissolution rate- or solubility-limited absorption. PMID:27590126

  9. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A.; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  10. Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René

    2013-04-01

    Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.

  11. How Soluble GARP Enhances TGFβ Activation.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Sven; Hahn, Susanne A; Linzmaier, Marion; Felten, Matthias; Zwarg, Jenny; Lennerz, Volker; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-01-01

    GARP (glycoprotein A repetitions predominant) is a cell surface receptor on regulatory T-lymphocytes, platelets, hepatic stellate cells and certain cancer cells. Its described function is the binding and accommodation of latent TGFβ (transforming growth factor), before the activation and release of the mature cytokine. For regulatory T cells it was shown that a knockdown of GARP or a treatment with blocking antibodies dramatically decreases their immune suppressive capacity. This confirms a fundamental role of GARP in the basic function of regulatory T cells. Prerequisites postulated for physiological GARP function include membrane anchorage of GARP, disulfide bridges between the propeptide of TGFβ and GARP and connection of this propeptide to αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrins of target cells during mechanical TGFβ release. Other studies indicate the existence of soluble GARP complexes and a functionality of soluble GARP alone. In order to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism, we expressed and purified recombinant TGFβ and a soluble variant of GARP. Surprisingly, soluble GARP and TGFβ formed stable non-covalent complexes in addition to disulfide-coupled complexes, depending on the redox conditions of the microenvironment. We also show that soluble GARP alone and the two variants of complexes mediate different levels of TGFβ activity. TGFβ activation is enhanced by the non-covalent GARP-TGFβ complex already at low (nanomolar) concentrations, at which GARP alone does not show any effect. This supports the idea of soluble GARP acting as immune modulator in vivo. PMID:27054568

  12. Estimating the Aqueous Solubility of Pharmaceutical Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stephen J; Younis, Usir S; Myrdal, Paul B

    2016-06-01

    Estimation of crystalline solute solubility is well documented throughout the literature. However, the anhydrous crystal form is typically considered with these models, which is not always the most stable crystal form in water. In this study, an equation which predicts the aqueous solubility of a hydrate is presented. This research attempts to extend the utility of the ideal solubility equation by incorporating desolvation energetics of the hydrated crystal. Similar to the ideal solubility equation, which accounts for the energetics of melting, this model approximates the energy of dehydration to the entropy of vaporization for water. Aqueous solubilities, dehydration and melting temperatures, and log P values were collected experimentally and from the literature. The data set includes different hydrate types and a range of log P values. Three models are evaluated, the most accurate model approximates the entropy of dehydration (ΔSd) by the entropy of vaporization (ΔSvap) for water, and utilizes onset dehydration and melting temperatures in combination with log P. With this model, the average absolute error for the prediction of solubility of 14 compounds was 0.32 log units. PMID:27238488

  13. Ammonia Solubility in High Concentration Salt Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-02-01

    Solubility data for ammonia in water and various dilute solutions are abundant in the literature. However, there is a noticeable lack of ammonia solubility data for high salt, basic solutions of various mixtures of salts including those found in many of the Hanford Washington underground waste tanks. As a result, models based on solubility data for dilute salt solutions have been used to extrapolate to high salt solutions. These significant extrapolations need to be checked against actual laboratory data. Some indirect vapor measurements have been made. A more direct approach is to determine the ratio of solubility of ammonia in water to its solubility in high salt solutions. In various experiments, pairs of solutions, one of which is water and the other a high salt solution, are allowed to come to equilibrium with a common ammonia vapor pressure. The ratio of concentrations of ammonia in the two solutions is equal to the ratio of the respective ammonia solubilities (Henry's Law constants) at a given temperature. This information can then be used to refine the models that predict vapor space compositions of ammonia. Ammonia at Hanford is of concern because of its toxicity in the environment and its contribution to the flammability of vapor space gas mixtures in waste tanks.

  14. Validated HPLC method and temperature stabilities for oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in garlic macerated oil.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Miyoung; Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Shin, Dongbin

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the utilization of garlic macerated oil as functional foods, oil-soluble organosulfur compounds were investigated using normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of compounds, it was simply extracted with 98% n-hexane in 2-propanol followed by sensitive and selective determination of all compounds. These method exhibited excellent linearity for oil-soluble organosulfur compounds with good coefficient (r > 0.999). Average recoveries were in the range of 80.23-106.18%. The limits of quantitation of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds ranged from 0.32 to 9.56 μg mL(-1) and the limits of detection were from 0.11 to 3.16 μg mL(-1). Overall, the precision of the results, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.55 to 11.67%. The proposed method was applied to determining the contents of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in commercial garlic macerated oils. Also, the stability of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds in garlic macerated oil were evaluated during 3 months of storage at four difference temperatures (4, 10, 25 and 35°C). The results showed the studied oil-soluble compounds in garlic macerated oil were stable at 4°C and relatively unstable at 35°C with varied extents degradation. Therefore, these validation data and temperature stability may be useful for quality evaluation of garlic macerated oils.

  15. Iron solubility driven by speciation in dust sources to the ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroth, A.W.; Crusius, J.; Sholkovitz, E.R.; Bostick, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Although abundant in the Earths crust, iron is present at trace concentrations in sea water and is a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton in approximately 40% of the ocean. Current literature suggests that aerosols are the primary external source of iron to offshore waters, yet controls on iron aerosol solubility remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that iron speciation (oxidation state and bonding environment) drives iron solubility in arid region soils, glacial weathering products (flour) and oil combustion products (oil fly ash). Iron speciation varies by aerosol source, with soils in arid regions dominated by ferric (oxy)hydroxides, glacial flour by primary and secondary ferrous silicates and oil fly ash by ferric sulphate salts. Variation in iron speciation produces systematic differences in iron solubility: less than 1% of the iron in arid soils was soluble, compared with 2-3% in glacial products and 77-81% in oil combustion products, which is directly linked to fractions of more soluble phases. We conclude that spatial and temporal variations in aerosol iron speciation, driven by the distribution of deserts, glaciers and fossil-fuel combustion, could have a pronounced effect on aerosol iron solubility and therefore on biological productivity and the carbon cycle in the ocean. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  16. Constraints on soluble aerosol iron flux to the Southern Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Conway, T.M.; Wolff, E.W.; Röthlisberger, R.; Mulvaney, R.; Elderfield, H.E.

    2015-01-01

    Relief of iron (Fe) limitation in the Southern Ocean during ice ages, with potentially increased carbon storage in the ocean, has been invoked as one driver of glacial–interglacial atmospheric CO2 cycles. Ice and marine sediment records demonstrate that atmospheric dust supply to the oceans increased by up to an order of magnitude during glacial intervals. However, poor constraints on soluble atmospheric Fe fluxes to the oceans limit assessment of the role of Fe in glacial–interglacial change. Here, using novel techniques, we present estimates of water- and seawater-soluble Fe solubility in Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) atmospheric dust from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C and Berkner Island ice cores. Fe solubility was very variable (1–42%) during the interval, and frequently higher than typically assumed by models. Soluble aerosol Fe fluxes to Dome C at the LGM (0.01–0.84 mg m−2 per year) suggest that soluble Fe deposition to the Southern Ocean would have been ≥10 × modern deposition, rivalling upwelling supply. PMID:26204562

  17. Constraints on soluble aerosol iron flux to the Southern Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Conway, T M; Wolff, E W; Röthlisberger, R; Mulvaney, R; Elderfield, H E

    2015-01-01

    Relief of iron (Fe) limitation in the Southern Ocean during ice ages, with potentially increased carbon storage in the ocean, has been invoked as one driver of glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 cycles. Ice and marine sediment records demonstrate that atmospheric dust supply to the oceans increased by up to an order of magnitude during glacial intervals. However, poor constraints on soluble atmospheric Fe fluxes to the oceans limit assessment of the role of Fe in glacial-interglacial change. Here, using novel techniques, we present estimates of water- and seawater-soluble Fe solubility in Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) atmospheric dust from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C and Berkner Island ice cores. Fe solubility was very variable (1-42%) during the interval, and frequently higher than typically assumed by models. Soluble aerosol Fe fluxes to Dome C at the LGM (0.01-0.84 mg m(-2) per year) suggest that soluble Fe deposition to the Southern Ocean would have been ≥10 × modern deposition, rivalling upwelling supply.

  18. Constraints on soluble aerosol iron flux to the Southern Ocean at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, T. M.; Wolff, E. W.; Röthlisberger, R.; Mulvaney, R.; Elderfield, H. E.

    2015-07-01

    Relief of iron (Fe) limitation in the Southern Ocean during ice ages, with potentially increased carbon storage in the ocean, has been invoked as one driver of glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 cycles. Ice and marine sediment records demonstrate that atmospheric dust supply to the oceans increased by up to an order of magnitude during glacial intervals. However, poor constraints on soluble atmospheric Fe fluxes to the oceans limit assessment of the role of Fe in glacial-interglacial change. Here, using novel techniques, we present estimates of water- and seawater-soluble Fe solubility in Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) atmospheric dust from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C and Berkner Island ice cores. Fe solubility was very variable (1-42%) during the interval, and frequently higher than typically assumed by models. Soluble aerosol Fe fluxes to Dome C at the LGM (0.01-0.84 mg m-2 per year) suggest that soluble Fe deposition to the Southern Ocean would have been >=10 × modern deposition, rivalling upwelling supply.

  19. 40 CFR 35.348 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.348 Section 35.348 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Pollution Prevention State Grants (section 6605) § 35.348...

  20. 40 CFR 35.668 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.668 Section 35.668 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Pollution Prevention Grants (section 6605) § 35.668...

  1. 40 CFR 35.218 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.218 Section 35.218 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Hazardous Waste Management (section 3011(a)) § 35.218...

  2. 40 CFR 35.9065 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9065 Limitations. (a) Management... the estuary for which the work is proposed. (b) Elements of annual workplans. Annual Work Plans to be prepared by estuary Management Conferences must be reviewed by the Regional Administrator before...

  3. 40 CFR 35.9065 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9065 Limitations. (a) Management... the estuary for which the work is proposed. (b) Elements of annual workplans. Annual Work Plans to be prepared by estuary Management Conferences must be reviewed by the Regional Administrator before...

  4. 40 CFR 35.9065 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9065 Limitations. (a) Management... the estuary for which the work is proposed. (b) Elements of annual workplans. Annual Work Plans to be prepared by estuary Management Conferences must be reviewed by the Regional Administrator before...

  5. 40 CFR 35.9065 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9065 Limitations. (a) Management... the estuary for which the work is proposed. (b) Elements of annual workplans. Annual Work Plans to be prepared by estuary Management Conferences must be reviewed by the Regional Administrator before...

  6. 40 CFR 35.9065 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9065 Limitations. (a) Management... the estuary for which the work is proposed. (b) Elements of annual workplans. Annual Work Plans to be prepared by estuary Management Conferences must be reviewed by the Regional Administrator before...

  7. 48 CFR 17.402 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Leader Company Contracting 17.402 Limitations. (a) Leader company contracting is to be used only when— (1) The leader company has the necessary production... the Government's requirements without the assistance of a leader company; (3) The assistance...

  8. A new small molecule inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Filipa; Gane, Paul; Hampden-Smith, Kathryn; Allerston, Charles K.; Garthwaite, John; Selwood, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a haem containing enzyme that regulates cardiovascular homeostasis and multiple mechanisms in the central and peripheral nervous system. Commonly used inhibitors of sGC activity act through oxidation of the haem moiety, however they also bind haemoglobin and this limits their bioavailability for in vivo studies. We have discovered a new class of small molecule inhibitors of sGC and have characterised a compound designated D12 (compound 10) which binds to the catalytic domain of the enzyme with a KD of 11 μM in a SPR assay. PMID:26264842

  9. Soluble Host Defense Lectins in Innate Immunity to Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wy Ching; Tate, Michelle D.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Reading, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Host defenses against viral infections depend on a complex interplay of innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) components. In the early stages of infection, innate mechanisms represent the main line of host defense, acting to limit the spread of virus in host tissues prior to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Serum and lung fluids contain a range of lectins capable of recognizing and destroying influenza A viruses (IAV). Herein, we review the mechanisms by which soluble endogenous lectins mediate anti-IAV activity, including their role in modulating IAV-induced inflammation and disease and their potential as prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatments during severe IAV-induced disease. PMID:22665991

  10. 1,3-Disubstituted and 1,3,3-trisubstituted adamantyl-ureas with isoxazole as soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Burmistrov, Vladimir; Morisseau, Christophe; Danilov, Dmitry; Harris, Todd R; Dalinger, Igor; Vatsadze, Irina; Shkineva, Tatiana; Butov, Gennady M; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-12-01

    Adamantyl ureas are good soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors; however they have limited solubility and rapid metabolism, thus limiting their usefulness in some therapeutic indications. Herein, we test the hypothesis that nodal substitution on the adamantane will help solubilize and stabilize the compounds. A series of compounds containing adamantane derivatives and isoxazole functional groups were developed. Overall, the presence of methyl on the nodal positions of adamantane yields higher water solubility than previously reported urea-based sEH inhibitors while maintaining high inhibition potency. However, it did not improve microsomal stability.

  11. A note on the coating of an inclined plane in the presence of soluble surfactant.

    PubMed

    Edmonstone, B D; Matar, O K; Craster, R V

    2006-01-01

    We consider the flow of a thin liquid film coating an inclined plane in the presence of a soluble surfactant. A two-dimensional three-equation model is derived using lubrication theory in the rapid diffusion limit and then used to investigate the stability of the fluid height and the surfactant surface and bulk concentrations. We present solutions for an insoluble surfactant system, which are then contrasted with those obtained for a system containing a soluble surfactant; both transient growth and fully nonlinear two-dimensional simulation results are discussed. Our results indicate that the characteristics of the fingering phenomena which accompany the flow are altered by the effects of solubility. In particular, we find that these effects de-stabilise the system further over an intermediate range of surfactant solubility.

  12. 44 CFR 5.56 - Extension of time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Extension of time limits. 5.56 Section 5.56 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Extension of time limits. In unusual circumstances as specified in this section, the time limits...

  13. 44 CFR 5.56 - Extension of time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Extension of time limits. 5.56 Section 5.56 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... time limits. In unusual circumstances as specified in this section, the time limits prescribed in §§...

  14. 44 CFR 5.56 - Extension of time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extension of time limits. 5.56 Section 5.56 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... Extension of time limits. In unusual circumstances as specified in this section, the time limits...

  15. 44 CFR 206.67 - Requirement when limitation is exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Requirement when limitation is exceeded. 206.67 Section 206.67 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Requirement when limitation is exceeded. Whenever the limitation described in § 206.66 is exceeded,...

  16. 44 CFR 11.72 - Time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time limitations. 11.72... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.72 Time limitations. (a) A claim under... after it accrues; (2) or if it cannot be filed within the time limits of paragraph (a)(1) of...

  17. 44 CFR 11.72 - Time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Time limitations. 11.72... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.72 Time limitations. (a) A claim under... after it accrues; (2) or if it cannot be filed within the time limits of paragraph (a)(1) of...

  18. 44 CFR 11.72 - Time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time limitations. 11.72... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.72 Time limitations. (a) A claim under... after it accrues; (2) or if it cannot be filed within the time limits of paragraph (a)(1) of...

  19. 44 CFR 11.72 - Time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time limitations. 11.72... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.72 Time limitations. (a) A claim under... after it accrues; (2) or if it cannot be filed within the time limits of paragraph (a)(1) of...

  20. 10 CFR 800.302 - Loan limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan limitation. 800.302 Section 800.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.302 Loan limitation. The Secretary may limit the loan...

  1. 10 CFR 800.302 - Loan limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan limitation. 800.302 Section 800.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.302 Loan limitation. The Secretary may limit the loan...

  2. 10 CFR 800.302 - Loan limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan limitation. 800.302 Section 800.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.302 Loan limitation. The Secretary may limit the loan...

  3. 10 CFR 800.302 - Loan limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan limitation. 800.302 Section 800.302 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE Loan Administration § 800.302 Loan limitation. The Secretary may limit the loan...

  4. 44 CFR 11.72 - Time limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limitations. 11.72... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.72 Time limitations. (a) A claim under... after it accrues; (2) or if it cannot be filed within the time limits of paragraph (a)(1) of...

  5. 34 CFR 300.809 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.809 Limitations. (a) Notwithstanding §...

  6. 34 CFR 300.809 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.809 Limitations. (a) Notwithstanding §...

  7. 7 CFR 1944.407 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants § 1944.407 Limitations. The amount of... typical needed repairs, and the cost savings between self-help and contractor rehabilitation and repair....

  8. Celestite (SrSO 4(s)) solubility in water, seawater and NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, E. J.; Armstrong, D. K.

    1987-01-01

    Celestite solubility measurements have been conducted in pure water at temperatures from 10 to 90°C. Equilibrium was achieved with respect to a crystalline solid phase from both undersaturated and supersaturated solutions. The measurements show that the solubility undergoes a maximum near 20°C. LogK values for the solubility reaction are adequately described by the following expression over the temperature range 283.15 to 363.15 K: - logK= -35.3106+0.00422837 T+318312/ T2+14.99586 logT. The following thennodynamic values for the dissolution reaction of SrSO 4(s), at 25°C have been derived: ΔGR0 = 37852 ± 30 Jmol -1ΔHR0 = -1668±920 Jmol -1ΔSR0= -132.6±3.2 JK-1mol -1 Celestite solubility measurements were also determined in NaCl solutions up to 5 m concentration and from 10 to 40°C. These data are in good agreement with the work of StrÜbel (1966), who reports solubility measurements to temperatures of 100°C. The application of the Pitzer relations and the solubility constants determined in this study to calculate celestite solubility in NaCl solutions yields excellent agreement between predicted values and experimental measurements over the entire range of temperature and NaCl concentration conditions. For the limited number of solubility measurements in seawater-type solutions and mixed-salt brines, the agreement using the Pitzer relations is within three percent of the measured solubility.

  9. Environmental Assessment Technical Assistance Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Environmental Assessment Technical Handbook has four types of Technical Assistance Documents (Sections 2.00-5.00) to assist persons preparing environmental information under 21 CFR Part 25, FDA's policies and procedures for implementing the National Environmental Policy Act. Section 2.00 describes how to assemble environmental information, determine if additional testing is needed, and prepare environmental documents to support petitions and applications for proposed actions. Section 3.00 describes methods used to predict the environmental fate of chemicals: water solubility; n-octanol/water partition coefficient vapor pressure; dissociation constant; ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum; melting temperature; density and relative density; sorption/desorption; hydrolysis; photodegradation; and biodegradation. Section 4.00 describes methods used to predict the environmental effects of chemicals: algal growth; microbial growth inhibition; seed germination and root elongation; seedling growth; acute toxicity to Daphnia, Hyalella azteca, and freshwater fish; earthworm subacute toxicity; and Daphnia chronic toxicity. Section 5.00 describes procedures used to analyze effects test data. The FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine prepared the Handbook and will issue revisions or supplements as necessary to reflect comments received and advances in environmental assessment procedures and test methodology.

  10. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors. PMID:22327537

  11. Redefining solubility parameters: the partial solvation parameters.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Costas

    2012-03-21

    The present work reconsiders a classical and universally accepted concept of physical chemistry, the solubility parameter. Based on the insight derived from modern quantum chemical calculations, a new definition of solubility parameter is proposed, which overcomes some of the inherent restrictions of the original definition and expands its range of applications. The original single solubility parameter is replaced by four partial solvation parameters reflecting the dispersion, the polar, the acidic and the basic character of the chemical compounds as expressed either in their pure state or in mixtures. Simple rules are adopted for the definition and calculation of these four parameters and their values are tabulated for a variety of common substances. In contrast, however, to the well known Hansen solubility parameters, their design and evaluation does not rely exclusively on the basic rule of "similarity matching" for solubility but it makes also use of the other basic rule of compatibility, namely, the rule of "complementarity matching". This complementarity matching becomes particularly operational with the sound definition of the acidic and basic components of the solvation parameter based on the third σ-moments of the screening charge distributions of the quantum mechanics-based COSMO-RS theory. The new definitions are made in a simple and straightforward manner, thus, preserving the strength and appeal of solubility parameter stemming from its simplicity. The new predictive method has been applied to a variety of solubility data for systems of pharmaceuticals and polymers. The results from quantum mechanics calculations are critically compared with the results from Abraham's acid/base descriptors.

  12. Low Soluble Syndecan-1 Precedes Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Gandley, Robin E.; Althouse, Andrew; Jeyabalan, Arundhathi; Bregand-White, Julia M.; McGonigal, Stacy; Myerski, Ashley C.; Gallaher, Marcia; Powers, Robert W.; Hubel, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndecan-1 (Sdc1; CD138) is a major transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the extracellular, luminal surface of epithelial cells and syncytiotrophoblast, thus comprising a major component of the glycocalyx of these cells. The “soluble” (shed) form of Sdc1 has paracrine and autocrine functions and is normally produced in a regulated fashion. We compared plasma soluble Sdc1 concentrations, in relation to placental Sdc1 expression, in uncomplicated (control) and preeclamptic pregnancies. Methods We evaluated soluble Sdc1 across uncomplicated pregnancy, and between preeclamptic, gestational hypertensive and control patients at mid-pregnancy (20 weeks) and 3rd trimester by ELISA. Placental expression level of Sdc1 was compared between groups in relation to pre-delivery plasma soluble Sdc1. Participants were recruited from Magee-Womens Hospital. Results In uncomplicated pregnancy, plasma soluble Sdc1 rose significantly in the 1st trimester, and reached an approximate 50-fold increase at term compared to post pregnancy levels. Soluble Sdc1 was lower at mid-pregnancy in women who later developed preeclampsia (P<0.05), but not gestational hypertension, compared to controls, and remained lower at late pregnancy in preeclampsia (P<0.01) compared to controls. Sdc1 was prominently expressed on syncytiotrophoblast of microvilli. Syncytiotrophoblast Sdc1 immunostaining intensities, and mRNA content in villous homogenates, were lower in preeclampsia vs. controls (P<0.05). Soluble Sdc1 and Sdc1 immunostaining scores were inversely associated with systolic blood pressures, and positively correlated with infant birth weight percentile. Conclusion Soluble Sdc1 is significantly lower before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, with reduced expression of Sdc1 in the delivered placenta, suggesting a role for glycocalyx disturbance in preeclampsia pathophysiology. PMID:27299886

  13. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  14. Water solubility of selected C9-C18 alkanes using a slow-stir technique: Comparison to structure - property models.

    PubMed

    Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Connelly, Martin J; Peterson, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Aqueous solubility is a fundamental physical-chemical substance property that strongly influences the distribution, fate and effects of chemicals upon release into the environment. Experimental water solubility was determined for 18 selected C9-C18 normal, branched and cyclic alkanes. A slow-stir technique was applied to obviate emulsion formation, which historically has resulted in significant overestimation of the aqueous solubility of such hydrophobic liquid compounds. Sensitive GC-MS based methods coupled with contemporary sample extraction techniques were employed to enable reproducible analysis of low parts-per billion aqueous concentrations. Water solubility measurements for most of the compounds investigated, are reported for the first time expanding available data for branched and cyclic alkanes. Measured water solubilities spanned four orders of magnitude ranging from 0.3 μg/L to 250 μg/L. Good agreement was observed for selected alkanes tested in this work and reported in earlier literature demonstrating the robustness of the slow-stir water solubility technique. Comparisons of measured alkane water solubilities were also made with those predicted by commonly used quantitative structure-property relationship models (e.g. SPARC, EPIWIN, ACD/Labs). Correlations are also presented between alkane measured water solubilities and molecular size parameters (e.g. molar volume, solvent accessible molar volume) affirming a mechanistic description of empirical aqueous solubility results and prediction previously reported for a more limited set of alkanes. PMID:26924078

  15. Ultrasound influence on the solubility of solid dispersions prepared for a poorly soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Simone Vieira; Colombo, Fábio Belotti; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Solid dispersions have been successfully used to enhance the solubility of several poorly water soluble drugs. Solid dispersions are produced by melting hydrophilic carriers and mixing in the poorly water soluble drug. Supersaturation is obtained by quickly cooling the mixture until it solidifies, thereby entrapping the drug. The effects of using ultrasound to homogenize the molten carrier and drug mixture were studied. In particular, the increase in drug solubility for the resulting solid dispersions was analyzed. Piroxicam, which has very low water solubility, was used as a model drug. A full factorial design was used to analyze how sonication parameters affected the solubility and in vitro release of the drug. The results show that the use of ultrasound can significantly increase the solubility and dissolution rate of the piroxicam solid dispersion. Pure piroxicam presented a solubility of 13.3 μg/mL. A maximum fourfold increase in solubility, reaching 53.8 μg/mL, was observed for a solid dispersion sonicated at 19 kHz for 10 min and 475 W. The in vitro dissolution rate test showed the sonicated solid dispersion reached a maximum rate of 18%/min, a sixfold increase over the piroxicam rate of 2.9%/min. Further solid state characterization by thermal, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analyses also showed that the sonication process, in the described conditions, did not adversely alter the drug or significantly change its polymorphic form. Ultrasound is therefore an interesting technique to homogenize drug/carrier mixtures with the objective of increasing the solubility of drugs with poor water solubility. PMID:26548840

  16. Ultrasound influence on the solubility of solid dispersions prepared for a poorly soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Simone Vieira; Colombo, Fábio Belotti; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Solid dispersions have been successfully used to enhance the solubility of several poorly water soluble drugs. Solid dispersions are produced by melting hydrophilic carriers and mixing in the poorly water soluble drug. Supersaturation is obtained by quickly cooling the mixture until it solidifies, thereby entrapping the drug. The effects of using ultrasound to homogenize the molten carrier and drug mixture were studied. In particular, the increase in drug solubility for the resulting solid dispersions was analyzed. Piroxicam, which has very low water solubility, was used as a model drug. A full factorial design was used to analyze how sonication parameters affected the solubility and in vitro release of the drug. The results show that the use of ultrasound can significantly increase the solubility and dissolution rate of the piroxicam solid dispersion. Pure piroxicam presented a solubility of 13.3 μg/mL. A maximum fourfold increase in solubility, reaching 53.8 μg/mL, was observed for a solid dispersion sonicated at 19 kHz for 10 min and 475 W. The in vitro dissolution rate test showed the sonicated solid dispersion reached a maximum rate of 18%/min, a sixfold increase over the piroxicam rate of 2.9%/min. Further solid state characterization by thermal, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analyses also showed that the sonication process, in the described conditions, did not adversely alter the drug or significantly change its polymorphic form. Ultrasound is therefore an interesting technique to homogenize drug/carrier mixtures with the objective of increasing the solubility of drugs with poor water solubility.

  17. Determination of calcium salt solubility with changes in pH and P(CO(2)), simulating varying gastrointestinal environments.

    PubMed

    Goss, Sandra L; Lemons, Karen A; Kerstetter, Jane E; Bogner, Robin H

    2007-11-01

    The amount of calcium available for absorption is dependent, in part, on its sustained solubility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Many calcium salts, which are the calcium sources in supplements and food, have pH-dependent solubility and may have limited availability in the small intestine, the major site of absorption. The equilibrium solubility of four calcium salts (calcium oxalate hydrate, calcium citrate tetrahydrate, calcium phosphate, calcium glycerophosphate) were determined at controlled pH values (7.5, 6.0, 4.5 and < or = 3.0) and in distilled water. The solubility of calcium carbonate was also measured at pH 7.5, 6.0 and 4.5 with two CO(2) environments (0.3 and 152 mmHg) above the solution. The precipitation profile of CaCO(3) was calculated using in-vivo data for bicarbonate and pH from literature and equilibrium calculations. As pH increased, the solubility of each calcium salt increased. However, in distilled water each salt produced a different pH, affecting its solubility value. Although calcium citrate does have a higher solubility than CaCO(3) in water, there is little difference when the pH is controlled at pH 7.5. The partial pressure of CO(2) also played a role in calcium carbonate solubility, depressing the solubility at pH 7.5. The calculations of soluble calcium resulted in profiles of available calcium, which agreed with previously published in-vivo data on absorbed calcium. The experimental data illustrate the impact of pH and CO(2) on the solubility of many calcium salts in the presence of bicarbonate secretions in the intestine. Calculated profiles using in-vivo calcium and bicarbonate concentrations demonstrate that large calcium doses may not further increase intestinal calcium absorption once the calcium carbonate solubility product has been reached. PMID:17976258

  18. Refugee Survival and NGO Project Assistance: Mozambican Refugees in Malawi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetter, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental projects intended to assist Mozambican refugees in Malawi are limited by unresponsiveness to local conditions, inadequate resources, constraints on production and marketing, lack of sustainability, limited participation, and gender inequities. Such projects are likely to increase refugee dependency. (SK)

  19. New recommendations for measuring collagen solubility.

    PubMed

    Latorre, María E; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Purslow, Peter P

    2016-08-01

    The heat-solubility of intramuscular collagen is usually conducted in 1/4 Ringer's solution at pH7.4, despite this ionic strength and pH being inappropriate for post-rigor meat. The current work studied the percentage of soluble collagen and hydrothermal isometric tension characteristics of perimysial strips on bovine semitendinosus muscles in either 1/4 Ringer's solution, distilled water, PBS, or a solution of the same salt concentration as 1/4 Ringer's but at pH5.6. Values of % soluble collagen were lower at pH7.4 than 5.6. Increasing ionic strength reduced % soluble collagen. The maximum perimysial isometric tension was independent of the bathing medium, but the percent relaxation was higher at pH7.4 than at pH5.6, and increased with ionic strength of the media. It is recommended that future measurements of collagen solubility and tests on connective tissue components of post-rigor meat should be carried out in a solution of concentrations NaCl and KCl equivalent to those in 1/4 Ringer's, but at pH5.6, a pH relevant to post-rigor meat. PMID:27057755

  20. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on the aqueous solubility and solubility/dose ratio of praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Maragos, Stratos; Archontaki, Helen; Macheras, Panos; Valsami, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ), the primary drug of choice in the treatment of schistosomiasis, is a highly lipophilic drug that possesses high permeability and low aqueous solubility and is, therefore, classified as a Class II drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In this work, beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) were used in order to determine whether increasing the aqueous solubility of a drug by complexation with CDs, a BCS-Class II compound like PZQ could behave as BCS-Class I (highly soluble/highly permeable) drug. Phase solubility and the kneading and lyophilization techniques were used for inclusion complex preparation; solubility was determined by UV spectroscopy. The ability of the water soluble polymer polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP) to increase the complexation and solubilization efficiency of beta-CD and HP-beta-CD for PZQ was examined. Results showed significant improvement of PZQ solubility in the presence of both cyclodextrins but no additional effect in the presence of PVP. The solubility/dose ratios values of PZQ-cyclodextrin complexes calculated considering the low (150 mg) and the high dose (600 mg) of PZQ, used in practice, indicate that PZQ complexation with CDs may result in drug dosage forms that would behave as a BCS-Class I depending on the administered dose.

  1. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  2. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  3. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Partially Soluble HAP 7 Table 7 to... Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63—Partially Soluble HAP As required... partially soluble HAP listed in the following table. Partially soluble HAP name CAS No. 1....

  4. Speciation and water soluble fraction of iron in aerosols from various sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kurisu, M.; Uematsu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient and has been identified as a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean. In the North Pacific, three sources of iron (Fe) transported via. atmosphere can be suggested: (i) mineral dust from East Asia, (ii) anthropogenic Fe, and (iii) aerosols from volcanic origin. Considering these different sources, Fe can be found and transported in a variety of chemical forms, both water-soluble and -insoluble. It is generally believed that only the soluble fraction of Fe can be considered as bioavailable for phytoplankton. To assess the biogeochemical impact of the atmospheric input, attempt was made to determine Fe species by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and its water solubility, in particular to compare the three sources. Iron species, chemical composition, and soluble Fe concentration in aerosol collected at Tsukuba (Japan) through a year were investigated to compare the contributions of mineral dust and anthropogenic components. It was found that the concentration of soluble Fe in aerosol is correlated with those of sulfate and oxalate which originate from anthropogenic sources, suggesting that soluble Fe is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. XAS analysis showed that main Fe species in aerosols in Tsukuba were illite, ferrihydrite, hornblende, and Fe(III) sulfate. Moreover, soluble Fe fraction is closely correlated with that of Fe(III) sulfate. In spite of supply of high concentrations of Fe in mineral dust from East Asia, it was found that anthropogenic fraction is important due to its high water solubility by the presence of Fe(III) sulfate. Marine aerosol samples originated from volcanic ash were collected in the western North Pacific during KH-08-2 cruise (August, 2008). XAS analysis suggested that Fe species of volcanic ashes changed during the long-range transport, while dissolution experiment showed that Fe solubility of the marine aerosol is larger than

  5. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  6. Improvement in solubility of poor water-soluble drugs by solid dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Swati; Mathew, George; Joseph, Lincy

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to combine recent literature on solid dispersion technology for solubility enhancement with special emphasis on mechanism responsible for the same by solid dispersion, various preparation methods, and evaluation parameters. Solubility behavior is the most challenging aspect for various new chemical entities as 60% of the new potential products possess solubility problems. This is the biggest reason for new drug molecules not reaching to the market or not reaches to full potential. There are various techniques to enhance the drug solubility such as particle size reduction, nanosuspension, use of surfactants, salt formation, solid dispersion, etc. From this article it may be concluded that solid dispersion is an important approach for improvement of bioavailability of poor water-soluble drugs. PMID:23071955

  7. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  8. Soluble proteins in insect chemical communication.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, P; Zhou, J-J; Ban, L P; Calvello, M

    2006-07-01

    Our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects has been greatly improved after the discovery of olfactory and taste receptor proteins. However, the presence of soluble polypeptides in high concentration around the dendrites of sensory neurons still poses unanswered questions. More than 2 decades after their discovery and despite the wealth of structural information available, the physiological function of odorant-binding proteins is not well understood. More recently, members of a second family of soluble polypeptides, the chemosensory proteins, were also discovered in the lymph of chemosensilla. Here we review the structural properties of both classes of soluble proteins, their affinity to small ligands, and their expression in the different parts of the insect body and subcellular localisation. Finally, we discuss current ideas and models of the role of such proteins in insect chemoreception.

  9. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan.

  10. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey,Thomas M.; Burrell,Anthony K.; Jia,Quanxi; Lin,Yuan

    2012-02-28

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  11. Assisted Living Community Profile

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Media News Releases Media Resources AHCA/NCAL Gazette Publications Social Media Resources & Publications Currently selected Assisted ... News & Media News Releases Media Resources AHCA/NCAL Gazette Publications Social Media Resources & Publications Assisted Living Studies ...

  12. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... having a repeat assisted vaginal delivery in a future pregnancy? If you have had one assisted vaginal ... a vacuum device. Vacuum Device: A metal or plastic cup that is applied to the fetus’ head ...

  13. Influence of Polymer Molecular Weight on Drug-Polymer Solubility: A Comparison between Experimentally Determined Solubility in PVP and Prediction Derived from Solubility in Monomer.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Per; Langguth, Peter; Holm, René; Rades, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the influence of polymer molecular weight on drug-polymer solubility was investigated using binary systems containing indomethacin (IMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) of different molecular weights. The experimental solubility in PVP, measured using a differential scanning calorimetry annealing method, was compared with the solubility calculated from the solubility of the drug in the liquid analogue N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP). The experimental solubility of IMC in the low-molecular-weight PVP K12 was not significantly different from that in the higher molecular weight PVPs (K25, K30, and K90). The calculated solubilities derived from the solubility in NVP (0.31-0.32 g/g) were found to be lower than those experimentally determined in PVP (0.38-0.40 g/g). Nevertheless, the similarity between the values indicates that the analogue solubility can provide valuable indications on the solubility in the polymer. Hence, if a drug is soluble in an analogue of the polymer, it is most likely also soluble in the polymer. In conclusion, the solubility of a given drug-polymer system is determined by the strength of the drug-polymer interactions rather than the molecular weight of the polymer. Therefore, during the first screenings for drug solubility in polymers, only one representative molecular weight per polymer is needed.

  14. On the solubility of yttrium in RuO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Music, Denis; Zumdick, Naemi A.; Hallstedt, Bengt; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2011-09-01

    We have investigated the solubility of Y in rutile RuO{sub 2} using experimental and theoretical methods. Nanostructured Ru-Y-O thin films were synthesized via combinatorial reactive sputtering with an O/metal ratio of 2.6 and a Y content of 0.3 to 12.6 at. %. A solubility limit of 1.7 at. % was identified using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Based on ab initio and thermodynamic modeling, the solubility of Y can be understood. Smaller Y amounts are incorporated into the lattice, forming a metastable film, with local structural deformations due to size effects. As the Y content is increased, extensive local structural deformations are observed, but phase separation does not occur due to kinetic limitations. Nanostructured RuO{sub 2} alloyed with Y might lead to enhanced phonon scattering and quantum confinement effects, which in turn improve the thermoelectric efficiency.

  15. [Soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in winter in alinine forest streams].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Wan-qin; Yue, Kai; Huang, Chun-ping; Peng, Yan; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the dynamic pattern of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in the headwater streams during the process of litter decomposition in winter, a field experiment using litterbag method was conducted in an alpine forest in Western Sichuan, China. The foliar litter of two dominant canopy trees (Sabina saltuaria, and Larix mastersiana) and two shrubs (Salix paraplesia and Rhododendron lapponicum) were selected. The litterbags were placed in a headwater stream, river, riparian zone and closed canopy, and sampled in different freezing-thawing periods of winter (pre-freezing period, freezing period and thawing period). The results indicated that the soluble nitrogen content of foliar litter showed little changes over a whole winter decomposition regardless of species. In contrast, the soluble phosphorus content displayed the order as river < stream < riparian zone < closed canopy, and showed a decrease tendency in stream, river and riparian, although little changes under closed canopy over a whole winter decomposition. Correlation analysis suggested that the dynamics of soluble phosphorus content significantly correlated to the average temperature, positive accumulated temperature, negative accumulated temperature and flow velocity during the decomposition in winter. The dynamics of soluble nitrogen content only exhibited significant correlations with positive accumulated temperature. Additionally, litter quality (species) also controlled the dynamics of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus content as litter decomposition proceeded. The results implied that soluble phosphorus could be more liable to loss in streams and rivers during litter decomposition compared with soluble nitrogen, which could further provide some new ideas in understanding nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in this alpine forest.

  16. [Soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in winter in alinine forest streams].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Wan-qin; Yue, Kai; Huang, Chun-ping; Peng, Yan; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the dynamic pattern of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in the headwater streams during the process of litter decomposition in winter, a field experiment using litterbag method was conducted in an alpine forest in Western Sichuan, China. The foliar litter of two dominant canopy trees (Sabina saltuaria, and Larix mastersiana) and two shrubs (Salix paraplesia and Rhododendron lapponicum) were selected. The litterbags were placed in a headwater stream, river, riparian zone and closed canopy, and sampled in different freezing-thawing periods of winter (pre-freezing period, freezing period and thawing period). The results indicated that the soluble nitrogen content of foliar litter showed little changes over a whole winter decomposition regardless of species. In contrast, the soluble phosphorus content displayed the order as river < stream < riparian zone < closed canopy, and showed a decrease tendency in stream, river and riparian, although little changes under closed canopy over a whole winter decomposition. Correlation analysis suggested that the dynamics of soluble phosphorus content significantly correlated to the average temperature, positive accumulated temperature, negative accumulated temperature and flow velocity during the decomposition in winter. The dynamics of soluble nitrogen content only exhibited significant correlations with positive accumulated temperature. Additionally, litter quality (species) also controlled the dynamics of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus content as litter decomposition proceeded. The results implied that soluble phosphorus could be more liable to loss in streams and rivers during litter decomposition compared with soluble nitrogen, which could further provide some new ideas in understanding nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in this alpine forest. PMID:26572009

  17. (Weatherization Assistance Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the State and Local Assistance Program is to encourage energy conservation initiatives on the state and local level through a mix of activities and programs, including direct financial assistance, technical assistance, and developmental/demonstration projects to enhance state/private sector involvement in energy conservation. The Office of State and Local Assistance Programs administers the following programs: weatherization; schools and hospitals; EPCA grants; energy extension service; program evaluation; and program direction.

  18. Solubilities of krypton and xenon in dichlorodifluoromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, J.H.; Shockley, W.E.; Greene, C.W.

    1984-07-01

    The solubility behavior of krypton and xenon in dichlorodifluoromethane was investigated for the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in support of the fluorocarbon absorption process. The solubility data derived from solute radioisotopes had uncertainties of approx. 0.1%. Values for Henry's law constants were initially determined under equilibrium conditions at infinite solute dilution. Based on these results, the study was extended to finite solute concentrations. Nonidealities in the two binary systems were expressed as gas phase fugacity coefficients for each solute at 10/sup 0/ intervals over the range -30 to +50/sup 0/C. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Dental Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental assisting curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level dental assistants, and includes job skills in the technical areas of preventive dentistry; four-handed dentistry; chairside assisting with emphasis in diagnostics,…

  20. Modeling the tissue solubilities and metabolic rate constant (V max) of halogenated methanes, ethanes, and ethylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Gargas, M.L.; Seybold, P.G.; Andersen, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental solvent:air and tissue:air partition coefficients for 25 halogenated methanes, ethanes, and ethylenes in saline solution; olive oil; and rat blood, muscle, liver, and fat tissues were examined using theoretical molecular modeling techniques. The metabolic rate constant, V/sub max/, was also investigated by these techniques for 19 chlorinated compounds in this group. Two graph theoretical approaches (the distance method of Wiener and the connectivity index method of Randic, Kier, and Hall) and an approach utilizing ad hoc molecular descriptors were employed. Satisfactory regression models for solubility were obtained with both the Randic-Kier-Hall approach and the ad hoc descriptors approach. Fluorine substituents decrease tissue solubilities, whereas both chlorine and bromine substituents increase tissue solubilities, with the relative influence being chlorinesolubilities can also be represented conveniently in terms of contributions from oil and saline solubilities, a procedure reinforced by factor analysis of the data. Equations derived by these methods adequately estimated the solubilities for eight additional compounds. No approach could successfully model V/sub max/ for all 19 compounds, but a subset of 16 compounds was modeled using the connectivity indices. The equation is limited in its use but indicated future modeling directions for V/sub max/.

  1. Encapsulation and Delivery of Crystalline Hydrophobic Nutraceuticals using Nanoemulsions: Factors Affecting Polymethoxyflavone Solubility.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2012-12-01

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMF) isolated from citrus peel have potent anti-cancer activity, however their utilization as functional ingredients in foods is currently limited because of their high melting point and poor water-solubility. The influence of oil type and concentration, hydrophilic polymer addition, and simulated intestinal conditions on PMF (5-hydroxytangeretin) solubility in solutions and nanoemulsions was examined. The saturation concentration of PMF in water was relatively low (0.93 µM), but could be increased appreciably by adding certain hydrophilic polymers: polyethylene glycol (PEG) and β-cyclodextrin (CD) were ineffective at increasing solubility, but poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) greatly enhanced solubility (e.g., > 6 µM for 0.5 % polymer). PMF was more soluble in medium chain triglycerides (MCT, 6.1 mM) than long chain triglycerides (LCT, 4.2 mM). The encapsulation efficiency of PMF in oil-in-water nanoemulsions was higher when MCT was used as the oil phase rather than LCT, and could be increased by increasing the oil droplet content. The solubility of PMF in simulated small intestinal fluids was increased by solubilization in bile micelles and mixed micelles formed during lipid digestion. These results have important implications for the development of functional foods fortified with bioactive hydrophobic components aimed at improving human health and wellness. PMID:23646037

  2. Employee Assistance Program Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gettleman, Alan G.; McGuire, William

    1999-01-01

    Employee Assistance Program (EAP) officers, as well as personnel in other disciplines from eight NASA Centers, attended this breakout session. Ms. Brenda Blair, MA, CEAP, a guest speaker at the conference, also attended as a consultant. Representatives from the NASA Centers introduced themselves and spoke briefly about their programs. In a discussion related to the conference theme on benchmarking, quality control issues within the EAP community and adequate documentation of cases were addressed. Disposition and provision for quality assurance checks for EAP providers in single person offices were also discussed. Ms. Blair presented methods for consulting with other NASA personnel in single person EAP offices as a quality control measure. EAP intervention in critical incidents was discussed. The question of whether EAP assistance is an asset or a potential liability in those situations was addressed. Suggestions were made of topics for future EAP video-teleconference topics. A program on EAP ethics was planned for a September video teleconference. Each person was asked to provide intake forms they use to Mr. Gettleman or Ms. Blair. Ms. Blair said she would review the forms to ensure that adequate notification is provided to the client for confidentiality. She would also review them to ensure they have adequate limits of confidentiality--a topic for future video teleconferencing. Mr. Gettleman described the NASA initiative to reduce stresses in the workplace, and the activities of an ad-hoc EAP group that will make recommendations to NASA senior management. Alternative training methods were discussed for reaching target audiences such as employees at risk, supervisors, and others. Pfc. David A. Pendleton, Victim Assistance Coordinator, U.S. Capitol Police. U.S. House of Representatives made a special presentation. Pfc. Pendleton was on duty during the tragic shooting of two Federal guards at the U.S. Capitol. He related the events immediately after the incident. He

  3. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Lee, S.Y.

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the US Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the US Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment.

  4. Tensile and solubility properties of calcium caseinate films cross-linked with genipin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films made from dairy proteins have the potential to improve food quality and safety and reduce petrochemical-based packaging because of their excellent grease, aroma and oxygen barrier properties. However, most are soluble in water and sensitive to humidity which limits their use in many app...

  5. Solubility of nano-zinc oxide in environmentally and biologically important matrices

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert B.; Ladner, David A.; Higgins, Christopher P.; Westerhoff, Paul; Ranville, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing manufacture and use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) is leading to a greater probability for release of ENPs into the environment and exposure to organisms. In particular, zinc oxide (ZnO) is toxic, although it is unclear whether this toxicity is due to the zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO), dissolution to Zn2+, or some combination thereof. The goal of this study was to determine the relative solubilites of both commercially available and in-house synthesized ZnO in matrices used for environmental fate and transport or biological toxicity studies. Dissolution of ZnO was observed in nanopure water (7.18– 7.40 mg/L dissolved Zn, as measured by filtration) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI-1640) (~5 mg/L), but much more dissolution was observed in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM), where the dissolved Zn concentration exceeded 34 mg/L. Moderately hard water exhibited low zinc solubility, likely due to precipitation of a zinc carbonate solid phase. Precipitation of a zinc-containing solid phase in RPMI also appeared to limit zinc solubility. Equilibrium conditions with respect to ZnO solubility were not apparent in these matrices, even after more than 1,000 h of dissolution. These results suggest that solution chemistry exerts a strong influence on ZnO dissolution and can result in limits on zinc solubility due to precipitation of less soluble solid phases. PMID:21994124

  6. Solubility of drugs in aqueous solutions. Part 4. Drug solubility by the dilute approximation.

    PubMed

    Ruckenstein, E; Shulgin, I

    2004-07-01

    As in our previous publications in this journal [Int. J. Pharm. 258 (2003a) 193; Int. J. Pharm. 260 (2003b) 283; Int. J. Pharm. 267 (2003c) 121], this paper is concerned with the solubility of poorly soluble drugs in aqueous mixed solvents. In the previous publications, the solubilities of drugs were assumed to be low enough for the so-called infinite dilution approximation to be applicable. In contrast, in the present paper, the solubilities are considered to be finite and the dilute solution approximation is employed. As before, the fluctuation theory of solutions is used to express the derivatives of the activity coefficient of a solute in a ternary solution (dilute solute concentrations in a binary solvent) with respect to the concentrations of the solvent and cosolvent. The expressions obtained are combined with a theoretical equation for the activity coefficient of the solute. As a result, the activity coefficient of the solute was expressed through the activity coefficients of the solute at infinite dilution, solute mole fraction, some properties of the binary solvent (composition, molar volume and activity coefficients of the components) and parameters reflecting the nonidealities of binary species. The expression thus obtained was used to derive an equation for the solubility of poorly soluble drugs in aqueous binary solvents which was applied in two different ways. First, the nonideality parameters were considered as adjustable parameters, determined from experimental solubility data. Second, the obtained equation was used to correct the solubilities of drugs calculated via the infinite dilution approximation. It was shown that both procedures provide accurate correlations for the drug solubility.

  7. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  8. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  9. Assessing Students' Conceptual Understanding of Solubility Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviolo, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents a problem on solubility equilibrium which involves macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic levels of representation as a resource for the evaluation of students, and allows for assessment as to whether students have acquired an adequate conceptual understanding of the phenomenon. Also diagnoses difficulties with regard to previous…

  10. Substrate stiffness regulates solubility of cellular vimentin

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Maria E.; Mendez, Melissa G.; Janmey, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The intermediate filament protein vimentin is involved in the regulation of cell behavior, morphology, and mechanical properties. Previous studies using cells cultured on glass or plastic substrates showed that vimentin is largely insoluble. Although substrate stiffness was shown to alter many aspects of cell behavior, changes in vimentin organization were not reported. Our results show for the first time that mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), endothelial cells, and fibroblasts cultured on different-stiffness substrates exhibit biphasic changes in vimentin detergent solubility, which increases from nearly 0 to 67% in hMSCs coincident with increases in cell spreading and membrane ruffling. When imaged, the detergent-soluble vimentin appears to consist of small fragments the length of one or several unit-length filaments. Vimentin detergent solubility decreases when these cells are subjected to serum starvation, allowed to form cell–cell contacts, after microtubule disruption, or inhibition of Rac1, Rho-activated kinase, or p21-activated kinase. Inhibiting myosin or actin assembly increases vimentin solubility on rigid substrates. These data suggest that in the mechanical environment in vivo, vimentin is more dynamic than previously reported and its assembly state is sensitive to stimuli that alter cellular tension and morphology. PMID:24173714

  11. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  12. Development of soluble ester-linked aldehyde polymers for proteomics.

    PubMed

    Beaudette, Patrick; Rossi, Nicholas A A; Huesgen, Pitter F; Yu, Xifei; Shenoi, Rajesh A; Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2011-09-01

    High molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) was selected for development as a soluble polymer support for the targeted selection and release of primary-amine containing peptides from a complex mixture. HPG has been functionalized with ester-linked aldehyde groups that can bind primary-amine containing peptides via a reductive alkylation reaction. Once bound, the high molecular weight of the polymer facilitates separation from a complex peptide mixture by employing either a 30 kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane or precipitation in acetonitrile. Following the removal of unbound peptides and reagents, subsequent hydrolysis of the ester linker releases the bound peptide into solution for analysis by mass spectrometry. Released peptides retain the linker moiety and are therefore characteristically mass-shifted. Four water-soluble cleavable aldehyde polymers (CAP1, CAP2, CAP3, and CAP4) ranging in types of linker groups, length of the linker groups, have been prepared and characterized, each demonstrating the ability to selectively enrich and sequence primary-amine peptides from a complex human proteome containing blocked (dimethylated amine) and unblocked (primary amine) peptides. The polymers have very low nonspecific peptide-binding properties while possessing significantly more reactive groups per milligram of the support than commercially available resins. The polymers exhibit a range of reactivities and binding capacities that depend on the type of linker group between the aldehyde group and the polymer. Using various linker structures, we also probed the mechanism of the observed dehydration of hydrolyzed peptides during matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis.

  13. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT) protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP) methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM) and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO), 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV) for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html. PMID:20929563

  14. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.

    2015-06-01

    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 °C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ⩾ Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  15. 13 CFR 120.931 - 504 Lending limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 504 Lending limits. 120.931 Section 120.931 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.931 504 Lending limits. The outstanding...

  16. 13 CFR 120.931 - 504 Lending limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 504 Lending limits. 120.931 Section 120.931 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.931 504 Lending limits. The outstanding...

  17. 44 CFR 5.56 - Extension of time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Extension of time limits. 5.56 Section 5.56 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION Described Records § 5.56 Extension of time limits. In unusual circumstances...

  18. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  19. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  20. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  1. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  2. 10 CFR 602.15 - Indirect cost limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 602.15 Section 602.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.15 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences...

  3. 10 CFR 602.13 - Limitation of DOE liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation of DOE liability. 602.13 Section 602.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.13 Limitation of DOE liability. Awards made under this part are subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 35.578 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.578 Section 35.578... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.578 Award limitation. The Regional Administrator will not disapprove an application for, or terminate or annul an...

  5. 40 CFR 35.198 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.198 Section 35.198... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Underground Water Source Protection (section 1443(b)) § 35.198 Award limitation. The Regional Administrator will only award section 1443(b) funds to States that have...

  6. 40 CFR 35.218 - Award limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitation. 35.218 Section 35.218... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Hazardous Waste Management (section 3011(a)) § 35.218 Award limitation. The Regional Administrator will not award Hazardous Waste Management Grants to a State...

  7. 42 CFR 403.508 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations. 403.508 Section 403.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Beneficiary Counseling and Assistance Grants § 403.508 Limitations. (a)...

  8. 42 CFR 403.508 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations. 403.508 Section 403.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Beneficiary Counseling and Assistance Grants § 403.508 Limitations. (a)...

  9. 42 CFR 403.508 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations. 403.508 Section 403.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Beneficiary Counseling and Assistance Grants § 403.508 Limitations. (a)...

  10. 42 CFR 403.508 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations. 403.508 Section 403.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Beneficiary Counseling and Assistance Grants § 403.508 Limitations. (a)...

  11. 42 CFR 403.508 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations. 403.508 Section 403.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Beneficiary Counseling and Assistance Grants § 403.508 Limitations. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 298.21 - Limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limits. 298.21 Section 298.21 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Guarantees § 298.21 Limits. (a) Actual Cost basis. We will issue a guarantee on an amount of the Obligation satisfactory to us based on the economic soundness...

  13. 7 CFR 3570.63 - Grant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purposes restricted by 7 CFR 1942.17(d)(2). (b) Grant assistance will be provided on a graduated scale with... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant limitations. 3570.63 Section 3570.63... AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.63 Grant limitations. (a) Grant...

  14. 7 CFR 3570.63 - Grant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purposes restricted by 7 CFR 1942.17(d)(2). (b) Grant assistance will be provided on a graduated scale with... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant limitations. 3570.63 Section 3570.63... AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.63 Grant limitations. (a) Grant...

  15. 40 CFR 40.125 - Grant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant limitations. 40.125 Section 40.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.125 Grant limitations....

  16. 40 CFR 40.125 - Grant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant limitations. 40.125 Section 40.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.125 Grant limitations....

  17. 40 CFR 40.125 - Grant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant limitations. 40.125 Section 40.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.125 Grant limitations....

  18. 40 CFR 40.125 - Grant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant limitations. 40.125 Section 40.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.125 Grant limitations....

  19. 7 CFR 1944.407 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Self-Help Technical Assistance Grants § 1944.407 Limitations. The amount of... be limited to: (a) An average TA cost per equivalent unit of no more than 15 percent of the cost...

  20. 7 CFR 1774.13 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Limitations. 1774.13 Section 1774.13 Agriculture... Application Processing § 1774.13 Limitations. Grant funds may not be used to: (a) Fund political or lobbying...) Fund projects that duplicate technical assistance given to implement action plans under the...

  1. Novel electrosprayed nanospherules for enhanced aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Jin, Sung Giu; Yong, Chul Soon; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present research was to develop a novel electrosprayed nanospherule providing the most optimized aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability for poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. Methods Numerous fenofibrate-loaded electrosprayed nanospherules were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Labrafil® M 2125 as carriers using the electrospray technique, and the effect of the carriers on drug solubility and solvation was assessed. The solid state characterization of an optimized formulation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Oral bioavailability in rats was also evaluated for the formulation of an optimized nanospherule in comparison with free drug and a conventional fenofibrate-loaded solid dispersion. Results All of the electrosprayed nanospherule formulations had remarkably enhanced aqueous solubility and dissolution compared with free drug. Moreover, Labrafil M 2125, a surfactant, had a positive influence on the solubility and dissolution of the drug in the electrosprayed nanospherule. Increases were observed as the PVP/drug ratio increased to 4:1, but higher ratios gave no significant increases. In particular, an electrosprayed nanospherule composed of fenofibrate, PVP, and Labrafil M 2125 at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.5 resulted in a particle size of <200 nm with the drug present in the amorphous state. It demonstrated the highest solubility (32.51±2.41 μg/mL), an excellent dissolution (~85% in 10 minutes), and an oral bioavailability ~2.5-fold better than that of the free drug. It showed similar oral bioavailability compared to the conventional solid dispersion. Conclusion Electrosprayed nanospherules, which provide improved solubility and bioavailability, are promising drug delivery tools for oral administration of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate. PMID:26834471

  2. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Oviedo, I.; Retchkiman-Corona, B.; Quirino-Barreda, C. T.; Cárdenas, J.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin. PMID:23798775

  3. Solubility Enhancement of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug by Forming Solid Dispersions using Mechanochemical Activation.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Oviedo, I; Retchkiman-Corona, B; Quirino-Barreda, C T; Cárdenas, J; Schabes-Retchkiman, P S

    2012-11-01

    Mechanochemical activation is a practical cogrinding operation used to obtain a solid dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug through changes in the solid state molecular aggregation of drug-carrier mixtures and the formation of noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonds) between two crystalline solids such as a soluble carrier, lactose, and a poorly soluble drug, indomethacin, in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Samples of indomethacin and a physical mixture with a weight ratio of 1:1 of indomethacin and lactose were ground using a high speed vibrating ball mill. Particle size was determined by electron microscopy, the reduction of crystallinity was determined by calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy was used to find evidence of any interactions between the drug and the carrier and the determination of apparent solubility allowed for the corroboration of changes in solubility. Before grinding, scanning electron microscopy showed the drug and lactose to have an average particle size of around 50 and 30 μm, respectively. After high speed grinding, indomethacin and the mixture had a reduced average particle size of around 5 and 2 μm, respectively, showing a morphological change. The ground mixture produced a solid dispersion that had a loss of crystallinity that reached 81% after 30 min of grinding while the drug solubility of indomethacin within the solid dispersion increased by 2.76 fold as compared to the pure drug. Drug activation due to hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic group of the drug and the hydroxyl group of lactose as well as the decrease in crystallinity of the solid dispersion and the reduction of the particle size led to a better water solubility of indomethacin.

  4. Solubility behavior and biopharmaceutical classification of novel high-solubility ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin pharmaceutical derivatives.

    PubMed

    Breda, Susana A; Jimenez-Kairuz, Alvaro F; Manzo, Ruben H; Olivera, María E

    2009-04-17

    The hydrochlorides of the 1:3 aluminum:norfloxacin and aluminum:ciprofloxacin complexes were characterized according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) premises in comparison with their parent compounds. The pH-solubility profiles of the complexes were experimentally determined at 25 and 37 degrees C in the range of pH 1-8 and compared to that of uncomplexed norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Both complexes are clearly more soluble than the antibiotics themselves, even at the lowest solubility pHs. The increase in solubility was ascribed to the species controlling solubility, which were analyzed in the solid phases at equilibrium at selected pHs. Additionally, permeability was set as low, based on data reported in the scientific literature regarding oral bioavailability, intestinal and cell cultures permeabilities and also considering the influence of stoichiometric amounts of aluminum. The complexes fulfill the BCS criterion to be classified as class 3 compounds (high solubility/low permeability). Instead, the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) currently used in solid dosage forms, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, proved to be BCS class 4 (low solubility/low permeability). The solubility improvement turns the complexes as potential biowaiver candidates from the scientific point of view and may be a good way for developing more dose-efficient formulations. An immediate release tablet showing very rapid dissolution was obtained. Its dissolution profile was compared to that of the commercial ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablets allowing to dissolution of the complete dose at a critical pH such as 6.8.

  5. Forced wetting and hydrodynamic assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Terence D.; Fernandez-Toledano, Juan-Carlos; Doyen, Guillaume; De Coninck, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Wetting is a prerequisite for coating a uniform layer of liquid onto a solid. Wetting failure and air entrainment set the ultimate limit to coating speed. It is well known in the coating art that this limit can be postponed by manipulating the coating flow to generate what has been termed "hydrodynamic assist," but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Experiments have shown that the conditions that postpone air entrainment also reduce the apparent dynamic contact angle, suggesting a direct link, but how the flow might affect the contact angle remains to be established. Here, we use molecular dynamics to compare the outcome of steady forced wetting with previous results for the spontaneous spreading of liquid drops and apply the molecular-kinetic theory of dynamic wetting to rationalize our findings and place them on a quantitative footing. The forced wetting simulations reveal significant slip at the solid-liquid interface and details of the flow immediately adjacent to the moving contact line. Our results confirm that the local, microscopic contact angle is dependent not simply only on the velocity of wetting but also on the nature of the flow that drives it. In particular, they support an earlier suggestion that during forced wetting, an intense shear stress in the vicinity of the contact line can assist surface tension forces in promoting dynamic wetting, thus reducing the velocity-dependence of the contact angle. Hydrodynamic assist then appears as a natural consequence of wetting that emerges when the contact line is driven by a strong and highly confined flow. Our theoretical approach also provides a self-consistent model of molecular slip at the solid-liquid interface that enables its magnitude to be estimated from dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the model predicts how hydrodynamic assist and slip may be influenced by liquid viscosity and solid-liquid interactions.

  6. Water solubility in pyrope at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, M.; Karato, S.-

    2006-12-01

    To address how much water is stored within the Earth's mantle, we need to understand the water solubility in the nominally anhydrous minerals. Much is known about olivine and pyroxene. Garnet is another important component, approaching 40% by volume in the transition zone. Only two studies on water solubility in pyrope at high-pressures exist which contradict each other. Lu and Keppler (1997) observed increase in water solubility in a natural pyrope up to 200 ppm wt of water, till 10 GPa. They concluded that the proton is located in the interstitial site. Withers et al. (1998) on the contrary, observed increasing water content in Mg-rich pyrope till 6 GPa, then sudden decrease of water, beyond detection, at 7 GPa. Based on infrared spectra, Withers et al. (1998), concluded hydrogarnet (Si^{4+} replaced by 4H+ to form O4H4) substitution in synthetic magnesium rich pyrope. They argued that at high pressure owing to larger volume, hydrogarnet substitution is unstable and water is expelled out of garnet. In transition zone conditions, however, majorite garnet seems to contain around 600-700 ppm wt of water (Bolfan-Casanova et al. 2000; Katayama et al. 2003). The cause for such discrepancy is not clear and whether garnet could store a significant amount of water at mantle condition is unconstrained. In order to understand the solubility mechanism of water in pyrope at high-pressure, we have conducted high- pressure experiments on naturally occurring single crystals of pyrope garnet (from Arizona, Aines and Rossman, 1984). To ascertain water-saturated conditions, we use olivine single-crystal as an internal standard. Preliminary results indicate that natural pyrope is capable of dissolving water at high-pressures, however, water preferentially enters olivine than in pyrope. We are undertaking systematic study to estimate the solubility of water in pyrope as a function of pressure. This will enable us to develop solubility models to understand the defect mechanisms

  7. How Entrainers Enhance Solubility in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Seishi; Abbott, Steven

    2016-04-21

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) on its own can be a relatively poor solvent. However, the addition at relatively modest concentration of "entrainers", simple solvent molecules such as ethanol or acetone, can provide a significant boost in solubility, thereby enabling its industrial use. However, how entrainers work is still under debate; without an unambiguous explanation, it is hard to optimize entrainers for any specific solute. This paper demonstrates that a fundamental, assumption-free statistical thermodynamic theory, the Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory, can provide an unambiguous explanation of the entrainer effect through an analysis of published experimental data. The KB theory shows that a strong solute-entrainer interaction accounts for the solubility enhancement, while CO2 density increase and/or CO2-entrainer interactions, which have been assumed widely in the literature, do not account for solubilization. This conclusion, despite the limited completeness of available data, is demonstrably robust; this can be shown by an order-of-magnitude analysis based upon the theory, and can be demonstrated directly through a public-domain "app", which has been developed to implement the theory.

  8. A Critical Appraisal of Solubility Enhancement Techniques of Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harkiran; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols constitute a family of natural substances distributed widely in plant kingdom. These are produced as secondary metabolites by plants and so far 8000 representatives of this family have been identified. Recently, there is an increased interest in the polyphenols because of the evidence of their role in prevention of degenerative diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Although a large number of drugs are available in the market for treatment of these diseases, however, the emphasis these days is on the exploitation of natural principles derived from plants. Most polyphenols show low in vivo bioavailability thus limiting their application for oral drug delivery. This low bioavailability could be associated with low aqueous solubility, first pass effect, metabolism in GIT, or irreversible binding to cellular DNA and proteins. Therefore, there is a need to devise strategies to improve oral bioavailability of polyphenols. Various approaches like nanosizing, self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS), microencapsulation, complexation, and solid dispersion can be used to increase the bioavailability. This paper will highlight the various methods that have been employed till date for the solubility enhancement of various polyphenols so that a suitable drug delivery system can be formulated. PMID:26556188

  9. A three-dimensional solubility parameter approach to nonaqueous enzymology.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L V

    1991-03-25

    Widespread commercial application of enzymes as catalysts for specialty or commodity chemical synthesis will require their use in nonaqueous systems. While a number of non-aqueous enzyme applications have been demonstrated, the lack of useful rules for predicting enzyme-solvent interactions has hindered the development of this technology. Both Hildebrand and solvent hydrophobicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) parameters have been used previously to correlate and predict enzyme activity in nonaqueous systems, with some success, but any single-parameter approach is inherently limited in its ability to reflect the spectrum of possible enzyme-solvent interactions. Therefore, this study evaluates the three-dimensional solubility parameter space, as proposed by Hansen, to correlate and predict enzyme activity in microaqueous, miscible, and biphasic nonaqueous systems. Preliminary results suggest that Hansen parameters may be useful for correlating nonaqueous enzyme activity, and that the dispersive and polar parameters may be disproportionately important in single-phase microaqueous systems. The Hansen hydrogen-bonding parameter appears to be the only parameter yet evaluated capable of correlating the water requirement for enzyme activity in microaqueous systems, suggesting that water affects protein structure through enthalpic rather than entropic processes in nonaqueous systems. Insufficient data are available for miscible and biphasic systems, but it is proposed that enzyme activity may correlate with the average solubility parameters of miscible systems and of the aqueous phase in biphasic systems.

  10. Method for determination of some soluble atmospheric carbonyl compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.N.; Zhou, X. )

    1993-04-01

    A technique was developed for the measurement of soluble atmospheric carbonyl compounds, which uses a pyrex coil gas-liquid scrubber sampler in conjunction with a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a UV-visible detector for separation and identification following derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Carbonyls exhibiting a Henry's law solubility similar to or greater than that of formaldehyde (FA) can be determined by this method; these include FA, glycolaldehyde (GA), glyoxal (GL), and methylglyoxal (MG). Based on liquid standards and field-developed chromatographic characteristics, the limits of detection are about 0.005 ppb (in the gas phase) for MG, about 0.01 ppb for GL, and about 0.02 ppb for FA and GA. Because of the short air-liquid contact time in the coil sampler (smaller than 10 s), interferences from aqueous-phase reactions of ozone are insignificant. Also, at the low pH of the scrubbing solution, interference resulting from reactions of carbonyls with S(IV) is unimportant. 43 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous mixtures of alkanolamines

    SciTech Connect

    Dawodu, O.F.; Meisen, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The solubility of CO[sub 2] in water + N-methyldiethanolamine + monoethanolamine (MDEA + MEA) and water + N-methyldiethanolamine + diethanolamine (MDEA + DEA) are reported at two compositions of 3.4 M MDEA + 0.8 M MEA or DEA and 2.1 M MDEA + 2.1 M MEA or DEA at temperatures from 70 to 180 C and CO[sub 2] partial pressures from 100 to 3,850 kPa. The solubility of CO[sub 2] in the blends decreased with an increase in temperature but increased with an increase in CO[sub 2] partial pressure. At low partial pressures of CO[sub 2] and the same total amine concentration, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings were in the order MDEA + MEA > MDEA + DEA > MDEA. However, at high CO[sub 2] partial pressures, the equilibrium CO[sub 2] loadings in the MDEA solutions were higher than those of the MDEA + MEA and MDEA + DEA blends of equal molar strengths due to the stoichiometric loading limitations of MEA and DEA. The nonadditivity of the equilibrium loadings for single amine systems highlights the need for independent measurements on amine blends.

  12. Robotically assisted gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Tommaso; Steiner, Charles P

    2002-05-01

    Industry has used robots successfully for fine, delicate, repetitive tasks for decades. Recently, robots have been introduced into clinical medicine and specifically into the surgical suite. Voice algorithms have been developed that allow voice activation of some types of equipment in the operating room, such as the laparoscope or the light source. Advances in computer software have allowed a computer controller to translate a surgeon's movements from the handles located in a console to the robotic arms that hold the surgical instruments. This console is placed away from the surgical table. Clinical experience is limited and there are few published clinical trials. The initial trials have focused on laparoscopic microsuturing such as that performed during coronary bypass surgery or tubal anastomosis. Preliminary results have demonstrated that laparoscopic coronary bypass surgery with the internal mammary artery can be achieved. In gynaecological surgery, laparoscopic tubal reanastomosis can be performed using the same technique that has been used traditionally at laparotomy. Future clinical trials will assess whether other gynaecological procedures can be performed with robotic assistance. PMID:12082211

  13. Robotically assisted gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Tommaso; Steiner, Charles P

    2002-05-01

    Industry has used robots successfully for fine, delicate, repetitive tasks for decades. Recently, robots have been introduced into clinical medicine and specifically into the surgical suite. Voice algorithms have been developed that allow voice activation of some types of equipment in the operating room, such as the laparoscope or the light source. Advances in computer software have allowed a computer controller to translate a surgeon's movements from the handles located in a console to the robotic arms that hold the surgical instruments. This console is placed away from the surgical table. Clinical experience is limited and there are few published clinical trials. The initial trials have focused on laparoscopic microsuturing such as that performed during coronary bypass surgery or tubal anastomosis. Preliminary results have demonstrated that laparoscopic coronary bypass surgery with the internal mammary artery can be achieved. In gynaecological surgery, laparoscopic tubal reanastomosis can be performed using the same technique that has been used traditionally at laparotomy. Future clinical trials will assess whether other gynaecological procedures can be performed with robotic assistance.

  14. 49 CFR 80.5 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... investment in transportation infrastructure depends, in large part, on investor recognition that TIFIA credit... conditional term sheet will resemble the standard term sheet that enables the obligation of budget authority... credit agreement. (e) The obligor may draw upon the line of credit only if net project...

  15. 24 CFR 583.150 - Limitations on use of assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prospective program beneficiary on the basis of religion or religious belief. (5) Program funds may not be... its religious beliefs, provided that it does not use direct Supportive Housing Program funds to...-wide regulations governing real property disposition (see 24 CFR parts 84 and 85). (6) If a State...

  16. 24 CFR 582.115 - Limitations on assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... religion or religious belief. (5) If a State or local government voluntarily contributes its own funds to... definition, practice and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not use direct S+C...

  17. 42 CFR 38.3 - Assistance; procedures, limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disaster victims who may need professional mental health crisis counseling services and of the number of... description of the types of mental health problems caused or aggravated by the major disaster or its aftermath; and (5) Identification of the State and local agencies and private mental health organizations...

  18. 42 CFR 38.3 - Assistance; procedures, limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disaster victims who may need professional mental health crisis counseling services and of the number of... description of the types of mental health problems caused or aggravated by the major disaster or its aftermath; and (5) Identification of the State and local agencies and private mental health organizations...

  19. 42 CFR 38.3 - Assistance; procedures, limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disaster victims who may need professional mental health crisis counseling services and of the number of... description of the types of mental health problems caused or aggravated by the major disaster or its aftermath; and (5) Identification of the State and local agencies and private mental health organizations...

  20. 42 CFR 38.3 - Assistance; procedures, limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disaster victims who may need professional mental health crisis counseling services and of the number of... description of the types of mental health problems caused or aggravated by the major disaster or its aftermath; and (5) Identification of the State and local agencies and private mental health organizations...