Farouk, Osama; Mahran, Dalia G; Said, Hatem G; Alaa, Mohamed M; Eisa, Amr; Imam, Hisham; Said, G Z
The study was done to investigate osteoporosis prevalence in 275 hip fracture admissions at the Trauma Unit of Assiut University Hospitals and associated factors, which are understudied in our locality. Prevalence was 74.9%. Female sex, older age, low body mass index, and fall on the ground were associated with osteoporosis.
Badari, Mohamed S; Elgendy, Sherein G; Mohamed, Asmaa S; Hassan, Alaa T
The immunomodulatory effects of antibiotics could influence the degree of systemic and local responses to infection, so investigation of their intrinsic influence on the host's inflammatory response appears to be essential. Fluoroquinolones are known to exert modulatory activity on immune responses to microbial infection. However the mechanism of this immunmodulation has not been well elucidated. The aim of the work, is to assess the immunomodulatory effects of a levofloxacin, through examining its effect on the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and Interleukin - 10 (IL-10) in serum of pneumonic patients. After following local research ethics committee approval and informed consent. This study included 40 patients with different types of pneumonia, admitted to department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Hospitals, Egypt. Also, 10 healthy volunteers served as randomized controls. Both patients and controls received levofloxacin (750 mg once daily for 10 days). Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were measured in patients and control before and after levofloxacin administration (750 mg once daily for 10 days) using human TNF-α and IL-10 ELISA kits respectively. Levofloxacin caused a statistically significant decrease in the mean level of TNF-α in both patients (20.82 ± 1.31 pg/ml) (P < 0.009) and control group (17.12 ± 0.84 pg/ml) (P < 0.004). In contrast, there was statistically significant increase (P < 0.000) in the mean level of IL-1 0 in patients (61.75 ± 2.85 pg/ml) while statistically significant decrease (P < 0.005) in control group (28.57 ± 1.37 pg/ml). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that treatment with levofloxacin affects production of TNF-α as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and IL-10 as an anti-inflammatory cytokines which may provide additional benefits in treatment of respiratory tract infections that are independent of its antibacterial properties.
Ahmed, Shaaban H; Daef, Enas A; Badary, Mohammed S; Mahmoud, Mohammed A; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A
Aim This study investigated the nosocomial blood stream infection (BSI) in the adult ICUs in Assiut university hospitals to evaluate the rate of infection in different ICUs, causative microorganisms, antimicrobial resistance, outcome of infection, risk factors, prevalence of extended spectrum B-lactamase producing organisms and molecular typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to highlight the role of environment as a potential source of nosocomial BSI. Methods This study was conducted over a period of 12 months from January 2006 to December 2006. All Patients admitted to the different adult ICUs were monitored daily by attending physicians for subsequent development of nosocomial BSI. Blood cultures were collected from suspected patients to detect the causative organisms. After antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of ESBLs was conducted among gram negative isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were tested by PCR to determine the most common group of B-lactamase genes responsible for resistance. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from infected patients and those isolated from the environment were typed by RAPD technique to investigate the role of environment in transmission of infection. Results The study included 2095 patients who were admitted to different ICUs at Assiut University Hospitals from January 2006 to December 2006. Blood samples were collected from infected patients for blood cultures. The colonies were identified and antibiotic sensitivities were performed. This study showed that the rate of nosocomial BSI was 75 per 1000 ICU admissions with the highest percentages in Trauma ICU (17%). Out of 159 patients with primary bloodstream infection, 61 patients died representing a crude mortality rate of 38%. Analysis of the organisms causing BSI showed that Gram positive organisms were reported in 69.1% (n = 121); MRSA was the most prevalent (18.9%), followed by methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (16%). Gram negative bacilli
Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed
Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…
Fink, Daniel J.
University teaching hospitals face increasing competition from community hospitals, expanding regulation of health care, consumerism, and a declining urban population base. New marketing strategies are seen as ways in which teaching hospitals can achieve better relationships with institutions, practitioners, and surrounding communities and…
Abd-Elaziz, Saieda Abd-Elhameed; Khedr, Eman M.; Ahmed, Hanaa Abd Elhakiem; Ibrahim, Hoda Diab Fahmy
Cognitive impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. The study aimed to measure the effect of cognitive rehabilitation of elderly patients with stroke on their cognitive function and activities of daily living. Quasi experimental research design were used in this study. This study was conducted at neuropsychiatric, physical medicine and…
McCorkle, Lois P.
The lengths of hospital stay among adult inpatients discharged during 1962 from the medical and surgical specialty departments of a large urban university-affiliated general hospital have been examined. Data are shown comparing the durations of hospitalization of patients who had a private physician directly responsible for their hospital care (private patients) and of those who did not (staff patients). The relation between the lengths of stay of private patients and those of staff patients varied considerably from one hospital department to another. On the medical services, staff patients had longer hospital stays than did private patients, a discrepancy that could not be accounted for by differences between the two groups in age, race, sex, or source of payment for hospitalization and it is being studied further. A major cause of the apparent difference in lengths of hospitalization between private and staff surgical patients proved to be inconsistencies in the criteria used to define the terms “hospital admission” and “inpatient” among various patient groups. Some of the possible effects of variations in the definition of these terms and of the terms “medical patients” and “surgical patients” in hospital-use studies are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5915337
Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F J M
Within the unique and complex settings of university hospitals, it is difficult to implement policy initiatives aimed at developing careers in and improving the quality of academic medical teaching because of the competing domains of medical research and patient care. Factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives have remained underexplored. Knowledge of these factors is needed to develop theory on the successful implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. To explore factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives and to develop a conceptual model for implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. We used the grounded theory methodology. We applied constant comparative analysis to qualitative data obtained from 12 semi-structured interviews conducted at the Radboud University Medical Center. We used a constructivist approach, in which data and theories are co-created through interaction between the researcher and the field and its participants. We constructed a model for the implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals, including five factors that were perceived to promote or inhibit faculty in a university hospital to make use of teaching policy incentives: Executive Board Strategy, Departmental Strategy, Departmental Structure, Departmental Culture, and Individual Strategy. Most factors we found to affect individual teachers' strategies and their use of medical teaching policy lie at the departmental level. If an individual teacher's strategy is focused on medical teaching and a medical teaching career, and the departmental context offers support and opportunity for his/her development, this promotes faculty's use of teaching policy incentives.
Wagner, R; Hlavacka, S; Mazanec, V; Bacharova, L
Organizational change can generate skepticism and resistance in employees, making it sometimes difficult or impossible to implement organizational improvements. To enable the University Hospital Bratislava to manage these realities in a most effective way, the assessment of attitudes to change was conducted among 304 full-time hospital employees in the summer of 1999. The assessment was based on the Change Climate Survey allowing for investigation of attitudes in four main areas: orientation towards change in general, understanding and acceptance of change, management of change, and change outcomes. In spite of some limitations due to the fact that the survey did not use a true random sample, in general, the results seem to be able to illustrate the University Hospital employees' attitudes to change. The findings indicate that, in general, the attitudes of the hospital employees towards change are rather positive. However, the mixed feelings prevail among the employees from the point of understanding and acceptance of the current changes. Similarly, the mixed feelings persist among the employees with respect to the way the change is managed, though with slightly positive attitudes towards the level of communication. From the practical point of view, the results imply that emphasizing the involvement of organization members in learning about their organization and how to change it might prove to be more effective in managing change in the University Hospital Bratislava, than the traditional approaches to planned change, where consultants carry out most of the change activities, with the agreement and collaboration of management. (Tab. 8, Ref. 28.)
Goldberg, G A
The clinics of a single university hospital center were observed to determine a practical rationale for and impediments to implementing a medical care evaluation program. A quality assurance mechanism is especially important in the ambulatory care setting because of problems with patient compliance, lack of policy continuity, lack of intercommunication among care providers, no counterpart for most inpatient quality-oriented activities, structural defects in many clinics, and general emphasis on the inpatient medicine. Impediments to implementing quality assurance programs include the condition of clinic records and individual charts, lack of established criteria for care, problems of care provider intercommunication during the evaluation process, manpower availability, choice of evaluation method, and method of implementing resulting plans for corrective action.
Chung, Ya-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Cheng
Hospitality is not a new industry in Asia, but high quality hospitality industry has become more and more important in the trend of questing service-based economy and the increasing number of tourists in Asia. Thus there are more universities opened hospitality degree programs in Asia, Taiwan is no exception. In this context, why high school…
Objectives This paper provides information for decision making of the managers and the staff of national university hospitals. Methods In order to conduct a financial analysis of national university hospitals, this study uses reports on the final accounts of 10 university hospitals from 2008 to 2011. Results The results of comparing 2008 and 2011 showed that there was a general decrease in total assets, an increase in liabilities, and a decrease in total medical revenues, with a continuous deficit in many hospitals. Moreover, as national university hospitals have low debt dependence, their management conditions generally seem satisfactory. However, some individual hospitals suffer severe financial difficulties and thus depend on short-term debts, which generally aggravate the profit and loss structure. Various indicators show that the financial state and business performance of national university hospitals have been deteriorating. Conclusion These research findings will be used as important basic data for managers who make direct decisions in this uncertain business environment or by researchers who analyze the medical industry to enable informed decision-making and optimized execution. Furthermore, this study is expected to contribute to raising government awareness of the need to foster and support the national university hospital industry. PMID:26730356
Bani, I A; Al-Kanhal, M A
The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study of patients were evaluated for findings suggestive of protein calorie malnutrition (PCM). Hundred and sixty patients admitted to the medical and surgical wards over a period of five months were studied. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were used. Nutrition status was calculated based on some nutrition parameters weight for height, midarm, circumference, serum albumin and total lymphocyte count. Anthropometric measurements, weight for height and midarm circumference reflected malnutrition (PCM) of 33.8% and 30% respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity was 21%. A higher proportion (23.9%) of medical cases were found to be obese compared to surgical cases (19.7%). If malnutrition can be documented on hospital admission, attempts can be made to reverse malnutrition in the high risk patients.
Jung, Eun Young; Jeong, Byung Hui; Moon, Byung Chan; Kang, Hyung Wook; Tchah, Hann; Han, Gi Seong; Cheng, Woo Sung; Lee, Young Ho
Objectives In this research, the hospital information system of Gachon University Gil hospital is introduced and a future strategy for hospital information systems is proposed. Methods This research introduces the development conditions of hospital information system at Gachon University Gil hospital, information about the development of the enterprise resource planning (ERP), a medical service process improvement system, and the personal health record (PHR) system. Results The medical service process and work efficiency were improved through the medical service process improvement system, which is the most common hospital information system at Gachon University Gil hospital and which includes an emergency medical service system, an online evaluation system and a round support system. Conclusions Gachon University Gil hospital developed medical service improvement systems to increase work efficiency of medical team and optimized the systems to prove the availability of high-quality medical services for patients and their families. The PHR-based personalized health care solution is under development and will provide higher quality medical service for more patients in the future. PMID:22509476
Kulbertus, Henri; Doppagne, Philippe
Most of the hospital beds available to the University of Liege (France) for training purposes are in a public teaching hospital with an autonomous legal structure and privileged relationship with the university. Other beds are in other facilities. The financing, supervision, and management structure integrates the institutions and supports medical…
Hassan, A. H.; Issa, I. A.; Mousa, M.; Abdel-Hadi, Yasser A.
Twilight observations were carried out by naked eye in the period (2010-2012) for north Sinai (Lat. 31°4‧N, Long. 32°52‧E) where the background is desert, and for Assiut (Lat. 27°10‧N, Long. 31°10‧E) in the period (2012-2014) where the background is agricultural land. The purpose of these observations is to calculate the depression of the sun below the horizon at which the normal eye can discriminate the dawn (morning white thread) for two sites. The results indicated that this discrimination takes place at vertical sun depression angles, Do = 14.61° and 13.665° at Sinai and Assiut respectively.
El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M
The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.
The first specialized Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital in Bulgaria was founded based on the idea of Queen Maria Luisa (1883). Construction began in 1896 and the official opening of the hospital took place on November 19, 1903. What is unique about the University Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital "Maichin dom" is above all the fact that the Bulgarian school of obstetrics and gynecology was founded within its institution. Currently, the hospital has nearly 400 beds and 600 employees who work at nine clinics and six laboratories, covering the entire spectrum of obstetric and gynecological activities. Its leading specialists still continue to embody the highest level of professionalism and dedication. The future development of the hospital is chiefly associated with the renovation of facilities, resources and equipment and with the enhancement of the professional competence of the staff and of the quality of hospital products to improve the health and satisfaction of the patients.
Mohammad, R. G.; Tempel, R.; Gomaa, M.; Korany, E.
Groundwater in Assiut area, Egypt, is an important source of fresh water for human consumption, agriculture, and domestic and industrial purposes. Due to a growing population and expansion of agricultural reclamation projects in the desert fringes of the Nile Valley, there is an increasing water demand in this arid region. This study has investigated the geochemical and hydrological processes that control groundwater quality within the Pleistocene, Plio-Pleistocene, and Eocene aquifers in Assiut, in addition to the hydraulic relationships between surface and groundwater systems and the relations among the defined groundwater aquifers. A total of 28 surface and 160 groundwater samples were collected for geochemical analysis (major and minor element chemistry, and stable isotope analyses). Total dissolved solids = 182 to 5657 mg/L, water-delta 18O = -7.5 to +6.5%, and water-delta D = -55 to +32%. Geochemical and stable isotope data indicate that the principal source of recharge to the Pleistocene and Plio-Pleistocene aquifers is the surface water system (irrigation canals), while the prevalence of Na-Cl type waters in the Eocene aquifer indicates recharge by upward leakage from the underlying Nubian sandstone aquifer which contains the same Na-Cl water type. Evaporation prior to infiltration, mixing, and mineral equilibria (dissolution and precipitation) are the main factors that affect water quality. Ion exchange plays a secondary role in controlling the water chemistry of the Pleistocene aquifer, but is more effective in controlling water quality within the Plio-Pleistocene and Eocene aquifers due to the prevalence of clay minerals within the matrices. The fresh water exploited from the Eocene aquifer may be of great importance for land reclamation projects not only at the western desert fringes, but also at the eastern desert fringes of Assiut and similar settings around the River Nile south of Assiut Governorate. Results of this study will be helpful for
Yoo, Sooyoung; Lee, Kee Hyuck; Lee, Hak Jong; Ha, Kyooseob; Lim, Cheong; Chin, Ho Jun; Yun, Jonghoar; Cho, Eun-Young; Chung, Eunja; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Chul Hee; Lee, Hai-Seok; Byeon, Nam-Soo
Objectives Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, which is the first Stage 7 hospital outside of North America, has adopted and utilized an innovative and emerging information technology system to improve the efficiency and quality of patient care. The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce the major components of the SNUBH information system and to describe our progress toward a next-generation hospital information system (HIS). Methods SNUBH opened in 2003 as a fully digital hospital by successfully launching a new HIS named BESTCare, "Bundang hospital Electronic System for Total Care". Subsequently, the system has been continuously improved with new applications, including close-loop medication administration (CLMA), clinical data warehouse (CDW), health information exchange (HIE), and disaster recovery (DR), which have resulted in the achievement of Stage 7 status. Results The BESTCare system is an integrated system for a university hospital setting. BESTCare is mainly composed of three application domains: the core applications, an information infrastructure, and channel domains. The most critical and unique applications of the system, such as the electronic medical record (EMR), computerized physician order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support system (CDSS), CLMA, CDW, HIE, and DR applications, are described in detail. Conclusions Beyond our achievement of Stage 7 hospital status, we are currently developing a next-generation HIS with new goals of implementing infrastructure that is flexible and innovative, implementing a patient-centered system, and strengthening the IT capability to maximize the hospital value. PMID:22844650
Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Saito, Norihiro; Yamamoto, Ayako; Tsutaya, Shoji; Akimoto, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Masahiko; Inoue, Fumio; Kondo, Jun; Akahira, Emi; Tachibana, Naoki; Okamura, Yuji; Takahashi, Shiori; Kojima, Keiya; Tamazawa, Naoki; Hayakari, Makoto
Activities and the understanding of infection control in healthcare facilities have improved in the past decade since a certification system for medical personnel, such as infection control nurse and infection control doctor, were introduced in Japan. These specialists are distributed among tertiary general hospitals, while many small and mid-scale hospitals have no infection control specialists. In 2012, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare launched a new strategy for further improvement of infection control by supporting a regional network of infection control activities. Through the infection control network, small or mid-scaled hospitals can utilize infection control specialists in tertiary general hospitals, enter educational programs on infection control and consult in cases of nosocomial infection outbreaks. As part of the regional infection control network, we established an information network system, named ReNICS, to share the bacteriological test results of the hospitals in Akita prefecture. ReNICS offers epidemiological data on bacteria identified in the region. We can identify the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria and can roughly estimate the quality of infection control activities in each facility. As a similar information network is being prepared in Hirosaki University Hospital Infection Control Center in Aomori, a prefecture neighboring Akita, we discussed the roles of university hospitals for a regional infection control network.
Jaspers, Fr C A
The university teaching hospitals are legally commissioned for the development and implementation of the initial medical training for doctors and for the training of specialist registrars, i.e. graduate medical education. They are able to carry out this task partly due to the professionals' collective sense of ambition and a strongly focussed organization that has the necessary critical mass at its disposal.
Tarlov, Alvin R.; And Others
A case study of the University of Chicago Medical Center highlights the tensions, strains, and resistances that inhibit the development of an urban health care system. It raises questions about the role of the research and teaching hospital in regional health care planning, especially as suburban facilities are drawing away patients. (Author/LBH)
American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Washington, DC.
This paper represents the work of a task force sponsored by the University Health System Consortium and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. These two organizations share a common concern for preparing and retaining a well-educated nursing workforce for complex university hospital settings. The charge to the task force was to develop…
Tahirbegolli, Bernard; Çavdar, Sabanur; Sümer, Esin Çetinkaya; Akdeniz, Sıdıka I.; Vehid, Suphi
Objectives: To examine the most frequent admitted polyclinics, diagnoses, and the costs of Syrian refugee patient in a Turkish university hospital in the metropolitan city of Istanbul, Western part of Turkey. Methods: Research methodology consist of analyzing outpatient admissions to the Hospital Polyclinics of Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey from January-June 2014. We carried out diagnosis groups as classified in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification, and analyzed the hospital cost of first admission through records based in the hospital information system. Results: Median age of 251 Syrian refugee patients is 19 years, inter quartile rate 7-34 years. Patients aged 65 and older compared with those until 18 years and 19 to 64 years aged groups have made statistically significant (p<0.001) less hospital admissions. The Most frequented clinic was the emergency clinic. On June there have been significantly (p<0.001) more admissions compared with other months. The most common diagnoses were diseases of the respiratory system. The costs of per admission was estimated nearly 48 US Dollar/per patient and the total amount of hospital admissions was 12,031.93 US Dollar. Conclusion: On the specified dates, the clinics were mostly frequented from Syrian refugees until 18 years group. The most common presenting symptoms are respiratory diseases and most frequented clinic is emergency. PMID:27381545
Farrag, Abd El Hay Ali; Abdel Moghny, Th.; Mohamed, Atef Mohamed Gad; Saleem, Saleem Sayed; Fathy, Mahmoud
Groundwater in Upper Egypt especially in Assiut Governorate is considered the second source of fresh water and used for drinking, agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes. Unfortunately, it is characterized by high concentrations of iron and manganese ions. The study aimed at synthesizing zeolite-4A from kaolinite for removing the excess iron and manganese ions from Assiut Governorate groundwater wells. Therefor, the kaolinite was hydrothermally treated through the metakaolinization and zeolitization processes to produce crystalline zeolite-4A. The chemical composition of crystalline zeolite-4A and its morphology were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then the column experiments were conducted to study the performance of crystalline salt-4A as ion exchange and investigate their operating parameters and regeneration conditions. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to predict adsorption capacity and the time required for 50 % breakthrough curves. The effects of initial concentrations of 600 and 1000 mg L-1 for Fe2+ and Mn2+, feed flow rate of 10-30 ml/min, and height range of 0.4-1.5 cm on the breakthrough behavior of the adsorption system were determined. The obtained results indicated that the synthesized zeolite-A4 can remove iron and manganese ions from groundwater to the permissible limit according to the standards drinking water law.
Moraes, B A; Cravo, C A; Loureiro, M M; Solari, C A; Asensi, M D
Hospital infections cause an increase in morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients with significant rise in hospital costs. The aim of this work was an epidemiological analysis of hospital infection cases occurred in a public University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Hence, 238 strains were isolated from 14 different clinical materials of 166 patients hospitalized in the period between August 1995 and July 1997. The average age of the patients was 33.4 years, 72.9% used antimicrobials before having a positive culture. The most common risk conditions were surgery (19.3%), positive HIV or AIDS (18.1%) and lung disease (16.9%). 24 different bacterial species were identified, S. aureus (21%) and P. aeruginosa (18.5%) were predominant. Among 50 S. aureus isolated strains 36% were classified as MRSA (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus). The Gram negative bacteria presented high resistance to aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. A diarrhea outbreak, detected in high-risk neonatology ward, was caused by Salmonella serovar Infantis strain, with high antimicrobial resistance and a plasmid of high molecular weight (98Mda) containing virulence genes and positive for R factor.
Nomura, Aline Tsuma Gaedke; da Silva, Marcos Barragan; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu
ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the quality of nursing documentation by comparing the periods before and after the preparation for the hospital accreditation, using the Quality of Nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes - Brazilian version (Q-DIO- Brazilian version). Method: observational study of interventions conducted in a university hospital. Nursing documentation of 112 medical records for the period before and 112 for the period after the hospital accreditation were compared using the Q-DIO instrument - Brazilian version. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: there was a significant improvement in the quality of nursing documentation. When the total score of the instrument was evaluated, a significant improvement was observed in 24 out of the 29 items (82.8%). Conclusion: there was commitment to the shift of culture by means of the interventions carried out, which resulted in the conquest of the quality seal ensured by the Joint Commission International. PMID:27878216
Bakour, S; Nassif, B; Nwosu, E C
A 10-year review of ruptured gravid uterus at the University Teaching Hospital, Aleppo, Syria showed an incidence of one ruptured uterus in 565 deliveries. This is an average figure compared with published studies but is still high compared with developed countries. Sixty-four per cent of the cases of ruptured uterus had no antenatal care. It is no surprise therefore that maternal and fetal mortality was highest amongst the unbooked labouring women. In survivors the morbidity was also higher. Ruptured uterus is therefore a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in Syria. The overall hospital maternal and perinatal mortalities for the period under review were 4.3% and 2.6% respectively. The main risk factor identified is scarring from previous caesarean sections. Other risk factors are discussed.
Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee
The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience. PMID:27651940
Yoo, Sooyoung; Hwang, Hee; Jheon, Sanghoon
The different levels of health information technology (IT) adoption and its integration into hospital workflow can affect the maximization of the benefits of using of health IT. We aimed at sharing our experiences and the journey to the successful adoption of health IT over 13 years at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. The integrated system of comprehensive applications for direct care, support care, and smart care has been implemented with the latest IT and a rich user information platform, achieving the fully digitized hospital. The users experience design methodology, barcode and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, smartphone and mobile technologies, and data analytics were integrated into hospital workflow. Applications for user-centered electronic medical record (EMR) and clinical decision support (CDS), closed loop medication administration (CLMA), mobile EMR and dashboard system for care coordination, clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, and patient engagement solutions were designed and developed to improve quality of care, work efficiency, and patient safety. We believe that comprehensive electronic health record systems and patient-centered smart hospital applications will go a long way in ensuring seamless patient care and experience.
Tsetsou, S; Michel, P; Ribi, C; Hirt, L; Kawasaki, A; Hugli, O; De Leval, L; Bart, P-A; Waeber, G; Meuli, R; Raffoul, W; So, A; Du Pasquier, R
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a subacute/chronic vasculitis and represents the most common form of systemic vasculitis in people over the age of 50 years. The absence of clear and specific diagnostic criteria with the highly variable clinical presentation is a diagnostic challenge requesting a multidisciplinary approach. Yet, GCA is an emergency and the treatment must be initiated very rapidly due to the risk of blindness. This article presents a review of GCA as well as the diagnostic and therapeutic institutional guidelines of the University Hospital of Lausanne.
Montagnini, A L; Jukemura, J; Gianini, P T; Machado, M A; Abdo, E E; Penteado, S; Machado, M C; da Cunha, J E; Bacchella, T; Pinotti, H W
The experience with open cholecystectomy in an university affiliated hospital is documented in this report. We studied retrospectively 221 patients operated between 1987 and 1992, type of surgery, morbidity and mortality were analyzed. There were 171 (77.3%) cholecystectomy alone and 50 (22.7%) cholecystectomy with other biliary surgery (BS). Pulmonary, urinary and wound complications were the most common. Overall incidence of complications was 7.2%. For patients with cholecystectomy alone morbidity was 3.5% and for patients with BS morbidity was 20% (p < 0.002). There were no mortality in this group of patients.
El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasab, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M
Heavy fuel oil and ash samples were collected from the Assiut thermal power plant in Egypt and subjected to gamma spectrometry analysis for natural radioactivity contents. Considerable results were observed where the ash contains nearly 1,000 times natural radionuclides more than raw oil. The results were confirmed by measuring the samples via using different devices in different institutions. All ash samples had radium equivalent activities and external hazard index values more than 370 Bq/kg and unity respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was10,650 nGy/h which is nearly 190 times higher than the global average value of 55 nGy/h. The corresponding annual external effective dose is estimated to be 13 mSv/year, which is nearly 30 times higher than that in areas of natural background radiation (0.46 mSv/year).
Dyab, Ahmed Kamal; Galal, Lamia Ahmed; Mahmoud, Abeer El-Sayed; Mokhtar, Yasser
Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are filarial nematodes transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles genera. Screening by vector dissection is a tiresome technique. We aimed to screen filarial parasites in their vectors by single and multiplex PCR and evaluate the usefulness of multiplex PCR as a rapid xenomonitoring and simultaneous differentiation tool, in area where 3 filarial parasites are coexisting. Female mosquitoes were collected from 7 localities in Assiut Governorate, were microscopically identified and divided into pools according to their species and collection site. Detection of W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens using single PCR was reached followed by multiplex PCR. Usefulness of multiplex PCR was evaluated by testing mosquito pools to know which genera and species are used by filarial parasites as a vector. An overall estimated rate of infection (ERI) in mosquitoes was 0.6%; the highest was Culex spp. (0.47%). W. bancrofti, D. immitis, and D. repens could be simultaneously and differentially detected in infected vectors by using multiplex PCR. Out of 100 mosquito pools, 8 were positive for W. bancrofti (ERI of 0.33%) and 3 pools each were positive for D. immitis and D. repens (ERI 0.12%). The technique showed 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity. El-Nikhila, El-Matiaa villages, and Sahel Seleem district in Assiut Governorate, Egypt are still endemic foci for filarial parasites. Multiplex PCR offers a reliable procedure for molecular xenomonitoring of filariasis within their respective vectors in endemic areas. Therefore, it is recommended for evaluation of mosquito infection after lymphatic filariasis eradication programs. PMID:25748712
Dawoud, Mohamed A.; El Arabi, Nahed E.; Khater, Ahmed R.; van Wonderen, Jan
To make optimum use of the most vital natural resource of Egypt, the River Nile water, a number of regulating structures (in the form of dams and barrages) for control and diversion of the river flow have been constructed in this river since the start of the 20th century. One of these barrages is the Assiut barrage which will require considerable repairs in the near future. The design of the rehabilitation of the barrage includes a headpond with water levels maintained at a level approximately 0.60 m higher than the highest water level in the headpond of the present barrage. This development will cause an increase of the seepage flow from the river towards the adjacent agricultural lands, Assiut Town and villages. The increased head pond level might cause a rise of the groundwater levels and impedance of drainage outflows. The drainage conditions may therefore be adversely affected in the so-called impacted areas which comprise floodplains on both sides of the Nile for about 70 km upstream of the future barrage. A rise in the groundwater table, particularly when high river levels impede drainage, may result in waterlogging and secondary salinization of the soil profile in agricultural areas and increase of groundwater into cellars beneath buildings in the urban areas. In addition, a rise in the groundwater table could have negative impact on existing sanitation facilities, in particular in the areas which are served with septic tanks. The impacts of increasing the headpond level were assessed using a three-dimensional groundwater model. The mechanisms of interactions between the Nile River and the underlying Quaternary aquifer system as they affect the recharge/discharge processes are comprehensively outlined. The model has been calibrated for steady state and transient conditions against historical data from observation wells. The mitigation measures for the groundwater rise in the urban areas have been tested using the calibrated mode.
Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to
Lindfors, Sara; Eintrei, Christina; Alexanderson, Kristina
Research is limited regarding occupational stress in academic physicians; professionals whose work situation includes the three areas of clinical practice, research, and teaching. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of factors experienced as stressful by academic physicians employed by a university hospital. A questionnaire assessing the frequency and intensity of 36 potentially stressful factors was sent to all 157 academic physicians who were employed at the Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. The response rate was 77%. Both a high frequency and intensity of stress was experienced by 66% of the academic physicians in relation to "time pressure" and by almost 50% in connection with both "find time for research" and having "conflict of interest between different work assignments". Moreover, physicians in the higher age group and those who had attained a higher academic position experienced less stress. The female participants experienced more stress than the males due to gender-related problems and to variables associated with relationships at work. More knowledge is needed to determine the consequences of this finding and to identify coping strategies used for handling such stress.
Aim: This study was done to investigate unintentional solvent exposure in Srinakharinwirot university hospital staffs with unknown etiology. Material and Methods: A multidisciplinary investigation was conducted. Total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) in working environments were measured. Biomarkers of exposure and self-administered questionnaires about clinical symptoms were collected, during and after the incidence, from the affected workers. Results: The reason behind this event was found to be renovation of the 15th floor. TVOCs contaminated the air hanging unit of the lower 5th floor via space of the pipeline system of the building. The average TVOC value in the complaint area, on the date of notification, was 9.5 ppm. The symptoms and level of hippuric acid, collected during the incidence, were significantly higher than those collected after the problems were solved. Conclusions: The solvent from the renovation site was a potential source of health hazards for hospital staffs. The relevant authorities should be concerned about implementing a policy for the prevention of indoor pollution in the hospital. PMID:21461164
Van Steirteghem, S; Umuhoza, C; Casimir, G
We present the case of a 12-year-old girl referred to Kigali University Teaching Hospital (KUTH) for persistent cough, fever and haemoptysis. Respiratory symptoms started acutely with a stridor at age 4. Thereafter she developed a chronic cough with intermittent fever. She was treated ambulatory in the health care centre with oral antibiotics and finally referred to the district hospital at age 7. The chest X-ray then suggested tuberculosis for which a 6 month treatment was given with no improvement. The cough persisted and haemoptysis appeared so the patient was referred to the reference hospital (KUTH). Chest X-ray showed diffuse lesions of the left lung with bronchiectasis. Bronchoscopy revealed the presence of a foreign body in the left intermediary bronchus and a piece of plastic was extracted. Symptoms rapidly disappeared with antibiotic treatment. This case illustrates how important it is to include foreign body inhalation in the differential diagnosis of respiratory disease in children. Bronchoscopy plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment. The authors point out the advantages of the joint efforts of the Belgian Development Aid Agency (BTC) and the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) in the development of this activity in the Rwandese context.
Khanafer, Nagham; Oltra, Luc; Hulin, Monique; Dauwalder, Olivier; Vandenesch, Francois; Vanhems, Philippe
Abstract The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed with an increase in incidence and severity. Prospective surveillance was therefore implemented in a French university hospital to monitor the characteristics of patients at risk and to recognize local trends. Between 2007 and 2014, all hospitalized patients (≥18 years) with CDI were included. During the survey, the mean incidence rate of CDI was 2.9 per 10,000 hospital-days. In all, 590 patients were included. Most of the episodes were healthcare-associated (76.1%). The remaining cases were community-acquired (18.1%) and unknown (5.9%). The comparison with healthcare-associated cases showed that the community-acquired group had a lower rate of antimicrobial exposure (P < 0.001), proton pump inhibitor (P < 0.001), and immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.02). Over the study period, death occurred in 61 patients (10.3%), with 18 (29.5%) being related to CDI according to the physician in charge of the patient. Active surveillance of CDI is required to obtain an accurate picture of the real dimensions of CDI. PMID:27281101
Grillo Ruggieri, Tommaso; Podetti, Silvia
Objective The aim of this research was to investigate how university hospitals (UHs) perform compared with general hospitals (GHs) in the Italian healthcare system. Design and setting 27 indicators of overall performance were selected and analysed for UHs and GHs in 10 Italian regions. The data refer to 2012 and 2013 and were selected from two performance evaluation systems based on hospital discharge administrative data: the Inter-Regional Performance Evaluation System developed by the Management and Health Laboratory of the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna of Pisa and the Italian National Outcome Evaluation Programme developed by the National Agency for Healthcare Services. The study was conducted in 2 stages and by combining 2 statistical techniques. In stage 1, a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was carried out to compare the performance of UHs and GHs on the selected set of indicators. In stage 2, a robust equal variance test between the 2 groups of hospitals was carried out to investigate differences in the amount of variability between them. Results The overall analysis gave heterogeneous results. In general, performance was not affected by being in the UH rather than the GH group. It is thus not possible to directly associate Italian UHs with better results in terms of appropriateness, efficiency, patient satisfaction and outcomes. Conclusions Policymakers and managers should further encourage hospital performance evaluations in order to stimulate wider competition aimed at assigning teaching status to those hospitals that are able to meet performance requirements. In addition, UH facilities could be integrated with other providers that are responsible for community, primary and outpatient services, thereby creating a joint accountability for more patient-centred and integrated care. PMID:27507233
El Awady, M Y; El Rahman, A T Abd; Al Bagoury, L S; Mossad, I M
Through air sampling, it was possible to evaluate microbial contamination in environments at high risk of infection, and to check the efficiency of ventilation system and the medical team's hygiene procedures. This study measured the concentration of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 or less microns and microbiological organisms in operating rooms (OR), intensive care units (ICU) and emergency rooms (ER) in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital, and to assess ventilation characteristics in operating rooms in the hospital. The passive air sampling was done from ICUs, ORs, and ERs in Ain Shams University Surgery Hospital. Also for each operating room, an observational checklist was done to record other factors that may affect air quality in the room. The evaluated air quality indices were: suspended (PM) 2.5 micrometer or less, culture media and microbial identification of bacteria and fungi, and temperature and relative humidity. The results showed that the highest mean found for bacterial (105.70±30.49) and fungi concentration (7.50±5.30) was in ER. The three settings did not differ statistically as regard levels of PM 2.5, temperature, and relative humidity. A positive correlation exits between bacteria and fungi concentration on one hand and relative humidity on the other. Diphteroid, CONS, MRSA, S. aureus, and Anthracoid were the most frequent isolated bacterial types, while Penicillium and Asperigillus fumigatus were the most frequent isolated fungi. In operating rooms, the percent of unmasked persons present and the temperature positively influence the bacterial count, while ventilation condition is negatively influencing fungi count, and the number of persons present in the operating room positively affects the PM level.
Colenda, Christopher C.; And Others
Conducted chart review of inpatient dementia patients cared for by neurology, psychiatry, medicine, and surgery services at university hospital. Found differences in symptom profiles, hospital utilization trends, medical comorbidity, and post-hospitalization dispositions. Examined how patients entered hospital system, were assigned to different…
Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet-Blavignac, Christophe; Baumann, Philippe; Lovis, Christian
In order to reuse data for clinical research it is then necessary to overcome two main challenges - to formalize data sources and to increase the portability. Once the challenge is resolved, it then will allow research applications to reuse clinical data. In this paper, three data models such as entity-attribute-value, ontological and data-driven are described. Their further implementation at University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG) in the data integration methodologies for operational healthcare data sources of the European projects such as DebugIT and EHR4CR and national project the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study are explained. In these methodologies the clinical data are either aligned according to standardised terminologies using different processing techniques or transformed and loaded directly to data models. Then these models are compared and discussed based on the quality criteria. The comparison shows that the described data models are strongly dependent on the objectives of the projects.
Lee, M K; Ong, S B; Tan, C T; Loh, T G
The neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially fatal complication of antipsychotic therapy. A retrospective study of nine patients seen over six years at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur (UHKL), is described. The estimated annualised incidence was 1.2 per 1000 in-patients with psychosis. No ethnic difference was detected. Clinical features were similar to experiences elsewhere, with wide variability seen in the severity of illness. The neuroleptic drugs implicated were haloperidol, trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine and clopenthixol. Treatment consisted of withdrawal of offending drugs and supportive measures. Specific therapy was given to five patients. There was one death. At follow-up no deterioration was detected. A different neuroleptic drug was successfully re-introduced in four patients. In view of the wide usage of major tranquillizers, a high degree of clinical awareness of this serious complication is necessary for early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality.
de Lima, Adma Silva; Pinto, Karin Cristine; Bona, Míryan Priscilla Santos; de Mattos, Suelen Mayara Lopes; Hoffmann, Marina Portiolli; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Ottoboni, Vanessa Cristhine Dallolmo
BACKGROUND Leprosy is an infectious disease that may lead to irreversible nerve damage, compromising patient's quality of life and leading to loss of working years. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients followed at a University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective observational study, based on a review of medical records. We studied the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with leprosy monitored at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Paraná between January 2005 and January 2010. RESULTS The mean age was 47.51, while 35.94% of patients were aged 41-60. The male:female rate was 1.8:1. The most prevalent occupations were: retired, students or rural workers. Patients came mainly from Curitiba or nearby areas, but there were also patients from the countryside. The mean diagnostic delay was 24.57 months. Multibacillary forms prevailed, with the lepromatous variety being the most common, closely followed by the borderline type. Neural enlargement was found in more than 50% of the patients and 48.44% of them developed reactional states. Hemolysis was the most commonly detected drug side effect. Initial functional evaluation was possible in 70% of patients, 55% of whom had disabilities upon diagnosis. The most prevalent associated disease was hypertension. CONCLUSIONS This study showed an important diagnostic delay and a high rate of sequelae in this specific population. Brazil is one of the few remaining countries that has not yet eradicated leprosy and it is important to improve health policies in order to prevent sequelae and achieve eradication. PMID:26560210
Ellenga, Mbolla B F; Gombet, T R; Mahoungou, Guimbi K C; Otiobanda, G F; Ossou, Nguiet P M; Ikama, M S; Kimbally-Kaky, G; Etitiele, F
The purpose of this retrospective study conducted in the emergency department of the University Hospital Center in Brazzaville, Congo was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypertensive emergencies. With a total of 76 patients admitted during the study period, the prevalence of hypertensive emergency was 4%. The sex ratio was 1 and mean patient age was 57.3 years (range, 30 to 80 years). Risk factors included obesity in 62 cases (81.6%), history of hypertension in 65 (85.5%) and low socioeconomic level in 58 (76.3%). Mean delay for consultation was 50 hours (range, 1 to 240 hours). The disease underlying the hypertensive emergency was stroke with 38 cases (50%), heart failure in 20 (26.3%), hypertensive encephalopathy in 11 (14.4%), malignant hypertension in 9 (11.8%), and renal failure in 10 (13.1%). The mean length of emergency treatment was 14.7 hours (range, 5 to 48 hours). Eight deaths (10.5%) occurred during hospitalization in the emergency department.
Nassar, Eiad; Yacoub, Rabi; Raad, Dany; Hallman, Jason; Novak, Jan
Background Guidelines support endoscopic removal of certain gastric FB and all FB lodged in the esophagus. We aim to report our experience on endoscopic foreign bodies (FB) removal in order to aid in the formation of future guidelines regarding this subject. Methods Retrospective analysis of one hundred forty-four cases of FB removal involving 43 patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for FB removal from January 2005 through December 2010 in a university-based hospital. To evaluate to outcome of endoscopic FB removal, cost of procedures and complications. Results Of all FB removal cases, 23 (53%) were males, with total mean age of 26.4 ± 11.3 years. Only 20% were performed on an outpatient bases. Abdominal x-ray was obtained to confirm ingestion of FB in 83%, and computed tomography scan was performed in 13%. Most procedures were performed in operation room (59%) while only 21% of the cases were performed in endoscopy lab. General anesthesia was used in 58%, while monitored anesthesia care in 28%. Average time to EGD was 17.14 hours. No major complications due to procedure were reported. Minor trauma and erosions due to FB were reported in 14%. FB extraction was unsuccessful in only three cases, and one case required surgical intervention. Cost of all procedures was over 430, 000 dollars with mean of 2,990 dollars for procedure. Conclusion Endoscopic retrieval is effective and safe procedure, but utilizes significant hospital resources. PMID:27785219
Bedouch, P; Baudrant, M; Detavernier, M; Rey, C; Brudieu, E; Foroni, L; Allenet, B; Calop, J
Drug supply chain safety has become a priority for public health which implies a collective process. This process associates all health professionals including the pharmacist who plays a major role. The objective of this present paper is to describe the several approaches proven effective in the reduction of drug-related problem in hospital, illustrated by the Grenoble University Hospital experience. The pharmacist gets involved first in the general strategy of hospital drug supply chain, second by his direct implication in clinical activities. The general strategy of drug supply chain combines risk management, coordination of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee, selection and purchase of drugs and organisation of drug supply chain. Computer management of drug supply chain is a major evolution. Nominative drug delivering has to be a prior objective and its implementation modalities have to be defined: centralized or decentralized in wards, manual or automated. Also, new technologies allow the automation of overall drug distribution from central pharmacy and the implementation of automated drug dispensing systems into wards. The development of centralised drug preparation allows a safe compounding of high risk drugs, like cytotoxic drugs. The pharmacist should develop his clinical activities with patients and other health care professionals in order to optimise clinical decisions (medication review, drug order analysis) and patients follow-up (therapeutic monitoring, patient education, discharge consultation).
El-Dawy, Moustafa, Hassan; Obaidalla, Nageh Abdelrahman; Mahfouz, Kamel Hussien; Abdel Wahed, Samar Adel
This work depends on the study of the lower part of the Esna Formation which encompasses the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) transition in Egypt as well as at Naqb Assiut section, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert. The Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary is represented by El Dababiya Quarry Member which consists of five distinctive beds (nos. 1-5) at the GSSP. On the other hand, at Naqb Assiut section this boundary is only represented by the upper two beds (nos. 4&5), whereas, the lower three beds (nos. 1-3) are missing due to a hiatus. This hiatus is marked by the occurrence of an irregular surface contains pebbles and phosphatic materials. This hiatus may be related to the echo of Sryian Arc Orogeny at the P/E time. Biostratigraphically; four planktonic foraminiferal zones are defined from base to top as: Acarinina soldadoensis/Globanomalina pseudomenardii and Morozovella velascoensis (late Paleocene), Acarinina sibaiyaensis and Pseudohastigerina wilcoxensis/Morozovella velascoensis (early Eocene). The Acarinina sibaiyaensis Zone which represents the P//E/boundary is characterized by the occurrence of intrazonal hiatus at it's lower part. The benthonic foraminiferal taxa contain abundant representatives of Midway-type fauna (∼91% of the whole assemblages), beside few Velasco-type faunal ones (∼9%), indicating an outer neritic (150-200 m) water depth of deposition during the P-E transition. Quantitative analysis and composition of benthonic foraminiferal assemblages are indicative for various environmental changes around the P/E boundary. They reflected a high diversity, increase of epifaunal taxa, and low-intermediate productivity conditions, which indicates a well-ventilated bottom water and oligo - to mesotrophic conditions during the late Paleocene age. Rapid extinction of about 18% of the entire benthonic foraminiferal species started at the P/E boundary, where the last occurrence of Angulogavelinella avnimelechi is pronounced at the base of this boundary. There is a
Fernandes, Hellen Maria de Lima Graf; Peniche, Aparecida de Cássia Giani
Objective To analyze the perception of nursing teams at a surgical center regarding the process of hospital accreditation, in the evaluative aspects of structure, process, and result. Method The study takes a quantitative and exploratory-descriptive approach, carried out at a university hospital. Result The population consisted of 69 nursing professionals, and the data collection was performed in the months of January and February 2014 by way of a questionnaire, utilizing the Likert scale. The methodology used a Cronbach's Alpha equal to 0.812. In the comparison of the three aspects, the one with the highest favorability score was "result", with an average of 47.12 (dp±7.23), and the smallest was "structure," with an average of 40.70 (dp±5.19). Conclusion This situational diagnostic can assist in the restructuring of the vulnerable areas evaluated in these three aspects, mainly in the aspect of structure, with a goal of level 2 accreditation by the ONA (Brazilian's National Organization for Accreditation) defended by the Institution.
Background The analysis of patterns of trauma deaths may improve the evaluation of a trauma system and identify areas that may benefit from more resources. The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiology of trauma deaths in a Brazilian university hospital in order to assess the profile of these fatalities over a 16-year period. Method Retrospective study of time series using database records. The research subjects were in-hospital deaths from external causes during the years 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. The following variables were analyzed: cause of injury, trauma scores, time and cause of death. Results 467 cases were studied, being 325 patients (69.6%) admitted with signs of life and 142 (30.4%) considered dead on arrival. The mean age was 35.35 ± 18.03 years. 85.4% were males. Blunt trauma occurred in 73.0% of cases and penetrating mechanism in 27.0%. There was a significant increase (p < 0.001) in deaths from motorcycle crashes over the years, which went from 7.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2010. In contrast, there was a significant decrease (p = 0.030) in firearm-injury victims; from 21.0% in 1995 to 9.6% in 2010. About 60% of deaths occurred less than 24 hours after admission. The main causes of death were lesions of the central nervous system (56.3% of the total), followed by hemorrhagic shock (18.1%) and sepsis/multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (17.1%). The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) of patients with signs of life was 26.41 ± 9.00, 71.3% of whom had ISS >25. The mean Revised Trauma Score (RTS) was 5.24 ± 2.05. Only 25.8% of the deaths had TRISS <0.50. Conclusion There was a shift in the profile of causes of death from trauma in this university teaching hospital, with a large decrease in penetrating injuries and a higher incidence of deaths of motorcycle riders. PMID:25361609
Mun, S. K.; Benson, H.. R.; Choyke, P.; Fahey, F. H.; Wang, P. C.; Zeman, R. K...; Elliott, L. P.
During the preparation and planning phase of the PACS project at Georgetown University Hospital it was realized that PACS requires truly the state of the art technology in data communication, image processing and man machine interfacing. It was also realized that un-like many other technology intensive devices used in radiology, PACS cannot be seen as an independent system that will provide well defined services. PACS will be the backbone of the department operation in clinical, educational and managerial functions. It will indeed be the nerve center of the radiologic services affecting every aspect of the department. PACS will have to be designed to perform in a cost-effective manner to widely varying needs within the radiology departments. The integration of ever changing complex technology that will impact every aspect of a radiology service is not a trivial matter. This transition period going from current manual film based PACS to Digital PACS can be long, expansive and disruptive unless careful planning preceeds the implementation. PACS is still an emerging technology at its infancy. Performance monitoring and evaluation of diversified functions have to be also established so that improvement to the system can be efficiently implemented. Thus the evaluation criteria should be also established as early as possible.
Cassiani, Sílvia Helena; Gimenes, Fernanda Raphael; Freire, Cláudia Câmara
The medical orders have an important role in the prevention of medication errors. The objective of this study is to identify and to analyse the causal factors of error in the medication related to electronic prescription in two different clinics of a university hospital of the interior of the state of São Paulo. A questionnaire related to the advantages and disadvantages of electronic prescription was applied to the professionals of these clinics. The data collected was grouped in accordance with the similarity of the answers. These professionals identified causal factors of errors in the medical orders, but they also mentioned the advantages of it when compared to the manual order, such as bigger readability, rapidity and organization of the first one. As we can see, the computerized system of medical order represents a great advance considering strategies to minimize errors from orders badly formulated. However, it does not eliminate the possibility of occurrence of causal factors of errors in the medication, which asks for some modifications in the system.
Srifuengfung, Somporn; Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Comerungsee, Sopita
The most frequent markers of fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pneumoniae are chromosomal mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining regions of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV encoding for the gyrA, gyrB and parC, parE genes. In 2008, 6.5% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in a Bangkok university hospital were resistant to ofloxacin. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, we identified mutations in both the gyrA and parC genes of four ofloxacin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates (minimum inhibitory concentrations > 32 microg/ml). Mutations were found in the gyrA gene at positions Ser81Phe, Glu85Gly, Glu85Lys and in the parC gene at position Ser79Tyr. Three isolates had mutations in both genes. Two of the isolates were serotype 6B and two were serotypes not contained in currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines. This is the first report of the mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pneumoniae in Thailand.
As one of the largest hospitals in Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital had a strong academic reputation, but not a warm and friendly one. To increase the utilization of key product lines and raise its profile in the Philadelphia region, the hospital launched an advertising campaign early this year promoting the facility's cancer, neurology, and orthopedic centers.
In the Thai Universal Coverage scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement. Questionable quality of the submitted DRG codes has been of concern whereas knowledge about hospital coding practice has been lacking. The objectives of this thesis are (1) To explore hospital coding…
de Araújo, Kizi Mendonça; Leta, Jacqueline
The definition of a university hospital presupposes the integration of teaching, research and healthcare. Considering these activities constituent parts of university hospitals' missions, an analysis was made from the administrators' viewpoint of their place in these institutions at their founding and in the present day. Semi-structured interviews were held with the administrators of 13 of the 31 general hospitals run at Brazil's federal universities. Parallel to this, official information was gathered and analyzed from the 31 university hospitals' websites. Using a content analysis technique, it was found that although most of the university hospitals state that research is one of their missions, alongside teaching and healthcare, in practice teaching and healthcare take precedence.
Barros, Milton; Martinelli, Reinaldo; Rocha, Heonir
Although urinary tract infections (UTI) represent the most common infection caused by enterococci, some aspects remain to be fully clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics present in UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. in patients followed up at the Prof. Edgard Santos Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Bahia. All patients consecutively examined between 1997 and 2005, who received a diagnosis of UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. were included in the study. UTI was defined as the presence of > or = 10(5) colony-forming units per mL of urine. Standard microbiological techniques were used. During the study period, 6.2% of the urine cultures were positive for Enterococcus spp. The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years and 57% were male. At initial evaluation, 13% of the patients had complaints suggestive of UTI. Nineteen patients had a history consistent with obstructive uropathy and 26 with neurogenic bladder. At final evaluation, UTI was the diagnosis in 48 patients. In 36 patients (29%), the primary diagnosis was related to urogenital diseases, consisting of obstructive uropathy in 23 of these cases, while in 32 patients (25.8%) primary diagnosis was related to neurologic diseases, frequently neurogenic bladder. UTI caused by Enterococcus spp. is not infrequent, is usually associated with few or no symptoms and occurs in sick patients who have anatomical or functional obstructive uropathy associated or not with urinary tract catheterization or instrumentation. The diagnosis of enterococcal UTI may indicate a urinary tract abnormality yet to be diagnosed.
Lobo, Maria Stella de Castro; Rodrigues, Henrique de Castro; André, Edgard Caires Gazzola; de Azeredo, Jônatas Almeida; Lins, Marcos Pereira Estellita
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop an assessment tool to evaluate the efficiency of federal university general hospitals. METHODS Data envelopment analysis, a linear programming technique, creates a best practice frontier by comparing observed production given the amount of resources used. The model is output-oriented and considers variable returns to scale. Network data envelopment analysis considers link variables belonging to more than one dimension (in the model, medical residents, adjusted admissions, and research projects). Dynamic network data envelopment analysis uses carry-over variables (in the model, financing budget) to analyze frontier shift in subsequent years. Data were gathered from the information system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education (MEC), 2010-2013. RESULTS The mean scores for health care, teaching and research over the period were 58.0%, 86.0%, and 61.0%, respectively. In 2012, the best performance year, for all units to reach the frontier it would be necessary to have a mean increase of 65.0% in outpatient visits; 34.0% in admissions; 12.0% in undergraduate students; 13.0% in multi-professional residents; 48.0% in graduate students; 7.0% in research projects; besides a decrease of 9.0% in medical residents. In the same year, an increase of 0.9% in financing budget would be necessary to improve the care output frontier. In the dynamic evaluation, there was progress in teaching efficiency, oscillation in medical care and no variation in research. CONCLUSIONS The proposed model generates public health planning and programming parameters by estimating efficiency scores and making projections to reach the best practice frontier. PMID:27191158
Background The purpose of this study was to compare students' awareness of and satisfaction with clerkships in family medicine between a university hospital and a community hospital or clinic. Methods Thirty-eight 4th year medical students who were undergoing a clerkship in family medicine in the 1st semester of 2012 were surveyed via questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered both before and after the clerkship. Results External clerkships were completed in eight family medicine clinics and two regional hospitals. At preclerkship, participants showed strong expectation for understanding primary care and recognition of the need for community clerkship, mean scores of 4.3±0.5 and 4.1±0.7, respectively. At post-clerkship, participants showed a significant increase in recognition of the need for community clerkship (4.7±0.5, P<0.001). The pre-clerkship recognition of differences in patient characteristics between university hospitals and community hospitals or clinics was 4.1±0.7; at post-clerkship, it was 3.9±0.7. Students' confidence in their ability to see a first-visit patient and their expectation of improved interviewing skills both significantly increased at post-clerkship (P<0.01). Satisfaction with feedback from preceptors and overall satisfaction with the clerkship also significantly increased, but only for the university hospital clerkship (P<0.01). Conclusion Students' post-clerkship satisfaction was uniformly high for both clerkships. At pre-clerkship, students were aware of the differences in patient characteristics between university hospitals and community hospitals or clinics, and this awareness did not change by the end of the clerkship. PMID:27900072
Page, David B.; Donnelly, John P.; Wang, Henry E.
Objectives Severe sepsis poses a major burden on the U.S. healthcare system. Previous epidemiologic studies have not differentiated community-acquired severe sepsis from healthcare-associated severe sepsis or hospital-acquired severe sepsis hospitalizations. We sought to compare and contrast community-acquired severe sepsis, healthcare-associated severe sepsis, and hospital-acquired severe sepsis hospitalizations in a national hospital sample. Setting United States Interventions None Measurements & Main Results Prevalence of community-acquired severe sepsis, healthcare-associated severe sepsis, and hospital-acquired severe sepsis, adjusted hospital mortality, length of hospitalization, length of stay in an ICU, and hospital costs. Among 3,355,753 hospital discharges, there were 307,491 with severe sepsis, including 193,081 (62.8%) community-acquired severe sepsis, 79,581 (25.9%) healthcare-associated severe sepsis, and 34,829 (11.3%) hospital-acquired severe sepsis. Hospital-acquired severe sepsis and healthcare-associated severe sepsis exhibited higher in-hospital mortality than community-acquired severe sepsis (hospital-acquired [19.2%] vs healthcare-associated [12.8%] vs community-acquired [8.6%]). Hospital-acquired severe sepsis had greater resource utilization than both healthcare-associated severe sepsis and community-acquired severe sepsis, with higher median length of hospital stay (hospital acquired [17 d] vs healthcare associated [7 d] vs community-acquired [6 d]), median length of ICU stay (hospital-acquired [8 d] vs healthcare-associated [3 d] vs community-acquired [3 d]), and median hospital costs (hospital-acquired [$38,369] vs healthcare-associated [$8,796] vs community-acquired [$7,024]). Conclusions In this series, severe sepsis hospitalizations included CA-SS (62.8%), HCA-SS (25.9%) and HA-SS (11.3%) cases. HA-SS was associated with both higher mortality and resource utilization than CA-SS and HCA-SS. PMID:26110490
Farzadkia, Mahdi; Moradi, Arash; Mohammadi, Mojtaba Shah; Jorfi, Sahand
Hospital waste materials pose a wide variety of health and safety hazards for patients and healthcare workers. Many of hospitals in Iran have neither a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. The main objective of this research was to investigate the solid waste management in the eight teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, the main stages of hospital waste management including generation, separation, collection, storage, and disposal of waste materials were assessed in these hospitals, located in Tehran city. The measurement was conducted through a questionnaire and direct observation by researchers. The data obtained was converted to a quantitative measure to evaluate the different management components. The results showed that the waste generation rate was 2.5 to 3.01 kg bed(-1) day(-1), which included 85 to 90% of domestic waste and 10 to 15% of infectious waste. The lack of separation between hazardous and non-hazardous waste, an absence of the necessary rules and regulations applying to the collection of waste from hospital wards and on-site transport to a temporary storage location, a lack of proper waste treatment, and disposal of hospital waste along with municipal garbage, were the main findings. In order to improve the existing conditions, some extensive research to assess the present situation in the hospitals of Iran, the compilation of rules and establishment of standards and effective training for the personnel are actions that are recommended.
Yereli, Ayşe Necef
Resource management in hospitals is of increasing importance in today's global economy. Traditional accounting systems have become inadequate for managing hospital resources and accurately determining service costs. Conversely, the activity-based costing approach to hospital accounting is an effective cost management model that determines costs and evaluates financial performance across departments. Obtaining costs that are more accurate can enable hospitals to analyze and interpret costing decisions and make more accurate budgeting decisions. Traditional and activity-based costing approaches were compared using a cost analysis of gall bladder surgeries in the general surgery department of one university hospital in Manisa, Turkey.
Dami, Fabrice; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Hugli, Olivier
We describe how an electromagnetic wave after a lightning strike affected a university hospital, including the communication shutdown that followed, the way it was handled, and the lessons learned from this incident.
Turk, Emily R.; And Others
The experiences of George Washington University Hospital's public relations staff when it handled the crisis of the shooting of President Reagan is described. Security, choice of a spokesperson, relations with the news media, dealing with VIPs, etc., are discussed. (MLW)
Based on archival research, this article analyses the pedagogical gestures in Derrida's (largely unpublished) lectures on hospitality (1995/96), with particular attention to the enactment of hospitality in these gestures. The motivation for this analysis is twofold. First, since the large-group university lecture has been widely critiqued as…
A model program designed to integrate 6 handicapped with 9 nonhandicapped preschoolers in a training hospital setting was set up through the cooperative efforts of Head Start and the University Affiliated Program (UAP) at Children's Hospital (Los Angeles, California). The program offered a combination of comprehensive health care and integrated…
Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes
Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, p<0.01). Nurses of both hospitals had sufficient opportunity to reconcile work and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight
Kuopio University Hospital, situated within middle-east Finland, adopted the ISO 9002 standard as its quality system and gained formal certification in March 1999. The rationale behind the decision to adopt ISO 9002 is given, along with the main elements of the journey. The experiences of the hospital, including the advantages and disadvantages, are explained. In particular, issues regarding the documentation process, control and calibration of 4,000 pieces of medical equipment and the impact on staffing levels for in-house trained personnel to undertake the audits are described. The impact on the service to date, including benefits and drawbacks, is covered, along with aspirations for the future. Kuopio Hospitals adopted some techniques during the implementation process which did not work as successfully as others. The article therefore includes these in an effort to pass on the learning acquired from implementing ISO 9002 within such a large hospital as Kuopio University Hospital.
Devos, Patrick; Lefranc, Helene; Dufresne, Eric; Beuscart, Regis
In French hospitals, the progressive setting up of the new rating systems has obliged the university hospitals to justify a certain amount of activities such as research, training or moreover recourse, which are specific missions of the university hospitals. In order to justify research activities, the Lille University Hospital has developed for now three years SIGAPS, a full-web bibliometric software which census and analyse, the scientific publications referenced in the Medline database. After data downloading, each article is classified on a 6 levels "quality scale derived from the impact factors. The system then performs, for a researcher or a team, a report allowing a quantitative and qualitative analysis. Started in Lille in November 2004, the inventory and analysis of data is now ending. For the period 2001-2004, 2814 articles have been published in 700 different journals. The total number of articles increased from 688 in 2001 to 757 in 2004. The mean impact factor was equal to 2.26 and 15.5 % of articles were classified as A, 20.9% as B. Those results confirm the high level of research of the University Hospital of Lille, in agreement with two other national studies which ranks our establishment at the 6th position for medical research activities among the French University Hospitals. Currently a similar evaluation has now began in the 9 other university hospital which have subscribed to the SIGAPS project. We works currently on new indicators as patents, thesis or conferences, or access to other databases as Sciencedirect or Scopus via the RIS format. The next step in the project is the implementation of a meta-base which will federate the information provided by each SIGAPS system. This meta-base will then allow us to perform comparisons between different hospitals, determine the national "sites of excellence" and create some clinical and research networks.
Devroey, Marianne; Buyse, Catherine; Norrenberg, Michelle; Ros, Anne-Marie; Vincent, Jean-Louis
Purpose: To document and describe the use of a hospital-wide, 24-hour cardiorespiratory physiotherapy service run by an intensive care unit (ICU) team of physiotherapists. Methods: We prospectively collected data on all non-ICU hospital patients who used the 24-hours-per-day cardiorespiratory physiotherapy service over a 1-year period between July 2013 and June 2014. The ICU physiotherapists documented the reason, origin of referral, time of call, and type and frequency of treatment of each patient. Results: Over the 1-year period, the ICU physiotherapists administered 2,192 out-of-hours cardiorespiratory physiotherapy treatments (n=685 patients) outside the ICU. Most referrals originated from the emergency department (25%), the cardiopulmonary transplant unit (20%), and the pulmonology department (16%). Referrals were from a physiotherapist in 49% of cases, from a nurse in 32%, and from a physician in 19%. Of these, 89% were made between 4:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m., and sputum retention was the most frequent reason (86%). Conclusion: Although proving its cost effectiveness is difficult, organizing a 24-hours-per-day, 7-days-per-week cardiorespiratory physiotherapy service in a large hospital is feasible.
Camprubi, Mercedes; Cabrera, Sandra; Sans, Jordi; Vidal, Georgina; Salvadó, Teresa; Bardají, Alfredo
Although obesity is a well-established cardiovascular risk factor, some controversy has arisen with regard to its effect on hospital mortality in patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome. Methods. Clinical and anthropometric variables were analyzed in patients consecutively admitted for acute coronary syndrome to a university hospital between 2009 and 2010, and the correlation of those variables with hospital mortality was examined. Results. A total of 824 patients with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction or unstable angina were analyzed. Body mass index was an independent factor in hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.739 (IC 95%: 0.597 − 0.916), P = 0.006). Mortality in normal weight (n = 218), overweight (n = 399), and obese (n = 172) subjects was 6.1%, 3.1%, and 4.1%, respectively, with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusions. There is something of a paradox in the relationship between body mass index and hospital mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome in that the mortality rate decreases as body mass index increases. However, no statistically significant differences have been found in normal weight, overweight, or obese subjects. PMID:22900151
Pérez, María; Herreros, Benjamín; Martín, M Dolores; Molina, Julia; Kanouzi, Jack; Velasco, María
It is unknown whether hospital-based medical professionals in Spain educate patients about advance directives (ADs). The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of hospital-based physicians' and nurses' engagement in AD discussions in the hospital and which patient populations merit such efforts. A short question-and-answer-based survey of physicians and nurses taking care of inpatients was conducted at a university hospital in Madrid, Spain. In total, 283 surveys were collected from medical professionals, of whom 71 per cent were female, with an average age of thirty-four years. Eighty-four per cent had never educated patients about ADs because of lack of perceived responsibility, time, or general knowledge of ADs. Patient populations that warranted AD discussions included those with terminal illnesses (77 per cent), chronic diseases (61 per cent), and elderly patients (43 per cent). Regarding degree of AD understanding in medical professionals: 57 per cent of medical professionals claimed sufficient general knowledge of ADs, 19 per cent understood particulars regarding AD document creation, and 16 per cent were aware of AD regulatory policies. Engagement in AD discussions was considered important by 83 per cent of medical professionals, with 79 per cent interested in participating in such discussions themselves. The majority of hospital physicians and nurses do not educate their patients about ADs, despite acknowledging their importance. Patient populations of highest priority included those with terminal diseases or chronic illness or who are of advanced age.
Zupanic Slavec, Zvonka; Slavec, Ksenija; Peternelj Uran, Lejla
Slovenian ophthalmology developed much at the same time as in the rest of the Central Europe). The first Slovenian ophthalmologist was Dr Ludvik Grbec (1805%emdash;1880). The first Slovenian eye department was established within the Ljubljana civil hospital in 1890, and initially counted 34 hospital beds. Under Dr Emil Bock, the department grew to 120 beds by 1916 and saw a number of surgical procedures performed (mainly cataract operations). Dr Bock also founded a department for the treatment of ocular tuberculosis in children. From 1920 to 1958, the department was resumed by Dr Leopold Ješe, a pioneer of Slovenian ophthalmology, the first professor of ophthalmology at the Ljubljana University Faculty of Medicine (1945), author of the first ophthalmology textbook for students (Ophthalmology, 1946), and the father of Slovenian ophthalmological terminology. This article describes the development of ophthalmology in Slovenian hospitals to this day, especially in the Ljubljana Eye Hospital. It remembers the most prominent figures and professional, educational,and scientific achievements. Now in 2010, Slovenia has over 130 ophthalmologists, two departments teaching ophthalmology (within Ljubljana and Maribor University Faculties of Medicine), an internationally recognised ophthalmology specialisation programme, and influential research work published in various journals indexed by Science Citation Index.
Garza-Leal; Oscar; Iglesias
From October 1992 to February 1996, 1506 gynecologic surgeries were performed in our hospital. Of these, 270 (17.9%) were done by laparoscopy: 204 (75.5%) operative and 66 (24.5%) diagnostic. The procedures were 59 (28.9%) hysterectomies, 15 (25.4%) of them radical hysterectomies, 6 laparoscopic-assisted stagings for endometrial cancer, and 38 laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomies. Fifty-eight (28.4%) surgeries were performed for adnexal masses and 16 (7.8%) for ectopic pregnancies. We also did 7 (3.4%) Burch procedures, 5 (2.4%) ligamentopexies, and 65 other surgeries including coagulation of endometriosis, adhesiolysis, uterosacral nerve ablations, and tubal ligations. The six complications (2.22%) were two patients with fever, one infection in the vaginal cuff, one vaginal hematoma, one ureteral injury during radical hysterectomy, and one bladder injury during a Burch procedure. We believe operative laparoscopy should be part of the training of every gynecologist.
Sidiropoulos, S; Treasure, E; Silvester, W; Opdam, H; Warrillow, S J; Jones, D
Although organ transplantation is well established for end-stage organ failure, many patients die on waiting lists due to insufficient donor numbers. Recently, there has been renewed interest in donation after circulatory death (DCD). In a retrospective observational study we reviewed the screening of patients considered for DCD between March 2007 and December 2012 in our hospital. Overall, 148 patients were screened, 17 of whom were transferred from other hospitals. Ninety-three patients were excluded (53 immediately and 40 after review by donation staff). The 55 DCD patients were younger than those excluded (P=0.007) and they died from hypoxic brain injury (43.6%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage (21.8%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (14.5%). Antemortem heparin administration and bronchoscopy occurred in 50/53 (94.3%) and 22/55 (40%) of cases, respectively. Forty-eight patients died within 90 minutes and proceeded to donation surgery. Associations with not dying in 90 minutes included spontaneous ventilation mode (P=0.022), absence of noradrenaline infusion (P=0.051) and higher PaO2:FiO2 ratio (P=0.052). The number of brain dead donors did not decrease over the study period. The time interval between admission and death was longer for DCD than for the 45 brain dead donors (5 [3-11] versus 2 [2-3] days; P<0.001), and 95 additional patients received organ transplants due to DCD. Introducing a DCD program can increase potential organ donors without reducing brain dead donors. Antemortem investigations appear to be acceptable to relatives when included in the consent process.
Shono, Kazuko; Kishi, Misako; Satou, Mituyo; Nagamine, Yasunori; Doi, Tosio
The medical laboratory of Tokushima University Hospital acquired ISO 15189, an international standard for medical laboratories, on July 6th, 2007, resulting in it achieving the 24th place in Japan and 5th place among national university hospitals. The first surveillance was just performed on October 6th, 2008. Tokushima University Hospital, in which our medical laboratory is included as one section, already succeeded in acquiring ISO 9001, PrivacyMark System, and Quality Health Care ver. 5 before accomplishing ISO 15189. To achieve ISO 15189, we prepared documents based on ISO 9001 without any consultation, resulting in a review of the difference between ISO 9001 and ISO 15189 after the preliminary survey. Although achieving ISO 15189 resulted in an improvement in the reliability of laboratory results and accuracy, leading to the development of our technical skills and awareness, and sharing of knowledge, we consider that the considerable investment of time to prepare the requirements remains to be overcome.
Stamouli, Maria-Aggeliki; Balis, Charalampos; Georgakopoulou, Konstantina-Maria
The ability of hospital medical libraries to meet users' needs is a complicated issue and has been examined by many surveys. The aim of this study is to evaluate the satisfaction degree of the users of "Attikon" University General Hospital's medical library. A questionnaire was used to collect the necessary information Although, in general, the users seems to be satisfied, some adjustments, such as up-to-date books, journals and computers, have to be made.
Granrud, Marie Dahlen; Ludvigsen, Elin; Andershed, Birgitta
The aim of this study was to describe how the parents of premature infants experience the transportation of their baby from the neonatal intensive care unit at a university hospital (NICU-U) to such a unit at a local hospital (NICU-L). This descriptive qualitative study comprises interviews with nine sets of parents and two mothers. The qualitative content analysis resulted in one theme: living in uncertainty about whether the baby will survive, and three categories: being distanced from the baby; fearing that something would happen to the baby during transportation; and experiencing closeness to the baby. The results also revealed that the parents experienced developmental, situational and health-illness transitions.
Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Kisa, Adnan
By nature, hospitals are extremely complex organizations, combining many different professional groups within an intricate administrative structure. Conflicts therefore expectedly arise between individuals, groups, and departments. It is in the interest of health care administrators to periodically assess the major factors giving rise to these conflicts. In this study, a questionnaire designed to measure sources of conflict in the workplace was completed by 204 staff members at Gazi University Hospital. Of the participants, 30.9% were physicians, and 12.5% were administrators at various levels; 61.5% were female, and 38.5% were male. In terms of work experience, 52.6% of participants had worked less than 5 years at the hospital. The results of the study show that educational differences among the hospital staff were a major barrier to good communication and information flow between groups. Professionals in the same specialties experienced fewer conflicts. Another source of conflict was that resource allocation was considered unfair across departments. Although the hospital management provided an ombudsman for staff concerns, staff rarely resorted to the ombudsman because of the stigma associated with complaining. A lack of opportunity for career advancement was mentioned by 52% of the participants as a source of conflict. At present, job performance and rewards are not closely related in public university hospitals in Turkey because promotions and pay raises are strictly limited by law. Bureaucracy was also perceived to be a source of conflict, with 48.4% of participants saying that their performance was less than optimal because of the presence of multiple supervisors. This pilot study suggests that in Turkey, legislative reform is needed to give public university hospitals more flexibility regarding work incentives, open-door policies at the administrative level, and social interactions to improve teamwork among hospital staff.
Correia-Deur, Joya Emilie M.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Imazawa, Alice T.; Lourenço, Delmar M.; Ezabella, Marilza C. L.; Tavares, Marcos R.; Toledo, Sergio P. A.
INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma may occur in a sporadic (s-medullary thyroid carcinoma, 75%) or in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 form (MEN2, 25%). These clinical forms differ in many ways, as s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases are RET-negative in the germline and are typically diagnosed later than medullary thyroid carcinoma in MEN2 patients. In this study, a set of cases with s-medullary thyroid carcinoma are documented and explored. PURPOSE: To document the phenotypes observed in s-medullary thyroid carcinoma cases from a university group and to attempt to improve earlier diagnosis of s-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Some procedures for diagnostics are also recommended. METHOD: Patients (n=26) with apparent s-medullary thyroid carcinoma were studied. Their clinical data were reviewed and peripheral blood was collected and screened for RET germline mutations. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 43.9 years (± 10.82 SD) and did not differ between males and females. Calcitonin levels were increased in all cases. Three patients presented values that were 100-fold greater than the normal upper limit. Most (61.54%) had values that were 20-fold below this limit. Carcinoembryonic antigen levels were high in 70.6% of cases. There was no significant association between age at diagnosis, basal calcitonin levels or time of disease onset with thyroid tumor size (0.6–15 cm). Routine thyroid cytology yielded disappointing diagnostic accuracy (46.7%) in this set of cases. After total thyroidectomy associated with extensive cervical lymph node resection, calcitonin values remained lower than 5 pg/mL for at least 12 months in eight of the cases (30.8%). Immunocyto- and histochemistry for calcitonin were positive in all analyzed cases. None of the 26 cases presented germline mutations in the classical hotspots of the RET proto-oncogene. CONCLUSION: Our cases were identified late. The basal calcitonin measurements and immunostaining for calcitonin were
Jeddeloh, Norman P.
Medicare reimbursement for educational program costs is a quagmire of conflicting rules, regulations, laws, procedures, and precedents. The reimbursement principles in force fail to recognize the special value to patient care provided by the integration of the university hospital with an academic health sciences center and are illogical and…
Young, Philip E.
The changing social milieu has removed the charity patient but not the need for a teaching population. The University Hospital's program is described, in which patients prepaid a fixed, single fee for all obstetrics-related care through the third post partum day. (LBH)
My recollections of the development of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital cover a 30-year period, from 1955 to 1985, and succession of generations. The beginning is always exciting, pervaded by youthful enthusiasm, while memories are quite nostalgic. That is how I also felt at the "Ruzdić's" medical biochemistry laboratory. The founders of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital were the clinicians Erik Hauptmann (hematologist), Zdenko Skrabalo (endocrinologist) and Zvonimir Singer (gynecologist, cytogeneticist), with great contribution by Ibrahim Ruzdić (biochemist). As the first head of cytology laboratory at University Department of Medicine, I realized what was crucial for such a successful development of clinical cytology at our Hospital; it was so because new technologies were continuously introduced in agreement with clinicians, along with the basic routine cytodiagnosis, while paying special attention to staff education (postgraduate study in clinical cytology since 1967; residency in cytology since 1974; education of cytotechnologists since 1968). A number of MS theses and doctoral dissertations have been defended at our cytology laboratories. The Section of Cytology (now Croatian Society of Clinical Cytologists, Croatian Medical Association) was founded in 1970, owing to the efforts invested by E. Hauptmann. Clinical cytologists from Merkur University Hospital contributed to the foundation of the Association of Clinical Cytologists of the then Yugoslavia and organized their first congress in 1979; in 1972, we were adopted members of the EFCS, while Z. Singer and I. Crepinko are IAC members. I wish that written memories help remember the foundation and development of clinical cytology at Merkur University Hospital because we should not forget that every future has its origin.
Herrmann, T J; Matthews, C W; Segadelli, L J
After 14 years of study, the University of Michigan decided to terminate development of a health maintenance organization (HMO). The process was long and difficult because of the university's need to consider the HMO from the university's perspective of both an employer and a provider. As an employer, the university's early view was favorable and then declined when employee interest was found to be weak and the HMO's impact on the rapidly rising cost of the university's health insurance benefit was determined to be modest. As a provider, the university's view was mixed. In regard to its hospitals, the university's judgment was positive largely because it hoped that HMO incentives might help the hospitals remain viable in the health care delivery environment that was becoming increasingly competitive. From the Medical School's point of view, an HMO was felt not to be desirable because it could put in jeopardy the professional fee revenue used by the school to help underwrite its academic programs, which are the primary source of faculty pride and recognition.
This paper summarizes the opinions of experts who participated in designing the environment of a children's hospital and reports the results of a questionnaire survey conducted among hospital users. The grounded theory method was adopted to analyze 292 concepts, 79 open codes, 25 axial codes, and 4 selective codes; in addition, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis were performed to identify elements for designing a healing environment in a children's hospital, and 21 elements from 4 dimensions, namely, emotions, space design, interpersonal interaction, and pleasant surroundings, were determined. Subsequently, this study examined the perceptions of 401 children at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital. The results revealed that, regarding the children's responses to the four dimensions and their overall perception, younger children accepted the healing environment to a significantly higher degree than did older children. The sex effect was significant for the space design dimension, and it was not significant for the other dimensions.
Matis, Georgios K; Birbilis, Theodossios A; Chrysou, Olga I
The scope of this research has been to investigate the satisfaction of Greek patients hospitalized in a tertiary care university public hospital in Alexandroupolis, Greece, in order to improve medical, nursing and organizational/administrative services. It is a cross-sectional study involving 200 patients hospitalized for at least 24 h. We administered a satisfaction questionnaire previously approved by the Greek Health Ministry. Four aspects of satisfaction were employed (medical, hotel facilities/organizational, nursing, global). Using principal component analysis, summated scales were formed and tested for internal consistency with the aid of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The non-parametric Spearman rank correlation coefficient was also used. The results reveal a relatively high degree of global satisfaction (75.125%), yet satisfaction is higher for the medical (89.721%) and nursing (86.432%) services. Moreover, satisfaction derived from the hotel facilities and the general organization was found to be more limited (76.536%). Statistically significant differences in participant satisfaction were observed (depending on age, gender, citizenship, education, number of previous admissions and self-assessment of health status at the first and last day of patients' stay) for the medical, nursing and hotel facilities/organizational dimension, but not for global satisfaction. The present study confirms the results of previously published Greek surveys.
Tenenbaum, Tobias; Becker, Klaus-Peter; Lange, Bettina; Martin, Anka; Schäfer, Peter; Weichert, Stefan; Schroten, Horst
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) colonizing in pediatric refugees admitted to a University Children Hospital in Germany. DESIGN Retrospective observational study. SETTING General pediatric and pediatric surgery units. PATIENTS In Germany, recommendations for MDRO screening of pediatric refugees were recently published. According to these and institutional recommendations, all hospitalized pediatric refugees were screened for MDROs between October 2015 and March 2016. METHODS Using electronic surveillance data, we performed a chart review to identify the prevalence of MDROs among and the clinical diagnoses of pediatric refugees. RESULTS Among 325 patients hospitalized for various causes, most frequently gastroenteritis (30.9%), MDROs were detected in 33.8%. Most of these patients were colonized with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria (113 isolates), mostly 2MRGN/ESBL (87 isolates); some patients were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 22 isolates); and 1 patient was colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Among 110 refugee patients, we detected single colonization with an MDRO in 84 patients (76.4%), co-colonization with 2 pathogens in 23 patients (20.9%), and triple colonization in 3 patients (2.7%). However, infections with MDROs occurred in only 3.6% of pediatric refugees. The peak of positive MDRO screening results in 2015 correlated with an increased hospitalization rate. CONCLUSION Implementation of infection control measures among pediatric refugees is challenging. Due to the high frequency of MDROs in these patients, current screening, isolation, and treatment strategies may have to be adapted. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-5.
Handzel, Daniel M.; Hesse, L.
Purpose: To analyse web-based training in ophthalmology offered by German university eye hospitals. Methods: In January 2010 the websites of all 36 German university hospitals were searched for information provided for visitors, students and doctors alike. We evaluated the offer in terms of quantity and quality. Results: All websites could be accessed at the time of the study. 28 pages provided information for students and doctors, one page only for students, three exclusively for doctors. Four pages didn’t offer any information for these target groups. The websites offered information on events like congresses or students curricular education, there were also material for download for these events or for other purposes. We found complex e-learning-platforms on 9 pages. These dealt with special ophthalmological topics in a didactic arrangement. In spite of the extensive possibilities offered by the technology of Web 2.0, many conceivable tools were only rarely made available. It was not always possible to determine if the information provided was up-to-date, very often the last actualization of the content was long ago. On one page the date for the last change was stated as 2004. Conclusion: Currently there are 9 functional e-learning-applications offered by German university eye hospitals. Two additional hospitals present links to a project of the German Ophthalmological Society. There was a considerable variation in quantity and quality. No website made use of crediting successful studying, e.g. with CME-points or OSCE-credits. All German university eye hospitals present themselves in the World Wide Web. However, the lack of modern, technical as well as didactical state-of-the-art learning applications is alarming as it leaves an essential medium of today’s communication unused. PMID:21866245
Tyner, C Lee; Harkness, John; Hoblet, Kent; Zumwalt, Lauren; Templeton, Karen; McLaughlin, Ron
The College of Veterinary Medicine at Mississippi State University established a not-for-profit corporation (MSU-CVM-COS) to develop and manage private specialty clinics that would enhance teaching and student learning, increase caseload, and generate revenue. The corporation currently operates the Animal Emergency and Referral Center (AERC) and the Veterinary Specialty Center (VSC) as affiliates of Mississippi State University. These privately managed facilities provide access to advanced medical equipment, enhance clinical service and teaching, and promote the College's One Health initiative.
Basnet, R; Shrestha, B R; Nagaraja, S B; Basnet, B; Satyanarayana, S; Zachariah, R
This study assessed the characteristics of beneficiaries of a government-led policy of exemption for payment being provided in a regional hospital in Nepal. In January and February 2012, 9547 patients sought services at the out-patient clinic, the majority (83%) of whom were from the same district although this was a referral hospital for 15 districts. Only 10.8% received exemption from payment; 66% of the individuals aged >60 years and eligible for exemption were missed. These shortcomings highlight intrinsic weaknesses in the current implementing mechanisms for payment exemption, which may not be providing financial protection. This hampers efforts towards achieving universal health coverage.
Viera, Elys; Colón, Dayan; Alonso, Yadira; Armas, Joey; Rico, Mario C; Diaz, Raquel; Pagan, Angel; Del Carpio-Cano, Fabiola; DeLa Cadena, Raul A
This Report from the Field documents a series of interventions developed by Temple University Health System and School of Medicine through participation in the RWJF initiative entitled Hablamos Juntos. The report delineates outcomes to date demonstrating that these interventions have met the challenge of improving patient provider communication for Latinos.
Introduction Hospital readmissions are common, expensive, and a key target of the Medicare Value Based Purchasing (VBP) program. Validated risk assessment tools such as the HOSPITAL score and LACE index have been developed to identify patients at high risk of hospital readmission so they can be targeted for interventions aimed at reducing the rate of readmission. This study aims to evaluate the utility of HOSPITAL score and LACE index for predicting hospital readmission within 30 days in a moderate-sized university affiliated hospital in the midwestern United States. Materials and Methods All adult medical patients who underwent one or more ICD-10 defined procedures discharged from the SIU-SOM Hospitalist service from Memorial Medical Center (MMC) from October 15, 2015 to March 16, 2016, were studied retrospectively to determine if the HOSPITAL score and LACE index were a significant predictors of hospital readmission within 30 days. Results During the study period, 463 discharges were recorded for the hospitalist service. The analysis includes data for the 432 discharges. Patients who died during the hospital stay, were transferred to another hospital, or left against medical advice were excluded. Of these patients, 35 (8%) were readmitted to the same hospital within 30 days. A receiver operating characteristic evaluation of the HOSPITAL score for this patient population shows a C statistic of 0.75 (95% CI [0.67–0.83]), indicating good discrimination for hospital readmission. The Brier score for the HOSPITAL score in this setting was 0.069, indicating good overall performance. The Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness of fit test shows a χ2 value of 3.71 with a p value of 0.59. A receiver operating characteristic evaluation of the LACE index for this patient population shows a C statistic of 0.58 (95% CI [0.48–0.68]), indicating poor discrimination for hospital readmission. The Brier score for the LACE index in this setting was 0.082, indicating good overall performance
The aim of this study was to estimate the time-of-day energy demand in University of Yamanashi. Our University consisted of Kofu campus (Faculty of Education & Human Sciences and Faculty of Engineering) and Faculty of Medicine campus (Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital). The energy data of 4 facilities were classified into hot water, heating, cooling and electric power demands based on electric power consumptions, city gas and heavy oil from 1996 to 2005. For 10 years, primary energy increased 1.2 times in the whole of the university. The amount of electric power consumption was 63% in the fuel classification. The amount of electric power consumption of faculty reacted to the change in temperature greatly. In 2005, it was found that thermoelectric-ratios for 4 facilities, i.e. Education, Engineering, Medicine and Hospital were 2.3, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.7 respectively. These data are very useful for the energy saving and energy management of university.
Leddin, Desmond; Charlebois, Paul
Summary Dalhousie University, with the help of the other Maritime universities formed and sent a hospital to Europe during the First World War (WWI). They served from January 1916 to April 1919. There is no comprehensive account of the treatment of German wounded by Canadian Medical Services in WWI; however, there is direct photographic and written evidence from the No. 7 Canadian Stationary Hospital that the relationship was one of mutual trust, more characteristic of that between a health care provider and patient than between combatants. The activities of the No. 7 in treating German wounded from the Western Front provide insight into this undocumented aspect of the medical services in WWI. A previously unrecognized painting by Sir William Orpen, one of the leading artists of the 20th century, of the unit at work in France is described. An appendix to this commentary is available at canjsurg.ca. PMID:28234585
François, M; Joubert, M; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M
Several databases on drugs have been developed worldwide for drug information functions whose sources are now electronically available. Our objective was to implement one of them in our University hospitals information system. Thériaque is a database which contains information on all the drugs available in France. Before its implementation we modeled its content (chemical classes, active components, excipients, indications, contra-indications, side effects, and so on) following an object-oriented method. From this model we designed dynamic HTML pages according to the Microsoft's Internet Database Connector (IDC) technics. This allowed a fast implementation and does not imply to port a client application on the thousands of workstations over the network of the University hospitals. This interface provides end-users with an easy-to-use and natural way to access information related to drugs in an Intranet environment.
Alves, Priscila Castro; Neves, Vanessa Faria; Coleta, Marilia Ferreira Dela; Oliveira, Áurea de Fátima
Well-being at work is based on Positive Psychology, and is defined as a psychological state with positive affective links towards work and also towards the organisation. The purpose of this study was to look at the degree of well-being at work among nursing professionals who work at a University hospital and also identify differences between occupational categories and types of work contracts. The sample was made up of 340 professionals who answered valid scales of the following constructs: Work Satisfaction, Involvement with Work and Affective Organisational Commitment. For the analysis of the data we used SPSS, version 12, for descriptive statistics, and also for testing differences between means. The results showed an average level of well-being in the workplace and also differences between professional categories and work regime, when it comes to satisfaction with salaries and promotions, which can have a reflection in the quality of service provided to the patients of this University hospital.
Lima, Marcos Souza; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Salvador, Maria Elisabete; da Silva Canteras, Lígia Mara; Carmagnani, Maria Isabel Sampaio; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron
The aims of this descriptive study were to determine the academic profile of nurses in a university hospital, assess their level of knowledge about magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and verify whether this knowledge was acquired during their undergraduate or graduate education. Ninety randomly selected nurses working in inpatient wards and outpatient units of a university hospital participated in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire completed by the participants between August and October 2009. Most nurses were females who have received specialized education. The participants had a limited knowledge about MRI, which was restricted to the procedures to prepare patients for MRI examination and MRI contraindications. Most of the nurses acquired information about MRI during the professional practice. The majority of nurses showed interest to know more about the MRI examination, especially regarding the exam environment, conditions and contraindications, in order to prevent accidents.
Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Okihata, Rie; Tsuruoka, Hiromi; Yamada, Yuichi; Adachi, Toshiko; Izumi, Yuichi
In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control.
Chas, Julie; Hema, Arsène; Slama, Laurence; Kabore, Nongondo Firmin; Lescure, François-Xavier; Fontaine, Camille; Pialoux, Gilles; Sawadogo, Adrien
Objectives To evaluate the epidemiological evolution of patients with HIV (PtHIV), between 2002 and 2012, in a day-hospital that became an HIV reference centre for south-west Burkina Faso. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of PtHIV followed in the Bobo Dioulasso university hospital since 2002. The study was based on clinical data recorded using ESOPE software and analysed using Excel and SAS. Results A total of 7320 patients have been treated at the centre since 2002; the active file of patients increased from 147 in 2002 to 3684 patients in 2012. Mean age was stable at 38.4 years and the majority were female (71%). The delay to initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment after HIV diagnosis decreased from 12.9 months in 2002 to 7.2 months in 2012. The percentage of PtHIV lost to follow-up, untreated for HIV and deaths all decreased after 2005. Voluntary anonymous screening and/or an evocative clinical picture were the main reasons for HIV diagnosis, usually at a late stage (41.1% at WHO stage 3). Virological success increased due to a decrease in time to initiation of ARV treatment and an increase in percentage of patients treated (90.5% in 2012, mainly with 1st line drugs). However, there was also a slight increase in the rate of therapeutic failures and the percentage of patients who progressed to 2nd or 3rd line-ARVs. Conclusion Our day-hospital is a good example of the implementation of a specialist centre for the management of PtHIV in a resource-limited country (Burkina Faso). PMID:25970181
Kair, Laura R; Colaizy, Tarah T; Hubbard, Deborah; Flaherman, Valerie J
There is a paucity of literature on the topic of banked donor breastmilk use for healthy newborns. Herein, we describe two cases demonstrating the day-to-day medically indicated use of pasteurized, banked donor breastmilk in the University of Iowa Children's Hospital newborn nursery. These cases may inform scientific opinion about the role of banked donor milk for healthy newborns and may also facilitate research on the use of banked donor milk for this population.
Plaza-Garrido, Á; Barra-Carrasco, J; Macias, J H; Carman, R; Fawley, W N; Wilcox, M H; Hernández-Rocha, C; Guzmán-Durán, A M; Alvarez-Lobos, M; Paredes-Sabja, D
In a 1-year survey at a university hospital we found that 20·6% (81/392) of patients with antibiotic associated diarrohea where positive for C. difficile. The most common PCR ribotypes were 012 (14·8%), 027 (12·3%), 046 (12·3%) and 014/020 (9·9). The incidence rate was 2·6 cases of C. difficile infection for every 1000 outpatients.
Olĭnyk, O V; Krasiĭ, N I
The results of monitoring of the microorganisms resistance to antibiotics in departments of anesthesiology and abdominal surgery of the Ternopyl University Hospital are adduced. The data obtained permit to estimate possibilities for application of antimicrobic preparations in empiric therapy. Taking into account a large quantity of multiresistant isolates in a certain stationary, administration of empiric therapy in the treatment of intrahospital infection must be conducted, basing on the local data, concerning the microflora sensitivity to antibiotics.
Nor, G M; Lian, C B
This is a retrospective study of 80 patients with major central and lateral middle third fractures of facial skeleton treated at University Hospital from 1981 to 1985. The most common was the fractures of zygomatic complex. The peak incidence was in the 20-29 year age group and males were involved more than females (ratio 9: 1). Road traffic accidents were to be blamed for most of the fractures which was 82.25%.
Managers' experiences of radical change were studied in a Norwegian university hospital, which was relocated from a traditional building to a new, high-tech building. The university hospital was also accredited as a health promoting hospital. Thirteen managers at different levels in the organization and a personnel safety representative were interviewed as part of a trailing research project. The aim of the study was to elucidate the managers' value orientation and strategies for dealing with value tensions. A combination of a hermeneutical, reflective method and a template for quality, efficiency and integrity guided the analysis. The template was based not only on the main findings but also on the core values of a model of organizational health. The results show that clinical managers focus on quality and top managers, not unexpectedly, focus on efficiency. Managers at both levels were concerned about their own integrity, and also about the integrity of their clinician colleagues, as well as showing concern for the hospital's mission, in terms of organizational effectiveness. The discussion was conducted in terms of dominance, cycling and balancing strategies, of which the last was the most prevalent. However, sustainable strategies for dealing with value tensions also call for value-based management and value-conscious leadership. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yokota, Hiromitsu; Yatomi, Yutaka
Clinical laboratories in university hospitals should be operated with a good balance of medical practice, education, research, and management. The role of a clinical laboratory is to promptly provide highly reliable laboratory data to satisfy the needs of clinicians involved in medical practice and health maintenance of patients. Improvement and maintenance of the quality of the laboratory staff and environment are essential to achieve this goal. In order to implement these requirements efficiently, an appropriate quality management system should be introduced and established, and evaluated objectively by a third party (e.g. by obtaining ISO 15189 certification). ISO 15189 is an international standard regarding the quality and competence of clinical laboratories, and specifies a review of the efficient operational system and technical requirements such as competence in implementing practical tests and calibration. This means the results of laboratory tests reported by accredited laboratories withstand any international evaluation, which is very important to assure the future importance of the existence and management of clinical laboratories as well as internationalization of medical practice. "Education" and "research" have important implications in addition to "medical practice" and "management", as the roles that clinical laboratories should play in university hospitals. University hospital laboratories should be operated by keeping these four factors in good balance. Why are "education" and "research" required in addition to "medical practice" services? If individual clinical laboratory technologists can provide an appropriate response to this question, the importance of the existence of clinical laboratories would be reinforced, without being compromised.
Rajala, Tiina; Savio, Sami; Penttinen, Jarkko; Dastidar, Prasun; Kähönen, Mika; Eskola, Hannu; Miettunen, Risto; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Järvenpää, Ritva
Recent healthcare policies have influenced the manner in which patient data is handled in research projects, and the regulations concerning protected health information have become significantly tighter. Thus, new procedures are needed to facilitate research while protecting the confidentiality of patient data and ensuring the integrity of clinical work in the expanding environment of electronic files and databases. We have addressed this problem in a university hospital setting by developing the Tampere Research Archival System (TARAS), an extensive data warehouse for research purposes. This dynamic system includes numerous integrated and pseudonymized imaging studies and clinical data. In a pilot study on asthma patients, we tested and improved the functionality of the data archival system. TARAS is feasible to use in retrieving, analyzing, and processing both image and non-image data. In this paper, we present a detailed workflow of the implementation process of the data warehouse, paying special attention to administrative, ethical, practical, and data security concerns. The establishment of TARAS will enhance and accelerate research practice at Tampere University Hospital, while also improving the safety of patient information as well as the prospects for national and international research collaboration. We hope that much can be learned from our experience of planning, designing, and implementing a research data warehouse combining imaging studies and medical records in a university hospital.
Pizzo, Philip A
There is wide variation in the governance and organization of academic health centers (AHCs), often prompted by or associated with changes in leadership. Changes at AHCs are influenced by institutional priorities, economic factors, competing needs, and the personality and performance of leaders. No organizational model has uniform applicability, and it is important for each AHC to learn what works or does not on the basis of its experiences. This case study of the Stanford University School of Medicine and its teaching hospitals--which constitute Stanford's AHC, the Stanford University Medical Center--reflects responses to the consequences of a failed merger of the teaching hospitals and related clinical enterprises with those of the University of California-San Francisco School of Medicine that required a new definition of institutional priorities and directions. These were shaped by a strategic plan that helped define goals and objectives in education, research, patient care, and the necessary financial and administrative underpinnings needed. A governance model was created that made the medical school and its two major affiliated teaching hospitals partners; this arrangement requires collaboration and coordination that is highly dependent on the shared objectives of the institutional leaders involved. The case study provides the background factors and issues that led to these changes, how they were envisioned and implemented, the current status and challenges, and some lessons learned. Although the current model is working, future changes may be needed to respond to internal and external forces and changes in leadership.
Virdis, A; Licheri, N; Cagnina, N; Sassu, A; Tanda, E; Soddu, M D
In line with the health legislation that introduced a system to monitor and review the quality, the Hospital Authority of University of Sassari has placed among its main objectives the satisfaction of patients/clients and has made an initial assessment of customer satisfaction for users hospitalized in their facilities with the methodology of the questionnaire. It was drawn up a questionnaire to closed questions, with default value scales, divided into 4 areas: 1) Hospitality, 2) Hotel treatment, 3) Professionalism of staff-information related pathology, informed consent, 4) personal opinion of the patient upon discharge. The questionnaire was administered the day of discharge, to users hospitalized of six UO of Hospital Authority in the months of September and October 2009, and patients discharged within 2 months were given a total of 514, of them have completed the testing 290 (54% of discharged patients). The questionnaires were analyzed in the results of both the individual UO involved in both the overall result, persons responsible for each facility was sent a report with the results of its own. The survey results are satisfactory with regard to both positive aspects, that is the overall grade average of 86.23% which to criticism, to which they are planning initiatives for their solution.
Melo, M R; Fávero, N; Evora, Y D; Nakao, J R
There are few studies on the delivery of nursing services in hospitals participating in the Brazilian universal public health system (Sistema Unico de Saúde), which was put in place in 1988. This study, which examined possible changes in the delivery of these services since universal health care was implemented, was based on interviews carried out between July and September 1995 with 31 nurses working at a teaching hospital in the city of Ribeirão Preto, in the state of São Paulo. The nurses had begun working at the hospital between May 1980 and May 1987. Thematic analysis was used to assess their answers. According to the nurses, patients treated after the universal system was implemented have had more complex medical needs and a higher socioeconomic status. In addition, nurses reported an increase in the complexity of patient demands and in the variety of medical specialties offered by the hospital, as well as a decrease in the length of inpatient stays. Forty-six percent of the interviewees reported a change in the work done by nursing staff (for example, nurses have less time available for each patient). Not all of the problems the nurses mentioned are related to the public health system (understaffing is one example). It is essential that nurses examine national health policy and that they engage in the (re)construction of the practice of health care delivery. Nurses ought to understand the reality of their institutions and carry out a management process geared towards the expectations of patients and of health care workers.
Marinović, Ivana; Marušić, Srećko; Mucalo, Iva; Mesarić, Jasna; Bačić Vrca, Vesna
Aim To evaluate the clinical pharmacist-led medication reconciliation process in clinical practice by quantifying and analyzing unintentional medication discrepancies at hospital admission. Methods An observational prospective study was conducted at the Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Dubrava, during a 1-year period (October 2014 – September 2015) as a part of the implementation of Safe Clinical Practice, Medication Reconciliation of the European Network for Patient Safety and Quality of Care Joint Action (PASQ JA) project. Patients older than 18 years taking at least one regular prescription medication were eligible for inclusion. Discrepancies between pharmacists' Best Possible Medication History (BPMH) and physicians' admission orders were detected and communicated directly to the physicians to clarify whether the observed changes in therapy were intentional or unintentional. All discrepancies were discussed by an expert panel and classified according to their potential to cause harm. Results In 411 patients included in the study, 1200 medication discrepancies were identified, with 202 (16.8%) being unintentional. One or more unintentional medication discrepancy was found in 148 (35%) patients. The most frequent type of unintentional medication discrepancy was drug omission (63.9%) followed by an incorrect dose (24.2%). More than half (59.9%) of the identified unintentional medication discrepancies had the potential to cause moderate to severe discomfort or clinical deterioration in the patient. Conclusion Around 60% of medication errors were assessed as having the potential to threaten the patient safety. Clinical pharmacist-led medication reconciliation was shown to be an important tool in detecting medication discrepancies and preventing adverse patient outcomes. This standardized medication reconciliation process may be widely applicable to other health care organizations and clinical settings. PMID:28051282
El-Sharkawy, Mahmoud F.; Noweir, Mohamed E. H.
Aim of the Study: The complex hospital environment requires special attention to ensure a healthy indoor air quality (IAQ) to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections and occupational diseases. Poor hospital IAQ may cause outbreaks of building-related illness such as headaches, fatigue, eye, and skin irritations, and other symptoms. The general objective for this study was to assess IAQ inside a large University hospital at Al-Khobar City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Different locations representing areas where most activities and tasks are performed were selected as sampling points for air pollutants in the selected hospital. In addition, several factors were studied to determine those that were most likely to affect the IAQ levels. The temperature and relative percent humidity of different air pollutants were measured simultaneously at each location. Results: The outdoor levels of all air pollutant levels, except volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were higher than the indoor levels which meant that the IAQ inside healthcare facilities (HCFs) were greatly affected by outdoor sources, particularly traffic. The highest levels of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and those less than 10 microns (PM10) inside the selected hospital were found at locations that are characterized with m4ore human activity. Conclusions: Levels of particulate matter (both PM10 and TSP) were higher than the Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs). The highest concentrations of the fungal species recorded were Cladosporium and Penicillium. Education of occupants of HCF on IAQ is critical. They must be informed about the sources and effects of contaminants and the proper operation of the ventilation system. PMID:24696632
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic patterns of maxillofacial prosthetic treatment to identify the characteristics and geographic distribution of patients with maxillofacial prosthetics in the capital region of Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective analytical multicenter study was performed by chart reviews. This study included patients who visited the department of prosthodontics at four university dental hospitals for maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation. Patients with facial and congenital defects or with insufficient medical data were excluded. The patients were classified into three categories based on the location of the defect. Patients' sex, age, and residential area were analyzed. Pearson's chi-square test with a significance level of 0.05 was used to analyze the variables. RESULTS Among 540 patients with maxillofacial prosthetics, there were 284 (52.59%) male patients and 256 (47.41%) female patients. The number of the patients varied greatly by hospital. Most patients were older than 70, and the most common defect was a hard palate defect. Chi-square analysis did not identify any significant differences in sex, age, and distance to hospital for any defect group (P>.05). CONCLUSION The results of this study indicated that there was imbalance in the distribution of patients with maxillofacial prosthetic among the hospitals in the capital region of Korea. Considerations on specialists and insurance policies for the improvement of maxillofacial prosthetics in Korea are required. PMID:27350859
Ogbimi, Roseline I; Adebamowo, Clement A
Background Smooth working relationships between nurses and doctors are necessary for efficient health care delivery. However, previous studies have shown that this is often absent with negative impact on the quality of health care delivery. In 2002, we studied factors that affect nurse-doctor working relationships in University Teaching Hospitals (UTH) in Southern Nigeria in order to characterize it and identify managerial and training needs that might be used to improve it. Method Questionnaire survey of doctors and nurses working in four UTH in Southern Nigeria was done in 2002. The setting and subjects were selected by random sampling procedures. Information on factors in domains of work, union activities, personnel and hospital management were studied using closed and open-ended questionnaires. Results Nurse-doctor working relationships were statistically significantly affected by poor after-work social interaction, staff shortages, activist unionism, disregard for one's profession, and hospital management and government policies. In general, nurses had better opinion of doctors' work than doctors had about nurses' work. Conclusion Working relationships between doctors and nurses need to be improved through improved training and better working conditions, creation of better working environment, use of alternative methods of conflict resolution and balanced hospital management and government policies. This will improve the retention of staff, job satisfaction and efficiency of health care delivery in Nigeria. PMID:16504039
Kubilius, Ricardas; Keizeris, Tadas
Fractures of the mandible are one of the most common maxillofacial injuries. Because the pattern and incidence of mandibular fractures vary in different countries, there is a need to evaluate aspects of mandibular trauma in Lithuania's population. In this retrospective study hospital files of Oral and maxillofacial surgery unit of Kaunas University of Medicine Hospital were examined. The data that we collected included age, gender, hospitalization time, trauma mechanism, site of fracture, associated injuries, diagnostic and treatment methods. 87.1% of patients were male and they predominated in all age groups with a male to female ratio of 6.8:1. The highest incidence of mandibular fractures in male patients was in the 16-30 year age group and 31-45 year group for females. Interpersonal violence was the main cause of mandibular fractures, followed by falls and road traffic accidents. The incidence of falls in the <16 year age group was higher than expected. The angle was the most common fracture site (34.8%) and 51.7% patients experienced multiple fractures. The mean hospitalization time was 7.34+/-9.02 days. 55% of patients required Kirschner wire osteosynthesis, open reduction with miniplate osteosynthesis or a combination of both methods.
Bentancor, Ana; Hernández, Ana Laura; Godoy, Yamile; Dapueto, Juan J
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. METHODS In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1) historical background; 2) implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3) functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. RESULTS Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients’ demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. CONCLUSIONS In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women’s health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices. PMID:27384969
Deconinck, F.; Duerinckx, A. J.; Kuijk, S.; Nyssen, M.; Tombeur, D.
A prototype PACS system is being designed which will connect an existing nuclear medicine mini NM-PACS with an imaging facility in the medical school, a PET and experimental medical imaging facility, and research imaging facilities in the Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department of the Free University in Brussels ( VUB, Jette), Belgium. The local nuclear medicine NM-PACS uses SOPHA (Informatek) equipment with parallel DMA connections. The PET and experimental medical imaging facility is based on Apollo workstations. The medical school imaging network connects a VAX 11/785, a VICOM and several other computers, and is physically located next to the hospital. A local radiology Rad-PACS will be based on an Ethernet link. The "global PACS" described in this paper will connect all image processing facilities. Initially, 4 Apollo workstations with a token passing ring network (12 Mbit/sec), a 500 Mbyte storage, and 1kx1k displays will be used. The following subparts of the "global PACS" are novel: a pictorial-menu driven user-interface software for image display, processing and management is being developed to facilitate the use of the PACS hardware . The image data base is distributed over the different areas of the hospital and university. The system will also provide the distributed computing power (parallel processing and acquisition of images) needed for a new HIDAC PET camera being constructed at the university. This PACS project is part of a large scale European effort (EuroPacs) to develop PACS technology.
Sugawara, N; Shiozawa, I; Masuda, T; Takei, H; Tsuruta, J; Ogura, N; Hasegawa, S
The number of dental patients who have medical illnesses is increasing at the hospital of the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Although prosthodontic treatments are considered less invasive in all dental treatments, invasive procedures such as tooth extraction may be required occasionally. Therefore, it is necessary to treat patients in consideration of their condition. Under this situation, a clinical survey was conducted by health questionnaires answered by the patients who visited our clinic between October 1992 and March 1997. The number of patients whose illness was heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, nephritic disease, hepatitis, tuberculosis, hemodyscrasia, asthma, epilepsy, and so on during dental treatment was higher than the national average according to the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Dental psychosomatic diseases such as TMD and dental phobia were increased every year. These data reflect the contemporary disease structure in Japan characterized by the spreading of life-style related diseases and increase of neuropsychological and infectious diseases.
Aires, L M; Finley, J P
Dalhousie University Medical School and its teaching hospitals have been providing clinical telemedicine services since 1987. The object of the present study was to assess the extent and growth of telemedicine at the medical school and teaching hospitals, as well as to evaluate the obstacles to its deployment. This was achieved by conducting structured personal interviews with telemedicine providers. Twenty telemedicine programmes were identified, of which 15 were operational and five were being planned. The number of established telemedicine projects had doubled in the six months preceding the study. A wide variety of telemedicine services were provided, ranging from clinical consultations in a number of medical specialties to patient education, grand rounds and continuing medical education. These services were provided to sites in a wide area in the Maritime region and internationally. The three most important obstacles to the implementation of telemedicine were a lack of knowledge about telemedicine (80% of respondents), time constraints (75%) and funding (70%).
The distinctiveness of management of a university psychiatric hospital which has the status of a public health institution is manifested in the following ways: * Distinctive features and characteristics of managing service provider organizations compared to those whose operational results involve tangible products; * Distinctive features of management which originate from its role as a regional hospital and a tertiary research and educational institution in the field of psychiatry, with special importance for the Republic of Slovenia as a whole; * Distinctive features of management that are defined by the social and legal framework of operation of public health institutions and their special social mission. This paper therefore discusses the specific theoretical and practical findings regarding management of service provider organizations from the viewpoint of their social mission and significance, as well as their legal organization, internal structure and values.
The first step to establish a blood transfusion centre in Aarhus was taken in 1951, when an ordinary refrigerator, to be used in a kitchen, was installed in the operation theater area (surgical department) and used for short time storage of blood from bleeding of the donor to transfusion of the patient. In order to celebrate the 60 years anniversary this paper tells the history of the Blood Transfusion Centre at Aarhus University Hospital, especially location in hospitals and scenery of laboratories. The paper is initiated with a description of some of the major milestones in transfusion medicine, which are essential for the function of a blood bank. The last part consists of photos, which shows the setting of the department during the 60 years. In order to facilitate the impression of the great technical improvement, which took place during this period, the photos are, together with a description, grouped according to the motive.
Altafin, Juliana Aparecida Morini; Grion, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho; Tanita, Marcos Toshyiuki; Festti, Josiane; Cardoso, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz; Veiga, Caio Fabrício Fonseca; Kamiji, Danielle; Barbosa, Álan Roger Gomes; Matsubara, Caio Cesar Takeshi; Lara, Aline Bobato; Lopes, Cesar Castello Branco; Blum, Djavani; Matsuo, Tiemi
Objective The nursing workload consists of the time spent by the nursing staff to perform the activities for which they are responsible, whether directly or indirectly related to patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nursing workload in an adult intensive care unit at a university hospital using the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) instrument. Methods A longitudinal, prospective study that involved the patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a university hospital between March and December 2008. The data were collected daily to calculate the NAS, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS-28) of patients until they left the adult intensive care unit or after 90 days of hospitalization. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results In total, 437 patients were evaluated, which resulted in an NAS of 74.4%. The type of admission, length of stay in the intensive care unit and the patients’ condition when leaving the intensive care unit and hospital were variables associated with differences in the nursing workload. There was a moderate correlation between the mean NAS and APACHE II severity score (r=0.329), the mean organic dysfunction SOFA score (r=0.506) and the mean TISS-28 score (r=0.600). Conclusion We observed a high nursing workload in this study. These results can assist in planning the size of the staff required. The workload was influenced by clinical characteristics, including an increased workload required for emergency surgical patients and patients who died. PMID:25295824
Khowaja, Khurshid; Merchant, Rashida J; Hirani, Doulat
Hospitals are facing serious challenges to provide high quality care with current nursing shortages. Nursing shortages are of major concern for Nursing Management, clinicians and administrators as they lead to impact on quality of care. Under-stressed, frustrated and demoralized nurses give rise to concern for hospital Nursing Management in providing quality care according to set standards. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore the registered nurses' perceptions regarding the high turnover rates among nurses at a Tertiary Care University Hospital. Data was collected from nurses working at various speciality areas, which were: Critical Care, Medical and Surgical Care, Ambulatory Care, Maternal/Child and Emergency departments. A convenience sample of 45 registered nurses from nine subspecialty groups was selected for a focus group interview and five focus groups were selected for a study population. Findings of exit interviews (from 1 September 2001 to 28 February 2002) were also included in the data analysis. These exit interviews of RNs were conducted by Nurse Recruiter at the time of their resignations. The data analysis showed that the most dissatisfying factors at work and within the work setting were identified as: high workload, stress associated with high workload, biased Nursing Management, lack of appreciation and monetary incentives, finally a rigid attitude of Nursing Management. However, the most satisfying factors were: working with an internationally reputable organization, patients' positive feedback and availability of required material or equipment. The study participants recommended that nursing retention could be improved at the Tertiary Care University Hospital by launching the following strategies by Nursing Management: reducing workload by adequate nurse-patient ratios according to international standards, promoting respect of nurses in front of patients and other staff, rewards and recognition of nurses, simplifying
De Carvalho Parahym, Ana Maria Rabelo; De Melo, Luciana Resende Bandeira; De Morais, Vera Lúcia Lins; Neves, Rejane Pereira
Fungi are common causes of infection in immunocompromised patients. Candida species are frequently involved in these cases. In order to investigate candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer, clinical samples were collected from one hundred and twenty two patients interned in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital in Recife, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated from thirty-four clinical samples. The species isolated were: Candida albicans (fourteen isolates), C. parapsilosis (nine isolates), C. guilliermondii (two isolates) and C. tropicalis (two isolates). We found that candidemia was most frequent in patients with malignant hematology and that C. parapsilosis infections caused the highest mortality. PMID:24031365
Gmel, Gerhard; Kuendig, Hervé; Gaume, Jacques; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard
Alcohol-related injuries are responsible for a large share of the global mortality and morbidity burden. Scant information existed, however, for Switzerland. Based on 3653 injured patients and 3519 patients attending the emergency department of the Lausanne University Hospital for other reasons, alcohol attributable fractions with regard to the alcohol consumption in the 6 hours before the injury were estimated. Among men 17% of all injures were alcohol attributable, and 12% among women. Relative risks increased in dose-response relationship with alcohol intake. Leisure time related injuries were most likely to be alcohol attributable. Most of the alcohol-related injuries occurred at already small ethanol quantities ingested.
Nwankwo, Okechukwu Emmanuel
Gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) is rarely seen and this rarity, coupled with its dramatic presentation and often devastating outcome, makes each case of gas gangrene a spectacular and memorable experience. This study analyses the cases managed, the causes and outcome. Gunshot wounds, compounded by late presentation with its accompanying florid infections, were seen as the causes in 14 cases of gas gangrene seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu during the four-year study period from July 2000 to June 2004.
Ece, Gulfem; Ruksen, Mete; Akay, Ali
Roseomonas is a pink-pigmented, nonfermentative, oxidative, Gram-negative coccobacilli that has clinical importance as opportunistic pathogen which can lead to infections especially in immunosuppressed individuals. It is relatively less reported in many centers. These microorganisms are detected after several days growth in culture environment, and typical pink, mucoid colonies are detected. We are reported a case of cranioplasty infection that took place in a patient with with cranial abscess formation due to Roseomonas gilardii at Izmir University School of Medicine Medicalpark Hospital.
Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fukushmima, Sachie; Kawano, Koujiro; Ohnishi, Ayumi; Ogiwara, Tomomi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Toru; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Amano, Naoji
This report describes psychiatric occupational therapy practice and collaboration between occupational therapists and psychiatrists at Shinshu University Hospital. Collaboration with psychiatrists enables us to provide the following occupational therapy programs. (1) Individual occupational therapy approaches for patients at the early recovery stage in the psychiatric ward. (2) Psychoeducational interventions by a multi-disciplinary team (MDs, nurses, OTRs, PSWs, CPs). (3) Occupational therapy approaches used in combination with m-ECT for severe psychiatric disorders. (4) Recovery support programs for psychiatric outpatients. It is suggested that occupational therapists should collaborate with psychiatrists in order to facilitate rehabilitation services for people with psychiatric disorders.
Lin, Mong-Wei; Yang, Pei-Wen; Lee, Jang-Ming
Thoracic surgeons should be more aware of the latest information about histopathological, genetic and epigenetic alterations that may influence treatment policy and patient outcome in the biomolecular era. Translational research studies often produce a promising diagnostic tool or new treatment that can be used clinically. The results of these translational studies may even change the practical guidelines and current staging system in thoracic malignancies. The following article summarizes the experiences of translational research in esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at National Taiwan University Hospital in Taiwan.
Lin, Mong-Wei; Yang, Pei-Wen
Thoracic surgeons should be more aware of the latest information about histopathological, genetic and epigenetic alterations that may influence treatment policy and patient outcome in the biomolecular era. Translational research studies often produce a promising diagnostic tool or new treatment that can be used clinically. The results of these translational studies may even change the practical guidelines and current staging system in thoracic malignancies. The following article summarizes the experiences of translational research in esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at National Taiwan University Hospital in Taiwan. PMID:27651941
Al-Hamimi, J. Z.; Al Balushi, K. A.
Objective: This study evaluates the patterns of prescription drugs use among women attending antenatal clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) and SQUH Family and Community Medicine clinic (FAMCO), Oman. Methods: The study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study on pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic at SQUH and FAMCO from February to April 2014 and received a prescription containing at least one drug. Patients’ information was extracted from SQUH electronic records. Results: A total of 105 pregnant women were included in the study. Among the recruited pregnant women, 35 (33.3%) had at least one chronic disease. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient per prescription during the period of pregnancy was 2.33 ± 1.43. Vitamins and minerals were the most frequently prescribed class of drugs (30.60%) followed by analgesics (11.19%) and antidiabetic drugs (10.13%). According to the Food and Drug Administration risk classification, most of the prescribed drugs were from category B (30.0%) and C (27.14%). No drug was prescribed from category X. There was a significant decrease in prescribing category A drugs over the three trimesters (20.7%, 12.7%, and 9.3%, respectively) (P < 0.047). Conclusion: The study gives an overview of the extent of drug prescription during pregnancy and increases the awareness of health-care providers and women about the potential risks of drug use during pregnancy. PMID:28216955
Fresnel, A; Jarno, P; Burgun, A; Delamarre, D; Denier, P; Cleret, M; Courtin, C; Seka, L P; Pouliquen, B; Cléran, L; Riou, C; Leduff, F; Lesaux, H; Duvauferrier, R; Le Beux, P
A pedagogical network has been developed at University Hospital of Rennes from 1996. The challenge is to give medical information and informatics tools to all medical students in the clinical wards of the University Hospital. At first, nine wards were connected to the medical school server which is linked to the Internet. Client software electronic mail and WWW Netscape on Macintosh computers. Sever software is set up on Unix SUN providing a local homepage with selected pedagogical resources. These documents are stored in a DBMS database ORACLE and queries can be provided by specialty, authors or disease. The students can access a set of interactive teaching programs or electronic textbooks and can explore the Internet through the library information system and search engines. The teachers can send URL and indexation of pedagogical documents and can produce clinical cases: the database updating will be done by the users. This experience of using Web tools generated enthusiasm when we first introduced it to students. The evaluation shows that if the students can use this training early on, they will adapt the resources of the Internet to their own needs.
Demirdal, Tuna; Demirturk, Nese; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Tufan, Gulnihal
In this retrospective study, the investigators examined blood cultures from patients that had been diagnosed with bacteremias over a 3-y period. The study was conduced at Kocatepe University Hospital (Middle Anatolia, Turkey). Blood samples that arrived at the university's microbiology laboratory between 2002 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. These samples were classified as contamination, false positivity, community-acquired bacteremia (CAB), or hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB). Patient age and sex, foci of bacteremia, present comorbidities, predisposing factors, pathogens, and mortality rates were evaluated. A total of 1783 blood cultures that had been drawn from 1441 patients during this 3-y period were examined retrospectively. Of 354 positive isolates, 61 (17.2%) were CABs and 293 (82.8%) were HABs. In HABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (29.7%), and Escherichia coli (10.2%); in CABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were S aureus (29.5%), Brucella spp (26.2%), and E coli (24.6%). Crude mortality rates were determined to be 15.2% for HABs and 12.7% for CABs. This study yielded data on the most common foci of bacteremia, microbiologic factors, and the epidemiology associated with HABs and CABs. It is hoped that these data will enhance empirical antibiotic therapeutic approaches, thereby preventing delays in treatment and decreasing mortality rates associated with bacteremias.
Buetti, Niccolò; Marschall, Jonas; Atkinson, Andrew; Kronenberg, Andreas
OBJECTIVE To characterize the epidemiology of bloodstream infections in Switzerland, comparing selected pathogens in community and university hospitals. DESIGN Observational, retrospective, multicenter laboratory surveillance study. METHODS Data on bloodstream infections from 2008 through 2014 were obtained from the Swiss infection surveillance system, which is part of the Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance (ANRESIS). We compared pathogen prevalences across 26 acute care hospitals. A subanalysis for community-acquired and hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in community and university hospitals was performed. RESULTS A total of 42,802 bloodstream infection episodes were analyzed. The most common etiologies were Escherichia coli (28.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.4%), and polymicrobial bloodstream infections (11.4%). The proportion of E. coli increased from 27.5% in 2008 to 29.6% in 2014 (P = .04). E. coli and S. aureus were more commonly reported in community than university hospitals (34.3% vs 22.7%, P<.001 and 13.9% vs 11.1%, P<.001, respectively). Fifty percent of episodes were community-acquired, with E. coli again being more common in community hospitals (41.0% vs 32.4%, P<.001). The proportion of E. coli in community-acquired bloodstream infections increased in community hospitals only. Community-acquired polymicrobial infections (9.9% vs 5.6%, P<.001) and community-acquired coagulase-negative staphylococci (6.7% vs 3.4%, P<0.001) were more prevalent in university hospitals. CONCLUSIONS The role of E. coli as predominant pathogen in bloodstream infections has become more pronounced. There are distinct patterns in community and university hospitals, potentially influencing empirical antibiotic treatment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1060-1067.
Salimi, Elaheh; Pakbaz, Zahra; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Avakh Majelan, Payman; Dehbashi, Sanaz
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) have been identified as a major cause of nosocomial infections. Nasal carriage of CoNS in nurses and physicians is known to be an important risk factor for potential hospital infections. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococci among nurse and physician staffs of Tehran University Hospitals. A total of 116 CoNS were isolated from anterior nares of the study participants working in different wards of the hospitals. Thirteen uncommon CoNS were identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods, were subsequently confirmed by API kits. Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus capitis species accounted for 53.85%, 30.77%, and 15.38% from the isolates, respectively. Six isolates (46.15%) were found to be resistant to methicillin. In conclusion, screening of healthcare workers for uncommon CoNS colonization along with identification and testing for susceptibility of cultured isolates is of paramount importance in strengthening effective nosocomial infection control and prevention measures.
Nobre, Vandack; Braga, Emanuella; Rayes, Abdunnabi; Serufo, José Carlos; Godoy, Pérsio; Nunes, Nívea; Antunes, Carlos Maurício; Lambertucci, José Roberto
Opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients have changed since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). This study aims at evaluating the frequency of associated diseases in patients with AIDS admitted to an university hospital of Brazil, before and after HAART. The medical records of 342 HIV-infected patients were reviewed and divided into two groups: group 1 comprised 247 patients before HAART and, group 2, 95 patients after HAART. The male-to-female rate dropped from 5:1 to 2:1for HIV infection. There was an increase in the prevalence of tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis, with a decrease in Kaposi's sarcoma, histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis. A reduction of in-hospital mortality (42.0% vs. 16.9%; p = 0.00002) has also occurred. An agreement between the main clinical diagnoses and autopsy findings was observed in 10 out of 20 cases (50%). Two patients with disseminated schistosomiasis and 2 with paracoccidioidomycosis are reported. Overall, except for cerebral toxoplasmosis, it has been noticed a smaller proportion of opportunistic conditions related to severe immunosuppression in the post HAART group. There was also a significant reduction in the in-hospital mortality, possibly reflecting improvement in the treatment of the HIV infection.
Seyedin, Hesam; Goharinezhad, Salime; Vatankhah, Soodabeh; Azmal, Mohammad
Background: Patient education is widely recognized as a core component of nursing. Patient education can lead to quality outcomes including adherence, quality of life, patients' knowledge of their illness and self-management. This study aimed to clarify patient education process in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. In this descriptive quantitative study, the sample covered 187 head nurses selected from ten teaching hospitals through convenience sampling. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The questionnaire measured patient education process in four dimensions: need assessment, planning, implementing and evaluating. Results: The overall mean score of patient education was 3.326±0.0524. Among the four dimensions of the patient education process, planning was in the highest level (3.570±0.0591) and the lowest score belonged to the evaluation of patient education (2.840 ±0.0628). Conclusion: Clarifying patient education steps, developing standardized framework and providing easily understandable tool-kit of the patient education program will improve the ability of nurses in delivering effective patient education in general and specialized hospitals. PMID:26478878
Objective Retrorectal tumours are rare lesions in adults. The diagnosis of retrorectal lesion is often difficult and misdiagnosis is common. We present significant number of cases in view of scarce information available on this matter. Methods 14 patients were treated at Vilnius university hospital "Santariskiu klinikos" Centre of abdominal surgery from 1997 to 2010. The case notes of patients who underwent surgery for a retrorectal tumour were reviewed retrospectively. Surgical histories, operations, histological tumour type, surgical time, weight of the specimen, blood loss, length of stay were analysed. Results 13 patients underwent laparotomy, 1 patient had combined perineal approach and laparotomy. The most common types of the tumour were fibroma (3 cases), leiomyosarcoma (2 cases). 5 tumours (35,7%) were found to be malignant. 57% of the patients had undergone at least one operation prior to definitive treatment. 5 female patients were initially admitted under gynaecologists. Hospital stay varied from 14 days to 22 days (mean 16,2 days). A report of a representative case is presented. Conclusions Retrorectal lesions in female patients can mimic gynaecological pathology. Patients with this rare pathology are to be treated in a major tertiary hospital by surgeons, who are able to operate safely in the retrorectal space. PMID:21719397
Mahjoub, Mohamed; Bouafia, Nebiha; Bannour, Waadia; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Bouriga, Rym; Hellali, Radhia; Cheikh, Asma Ben; Ezzi, Olfa; Abdeljellil, Amel Ben; Mansour, Njah
Introduction Our study was conducted, in university hospital center (UHC) Farhat Hached of Sousse (city in Tunisian center-east), within healthcare-associated infections (HAI) epidemiological surveillance (ES) program, based, among others, on HAI regular prevalence surveys. Our objectives are to resituate HAI prevalence rate and to identify their risk factors (RF) in order to adjust, in our hospital, prevention programs. Methods It is a transversal descriptive study, including all patients who had been hospitalized for at least 48 hours, measuring prevalence of HAI a “given day”, with only one passage by service. Risk factors were determined using Epiinfo 6.0, by uni-varied analysis, then, logistic regression stepwise descending for the variables whose p Results The study focused on 312 patients. Infected patients prevalence was 12.5% and that of HAI was 14.5%. Infections on peripheral venous catheter (PVC) dominated (42.2%) among all HAI identified. HAI significant RF were neutropenia (p < 10−4) for intrinsic factors, and PVC for extrinsic factors (p = 0,003). Conclusion Predominance of infections on PVC should be subject of specific prevention actions, including retro-information strategy, prospective ES, professional practices evaluation and finally training and increasing awareness of health personnel with hygiene measures. Finally, development of a patient safety culture with personnel ensures best adherence to hygiene measures and HAI prevention. PMID:26113928
Schultz, Carl H; Koenig, Kristi L; Alassaf, Wajdan
As Ebola has spread beyond West Africa, the challenges confronting health care systems with no experience in managing such patients are enormous. Not only is Ebola a significant threat to a population's health, it can infect the medical personnel trying to treat it. As such, it represents a major challenge to those in public health, emergency medical services (EMS), and acute care hospitals. Our academic medical center volunteered to become an Ebola Treatment Center as part of the US effort to manage the threat. We developed detailed policies and procedures for Ebola patient management at our university hospital. Both the EMS system and county public health made significant contributions during the development process. This article shares information about this process and the outcomes to inform other institutions facing similar challenges of preparing for an emerging threat with limited resources. The discussion includes information about management of (1) patients who arrive by ambulance with prior notification, (2) spontaneous walk-in patients, and (3) patients with confirmed Ebola who are interfacility transfers. Hospital management includes information about Ebola screening procedures, personal protective equipment selection and personnel training, erection of a tent outside the main facility, establishing an Ebola treatment unit inside the facility, and infectious waste and equipment management. Finally, several health policy considerations are presented.
Morrison, A J; Hoffmann, K K; Wenzel, R P
We studied the spectrum of clinical disease in 99 patients with nosocomial Pseudomonas maltophilia isolates at the University of Virginia Hospital from 1981 through 1984. The annual rate of isolation increased from 7.1 to 14.1 per 10,000 patient discharges. A crude mortality rate of 43% was documented in all patients from whom the organism was cultured, and the data include 12 patients with nosocomial bacteremia (four deaths). Risk factors associated with death for patients having a P. maltophilia isolate included the following: requirement for care in any intensive care unit during hospitalization (P = 0.0001), patient age over 40 years (P = 0.002), and a pulmonary source for the P. maltophilia isolate (P = 0.003). All P. maltophilia isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 60% of the isolates were resistant to all aminoglycosides (amikacin, tobramycin, and gentamicin), and more than 75% of the isolates were resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern allows for a niche exploitable in the hospital microbial environment by an organism with a marked associated mortality. PMID:3487553
Background The aims of this study were to determine the hospital-acquired infections (HAI) prevalence in all institutions of Rabat University Medical Center, to ascertain risk factors, to describe the pathogens associated with HAI and their susceptibility profile to antibiotics. Materials and methods Point-prevalence survey in January 2010 concerning all patients who had been in the hospital for at least 48 hours. At bedside, 27 investigators filled a standardized questionnaire from medical records, temperature charts, radiographs, laboratory reports and by consultation with the ward’s collaborating health professionals. Risk factors were determined using logistic regression. Results 1195 patients involved, occupancy rate was 51%. The prevalence of HAI was 10.3%. Intensive care units were the most affected wards (34.5%). Urinary tract infection was the most common infected site (35%). Microbiological documentation was available in 61% of HAI. Staphylococcus was the organism most commonly isolated (18.7%) and was methicillin-resistant in 50% of cases. In multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with HAI were advanced age, longer length of hospital stay, presence of comorbidity, invasive devices and use of antibiotic use. Conclusion HAI prevalence was high in this study. Future prevention program should focus on patients with longer length of stay, invasive devices, and overprescribing antibiotics. PMID:23031793
Cataneo, Daniele Cristina; Rodrigues, Olavo Ribeiro; Hasimoto, Erica Nishida; Schmidt, Aurelino Fernandes; Cataneo, Antonio José Maria
OBJECTIVE: To review the cases of patients with congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) submitted to surgical treatment at two university hospitals over a 30-year period. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of children with CLE undergoing surgical treatment between 1979 and 2009 at the Botucatu School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas or the Mogi das Cruzes University Hospital. We analyzed data regarding symptoms, physical examination, radiographic findings, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and postoperative follow-up. RESULTS: During the period studied, 20 children with CLE underwent surgery. The mean age at the time of surgery was 6.9 months (range, 9 days to 4 years). All of the cases presented with symptoms at birth or during the first months of life. In all cases, chest X-rays were useful in defining the diagnosis. In cases of moderate respiratory distress, chest CT facilitated the diagnosis. One patient with severe respiratory distress was misdiagnosed with hypertensive pneumothorax and underwent chest tube drainage. Only patients with moderate respiratory distress were submitted to bronchoscopy, which revealed no tracheobronchial abnormalities. The surgical approach was lateral muscle-sparing thoracotomy. The left upper and middle lobes were the most often affected, followed by the right upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed in 18 cases, whereas bilobectomy was performed in 2 (together with bronchogenic cyst resection in 1 of those). No postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative follow-up time was at least 24 months (mean, 60 months), and no late complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although CLE is an uncommon, still neglected disease of uncertain etiology, the radiological diagnosis is easily made and surgical treatment is effective. PMID:24068262
Payandeh, Mehrdad; Zare, Mohammad Erfan; Kansestani, Atefeh Nasir; Pakdel, Shirin Falah; Jahanpour, Firuzeh; Yousefi, Hoshang; Soleimanian, Farzaneh
Background Transfusion services rely on transfusion reaction reporting to provide patient care and protect the blood supply. Unnecessary discontinuation of blood is a major wastage of scarce blood, as well as man, hours and funds. The aim of the present study was to describe the main characteristics of acute transfusion reactions reported in the 4 hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran. Material and Methods The study was carried out at 4 teaching hospital of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran, over18 months from April 2010. All adult patients on admission in the hospitals who required blood transfusion and had establish diagnosis and consented were included in the study. Results In the year 2010 until 2012, a total of 6238 units of blood components were transfused. A total of 59 (0.94%) cases of transfusion reaction were reported within this 3 years period. The commonest were allergic reactions which presented with various skin manifestations such as urticarial, rashes and pruritus (49.2%), followed by increase in body temperature of > 1°C from baseline which was reported as febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (37.2%). pain at the transfusion site (6.8%) and hypotension (6.8%). Conclusion It is important that each transfusion of blood components to be monitor carefully. Many transfusion reactions are not recognized, because signs and symptoms mimic other clinical conditions. Any unexpected symptoms in a transfusion recipient should at least be considered as a possible transfusion reaction and be evaluated. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute transfusion reaction are crucial and would help in decreasing transfusion related morbidity and mortality, but prevention is preferable. PMID:24505522
Paavilainen, Eija; Merikanto, Juhani; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Laippala, Pekka; Tammentie, Tarja; Paunonen-Ilmonen, Marita
The purpose of the study was to look at how nurses and physicians of a university hospital rated their ability to identify child maltreatment while caring for those children. In this study, child maltreatment was defined as physical, psychological or sexual abuse or neglect of a child under the age of 18 by parents or caregivers. The total population of staff caring for children (N=513) in a university hospital were surveyed. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed for this study with reference to the literature. Altogether 317 questionnaires were returned, which yielded a response rate of 62%. The data were analysed using statistical methods and quantitative content analysis. Forty per cent of the respondents estimated that they had never cared for a maltreated child. Two-thirds of the respondents believed that they would be able to identify a child maltreatment case. The most distinct signs by which maltreatment could be identified were fractures, multiple bruises and the fact that the child had frequent injuries. The child's or parent's behaviour often aroused suspicion of maltreatment. Seventy-one per cent of the respondents rated the identification of maltreatment as rather difficult or difficult. Awkwardness of the phenomenon, the staff's pressure of work and relative unfamiliarity with the phenomenon were assessed as things that make the identification difficult. The fact that no jointly agreed guidelines were available for handling the matter was seen as a particular weakness. The respondents had fairly much theoretical knowledge about child maltreatment. However, child maltreatment is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that calls forth emotions. The development and improvement of practical nursing and medical care and of staff collaboration require that education be provided to different occupational groups and parties caring for children and that jointly agreed hospital-specific and regional models for operation be developed.
Clare-Pascoe, N; Lee, MG; Murphy, T; Nicholson, A; Ferguson, TS
ABSTRACT Objectives: This study examined the frequency of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospital admission and diarrhoeal stool samples over a six-year period. Methods: A review of all suspected cases of C difficile positive patients from 2007 to 2012 at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Jamaica, was performed. Clostridium difficile infection was confirmed by clinical features and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) stool test for Clostridium Toxins A and B. The demographics, clinical features, risk factors, treatment and outcomes were also collated. Results: There were 56 patients reviewed. The most commonly affected age group was 40–59 years of age. The proportion of CDI cases per total stool samples increased from 0.5% in 2007 to 5.9% in 2010 then fell to 2.2% in 2011 but increased again to 4.3% in 2012. The proportion of cases per total UHWI admissions also increased from 0.12 cases per 1000 admissions in 2007 to 1.16 in 2010 and 1.36 in 2012 (p < 0.001). Most CDI cases were nosocomial (76% males, 48.6% females). Co-morbidities included hypertension and end-stage renal disease. Ceftazidime was the most common antibiotic associated with the development of CDI. Resolution occurred in 62.5% of patients. Duration of hospital stay was longer in males than females (≥ 21 versus < 7 days) and males had more adverse outcomes, with death in 23.8% versus 11.4%. Conclusion: There has been an increase in the frequency of CDI at UHWI with a greater than expected frequency of community acquired CDI. Increased awareness is needed of the increasing risk for CDI and measures must be taken to prevent the disease, especially in hospitalized patients. PMID:26624597
Fortes, João Vyctor Silva; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle Barbosa e; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; da Silva, Luan Nascimento; Pinheiro, Renata Silva; Fecks, Zullma Sampaio; Borges, Daniel Lago
Objective To apply the InsCor in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a university hospital in Brazil's northeast. Methods It is a retrospective, quantitative and analytical study, carried out at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão. InsCor is a remodeling of two risk score models. It evaluates the prediction of mortality through variables such as gender, age, type of surgery or reoperation, exams, and preoperative events. Data from January to December 2015 were collected, using a Physical Therapy Evaluation Form and medical records. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation and qualitative variables as absolute and relative frequencies. Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied, considering significant differences when P value was < 0.05. Calibration was performed by Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results One hundred and forty-eight patients were included. Thirty-six percent were female, with mean age of 54.7±15.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI) equal to 25.6 kg/m2. The most frequent surgery was coronary artery bypass grafting (51.3%). According to InsCor, 73.6% of the patients had low risk, 20.3% medium risk, and only 6.1% high risk. In this sample, 11 (7.4%) patients died. The percentage of death in patients classified as low, medium and high risk was 6.3, 7.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Conclusion InsCor presented easy applicability due to the reduced number of variables analyzed and it showed satisfactory prediction of mortality in this sample of cardiac surgery patients. PMID:27982349
Jameson, W J; Pierce, K; Martin, D K
California's county hospitals train 45% of the state's graduate medical residents, including 33% of residents in the University of California system. This paper describes the interrelationships of California's county hospitals and the University of California (UC) graduate medical education (GME) programs, highlighting key challenges facing both systems. The mission of California's county health care systems is to serve all who need health care services regardless of ability to pay. Locating UC GME programs in county hospitals helps serve the public missions of both institutions. Such partnerships enhance the GME experience of UC residents, provide key primary care training opportunities, and ensure continued health care access for indigent and uninsured populations. Only through affiliation with university training programs have county hospitals been able to run the cost-effective, quality programs that constitute an acceptable safety net for the poor. Financial stress, however, has led county hospitals and UC's GME programs to advocate for reform in both GME financing and indigent care funding. County hospitals must participate in constructing strategies for GME reform to assure that GME funding mechanisms provide for equitable compensation of county hospitals' essential role. Joint advocacy will also be essential in achieving significant indigent care policy reform. PMID:9614786
Bradley, Craig W; Wilkinson, Martyn A C; Garvey, Mark I
OBJECTIVE To describe the effect of universal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization therapy in a large intensive care unit (ICU) on the rates of MRSA cases and acquisitions in a UK hospital. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING University Hospitals Birmingham (UHB) NHS Foundation Trust is a tertiary referral teaching hospital in Birmingham, United Kingdom, that provides clinical services to nearly 1 million patients every year. METHODS A break-point time series analysis and kernel regression models were used to detect significant changes in the cumulative monthly numbers of MRSA bacteremia cases and acquisitions from April 2013 to August 2016 across the UHB system. RESULTS Prior to 2014, all ICU patients at UHB received universal MRSA decolonization therapy. In August 2014, UHB discontinued the use of universal decolonization due to published reports in the United Kingdom detailing the limited usefulness and cost-effectiveness of such an intervention. Break-point time series analysis of MRSA acquisition and bacteremia data indicated that break points were associated with the discontinuation and subsequent reintroduction of universal decolonization. Kernel regression models indicated a significant increase (P<.001) in MRSA acquisitions and bacteremia cases across UHB during the period without universal decolonization. CONCLUSION We suggest that routine decolonization for MRSA in a large ICU setting is an effective strategy to reduce the spread and incidence of MRSA across the whole hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017:1-6.
Hayashi, Jun; Murata, Masayuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Hoshina, Takayuki; Shimono, Nobuyuki
After extensive discussion with the Fukuoka City government of measures for the prevention and control of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, Kyushu University Hospital organized the infection control teams of 39 hospitals in the Fukuoka City area in preparation for a possible outbreak. A facility was set up at Kyushu University Hospital for the screening of outpatients with fever, and those with influenza and an underlying disease or severe symptoms were admitted to the hospital. 37 (22%) of the 171 outpatients with fever were infected with the new strain of influenza, confirmed by rapid influenza antigen test and PCR: Of these 37 patients, 17 (45.9%) were negative by influenza antigen test. Other 37 patients (5 adults, 32 children) were admitted, all of whom were successfully treated with neuraminidase inhibitors and discharged with no aftereffects.
Lim, Lynne Hsueh Yee; Del Prado, Jocelynne; Xiang, Ling; Yusof, Abdul Rahman Bin; Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin
Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) has been recommended for both adults and children with all types of hearing loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the objective and subjective benefits with VSB and the difference in benefits for patients with different types of hearing loss. A retrospective case review was conducted on seven consecutive patients who had received VSB implantations at the National University Hospital of Singapore from March 2006 to November 2009. Patients were divided into the Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL) Group and Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL)/Mixed Hearing Loss (MHL) Group. Surgical complications were evaluated, and objective and subjective results were compared between the two groups. No major complications were observed during the follow-up of up to 4 years. Greater objective and subjective benefits were observed in the CHL/MHL Group. Subjective benefits were consistent with objective improvements. Pre-operative counseling for realistic expectations is important, especially for patients with SNHL.
Bello, O O; Akinajo, O R; Odubamowo, K H; Oluwasola, T A O
Lassa fever (LF), an acute viral haemorrhagic fever, is an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa countries with up to 15% case fatality rate. Though a rodent-borne infection, it can also be transmitted from person to person during the care of sick relations or more commonly in health care settings as a nosocomial infection. Vertical transmission from mother to child has been documented. We report 2 cases of LF among pregnant women which were managed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between September and October 2014. Both patients were in their early 20s with only one surviving the disease. Both had supportive therapy but none had antiviral therapy. This report emphasized the importance of early presentation, high index of suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and early commencement of supportive therapy in the management of patients suspected with LF especially in the era of other viral haemorrhagic infections.
Abdo, S A M; El-Sallamy, R M; El-Sherbiny, A A M; Kabbash, I A
Little is known about professional burnout among health-care workers in Egypt. The current study aimed to reveal the extent of burnout among physicians and nursing staff working in the emergency hospital of Tanta University and to identify some of its determinants. A cross-sectional study was carried out on all physicians (n = 266) and a systematic random sample of nurses (n = 284). Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and its subscales. Most of the participants (66.0%)had a moderate level of burnout and 24.9% of them had high burnout. Multivariate analysis of variables affecting burnout showed that age, sex, frequency of exposure to work-related violence, years of experience, work burden, supervision and work activities were significant predictors of burnout among the respondents. The authors recommend health education interventions during pre-employment training programmes for prevention of burnout syndrome and periodic screening for early detection and management of burnout.
Basso, Antonella; Serra, Rosaria; Drago, Ignazio; Soleo, Leonardo; Lovreglio, Piero
The phenomenon of accidents at work was investigated among the resident physicians of the School of Medicine, Bari University, by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire probing personal details and inquiring about any accidents at work experienced during the training period, and by a comparison with the accidents reported to the Hospital Accidents Registry. At least 1 biological accident was reported by 18.2% of the 450 participants, this percentage being significantly higher in the surgical area (33.3%), where biological accidents were much more rarely reported to either the Residency School Director or the Accidents Registry. In conclusion, despite an overall reduction compared with the past, the frequency both of biological accidents and of underreporting is still high among resident physicians, particularly in the surgical area.
van Rijk, P P; Anema, P C
At the department of nuclear medicine of the University Hospital Utrecht a single modality PACS has been operational since mid 1990. After 1 year of operation the functionality, the organizational and economical consequences and the acceptability of the PACS are evaluated. The functional aspects reviewed are: viewing facilities, patient data management, connectivity, reporting facilities, archiving, privacy and security. It is concluded that the improved quality of diagnostic viewing and the potential integration with diagnosis, reporting and archiving are highly appreciated. The many problems that have occurred during the transition period, however, greatly influence the appreciation and acceptability of the PACS. Overall, we feel that on the long term there will be a positive effect on the quality and efficiency of the work done in our department.
Soliman, G S; Abu-Youssef, R M; Saleib, B F; El-Moughazi, A M; Zaki, A
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess knowledge of routes of transmission, awareness of MRSA control guidelines and reasons for non-adherence to guidelines among medical staff at Alexandria University hospitals. A random sample of 158 physicians and 47 nurses answered a self-administered questionnaire. Overall awareness of MRSA control guidelines was 67.3%, and nurses were significantly more aware than physicians (91.5% versus 60.1%). The lowest awareness level was among anaesthesiologists; only 54.4% knew the correct transmission routes. Among medical staff overall, 70.0% accepted the necessity of screening measures for high-risk patients and 35.8% of doctors accepted the use of the same pair of gloves when caring for different body sites on an individual patient. Lack of resources was the most common justification for suboptimum adherence. The study showed low awareness levels of MRSA-related guidelines.
Kim, Jungsu; Yoon, Yongsu; Seo, Deoknam; Kwon, Soonmu; Shim, Jina; Kim, Jungmin
Radiation dose monitoring in medical imaging examination areas is mandatory for the reduction of patient radiation exposure. Recently, dose monitoring techniques that use digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reports (SR) have been introduced. The present paper discusses the setup of a radiation dose monitoring system based on DICOM data from university hospitals in Korea. This system utilizes the radiation dose data-archiving method of standard DICOM dose SR combined with a DICOM modality performed procedure step (MPPS). The analysis of dose data based on a method utilizing DICOM tag information is proposed herein. This method supports the display of dose data from non-dosimeter-attached X-ray equipment. This system tracks data from 62 pieces of equipment to analyze digital radiographic, mammographic, mobile radiographic, CT, PET-CT, angiographic, and fluorographic modalities.
Ying, Liu; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Tonmukayakal, Ouyporn
Nursing competency is important to ensure patient safety and improve the quality of nursing care. Based on competency-based human resource management strategies, the organizational climate can positively influence nursing competency. However, a review of the literature indicated that there were no studies about the relationship between nursing competency and organizational climate in the People's Republic of China. This descriptive, correlational study examined the relationship between nursing competency and the organizational climate. The sample consisted of 243 staff nurses who completed the questionnaire worked at one university hospital in Liao Ning Province. The findings showed that there was a significantly moderate positive relationship between nursing competency and organizational climate. The study results suggested that Chinese nurse managers should maintain and provide a positive organizational climate to improve nursing competency.
Abdullah, A M
Forty-eight cases of chronic diarrhoea in children seen at King Khalid University Hospital over a 5-year period were analysed. The mean age at presentation was 1.8 years (range 0.08-10 years); 34 were boys and 14 girls. Forty-four patients were Saudi and four were non-Saudi Arabs. Most children presented with failure to thrive and pallor. The aetiological factors identified were: the post-gastro-enteritis syndrome with or without lactose intolerance in 16 (33%); coeliac disease in ten (21%); congenital chloride diarrhoea in five (10%); glucose-galactose malabsorption and acrodermatitis enteropathica, each in three (6%); ulcerative colitis, intestinal lymphangiectasia, cow's milk protein intolerance and ataxia telangiectasia, each in two (4%); and giardiasis, immune deficiency and cystic fibrosis, each in one (2%). Five children died.
Bagny, A; Akolly, D A E; Lawson-Ananisoh, L M; Bouglouga, O; Douaguibe, B; El Hadji Yacoubou, R; Koffi, S; Lawson Evi, K; Guedenon, K M; Atakouma, Y D; Akpadza, K; Redah, D
To evaluate the hepatic and obstetric complications in pregnant women with cirrhosis. We report the cases of four pregnant women with cirrhosis treated in the gastroenterology and obstetrics-gynecology departments of the Lome Campus University Teaching Hospital between 2013 and 2015. The women's mean age was 32 years. Three were in the first trimester of pregnancy. Almost all had signs of advanced cirrhosis, including ascites (50%), lower-limb edema (75%), and jaundice (25%). All (100%) had liver failure and anemia. Cirrhosis was due to hepatitis virus B infection for 3 women. All had singleton pregnancies. Two mothers died; fetal outcome included one fetal loss and one stillbirth. This study shows the high risk associated with the combination of pregnancy and cirrhosis. Prognosis is poor for both mother and fetus.
Akinajo, O. R.; Odubamowo, K. H.; Oluwasola, T. A. O.
Lassa fever (LF), an acute viral haemorrhagic fever, is an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa countries with up to 15% case fatality rate. Though a rodent-borne infection, it can also be transmitted from person to person during the care of sick relations or more commonly in health care settings as a nosocomial infection. Vertical transmission from mother to child has been documented. We report 2 cases of LF among pregnant women which were managed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between September and October 2014. Both patients were in their early 20s with only one surviving the disease. Both had supportive therapy but none had antiviral therapy. This report emphasized the importance of early presentation, high index of suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and early commencement of supportive therapy in the management of patients suspected with LF especially in the era of other viral haemorrhagic infections. PMID:27051545
Silva, J F
This study has analyzed 260 patients with multiple injuries sustained in road accidents admitted to the University Hospital during the period July 1967 to July 1976, in relation to age, sex, and ethnic distribution. The types of injuries sustained have been discussed to highlight their effects on the community in a developing country. The extremities have been most frequently involved, while head injuries followed closely. The causative factors of multiple injury-producing accidents have been evaluated. The categories of victims most liable to multiple injuries have been discussed. The significance of understanding the mechanism of these accidents and the effect of such knowledge in minimizing diagnostic errors, thus enabling management and the urgent need for regional accident services in developing countries, have been stressed.
Jeong, Déborah Ju Young; Kurcgant, Paulina
This study aims to identify factors of work dissatisfaction through the point of view of nurses of a university hospital. This is a qualitative study with a descriptive-exploratory approach. Two categories emerged from the analysis of the interviews carried out with 6 nurses: "Personal Dimension" and "Institutional Dimension". The category "Personal Dimension" is formed by the units of significance "Sentiments Related to Work" and Atttitudes Related to Work", whereas the category "Institutional Dimension" includes the units of significance "Conditions of Work" and "Interpersonal Relationship". The factors of dissatisfaction identified in the interviews include both personal and institutional aspects, and show positive correlation with the findings of other studies on this subject. Work dissatisfaction does not impact only on the assistance for the patient, but also on the professional, what reflects on the quality of their work and productivity too.
Birhanu, Anteneh Messele; Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke; Balcha, Shitaye Alemu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa
Background Diabetes mellitus, frequently associated with comorbid depression, contributes to the double burden of individual patients and community. Depression remains undiagnosed in as many as 50%–75% of diabetes cases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2014 among 422 sampled diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a standardized and pretested questionnaire linked with patient record review. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with depression. Results A total of 415 diabetic patients participated in the study with a response rate of 98.3%. The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients was found to be 15.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.7–19.2). Only religion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.65 and 95% CI: 1.1–6.0) and duration of diabetes (AOR =0.27 and 95% CI: 0.07–0.92) were the factors associated with depression among diabetic patients. Conclusion The prevalence of depression was low as compared to other similar studies elsewhere. Disease (diabetes) duration of 10 years and above and being a Muslim religion follower (as compared to Christian) were the factors significantly associated with depression. Early screening of depression and treating depression as a routine component of diabetes care are recommended. Further research with a large sample size, wider geographical coverage, and segregation of type of diabetes mellitus is recommended. PMID:27274296
Jawaid, Masood; Bakhtiar, Nighat; Khalique, Abdul; Masood, Zubia
Objective: To find out quality of surgical case notes according to modified Adjusted Note keeping and Legibility (ANKLe) score in Dow University Hospital. Methods: For this audit, medical records of all the patients admitted in Dow University Hospital surgery department were reviewed from February 2012 to April 2012. The modified ANKLe score (total 24) is formed by the combination of, the content (out of 20) and legibility (out of 4) to give an overall score out of 24. A score of at least 20 (content score 17/20; legibility score 3/4) is considered as acceptable. It means that a surgical record is legible and the majority of the essential content is recorded. Results: A total of 236 records were evaluated. Overall mean ± standard deviation (SD) of ANKLe score was 18.4± 2.1 out of maximum score of 24. Content and legibility has overall mean scores of 14.4 out of 20 and 3.9 out of 4 respectively. Only two variables, patient’s name and consultant on call were documented in 100% of records while the least documented variable were social history 2 (0.2%). Legibility scoring system provides that 218notes out of total set of 236 notes (that is 92.4% of overall notes) have achieved a score of 4. The benchmark of 80% was achieved in 26.1% for total ANKLe score, 6.8% for contents and 99.1% for legibility. Conclusion: Overall, quality of records is not good but legibility part scores exceptionally high. PMID:24353683
Aduloju, Olusola Peter
Introduction: Labour pain is a universal experience. Relief of labour pains and companionship in labour are important aspects of quality of care in labour. Objectives: To evaluate perception of labour pains among parturients, their knowledge and awareness of pain relief during labour, the types of obstetric analgesia available and the outcome of their labour at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using questionnaire administered to pregnant women between 37 and 42 weeks gestational age in labour ward of the hospital. Results: The study revealed that 75.2% of the parturients experienced severe labour pains and 35.3% of them received analgesia in labour with Pentazocine injection being the only analgesic used. Only 18.3% had maximum relief of their pains. Parturients with increasing parity, higher social class and educational attainment and who had antenatal education on labour pains were associated with severe perception of labour pains with P values of 0.03, 0.03, 0.02 and 0.01, respectively. Parturients who were given Pentazocine injection for pains and had relief in labour had more spontaneous vaginal deliveries, P = 0.030 and better outcome for their babies, P = 0.028. Majority of the women reported that the practice of companionship and back rubbing in labour helped them to cope better with the labour process. Conclusion: Most women desire relief of pains of labour but the practice is still suboptimal in this centre. Efforts should be made towards developing the practice of obstetric analgesia and companionship in labour in this environment. PMID:24249944
Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The current study analysed data from a concurrent surveillance programme to examine the current epidemiological trends for nosocomial BSIs at 22 Japanese university hospitals from 1 April 2008 to 31 March 2012. The number of blood culture sets taken, the rate of multiple blood culture sets and the rates of antibiotic-resistant isolates among six major nosocomial BSI pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida spp.) not including coagulase-negative staphylococci, were evaluated. The clinical characteristics of nosocomial BSIs caused by these pathogens were also collected for 2941 patients. The number of blood culture sets taken per bed increased during the 4-year study period (from 4.07 in 2008 to 5.37 in 2011), and the rates of multiple blood culture sets also increased (from 29.9% in 2008 to 50.0% in 2011). Methicillin resistance was detected in 50.2% of S. aureus isolates. The prevalence rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates increased annually during the study period, and the average prevalence rates were 12.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The overall crude mortality of nosocomial BSIs due to the six pathogens evaluated was 24.5% (43.2% in ICU settings and 20.5% in non-ICU settings). Thus, our multicentre study evaluated the current epidemiological trends for nosocomial BSIs, and we found that further efforts are needed to increase the use of multiple blood culture sets and improve the prognosis of nosocomial BSIs in Japanese university hospitals.
Falvey, D G; Streifel, A J
Airborne fungal samples were collected on a monthly basis for 10 years, from 1995 to 2005, at a tertiary university hospital. Paired samples were cultured at 25 and 37 degrees C. Data were interpreted according to the air filtration systems serving each location. Samples cultured at 37 degrees C from the patient care areas had a mean recovery of 18% of the mean recovery from outdoor air (22 versus 122cfu/m(3)). Recovery of Aspergillus spp. at 37 degrees C in the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered locations was positive for Aspergillus spp. approximately one-third of the time; the rest of the patient care areas were positive half of the time and the outdoor samples were positive 95% of the time. We found 48 sporadic bursts at 37 degrees C which produced counts >3 SD above the mean. Hospital-acquired infection was related to high recovery of Aspergillus fumigatus on at least one occasion. We have found it impossible, without implementing impractical measures, to provide an environment completely devoid of Aspergillus spp. We conclude that routine air sampling is not an effective means of predicting hospital-acquired infections. However, a transient spike, or burst, may be useful in identifying an in-house source of contamination and may be used to consider additional interventional treatments for patients at risk. Emphasis should be placed on maintaining high-efficiency filtration of the outside air and on ensuring that other environmental control methods are used to prevent dissemination of environmental opportunistic fungal spores.
Shigemura, Katsumi; Osawa, Kayo; Mukai, Akira; Ohji, Goh; Lee, Jong Ja; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi
The hospital infection control team (ICT) has a major role in suppressing or preventing infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the work of the ICT had affected the antibiograms at the Kobe University Hospital in the past 3 years. The ICT's works are as follows: (1) to monitor whether physicians are instructed in the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics; (2) to check whether measures for preventing the occurrence or spread of infectious disease are performed along with appropriate standard precautions; (3) to provide rapid communication with physicians in bacteremia cases and (4) reporting the antibiograms in the hospital. In addition, we investigated changes in the antibiograms every 6 months based on all materials. There were 193 physician interventions in 2010 and 491 in 2011. The representative isolated bacteria included no additional bacteria with lower susceptibilities found over the past 1.5 years compared with the initial 1.5 years in the 3-year investigation period. The ratio for performing two sets of blood culture tests in all blood culture tests showed an upward tendency from 58.1% in 2009 to 71.1% in 2010 and 80.3% in 2011 (r=0.995, P=0.063, b=0.089). In conclusion, since the introduction of an expanded ICT role, our data showed an increased antibiotic susceptibilities in bacteria such as Enteroccus faecalis and the total amount of hand disinfectant agents tended to increase year by year, even though direct statistical analyses could not easily be performed. Further observation may be necessary for a definitive evaluation of ICT activities.
Wondimu, Hailegebriel; Addis, Zelalem; Moges, Feleke; Shiferaw, Yitayal
Background. Transfusion associated bacterial infection has remained more frequent with a sever risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar hospital blood bank from December 2011 to June 2012. Bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done as per the standard procedure. Chi-square test and P value were used to assess associations between risk factors and the bacterial isolation rate. Results. Twenty-one (15.33%) blood units were found contaminated with bacteria, and 95.24% contamination was due to external sources. The commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Streptococci species, Enterobacter species, and Citrobacter species. All of the bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, and Doxycycline. Multiple antimicrobial resistances were observed in 66.7% of the isolates. Not using glove by phlebotomist, touching disinfected phlebotomy site and double puncture at the same hand or both hands of a donor were found to be risk factors for bacterial contamination. Conclusion. Bacterial contamination of blood to be transfused is a common problem in the hospital. So attention should be given to activities performed at the blood bank for safe transfusion practices.
Saperi, Bin Sulong; Ramli, Roszalina; Ahmed, Zafar; Muhd Nur, Amrizal; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Rashdi, Muhd Fazlynizam; Nordin, Rifqah; Rahman, Normastura Abd; Yusoff, Azizah; Nazimi, Abd Jabar; Abdul Rahman, Roselinda; Abdul Razak, Noorhayati; Mohamed, Norlen
Objective Facial injury (FI) may occur in isolation or in association with injuries to other parts of the body (facial and other injury [FOI]). The objective of this study was to determine the direct treatment costs incurred during the management of facial trauma. Materials and methods A prospective cohort study on treatment cost for FIs and FOIs due to road-traffic crashes in two university hospitals in Malaysia was conducted from July 2010 to June 2011. The patients were recruited from emergency departments and reviewed after 6 months from the date of initial treatment. Direct cost analysis, comparison of cost and length of hospital stay, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were performed. Results A total of 190 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 83 (43.7%) had FI only, and 107 (56.3%) had FOI. The mean ISS was 5.4. The mean length of stay and costs for patients with FI only were 5.8 days with a total cost of US$1,261.96, whereas patients with FOI were admitted for 7.8 days with a total cost of US$1,716.47. Costs doubled if the treatment was performed under general anesthesia compared to local anesthesia. Conclusion Treatment of FI and FOI imposes a financial burden on the health care system in Malaysia. PMID:28223831
Moreira, Cícero da Silva; Barbosa, Nádia Rezende; Vieira, Rita de Cássia Padula Alves; Carvalho, Marcos Roberto de; Marangon, Paula Beatriz; Santos, Priscila Larcher Carneiro; Teixeira Júnior, Mário Lúcio
Poisonings may have their consequences minimized by the acquisition of knowledge concerning its etiologies, evolutions and means of prevention. In Brazil, the progressive increase of toxic emergencies justifies the acquisition and analysis of regional and decentralized data concerning toxic emergencies. The aim of this retrospective and descriptive study was to evaluate data on the toxicology occurrence registered at the University Hospital/UFJF from 2000 to 2004. Data were collected using a structured instrument which comprised: age range, gender, profession, average hospitalization time, etiology and possible reasons for the intoxication, drug categories, where the patients live and the most important exposure route to the poisonous agent. The possible relationship among the data was also examined. The profile found for poisoning in the 50 cases analyzed, was that accidents are more common from 0 to 5 years old (24%) and male gender (68%), the majority of the cases happened in the city of Juiz de Fora (78%) and oral exposure. The most important poisonous agents were found to be the psychotropics (60%). Definition of a profile helps promoting educative activities and expands poisoning prevention campaigns by public health agencies. Therefore, these facts strengthen the importance of an Information Service net to prevent and reduce intoxications and the irrational use of drugs.
Yoritaka, Asako; Fukae, Jiro; Hatano, Taku; Oda, Eisei; Hattori, Nobutaka
Objective Many studies on the cost of Parkinson disease (PD) have been published; however, there are limited studies pertaining to this issue in Asia. This study looks to assess the direct medical costs of patients with PD at a university hospital in Japan by calculating the average monthly direct medical costs of PD patients from July to December 2008. Methods We enrolled 724 consecutive patients (411 women and 313 men) with PD who were registered in Japan's "Specified Disease Treatment Research Program" and obtained data on the total direct medical costs of all patients. Results Values are reported as the mean (standard deviation). The major finding of the direct medical cost analysis was that the outpatient clinic cost per subject (n=715) was USD 485.74 (376.31) per month. A multivariate analysis revealed that a younger age, the presence of wearing-off, hallucination, and longer disease duration increased the direct medical cost significantly. Disease severity had no influence on the direct medical costs. A longer disease duration was significantly correlated with higher hospitalization costs. Conclusion The direct medical cost of PD in Japan was found to be similar to that in Western countries. Costs due to productivity loss exceeded the direct costs, and they may be reduced through the better integration of PD patients in the work environment.
Chisenga, Caroline Cleopatra; Kelly, Paul
Introduction Symptom-free human immunodeficiency virus antibody-negative Zambian adults (51 subjects, aged 20 to 62 years, 33.3% women and 66.7% men) were studied to establish T cell subset reference ranges. Methods We carried out across sectional study at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka. Blood samples were collected from healthy donor volunteers from hospital health care staff, between February and March 2015. Immunopheno typing was undertaken to characterize Tcell subsets using the markers CD3, CD4, CD8, α4β7, Ki67, CD25, CCR7, CD54RA, CD57, CD28, CD27 and HLA-DR. Results Among 51 volunteers, Women had significantly higher absolute CD4 count (median 1042; IQR 864, 1270) than in men (671; 545, 899) (p=0.003). Women also had more CD4 cells expressing homing, naïve, effector and effector memory T cell subsets compared to men. However, in the CD8 population, only the effector cells were significantly different with women expressing more than the males. Conclusion We provide early reference range for T cell subsets in Zambian adults and conclude that among the African women some T cell subsets are higher than men. PMID:27231509
Graham, Elinor; Negron, Reinaldo; Domoto, Peter; Milgrom, Peter
The purpose of this study was to 1) describe the structure of the oral health program in a university-affiliated hospital; 2) evaluate staff's knowledge and attitudes toward oral health; and 3) propose ways to strengthen the incorporation of oral health prevention for children into clinical medical education. Qualitative methods were used to evaluate the program. Structured interviews with seventeen medical center personnel were conducted, and clinic utilization reports provided ICD-9 diagnostic frequency and visits. Clinic staff, pediatric residents, dental and pediatric faculty, hospital administrators, and clinic directors were interviewed. The themes identified during these interviews were motivation, roles, operational and organizational issues, and integration into the larger medical care system. Integration of an early childhood caries prevention program into the clinical medical education curriculum can be accomplished. After implementation of the oral health program described in this paper, dental caries became the eleventh most common diagnosis seen in the clinic when previously it did not appear in the top forty. However, institutional and organizational barriers are significant. Barriers identified were 1) lack of clarity in defining leadership and roles regarding oral health, 2) time and work overload in a busy pediatric clinic, 3) a tracking system was not available to quickly determine which children needed caries prevention procedures and education, and 4) billing and medical record form changes could not be fully established prior to starting the program.
Asyikeen, Wan Adnan Wan Nor; Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che; Zin, Anani Aila Mat; Othman, Nor Hayati
Background Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecologic malignancy among females worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the median survival time of endometrial cancer patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). Methods A list of 121 endometrial cancer cases registered at Hospital USM between 2000 until 2011 was retrospectively reviewed. The survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare the survival of the patients based on socio-demographics and clinical presentation. Results Only 108 patients, 87.0%, were included who were of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included menopause in 67.6% of patients and diabetes mellitus in 39.8% of patients; additionally, 63.4% of patients were nulliparous. Tumour staging was as follows: 24.5% stage I, 10.8% stage II, 26.5% stage III and 38.2% stage IV. The overall median survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was 70.20 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.79, 88.61). The significant factors were age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion and treatment received. Conclusion The overall survival of endometrial cancer was low. A prospective study needs to be carried out to discover more effective and accurate tests for the early detection of endometrial cancer. PMID:28090178
Schieble, Thomas M
The present study aimed to identify firms supplying products to our university operating room (OR) that promote sustainable manufacturing methods. Results show that 72% of our suppliers, or 152 of 211 companies, do not promote sustainability practices in a salient manner. Multi-national firms document sustainability methods significantly more than U.S. divisions of multi-nationals or U.S. firms with chi-square = 157.93 (p < 0.001). Although the current study did not evaluate real manufacturing methods, sustainability promotion is an important marketing tool through which purchasers may begin the process of due diligence for product selection. Lack of sustainability information among suppliers in this study suggests that hospital procurement departments likely focus solely on issues like price or quality when making purchase decisions. These results also suggest an opportunity for healthcare administrators to evaluate more fully the products involved in the healthcare supply chain; the intrinsic, intangible value added to hospital products through sustainable manufacturing is consistent with responsible patient care and has the potential to create marketing and public relations value.
Loucif, Lotfi; Kassah-Laouar, Ahmed; Saidi, Mahdia; Messala, Amina; Chelaghma, Widad; Rolain, Jean-Marc
Seven nonredundant ertapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected between May 2014 and 19 January 2015 in the nephrology and hematology units of Batna University Hospital in Algeria. All strains coproduced the blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-1, and blaTEM-1D genes. Six of these isolates belonged to the pandemic clone sequence type 101 (ST101). The blaOXA-48 gene was located on a conjugative IncL/M-type plasmid. This is the first known outbreak of OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae isolates involving an ST101 clone in Batna University Hospital.
Zirkle, Molly S; McNelles, Laurie R
Missed appointments at specialty clinics generate concerns for physicians and clinic administrators. Appointment nonattendance obstructs the provision of timely medical interventions and the maximization of systemic efficiencies. Yet, empiric study of factors associated with missed appointments at adult specialty clinics has received little attention in North America. We conducted a preliminary study of otolaryngology clinic nonattendance in the context of a universal healthcare system environment in Canada. Our data were based on the schedule of 1,512 new patient appointments at a hospital-based clinic from May 1 through Sept. 30, 2008. Gathered information included the employment status of the attending physician (i.e., full-time vs. part-time), the patient's sex and age, the day of the week and the time of the appointment, and the attendance status. We found that the rate of nonattendance was 24.4% (n = 369). Nonattendance rates varied significantly according to physician employment status (more common for part-time physicians), patient sex (women) and age (younger adults), and the day of the appointment (Wednesdays), but not according to the time of day. Our findings suggest that there are predictable patient and systemic factors that influence nonattendance at medical appointments. Awareness of these factors can have implications for the delivery of healthcare services within a universal healthcare context.
Ciorba, A; Hatzopoulos, S; Camurri, L; Negossi, L; Rossi, M; Cosso, D; Petruccelli, J; Martini, A
The Child Hearing Early Assessment Programme (CHEAP) regional project, was a combined departmental approach (Audiology, Neonatology) of the University Hospital of Ferrara, aimed at identifying neonatal hearing impairment and defining early intervention strategies. Aims of this project have been: (i) construction of a neonatal screening programme using evoked otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem responses; (ii) the calculation of a precise estimate of cost-benefits for every child tested; (iii) the development of an information flow instrument (database) for the storage of data and the statistical analysis of the results. The present report refers only to the results of the project related to the otoacoustic emission data from well-babies and intensive care unit residents. In the period January 2000-December 2004, 4269 full-term newborns and 654 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit babies were tested at the Neonatology Department. The cost of the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening was estimated at Euro 9.20 per child, considering the use of the ILO-292 apparatus, and Euro 8.28 per child in the case of an automatic screener. In this screening model, the initial hardware costs can be re-iterated into budget in a period of two years, if 1000 children per year are tested.
Sakai, Shima; Ohori, Yoko; Tanaka, Yuko; Sato, Yukiko; Watanabe, Ami; Fujii, Junko
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a discharge planning educational program on multidisciplinary team staff in a community. We provided training to nurses of a university hospital. The training covered an introduction to discharge planning, decision-making support, home care medicine and home nursing care, the medical social welfare system, and case review meetings. It was conducted every year from September through February between 2012 and 2015. Before and after the training, the awareness of nurses was evaluated by using self-administered questionnaires and the Discharge Planning scale for Ward Nurses(DPWN), and discharge planning satisfaction was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The study process was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Tokyo Women's Medical University. The questionnaires were distributed to 96 nurses; of these, responses of 72 nurses(pre- and post-training)were analyzed(response rate: 75.0%). The average number of years of nursing experience was 8.5± 7.7. The total score of the DPWN and its subscales, as well as the VAS, with regard to satisfaction level significantly increased after the training(p<0.01), indicating that training improved nurses' awareness of discharge planning practices.
Magan, Purificacion; Otero, Angel; Alberquilla, Angel; Ribera, Jose Manuel
Background The study of Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH) has been proposed as an indirect measure of access to and receipt of care by older persons at the entryway to the Spanish public health system. The aim of this work is to identify the rates of ACSH in persons 65 years or older living in different small-areas of the Community of Madrid (CM) and to detect possible differences in ACSH. Methods Cross-sectional, ecologic study, which covered all 34 health districts of the CM. The study population consisted of all individuals aged 65 years or older residing in the CM between 2001 and 2003, inclusive. Using hospital discharge data, avoidable ACSH were selected from the list of conditions validated for Spain. Age- and sex-adjusted ACSH rates were calculated for the population of each health district and the statistics describing the data variability. Point graphs and maps were designed to represent the ACSH rates in the different health districts. Results Of all the hospitalizations, 16.5% (64,409) were ACSH. Globally, the rate was higher among men: 33.15 per 1,000 populations vs. 22.10 in women and these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in each district. For men the range was 70.82 and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.47, while for women the range was 43.69 and the CV was 0.48. In 93.1% of cases, the ACSH were caused by hypertensive cardiovascular disease, heart failure or pneumonia. A centripetal pattern can be observed, with lower rates in the districts in the center of the CM. This geographic distribution is maintained after grouping by sex. Conclusion A significant variation is demonstrated in "preventable" hospitalizations between the different districts. In all the districts the men present rates significantly higher than women. Important variations in the access are observed the Primary Attention in spite of existing a universal sanitary cover. PMID:18282282
Roche, Manon; Bornet, Charléric; Monges, Philippe; Stein, Andreas; Gensollen, Sophie; Seng, Piseth
Some antibiotics are reserved essentially for hospital settings owing to cost effectiveness and in order to fight the emerging antibiotic resistance crisis. In some cases, antibiotics reserved exclusively for use in hospitals may be prescribed in outpatients for serious infections or in the absence of a therapeutic alternative. A 30-day prospective audit of outpatient prescriptions of antibiotics reserved exclusively for use in hospitals was performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relevance of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions by measuring appropriateness according to guidelines. During the study period, 53 prescriptions were included, only 40% of which were appropriate. Among the 32 inappropriate prescriptions, 4 cases lacked microbial arguments, 1 case was not adequate for the infection type, 1 case involved an incorrect antibiotic dosage, 1 case involved an incorrect interval of dose administration, 3 cases had a therapeutic alternative and 22 cases were not recommended. Of the 53 prescriptions, 66% were started in hospital and 34% in outpatients. Only 25% of cases were prescribed with infectious diseases specialist (IDS) advice, 64% were based on microbiological documentation and 13% had a negative bacterial culture. Inappropriate prescriptions were usually observed in antibiotic lock therapy, skin infections, Clostridium difficile colitis, intra-abdominal infections and intravascular catheter-related infections. Outpatient prescriptions of antimicrobial drugs reserved exclusively for use in hospitals are frequently inappropriate. We recommend a real-time analysis algorithm with the involvement of an IDS for monitoring prescriptions to improve the quality of these prescriptions and possibly to prevent antibiotic resistance.
Istl, Alexandra C.; McAlister, Vivian C.
Summary The Canadian government depended on chaotic civilian volunteerism to staff a huge medical commitment during the First World War. Offers from Canadian universities to raise, staff and equip hospitals for deployment, initially rejected, were incrementally accepted as casualties mounted. When its offer was accepted in 1916, Western University Hospital quickly adopted military decorum and equipped itself using Canadian Red Cross Commission guidelines. Staff of the No. 10 Canadian Stationary Hospital and the No. 14 Canadian General Hospital retained excellent morale throughout the war despite heavy medical demand, poor conditions, aerial bombardment and external medical politics. The overwhelming majority of volunteers were Canadian-born and educated. The story of the hospital’s commanding officer, Edwin Seaborn, is examined to understand the background upon which the urge to volunteer in the First World War was based. Although many Western volunteers came from British stock, they promoted Canadian independence. A classical education and a broad range of interests outside of medicine, including biology, history and native Canadian culture, were features that Seaborn shared with other leaders in Canadian medicine, such as William Osler, who also volunteered quickly in the First World War. PMID:27827791
University Hospital, Denver, has started its University Seniors Assn. to promote health and wellness to people 50 and older. Within four months the organization had 500 members. Now the association is 3,500 members strong.
von Bernuth, Gotz
The Faculty of Medicine of the Rheinisch-Westfalische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany), founded in 1966, has been housed in one building since 1984. The faculty and university hospital are managed by three institutions: the dean (responsible for teaching and research); the clinical directorate (responsible for patient care); and the…
Oyira, Emilia James; Ella, R. E.; Chukwudi, Usochukwu Easter; Paulina, Akpan Idiok
Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to determine knowledge practice and outcome of quality nursing care among nurses in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH). Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide this study. Literature related to the variables under study was reviewed according to the research…
O'Connor, C. Richele
The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the perceptions of university students serving as volunteers in an oncology ward at a local children's hospital. The implementation of this project was guided by the body of literature regarding service learning. Data were collected from the five students using a structured interview and was…
Vidal-Trecan, G M; Delamare, N; Tcherny-Lessenot, S; Lamory, J; Baudin, F; de Prittwitz, M; Salmon-Ceron, D
Isolation practices in a university hospital were analyzed for 137 patients with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Isolation was ordered in writing by physicians for 40% and instituted by nurses for 60%; 74% were isolated. Compliance depended on physician ordering in writing (odds ratio, 36.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.8-274.9). Nurses complied best with hand washing.
Stratton, Rebecca J; King, Claire L; Stroud, Mike A; Jackson, Alan A; Elia, Marinos
Malnutrition and its impact on clinical outcome may be underestimated in hospitalised elderly as many screening procedures require measurements of weight and height that cannot often be undertaken in sick elderly patients. The 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' ('MUST') has been developed to screen all adults, even if weight and/or height cannot be measured, enabling more complete information on malnutrition prevalence and its impact on clinical outcome to be obtained. In the present study, 150 consecutively admitted elderly patients (age 85 (sd 5.5) years) were recruited prospectively, screened with 'MUST' and clinical outcome recorded. Although only 56 % of patients could be weighed, all (n 150) could be screened with 'MUST'; 58 % were at malnutrition risk and these individuals had greater mortality (in-hospital and post-discharge, P<0.01) and longer hospital stays (P=0.02) than those at low risk. Both 'MUST' categorisation and component scores (BMI, weight loss, acute disease) were significantly related to mortality (P<0.03). Those patients with no measured or recalled weight ('MUST' subjective criteria used) had a greater risk of malnutrition (P=0.01) and a poorer clinical outcome (P<0.002) than those who could be weighed and, within both groups, clinical outcome was worse in those at risk of malnutrition. The present study suggests that 'MUST' predicts clinical outcome in hospitalised elderly, in whom malnutrition is common (58 %). In those who cannot be weighed, a higher prevalence of malnutrition and associated poorer clinical outcome supports the importance of routine screening with a tool, like 'MUST', that can be used to screen all patients.
Zimmermann, R; Handtrack, D; Zingsem, J; Weisbach, V; Neidhardt, B; Glaser, A; Eckstein, R
There are no detailed data on blood use with regard to diagnoses of recipients during infancy, childhood and adolescence. Available information on this issue is incomplete and no longer current. We conducted a survey of blood component use in children and adolescents in an acute-care university hospital in the greater area of Nuremberg between June 1994 and September 1996. Packed red blood cells (RBCs), fresh-frozen plasmas (FFPs) and platelet (PLT) components were evaluated for the recipients discharge diagnoses. Source study files were extracted from the hospital transfusion service and the medical records department. Transfused units were listed by broad diagnostic categories and leading diagnostic groups formed from principal diagnoses of the recipients according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edn (ICD-9). 34.3% of 2869 RBC cell units, 35.0% of 1095 FFP units and 5.0% of 1028 PLT components were used in patients with congenital diseases, mainly cardiac defects. The disease category neoplastic diseases was next most frequently associated with blood transfusion diagnosed in recipients of 23.9% of all RBCs, 15.6% of all FFP units and in 66.4% of all PLT units. Malignant diseases and benign haematological diseases (diagnostic categories II and IV) accounted for 68.9% of all costs of blood component transfusion. These findings demonstrate the increased importance of platelet transfusion for the organization of local and regional blood donation programmes and for cost analysis exercises. The study shows that detailed information on local blood use may be obtained quickly using available data collections of transfusion services and medical record departments.
Malek, Mai M.; Amer, Fatma A.; Allam, Ayman A.; El-Sokkary, Rehab H.; Gheith, Tarek; Arafa, Mohamed A.
Integrons are genetic units characterized by the ability to capture and incorporate gene cassettes, thus can contribute to the emergence and transfer of antibiotic resistance. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the presence and distribution of class I and class II integrons and the characteristics of the gene cassettes they carry in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from nosocomial infections at Zagzig University Hospital in Egypt, (2) to determine their impact on resistance, and (3) to identify risk factors for the existence of integrons. Relevant samples and full clinical history were collected from 118 inpatients. Samples were processed; isolated microbes were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibilities. Integrons were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were characterized into class I or II by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Integron-positive isolates were subjected to another PCR to detect gene cassette, followed by gene cassette sequencing. Risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Seventy-six Enterobacteriaceae isolates were recognized, 41 of them (53.9%) were integron-positive; 39 strains carried class I and 2 strains carried class II integrons. Integrons had gene cassettes encoding different combinations and types of resistance determinants. Interestingly, blaOXA129 gene was found and ereA gene was carried on class I integrons. The same determinants were carried within isolates of the same species as well as isolates of different species. The presence of integrons was significantly associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). No risk factors were associated for integron carriage. We conclude that integrons carrying gene cassettes encoding antibiotic resistance are significantly present among Enterobacteriaceae causing nosocomial infection in our hospital. Risk factors for acquisition remain to be identified. PMID:26157425
Hassan, Mairo; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Panti, Abubakar Abubakar; Nasir, Sadiya; Tunau, Karima; Umar, Amina Gambo; Shehu, Constance Egondu; Ukwu, Aeron Eze; Sulaiman, Bilal
Introduction Sexual violence is an important public health problem of growing concern all over the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and pattern of sexual assault managed in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods It was a retrospective study that looked into cases of sexual assault admitted into the hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Information on patients’ biodata, and relevant details on the cases were extracted from the patients’ case files and analyzed. Results Out of the 5317 gynecological admissions during the period under study, 45 (0.84%) were cases of sexual assault. Of these, only 34 case files were available for data extraction. The patients’ ages ranged from 2 to 37 years (mean = 12.6 + 8.3). About two thirds (61.8%) of those affected were young children (aged 12 years and below). In majority of cases (70.6%) the assault was penetrative, and in most of the cases (91.2%) only a single assailant was involved. In close to two thirds of cases, the assailant was either an acquaintance (38.2%) or a family member (20.6%). Although law enforcement agents were informed in majority (58.8%) of cases, arrests were made in less than half (41.2%). Conclusion Although the prevalence of sexual assault in this study appears to be low, a major cause for concern is the fact that those affected were predominantly young children. Parents should be more vigilant in monitoring their children’s movement, and stringent laws should be enacted and enforced to curb this heinous act. PMID:28154687
Ikama, Méo Stéphane; Mesmer Nsitou, Bernice; Solange Mongo, Ngamami; Kimbally-Kaky, Gisèle; Nkoua, Jean Louis; Kocko, Innocent
Summary Background Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of hospitalisation in cardiology. Its prognosis depends on several risk factors, one of which is anaemia. Objectives We aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia in patients with heart failure, and evaluate its impact on their prognosis. Methods This article describes a cross-sectional study with prospective collection of data, carried out from 1 January to 31 December 2010 in the Department of Cardiology at Brazzaville University Hospital, Congo. Patients admitted for heart failure were included. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level < 12 g/dl for men and < 11 g/dl for women. Results In total, 130 men (47.8%) and 142 women (52.2%) were recruited, mean age 56.9 ± 16.5 years. The prevalence of anaemia was 42%. Average levels of haemoglobin were 9.4 ± 1.8 and 13.8 ± 4.9 g/dl for the anaemic (A) and non-anaemic (NA) patients, respectively (p = 0.0001). Two hundred and forty-nine patients (91.5%) were in NYHA functional class III–IV. Forty-seven patients (17.3%) were on oral anticoagulation and 15 (5.5%) were on aspirin. The average duration of hospital stay was 19.1 ± 16.7 days, without a significant difference between the A and NA groups (19.4 ± 12 vs 18.8 ± 13.8 days; p = 0.79, respectively). Total mortality rate was 17%, with a significant difference between the A and NA groups (26 vs 10%; p = 0.001). Conclusion This preliminary study showed a high prevalence of anaemia in patients with heart failure, and it had a negative effect on the prognosis. PMID:26592909
Elachi, Itodo C.; Okunola, Benjamin B.; Yongu, Williams T.; Onyemaechi, Ndubuisi OC; Odatuwa-Omagbemi, Odoyoh D.; Ahachi, Chukwukadibia N.; Mue, Daniel D.
Background: Motorcycle-related injuries lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern and outcome of motorcycle-related injuries at Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Case records of all patients who presented to the accident and emergency department with motorcycle-related injuries between July 2012 and June 2013 were analysed for age, gender, injury host status (i.e. rider, pillion or pedestrian), nature of collision (motorcycle versus other vehicles, motorcycle versus motorcycle, motorcycle versus pedestrian or lone riders), body region injured, injury severity score (ISS) at arrival, length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality. Results: Seventy - nine patients with motorcycle-related injuries were included in the study. They consisted of 63 males (61.8%) and 16 females (15.7%). The age range was 5-65 years with a mean of 32.4 ± 14.0. Motorcycle versus vehicle collisions were the most common mechanism of injury (n = 46, 58.2%). Musculoskeletal injuries constituted the most common injuries sustained (n = 50, 47.6%) and the tibia was the most frequently fractured bone (n = 14, 35.9%). The majority of patients (57.0%) sustained mild/moderate injuries (ISS ≤ 15). There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes for sustaining mild/moderate injuries or severe/profound injuries (P > 0.05). Mortality rate was 6.3% with head injuries being involved in all cases. Conclusion: Young males were mostly injured in motorcycle-related trauma. Musculoskeletal injuries were the most common injuries sustained and head injuries were involved in all the deaths. Enforcement of motorcycle crash bars and helmet usage is recommended. PMID:25538360
Adeolu, J.O.; Yussuf, O.B.; Popoola, O.A.
Background: Doctors respond differently to their complex work environment, some find it stimulating while others find it stressful. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of stress among junior doctors in a teaching hospital in Southwest Nigeria. Method: A descriptive cross sectional survey of all junior doctors employed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan was carried out. Information was collected with a structured pretested questionnaire from 253 doctors. Descriptive statistics were generated. T-test, chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS version 16. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: Mean age of respondents was 29.9 (±4.1) years, 61.3% were males, 59% had spent less than 5 years in medical practice, and 34.8% were married. Majority (79.4%) were resident doctors. Prevalence of stress, job dissatisfaction and poor mental health were 31.6%, 15.4% and 9.9% respectively. Age, gender, years of medical practice, religion, ethnicity and marital status were not significantly associated with job stress (p>0.05). Doctors who were stressed were more likely to be dissatisfied with their jobs (OR=2.33; CI=1.08-4.04) and to have poor mental health (OR=3.82; CI=1.47-9.95) than those who were not stressed. Conclusion: The prevalence of stress in this study is high, and job dissatisfaction and poor mental health have been implicated as determinants of stress. As such, there should be an improvement in doctors' welfare, health care facilities and delivery. PMID:28337094
Regan, R E; Lydon-Rochelle, M T
This pilot study's objective was to determine the effectiveness of postpartum education received by midwifery clients at the University of New Mexico Hospital. The authors of the study randomized 100 women following delivery to two groups. Group one, n = 55, received written postpartum instructions only. Group two, n = 45, received oral instructions by the certified nurse-midwife in addition to the written instructions. Both groups answered a written questionnaire after the teaching. Analyses were carried out on 100 posttest scores. Mean test scores for group one was 17.9 out of a possible score of 20. Mean score for group two was 18.3. No significant difference was detected between these two mean scores. A 95% confidence interval for the difference between mean scores was -1.9 to 1.1 (P > .05). Reliability of instrument was established via the Kuder-Richardson formula 21. This conservative estimate of internal consistency yielded r = .50. The authors found that oral instructions by the certified nurse-midwife did not significantly increase the knowledge of primiparas as evidenced by posttest results. However, results must be interpreted cautiously for three reasons: low reliability of the instrument, the small difference between groups, and the sample size. The need to determine how best to approach postpartum education is imperative in this era of early hospital discharge. A certified nurse-midwife's time may be better spent focusing on individual concerns rather than on a set teaching agenda. Alternative opportunities such as postpartum home visits need to be explored as a means of providing support and guidance to new mothers.
Taiwo, J O; Aderinokun, G A
The dental clinic is an environment where disease transmission occurs easily. Prevention of cross infection in the dental clinic is therefore a crucial aspect of dental practice and dental clinic workers must adopt certain basic routines while practising. This study evaluates basic routines in prevention of cross-infection in the dental clinic, University College Hospital Ibadan. The sample comprised 77 dental clinic workers, who completed closed-ended questionnaires. The questionnaires enquired into practices of the workers in the clinic as well as in the laboratories Physical inspection of dental equipment, instruments and materials was also carried out. The results highlight poor compliance of workers, especially the dental surgeons and students, with the hepatitis B vaccination programme of the Hospital. History to identify high risk individuals was often overlooked and was practised by less than 50% of the clinic workers. Barrier technique with the exception of the use of eye shield, was well practised by all the clinic workers. Aseptic technique was well practised in the dental clinic. Inadequate number of dental surgery assistants, faulty sterilizing equipment, poor monitoring of sterilization, coupled with inadequate number of instruments contributed to the poor success of prevention of contamination and instrument processing procedures. Less than 30% of dental surgeons and fewer than 50% of students discarded sharp materials into the yellow/sharp bin. Liquid waste was well disposed off through the drain for onward flow into the sewer, whilst the disposal of solid contaminated waste did not conform to stipulated international standard. The study found that successful infection control in the dental clinic was highly dependent on the dental surgery assistants, because highly technological equipment were lacking. The management/administration also plays an important role in the number of physical and human resources available and in the overall surveillance
Verzola, Adriano; Bentivegna, Roberto; Carandina, Gianni; Trevisani, Lucio; Gregorio, Pasquale; Mandini, Alberto
Background and Aims One of the best-known performance planning and evaluation techniques utilising both monetary and non-monetary data is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This is a means of rationalising the global activity of a business in the attempt to create value, and to translate the company vision into a set of tactical objectives and measurable strategies. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the use of BSC in two departments of the St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara: the Analysis Laboratory and Digestive Endoscopy operating units (OU). Materials and methods With the collaboration of the health workers involved, a precise methodological programme was pursued: Definition of the strategic map from 4 perspectives, according to Kaplan and Norton, Definition of the Key Performance Areas (KPA), or macro-objectives, Identification of the cause-effect relationships between KPAs, Identification of the sub-objectives of each KPA, Definition of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI), Definition of the weight/importance of each objective in the global evaluation. Results The information gathered permitted the definition of macro- and sub-objectives for each perspective, as well as determining the relevant indicators, standards, weights, frequency of detection and means of acquisition. Strategic maps showing the cause/effect relationships in each OU were created, as were 'evaluation panels', which describe the global performance of each department. For each perspective, the fundamental data were summarised in one table. Evaluation of each perspective yielded a positive result for the majority of the objectives, and the global result (including all 4 perspectives) was found to be satisfactory. Discussion-Conclusion The Balanced Scorecard was implemented in the abovementioned OUs of St. Anna University Hospital, Ferrara, after the health workers themselves realised the need for change. In our research the employees were pleased to be evaluated, not only for
Boudehane, A.; Lounas, A.; Moussaoui, Y.; Balducci, C.; Cecinato, A.
Indoor environments are affected by a number of organic contaminants, whose concentrations can exceed by orders of magnitude those found outdoors in external air. At this regard, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deserve a special concern. PAHs occur in the air both in the gaseous and particulate forms; they are associated to fine aerosols and soil dust, and deposit on surfaces. Nonetheless, scarce information exists about the PAH pollution of indoor locations in Northern Africa. PAHs were first investigated in dust of interiors in Ouargla (Saharan Algeria), concurrently with n-alkanes and polar organics. Settled dust was collected from pre-cleaned surfaces (0.5 m2 each) at 7 internal locations in total from a school, the city hospital and university, and a home. Three sample series were collected 15, 30 days and random after the preliminary cleaning of surfaces. Contemporarily, organic compounds were collected at 15 locations of the target sites by deploying diffusive samplers over the whole study period to obtain molecular signatures of semi-volatile organic fraction. A consolidated procedure consisting of ultra-sonic bath extraction, semi-preparative column chromatography and gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric analysis was applied for chemical characterization of dusts. n-Alkanes ranged from 3.8 to 41 μg/m2 in dust and 0.17-2.42 μg/m3 in gas phase. PAHs concentrations were 17-89 ng/m2 and 45-182 ng/m3, respectively. Caffeine and nicotine were found both in dust (63-2,02 ng/m2 and 7-284 ng/m2, respectively) and as vapors in air (4-416 ng/m3 and 3.5-60 ng/m3). Two sites were affected by cannabinoids, while traces of nonylphenols occurred at all locations. External air was, on the average, more affected by PAHs than the interiors of school and hospital, but not of university. The compound concentrations show that Ouargla city is seriously polluted and requires actions to improve air quality.
Background Clinical research plays an important role in establishing new treatments and improving the quality of medical practice. Since the introduction of the concept of clinical research coordinators (CRC) in Japan, investigators and CRC work as a clinical research team that coordinates with other professionals in clinical trials leading to drug approval (registration trials). Although clinical nurses collaborate with clinical research teams, extended clinical research teams that include clinical nurses may contribute to the ethical and scientific pursuit of clinical research. Methods As knowledge of clinical research is essential for establishing an extended clinical research team, we used questionnaires to survey the knowledge of clinical nurses at Tokushima University Hospital. Five-point and two-point scales were used. Questions as for various experiences were also included and the relationship between awareness and experiences were analyzed. Results Among the 597 nurses at Tokushima University Hospital, 453 (75.9%) responded to the questionnaires. In Japan, registration trials are regulated by pharmaceutical affairs laws, whereas other types of investigator-initiated research (clinical research) are conducted based on ethical guidelines outlined by the ministries of Japan. Approximately 90% of respondents were aware of registration trials and clinical research, but less than 40% of the nurses were aware of their difference. In clinical research terminology, most respondents were aware of informed consent and related issues, but ≤50% were aware of other things, such as the Declaration of Helsinki, ethical guidelines, Good Clinical Practice, institutional review boards, and ethics committees. We found no specific tendency in the relationship between awareness and past experiences, such as nursing patients who were participating in registration trials and/or clinical research or taking a part in research involving patients as a nursing student or a nurse
Makarem, Jalil; Larijani, Bagher; Joodaki, Kobra; Ghaderi, Sahar; Nayeri, Fatemeh; Mohammadpoor, Masoud
Implementation of patient feedback is considered as a critical part of effective and efficient management in developed countries. The main objectives of this study were to assess patient satisfaction with the services provided in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, identify areas of patient dissatisfaction, and find ways to improve patient satisfaction with hospital services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 phases. After 2 initial preparation phases, the valid instrument was applied through telephone interviews with 21476 participants from 26 hospitals during August, 2011 to February, 2013.Using the Satisfaction Survey tool, information of patient's demographic characteristics were collected and patient satisfaction with 15 areas of hospital services and the intent to return the same hospitals were assessed. The mean score of overall satisfaction with hospital services was 16.86 ± 2.72 out of 20. It was found that 58% of participants were highly satisfied with the services provided. Comparison of mean scores showed physician and medical services (17.75 ± 4.02), laboratory and radiology services (17.67 ± 3.66), and privacy and religious issues (17.55 ± 4.32) had the highest satisfaction. The patients were the most dissatisfied with the food services (15.50 ± 5.54). It was also found that 83.7% of the participants intended to return to the same hospital in case of need, which supported the measured satisfaction level. Patient satisfaction in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences was high. It seems that the present study, with its large sample size, has sufficient reliability to express the patient satisfaction status. Moreover, appropriate measures should be taken in some areas (food, cost, and etc.) to increase patient satisfaction. PMID:27471589
Karara, Gustave; Verbeke, Frank; Nyssen, Marc
In this retrospective study, the authors monitored the patient health coverage in 6 Rwandan hospitals in the period between 2011 and 2014. Among the 6 hospitals, 2 are third level hospitals, 2 district hospitals and 2 private hospitals. Patient insurance and financial data were extracted and analyzed from OpenClinic GA, an open source hospital information system (HIS) used in those 6 hospitals. The percentage of patients who had no health insurer globally decreased from 35% in 2011 to 15% in 2014. The rate of health insurance coverage in hospitals varied between 75% in private hospitals and 84% in public hospitals. The amounts paid by the patients for health services decreased in private hospitals to 25% of the total costs in 2014 (-7.4%) and vary between 14% and 19% in public hospitals. Although the number of insured patients has increased and the patient share decreased over the four years of study, the patients' out-of-pocket payments increased especially for in-patients. This study emphasizes the value of integrated hospital information systems for this kind of health economics research in developing countries.
Fritz, Steven L.; DeJarnette, Wayne T.
The University of Maryland Medical System (UMMS) is currently building a PACS network to link all its digital modalities (CT, MR, DSA and Ultrasound) together to provide four basic services: laser imager sharing, archiving, teleradiology and centralized resident review of all after hours cases. The objective is to provide the full digital contrast range for all modalities. Like most large hospitals UMMS has digital equipment from a variety of vendors. We have designed a system to connect modalities from Siemens and General Electric together with a variety of ultrasound manufacturers and several 3M laser imagers into a coherent network. The principal obstacles to such an effort are the lack of standardized network interfaces and the use of proprietary image data storage formats. Our goal is to use the ACR-NEMA file format and interface standard to the maximum extent practicable to resolve these difficulties. Since UMMS doe not have the financial resources or incentives to purchase a complete commercial PACS system we have opted to develop a lower performance but more affordable alternative to accomplish the above objectives. We will discuss the obstacles to interfacing with each manufacturer''s system(s), the solutions agreed upon and the resulting overall design.
Seiler, Catherine Y; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Bowser, Robert; LaBaer, Joshua
Sustainability in the biobanking community has recently become an important and oft-discussed issue as biorepositories struggle to balance limited external funding and complex cost recovery models with high operating costs and the desire to provide the highest quality materials and services to the research community. A multi-faceted view of biobanking sustainability requires consideration of operational and social sustainability in addition to the historical focus exclusively on financial sustainability. Planning and implementing this three pillar model creates a well-rounded biorepository that meets the needs of all the major stakeholders: the funders, the patients/depositors, and the researcher recipients. Often the creation of a detailed business plan is the first step to develop goals and objectives that lead down a path towards sustainability. The definition of sustainability and the complexity of a sustainable business plan may differ for each biorepository. The DNASU Plasmid Repository at Arizona State University stores and distributes DNA plasmids to researchers worldwide, and the Biobank Core Facility at St. Joseph's Hospital and Barrow Neurological Institute consents patients and collects, stores, and distributes human tissue and blood samples. We will discuss these two biorepositories, their similar and different approaches to sustainability and business planning, their challenges in creating and implementing their sustainability plan, and their responses to some of these challenges. From these experiences, the biobanks share lessons learned about planning for sustainability that are applicable to all biorepositories.
Yameogo, Aristide Relwende; Mandi, Germain; Millogo, Georges; Samadoulougou, Andre; Zabsonre, Patrice
Introduction Analysis of the underlying causes of death can develop action plans for prevention of death that could be avoided. The aim of our study was to analyse the causes of cardiovascular deaths in the cardiology department of Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital. Methods The study was a descriptive retrospective study over a 24 month period among patients who died in the department. Results Prevalence of death in the cardiology department was of 13.2%. Sex ratio was of 1.2 and 72.7% of patients were residing in Ouagadougou. Mean age of patients was 56.1 years and 59.4% of patients were under 65 years old. Hypertension was the major cardiovascular risk factor (46.1%) and 27.4% of patients had a medical history of dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiogenic shock was the immediate cause of death in 55.5% of cases and the initial cause of death was hypertension and its complications in 46.1% of cases. Death was not notified in 18% of cases and no death had been medically certified. Conclusion Death statistics are the most reliable data for public health interventions. However, it is necessary to establish an effective method of data gathering according to the WHO standards in order to facilitate international comparison. PMID:25767673
Muhammed, Julieana; Chen, Chui Yin; Wan Hitam, Wan Hazabbah; Ghazali, Mohamad Ziyadi
Background A thymectomy is considered effective for patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Although a few studies have described the role of a thymectomy in the treatment of MG in Asians countries, there are no published data on the application of this surgical approach for MG in Malaysia. We aimed to describe the clinical outcomes of MG patients who underwent a thymectomy and the factors affecting these outcomes. Methods This was a retrospective study involving 16 patients with MG who underwent a thymectomy at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) from January 2002 until December 2012, with a follow-up period ranging from 3–120 months. Results The study consisted of 16 patients aged 22–78 years, 10 of whom were males. The overall remission/improvement rate was 87.5%, and the rate of clinical outcomes classified as unchanged/worsened was 12.5%. Thymomamatous or non-thymomamatous MG, histology features, Osserman stage and the duration of follow-up were not significant prognostic factors. Post-operative mortality was 6.2% (1 of 16 patients died of septic shock). Conclusion A thymectomy seems to be an effective treatment for MG, with low surgical morbidity. Patients with a lower Osserman stage and those with/without thymomas had favourable outcomes. PMID:27660548
Büchi, Simone; Cignacco, Eva; Lüthi, Damaris; Spirig, Rebecca
It has been noted that immigrant women often initiate prenatal care late in their pregnancy and thus may be inadequately prepared for their birth experience. This leads to poorer maternal outcomes and higher morbidity statistics compared to Swiss women. Tamil women of Sri Lanka represent the largest group of immigrant women being seen at the antenatal care clinic of a Swiss University Hospital. To get a deeper understanding of their needs and expectations relative to their antenatal care, a qualitative study was undertaken. Problem centred interviews were conducted with seven Tamil women before and after delivery. An interpreter was consulting. Data were analyzed using content analysis methods as described by Mayring. Four main themes emerged, demonstrating the need of the women and their resulting expectation: 1) to receive esteem--to show respect and attention; 2) to consult with somebody--to ensure communication; 3) to alleviate worries and fear--to give a sense of security and be in charge; and 4) to make up for lack of experience and knowledge--to pass on experience and knowledge. The quality of the relationships to caregivers is viewed as pivotal and seems to influence Tamil women's satisfaction and their motivation to receive prenatal care.
Bruyndonckx, R B; Meulemans, A I; Sabbe, M B; Kumar, A A; Delooz, H H
Between January 1993 and July 1996, a total of 2827 intentional cases of poisoning were registered in the University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium. Ten of these cases were fatal. This study was set up to evaluate the substances involved, the circumstances, the features and the characteristics of the patients who died due to intentional poisoning. The male to female ratio of these fatal cases was 9 : 1. The median age was 43 years. Two groups of substances were revealed to be associated with fatal outcome. The first group consisted of chemicals (seven lethal cases): cholinesterase inhibitors ( =3), methanol ( =2) and paraquat ( =2). The second group consisted of benzodiazepines (three lethal cases). In the cases of poisoning with chemicals, death was directly related to product toxicity and the severity of the poisoning, whilst with benzodiazepines, which are considered to be relatively safe drugs even when taken in overdose, there was a clear relationship between a fatal outcome and a delay between ingestion and medical support. Product toxicity, complications and a delay in medical support may be considered as predictors for the effectiveness and efficacy of treatment and may influence which medical treatments need to be administered.
Costa, Enrico; Biasi, Valeria; Concia, Ercole; Jommi, Claudio; Lattuada, Emanuela; Manfre, Silvia; Venturini, Francesca; Lanzafame, Massimiliano
Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor used as part of highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy for the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. The present paper aims to describing the impact of efavirenz dose reduction on the pharmaceutical budget at the Verona University Hospital. A budget impact analysis comparing two prescribing scenarios was conducted: all patients treated with the efavirenz full dose (600 mg per day) vs. a proportion of patients treated with a reduced dose (200-400 mg per day). All outpatients referring to the Infectious Disease Clinic in the period November 2009-October 2011 were selected. Out of 132 patients treated with efavirenz, 25 were not considered, mainly due to a too short treatment period. Of the remaining 107 patients, 68 received the full dose, while 39 received a reduced dosage. The analysis included the cost of the drug and of diagnostic tests, from the National Health Service perspective. The daily dose reduction of efavirenz saved 54,664 euros (a 30% expenditure reduction). In sum, new strategies for pharmaceutical system sustainability are necessary; despite forthcoming expiring patents of several drugs, spending on antiretroviral drugs is expected to rise. This paper suggests a way of linking clinical benefits and cost reduction.
Ghieth, Marwa A; Kotb, Magd A; Abu-Sarea, Enas Y; El-Badry, Ayman A
Giardiasis is a prevailing intestinal disease in children. This study aimed to determine molecular prevalence of Giardia intestinalis in children attending Cairo University Pediatrics Hospitals, using copro-PCR assays, conventional methods and to evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of used tests. 229 fecal samples were collected from children suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and examined for Giardia by microscopy, Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), copro-DNA using two PCR assays targeting tpi [nested-PCR (nPCR)] and 18S [conventional-PCR (cPCR)] genes. Out of 229 samples assessed, Giardia was diagnosed in 13.9, 17, 17.9, 4.8 % of cases using microscopy, ICT, nPCR (tpi) and cPCR (18S), respectively. Nominating both PCR assays as composite reference standard, microscopy and ICT were of reliable specificity (100 and 96.9 %) and accuracy (95.6 and 93.6 %) but of limited sensitivity (78.6 and 76.2 %). Kappa agreement showed, there was substantial agreement of ICT (0.776) and almost perfect agreement of microscopy (0.839) with PCR assays. Giardia showed a molecular prevalence of 18.3 % (42/229). ICT assay for Giardia surpassed microscopy but both couldn't be used as a consistent single detection method due to their lowered sensitivities. nPCR targeting tpi is a reliable diagnostic test aiding to determine true prevalence of Giardia.
Surur, Abdrrahman Shemsu; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Girmay, Genet; Moges, Elsabet; Tesfa, Meseret; Abraha, Messele
Objective: To assess the structural and process components of the pharmaceutical care at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH). Materials and Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on all the four pharmacies at GURH from October 1 to December 31, 2013. By adopting data collection instruments from a previously done study, the structural aspects of the pharmacies were assessed using an observation checklist and the process of pharmaceutical care delivery using a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected was entered to and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: none of the pharmacies had a private counseling room, fire extinguisher and meeting area. None of the pharmacy stores were equipped with fan and air ventilation system and had no cross aisles. The mean values for documentation, patient assessment and implementation of therapeutic objective were 12.14, 14.03 and 5.64 respectively. Many pharmacists (64.29%) did not participate in ward rotation with physicians. The overall pharmacy professionals’ level of job satisfaction was found to be 2.77. Conclusion: There were gaps in the structure and the process of the provision of pharmaceutical care in GURH. PMID:25883512
Mohamed, A M; Ghanem, M A; Kassem, A
This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and practices towards medical ethics of physician residents at university hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used for knowledge and perceptions and a checklist for observations of doctor-patient interactions in the outpatient setting. Only 18.0% ofthe 128 participating residents had obtained their knowledge from their medical education and 29.9% were dissatisfied with the roles played by the ethics committee. Most of the residents had satisfactory knowledge and 60.2% had satisfactory perceptions regarding ethical issues. The lowest perception score was in the domain of disclosing medical errors. Only 48.0% of the residents were compliant with the principles of medical ethics in practice and 52.0% of patients were dissatisfied with their treating physicians. The study identified areas of unsatisfactory knowledge and practices towards ethical issues so as to devise means to sensitize residents to these issues and train them appropriately.
Chan, Regina; Molassiotis, Alexander; Chan, Eunice; Chan, Virene; Ho, Becky; Lai, Chit-ying; Lam, Pauline; Shit, Frances; Yiu, Ivy
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the nurses' knowledge of and compliance with Universal Precautions (UP) in an acute hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 450 nurses were randomly selected from a population of acute care nurses and 306 were successfully recruited in the study. The study revealed that the nurses' knowledge of UP was inadequate. In addition, UP was not only insufficiently and inappropriately applied, but also selectively practiced. Nearly all respondents knew that used needles should be disposed of in a sharps' box after injections. However, nurses had difficulty in distinguishing between deep body fluids and other general body secretions that are not considered infectious in UP. A high compliance was reported regarding hand-washing, disposal of needles and glove usage. However, the use of other protective wear such as masks and goggles was uncommon. The results also showed no significant relationships between the nurses' knowledge and compliance with UP. It is recommended that UP educational programmes need to consider attitudes in conjunction with empirical knowledge. Nurse managers and occupational health nurses should take a leadership role to ensure safe practices are used in the care of patients.
Yaroko, Aa; Irfan, M
Foreign bodies or objects in the ear are one of the most common problems encountered by otorhinolaryngologist (ORL) with attendant complications, removal of which requires expertise. Patients with this problem who sought treatment in the otorhinolaryngology clinic of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) were studied for duration of one year from January 2010 to December 2010. Specifically, the clinical presentation, type of foreign body and management outcome were analysed. 72 patients were reviewed - 44 (61.1%) males and 28 (38.9%) females. The age range was one year to 75 years with 59.8% being children below 10 years old. Ear pain (56.9%) was recorded as the most common and persistent symptom and insects (54%) were the commonest foreign body encountered. 95% (69) of the foreign bodies were removed under clinic setting with only three (4.2%) cases requiring general anaesthesia. Post-removal complications were noted in only one patient (1.4%). Repeated attempts by untrained personnel should be avoided and timely referral is vital to avoid undesirable complications.
Vermeulen, Lynn; van Loon, Johannes; Theys, Tom; Goffin, Jan; Porke, Kathleen; Van Laere, Koen; Goffin, Karolien; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Thijs, Vincent; Van Paesschen, Wim
We performed a retrospective outcome study of 199 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery from 1998 to 2012 and had a minimum of one-year follow-up at the University Hospitals Leuven. Our aim was to assess seizure outcome, prognostic factors for seizure outcome and complication rate. Good seizure outcome after surgery was 38 % at 5 years and 34 % at 10 years follow-up. Good seizure outcome over the previous year at last follow-up, however, was 77 %, which could be explained by the 'running-down phenomenon', i.e. seizure freedom after initial recurrent epilepsy in 32 % of the patients, mainly after temporal lobe surgery. Good seizure outcome for at least 1 year at the last visit was 82 % for temporal and 62 % for extra-temporal lobe interventions. Other variables predictive of a good seizure outcome were not identified. Permanent complications of epilepsy surgery were observed in 31 %. The most important were word finding difficulties (22 %), depression (18 %) and memory deficits (12 %). In conclusion, epilepsy surgery is an excellent treatment option for selected patients, with a good seizure outcome in around 80 % of patients and complications in about 30 %.
Shen, Yin Zhong; Qi, Tang Kai; Ma, Jian Xin; Jiang, Xue Yan; Wang, Jiang Rong; Xu, Qing Nian; Huang, Qin; Liu, Xi Nian; Sun, Hong Qing; Lu, Hong Zhou
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), however, little is known about the clinical features and prognosis of IFI in AIDS in China. This study aimed to characterise the clinical features and prognosis of IFI in AIDS patients in China. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all HIV-infected patients at a Chinese university hospital between December 2004 and May 2006. We identified 35 patients with IFI. IFIs included thrush, oesophageal candidiasis, fungal pneumonia, cryptococcosis, penicilliosis and fungaemia, 44.4% of IFIs occurred in the digestive tract, 71.8% of IFIs occurred in patients with CD4(+)T-lymphocyte counts <100 cells mm(-3). Candida albicans accounted for 57.4% of fungal pathogens isolated. All the patients received both antiretroviral and antifungal therapy; 27 patients were cured and eight died. IFI is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients in China. IFIs mainly occur in patients with low CD4(+)T-lymphocyte counts. The majority of IFIs occur in the digestive tract. The most common pathogen causing IFI is C. albicans. The mortality rate remains high although antiretroviral therapy and many newer antifungals are available in China.
Kelly, Paul; Katema, Mwamba; Amadi, Beatrice; Zimba, Lameck; Aparicio, Sylvia; Mudenda, Victor; Baboo, K Sridutt; Zulu, Isaac
There is a shortage of information on the epidemiology of digestive disease in developing countries. In the belief that such information will inform public health priorities and epidemiological comparisons between different geographical regions, we analysed 2132 diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy records from 1999 to 2005 in the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. In order to clarify unexpected impressions about the age distribution of cancers, a retrospective analysis of pathology records was also undertaken. No abnormality was found in 31% of procedures, and in 42% of procedures in children. In patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage, the common findings were oesophageal varices (26%), duodenal ulcer (17%) and gastric ulcer (12%). Gastrointestinal malignancy was found in 8.8% of all diagnostic procedures, in descending order of frequency: gastric adenocarcinoma, oesophageal squamous carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Data from endoscopy records and pathology records strongly suggest that the incidence in adults under the age of 45 years is higher than in the USA or UK, and pathology records suggest that this effect is particularly marked for colorectal carcinoma.
Odewale, G.; Adefioye, O. J.; Ojo, J.; Adewumi, F. A.; Olowe, O. A.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen that has emerged as a major cause of healthcare-associated infections at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital. Isolates were assayed according to standard protocol. The isolates were subjected to molecular techniques to detect blaOXA, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes in strains of the A. baumannii isolates. The prevalence of A. baumannii was 8.5% and was most prevalent among patients in the age group 51–60 (36%); the male patients (63.6%) were more infected than their female counterparts. Patients (72.7%) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were most infected with this organism. The isolates showed 100% resistance to both amikacin and ciprofloxacin and 90.9% to both ceftriaxone and ceftazidime, while resistance to the other antibiotics used in this study were: piperacillin (81.8%), imipenem (72.7%), gentamycin (72.2%), and meropenem (63.6%). None of the isolates was, however, resistant to colistin. PCR results showed that blaOXA, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M genes were positive in some isolates, while blaSHV was not detected in any of the isolates. This study has revealed that the strains of A. baumannii isolated are multiple drug resistant. Regular monitoring, judicious prescription, and early detection of resistance to these antibiotics are, therefore, necessary to check further dissemination of the organism. PMID:27766173
Backer, Vibeke; Sverrild, Asger; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Bødtger, Uffe; Seersholm, Niels; Porsbjerg, Celeste
Objective The best strategy for diagnosing asthma remains unclear. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic strategies in individuals with possible asthma referred to a respiratory outpatient clinic at a university hospital. Methods All individuals with symptoms suggestive of asthma referred over 12 months underwent spirometry, bronchodilator reversibility test, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) registration, and bronchial challenge test with methacholine and mannitol on three separate days. The results of these tests were compared against an asthma diagnosis based on symptoms, presence of atopy and baseline spirometry made by a panel of three independent respiratory specialists. Results Of the 190 individuals examined, 63% (n=122) were classified as having asthma. Reversibility to β2-agonist had the lowest sensitivity of 13%, whereas airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine had the highest (69%). In contrast, specificity was the highest for reversibility testing (93%), whereas methacholine had the lowest specificity (57%). The combination of reversibility, peak-flow variability, and methacholine yielded a cumulative sensitivity of 78%, albeit a specificity of 41%. In comparison, a combination of reversibility and mannitol resulted in a specificity of 82% and a sensitivity of 42%. Conclusion In this real-life population, different diagnostic test combinations were required to achieve a high specificity for diagnosing asthma and a high sensitivity, respectively: Our findings suggest that the diagnostic test approach should be based on whether the aim is to exclude asthma (high sensitivity required) or confirm a diagnosis of asthma (high specificity required). PMID:26557251
Sansoni, Julita; Mariani, Paola; De Caro, Walter; Sorrentino, Milena; Marucci, Anna Rita; Giammarco, Enrichetta; Di Foggia, Fernanda; Cristofaro, Domenico; van de Mortel, Thea
The main objective of the study is assessing knowledge, opinions and compliance with the procedures of health professionals (physician, nurses, medical and nursing students) about Hand Hygiene (HH). There is a number of research which indicates that physicians respect less than nurses Hand Hygiene, there are a smaller number which investigates the differences in the attitude of the aforementioned subjects during their studies. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 756 participants (252 doctors, 268 nurses, 117 nursing students and 119 students of medicine) at a large University Hospital in Rome, to determine their knowledge, compliance and procedures with Hand Hygiene. Knowledge of medical students is lower than that of nursing students, as well as they have lower values in adherence to practice. In both HH Beliefs Scale (HBS) and HH Practices Inventory (HHPI) questionnaires, nursing students have higher scores than nurses, doctors and medical students. The questions on the use of alcohol-based cleaners have been those where there was the lowest number of correct responses, across all professions. Physicians compared to nurses have a lower adherence to Hand Hygiene. Future research should clarify what the differences are in the construction of the study on the practice of washing hands, what are the barriers to health professionals and best methods for teaching habits, namely the effectiveness of hand washing. Professionals should be more involved in the fight against Healthcare-associated infections.
El-Shazly, Ahmed N; Al-Azzouny, Mahmoud A; Soliman, Doaa R; Abed, Neveen T; Attia, Sameh S
This study was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit of Benha University Hospital, Egypt from 1 August 2012 to the 31 January 2013 to identify medical errors and to determine the risk factors and consequences of these errors. Errors were detected by follow-up of neonates and review of reports including nursing followup sheets, resident progression notes and investigation reports. We detected 3819 errors that affected 97% of neonates. Types of errors included 403 medication errors (10.55% of total errors), 652 errors in daily routine procedures (17.07%), 1042 errors in invasive procedures (27.28%), 68 errors in nutrition (1.78%), 63 equipment errors (1.64%), 260 administration errors (6.8%), 656 staffing errors (17.18%), 107 environmental errors (2.8%), 448 infection control errors (11.73%) and 120 nosocomial infection errors (3.14%). Medical errors were high in low birth weight, low gestational age neonates and increased with duration of admission.
Babiker, Amir M I; Al Jurayyan, Nasir A M; Al Jurayyan, Rushaid N A; Al Gadi, Iman; Drop, Stenvert L S
Diabetes insipidus is a rare but serious endocrine disorder. Paediatric patients were evaluated for polyuria at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over a decade (2000-13). Relevant clinical examination and/or a triad of high serum osmolality, hypernatremia and low urine osmolality due to increased urine output confirmed the diagnosis. Water deprivation test was required in some cases with non-classic presentations. Appropriate brain imaging was performed whenever central diabetes insipidus (CDI) was suspected. Twenty-eight patients, 15 males (53.6%) and 13 females (46.4%), aged 0-17 years (mean: 6 years) were included. The calculated period prevalence was 7 in 10,000. In our cohort, 60.7% (17 of 28 patients) had CDI, 21.4% (6 of 28) were diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and 17.9% (5 of 30) had psychogenic polydipsia. CDI was due to variable aetiology. Though CDI was the commonest, NDI was not a rare encounter in our community, possibly because of high consanguineous marriages.
Seghir, A; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Belkherroubi-Sari, L; Boucherit, K
Fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and are frequently associated with the implantation of vascular catheters, especially in immune-compromised patients. Unfortunately, the therapeutic arsenal available for the treatment of these infections, caused generally by the yeasts of the genus Candida is still limited because of the toxicity and/or of the emergence of resistance against some antifungal agents. That is why we have undertaken this study, which is to determine the incidence and the degree of sensitivity of Candida spp., isolated from peripheral venous catheters at the University Hospital of Tlemcen (Algeria) to caspofungin and amphotericin B. The results show that the rate of colonization of vascular catheters was 19 % by yeasts of Candida spp., of which 60 % are Candida parapsilosis, 20 % Candida albicans, 14.3 % Candida glabrata and 5.7 % Candida famata. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for amphotericin B are between 0.5 and 2 μg/mL and for caspofungin, they are between 0.125 and 2 μg/mL.
Elshazly, Atef M; Attia, Gehan; El-Ghareeb, Azza S A; Belal, Usama S
Human toxocariasis is a worldwide parasitic disease. Children are more frequently infected because of the closer contact with contaminated soil and relatively frequent geophagia. Toxocariasis in children has variable modes of presentation but clinical diagnosis is difficult. Various clinical phenotypes of toxocariasis in symptomatic children attending Children's Hospital Mansoura University were studied. A total of 480 children were included in the study with mean age 7.24 +/- 4.22 years, 61.9% were boys and 200 age-sex-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined clinically, and the anti-Toxocara antibodies in the blood of children were performed by ELISA using T. canis larval excretory-secretory products as antigen. Eosinophils level in peripheral blood was measured. Sero-positive cases were 12 % of patients and only 3.5% of controls. Statistical analysis showed a significant association between infection and male sex (P <0.001). Sero-positive children were older than the sero-negative (P <0.001). Eosinophilia was detected in 86.2% of sero-positive children. Sero-positivity and degree of eosinophilia were more frequently detected among patients with allergy (bronchial asthma and urticaria). Degree of eosinophilia was found to be positively correlated to the optical density (OD) ELISA of anti-Toxocara IgG.
Ibrahim, Salwa Badrelsabbah; El-Bialy, Abdallah Abdelkader; Mohammed, Mervat Soliman; El-Sheikh, Azza Omar; Elhewala, Ahmed; Bahgat, Shereen
Introduction: Rotavirus is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children all over the world. The objective of the study was to compare different methods for detecting rotavirus and to assess the burden of rotavirus as a causative agent for AGE in children younger than five. Methods: This case control study included 65 children with AGE and 35 healthy control children. They were chosen from the Pediatric Department of Zagazig University Hospitals from October 2014 to March 2015. Stool samples were obtained and assayed for rotavirus by the immunochromatography test (ICT), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real time RT-PCR (qr RT-PCR). Results: Fifty out of the 65 patients (76.9%) were positive for qr RT-PCR. Forty-five (69.2%) and 44 (67.7%) were positive for ICT and ELISA, respectively. There was a significant association between the severity of the disease as determined by the Vesikari score and rotavirus infection. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that ICT is a useful method for the rapid screening of group A rotavirus in fecal specimens, because it is rapid, inexpensive, easy to perform, and requires very little equipment. In addition, this study highlights the substantial health burden of rotavirus AGE among children less than five. PMID:26435821
Eschbacher, Jennifer; Bowser, Robert; LaBaer, Joshua
Sustainability in the biobanking community has recently become an important and oft-discussed issue as biorepositories struggle to balance limited external funding and complex cost recovery models with high operating costs and the desire to provide the highest quality materials and services to the research community. A multi-faceted view of biobanking sustainability requires consideration of operational and social sustainability in addition to the historical focus exclusively on financial sustainability. Planning and implementing this three pillar model creates a well-rounded biorepository that meets the needs of all the major stakeholders: the funders, the patients/depositors, and the researcher recipients. Often the creation of a detailed business plan is the first step to develop goals and objectives that lead down a path towards sustainability. The definition of sustainability and the complexity of a sustainable business plan may differ for each biorepository. The DNASU Plasmid Repository at Arizona State University stores and distributes DNA plasmids to researchers worldwide, and the Biobank Core Facility at St. Joseph's Hospital and Barrow Neurological Institute consents patients and collects, stores, and distributes human tissue and blood samples. We will discuss these two biorepositories, their similar and different approaches to sustainability and business planning, their challenges in creating and implementing their sustainability plan, and their responses to some of these challenges. From these experiences, the biobanks share lessons learned about planning for sustainability that are applicable to all biorepositories. PMID:26697909
Nkoghe, D; Léonard, P; Nnegue, S; Moutschen, M; Demonty, J
We present data from 112 patients followed in the Infectious Diseases Unit of the Liege University Hospital (CHU Sart-Tilman). The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on surrogate immunological and virological parameters. The study also aimed at determining the prevalence of opportunistic infections and iatrogenic metabolical abnormalities in the era of HAART. Data from HIV infected patients under combined treatment were collected from March 1996 till July 1999. The follow-up focused on the variation of the CD4 cell counts and viral load, and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The average age was 39 +/- 10 years and the sex ratio (M/F) was 2.3. At baseline, the CD4 count was 352 +/- 244/mm3 and the viral load was 4.1 +/- 1.2 log. After 12 months, the CD4 cells were at 540 +/- 374 and the viral load at 2.5 +/- 1.5 log. This favourable outcome was observed in 70% of patients (naive and experienced). Clinically, patients in therapeutic success presented few opportunistic infections, but many drugs related toxicity. Our data demonstrate the efficiency of combined treatment in the management of HIV infected patients. However, the apparition of toxicity problems could limit the benefit brought by these drugs.
Pinto, Roberto Damian Pacheco; Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite; de Castro, Rosane Silvestre; Bonon, Sandra Helena Alves
OBJECTIVES: Viral conjunctivitis is a common, highly contagious disease that is often caused by an adenovirus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis by analyzing data from a prospective clinical study of 122 consecutively enrolled patients who were treated at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) after a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis between November 2011 and June 2012. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate all cases of clinically diagnosed infectious conjunctivitis and based on the laboratory findings, the prevalence of adenoviral infections was determined. The incidence of subepithelial corneal infiltrates was also investigated. RESULTS: Of the 122 patients with acute infectious conjunctivitis included, 72 had positive polymerase chain reaction results for adenoviruses and 17 patients developed subepithelial corneal infiltrates (13.93%). CONCLUSIONS: The polymerase chain reaction revealed that the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis was 59% in all patients who presented with a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis from November 2011 to June 2012. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in the study population was similar to its prevalence in other regions of the world. PMID:26602522
Fatusic, Jasenko; Hudic, Igor; Fatusic, Zlatan; Zildzic-Moralic, Aida; Zivkovic, Milorad
Objective: For last decades, there has public concern about increasing Cesarean Section (CS) rates, and it is an issue of international public health concern. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) there is no justification to have more than 10-15% CS births. WHO proposes the Robson ten-group classification, as a global standard for assessing, monitoring and comparing cesarean section rates. The aim of this study was to investigate Cesarean section rate at University Hospital Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted for one-year period, 2015. Statistical analysis and graph-table presentation was performed using Excel 2010 and Microsoft Office programs. Results: Out of 3,672 births, a total of 936 births were performed by CS. Percentage of the total number of CS to the total birth number was 25,47%. According to Robson classification, the largest was group 5 with relative contribution of 29,80%. On second and third place were group 1 and 2 with relative contribution of 26,06% and 15,78% respectively. Groups 1, 2, 5 made account of realtive contribution of 71,65%. All other groups had entirely relative contribution of 28,35%. Conclusion: Robson 10-group classification provides easy way in collecting information about CS rate. It is important that efforts to reduce the overall CS rate should focus on reducing the primary CS. Data from our study confirm this attitude. PMID:27594749
Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Dargahi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Sara
Creating a safe of health care system requires the establishment of High Reliability Organizations (HROs), which reduces errors, and increases the level of safety in hospitals. This model focuses on improving reliability through higher process design, building a culture of accreditation, and leveraging human factors. The present study intends to determine the readiness of hospitals for the establishment of HROs model in Tehran University of Medical Sciences from the viewpoint of managers of these hospitals. This is a descriptive-analytical study carried out in 2013-2014. The research population consists of 105 senior and middle managers of 15 hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data collection tool was a 55-question researcher-made questionnaire, included six elements of HROs to assess the level of readiness for establishing HROS model from managers' point of view. The validity of the questionnaire was calculated through the content validity method using 10 experts in the area of hospitals' accreditation, and its reliability was calculated through test-retest method with a correlation coefficient of 0.90. The response rate was 90 percent. The Likert scale was used for the questions, and data analysis was conducted through SPSS version 21 Descriptive statistics was presented via tables and normal distributions of data and means. Analytical methods, including t-test, Mann-Whitney, Spearman, and Kruskal-Wallis, were used for presenting inferential statistics. The study showed that from the viewpoint of senior and middle managers of the hospitals considered in this study, these hospitals are indeed ready for acceptance and establishment of HROs model. A significant relationship was showed between HROs model and its elements with demographic details of managers like their age, work experience, management experience, and level of management. Although the studied hospitals, as viewed by their managers, are capable of attaining the goals of HROs, it
Kumbier, Ekkehardt; Haack, Kathleen
The extent and boundaries of political influence are a central issue in the history of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). After 1945 socialist leaders attempted to exert political influence on education in the Soviet occupied zone and the later GDR. The Second University Reform in 1951/52 introduced a fundamental break with established university structures. One major aim was the establishment of a "new socialist intelligentsia" that was to spread the Marxist-Leninist theories at universities. Due to a lack of qualified personnel in the medical faculties, this aim was far from being reached until the end of the 1950s. The example of the university lecturer Hans Heygster (1905-1961), who worked at the East-German University Hospital of Psychiatry and Neurology in Rostock between 1946 and 1953, shows how the GDR rulers sought to influence university education. It illustrates the opportunities and restrictions that University lecturers in East Germany faced during this time. Heygster soon found himself in real conflict, namely between political aims and demands set and reality. Based on of archival sources the study elaborates the background, the course of events and the consequences of these conflicts.
Srivastava, David; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.
Background Large-scale war-related migration to Switzerland and other European countries is currently challenging European health systems. Little is known about recent patterns and trends in Emergency Department (ED) consultations by Asylum Seekers (AS). Methods A retrospective single-centre analysis was performed of the data from all adult patients with the official status of “Asylum Seeker” or “Refugee” who consulted the ED of Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, between June 2012 and June 2015. Patient characteristics and clinical information, such as triage category, type of referral and discharge, violence-related injury and diagnostic group on discharge, were extracted from the computerised database or determined from the medical reports. Changes in categorical variables between the three studied years were described. Results A total of 1,653 eligible adult patients were identified in the 3-year period. Between the first (06/12–06/13) and third periods (06/14–06/15), the number of presentations per year increased by about 45%. The AS came from 62 different nations, the most common countries being Eritrea (13%), Somalia (13%) and Syria (11%). The mean age was 33.3 years (SD 12.3) and two thirds (65.7%) were male. The proportion of women increased over time. Moreover the relative proportions shifted from patients between 20 and 50 years to patients of under 20 or over 60 years. Nearly two thirds of the patients were walk-in emergencies and this proportion increased over time. The mean triage score was 2.9 (SD 0.7), with more than 90% presenting as “urgent consultation”. About half of the patients were treated for trauma (17.2%), infections (16.8%) or psychiatric problems (14.2%). Trauma was seen in a higher proportion of male than female patients. About 25% of the patients were admitted for in-hospital treatment. Conclusions The recent rise in AS in the population has lead to an increase in AS presenting to EDs. This changes the composition of
Borch, Jakob E; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, C
Suspected penicillin allergy is common among hospitalised patients, but the quality of the information given by the patient is often doubtful. Alleged penicillin allergic are likely to be treated with more toxic, broad-spectrum, and more expensive antibiotics, with effects on microbial resistance patterns and public economy as a consequence. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study with two visits to all clinical departments of a large university hospital in order to find in-patients with medical files labelled "penicillin allergy" or who reported penicillin allergy upon admission. Patient histories were obtained via a questionnaire, and they were offered investigation for penicillin allergy with specific IgE, basophil histamine release, skin prick tests, intradermal tests and drug challenge tests. Finally, the pharmaco-economical consequences of the penicillin allergy were estimated. In a cohort of 3642 patients, 96 fulfilled the inclusion criteria giving a point-prevalence of alleged penicillin allergy of 5% in a hospital in-patient population. Mean time elapsed since the alleged first reaction to penicillin was 20 years. The skin was the most frequently affected organ (82.2%), maculo-papular exanthema (35.4%) and urticaria (10.4%) being the most frequently reported reactions. 25% did not recall the time of their reaction. 82.2% did not remember the name of the penicillin they reacted to. 34.8% had been treated with penicillins after suspicion of penicillin allergy had been raised. None of these reacted to penicillins. 33.3% of the patients receiving antibiotics during their current hospitalisation were prescribed penicillins. 2% developed non-severe exanthema. The average acquisition costs for antibiotics to penicillin allergic patients were euro 278, compared to euro 119 had they been non-allergic. The prevalence of suspected penicillin allergy was lower than reported elsewhere. A substantial number of patients failed to recall basic information about
Bezzaoucha, A; El Kebboub, A; Aliche, A
Within the framework of the active information system set up by the department of epidemiology on hospital mortality at the Blida (Algeria) University Teaching Hospital (CHU), a study was carried out to assess the importance and evolution of neonatal mortality recorded at the CHU in the last eight years (1999-2006) as well as the causes of neonatal death. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) was used to encode the nature of the causal disease. Using the software EpiInfo™ in its sixth version performed data entry, monitoring and analysis. On the whole, 2,167 neonatal deaths were recorded at the CHU during the study period, representing a proportional mortality of 25.4%. Early neonatal mortality (0-6 days) accounted for 83.4% of all neonatal mortality. Nearly two thirds of early neonatal deaths occurred in the first three days of life. The monthly evolution of the number of early neonatal deaths revealed a significant rising trend during the study period (P < 0.05) without identification of seasonal effect. The sex ratio was practically the same for early and late neonatal mortality, respectively 1.4 and 1.5. Prematurity accounted for 42.1% of the deaths in early neonatal deaths, followed by respiratory distress syndrome and infection, respectively 17.0 and 14.4%. Infections, with a relative frequency of 36.2%, represented the most common cause for the late neonatal mortality. The rate of early neonatal mortality during the study period, when this one took for denominator the number of newborns admitted in neonatology to express the mortality of service, was 15.6%. Throughout the study period, the rate of early neonatal mortality, without counting the deaths among transferred newborms, could be estimated at 19.2 per 1,000 live births, while the overall neonatal mortality rate could be estimated at 22.3 per 1,000 live births. No significant temporal tendency was pointed out. The CHU of Blida is not characterized by a lower risk of neonatal mortality
Nasirpour, Amir Ashkan; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza; Moradi, Saied
One of the main problems in the efficiency and efficacy of an organization is its structural issue. Organizational culture is also considered as an effective factor in the performance of many organizations. The main goal of the present study was to determine the relationship of Centralization and organizational culture and performance indexes in Teaching Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This correlation study was performed in the year 2007. The population studied consisted of 4408 personnel from 13 hospitals among whom 441 subjects were selected and studied via a class sampling method. Data was compiled using a check list concerning the evaluation status of Centralization and another form concerning performance indexes as well as Robbin's organizational culture questionnaire. Data were obtained from the subjects by self answering and analyzed by using descriptive statistical indexes, T- test and Fisher's exact tests. Among the organizational culture indexes of the hospitals studied, control and organizational identity was better as compared to others (mean=3.32 and 3.30). Concerning the extent of Centralization in the hospitals studied, 53.85 % and 46.15 % were reported to have upper and lower organizational Centralization, respectively. Mean ratio of surgical operations to inpatients was 40%, the mean rate of admissions per active bed was 60.83, mean bed occupancy coefficient was 70.79%, average length of stay was 6.96 days, and mean net death rate was 1.41%. No significant correlation was seen between Centralization degree, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals Tehran university of medical sciences. (with 95% confidence interval). Due to the fact that first grade Teaching hospitals use board certified members, expert personnel, and advanced equipments and because of the limitation of patients choice and, the extent of Centralization and many organizational culture components have no significant
Jia, Wei; Wang, Jiayuan; Xu, Haotong; Li, Gang
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical distribution and genotyping of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, its resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the possible mechanisms of this drug resistance. Methods: S. maltophilia isolates were collected from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Northwestern China during the period between 2010 and 2012, and were identified to the species level with a fully automated microbiological system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for S. maltophilia with the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, minocycline, ceftazidime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against S. maltophilia were assessed using the agar dilution method, and changes in the MIC of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were observed after the addition of reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor. Fluoroquinolone resistance genes were detected in S. maltophilia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and the expression of efflux pump smeD and smeF genes was determined using a quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was employed to genotype identified S. maltophilia isolates. Results: A total of 426 S. maltophilia strains were isolated from the university hospital from 2010 to 2012, consisting of 10.1% of total non-fermentative bacteria. The prevalence of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin resistance was 32.4%, 21.9% and 13.2% in the 114 S. maltophilia isolates collected from 2012, respectively. Following reserpine treatment, 19 S. maltophilia isolates positive for efflux pump were identified, and high expression of smeD and smeF genes was detected in two resistant isolates. gyrA, parC, smeD, smeE and smeF genes were detected in all 114 S. maltophilia isolates, while smqnr gene was found in 25.4% of total isolates. Glu-Lys mutation (GAA-AAA) was detected at the 151th amino acid of the
Direkel, Şahin; Çopur Çiçek, Ayşegül; Karagöz, Alper; Aydoğan Ejder, Nebahat; Oktay, Efdal; Delialioğlu, Nuran; Özgümüş, Osman Birol; Durmaz, Rıza
Acinetobacter baumannii, an aerobic, non-motile, gram-negative bacterium is an important nosocomial pathogen which shows resistance to the most antibiotics. Carbapenems are the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by this pathogen. However the emergence of resistance against carbapenems in an increasing rate generates serious problems for antimicrobial therapy. The aims of this study were to detect the antibiotic susceptibility, and the presence of blaOXA resistance genes of clinical A.baumannii isolates and to determine the clonal relationship between these isolates. A total of 79 A.baumannii strains isolated from various clinical specimens (37 respiratory tract samples, 11 wound, 10 blood, 8 catheters, 6 tissue, 5 urine, 2 abscess) of the patients admitted to Mersin University Medical School Hospital between May 2012-January 2013, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and Vitek®2 Compact automated system. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and evaluated according to CLSI criteria. The presence of blaOXA-51, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-48 and blaOXA-58 genes were detected by an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clonal relationship between the isolates were identified by pulsed-field gel electroforesis (PFGE) using the ApaI restriction enzyme. In our study, all of the isolates were susceptible to colistin, while the resistance rates against piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, ampicillin-sulbactam, amikacin, netilmicin and tigecycline were 97.5%, 96.2%, 94.9%, 94.9%, 93.6%, 91.1%, 88.6%, 86%, 83.6%, 77.2%, 69.6%, 55.7%, 27.8% and 3.8%, respectively. All the isolates were identified as A.baumannii with the OXA-specific PCR and OXA16S rDNA sequence analysis. All of the isolates (100
Horino, Tetsuya; Sato, Fumiya; Kato, Tetsuro; Hosaka, Yumiko; Shimizu, Akihiro; Kawano, Shinji; Hoshina, Tokio; Nakaharai, Kazuhiko; Nakazawa, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Koji; Yoshida, Masaki; Hori, Seiji
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to clarify the rate of late diagnosis of HIV infection and to identify relationships between the reasons for HIV testing and a late diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV-positive patients at the Jikei University Hospital between 2001 and 2014. Patient characteristics from medical records, including age, sex, sexuality, the reason for HIV testing and the number of CD4-positive lymphocytes at HIV diagnosis, were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 459 patients (men, n=437; 95.2%) were included in this study and the median age at HIV diagnosis was 36 years (range, 18–71 years). Late (CD4 cell count <350/mm3) and very late (CD4 cell count <200/mm3) diagnoses were observed in 61.4% (282/459) and 36.6% (168/459) of patients, respectively. The most common reason for HIV diagnosis was voluntary testing (38.6%, 177/459 patients), followed by AIDS-defining illness (18.3%, 84/459 patients). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association of voluntary HIV testing with non-late and non-very-late diagnoses and there was a high proportion of AIDS-defining illness in the late and very late diagnosis groups compared with other groups. Men who have sex with men was a relative factor for non-late diagnosis, whereas nonspecific abnormal blood test results, such as hypergammaglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia, were risk factors for very late diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Voluntary HIV testing should be encouraged and physicians should screen all patients who have symptoms or signs and particularly hypergammaglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia, that may nonspecifically indicate HIV infection. PMID:26934235
Abbasi, Mahmoud; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Kiani, Mehrzad; Borhani, Fariba; Bazmi, Shabnam; Nazari Tavaokkoli, Saeid; Rasouli, Hamidreza
Background: Researchers have regarded moral distress as a major concern in the health care system. Symptoms associated with moral distress may manifest as frustration, dissatisfaction, and anxiety and may lead to burnout, job leaving, and finally, failure to provide safe and competent care to patients. Proper management of this phenomenon can be fulfilled through study of its causes at different levels of health services and taking necessary measures to solve them. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the status of moral distress in physicians practicing in hospitals affiliated to Medical Sciences Universities in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out using the Standard Hamric Scale to collect data after modification and evaluation of its reliability and validity. A total of 399 physicians responded to the scale. Data analysis was performed using descriptive and correlation statistics with respect to the variables. Results: Results showed that the frequency of moral distress of physicians was 1.24 ± 0.63 and the intensity of moral distress and composite score of moral distress were 2.14 ± 0.80 and 2.94 ± 2.38, respectively. A significant negative correlation existed between age and frequency and composite score (r = -0.15, P < 0.01 and r = -0.16, P < 0.01, respectively) as well as years of experience and composite score (r = -0.11, P = 0.04). Moral distress composite score in adults specialists was higher than pediatricians (P = 0.002), but lower in physicians participated in medical ethics training courses compared to those not participated. Conclusions: Physicians may encounter moral distress during their practice; therefore, the common causes of distress should be identified in order to prevent its occurrence. PMID:25558387
Njunda, Anna L.; Nsagha, Dickson S.; Assob, Jules C.N.; Palle, John N.; Kamga, Henri L.; Nde, Peter F.; Ntube, Mengang N.C.; Weledji, Patrick E.
Genital mycoplasmas are implicated in pelvic inflammatory diseases, puerperal infection, septic abortions, low birth weight, nongonococcal urethritis and prostatitis as well as spontaneous abortion and infertility in women. There is paucity of data on colonisation of genital mycoplasma in women and their drug sensitivity patterns. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma urealiticum and Mycoplasma hominis) infection and their drug sensitivity patterns in women. A mycofast kit was used for biochemical determination of mycoplasma infection in 100 randomly selected female patients aged 19–57 years, attending the University of Yaoundé Teaching Hospital (UYTH) from March to June 2010. Informed consent was sought and gained before samples were collected. Genital mycoplasmas were found in 65 patients (65%) [95% CI=55.7–74.3%] and distributed as 41 (41%) [95% CI=31.4–50.6%] for U. urealiticum and 4 (4%) [95% CI=0.20– 7.8%] for M. hominis while there was co-infection in 20 women (20%) [95% CI=12.16–27.84%]. In our study, 57 (57%) [95% CI=47.3–67%] had other organisms, which included C. albicans (19 [19%]), G. vaginalis (35 [35%]) and T. vaginalis (3 [3%]). Among the 65 women with genital mycoplasma, the highest co-infection was with G. vaginalis (33.8%). Pristinamycine was the most effective antibiotic (92%) and sulfamethoxazole the most resistant (8%) antibiotic to genital mycoplasmas. We conclude that genital mycoplasma is a problem in Cameroon and infected women should be treated together with their partners. PMID:28299057
Mori, Nobuaki; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Hinako; Iwata, Morihiro; Collins, Deirdre A; Riley, Thomas V; Tateda, Kazuhiro
Physicians often fail to suspect Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and many microbiology laboratories use suboptimal diagnostic techniques. To estimate the extent of and reasons for incorrect diagnosis of CDI in Japan, we investigated toxigenic C. difficile isolated from all stool culture samples and clinical course. Over a 12-month period in 2010, all stool culture samples (n = 975) submitted from inpatients in a university hospital in Japan were cultured for C. difficile and routine microbiological testing was conducted. In total, 177 C. difficile isolates were recovered, and 127 isolates were toxigenic. Among the toxin-A-positive/toxin-B-positive isolates, 12 were also positive for the binary toxin gene. However, clinically important ribotypes, such as 027 and 078, were not identified. A total of 58 (45.7%) cases with toxigenic C. difficile had unformed stool, and the incidence CDI was 1.6 cases per 10,000 patient-days. Of these 58 cases, 40 were not diagnosed in routine testing due to a lack of clinical suspicion (24.1%, 14/58) or a negative C. difficile toxin assay result (44.8%, 26/58). A stool toxin assay was performed in 54 patients (78.2%, 54/69) who did not have unformed stool. The present study demonstrated that a significant number of CDI cases in Japan might be overlooked or misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to a lack of clinical suspicion and limitations of microbiological testing for CDI in Japan. Providing education to promote awareness of CDI among physicians is important to improve the accuracy of diagnosis in Japan.
Carrillo-García, C; Ríos-Rísquez, M I; Martínez-Hurtado, R; Noguera-Villaescusa, P
The objective was to determine the work stress level among nursing staff in the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital and to analyse its relationship with the various sociodemographic and working variables of the studied sample. A study was designed using a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional approach. The target population of the study was the nursing staff selected by non-random sampling. The instrument used was the Job Content Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20. The mean, ranges and standard deviation for each of the variables were calculated. A bivariate analysis was also performed on the social and occupational variables of the sample. The participation rate was 80.90% (N=89). The mean of the Social support dimension was 3.13±0.397, for the Psychological demands at work dimension it was 3.10±0.384, with a mean of 2.96±0.436 being obtained for the Control over the work dimension. In the analysis of sociodemographic and work variables of the sample, only the professional category was significant, with nurses recording higher values in perception of job demands and control over their work compared to nursing assistants. In conclusion, there is a moderate perception of work stress in the analysed group of professionals. Among the sources of stress in the workplace was the low control in decision-making by practitioners, as well as the need to continually learn new things. On the other hand, the support received from colleagues is valued positively by the sample.
Santos, Wesley Cajaíba; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag
ABSTRACT Objective To assess knowledge of nurses of emergency services and intensive care units about Glasgow Coma Scale. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study included 127 nurses of critical units of an university hospital. We used structured interview with 12 questions to evaluate their knowledge about the scale. Association of Knowledge with professionals’ sociodemographic variables were verified by the Fisher-test, χ2 and likelihood ratio. Results Most of participants were women mean aged 31.1 years, they had graduated more than 5 years previously, and had 1 to 3 years of work experience. In the assessment of best score possible for Glasgow scale (question 3) nurses who had graduate more than 5 years ago presented a lower percentage success rate (p=0.0476). However, in the question 7, which evaluated what interval of the scale indicated moderate severity of brain trauma injury, those with more years of experience had higher percentage of correct answers (p=0.0251). In addition, nurses from emergency service had more correct answers than nurses from intensive care unit (p=0.0143) in the same question. Nurses graduated for more than 5 years ago had a lower percentage of correct answers in question 7 (p=0.0161). Nurses with more work experience had a better score (p=0.0119) to identify how assessment of motor response should be started. Conclusion Number of year since graduation, experience, and work at critical care units interfered in nurses’ knowledge about the scale, which indicates the need of training. PMID:27462896
Ideguchi, Haruko; Ohno, Shigeru; Uehara, Takeaki; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is mainly a disease of fertile women and the coexistence of pregnancy is by no means a rare event. How SLE and its treatment affect pregnancy outcomes is still a matter of debate. We performed a retrospective analysis of 41 SLE patients (55 pregnancies) who were followed at our university hospital from January 2000 to December 2009. The mean age of patients was 30.6±4.8 years and mean disease duration was 6.6±5.3 years. After exclusion of artificial abortions, live birth rate was 84%. Significantly, more women with stillbirth pregnancies were complicated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) than women with live birth pregnancies (two of eight stillbirth pregnancies (25%) versus one of 42 live birth pregnancies (2%); p=0.014) and hypocomplementemia at conception (four of eight stillbirth pregnancies (50%) versus six of 42 live birth pregnancies (14%); p=0.021). Compared with nonrenal pregnancies, renal pregnancies were younger at SLE disease onset, had a lower positivity of anti-RNP antibody, and were more complicated with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Past maximum dose of prednisolone, the dose of prednisolone at conception, and percentage of past steroid pulse therapy were higher in renal pregnancies. Outcomes of pregnancies were not significantly different both for mothers and for infants between renal and nonrenal pregnancies. We conclude that it is necessary to provide SLE mothers with the proper information before pregnancy. Women with APS or hypocomplementemia should be regarded with particular attention. Optimal management of mothers and infants requires collaborative efforts of rheumatologists and obstetricians.
Kamal, Amany M; Ahmed, Azza K; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E
Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women.
Kamal, Amany M.; Ahmed, Azza K.; Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E.
Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040
Onyeaso, C O; Aderinokun, G A; Arowojolu, M O
The aim of this study was to analyse the malocclusion pattern among patients who presented for treatment in the Orthodontic Unit of the Dental Centre, University College Hospital, Ibadan, as baseline data for proper treatment planning, teaching and further research. A total of 289 subjects aged 5-34 years with mean age of 10.6 +/- 1.5 (S.D.) years were seen. Angle's classification of molar relationships among those seen is as follows: class I - 76.5%, Class II - 15.5% and Class III - 8.0%. There was increased overjet in 16.2% of the patients, reduced overjet in 0.7% while 2.1% had reversed overjet. Other occlusal abnormalities included: increased overbite (3.8%), reduced overbite (1.4%); anterior open bite (5.2%; crossbite (8.4%) and scissorsbite (0.6%). Crowding, spacing and retained primary incisors constituted 29.7%, 1.4% and 40.1%, respectively. Delayed eruption of canine (1.0%), Bimaxillary protrusion (0.7%), incompetent lips (0.7%), supernumerary teeth (0.7%) malformed tooth (0.3%), mandibular deviation on closure (1.0%) and oral habits (4.5%) were other forms of malocclusion diagnosed. Males were found to have significantly more of classes II and III molar relationships than females (P < 0.05). Occurrence of retained primary teeth as well as overjet deviations from normal were significantly higher in females (P < 0.05). No significant sex differences were found in the other occlusal disorders (P > 0.05): The findings were comparable with previous epidemiological surveys in other parts of the country.
Miani, Celine; Marjanovic, Sonja; Jones, Molly Morgan; Marshall, Martin; Meikle, Samantha; Nolte, Ellen
Leadership is seen to be central to improving the quality of healthcare and existing research suggests that absence of leadership is related to poor quality and safety performance. Leadership training might therefore provide an important means through which to promote quality improvement and, more widely, performance within the healthcare environment. This article presents an evaluation of the Fellowships in Clinical Leadership Programme, which combines leadership training and quality improvement initiatives with the placement of temporary external clinical champions in Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust. We assessed impacts of the Programme on individual and organisational change, alongside core enablers and barriers for Programme success. Analyses drew on the principles of a theory-of-change-led realist evaluation, using logic modelling to specify the underlying causal mechanisms of the Programme. Data collection involved a stakeholder workshop, online questionnaires of programme participants, senior managers and support staff (n=114), and follow-up in-depth semi-structured interviews with a subsample of survey participants (n=15). We observed that the Programme had notable impacts at individual and organisational levels. Examples of individual impact included enhanced communication and negotiation skills or increased confidence as a result of multi-modal leadership training. At the organisational level, participants reported indications of behaviour change among staff, with evidence of spill-over effects to non-participants towards a greater focus on patient-centred care. Our findings suggest that there is potential for combined leadership training and quality improvement programmes to contribute to strengthening a culture of care quality in healthcare organisations. Our study provides useful insights into strategies seeking to achieve sustainable improvement in NHS organisations.
Leila, Soltani; Ibtissam, Hajji; Hafsa, Essafi; Abdeljalil, Moutaouakil
Retinoblastoma is the most frequent childhood intraocular tumor. The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical features and management of extra-ocular retinoblastoma in the Mohamed VI university hospital of Marrakech. Retrospective case series, the patient's records were reviewed for patient and tumor features, ocular management, histopathological findings, and patient survival. Over a period of three years, 35 eyes were diagnosed with retinoblastoma; 12 children (16 eyes) (46%) had extra-ocular retinoblastoma. Mean age was 27 months, 60% were males. Six cases had unilateral tumor, five bilateral and one case of trilateral retinoblastoma. There was no positive family history, proptosis was the mean mode of presentation (41,6%) followed by staphyloma (25%) orbital cellulitis (25%) and hyphema(8,3%). The median lag period was 18 months. On imaging and histopathological analysis, there was extrascleral involvement in 41.6%, involvement of orbital part of optic nerve (75%), of orbital muscles (50%) and eyelids in 16.6%. the surgical treatment included according to the degree of extension enucleation (75%) or exenteration (25%) associated to chemotherapy in all cases and one case of external beam radiation. There were 2 cases of orbital recurrence, one death and no metastases at 30 months follow-up.Orbital retinoblastoma still stands as a tall challenge requiring multi-modal and multi-disciplinary approach. Although the survival has increased over the last few years, lack of access to medical facilities, lack of education about the need for early medical attention and cultural resistance to enucleation continue to contribute to an epidemic of extra ocular disease at diagnosis in the developing world. PMID:28292093
Djohan, V; Menan, E I H; Yavo, W; Barro, P C K; Vanga, H; Dempah, J A; N'Dri, D K; Mignonsin, D; Akaffou, M H; Koné, K
This study was carried in the intensive care units of Abidjan university hospitals and in the herpetology department of Pasteur Institute between January 2001 and April 2003. The purpose was to identify ophidian species that were dangerous for man and to document cases of snakebite in Abidjan. The study was carried out in two phases, i.e., collection and identification of snake species followed by review of case records involving snake envenomation at Cocody and Treichville university hospitals. A total of 5 snake families, 14 genera and 17 species including some that were dangerous for man were identified. All species except Naja nigricollis live in forest areas. Most snakebites led to simple clinical signs that regressed within 72 hours with only symptomatic treatment. However, a few cases required immunotherapy. Traditional methods of snakebite treatment were used for first line treatment in 50% of cases.
Sive, Jonathan; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cheesman, Simon; le Grange, Franel; Morris, Stephen; Nicholas, Claire; Peggs, Karl; Statham, Paula; Goldstone, Anthony H
Since 2005, University College London Hospital (UCLH) has operated a hotel-based Ambulatory Care Unit (ACU) for hematology and oncology patients requiring intensive chemotherapy regimens and hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Between January 2005 and 2011 there were 1443 patient episodes, totaling 9126 patient days, with increasing use over the 6-year period. These were predominantly for hematological malignancy (82%) and sarcoma (17%). Median length of stay was 5 days (range 1-42), varying according to treatment. Clinical review and treatment was provided in the ACU, with patients staying in a local hotel at the hospital's expense. Admission to the inpatient ward was arranged as required, and there was close liaison with the inpatient team to preempt emergency admissions. Of the 523 unscheduled admissions, 87% occurred during working hours. An ACU/hotel-based treatment model can be safely used for a wide variety of cancers and treatments, expanding hospital treatment capacity, and freeing up inpatient beds for those patients requiring them.
A frequently recurring theme expressed in both the professional health literature and other multimedia sources is the current nursing shortage crisis. This shortage is an ever present reality that is of serious concern and that will continue to escalate unless innovative and creative strategies are implemented. This article will specifically address one hospital's approach to the nursing shortage crisis in Québec's McGill University affiliated teaching hospitals. The pivotal issues of retention, recruitment and attraction of nursing as a profession are examined. Recommendations for dealing with these issues include: 1) restructuring nursing salaries, 2) redefining the types of nursing personnel resources, 3) flexibility in work schedule, 4) recognition, 5) providing an accurate public image of nursing, and 6) recruitment of males and mature persons. This article provides nursing administrators in the hospital, community, and educational settings with potential strategies that they can explore and apply in their own settings.
Petrov, Michael M; Petrova, Atanaska; Stanimirova, Irina; Mircheva-Topalova, Marina; Koycheva, Lalka; Velcheva, Rayna; Stoycheva-Vartigova, Mariana; Raycheva, Ralitsa; Asseva, Galina; Petrov, Petar; Kardjeva, Velichka; Murdjeva, Marianna
The aim of this work is to study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella and Shigella at the largest Bulgarian hospital-University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv-for the period 2009-2013. Two hundred ninety strains were in vitro tested for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was demonstrated by a variety of specialized tests. For comparison, a collection of 28 strains submitted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) "Enteric Infections" at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, was also tested for the production of ESBLs. In isolates, phenotypically demonstrated as ESBL producers, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the genes bla-CTX-M, bla-SHV, and bla-TEM was performed. Among the 290 tested isolates, only two- Salmonella serotype Livingstone and Shigella flexneri-were phenotypically proven to be ESBL producers. Only 4 strains from the collection of 28, submitted from the NRL "Intestinal Infections" in NCIPD, Sofia, were phenotypically confirmed as ESBL producers. The presence of the bla-CTX-M gene was detected in all of the tested strains (4 from NRL, NCIPD, Sofia, and 2 from the University Hospital St. George, Plovdiv), the bla-SHV gene only in strain S. Livingstone from Plovdiv, and the bla-TEM gene in two from Sofia and one (again S. Livingstone) from Plovdiv. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella isolates from patients hospitalized at the University Hospital St. George, Plovdiv, with acute gastroenteritis demonstrate good susceptibility to the most commonly used antibiotic agents, including azithromycin.
Pileggi, V.N.; Monteiro, J.P.; Margutti, A.V.B.; Camelo, J.S.
Malnutrition constitutes a major public health concern worldwide and serves as an indicator of hospitalized patients’ prognosis. Although various methods with which to conduct nutritional assessments exist, large hospitals seldom employ them to diagnose malnutrition. The aim of this study was to understand the prevalence of child malnutrition at the University Hospital of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São, Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to compare the nutritional status of 292 hospitalized children with that of a healthy control group (n=234). Information regarding patients’ weight, height, and bioelectrical impedance (i.e., bioelectrical impedance vector analysis) was obtained, and the phase angle was calculated. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 35.27% of the patients presented with malnutrition; specifically, 16.10% had undernutrition and 19.17% were overweight. Classification according to the bioelectrical impedance results of nutritional status was more sensitive than the WHO criteria: of the 55.45% of patients with malnutrition, 51.25% exhibited undernutrition and 4.20% were overweight. After applying the WHO criteria in the unpaired control group (n=234), we observed that 100.00% of the subjects were eutrophic; however, 23.34% of the controls were malnourished according to impedance analysis. The phase angle was significantly lower in the hospitalized group than in the control group (P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that a protocol to obtain patients’ weight and height must be followed, and bioimpedance data must be examined upon hospital admission of all children. PMID:26840712
Alp, Emine; Cevahir, Fatma; Ersoy, Safiye; Guney, Ahmet
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and economic burden of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) in a university hospital in a middle-income country. Surveillance data between April 2011 and April 2013 in the Orthopedic Surgery Department was evaluated. Patients (>16 years old) who had primary arthroplasty in Erciyes University were included in the study, and patients with preoperative infection were excluded. Patients were followed up during their stay in the hospital and during readmission to the hospital for PJI by a trained Infection Control Nurse. During the study period, 670 patients were followed up. There were 420 patients (62.7%) with total hip arthroplasty (THA), 241 (36.0%) with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and 9 (1.3%) with shoulder arthroplasty (SA). The median age was 64, and 70.6% were female. The incidence of PJI was 1.2% (5/420) in THA, 4.6% (11/241) in TKA and 0% (0/9) in SA. PJI was significantly more prevalent in TKA (p=0.029). All of the PJIs showed early infection, and the median time for the development of PJI was 23.5 days (range 7-120 days). The median total length of the hospital stay was seven times higher in PJI patients than patients without PJI (49 vs. 7 days, p=0.001, retrospectively). All hospital costs were 2- to 24-fold higher in patients with PJI than in those without PJI (p=0.001). In conclusion, the incidence and economic burden of PJI was high. Implementing a national surveillance system and infection control protocols in hospitals is essential for the prevention of PJI and a cost-effective solution for the healthcare system in low-middle-income countries.
Dar-Odeh, Najla; Ryalat, Soukaina; Shayyab, Mohammad; Abu-Hammad, Osama
Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients. Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period. Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection. Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure. PMID:19209291
Yoshida, Koji; Krille, Lucian; Dreger, Steffen; Hoenig, Lars; Merzenich, Hiltrud; Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kumagai, Atsushi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Uetani, Masataka; Mildenberger, Peter; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi; Zeeb, Hajo; Kudo, Takashi
Computed tomography (CT) is an essential tool in modern medicine and is frequently used to diagnose a wide range of conditions, particularly in industrial countries, such as Japan and Germany. However, markedly higher doses of ionizing radiation are delivered during CT imaging than during conventional X-ray examinations. To assess pediatric CT practice patterns, data from three university hospital databases (two in Japan and one in Germany) were analyzed. Anonymized data for patients aged 0 to 14 years who had undergone CT examinations between 2008 and 2010 were extracted. To assess CT practice, an interdisciplinary classification scheme for CT indications, which incorporated the most common examination types and radiosensitive tissues, was developed. The frequency of CT examinations was determined according to sex, age at examination, and indications. A total of 5182 CT examinations were performed in 2955 children. Overall, the frequency of CT examinations at the Japanese university hospitals did not differ significantly from that at the German hospital. However, differences were detected in the age distribution of the patients who underwent CT examinations (the proportion of patients <5 years of age was significantly higher in Japan than in Germany) and in the indications for CT. Substantial practice differences regarding the use of CT in pediatric health care were detected between the three hospitals. The results of this study point towards a need for approaches such as clinical guidelines to reduce unwarranted medical radiation exposures, particularly abdominal and head CT, in the Japanese health system. PMID:27475125
Hietikko, Elina; Kotimäki, Jouko; Sorri, Martti; Männikkö, Minna
Objective of this study was to systematically investigate the family histories of a large set of patients affected with Meniere's disease to determine the prevalence of familial MD and Meniere-like symptoms in their families. All 640 patients treated at the Oulu University Hospital and Kainuu Central Hospitals during 2005-2010 for Meniere's disease were selected as the initial study population. A postal family history survey was sent to all subjects. Hospital records of all patients were studied to confirm diagnosis and sufficient differential diagnosis. All patients that revealed a positive family history of Meniere's disease or Meniere-like symptoms were phone interviewed and the probability of Meniere's disease in a relative was estimated on a three level scale: probable, possible or unlikely. Affected family members of the patients were recruited to the study if possible. Familial Meniere's disease could be confirmed in 9.3% of patients, but 32.7% patients reported Meniere-like symptoms in their family. It was not possible to confirm all cases, but a family history of Meniere's disease was convincing (confirmed or probable) in 23.4% of the patients. Genetic factors are significant in the development of Meniere's disease.
Barati, Omid; Dorosti, Hesam; Talebzadeh, Alireza; Bastani, Peivand
Considering the importance of accreditation for hospital pharmacies, this study was to determine the challenges of medication management in hospital pharmacies affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study was a mix-method research conducted in two qualitative and quantitative phases during the years 2014-2015 in Shiraz, Iran. National Accreditation Standard checklist for hospitals was used for data collection in the first phase, and Delphi method was applied in three rounds to achieve the most challenges of medication management and the related solutions. Results indicated a medium status of accreditation for all three dimensions in the above hospital pharmacies (3.53, 42.15 and 7, respectively). Lack of clinical pharmacists, nonparticipation of the pharmacy director in annual budgeting, lack of access to patient information, discontinuity of pharmaceutical care for patients discharged, defects in pharmacy staff training, lack of legislation in support of pharmacists and lack of adequate access to physicians' prescriptions, shortages in reporting medication errors, and lack of evidence related to microbial contamination are the most challenges extracted from the second phase. It seems that the studied hospital pharmacies encounter numerous problems regarding accreditation, pharmaceutical care as well as appropriate medication management and supply chain. Attempts to solve these problems can play an important role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of pharmacies in Iran.
Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Dogas, Varja; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Radic, Marina; Tonkic, Marija
Anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in many endogenous polymicrobial infections. Since antimicrobial resistance among anaerobes has increased worldwide, it is useful to provide local susceptibility data to guide empirical therapy. The present study reports recent data on the susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobes in a University Hospital Centre (UHC) Split, Croatia. A total of 63 Gram-negative and 59 Gram-positive anaerobic clinical isolates from various body sites were consecutively collected from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standardized methods and interpreted using EUCAST criteria. Patient's clinical and demographic data were recorded by clinical microbiologist. Among 35 isolates of Bacteroides spp., 97.1% were resistant to penicillin (PCN), 5.7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), 8.6% to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), 29.0% to clindamycin (CLI) and 2.9% to metronidazole (MZ). Percentages of susceptible strains to imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ETP) were 94.3. Resistance of other Gram-negative bacilli was 76.0% to PCN, 8.0% to AMC, 12.0% to TZP, 28.0% to CLI and 8% to MZ. All other Gram-negative strains were fully susceptible to MEM and ETP, while 96.0% were susceptible to IPM. Clostridium spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested antibiotics except to CLI (two of four tested isolates were resistant). Propionibacterium spp. showed resistance to CLI in 4.3%, while 100% were resistant to MZ. Among other Gram-positive bacilli, 18.2% were resistant to PCN, 9.1% to CLI and 54.5% to MZ, while 81.8% of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Gram-positive cocci were 100% susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except to MZ, where 28.6% of resistant strains were recorded. Abdomen was the most common source of isolates (82.5%). The most prevalent types of infection were abscess (22.1%), sepsis (14.8%), appendicitis (13.9%) and peritonitis (6.6%). Twenty four patients (19
Background Universal Zero-Markup Drug Policy (UZMDP) mandates no price mark-ups on any drug dispensed by a healthcare institution, and covers the medicines not included in the China’s National Essential Medicine System. Five tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China implemented UZMDP in 2012. Its impacts on these hospitals are unknown. We described the effects of UZMDP on a participating hospital, Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China (JST). Methods This retrospective longitudinal study examined the hospital-level data of JST and city-level data of tertiary hospitals of Beijing, China (BJT) 2009–2015. Rank-sum tests and join-point regression analyses were used to assess absolute changes and differences in trends, respectively. Results In absolute terms, after the UZDMP implementation, there were increased annual patient-visits and decreased ratios of medicine-to-healthcare-charges (RMOH) in JST outpatient and inpatient services; however, in outpatient service, physician work-days decreased and physician-workload and inflation-adjusted per-visit healthcare charges increased, while the inpatient physician work-days increased and inpatient mortality-rate reduced. Interestingly, the decreasing trend in inpatient mortality-rate was neutralized after UZDMP implementation. Compared with BJT and under influence of UZDMP, JST outpatient and inpatient services both had increasing trends in annual patient-visits (annual percentage changes[APC] = 8.1% and 6.5%, respectively) and decreasing trends in RMOH (APC = -4.3% and -5.4%, respectively), while JST outpatient services had increasing trend in inflation-adjusted per-visit healthcare charges (APC = 3.4%) and JST inpatient service had decreasing trend in inflation-adjusted per-visit medicine-charges (APC = -5.2%). Conclusion Implementation of UZMDP seems to increase annual patient-visits, reduce RMOH and have different impacts on outpatient and inpatient services in a Chinese urban tertiary hospital. PMID:27627811
Mukolwe, Eunice; Cheloti, Isabela Mapelu
Universities play a critical role in achieving Kenya Vision 2030 and the sustainable development goals. The demand for university education in Kenya has significantly increased and continues to swell. Many secondary school graduates and the working class look for opportunities to pursue university education, yet the process of curriculum…
Geißler, R. Georg; Franz, Dominik; Buddendick, Hubert; Krakowitzky, Petra; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Van Aken, Hugo; Kessler, Torsten; Berdel, Wolfgang; Sibrowski, Walter; Schlenke, Peter
Background Demographic data illustrate clearly that people in highly developed countries get older, and the elderly need more blood transfusions than younger patients. Additionally, special extensive therapies result in an increased consumption of blood components. Beyond that the aging of the population reduces the total number of preferably young and healthy blood donors. Therefore, Patient Blood Management will become more and more important in order to secure an increasing blood supply under fair-minded conditions. Methods At the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilization of all conventional blood components was performed including all medical and surgical disciplines. In parallel, a new medical reporting system was installed to provide a monthly analysis of the transfusional treatments in the whole infirmary, in every department, and in special blood-consuming cases of interest, as well. Results The study refers to all UKM in-patient cases from 2009 to 2011. It clearly demonstrates that older patients (>60 years, 35.2–35.7% of all cases, but 49.4–52.6% of all cases with red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, 36.4–41. 6% of all cases with platelet (PTL, apheresis only) transfusions, 45.2–48.0% of all cases with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions) need more blood products than younger patients. Male patients (54.4–63.9% of all cases with transfusions) are more susceptible to blood transfusions than female patients (36.1–45.6% of all cases with transfusions). Most blood components are used in cardiac, visceral, and orthopedic surgery (49.3–55.9% of all RBC units, 45.8–61.0% of all FFP units). When regarding medical disciplines, most transfusions are administered to hematologic and oncologic patients (12.9–17.7% of all RBC units, 9.2–12.0% of all FFP units). The consumption of PTL in this special patient cohort (40.6–50.9% of all PTL units) is more pronounced than in all other surgical or
Tanaka, Keiko; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Mizuuchi, Asako; Yamashita, Hiromi; Tamai, Mariko; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu
The current status of predictive genetic testing for late-onset hereditary neurological diseases in Japan is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed data from 73 clients who visited the Division of Clinical and Molecular Genetics, Shinshu University Hospital, for the purpose of predictive genetic testing. The clients consisted of individuals with family histories of familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP; n=30), Huntington's disease (HD; n=16), spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD; n=14), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1; n=9), familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1 (ALS1; n=3), and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=1). Forty-nine of the 73 (67.1%) clients were in their twenties or thirties. Twenty-seven of the 73 (37.0%) clients visited a medical institution within 3 months after becoming aware of predictive genetic testing. The most common reason for requesting predictive genetic testing was a need for certainty or to reduce uncertainty and anxiety. The decision-making about marriage and having a child was also a main reason in clients in the twenties and thirties. The numbers of clients who actually underwent predictive genetic testing was 22 of 30 (73.3%) in FAP, 3 of 16 (18.8%) in HD, 6 of 10 (60.0%) in SCD, 7 of 9 (77.8%) in DM1, and 0 of 3 (0%) in ALS1 (responsible gene of the disease was unknown in 4 SCD patients and an AD patient). The percentage of test usage was lower in untreatable diseases such as HD and SCD than that in FAP, suggesting that many clients changed their way of thinking on the significance of testing through multiple genetic counseling sessions. In addition, it was obvious that existence of disease-modifying therapy promoted usage of predictive genetic testing in FAP. Improvement of genetic counseling system to manage predictive genetic testing is necessary, as consultation concerning predictive genetic testing is the main motivation to visit genetic counseling clinic in many at-risk clients.
Objectives The objective of this study is to reach a model defining factors precipitating short survival in patients with oesophageal varices and improving the understanding of such factors. Models would help to prioritize the clinical goals and intervention for saving the lives of patients. Methods Retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to King Abdul Aziz University Hospital who had been diagnosed with oesophageal varices. The patients’ demographics, disease history, physical examination, viral infections, parasitic infections, blood pictures, cancer biomarkers, liver enzymes and bleeding details were collected, tested for correlation with mortality to formulate a model. Results A total of 148 patients were included in this study. 37 clinical variables were studied only 15 factors were found to have a statistical significance. These factors were PT (RC=0.17338 P-value 0.00011), APTT (RC=0.07916, P-value 0.00002), haemoglobin level (RC=-0.44748, P-value <0.0001), WBC (RC = 0.22255, P-value 0.00001), serum albumin level (RC=-0.12953, P-value 0.00001), serum creatinine (RC=0.01483, P-value 0.00002), at least one incidence of encephalopathy (RC=1.80500, P-value 0.00014), total bilirubin (RC=0.01371, P-value 0.00016), direct bilirubin (RC=0.01298, P-value 0.00357, serum AST (RC=0.00914, P-value 0.00462), presence of at least bleeding event (RC=1.03373, P-value 0.00613), ascites grade I (RC=-1.57435, P-value 0.00967), SBP (RC=1.47216, P-value 0.01581), platelets count (RC=0.00398, P-value 0.03476) and oesophageal varices (RC = -1.42139, P-value 0.03673). Only 5 factors were likely to affect the mortality status. These factors were encephalopathy, spontaneous SBP, bleeding, ascites and grade of oesophageal varices. Six models were then formulated. Conclusion These models should be retested in larger study groups to test their reliability in order to use them as surrogate end point in future clinical studies. PMID:22224185
Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.
Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young
Togashi, Junichi; Akamastu, Nobuhisa; Kokudo, Norihiro
Background Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an established treatment not only for those with end-stage liver disease but for those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developing in cirrhotic liver. The aim of this study was to present a single-center experience of LDLT for HCC at the University of Tokyo Hospital, Japan. Methods Among 573 liver transplant recipients from January 1996 until the end of 2015, 139 patients have been indicated LDLT for the treatment of HCC, and were the subjects of the present study. We use the expanded criteria for HCC as follows; the number of tumor should be five or less, and the maximum diameter of the tumor should be 5 cm or less, without the distant metastasis nor the vascular invasion (Tokyo criteria, 5-5 rule). We also focused on the identification of the incidental intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and combined hepatocellular carcinoma/cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) in liver explants. Results The overall 1-, 5-, and 10-year recurrence-free and patient survival rates were 95%, 91%, and 91%, 91%, and 80%, 78%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative recurrence rate was 5%, 6%, and 6% for within Milan, 0%, 8%, and 8% for beyond Milan/within Tokyo, and 33%, 50%, and 50% for beyond Tokyo, respectively, demonstrating the significantly impaired outcome of those beyond Tokyo criteria (P<0.001). The high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) value (≥400 ng/mL), the high des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) value (≥200 mAU/mL) and beyond the Tokyo criteria were proved to be significant predictors for the HCC recurrence, but the size or the type of the partial graft was not associated. Incidental ICC and cHCC-CC were found in one and two patients, respectively, with the size of less than 2 cm in all cases. ICC was not detected in preoperative evaluation but cHCC-CCs were misdiagnosed as HCC preoperatively. All three patients were alive without recurrence with a follow-up period of 2 to 14 years. Conclusions The present results
Kobayashi, Cassia Tiemi; Ushiyama, Sílvia Tiemi; Fakih, Flávio Trevisan; Robles, Roseli A M; Carneiro, Ieda Aparecida; Carmagnani, Maria Isabel Sampaio
This report refers to the experience of the Board of Nursing of Hospital São Paulo, Universidade de São Paulo, in the development and implantation of Animal-Assisted Therapy, as one of its projects humanization of hospital: 'Projeto Amicão'. Aiming to offer patients a positive experience that differs from the routine of the hospital environment, some units of the Hospiral São Paulo received the visit of an animal for sessions of Animal-Assisted Therapy. The results achieved among patients and its companions and health professionals were positive, in addition to arouse the attention and the interest of other health institutions and the media. It is thus evidenced the importance of reporting the experience of 'Projeto Amicão' in the hospital.
Wieder, Robert; Teal, Randall; Saunders, Tracie; Weiner, Bryan J
The Minority-Based Community Clinical Oncology Program (MB-CCOP) at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School-University Hospital Cancer Center was established to serve an unmet need in a medically, educationally, and socioeconomically underserved community of primarily African American and Latino patients in Newark and Essex County, New Jersey. The MB-CCOP was built on an existing infrastructure of multidisciplinary teams of cancer specialists who collaborated in patient care and an existing clinical research program, which included multilingual staff and a breast cancer navigator. This article highlights some of the unique opportunities and challenges involved in the startup of an MB-CCOP specifically relevant to an academic setting. We present a guide to the necessary infrastructure and institutional support that must be in place before considering such a program and some of the steps an institution can take to overcome barriers preventing successful enrollment of patients onto clinical trials.
Moemen, Dalia; Tawfeek, Doaa; Badawy, Wafaa
Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) ia an emerging and challenging nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clonal relationships between different VREF isolates in the intensive care units (ICUs) of the university hospitals in our geographic location. This prospective study was conducted from July, 2012 until September, 2013 on 781 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of the Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs), and fulfilled the healthcare-associated infection (HAI) criteria. Susceptibility testing was determined using the disk diffusion method. The clonal relationships were evaluated with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of 52 E. faecium isolates, 12 (23.1%) were vancomycin resistant. The significant risk factors for the VREF infections were: transfer to the ICU from a ward, renal failure, an extended ICU stay and use of third-generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, or ciprofloxacin. PFGE with the 12 isolates showed 9 different patterns; 3 belonged to the same pulsotype and another 2 carried a second pulsotypes. The similar pulsotypes isolates were isolated from ICUs of one hospital (EICUs); however, all of the isolates from the other ICUs had different patterns. Infection control policy, in conjunction with antibiotic stewardship, is important to combat VREF transmission in these high-risk patients.
Husičková, Vendula; Chromá, Magdaléna; Kolář, Milan; Hricová, Kristýna; Stosová, Taťána; Kantor, Lumír; Dubrava, Lubomír
Bacterial infections are an important issue in current clinical medicine. The severity of infectious diseases has increased dramatically in recent years, which is also due to increasing numbers of resistant bacteria, including strains producing broad-spectrum beta-lactamases. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of ESBL- and AmpC-positive Enterobacteriaceae at the Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Olomouc. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from clinical samples from infants hospitalized at the Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Olomouc over a period of 2 years. ESBL- and AmpC-positive isolates were subjected to basic genetic analysis. In the study period, a total of 1,526 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae family were identified, including 55 (3.6%) cases of the ESBL phenotype and 17 (1.1%) AmpC-positive isolates. Genetic analysis of ESBL-positive isolates revealed a majority of CTX-M enzymes. Among AmpC beta-lactamases, the EBC, CIT, DHA, and MOX types were detected. An Escherichia coli strain was isolated with mutations in the promoter region of the ampC chromosomal gene that are associated with overproduction of the relevant enzyme.
Lepelletier, D; Pinaud, V; Le Conte, P; Bourigault, C; Asseray, N; Ballereau, F; Caillon, J; Ferron, C; Righini, C; Batard, E; Potel, G
The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hospitalized patients with peritonsillar abscess (PTA). We conducted a multicenter survey in 13 French university hospitals in 2009-2012 describing 412 patients. Median age was 29 year (range, 2-84) and current smoking habit was reported by 177 (43 %) patients. Most of the patients (92 %) had consulted a physician for sore throat within 10 days before admission for PTA diagnosis. Additional symptoms such as visible tonsil abnormalities (83 %), tender cervical adenopathy (57 %) and fever ≥ 38.5 °C (53 %) were also reported. A total of 65 % patients (269/412) reported recent systemic anti-inflammatory agents (AIAs) exposure by medical prescription (70 %), self-medication (22 %), or both (8 %); 61 % and 27 % reported recent exposure to antibiotic and topical treatments for sore throat, respectively. Non-steroidal AIAs were used most often (45 %), particularly arylpropionic derivatives. A rapid diagnosis antigen test (RDT) for Streptococcus pyogenes was performed in 70 (17 %) patients and was positive in 17 (24 %), of whom 9 (53 %) were exposed to AIAs and 14 (82 %) to antibiotics. To treat PTA, antibiotic therapy was given to 392 (95 %) patients. Of 333 antibiotic prescriptions, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and metronidazole were the most prescribed antibiotics (42 and 17 %, respectively). Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed in 119 (29 %) cases and tonsillectomy in 75 (18 %) cases. The clinical outcome was favorable during the hospital stay in 404 (98 %) patients. In conclusion, patients with sore throat are often exposed to AIAs before PTA diagnosis, and antibiotic prescription was not often based on the RDT positivity.
Guilley-Lerondeau, B; Bourigault, C; Guille des Buttes, A-C; Birgand, G; Lepelletier, D
Isolation precautions in patients with multi-drug resistant bacteria or other communicable infectious agents can be associated with adverse effects. The aim of this study was to assess satisfaction and psychological impact of patients hospitalized with isolation precautions in comparison with controls. An observational prospective cohort study was performed in five different medical and surgical departments in a 3,000-bed university hospital in Western France between March and July 2012. Different scales were used to assess patient satisfaction (qualitative scale) and anxiety (Spielberger scale), including 30 patients with isolation precautions and 60 matched patients without isolation precautions over 45-hour interviews. Cases were significantly less satisfied than controls for healthcare workers (HCW) assistance in activities of daily life (p < 0.001), availability and relationships (17 % vs 5 %, p = 0.05 and 10 % vs 0%, p = 0.02, respectively). Sixty-seven percent of patients with isolation precautions were not satisfied about the quality of the information related to their infectious status control measures. The median score [range] of anxiety significantly was higher in patients with isolation precautions (52 [20-56] vs 31 [23-73], p <0.001). Isolation precautions may have negative psychological effects, leading to anxiety, and may compromise patient satisfaction according to the availability and relationship with HCW. Professionals should be aware of adverse effects of isolation and inform patients more actively with regard to their infectious status and precautions.
Salimah, O; Rahmah, M A; Rosdinom, R; Azhar, S Shamsul
Depressive illness is common among the aged population. A case control study was conducted, focusing on risk factors influencing depression among the elderly. This study involved 130 elderly patients diagnosed to have depressive illness from the psychiatric clinics of Kuala Lumpur Hospital (HKL) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Hospital (HUKM). Another group of 130 elderly patients with no history of depressive illness were recruited from the medical specialist clinics. The majority of cases were female (75.4%), aged 60-74 years (92.3%) and from Chinese ethnic group (59.2%). Non-Malay elderly has three times risk (AOR 2.537, 95% CI 1.439-4.471) of suffering the depressive illness compared to the Malay elderly, the elderly with chronic health problems are more likely to be depressed compared to those who do not suffer from any chronic illness (p trend <0.001). Other risk factors identified were family history of depression with four times risk (AOR 4.225, 95% CI 2.017-8.848) and lower social support with eight times risk (AOR 7.949, 95% CI 2.588-24.417). Social support is not only important in encouraging the elderly to practice healthy life style but proven to influence the risk of getting depression among them. Hence, it is very crucial that the elderly is given total attention, respect and love from all parties to ensure prosperity and meaningfulness in life.
Aydın, Nesibe Nur; Ergünay, Koray; Karagül, Aydan; Pınar, Ahmet; Us, Dürdal
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), classified in Hepeviridae family, Hepevirus genus, is a non-enveloped virus with icosahedral capsid containing single-stranded positive sense RNA genome. HEV infections may be asymptomatic especially in children, however it may present as fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, as well as chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. There are four well-known genotypes of HEV that infect humans and many mammalian species. Genotype 1 and 2 are frequently responsible for water-borne infections transmitted by fecal-oral way in developing countries, while genotype 3 and 4 cause zoonotic infections in developed countries. Turkey is considered as an endemic country with a total seroprevalence rate of 6.3% for normal population, showing significant variation (0-73%) according to the regions and study groups. The aims of this study were to investigate the HEV seropositivity in cases admitted to Hacettepe University Medical Faculty Hospital (HUMFH), to evaluate the results according to the demographic features of patients, and to determine the current HEV seroprevalence in our region, contributing seroepidemiological data in Turkey. A total of 1043 serum samples (514 female, 529 male; age range: 1-90 years, mean age: 38.03) obtained from 327 blood donors (32 female, 295 male; age range: 19-59 years, mean age: 31.1) who were admitted to HUMFH Blood Center, and 716 sera (482 female, 234 male; age range: 1-90 years, mean age: 41.7) that were sent to HUMFH Central Laboratory from various outpatient/inpatient clinics, between November 2012 to November 2013, were included in the study. The presence of HEV-IgG antibodies in serum samples was detected by a commercial ELISA method (Euroimmun, Germany), and the presence of HEV-IgM antibodies was also investigated in the sera with IgG-positive results. The overall HEV-IgG seropositivity rate was determined as 4.4% (46/1043), and the seropositivity rates for blood donors and in/outpatients were as 0.92% (3
Bürkle, T.; Prokosch, H. U.; Hussak, G.; Dudeck, J.
In this paper we present the introduction of knowledge based functions into clinical routine at Giessen University Hospital. For this purpose a therapy planning module at the medical intensive care unit has been extensively redesigned in order to support the structured documentation of drug prescriptions. After introduction of this new HIS component in January 1996 research has been initiated to establish a basic drug therapy knowledge base. The main components of a knowledge based system have been fully incorporated into the hospital information system WING and are in routine use since December 1996. During a pre-production phase warnings of reminder functions were logged and reviewed by an interdisciplinary team in order to adapt the system to the actual clinical environment. The paper describes experiences during this fine tuning and adaptation process which was necessary to bring a small set of knowledge modules into clinical routine. PMID:9357589
La Fauci, V; Sindoni, D; Grillo, O C; Calimeri, S; Lo Giudice, D; Squeri, R
Samples of sewage from treatment plants at the "G. Martino" University Hospital of Messina (AOU) and that of Messina City Council were analysed to detect the hepatits E virus. Samples were taken on sewage entering and exiting the treatment plants on a monthly basis over a one-year period from both the hospital plant (24 samples) and the municipal plant (22 samples). All sewage samples were pretreated by ultrafiltraton and concentration and finally processed by the PCR method to amplify gene material. A total of three samples tested positive: two (8.33%) entering the AOU treatment plant and one (4.5%) entering the municipal plant while no cases of HEV were detected in samples of treated sewage. These findings confirm the presence of the virus in the city of Messina and showed that the two treatment plants to be working efficiently when tested.
Danet, Alina; March, Joan Carles; Romera, Inmaculada García
The aim of this study was to identify and analyze perceptions and opinions among health professionals in a university hospital in Andalusia, Spain, regarding the emotional climate, leadership style, quality of information, and internal communication. The study also aimed to collect health professionals' suggestions for improving these workplace characteristics. The study included 730 participants and used a quantitative and qualitative methodology. The results reflect a medium-to-low level of emotional climate, correlated with the leadership style and information and internal communication. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing professional categories and hospital units. The health professionals provided a positive assessment of the administrators' work, although requiring more task-oriented, participative, and affiliative leadership skills.
Benboubker, Moussa; El Marnissi, Boujemaa; Nhili, Aziz; El Rhazi, Karima
This survey aims at assessing knowledge, attitudes and practices towards standard precautions (SP) among caregivers at Hassan II University Teaching Hospital in Fes. This is a cross-sectional prospective and evaluative study that covers a two-month period. Data were collected using an anonymous and selfadministered questionnaire. Sampling population was divided into 307 nurses (53.8%), 210 hospital doctors (36.77%) and 57 support staff (9.45%), belonging to other various categories working in different departments. This is a young population since 79.7% are under 30 years old. The results have shown that only 28.72% of health care professionals had received training in SP. Moreover, 87.7% claimed to practice hands' hygiene while moving from one patient to another. In contrast, 75.7% emphasized the need to change gloves each time they work on a new patient. However, individual protection measures were rarely mentioned in several risky situations.
Colville, A.; Crowley, J.; Dearden, D.; Slack, R. C.; Lee, J. V.
Twelve patients in a large teaching hospital contracted Legionnaires' disease over a period of 11 months. The source was a domestic hot water system in one of the hospital blocks, which was run at a temperature of 43 degrees C. Five different subtypes of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 have been isolated from water in different parts of the hospital, over a period of time. Only one subtype, Benidorm RFLP 14, was implicated in disease. Circumstantial evidence suggested that the outbreak may have been due to recent colonization of the hot water system with a virulent strain of Legionella pneumophila. The outbreak was controlled by raising the hot water temperature to 60 degrees C, but careful surveillance uncovered two further cases in the following 30 months. Persistent low numbers of Legionella pneumophila were isolated from the domestic hot water of wards where Legionnaires' disease had been contracted, until an electrolytic unit was installed releasing silver and copper ions into this supply. PMID:8432314
Tessema, Belay; Muche, Abebe; Bekele, Assegedech; Reissig, Dieter; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich
Background In Gondar University Teaching Hospital standardized tuberculosis prevention and control programme, incorporating Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) started in 2000. According to the proposal of World Health Organization (WHO), treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs. This study investigated the outcome of tuberculosis treatment at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods We analyzed the records of 4000 tuberculosis patients registered at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2003 to May 2008. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. Results From the total of 4000 patients, tuberculosis type was categorized as extrapulmonary in 1133 (28.3%), smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in 2196 (54.9%) and smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 671 (16.8%) cases. Of all patients, treatment outcome was classified as successfully treated in 1181(29.5%), defaulted in 730 (18.3%), died in 403 (10.1%), treatment failed in six (0.2%) and transferred out in 1680 (42.0%) patients. Males had the trend to be more likely to experience death or default than females, and the elderly were more likely to die than younger. The proportion of default rate was increased across the years from 97(9.2%) to 228(42.9%). Being female, age group 15-24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and being urban resident were associated with higher treatment success rate. Conclusion The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was unsatisfactorily low (29.5%). A high proportion of patients died (10.1%) or defaulted (18.3%), which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently. PMID:19799801
Introduction Hospital acquired infections are recognized as critical public health problems. Infections are frequently caused by organisms residing in healthcare environment, including contaminated medical equipment like Stethoscopes. Objective To determine bacterial contamination, bacterial profile and anti-microbial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from stethoscopes at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methodology Cross-sectional study conducted from May to September 2011 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. One hundred seventy-six stethoscopes owned by Health Care Workers (HCWs) and Medical students were randomly selected and studied. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data. Specimen was collected using moisten sterile cotton swab and 1 ml normal saline was used to transport the specimen, all laboratory investigations were done following standard microbiological techniques, at Microbiology Laboratory, Jimma University. SPSS windows version 16 used for data analysis and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: A total, of 151 (85.8%) stethoscopes were contaminated. A total of 256 bacterial strains and a mean of 1.44×104 CFUs/diaphragm of stethoscopes was isolated. Of the 256 isolates, 133 (52%) were potential pathogens like S. aureus, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli. All strains were resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics (two to eight classes of antibiotics). Disinfection practice was poor. Disinfection practice was found to be associated with bacterial contamination of stethoscopes (P < 0.05). High contamination rate 100 (90.9%) was observed among stethoscopes that had never been disinfected; while the least contamination 29 (72.2%) was found on those disinfected a week or less before the survey. Conclusion Bacterial contamination of the stethoscope was significant. The isolates were potential
Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Horssa, Boressa Adugna; Getachew, Nardose; Amare, Sitotaw; Getnet, Ashenafi
Background Hepatitis B is a global public health problem affecting approximately 10% of the world population. Health care professionals (HCPs) are at an increased risk of acquiring hepatitis B infection due to occupational exposure. Having enough knowledge and proper attitudes toward the infection and its vaccination is crucial in preventing the infection. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as well as its vaccination among HCPs working in University of Gondar Hospital. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed from April 1 to May 1, 2016 on 297 HCPs working at University of Gondar Hospital. A self-administered questionnaire prepared in the English language was used to collect the data. The questionnaire contained sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude-related questions. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS software version 20.1. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabs, and binary logistic regression were utilized. P<0.05 was used to declare association. Results From a total of 297 HCPs participated in the study 73.1% have good knowledge of HBV transmission, progress, and its vaccination. The majority (91.3%) of the respondents believe that their job puts them at risk of HBV infection. The majority of study participants (94%) believe vaccination is necessary. Medical doctors have 8.4 times better knowledge of HBV and its vaccination than other professionals (adjusted odds ratio =8.399, CI =1.536–45.936). Conclusion The majority of HCPs working in University of Gondar Hospital have good knowledge of HBV transmission, progress, and its vaccination. The majority of HCPs believe that their job puts them at greater risk for HBV and vaccination is necessary. Knowledge of the HCPs significantly varies across professions. PMID:28008291
Amour, Sélilah; Voirin, Nicolas; Regis, Corinne; Bouscambert-Duchamp, Maude; Comte, Brigitte; Coppéré, Brigitte; Pires-Cronenberger, Silene; Lina, Bruno; Vanhems, Philippe
The aim of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized patients. A case-control investigation was based on the prospective surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) during five flu seasons. We compared influenza-positive cases and influenza-negative controls. Unadjusted overall IVE was 62% (95% confidence interval 24% to 81%). We found that IVE was lower during the 2004-05 flu season (11%; 95% CI -232% to 76%) when the vaccine and circulating viruses were mismatched. Expansion of the study to other hospitals could provide IVE estimates earlier in the season, for different age groups and emerging virus strains.
Kirby, J. David; Walker, L. Phillip; Aaron, Walter H.; Whitesell, Judy J.; Stead, William W.
Since October 1986, the Medical Center Information Systems Department at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) has been developing and implementing a plan to provide for the continuation of the functions performed by Duke Hospital's central computing system in the event of a disaster that would disable the central hardware configuration for an extended amount of time. The key characteristic of the plan is that it provides for the full function and performance of the system to be returned to the end users within twenty four hours of the primary system's failure.
Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Alemu, Shitay
Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming one of the major causes of premature adult mortality in developing countries. However, there is a very little documentation of the morbidity trend in such countries. Objective To assess the ten-year trend of diabetes mellitus at Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based retrospective record review was done at the main referral hospital in northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from medical records of all registered diabetic patients in the Diabetic Follow up Clinic between 2000 and 2009. An Extended Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test for the linear trend was used to examine the trend over time. Result Out of the total 354,524 patients who visited the Outpatient Department of the hospital during the study period, 1553 (4.4/1000) were diabetes patients, of which 50.1% was type 1 and 49.9% type 2 diabetes mellitus. The average increase in the proportion of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus cases between 2000 and 2009 was 125%. The mean (±SD) age for Type 1 diabetes mellitus was 29.1 (±12), and 53.5 (±12) for Type 2 diabetes. Overall 42.5% of the diabetes mellitus patients were female and 31.7% were rural residents. The mean body mass index for both type of diabetes mellitus increased from 15.9 to 18.3 kg for type 1 and from 23.8 to 24.6 for type 2 between 2000 and 2009, respectively. Conclusion The number of diabetes mellitus cases seen at Gondar Referral Hospital is rising steadily. A comprehensive diabetes prevention, treatment, and care program is needed to improve the quality of life of the increasing diabetes mellitus cases in Ethiopia. PMID:23536904
Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Sherman, Michael
The authors collected data on diagnosis, hospital course, and end-of-life preparedness in patients who died in the intensive care unit (ICU) with "full code" status (defined as receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation), compared with those who didn't. Differences were analyzed using binary and stepwise logistic regression. They found no…
Talbott, John A.; Faulkner, Larry R.; Buckley, Peter F.
Objective: A formative survey of psychiatry departments 25 years ago showed strong and valued relationships between these departments and state hospitals. The authors sought to evaluate the extent of present-day collaborative relationships. Methods: A repeat of a similar survey was sent in 2005 to 119 chairs of departments of psychiatry. Results:…
Hatfield, C. B.; And Others
Studied attitudes of eight hospital groups on several aspects of terminal care by means of a questionnaire. Responses of the groups, which included physicians, residents, nurses, aides, and orderlies, did not differ on general statements about terminal care. On more specific statements perception of personal involvement influenced responses.…
Wone, I; Gueye, A S; Ndiaye, P; Toure, K; Tal-Dia, A; Sall, F L; Diallo, I; Gueye, M
In the current senegalese context, marked by a political will of autonomisation of health services, is proves very important to study the costs of the services provided in hospitals. Our study, which consists in a retrospective analysis of accounting archives of the psychiatric department of Fann Hospital during the year 1998, had the following objectives: determine the costs related to the functioning of the service of psychiatry, according to the source of financing, determine the average cost of the main services provided by the psychiatric department, analyze the recovery of the cost of these services. The operating costs of the psychiatric department came to 86.824.477 FCFA in 1998. 88% of the total amount were brought by the State and the remaining 12% came from community participation. The average cost of hospitalization in Clinique Moussa Diop was 91.398 F CFA. For the former patients the visit cost 6.664 F CFA; for the outpatients the price was 12,886 F CFA. The average cost of a child psychiatric visit was 8.140 F CFA and 28 days of hospitalization in the same service cost 354.825 F CFA. The share supported by the community participation is in general largely covered by the current fees in spite of the high cost of these services.
Papaevangelou, V; Alexopoulou, Z; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Kourlamba, G; Katsioulis, A; Theodoridou, K; Spoulou, V; Theodoridou, M
Hepatitis A vaccine was introduced in the Greek National Immunization Program in 2008. To estimate possible impact of the universal vaccination implementation, time trends of hospitalizations for hepatitis A at the Infectious Diseases Unit of a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Athens during 1999-2013 were analyzed. Hepatitis A hospitalizations were recorded from the discharge database and were expressed as frequencies and rate of annual departmental hospitalizations. Time series analysis (ARIMA) was used to explore trends and the impact of the vaccination. Moreover, changes in patient age, population group distribution and the duration of hospitalization were also examined. Hepatitis A hospitalizations rate significantly decreased between pre-vaccination (1999-2008) and post-vaccination (2009-2013) era from 50.5 to 20.8/1000 hospitalizations (p = 0.005). A 3-year periodicity and a trend of reduction on hepatitis A hospitalizations rates across years were noted. Roma children had significant higher rates of hepatitis A hospitalization, followed by immigrant children. Importantly, possibly due to preceding vaccine availability with considerable uptake in private market and unvaccinated group/pockets of children (Roma), overall vaccination effect was less apparent when compared to data from other countries that implemented universal vaccination. No significant change in patient age, population group distribution, or duration of hospitalization was observed. High risk groups such as Roma children should be targeted for vaccination to reduce future outbreaks.
Farley, Eugene S.; Piemme, Thomas E.
Eugene Farley describes the University of Rochester and Highland Hospital Family Medicine Program for teaching of primary care internists, primary care pediatricians, and family doctors. Thomas Piemme presents the George Washington University School of Medicine alternative, a 2-year program in an ambulatory setting leading to broad eligibility in…
Cheikh, Asma Ben; Bouafia, Nabiha; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Ezzi, Olfa; Nouira, Amel; Njah, Mansour
Introduction Healthcare safety has become a public health priority in developed world. Development of safety culture care is fundamental pillar to any strategy for improving quality and safety care. The objective of this study is to measure level of patients’ safety culture among healthcare professionals at university hospital, center Farhat Hached Sousse (Tunisia). Methods We conducted, in 2013, a descriptive study among all licensed physicians (n= 116) and a representative sample of paramedical staff (n= 203) exercising at university hospital center Farhat Hached Sousse (Tunisia). Measuring instrument used is a valid questionnaire containing ten safety care dimensions. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results The response rates were 74.1% for physicians and 100% for paramedical staff. Overall score of different dimensions varies between 32.7% and 68.8%. Dimension having most developed score (68.8%) was perception of “Frequency and reporting adverse events”. Dimension with lowest score (32.7%) was “Management support for safety care”. Conclusion Our study has allowed us to conclude that all dimensions of patients’ safety culture need to be improved among our establishment’s professionals. Therefore, more efforts are necessary in order to develop a security culture based on confidence, learning, communication and team work and rejecting sanction, blame, criminalization and punitive reporting. PMID:28154654
Sadek, Abdelrahim Abdrabou; Mohamed, Montaser Mohamed; Sharaf, El-Zahraa El-Said Ahmed; Magdy, Rofaida Mohamed; Allam, Ahmed Ahmed
Introduction Breath-holding spells (BHSs) are involuntary pauses of breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness. They usually occur in response to an upsetting or surprising situation. Breath-holding spells are usually caused by either a change in the usual breathing pattern or a slowing of the heart rate. In some children, BHSs may be related to iron deficiency anemia. The aim of the work was to study the clinical and laboratory profile of BPHs in children presented to the Neuropediatric Clinic at Sohag University Hospital. Methods An observational prospective study was done at Sohag University Hospital over a period of one year on children diagnosed as having BHSs by clinical history and laboratory evaluation, including complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and Electroencephalography (EEG). Results During the period of study (one year), we reviewed data of 32 children who had been diagnosed as having BHSs. We found that cyanotic spells (71.88%) predominated over pallid spells. There were positive family histories (31.25%) and consanguinity (53.135) in the studied patients. We found a high incidence of iron deficiency anemia (62.5%) in association with BHS. Abnormal EEGs were found in (65.63%) of studied children. Conclusion BHS is a common, important problem associated with iron deficiency anemia, which is, in turn, a common nutritional problem in our country. PMID:27279996
Castro-Costa, C M; Oriá, R B; Vale, O C; Arruda, J A; Horta, W G; D'Almeida, J A; Santos, T J; Ramos, R S; Gifoni, M A
In this retrospective (1980-1998) study, we have analyzed clinico-demographically, from the records of the University Hospital of Fortaleza (Brazil), a group of 87 patients showing signs and symptoms of motor neuron diseases (MNDs). Their diagnosis was determined clinically and laboratorially. The WFN criteria were used for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diagnosis. The clinico-demographic analysis of the 87 cases of MNDs showed that 4 were diagnosed as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), 5 cases as ALS subsets: 2 as progressive bulbar paralysis (PBP), 2 as progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and 1 as monomelic amyotrophy (MA), and 78 cases of ALS. The latter comprised 51 males and 27 females, with a mean age of 42.02 years. They were sub-divided into 4 groups according to age: from 15 to 29 years (n= 17), 30 to 39 years (n= 18), 40 to 69 years (n= 39) and 70 to 78 years (n= 4). From the 78 ALS patients, 76 were of the classic sporadic form whilst only 2 were of the familial form. The analysis of the 87 patients with MNDs from the University Hospital of Fortaleza showed a predominance of ALS patients, with a high number of cases of juvenile and early onset adult sporadic ALS.
Touyz, R M; Kelly, A; Tollman, S; Milne, F J
Medical internship can be a physically exhausting and emotionally traumatic experience. This study assesses various aspects of internship, including continuing medical education, workload and stress, at the five Johannesburg teaching hospitals during 1985 and 1986. Data were analysed from a confidential questionnaire. Eighty-two interns completed the questionnaire at the end of 1985 and 120 at the end of 1986. Problem areas defined were excessive patient load, sleep deprivation and severe stress. The commonest symptoms of stress were fatigue, irritability and weight loss. In 1985, 53% of interns stated that they could not cope, and in 1986 this increased to 65%. Forty-eight per cent of 1985 and 69% of 1986 interns lost interest in medicine during their intern year. The implications of these results are discussed and the importance and impact on the medical profession and hospital services analysed.
Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán; Nastro, Marcela; Dabos, Laura; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Angela
Two-hundred Acinetobacter isolates belonging to 200 patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín during the period March 2013-June 2014 were analyzed. The identification was performed by mass spectrometry and was confirmed by molecular methods. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was studied by the Vitek-2 system. A 94% correlation of both identification methods was found. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant genomic species (92.6%) in hospital-acquired infections, whereas Acinetobacter pitti and Acinetobacter nosocomialis accounted for 3.5% and 0.5% of the isolates recovered, respectively. In community-acquired infections a major predominance of the different genomic species was observed. Acinetobacter johnsonii and A. baumannii are the most frequent species, accounting for 45.9% of the isolates recovered. Resistance to carbapenems and minocycline was only observed in A. baumannii. Mass spectrophotometry was an effective tool for the identification of the different genomic species.
Kishii, Kozue; Kikuchi, Ken; Yoshida, Atsushi; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Uetera, Yushi; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Moriya, Kyoji
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has rapidly spread worldwide. This study investigated antibiotic susceptibility and genotypic resistance of 123 consecutive blood culture isolates of Acinetobacter species collected between 2003 and 2011 in two Japanese hospitals. The isolates were assigned to 13 species. Carbapenem resistance was detected in four isolates. Only one A. baumannii isolate had blaOXA-23 together with ISAba1; the remaining three isolates had IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase. Quinolone resistance was detected in five isolates that had point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region. The predominance of various non-A. baumannii species and low prevalence of carbapenem resistance among blood culture isolates of Acinetobacter species in two Japanese hospitals were confirmed.
Background Informed consent in medical practice is essential and a global standard that should be sought at all the times doctors interact with patients. Its intensity would vary depending on the invasiveness and risks associated with the anticipated treatment. To our knowledge there has not been any systematic review of consent practices to document best practices and identify areas that need improvement in our setting. The objective of the study was to evaluate the informed consent practices of surgeons at University teaching Hospitals in a low resource setting. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted at three university teaching hospitals in Uganda. Self-guided questionnaires were left at a central location in each of the surgical departments after verbally communicating to the surgeons of the intention of the study. Filled questionnaires were returned at the same location by the respondents for collection by the research team. In addition, 20 in-depth interviews were held with surgeons and a review of 384 patients’ record files for informed consent documentation was done. Results A total of 132 (62.1%) out of 214 questionnaires were completed and returned. Respondents were intern doctors, residents and specialists from General surgery, Orthopedic surgery, Ear, Nose and Throat, Ophthalmology, Dentistry, Obstetrics and Gynaecology departments. The average working experience of respondents was 4.8 years (SD 4.454, range 0–39 years). 48.8% of the respondents said they obtained consent all the time surgery is done while 51.2% did not obtain consent all the time. Many of the respondents indicated that informed consent was not obtained by the surgeon who operated the patient but was obtained either at admission or by nurses in the surgical units. The consent forms used in the hospitals were found to be inadequate and many times signed at admission before diagnosing the patient’s disease. Conclusions Informed consent administration and documentation for
Dobrila-Dintinjana, Renata; Redzović, Arnela; Perić, Jana; Petranović, Duska
We sought to determine the proportion of our admitted patients in terminal phase of ilness who recieved some kind of active oncological therapy. We conducted a pilot study on the records of patients who died in the University Hospital. We assessed the percentage of mortality, a therapeutic approach in terms of treating the underlying disease, and access to palliative treatment. Of 2097 patients hospitalized in the UHC Rijeka Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology during 2010 and 2011, 44 pts died which accounts for 2.1%. The most common primary sites of cancer in patients who died in our Department were the lungs and then the breast. Ten (22.7%) patients were admitted exclusively to receive palliative care, while others (34-77.3%) were admitted for planned active chemo- and/or radiotherapy administration. Within three months before death, 18 (40.9%) patients underwent chemotherapy treatment. The number of patients hospitalized due to providing palliative care is extremely low, which could indicate a good supply of out-patient treatment of cancer patients in the terminal stage of the disease. However, concerned about the high percentage of patients who tried to provide oncology treatments in the three months before his death. The percentages referred to in their daily work is still guided by the principles of healing "to the end" and thus we plunge into the realm disthanasia.
Girerd-Genessay, Isabelle; Baratin, Dominique; Ferry, Tristan; Chidiac, Christian; Ronin, Vincent; Vanhems, Philippe
Introduction Increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virulence at infection has been suggested by a meta-analysis based on viral load and CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4) count during acute infection. This result was obtained after secondary analyses of large databases, facilitating the detection of differences. Similar finding in cohorts of more modest sample size would indicate that the effect could be more substantial. Methods Change from initial CD4 count and HIV viral load after acute HIV infection by calendar year was explored in patients treated at Lyon University hospitals. All patients admitted to our hospitals with acute HIV infection between 1996 and 2013 were included in our study. Initial CD4 count and viral load before the start of anti-retroviral treatment were analyzed. Trends over time were assessed in linear models. Results Initial CD4 count remained similar over time. However, in 2006–2013, initial viral load rose significantly (+1.12 log10/ml/year, p = 0.01). Conclusion Our data, obtained from a single hospital cohort, confirmed findings from a large meta-analysis, showed increased initial viremia at acute HIV infection since 2006 and suggesting potentially higher HIV virulence in recent years. PMID:26799390
Triassi, M; Di Popolo, A; Ribera D'Alcalà, G; Albanese, Z; Cuccurullo, S; Montegrosso, S; Crispino, M; Borella, P; Zarrilli, R
The molecular epidemiology of Legionella pneumophila in the 'V. Monaldi' University Hospital was studied. Seven cases of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease were diagnosed between 1999 and 2003. Two clinical legionella strains obtained from two patients in the adult cardiac surgery unit (CSU) and 30 environmental legionella strains from the paediatric and adult CSUs, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the cardiorespiratory intensive care unit (CR-ICU) were serotyped and genotyped. L. pneumophila serogroup 1/Philadelphia with an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile A was isolated from two patients in the adult CSU, and from three and one water samples taken in the adult CSU and the paediatric CSU, respectively, from 2001 to 2002. Furthermore, L. pneumophila serogroup 3 with an identical PFGE profile B was identified in 20 environmental strains from all wards, L. pneumophila serogroup 3 with PFGE profile C was identified in a single environmental strain from the CR-ICU, and non-pneumophila Legionella with identical PFGE profile D was identified in five environmental strains from the adult CSU, paediatric CSU and NICU. Ultraviolet irradiation was effective in disinfection of the hospital water supplies in the adult and paediatric CSUs contaminated by L. pneumophila clone associated with nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that two cases of nosocomial legionellosis were caused by the persistence of a single clone of L. pneumophila serogroup 1/Philadelphia in the hospital environment, and that disinfection by ultraviolet irradiation may represent an effective measure to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease.
Intranet-technology is the application of Internet-Tools in local networks. With this technique electronic information systems for large hospitals can be realized very easily. This technology has been in routine use in 'Klinikum Grosshadern' for more than one year on over 50 wards and more than 200 computers. The following clinical application areas are described: drug information, nursing information, electronic literature retrieval systems, multimedia teaching und laboratory information systems.
In Japan, healthcare professionals and healthcare workers typically practice a culture of self-assessment when it comes to managing their own health. Even where this background leads to instances of mental health disorders or other serious problems within a given organization, such cases are customarily addressed by the psychiatrists or psychiatric departments of the facilities affected. Organized occupational mental health initiatives for professionals and workers within the healthcare system are extremely rare across Japan, and there is little recognition of the need for such initiatives even among those most directly affected. The author has some experience designing and operating a comprehensive health management system to support students and faculty at a university in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area that contains a medical school and university hospital. At this university, various mental health-related problems were routinely being allowed to develop into serious cases, while the fundamental reforms required by the health management center and the mental health management scheme organized through the center had come to represent a challenge for the entire university. From this initial situation, we undertook several successive initiatives, including raising the number of staff in the health management center and its affiliated organizations, revising and drafting new health management rules and regulations, launching an employment support and management system, implementing screenings to identify people with mental ill-health, revamping and expanding a counselling response system, instituting regular collaboration meetings with academic affairs staff, and launching educational and awareness-raising activities. This resulted in the possibility of intervention in all cases of mental health crisis, such as suicidal ideation. We counted more than 2,400 consultations (cumulative total number; more than half of consultations was from the medical school, postgraduate
Dias, Rubens Clayton da Silva; Borges-Neto, Armando Alves; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini D’Almeida; de-Oliveira, Márcia P.; Riley, Lee W.; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer
Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) has been reported in virtually all species of Enterobacteriaceae, which greatly complicates the therapy of infections caused by these organisms. However, the frequency of isolates producing AmpC β-lactamases, especially plasmid mediated AmpC (pAmpC), is largely unknown. These β-lactamases confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of ESBL and pAmpC β-lactamases in a hospital where MDR enterobacterial isolates recently emerged. A total of 123 consecutive enterobacterial isolates obtained from 112 patients at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil during March-June 2001 were included in the study. ESBL was detected by the addition of clavulanate to cephalosporin containing disks and by double diffusion. AmpC production was evaluated by a modified tridimensional test and a modified Hodge test. The presence of plasmid-mediated ampC β-lactamase genes was evaluated by multiplex-PCR. Sixty-five (53%) of 123 enterobacterial isolates were MDR, obtained from 56 patients. ESBL production was detected in 35 isolates; 5 clonal E. coli isolates exhibited high levels of chromosomal AmpC and ESBL production. However, no isolates contained pAmpC genes. Infection or colonization by MDR enterobacteria was not associated with any predominant resistant clones. A large proportion of hospital infections caused by ESBL-producing enterobacteria identified during the study period were due to sporadic infections rather than undetected outbreaks. This observation emphasizes the need to improve our detection methods for ESBL- and AmpC-producing organisms in hospitals where extended-spectrum cephalosporins are in wide use. PMID:17900845
Kumbier, E; Haack, K
After WWII a politically guided staffing policy foresaw an exchange program for professors from the Soviet Occupation Zone and the German Democratic Republic (GDR). In the field of medicine this initiative was not successful. With respect to university psychiatric/neurological hospitals this experiment failed as a result of a shortage of personnel due to the consequences of war, denazification and people migrating into western occupation zones. Criteria for politically selecting promising young talent which had been propagated by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED) were thus not relevant in academic medicine until 1961; however, the communist rulers had great interest in bringing professional and academic resources up to date. Politically implicated representatives in the field were also included in this process. At the forefront was the interest in functioning medical care and education in order to be able to train much needed health professionals. At the end of the 1950s a new generation of professors was established at the university hospitals. This generation rotation demonstrated the politically intended replacement of the "old" professor generation and the transition to a new GDR generation that had been trained after 1945. This second generation of professors inherited vacant professorships and defined and shaped research and academia until the end of the GDR much more than the previous generation had and also more than the one that followed. The generation of professors continued to feel a strong affiliation with their academic teachers and consequently continued their tradition in the sense of a school, for the most part independent of political circumstances.
Repar, Patricia Ann; Patton, Douglas
Artists-in-medicine at the University of New Mexico help nurses remember and renew the values that originally attracted them to the field of nursing. Exploring their nascent creativity through massage, yoga, art, music, and writing, nurses are encouraged to reconnect emotionally and spiritually with themselves, their patients, and fellow healthcare workers.
Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Pesianian, Esmaeil; Mohammadian, Mohsen
Introduction and purpose: Radiology information system (RIS) in order to reduce workload and improve the quality of services must be well-designed. Heuristic evaluation is one of the methods that understand usability problems with the least time, cost and resources. The aim of present study is to evaluate the usability of RISs in hospitals. Research Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study (2015) that uses heuristic evaluation method to evaluate the usability of RIS used in 3 hospitals of Tabriz city. The data are collected using a standard checklist based on 13 principles of Nielsen Heuristic evaluation method. Usability of RISs was investigated based on the number of components observed from Nielsen principles and problems of usability based on the number of non-observed components as well as non-existent or unrecognizable components. Results: by evaluation of RISs in each of the hospitals 1, 2 and 3, total numbers of observed components were obtained as 173, 202 and 196, respectively. It was concluded that the usability of RISs in the studied population, on average and with observing 190 components of the 291 components related to the 13 principles of Nielsen is 65.41 %. Furthermore, problems of usability were obtained as 26.35%. Discussion and Conclusion: The established and visible nature of some components such as response time of application, visual feedbacks, colors, view and design and arrangement of software objects cause more attention to these components as principal components in designing UI software. Also, incorrect analysis before system design leads to a lack of attention to secondary needs like Help software and security issues. PMID:27041810
Córdoba, Juan Pablo; Larrarte, Carolina; Ruiz, Alvaro
Anticoagulation has been considered essential during plasmapheresis. International publications and guidelines state that anticoagulation should be administered during therapy to avoid circuit clotting and impaired effectiveness. However, anticoagulation has also been associated with bleeding, fluid and electrolyte imbalances and hematological alterations. No published studies have looked at the risk to benefit ratio of the common practice of circuit anticoagulation. We describe the experience with 367 plasmapheresis sessions, in the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, a tertiary care center in Bogota, Colombia, where no anticoagulation is used in any case. Patient characteristics and therapy complications are described. Coagulation of circuit was never reported.
Enosolease, M E; Imarengiaye, C O; Awodu, O A
Banked blood is a limited resource in Nigeria. We sought to evaluate factors that may further limit the effective utilisation of donor blood in a tertiary hospital in Benin City. The records of the blood transfusion unit of the hospital were studied to identify the methods of blood procurement and utilisation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. A total of 11,021 units of blood were received in the blood transfusion unit within this period out of which 1491 (13.5%) donor blood samples were found unfit for transfusion and, hence, discarded. Commercial blood donation accounted for 95.3%, compared to 4.7% from replacement and volunteer donors. Commercial blood donation was a major risk factor for likely disposal of donor blood (chi2 = 74.3, p < 0.0001, OR = 21.1. 95% CI = 7.8-56.7). Expired units of blood with low PCV were discarded for lack of infrastructure to fractionate and store them. Over 0.8million naira (US$6000.00) is wasted annually on discarded units of donor blood mainly from commercial donors. A policy on blood procurement to include subgroup selection of donors and improved funding of blood banking services may enhance efficient and effective utilisation of donor blood.
Oraie, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Islambulchilar, Mina; Hosseini, Seyed-Hasan; Ahadi-Barzoki, Mehdi; Sadr, Habib; Yaghoubi, Hashem
Chemical substances have an important threat due to extensive use in medicine, agriculture, industry and environment. In this retrospective study, etiological and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to a hospital in Iran were investigated. We compared these data with those reported from other parts of the country and the international experiences to evaluate any difference if exists. 7 052 poisoned cases admitted to the hospital from April 2006 to March 2013, by data collected from the medical record in poison center section. According to our results there is a predominance of male patients and the majority of the poisoned patients were between 20-30 years old. Drug poisoning was the most common cause of poisonings. The most frequently involved drugs were benzodiazepines and antidepressants. The seasonal distribution of our study showed a peak in summer. To prevent acute poisonings, the social education about the risk assessment of central nervous system-acting drugs and reduction of the exposure period of people to pesticides are recommended. This study suggested a proper educational program for the public and primary care units. Our results provide useful information for preventive strategies.
Parvan, Kobra; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Seyedrasooly, Alehe; Dadkhah, Delavar; Jabarzadeh, Faranak
Introduction: Empathy is the ability to put one in the place of others and to better understand their feelings and experiences. According to researchers, there is a type of challenge in using this concept in nursing field. In most cases, the term empathy substitutes other concepts. Regarding this point, it seems quite necessary to research and discuss different dimensions of this concept in different studies. This study aimed to determine empathy regarding the nurses' point of view. Methods: In this descriptive study sample size was selected according to study population or in the other hand all the nurses in 3 general hospital was selected because they are the most important teaching hospital in Tabriz. LEP (La Monica Empathy Profile) was used as empathy tool. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver. 13.0. Results: In nonverbal behavior dimension, touching the patient was considered as the most effective methods. On the other hand, nurses could not always be able to control stress and they could not always being with patients to show their empathy. Many people believe that nurses showed very little feelings while raggedly the reflective enclosure and they occasionally had to change their schedules to talk to patients. Conclusion: In most cases the nurses support nonverbal behavior, such as reflective, close and touching encountering in establishing relationship with the patient. However, to improve this situation, planning for nurses to become familiar with the ways through which they can express their interest to show empathy would be effective PMID:25276746
Coch Gioia, Carolina A; Silva de Lemos, Ana P; Outeiro Gorla, Maria C; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul A; Ballester, Teresa; Von Groll, Andrea; Wedig, Bruna; Ethur, Nathalia de Vargas; Bragança, Letícia; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves; Almeida da Silva, Pedro E
Asymptomatic meningococcus carriers in hospitals is a risk factor for acquiring meningococcal disease. Meningococcal carrier (MC) frequency was investigated in oropharyngeal swab samples collected from 200 staff members at a teaching hospital from Brazil. MC prevalence was 9% (95% CI 5-13%). Risk factors associated with MC were: mean age of 26.5 years, male gender, bar attendance frequency and number of persons/house. Of 18 isolated meningococcal strains, 14 were non-group able (NG), 3 corresponded to serogroup B and 1 to serogroup 29E. The frequency of serotypes and serosubtypes was heterogenous, with a slight predominance of serotypes 4 and 7 and serosubtypes P1.7 and P1.5. Most strains (n=13) were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested. The ctrA gene (PCR) was identified in 9 (64.3%) of the 14 NG strains, suggesting virulence in most of the NG isolated strains. Therefore, a constant surveillance of these asymptomatic carriers is required.
Wongtriratanachai, Prasit; Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Nimkingratana, Puwapong; Pattamapaspong, Nuttaya; Phornphutkul, Chanakarn; Setsitthakun, Sasiwariya; Fongsatitkul, Ladda; Phrompaet, Sureeporn
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has become one of the standard procedures for articular cartilage defect treatment. This technique provides a promising result. However the procedural process requires an approach of several steps from multidisciplinary teams. Although the success of this procedure has been reported from Srinakharinvirot University since 2007, the application of ACI is still limited in Thailand due to the complexity of processes and stringent quality control. This report is to present the first case of the cartilage defect treatment using the first generation-ACI under Chiang Mai University's (CMU) own facility and Ethics Committee. This paper also reviews the process of biotechnology procedures, patient selection, surgical, and rehabilitation techniques. The success of the first case is an important milestone for the further development of the CMU Human Translational Research Laboratory in near future.
Collins, J. D.
Lung biopsies have been performed since 1967 at the University of California at Los Angeles and its affiliated institutions. In the span of 20 years, the author performed 4285 cases and developed several procedures. This article discusses the importance of risk management and patient care and presents statistics on malignancies, complications, and contraindications. Images Figure 1A Figure 1B Figure 2A Figure 2B PMID:2398507
Muhsen, Khitam; Rubenstein, Uri; Kassem, Eias; Goren, Sophy; Schachter, Yaakov; Kremer, Adi; Shulman, Lester M; Ephros, Moshe; Cohen, Dani
Universal rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq was introduced in Israel in December 2010. We examined hospitalization rates of children under 5 years of age due to all-cause and rotavirus gastroenteritis, both before and 3 years after universal introduction of the vaccination. An ongoing hospital-based surveillance network that was established in November 2007, accessed information regarding hospitalization of children due to gastroenteritis (n = 6205) in 3 hospitals in northern Israel, with an annual average of about 60,000 children under 5 years of age living in the catchment area of these hospitals. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus by immunochromatography. Compared to the period preceding implementation of the universal rotavirus vaccination (2008–2010), hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age decreased significantly, by 55% (95% CI 43%-67%) during the period of universal vaccination (2011–2013), a decrease that was sustained throughout the 3 year period. This reduction was greater in children aged 0–23 months (60–61%) than in toddlers aged 24–59 months (36%). A 32% (95% CI 21%-45%) decrease in the incidence of all-cause gastroenteritis was also observed. During the period preceding universal vaccination, rotavirus diarrhea showed typical winter seasonality, with highest incidence in December. However, the winter peak was substantially blunted during the period of universal immunization. Surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis should continue to assess the long-term impact of such a program. Our findings are of relevance to high and middle-income countries considering the introduction of a universal rotavirus immunization program. PMID:26212174
Muhsen, Khitam; Rubenstein, Uri; Kassem, Eias; Goren, Sophy; Schachter, Yaakov; Kremer, Adi; Shulman, Lester M; Ephros, Moshe; Cohen, Dani
Universal rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq was introduced in Israel in December 2010. We examined hospitalization rates of children under 5 years of age due to all-cause and rotavirus gastroenteritis, both before and 3 years after universal introduction of the vaccination. An ongoing hospital-based surveillance network that was established in November 2007, accessed information regarding hospitalization of children due to gastroenteritis (n = 6205) in 3 hospitals in northern Israel, with an annual average of about 60,000 children under 5 years of age living in the catchment area of these hospitals. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus by immunochromatography. Compared to the period preceding implementation of the universal rotavirus vaccination (2008-2010), hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age decreased significantly, by 55% (95% CI 43%-67%) during the period of universal vaccination (2011-2013), a decrease that was sustained throughout the 3 year period. This reduction was greater in children aged 0-23 months (60-61%) than in toddlers aged 24-59 months (36%). A 32% (95% CI 21%-45%) decrease in the incidence of all-cause gastroenteritis was also observed. During the period preceding universal vaccination, rotavirus diarrhea showed typical winter seasonality, with highest incidence in December. However, the winter peak was substantially blunted during the period of universal immunization. Surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis should continue to assess the long-term impact of such a program. Our findings are of relevance to high and middle-income countries considering the introduction of a universal rotavirus immunization program.
Introduction The benefits of transporting severely injured patients by helicopter remain controversial. This study aimed to analyze the impact on mortality of helicopter compared to ground transport directly from the scene to a University hospital trauma center. Methods The French Intensive Care Research for Severe Trauma cohort study enrolled 2,703 patients with severe blunt trauma requiring admission to University hospital intensive care units within 72 hours. Pre-hospital and hospital clinical data, including the mode of transport, (helicopter (HMICU) versus ground (GMICU), both with medical teams), were recorded. The analysis was restricted to patients admitted directly from the scene to a University hospital trauma center. The main endpoint was mortality until ICU discharge. Results Of the 1,958 patients analyzed, 74% were transported by GMICU, 26% by HMICU. Median injury severity score (ISS) was 26 (interquartile range (IQR) 19 to 34) for HMICU patients and 25 (IQR 18 to 34) for GMICU patients. Compared to GMICU, HMICU patients had a higher median time frame before hospital admission and were more intensively treated in the pre-hospital phase. Crude mortality until hospital discharge was the same regardless of pre-hospital mode of transport. After adjustment for initial status, the risk of death was significantly lower (odds ratio (OR): 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 0.98, P = 0.035) for HMICU compared with GMICU. This result did not change after further adjustment for ISS and overall surgical procedures. Conclusions This study suggests a beneficial impact of helicopter transport on mortality in severe blunt trauma. Whether this association could be due to better management in the pre-hospital phase needs to be more thoroughly assessed. PMID:23131068
... your condition? Should you consider a specialty hospital, teaching hospital (usually part of a university), community hospital, ... been approved by Medicare. Hospitals may choose either method of evaluation. You can check with a hospital ...
Ismail, A.; Hassan, Noor I.
Cancer is one of the principal causes of death in Malaysia. This study was performed to determine the pattern of rate of cancer deaths at a public hospital in Malaysia over an 11 year period from year 2001 to 2011, to determine the best fitted model of forecasting the rate of cancer deaths using Univariate Modeling and to forecast the rates for the next two years (2012 to 2013). The medical records of the death of patients with cancer admitted at this Hospital over 11 year's period were reviewed, with a total of 663 cases. The cancers were classified according to 10th Revision International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Data collected include socio-demographic background of patients such as registration number, age, gender, ethnicity, ward and diagnosis. Data entry and analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. The five Univariate Models used were Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model (ACPM), Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing and Holt's Method. The overall 11 years rate of cancer deaths showed that at this hospital, Malay patients have the highest percentage (88.10%) compared to other ethnic groups with males (51.30%) higher than females. Lung and breast cancer have the most number of cancer deaths among gender. About 29.60% of the patients who died due to cancer were aged 61 years old and above. The best Univariate Model used for forecasting the rate of cancer deaths is Single Exponential Smoothing Technique with alpha of 0.10. The forecast for the rate of cancer deaths shows a horizontally or flat value. The forecasted mortality trend remains at 6.84% from January 2012 to December 2013. All the government and private sectors and non-governmental organizations need to highlight issues on cancer especially lung and breast cancers to the public through campaigns using mass media, media electronics, posters and pamphlets in the attempt to decrease the rate of cancer deaths in Malaysia.
Dini, Gal M.; Pereira, Max D.; Gurgel, Augusto; Bastos, Endrigo O.; Nagarkar, Purushottam; Gemperli, Rolf; Ferreira, Lydia M.
Background: Soccer is the most popular sport in Brazil and a high incidence of related trauma is reported. Maxillofacial trauma can be quite common, sometimes requiring prolonged hospitalization and invasive procedures. To characterize soccer-related facial fractures needing surgery in 2 major Brazilian Centers. Methods: A retrospective review of trauma medical records from the Plastic Surgery Divisions at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo–Escola Paulista de Medicina and the Hospital das Clinicas–Universidade de São Paulo was carried out to identify patients who underwent invasive surgical procedures due to acute soccer-related facial fractures. Data points reviewed included gender, date of injury, type of fracture, date of surgery, and procedure performed. Results: A total of 45 patients (31 from Escola Paulista de Medicina and 14 from Universidade de São Paulo) underwent surgical procedures to address facial fractures between March 2000 and September 2013. Forty-four patients were men, and mean age was 28 years. The fracture patterns seen were nasal bones (16 patients, 35%), orbitozygomatic (16 patients, 35%), mandibular (7 patients, 16%), orbital (6 patients, 13%), frontal (1 patient, 2%), and naso-orbito-ethmoid (1 patient, 2%). Mechanisms of injury included collisions with another player (n = 39) and being struck by the ball (n = 6). Conclusions: Although it is less common than orthopedic injuries, soccer players do sustain maxillofacial trauma. Knowledge of its frequency is important to first responders, nurses, and physicians who have initial contact with patients. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems in the physiological actions of breathing, vision, and chewing. PMID:25289361
Liljamo, Pia; Lavander, Päivi; Kejonen, Pirjo
The Oulu University Hospital's staffing management project sought information on the number of nursing staff in relation to treatment days and visits, using existing indicators to describe the activities involved. The retrospective data obtained was compared to human resources and the personnel structure. On this basis an optimal number of staff was determined for the units, taking account of a range of explanatory indicator data. The project made use of the computational model for nurse staffing and the World Health Organisation's (WHO) Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) method. The project provided extensive information on human resources issues within the units. Its results indicated the differences between wards with respect to the number and structure of resources. In addition, the nurse administrators lacked skills in gathering and using data from administrative datasets. This information will provide support for the further development of nursing operations and nursing management decision-making.
Petrovic, A; Dorsey, M; Miotke, J; Shepherd, C; Day, N
We retrospectively analyzed the transplantation outcomes of 31 patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases treated at our center (All Children's Hospital, University of South Florida) since its inception in 1986. The primary immune diseases included severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease. The age of the patient's at the time of transplant ranged from 1 month to 19 years, and conditioning regimens varied based on the patients underlying disease. In 23 patients, the graft source was bone marrow, 4 patients received umbilical cord blood grafts and 4 patients received peripheral blood stem cell grafts. Better survival rates were observed in those patients transplanted at a younger age and free of infections, demonstrating that transplantation at an early age before significant infections, autoimmune manifestation and malignant transformation have occurred is beneficial.
Faustini, A.; Forastiere, F.; Giorgi Rossi, P.; Perucci, C. A.
In the summer of 1999 a cluster of 18 cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) occurred in a University Hospital in Rome, Italy. The cases presented with mild clinical and radiological signs, and none died. Seventy-two per cent had a birth weight of > 2500 g, 66.7% had a gestational age of > 37 weeks, 30% presented with respiratory diseases and/or hypoglycaemia. All cases occurred within 10 days of birth and between 5 and 7 days after two clusters of diarrhoea (14 cases). The NEC outbreak had two phases; most cases in the first phase occurred in the at-risk unit, whereas those in the second phase occurred in the full-term unit. In the multivariate analysis, invasive therapeutic procedures, pathological conditions and formula feeding were associated with NEC. Although no predominant common bacteria were isolated, we suggest an infective origin of this outbreak. PMID:15188715
Madani, T A; Alsaedi, S; James, L; Eldeek, B S; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Alawi, M M; Marwan, D; Cudal, M; Macapagal, M; Bahlas, R; Farouq, M
During November 2008 to January 2009, 11 babies in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) and three babies in the nursery were infected with Serratia marcescens at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Overall, fifteen infections were identified among 11 newborns in the NICU: septicaemia (five cases), purulent conjunctivitis (three), urinary tract infection (two), meningitis (two) and cellulitis (one). Three newborns in the nursery had three infections: purulent conjunctivitis (two cases) and omphalitis (one). Thirteen of 14 babies recovered fully but one died from S. marcescens meningitis and septicaemia. All infections were traced to intrinsically contaminated baby shampoo introduced to the units five days before the first reported case. The outbreak terminated following withdrawal of the shampoo product.
Cordeiro Júnior, Túlio Germano Machado; Andrade, Bruno D' Paula; Palitot, Esther Bastos; Piuvezam, Márcia Regina; Mascarenhas, Sandra Rodrigues
Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease affecting 1-3% of the population worldwide. This work seeks to draw a profile of patients with psoriasis, analyzing socioeconomic, anthropometric, and clinical aspects. For this, medical records from 81 individuals who received medical care in a university hospital in 2014 were consulted. It was observed that the patients were mostly dark-skinned black adult men, with a low education level and a low income, who were sedentary, former smokers, obese, with an increase in waist circumference, and who did not consume alcohol. Psoriasis vulgaris predominated, beginning mainly on the scalp, hands, and feet. In addition, many presented some type of associated comorbidity and had relatives with psoriasis. PMID:27828656
Zarakolu, Pinar; Eser, Ozgen Koseoglu; Aladag, Elifcan; Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim A; Day, Kathryn M; Atmaca, Ozgur; Boral, Baris; Cakir, Banu; Perry, John D; Akova, Murat
Between June 2009 and December 2013, 4105 patients were screened for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) colonization in a tertiary care university hospital. The antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants of 279 (6.8%) CR-Kp isolates from single patients were investigated. Additional analysis was performed to evaluate the characteristics and various risk factors for infection in patients with colonization. Of the 279 isolates, 270 harboured OXA-48-like enzymes, and a single isolate harboured IMP-type carbapenemase. A high proportion of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems - except ertapenem. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin and most (94%) were susceptible to colistin and fosfomycin. There was consistent high-level resistance for all isolates to temocillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and ticarcillin-clavulanate. When colonized and infected patients were compared, only prior carbapenem administration (P = 0.003), was found to be significantly associated with patients with CR-Kp infection.
Röck, Daniel; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Tobias
BACKGROUND This study aimed to report the rates and experiences of corneal donation at the University Hospital Tübingen. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from all cornea donors from January 2002 to December 2015 were analyzed. The rates of corneal donation were examined. From 2002 to 2008, an ophthalmic resident handled the corneal donor procurement in addition to his ward work. From 2009 to 2015, an ophthalmic resident handled the corneal donor procurement on a full-time basis. RESULTS Among the 10 260 deaths, consent for corneal donation was obtained in 892 cases. The mean annual corneal donation rate was 8.7 donors per 100 deaths (range: 2.0-17.8). The mean corneal donation rate in the first period without a full-time ophthalmic resident in the eye bank team was 4.0 donors per 100 deaths (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-6.9) and in the second period 12.3 donors per 100 deaths (95 % CI: 3.2-21.5) (P<0.0001). Comparing the periods before and after the modification of the eye bank team, the corneal donation rate was increased by more than 3 times. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed the influence of the eye banking team on the corneal donation rate. Modification of the eye bank team, by recruiting a full-time resident at a University Hospital with 1500 beds, increased the corneal donation rate by more than 3 times. It appears necessary to strengthen this team with sufficient staff levels to improve donor rates.
Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Fiebai, Bassey; Awoyesuku, Elizabeth Akon
Purpose: To provide the types, frequency and clinical information on common cranial nerve palsies seen at the Eye Clinic at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A chart review was performed of patients who presented with cranial nerve palsy at the Eye Clinic over a 3-year period (January 2009-December 2011). Data were collected on age, sex, type of cranial nerve palsy, a history of systemic disease such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. Exclusion criteria included medical charts with incomplete data. Data was analyzed using Epi-info Version 6.04D. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05. Results: Twenty-four patients had cranial nerve palsies. There were 11 males and 13 females with a mean age of 34.50 ± 18.41 years. Four patients (26.6%) had exotropia while three patients (20%) had esotropia. Complete ophthalmoplegia was noted in two patients (13.3%). The 3rd and 6th cranial nerves were affected in seven patients each (29.2%) and five patients (20.8%) had 7th cranial nerve palsy. Approximately 38% of patients with cranial nerve palsies had systemic disorders (16.7% systemic hypertension; 12.5% DM). The relationship between cranial nerve palsy and systemic disorder was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This is the first study in the literature on ocular cranial nerve palsies in Southern Nigeria. Third and sixth cranial nerve palsies were the most common cases to present to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic. There was a statistically significant association to systemic disorders such as hypertension and DM and majority of cases with 6th cranial nerve palsy. PMID:24791110
Ohkawara, H; Fukushima, N; Kitagawa, T; Ito, T; Masutani, Y; Sawa, Y
Although organ procurement has been regulated by The Organ Transplantation Law (brain-dead donors since 1997, donors after cardiac death since 1979), there has been no law or governmental procurement network (except for cornea) in Japan. Since the late 1980s, some university hospitals have developed original banks. Finally, in 2001 guidelines for tissue procurement were established by The Japanese Society of Tissue Transplantation and Japan Tissue Transplant Network (JTTN) to coordinate tissue harvesting. Five tissue banks were joined to the tissue transplant network (skin in one, heart valves in two, and bone in two). As the number of tissue banks is small, each bank cooperates on procurement, but cannot cover the entire country. With regard to skin transplantation, only one skin bank-The Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), which is located in Tokyo-has organized skin procurement. Therefore, it has been difficult to procure skin in areas distant from Tokyo, especially around Osaka. In order to improve such a situation, a tissue bank collaborating with the JSBN was established at The Medical Center for Translational Research (MTR), Osaka University Hospital in April 2008. The bank has played a role in skin procurement center in western Japan and supported procurement and preservation at the time of the skin procurement. Between April 2008 and September 2009, the bank participated in eight tissue procurements in the western area. In the future, the bank is planning to procure and preserve pancreatic islets and bones. Moreover, there is a plan to set up an induced pluripotent stem cells center and stem cell bank in MTR. This tissue bank may play a role to increase tissue procurement in Japan, especially in the western area.
Banda, Justor; Mweemba, Aggrey; Siziya, Seter; Mweene, Morgan; Andrews, Ben; Lakhi, Shabir
Background Despite having the highest disease burden of HIV, Sub-Saharan Africa has limited data on HIV related kidney disease with most available data coming from the developed countries. Kidney disease is a recognised complication in HIV infected patients presenting with acute renal failure (ARF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with renal dysfunction among hospitalised HIV infected patients at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka. Methodology We conducted a cross sectional study at the University Teaching Hospital Lusaka, in Zambia. Inclusion criteria were hospitalised patients aged 16years and above who consented to the study. Both HIV infected and uninfected patients were included in the study. After obtaining demographic information, study participants were screened for HIV upon their consenting for the test. A full clinical history and examination was done by study physician to determine factors associated with renal dysfunction. Results Of the 300 recruited hospitalised patients in this cross sectional study, 142(47%) were HIV infected. We observed a high prevalence of renal dysfunction among hospitalised HIV infected patients compared to uninfected patients (42% vs. 27%, adjusted OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.20–3.28). They had a twofold increased likelihood of developing kidney dysfunction (OR 1.96,95 CI%; 1.21–3.17). The presence of vomiting was strongly associated with renal dysfunction in both HIV positive (AOR 7.77, 95% CI 2.46-24-53) and negative (AOR4.83, 95%CI 1.40–16.66) subgroups. WHO stage III was associated with renal dysfunction in HIV infected patients. Tenofovir use, (a first line antiretroviral drug in Zambia) and hypotension were not significant factors associated with kidney disease after adjusting for other clinical parameters. Conclusion Renal dysfunction is significantly higher among hospitalised HIV infected compared to uninfected, however tenofovir and hypotension
Battikh, Hajer; Harchay, Chiraz; Dekhili, Amal; Khazar, Khaoula; Kechrid, Fehima; Zribi, Meriem; Masmoudi, Afef; Fendri, Chedlia
In this study, we have attempted to report the first clonal spread of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae coproducing KPC and VIM carbapenemases in the neonatal unit of Rabta Teaching Hospital of Tunis (Tunisia). This retrospective study was performed from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014 in the Microbiology Laboratory at the Rabta University Hospital of Tunis. Twenty-one nonreplicate colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae were isolated from 19 patients hospitalized in the neonatal unit and 2 patients in the adult intensive care unit (ICU). Most of the strains were isolated from invasive specimens. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR analysis and nucleotide sequencing of the blaKPC and blaVIM genes were performed. Mortality was reported in 92% of cases. All the strains were resistant to colistin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MICs] ranged from 8 to 12 mg/L). The MICs for imipenem of K. pneumoniae isolates ranged from 3 to 256 mg/L for 13 strains that were characterized as intermediate or resistant. The MICs for ertapenem were higher than 32 mg/L for the 19 resistant strains. All the isolates were sensitive to tigecycline and chloramphenicol. PFGE analysis revealed two clones (I and II). Twenty of the 21 colistin-resistant, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to clone I. Only one strain was related to clone II. PCR analysis and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 20 isolates belonged to clone I, coproduced the blaKPC and blaVIM genes. A single strain (clone II), which was isolated in the ICU, did not produce KPC and VIM carbapenemases. All strains did not produce OXA-48.
Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dakouré-Kissou, Aimée; Poda, Gandaaza Euthyme Armel; Koueta, Fla; Yé-Ouattara, Diarra; Ouédraogo-Traoré, Rasmata
The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics and outcome of children with septicemia at the Charles de Gaulle University Pediatric Hospital of Ouagadougou to help improve probabilistic antibiotic therapy in this type of infection. This retrospective descriptive study covered all the children from 0 to 15 years old seen over a period of 7 years in any hospital department with suspected bacteriemia and for whom the bacteriology laboratory performed a blood culture. During the study period, the laboratory received 842 requests for blood cultures and found 154 (18.3%) of them to be positive. Files for 81 of the 154 patients could be found and examined. The distribution according to age showed septicemia was most frequent among those aged 6-15 years (61.7% of the cases). Microbial identification showed the dominant species to be Salmonella enterica (serovars paratyphi and typhi) (58%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%). The salmonella isolates had a high rate of resistance to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole. Staphylococci were always sensitive to the antibiotics with which they were tested, although to a lesser extent for penicillin G. All patients routinely received antibiotic treatment, and 81.5% (n=66) were cured (5 children died and 10 left the hospital against medical advice). This study shows that the bacterial epidemiology of septicemia in our setting is dominated by salmonella. Trends in bacterial resistance to antibiotics showed that common antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole are no longer acceptable as probabilist therapy here. They should be replaced in this type of infection by injectable third generation cephalosporin alone or combined with aminoglycosides.
Karimi, Saeed; Agharahimi, Zahra; Yaghoubi, Maryam
Purpose: Outsourcing in healthcare is a cost-effective strategy that can lead to increase services quality. The aim of this study was to determine the types of services that have been outsourced in educational hospitals in Isfahan and to investigate managers’ view about the impact of Outsourcing. Design/Methodology/Approach: A descriptive-survey study carried out in 2010. Our samples consisted of 100 educational hospital and treatment deputy senior managers of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and 53 usable questionnaires were received. Survey instrument main points were the extent to which educational hospital outsource services and the impact of Outsourcing. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire have been verified. Data are analyzed with SPSS18 software. Findings: The results for medical-diagnostics services showed physiotherapy, radiology, and ultrasound that have the highest rate (33%) of being outsourced. Between logistic and administrative activities, housekeeping, and facility engineering maintenance services are the highest rate of outsourced (100%) and green space, CSR, laundry, and medical records are the lowest rate of outsourced (16%). In managers’ view, in relation to advantages of outsourcing, pay more attention to internal and external customers in private sector (57.2%) was the highest. In relation to disadvantages of outsourcing, costs increase for the patients (45.6%) was the highest. In relation to barriers of outsourcing, forgetting the goal of outsourcing (efficiency) (60.6%) was the highest. Conclusion: Finally, managers’ views about outsourcing in health services organizations were rather acceptable, but in their views, there are barriers in implementation of outsourcing and they are focused on removing the barriers before outsourcing. Fundamental infrastructure developments as making competing market, promoting of cultures, education, modifying the management attitude and approach, and establishing incentive policies are
Cozzi, Bruno; Ballarin, Cristina; Mantovani, Roberto; Rota, Ada
The present article examines over 63,000 medical records belonging to the Veterinary Hospitals of the Universities of Bologna, Torino, and Padova, all in Northern Italy, and relative to dogs (approximately 50,000), cats (approximately 12,000), and companion horses (slightly less than 1,000). The animals of the three species were divided into age classes and categorized per sex into males, females, and neutered individuals. The mean age at visit and the effects of age classes and category (analyzed via ANOVA) are presented and discussed. The data indicate that many animals are presented to the hospitals either in the early phases of their life (presumably for vaccination and, in cats and dogs, gonadectomy) or in the advanced age (over 10 years in dogs, over 15 years in cats, and over 17 years in horses). The records of very old individuals of the three species are also reported. On the whole, the results suggest that a growing population of mature to old domestic carnivores or companion horses reaches ages that were considered exceptional only a few years ago. The data also testify an evolution in the animal–owner relationship and a renewed respect for the value of life in companion domestic mammals. PMID:28261586
Gennari, Solange Maria; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli da Silva; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Azevedo, Sérgio Dos Santos
The frequency of gastrointestinal infections in 502 cats seen at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, between 2005 and 2014, was measured. The samples were analyzed using methods of flotation and sedimentation. The results were compared with those from studies published previously using fecal samples from the same hospital at different times. Associations between the frequency of positivity for each parasite and age, breed, sex, diarrhea and use of anthelmintic were investigated (chi-square or Fisher's exact tests). A partitioned chi-square test was used to compare different periods. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were the most common parasites, followed by Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma spp. Cryptosporidium spp. presented higher frequency in young cats and Sarcocystis spp. with the presence of diarrhea (p < 0.05). Results from this study with previous periods showed that the frequencies of Cryptosporidium spp., Cystoisospora spp. and T. cati were lower (p < 0.05) than those observed in previous periods. The frequencies of Giardia spp. and Ancylostoma spp. were similar to the results found in the preceding period and lower than the values found for the other periods (p < 0.05). The reasons for these changes should be investigated.
Evler, A; Scheller, M; Wagels, L; Bergs, R; Clemens, B; Kohn, N; Pütz, A; Voss, B; Schneider, F; Habel, U
Violence is a topic of great social relevance, frequently causing tremendous health consequences for those affected and high consequential costs for health care and the national economy. The established consulting and assistance services are usually restricted to offers for ambulant supply, mainly from private agencies or societies. As a result, there is no identification and care for patients who have experienced violence and who are treated in hospital. Another deficiency is the identification and care of male victims of violence. Despite wide-ranging offers of assistance, only very few gender-specific consulting and support services have been available to date.Therefore, the model project "Gender Gewaltkonzept" was initiated at Aachen University Hospital to assess the prevalence of violence and the potential consequences of the violence experienced on the patients' health. In addition, we investigated whether males and females are in need of different supply requirements.Based on the results of the project "Gender Gewaltkonzept" so far, and on prevalence estimates proving that there is a high rate of violent experiences in both males and females, this overview is aimed at presenting the aid and protection concepts available for victims of violence, in addition to the existing deficiencies of the care system. We present approaches to resolving these deficiencies to be able to establish all-encompassing gender-appropriate support for victims of violence.
Belczak, Sergio Quilici; Cleva, Roberto D E; Utiyama, Edivaldo M; Cecconello, Ivan; Rasslan, Samir; Parreira, José Gustavo
Postsurgical acute suppurative parotitis is a bacterial gland infection that occurs from a few days up to some weeks after abdominal surgical procedures. In this study, the authors analyze the prevalence of this complication in Hospital das Clínicas/São Paulo University Medical School by prospectively reviewing the charts of patients who underwent surgeries performed by the gastroenterological and general surgery staff from 1980 to 2005. Diagnosis of parotitis or sialoadenitis was analyzed. Sialolithiasis and chronic parotitis previous to hospitalization were exclusion criteria. In a total of 100,679 surgeries, 256 patients were diagnosed with parotitis or sialoadenitis. Nevertheless, only three cases of acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis associated with the surgery were identified giving an incidence of 0.0028%. All patients presented with risk factors such as malnutrition, immunosuppression, prolonged immobilization and dehydration. In the past, acute postsurgical suppurative parotitis was a relatively common complication after major abdominal surgeries. Its incidence decreased as a consequence of the improvement of perioperative antibiotic therapy and postoperative support. In spite of the current low incidence, we believe it is important to identify risks and diagnose as quick as possible, in order to introduce prompt and appropriate therapeutic measures and avoid potentially fatal complications with the evolution of the disease.
Kawano, Takashi; Taniwaki, Miki; Ogata, Kimiyo; Sakamoto, Miwa; Yokoyama, Masataka
With the aim to optimize surgical safety, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the Surgical Safety Checklist (SSCL) in 2008. The SSCL has been piloted in many countries worldwide and shown to improve both safety attitudes within surgical teams and patient outcomes. In the study reported here we investigated whether implementation of the SSCL improved the teamwork and safety climate at a single university hospital in Japan. All surgical teams at the hospital implemented the SSCL in all surgical procedures with strict adherence to the SSCL implementation manual developed by WHO. Changes in safety attitudes were evaluated using the modified operating-room version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). A before and after design was used, with the questionnaire administered before and 3 months after SSCL implementation. Our analysis revealed that the mean scores on the SAQ had significantly improved 3 months after implementation of the SSCL compared to those before implementation. This finding implies that effective implementation of the SSCL could improve patient outcomes in Japan, similar to the findings of the WHO pilot study.
Objective: This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of cancer patients and the self-care measures they adopted as a response to nutritional problems. Methods: This descriptive study included seventy cancer patients staying in the oncology and internal disease clinics of a university hospital in Turkey. Data were collected using a questionnaire with 29 questions. Results: The mean age of participants was 40.2 ± 1.82 years. Approximately, 62.9% of the patients ate only half of the meals offered to them, 65.7% experienced weight loss, and 45.7% had difficulty eating their meals on their own. Moreover, 47.1% of the patients received nutritional support and nutritional problems were observed in 71.4% of the patients; 80% were unable to eat hospital food, 54.3% had an eating disorder related to a special diet, 30% suffered from loss of appetite, 27% had nausea, and 14.3% had difficulty swallowing. Furthermore, 48.5% of patients responded that they ate home-cooked food or ordered food from outside when questioned about the self-care measures taken to avoid the aforementioned nutritional problems. Conclusions: Most of the cancer patients had serious nutritional problems and ate home-cooked food and used nutritional supplements to overcome these problems. Oncology nurses are responsible for evaluating the nutritional status of cancer patients and eliminating nutritional problems. PMID:28083557
Eriksson, T; Henricson, K; Arrhenius, K; Höglund, P; Hedner, K; Stenberg, P
As a first step toward obtaining quality assurance regarding use and handling of drugs at Malmö University Hospital, a problem detection study (PDS) was performed, drug related problems being collected from nurses, physicians and pharmacists. Problem questionnaires relevant for physicians (67 items) and nurses (82 items) were prepared and sent to chief physicians and head nurses for distribution to colleagues. The problems identified covered all aspects of drug use and handling such as availability, prescription, dispensing, information and monitoring. Fifty-six per cent (79/141) of the physicians and 68 per cent (88/130) of the nurses responded. The main problems were related to information, chart order sheets and follow up. The item 'Uncertain whether patients take their medicine correctly after discharge' scored highest among physicians. The two main problems for the nurses were that 'newly licensed drugs and drugs used on a named-patient basis are not included in FASS' (the Swedish national formulary). The problem detection technique proved useful for the identification of drug-related problems, and the results will provide a basis for further improvement in quality assurance in pharmacotherapy at the hospital.
Pellissier, Gérard; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Adehossi, Eric; Tosini, William; Madougou, Boubacar; Ibrahima, Kaza; Lolom, Isabelle; Legac, Sylvie; Rouveix, Elisabeth; Champenois, Karen; Rabaud, Christian; Bouvet, Elisabeth
Background Exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a serious risk to healthcare workers (HCWs) in endemic developing countries owing to the strong prevalence of HBV in the general and hospital populations, and to the high rate of occupational blood exposure. Routine HBV vaccination programs targeted to high-risk groups and especially to HCWs are generally considered as a key element of prevention strategies. However, the high rate of natural immunization among adults in such countries where most infections occur perinatally or during early childhood must be taken into account. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross sectional study in 207 personnel of 4 occupational groups (medical, paramedical, cleaning staff, and administrative) in Niamey’s National Hospital, Niger, in order to assess the prevalence of HBV markers, to evaluate susceptibility to HBV infection, and to identify personnel who might benefit from vaccination. The proportion of those who declared a history of occupational blood exposure ranged from 18.9% in the administrative staff to 46.9% in paramedical staff. Only 7.2% had a history of vaccination against HBV with at least 3 injections. Ninety two percent were anti-HBc positive. When we focused on170 HCWs, only 12 (7.1%) showed no biological HBV contact. Twenty six were HBsAg positive (15,3%; 95% confidence interval: 9.9%–20.7%) of whom 8 (32%) had a viral load >2000 IU/ml. Conclusions/Significance The very small proportion of HCWs susceptible to HBV infection in our study and other studies suggests that in a global approach to prevent occupational infection by bloodborne pathogens, a universal hepatitis B vaccination of HCWs is not priority in these settings. The greatest impact on the risk will most likely be achieved by focusing efforts on primary prevention strategies to reduce occupational blood exposure. HBV screening in HCWs and treatment of those with chronic HBV infection should be however considered. PMID:22970218
Guzmán, Ana María; Sánchez, Tomás; de la Barra, Ricardo
Blood culture is considered the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of bacteremia, critical condition with high morbidity and mortality. Because of its importance, it is estimated that the blood culture is a critical test that requires close monitoring on the quality with which the process is performed. The objective of this work is to show the results of the monitoring carried out during the past three years, of 5 quality indicators of blood cultures in the laboratory of the Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, considering pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical aspects. In the 3 years monitored the mean contamination was 0,7%, 46% of adult bottles had adequate volume, match between Gram stain with final identification was 99.4%, 100% of correct participations were achieved in surveys of external quality control and Gram staining notification before 1 hour was 88.7%. With regard to proposed aims, in 2011 the laboratory complies with all, except the percentage of bottles with appropriate volume of blood inoculated. This indicator is very low and should be corrected as soon as possible since it is known that it is an important condition for optimum performance of blood cultures.
Mentz, Robert J; Buggey, Jonathan; Fiuzat, Mona; Ersbøll, Mads K; Schulte, Phillip J; DeVore, Adam D; Eisenstein, Eric L; Anstrom, Kevin J; OʼConnor, Christopher M; Velazquez, Eric J
Furosemide has historically been the primary loop diuretic in heart failure patients despite data suggesting potential advantages with torsemide. We used the Duke Echocardiography Lab Database to investigate patients admitted with heart failure to Duke Hospital from 2000 to 2010 who were discharged on either torsemide or furosemide. We described baseline characteristics based on discharge diuretic and assessed the relationship with all-cause mortality through 5 years. Of 4580 patients, 86% (n = 3955) received furosemide and 14% (n = 625) received torsemide. Patients receiving torsemide were more likely to be female and had more comorbidities compared with furosemide-treated patients. Survival was worse in torsemide-treated patients [5-year Kaplan-Meier estimated survival of 41.4% (95% CI: 36.7-46.0) vs. 51.5% (95% CI: 49.8-53.1)]. After risk adjustment, torsemide use was no longer associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.16; 95% CI: 0.98-1.38; P = 0.0864). Prospective trials are needed to investigate the effect of torsemide versus furosemide because of the potential for residual confounding.
Portero de la Cruz, Silvia; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel
OBJECTIVES: to describe the social and work characteristics of the nursing staff at a tertiary hospital in the Public Health Service of Andalucía, to assess the degree of professional professional burnout and job satisfaction of those professionals and to study the possible relation between the professional burnout variables and the stress and job satisfaction levels on the one hand and social and employment variables on the other. METHOD: descriptive and cross-sectional study in a sample of 258 baccalaureate and auxiliary nurses. As research instruments, an original and specific questionnaire was used to collect social and employment variables, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Nursing Stress Scale and the Font-Roja questionnaire. Descriptive, inferential statistics and multivariate analysis were applied. RESULTS: average scores were found for professional stress and satisfaction, corresponding to 44,23 and 65,46 points, respectively. As regards professional burnout, an average score was found on the emotional exhaustion subscale; a high score for depersonalization and a low score for professional accomplishment. Studies are needed to identify the scores on these subscales in health organizations and to produce knowledge on their interrelations. PMID:26155012
Botelho, Renata Maria de Oliveira; Campanharo, Cássia Regina Vancini; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; de Góis, Aécio Flávio Teixeira; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag
ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and death after cardiac arrest, with and without the use of a metronome during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Method: case-control study nested in a cohort study including 285 adults who experienced cardiac arrest and received CPR in an emergency service. Data were collected using In-hospital Utstein Style. The control group (n=60) was selected by matching patients considering their neurological condition before cardiac arrest, the immediate cause, initial arrest rhythm, whether epinephrine was used, and the duration of CPR. The case group (n=51) received conventional CPR guided by a metronome set at 110 beats/min. Chi-square and likelihood ratio were used to compare ROSC rates considering p≤0.05. Results: ROSC occurred in 57.7% of the cases, though 92.8% of these patients died in the following 24 hours. No statistically significant difference was found between groups in regard to ROSC (p=0.2017) or the occurrence of death (p=0.8112). Conclusion: the outcomes of patients after cardiac arrest with and without the use of a metronome during CPR were similar and no differences were found between groups in regard to survival rates and ROSC. PMID:27878221
Franken, E. A., Jr.; Smith, Wilbur L.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Owen, David A.; Hilsenrath, Peter
Our strategy in studying PACS is to evaluate its clinical implementation working with equipment supplied by an established manufacturer. Fiscal and personnel resources required to design and integrate the hardware components and operational software to develop a functional PACS precluded a bottom up development approach at our institution. Imaging equipment vendors possess more abundant design development resources for this task and therefore can support a more rapid development of the initial components of PACS. For this reason we have chosen to serve as a beta test site to study the viability of the basic PACS components in a clinical setting. Our efforts primarily focus on: (1) image quality; (2) cost effectiveness; (3) PACS/HIS/RIS integration; (4) equipment and software reliability; and (5) overall system performance. The results of our studies are shared with the vendor for future PACS development and refi nement. To attain our investigational goals we have formed an interdisciplinary team of Radiologists, Perceptual Psychologist, Economist, Electrical and Industrial Engineers, Hospital Information System personnel and key departmental administrative staff. For several reasons Pediatric Radiology was targeted as the initial area for our PACS study: a small area representative of the overall operation,tight operational controls and willingness of physicians. We used a step-wise approach, the first step being the installation of PACS exclusively within the physical confines of Pediatric Radiology.
Du, Jikun; Li, Peipei; Liu, Helu; Lü, Dongyue; Liang, Hong; Dou, Yuhong
The multidrug-resistant rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae has risen rapidly worldwide. To better understand the multidrug resistance situation and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a total of 153 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected, and drug susceptibility test was performed to detect its susceptibility patterns to 13 kinds of antibiotics. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemases ESBLs and AmpC enzyme-producing strains were performed to detect the resistance phenotype of the isolates. Then PCR amplification and sequencing analysis were performed for the drug resistance determinants. The results showed that 63 strains harbored bla CTX-M gene, and 14 strains harbored bla DHA gene. Moreover, there were 5 strains carrying bla KPC gene, among which 4 strains carried bla CTX-M, bla DHA and bla KPC genes, and these 4 strains were also resistant to imipenem. Our data indicated that drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were highly prevalent in the hospital. Thus it is warranted that surveillance of epidemiology of those resistant isolates should be a cause for concern, and appropriate drugs should be chosen.
Liu, Helu; Lü, Dongyue; Liang, Hong; Dou, Yuhong
The multidrug-resistant rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae has risen rapidly worldwide. To better understand the multidrug resistance situation and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a total of 153 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected, and drug susceptibility test was performed to detect its susceptibility patterns to 13 kinds of antibiotics. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemases ESBLs and AmpC enzyme-producing strains were performed to detect the resistance phenotype of the isolates. Then PCR amplification and sequencing analysis were performed for the drug resistance determinants. The results showed that 63 strains harbored blaCTX-M gene, and 14 strains harbored blaDHA gene. Moreover, there were 5 strains carrying blaKPC gene, among which 4 strains carried blaCTX-M, blaDHA and blaKPC genes, and these 4 strains were also resistant to imipenem. Our data indicated that drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae were highly prevalent in the hospital. Thus it is warranted that surveillance of epidemiology of those resistant isolates should be a cause for concern, and appropriate drugs should be chosen. PMID:24740167
Serafim, Sônia Aparecida Dias; Forster, Aldaisa Cassanho; Simões, Maria Jacira Silva; Penaforte, Thais Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION Informatics and automation are important tools for the reduction of work, errors and costs in a hospital pharmacy. OBJECTIVES To describe the structuring and function of an informatized system for the dispensing of medications and to assess its effect on nursing and pharmacy services during the period from 1997 to 2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this descriptive and retrospective study, we performed an analysis of documents addressing the structuring and implementation of the informatized medication dispensing system. In addition, we analyzed the perceptions of nurses, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants who participated in the structuring phase of the system when interviewed about the effect of informatization on administrative aspects (e.g., requisition of medications, presentation of the dispensed medication and system operationalization). RESULTS The major advantages provided by the new system were 1) the elimination of manual transcripts for prescribed medications, 2) increased speed, 3) better identification of the doses prescribed by physicians, 4) medication labels containing all necessary identification and 5) practicality and safety of optical bar code-based verification of the requested and dispensed medications. CONCLUSIONS The great majority of the interviewees considered the informatized medication supply system to be of good quality. Analysis of the data provided information that could contribute to the expansion and refinement of the system, provide support for studies regarding the utilization of medications and offer new perspectives for work and productivity. PMID:20454500
Marsilio, Naiane Roveda; da Silva, Daiandy; Bueno, Denise
Objectives This study sought to identify the physical and chemical incompatibilities among the drugs administered intravenously to patients admitted to an adult intensive care unit. We also aimed to establish pharmaceutical guidelines for administering incompatible drugs. Methods This cross-sectional, prospective, and quantitative study was conducted from July to September 2015. Drug incompatibilities were identified based on an analysis of the patient prescriptions available in the hospital online management system. A pharmaceutical intervention was performed using the guidelines on the preparation and administration of incompatible drugs. Adherence to those guidelines was subsequently assessed among the nursing staff. Results A total of 100 prescriptions were analyzed; 68 were incompatible with the intravenous drugs prescribed. A total of 271 drug incompatibilities were found, averaging 4.0 ± 3.3 incompatibilities per prescription. The most commonly found drug incompatibilities were between midazolam and hydrocortisone (8.9%), between cefepime and midazolam (5.2%), and between hydrocortisone and vancomycin (5.2%). The drugs most commonly involved in incompatibilities were midazolam, hydrocortisone, and vancomycin. The most common incompatibilities occurred when a drug was administered via continuous infusion and another was administered intermittently (50%). Of the 68 prescriptions that led to pharmaceutical guidelines, 45 (66.2%) were fully adhered to by the nursing staff. Conclusion Patients under intensive care were subjected to a high rate of incompatibilities. Drug incompatibilities can be identified and eliminated by the pharmacist on the multidisciplinary team, thereby reducing undesirable effects among patients. PMID:27410410
Cunat, C; Flatin, V; Viale, J-P
The check-list (CL) "Safety in Operating Room" has been introduced in our teaching hospital since 2009, associated to a "Quality and Prevention of Risks" program. This introduction was carried out over two distinct phases. The first one was a pilot start including five OR, allowing us to draw firm recommendations on the best way to perform the introduction, followed by a generalization to the other operating room (OR). The recommendations were the followings: a pilot committee including all the professionals should be constituted before the onset of introduction, a dedicated communication should focus on the actual concerns and benefits, and finally, the person questioning other care givers and filling the form should be clearly identified and supported in the OR. Meanwhile a guide on the utilization of the CL in each surgical speciality was written, and a dedicated manager was in charge of the whole procedure. This experience raised several remarks. This implementation of the CL proved to be a cause of self-interrogation on our medical practices, and the opportunity to improve communication among the professionals of the OR. Indeed, the 10 items of the OR should be thought as the last check before the no-return point, which should be shared by anyone in the OR. If these conditions were fulfilled, the CL could be viewed as an actual improvement of safety in the OR. Otherwise, CL is just a supplementary form.
Dokekias, A Elira; Okandze-Elenga, J P; Kinkouna, A Gouary S; Lepfoundzou, A Bokilo Dzia; Garcia, S
The viral C hepatitis is a disease which is often asymptomatic but with a very high risk of death. A prospective survey on multitransfused patients with a high transfusional risk has been conducted between May 1st and September 30th, 2001 in the medical services of the Hospital of Brazzaville. It deals with 252 samples of blood taken on 132 multitransfused patients and 120 control cases who have never been transfused. The screening of antibodies has been performed with ELISA technique by using 2 sensitive tests: the monolisa anti-HCV plus version 2 (Bio-Rad) and BIOTEC HCV a.b. Only monolisa is registered by AFSSAPS. The survey shows a overall seroprevalence of 13.9%: multitransfused patients: 26 out of 132 (19.7%) and control cases 9 out of 120 (7.5%). The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is practically similar in both series. It is low among control cases before 20 years old, but important in this same group when the patients are multitransfused. It is very significant among adult control cases, indicating the probability of other transmission modes in this age bracket. Patients suffering from hemoglobinopathy (sickle cell) and from malignant hemopathy paid an heavy toll to the virus with respectively 16.9% and 22% of prevalence even if the sampling is restricted. This results point out the necessary implementation of a systematic screening of all the main viruses before transfusion.
Samarei, Reza; Gharebaghi, Naser; Zayer, Salar
Mucormycosis is a deadly invasive fungal infection and mainly affects immunocompromised patients. To investigate the clinical features of patients who developed mucormycosis and to determine the parameters, which influenced the outcome following mycotic infection. The current investigation retrospectively evaluated the demographic characteristics, clinical features, therapeutic data, as well as the outcomes of treatment in all cases of proven and probable mucormycosis diagnosed from 2002 until 2016 in our hospital. A total of thirty cases were recorded. Rhizopus spp. was the predominant pathogen among the identified Mucorales (26.7%). Diabetes mellitus (46.7%) and haematological malignancy (40%), were the most common underlying diseases. With regard to predisposing factors, neutropenia (43.3%) and chemotherapy (40%) were the leading concomitant parameters. The most frequent sites of infection were lung (30%) and sinus (26.7%), whereas disseminated infection was also found in nine of 30 patients (30%). Neutropenia remained the only independent factor associated with mortality (Relative Risk=3.557, 95% CI=1.365-9.271, P=.009). Diagnostic delay -either due to delayed presentation of patients to our centre or insufficient awareness about invasive fungal infection among our clinicians- is a likely explanation for such a high mortality rate in our series.
Horrent, Y; Oris, M; Servais, P; Velle, K
This paper is the synthesis of researches concerning the university hospitals of Gand, Liège and Louvain in Belgium. First, you will find an abstract of the analysis and main results. The interpretation topics are then approached with three different points of view: the sources, being hospital or medical records, their qualities and their limits; the structure of the institutions and their consequences on the social structure of the patients; the impact of the demographic transition. The hospital, which was one reserved to poor adults, has progressively been authorized to "non-profitables", children first, then old people, so that the ageing of patients largely exceeds that of the population itself.
Korkut, Ercan; Akcay, Mufide Nuran; Karadeniz, Erdem; Subasi, Irmak Durur; Gursan, Nesrin
Objective: In this study we aimed to define clinical, radiologic and pathological specialties of patients who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty with granulomatous mastitis and show medical and surgical treatment results. With the help of this study we will be able to make our own clinical algorithm for diagnosis and treatment. Materials and Methods: We searched retrospectively addresses, phone numbers and clinical files of 93 patients whom diagnosed granulomatous mastitis between a decade of January 2001 – December 2010. We noted demographic specialties, ages, gender, medical family history, main complaints, physical findings, radiological and laboratory findings, medical treatments, postoperative complications and surgical procedures if they were operated; morbidity, recurrence and success ratios, complications after treatment for patients discussed above. Results: In this study we evaluated 93 patients, 91 females and 2 males, with granulomatous mastitis retrospectively who applied to General Surgery Department of Atatürk University Medical Faculty between January 2001 and December 2010. Mean age was 34.4 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination of the lesions. Seventy three patients had idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis and 20 patients had specific granulomatous mastitis IGM (18 tuberculosis mastitis, 1 alveolar echinococcosis and 1 silk reaction). All the patients had surgical debridement or antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory treatment with results bad clinical response before applied our clinic. Conclusion: Empiric antibiotic therapy and drainage of the breast lesions are not enough for complete remission of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. The lesion must be excised completely. In selected patients, corticosteroid therapy can be useful. In the patients with tuberculous mastitis, abscess drainage and antituberculous therapy can be useful, but wide excision must be chosen for the
Ommerborn, Michelle A; Hugger, Alfons; Kruse, Johannes; Handschel, Jörg GK; Depprich, Rita A; Stüttgen, Ulrich; Zimmer, Stefan; Raab, Wolfgang HM
Background Psychological factors are not only important in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), but also in patients suffering from tooth loss and/or in those awaiting prosthodontic care with fixed or removable dentures as several authors emphasize. The purpose of the present prospective observational study was to compare prosthodontic outpatients of the Department of Prosthodontics at the University of Duesseldorf and patients seeking care at the TMD/Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic (TMD/OFPOC) at the same university with respect to sociodemographic data, self-reported somatic complaints, and psychological impairment. Methods A total of 234 patients received two self-administered questionnaires including the Symptom-Check-List. Complete data have been obtained from 65 prosthodontic outpatients and 60 patients of the TMD/OFPOC. Results Results indicated statistically significant group differences regarding sociodemographic data and somatic complaints. Concerning the latter, in 11 of the 21 items, groups differed significantly and confirmed the absence of any mixing between the two outpatient clinics. Although the evaluation of psychological impairment revealed no significant group differences, in 21.9% of the prosthodontic outpatients and in 22.0% of the patients from the TMD/OFPOC, the extent of the determined psychological impairment was similar to that of psychotherapeutic outpatients; in 9.4% and 8.5% it was similar to that of psychotherapeutic inpatients, respectively. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, in approximately one third of the evaluated patients of both the prosthodontic outpatient clinic and the TMD/OFPOC the psychological impairment reached values comparable to those of psychotherapeutic outpatients and psychotherapeutic inpatients. Therefore, the present findings emphasize the need to intensify the integration of psychosomatic aspects into dentistry and, in particular, to add psychological considerations to future German
Agbo, Hadiza A.; Okeahialam, Basil N.; Daru, Patrick H.
Background: Hypertensive disease in pregnancy (HDP) accounts for high mother and child morbi-mortality and predict future cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to identify obstetric predictors of HDP needing preventive action to reduce its consequences; when women present to antenatal clinic (ANC). Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive this was an Interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire-based study of the anthropometric, and blood pressure measurementsin attendees at the postnatal clinic (PNC) of Jos University with ANC records. Setting: Six weeks postnatal clinic (PNC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH). Results: The following indices proved predictive of HDP and subsequent hypertension: weight (P = 0.009), hip circumference (P = 0.018), parity (P = 0.043), waist circumference (P = 0.00), abdominal height (P = 0.040), waist/height (P = 0.020), history of developing hypertension in previous pregnancy (P = 0.000), birth weight of baby (P = 0.02), and mode of delivery (P = 0.05). Conclusion: To initiate preventive action on ANC registration in mitigating effects of or outrightly preventing HDP, careful check on anthropometry as well as history of hypertension or operative/preterm delivery in a previous pregnancy is necessary PMID:27942098
Cawich, Shamir O; Pooran, Suresh; Amow, Barbara; Ali, Ernest; Mohammed, Fawwaz; Mencia, Marlon; Ramsewak, Samuel; Hariharan, Seetharaman; Naraynsingh, Vijay
Introduction The Caribbean lags behind global trends for volume and complexity of laparoscopic operations. In an attempt to promote laparoscopy at a single facility, a partnership was formed between the University of the West Indies (UWI) and the Port of Spain General Hospital in Trinidad and Tobago. This study seeks to document the effect of this partnership on laparoscopic practice. Materials and methods In this partnership, the UWI took the bold step of volunteering to staff a surgical team if the Ministry of Health provided the necessary legislative changes. On August 1, 2013, a UWI team was introduced with a mandate to optimize teaching and promote laparoscopic surgery. The UWI team had a similar staff complement to the existing service-oriented teams. There was no immediate investment in equipment, hospital beds, ICU beds, or operating room space. Therefore, the new team was introduced with limited change in existing conditions, resources, and equipment. Results There were 252 laparoscopic operations performed over the study period. After introduction of the UWI team, there was an increase in the mean number of unselected laparoscopic operations (3.17 vs 10.83 cases per month; P<0.001; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] −8.5 to −6.84; standard error of the difference [SED] 0.408), the mean number of basic laparoscopic operations (3.17 vs 6.94 cases per month; P<0.0001; 95% CI −4.096 to −3.444; SED 0.165), the mean number of advanced laparoscopic operations (0 vs 3.89; P<0.0001), the number of teams undertaking unselected laparoscopic operations (2 vs 5), and the number of teams independently performing advanced laparoscopic operations (0 vs 4). Conclusion At this facility, we have demonstrated a significant increase in laparoscopic case volume and complexity when partnerships were formed between the UWI and this service-oriented hospital. Continued cross-fertilization and distribution of skill sets across the surgical community can reasonably be
Norcross, E D; Elliott, B M; Adams, D B; Crawford, F A
Hurricane Hugo struck Charleston, South Carolina, on September 21, 1989. This report analyzes the impact this storm had upon surgical care at a university medical center. Although disaster planning began on September 17, hurricane damage by high winds and an 8.7-foot tidal surge led to loss of emergency power and water. Consequently, system failures occurred in air conditioning, vacuum suction, steam and ethylene oxide sterilization, plumbing, central paging, lighting, and refrigeration. The following surgical support services were affected. In the blood bank, lack of refrigeration meant no platelet packs for 2 days. In radiology, loss of electrical power damaged CT/MRI scanners and flooding ruined patient files, resulting in lost information. In the intensive care unit, loss of electricity meant no monitors and hand ventilation was used for 4 hours. In the operating room, lack of temperature and humidity control (steam, water, and suction supply) halted elective surgery until October 2. Ground and air transportation were limited by unsafe landing sites, impassable roads, and personnel exhaustion. Surgical planning for a major hurricane should include: 1) a fail-safe source of electrical power, 2) evacuation of as many critically ill patients as possible before the storm, 3) cancellation of all elective surgery, and 4) augmented ancillary service staffing with some, although limited, physician support.
De la O-Peña, Daniel; Robles-Figueroa, Martín; Chávez-Peña, Quetzalcóatl; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín
Introducción: el Síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) tiene una distribución cosmopolita. Usualmente su curso es benigno y tiende a autolimitarse, pero en casos severos puede ocasionar la muerte. El objetivo de este artículo es describir las características de un grupo de adultos con SGB diagnosticados y tratados en un hospital universitario. Métodos: se analizaron todos los casos de SGB ocurridos del 1 de enero de 2005 al 31 de diciembre de 2009. Se revisaron los expedientes clínicos a través de la aplicación de una cédula estructurada que comprendió las siguientes secciones: identificación del paciente, datos clínicos, historia de infección, estación del año de ocurrencia, tipos de variantes electrofisiológicas y letalidad. Resultados: en total se incluyeron 45 pacientes; la relación hombre-mujer fue de 1.4:1 y la edad media del grupo fue 48.2 ± 16.0 años. La estación del año con mayor número de casos fue el verano. La historia de infección intestinal estuvo presente en 40 % de los pacientes, y la infección respiratoria en 24.4 %. La letalidad asociada con SGB fue de 11.1 % (IC: 95 %, 4.4-23.9), los casos fatales se presentaron en los pacientes con mayor edad que los que sobrevivieron (65.2 ± 15.0 frente a 46.0 ± 14.9, p = 0.01). La variante más frecuente fue la neuropatía axonal motora aguda (64.4 %); hubo cuatro casos de síndrome de Miller Fisher. Conclusiones: la variante electromiográfica más frecuente del SGB fue la neuropatía axonal motora aguda. Se observó mayor número de casos durante la estación de verano.
Mutters, Nico T.; Hägele, Ulrike; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Hellwig, Elmar; Frank, Uwe
Aim: Compliance with infection control practices is the key to quality care and excellence in dentistry. Infection control remains one of the most cost-beneficial interventions available. However, implementing control procedures requires full compliance of the whole dental team. The aim of our study was to measure the compliance in daily clinical practice. Methods: The compliance with infection control practices in dentistry by dental health care personnel (DHCP) in a German university dental clinic was observed during clinical work. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the individual knowledge about infection control procedures. Contamination of the workplace during invasive dental procedures was tested, as well. Results: A total of 58 invasive dental treatments implying close contacts between HCWs and patients were scrutinized. All HCWs (100%) wore gloves during dental work, but in some cases (female dentists: 14.3%; dental assistants: 28.6%) gloves were neither changed nor hands were disinfected between different activities or patient contacts (female dentists: 68.6%; male dentists: 60.9%; dental assistants: 93%). Only 31.4% of female and 39.1% of male dentists carried out adequate hygienic hand disinfection after removing gloves. Male dentists wore significantly more often (100%) protective eyewear compared to 77.1% of female dentists (p<0.05). In addition, most of female dentists (62.9%) and dental assistants (80.7%) wore jewelry during dental procedures. Conclusion: Despite the knowledge of distinct hygiene procedures only a small percentage of dental staff performs hygiene practices according to recommended guidelines. Strict audit is clearly needed in the dental setting to ensure compliance with infection control guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens. Our results provide insights for the development of a targeted education and training strategy to enhance compliance of dental staff especially of dental assistants with infection control
Toh, Y F; Cheah, P L; Looi, L M; Teoh, K H; Tan, P H
Taking cognizance of the purported variation of phyllodes tumours in Asians compared with Western populations, this study looked at phyllodes tumours of the breast diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre over an 8-year period with regards to patient profiles, tumour parameters, treatment offered and outcome. Sixty-four new cases of phyllodes tumour were diagnosed during the period, however only 30 (21 benign, 4 borderline and 5 malignant) finally qualified for entry into the study. These were followed-up for 4-102 months (average = 41.7 months). Thirteen cases (8 benign, 3 borderline, 2 malignant) were Chinese, 9 (all benign) Malay, 7 (4 benign, 1 borderline, 2 malignant) Indian and 1 (malignant) Indonesian. Prevalence of benign versus combined borderline and malignant phyllodes showed a marginally significant difference (p=0.049) between the Malays and Chinese. Patients' ages ranged from 21-70 years with a mean of 44.9 years with no significant difference in age between benign, borderline or malignant phyllodes tumours. Except for benign phyllodes tumours (mean size = 5.8 cm) being significantly smaller at presentation compared with borderline (mean size = 12.5 cm) and malignant (mean size = 15.8 cm) (p<0.05) tumours, history of previous pregnancy, breast feeding, hormonal contraception and tumour laterality did not differ between the three categories. Family history of breast cancer was noted in 2 cases of benign phyllodes. Local excision was performed in 17 benign, 2 borderline and 3 malignant tumours and mastectomy in 4 benign, 2 borderline and 2 malignant tumours. Surgical clearance was not properly recorded in 10 benign phyllodes tumours. Six benign and all 4 borderline and 5 malignant tumours had clearances of <10 mm. Two benign tumours recurred locally at 15 and 49 months after local excision, however information regarding surgical clearance was not available in both cases. One patient with a malignant tumour developed
Birgisson, H; Steingrímsson, O; Guðnason, T
Kingella kingae (K. kingae) is a gram negative rod most often associated with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in children. Infections caused by K. kingae had not been reported in Iceland when six cases were diagnosed at the Pediatric Department at the National University Hospital of Iceland. In this report we describe those cases and review the literature.
Ovayolu, Nimet; Torun, Seda; Ucan, Ozlem; Ozdemir, Perihan; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Geyik, Ramazan
Parenteral nutrition is commonly administered to patients in intensive care units who cannot be fed gastrointestinally. Several problems might be encountered during parenteral nutrition. We designed this study to evaluate two years' data of the patients who received parenteral nutrition at the intensive care unit of the university hospital. Forty-five patients who were treated at this hospital between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2005 were included in this study. Patient data were collected via questionnaires designed based on the information in the literature. Blood, urinary, oropharyngeal and catheter entry site cultures were obtained and analyzed on the third and seventh days of the treatment. We found the following results: 31.1% of the patients received parenteral nutrition due to renal insufficiency; ready-made amino acid/lipid solutions were used in 86.7% of the patients; 77.8% of the solutions were administered through a peripheral vein; 88.6% of total parenteral nutrition solutions given thorough the peripheral vein had higher osmolarities than 800 mOsmol/L; routine Fe and Fe binding capacity, prothrombin time, cholesterol and triglyceride level assessments were not performed before the initiation of treatment; and the culture tests most commonly revealed Staphylococcus epidermidis in the blood, Candido species in urine, Streptococcus in throat, and Staphylococcus aureus at catheter entry sites. Based on these results, we suggest that organizing a nutrition support team would be useful in order to improve the quality of the nursery and to provide close and rational management and follow-up of the patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. PMID:17225841
Pariwatcharakul, Pornjira; Singhakant, Supachoke
Clinicians routinely assess patients' mental capacity on a daily basis, but a more thorough assessment may be needed in complex cases. We aimed to identify the characteristics of inpatients in a general hospital, who were referred to a liaison psychiatry service for mental capacity assessment, reasons for the referrals, and the factors associated with their mental capacity. A 6-year retrospective study (2008-2013) was conducted using data collected routinely (e.g., age, gender, diagnosis, Thai Mental State Examination score, reasons for the referral, and the outcome of capacity assessment) on referrals for mental capacity assessment to a Consultation-liaison Psychiatry Unit at a university hospital in Thailand. Among 6194 consecutive referrals to the liaison-psychiatry services, only 0.6 % [n = 37, mean age (SD), 59.83 (20.42)] were referred for capacity assessment, 43.24 % of which lacked mental capacity. The most common requests from referring physicians were for assessment of testamentary capacity (15 assessed, 53.33 % lacking capacity), financial management capacity (14 assessed, 50 % lacking capacity), and capacity to consent to treatment (9 assessed, 22.22 % lacking capacity). Delirium, rather than dementia or other mental disorders, was associated with mental incapacity (p < 0.001) and being more dependent during the admission (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences for mean age (p = 0.257) or Thai Mental State Examination score (p = 0.206). The main request from referring clinicians was to assess testamentary capacity. Delirium and being more dependent during the admission were associated with lack of mental capacity, whereas age and dementia were not.
Background A minority of patients with incurable and advanced disease receive specialised palliative care. Specialised palliative care services that complement the care of difficult and complex cases ought to be integrated with services that deliver general care for most patients. A typical setting in which this integrative concept takes place is the hospital setting, where patients suffering from incurable and advanced disease are treated in many different departments. The aim of the study is to investigate the profile and spectrum of a palliative care consultation service (PCCS) at a German university hospital with special reference to pain therapy. Methods We retrospectively analysed the PCCS documentation of three years. Results Most patients were referred from non-surgical departments, 72% were inpatients, and 28% were outpatients. 98% of the patients suffered from cancer. Counselling in pain therapy was one of the key aspects of the consultation: For 76% of all consulted patients, modifications of the analgesic regimen were recommended, which involved opioids in 96%. Recommendations on breakthrough-pain medication were made for 70% of the patients; this was an opioid in most cases (68%). The most commonly used opioid was morphine. For 17% of the patients, additional diagnostic procedures were recommended. Besides pain management palliative care consultation implied a wide range of recommendations and services: In addition to organising home care infrastructure, palliative care services supported patients and their families in understanding the life-limiting diseases. They also coordinated physical therapy and social and legal advice. Conclusion This survey clearly shows that for a consultation service to support patients with incurable or advanced disease, a multi-disciplinary approach is necessary to meet the complex requirements of a needs-adapted palliative care in inpatient or outpatient settings. Timely integration of palliative expertise may support
Bertoli, Giulia; Mannazzu, Marco; Madeddu, Giordano; Are, Riccardo; Muredda, Alberto; Babudieri, Sergio; Calia, Giovanna; Lovigu, Carla; Maida, Ivana; Contini, Luciana; Miscali, Anna; Rubino, Salvatore; Delogu, Fiorenzo; Mura, Maria Stella
Since the onset of the worst epidemic of Ebola virus disease in December 2013, 28,637 cases were reported as confirmed, probable, or suspected. Since the week of 3 January 2016, no more cases have been reported. The total number of deaths have amounted to 11,315 (39.5%). In developed countries, seven cases have been diagnosed: four in the United States, one in Spain, one in the United Kingdom, and one in Italy. On 20 July 2015, Italy was declared Ebola-free. On 9 May 2015, an Italian health worker came back to Italy after a long stay in Sierra Leone working for a non-governmental organization. Forty-eight hours after his arrival, he noticed headache, weakness, muscle pains, and slight fever. The following day, he was safely transported to the Infectious Diseases Unit of University Hospital of Sassari. The patient was hospitalized for 19 hours until an Italian Air Force medical division transferred him to Rome, to the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute. Nineteen people who had contacts with the patient were monitored daily for 21 days by the Public Health Office of Sassari and none presented any symptoms. So far, neither vaccine nor treatment is available to be proposed on an international scale. Ebola is considered a re-emerging infectious disease which, unlike in the past, has been a worldwide emergency. This case study aimed to establish a discussion about the operative and logistic difficulties to be faced and about the discrepancy arising when protocols clash with the reality of facts.
Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Canton, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Dilger, Amanda; Romá, Eva; Perlin, David S.
Objectives The aims of this work were to study the epidemiological profiles, differences in echinocandin susceptibilities and clinical relevance of the Candida parapsilosis sensu lato species isolated from proven fungaemia cases at La Fe University Hospital of Valencia (Spain) from 1995 to 2007. Results The prevalence of these species was: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 74.4%; Candida orthopsilosis, 23.54%; and Candida metapsilosis, 2.05%. The incidence of the species complex as agents of fungaemia remained stationary until 2005 and doubled in 2006. The incidence of C. orthopsilosis showed an increasing trend during the study period, while C. parapsilosis sensu stricto incidence diminished. Also, an important epidemiological change was observed starting in 2004, when 86.5% of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato strains were found in adult patients, while before that year only 13.5% of the isolates were found in this population. Conclusions Echinocandin drug susceptibility testing using the CLSI M27-A3 document showed a wide range of MIC values (0.015–4 mg/L), with micafungin being the most potent in vitro inhibitor followed by anidulafungin and caspofungin (MIC geometric mean of 0.68, 0.74 and 0.87 mg/L, respectively). C. metapsilosis was the most susceptible species of the complex to anidulafungin and micafungin in vitro (MIC50 for anidulafungin and micafungin: 0.06 mg/L), while there were no differences between C. parapsilosis sensu lato species when caspofungin MIC50s were compared (MIC50 1.00 mg/L). Differences in caspofungin in vitro susceptibility were observed between the different clinical service departments of La Fe Hospital. PMID:22868644
Alyahya, Mohammad; Hijazi, Heba H; Nusairat, Farid T
Appointment nonadherence is a health behavior that represents a burden to health care systems. On March 1, 2015, a new negative reinforcement intervention involving "service fees" for a visit without appointment was implemented at King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan. To evaluate the effect of this intervention in improving patient adherence to medical appointment, a retrospective preintervention and postintervention analysis was used, including all patients (n = 65 535) who had scheduled appointments at 39 outpatient clinics. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was first performed. Then, a multivariate linear regression model was used to identify factors that might predict individuals who are likely to attend or miss their appointments and those who have a greater tendency to visit the hospital with or without appointments. Although the average percentage of appointments attended was more than missed preintervention and postintervention, the decrease in percentage of missed appointments was more pronounced postintervention. Also, the average percentage of visits without appointments was less than visits with appointments in both times, but the decrease in the percentage of visits without appointments was more prominent after. The regression analysis revealed that younger, married and male patients were more likely to miss their appointment before and after the intervention. Also, younger patients had a tendency to attend without appointments. Conversely, patients with the lower copayment rate had a tendency to adhere to appointment times. In conclusion, negative reinforcement interventions could improve patient appointment adherence rates. Accordingly, interventions designed that consider evidence and are theory-based are needed to change patient behavior.
Maeshiro, Masao; Izutsu, Satoru; Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm
The University of Hawai'i (UH) has been collaborating with Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital for over 46 years. This collaboration started as a post-World War II effort to increase the physician workforce. At the initiation of the US Army and State Department, the University of Hawai'i was recruited, in cooperation with the government of the Ryukyus and USCAR, to initiate a US style postgraduate clinical training program. The Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawai'i at Okinawa Chubu Hospital introduced a style of training similar to that in the US by offering a rotating internship. The initial contract had UH establish and run the Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawaii at Okinawa Central Hospital. After Okinawa's reversion to Japan, under a new contract, UH physicians participated as consultants by providing lectures at "grand rounds" and guidance to faculty, staff, and students. To date, 895 physicians have completed the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Training Program with 74 currently training. Approximately 662 (74%) of the trainees have remained in Okinawa Prefecture to practice medicine. As a result, the program has enhanced the physician workforce for the islands of Okinawa and neighbor archipelagos of Miyako and Yaeyama Islands.
Büscher, Rainer; Weber, Dominik; Büscher, Anja; Hölscher, Maite; Pohlhuis, Sandra; Groes, Bernhard; Hoyer, Peter F
Since 1986 medical students at the University Children's Hospital Essen are trained as peers in a two week intensive course in order to teach basic paediatric examination techniques to younger students. Student peers are employed by the University for one year. Emphasis of the peer teaching program is laid on the mediation of affective and sensomotorical skills e.g. get into contact with parents and children, as well as manual paediatric examination techniques. The aim of this study is to analyse whether student peers are able to impart specific paediatric examination skills as good as an experienced senior paediatric lecturer. 123 students were randomly assigned to a group with either a senior lecturer or a student peer teacher. Following one-hour teaching-sessions in small groups students had to demonstrate the learned skills in a 10 minute modified OSCE. In comparison to a control group consisting of 23 students who never examined a child before, both groups achieved a significantly better result. Medical students taught by student peers almost reached the same examination result as the group taught by paediatric teachers (21,7±4,1 vs. 22,6±3,6 of 36 points, p=0,203). Especially the part of the OSCE where exclusively practical skills where examined revealed no difference between the two groups (7,44±2,15 vs. 7,97±1,87 of a maximum of 16 points, p=0,154). The majority of students (77%) evaluated peer teaching as stimulating and helpful. The results of this quantitative teaching study reveal that peer teaching of selected skills can be a useful addition to classical paediatric teaching classes.
Melegh, Szilvia; Schneider, György; Horváth, Marianna; Jakab, Ferenc; Emődy, Levente; Tigyi, Zoltán
We investigated the molecular epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates derived from the teaching hospitals of University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary in the time period 2004-2008. Molecular typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of common β-lactamase genes (bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)) and virulence associated traits (hypermucoviscosity, magA, k2a, rmpA, siderophores, type 1 and 3 fimbria, biofilm formation, serum resistance) were performed for 102 isolates. The results showed the presence of three major ciprofloxacin resistant CTX-M-15 producing clones (ST15 n = 69, ST101 n = 10, and ST147 n = 9), of which ST15 was predominant and universally widespread. Considering distribution in time and place, ST101 and ST147 were detected at fewer inpatient units and within a narrower time frame, as compared to ST15. Beside major clones, eleven minor clones were identified, and were shown to harbour the following β-lactamase genes: six clones carried bla(CTX-M), four clones harboured bla(SHV-5) and one clone possessed both bla(CTX-M) and ESBL type bla(SHV). Among the SHV-5 producing K. pneumoniae clones a novel sequence type was found, namely ST1193, which harboured a unique infB allele. Different virulence factor content and peculiar antimicrobial susceptibility profile were characteristic for each clone. In contrast to major clone isolates, which showed high level resistance to ciprofloxacin, minor clone isolates displayed significantly lower MIC values for ciprofloxacin suggesting a role for fluoroquinolones in the dissemination of the major K. pneumoniae clones. This is the first description of the CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae clone ST101 in Hungary.
Ridolfo, Anna L; Rimoldi, Sara G; Pagani, Cristina; Marino, Andrea F; Piol, Anna; Rimoldi, Matteo; Olivieri, Pietro; Galli, Massimo; Dolcetti, Lucia; Gismondo, Maria R
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is emerging as a public health problem worldwide. In Italy, a remarkable increase in CRKP cases has been reported since 2010. In this study, CRKP diffusion, distribution and in-hospital transmission trends were evaluated in a university hospital in Milan, Italy, from January 2012 to December 2013. Isolates from 63 newly detected CRKP-positive patients were genotyped, and possible transmission was determined by combining the molecular results with data concerning the patients' admission and in-hospital transfers. Most of the cases (90.4%) were from general medical and surgery wards, and the remaining 9.6% were from the intensive care unit. Fifteen of the 46 hospital-associated cases (32.6%) were attributable to in-hospital transmission. After the introduction of targeted and hospital-wide control measures, the transmission index significantly decreased from 0.65 to 0.13 (p=0.01). There was also a decrease in the overall nosocomial case incidence, from 0.37 to 0.17 per 1000 person-days (p=0.07). Our findings indicate that the spread of CRKP in Northern Italy hospitals may go far beyond high-risk settings (i.e., intensive care units) and that strict surveillance should be extended to general areas of care.
Acuner, Ahmet Munir; Nilgun, Sarp; Cifteli, F Gulay
This research has been planned and conducted as a descriptive scanning model field study in order to determine the agent factors related with time management of doctors and nurses in positions of responsibility at Ankara University hospitals. As data collection instruments; the "Personal Information Form" which has been developed to determine the socio-demographical characteristics of the research group, the questionnaire of "Determining the Time Management Attitudes and Behaviour of Managers, Time Management Opportunities of the Managers, Prodcutive Working Times of the Managers and the Factors Causing Them to Lose Time", developed by Erdem has been used. It has been determined that the time management attitudes and behaviour of doctors, nurses and nurse assistants responsible for clinics are all different. It was found that nurse assistants graduated from pre-undergraduate or high schools are the least conscious of time management. In particular, nurse assistants of 36 years old and over with 21 years of work experience and 11 years of management experience show little awareness of time management. The time losing factors of the research group were found to be unnecessary visitors, lack of materials and the excessive amount of time spent on obtaining the necessary equipment.
Ama Moor, Vicky Jocelyne; Ndongo Amougou, Sylvie; Ombotto, Sebastien; Ntone, Felicien; Wouamba, Doriane Edna
Objective. To determine the frequency of lipid abnormalities in patients with a cardiovascular risk and disease at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) of Yaoundé. Materials and Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 1 March to 31 May 2015 at the UTH of Yaoundé. We included all patients seen in the outpatient department with a diagnosis of a cardiovascular disease or a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients who accepted to participate in the study were asked to answer a questionnaire; after that a blood sample was taken for lipid profile. An informed consent was signed by all the participants and the study has received approval from the national ethic committee. Results. We recruited 264 patients of which 119 were men and 145 were women with a sex ratio of 0.82. Mean age was 61.36 years. The frequency of lipid profiles abnormalities was as follows: low HDL cholesterol (44.3%), hypertriglyceridemia (18.9%), high LDL cholesterol (3.8%), and high total cholesterol 3.4%). Hypertriglyceridemia was strongly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion. Low levels of HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia are more prevalent in our study population. More studies are needed to confirm this finding in our environment. PMID:28163932
Ahamed S, Shaffi; Anas M, Bardeesi; Aref A, Altwair; Abdulrahman A, AlMubarak
Background and Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a group of symptoms resulting from local compression of the median nerve at the wrist leading to its subsequent functional impairment and local ischemia of the nerve. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and commonly reported symptoms of CTS in the laboratory workers of King Saud University (KSU) hospitals and to identify the associated variables with CTS. Methods: This was a quantitative observational cross-sectional study which was conducted in KSU hospitals’ laboratories with a total of 225 participants by using a standardized questionnaire known as “ Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Data Analysis was carried out by IBM SPSS Statistics software version 21.0. Results: Out of the 225 participants, 57 were found to be severely symptomatic with a prevalence of 25.3%. Among the severely affected participants, females were more than males (58% > 42%) and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.045). Technicians affected (91.2%) were more than attendants (8.8%) and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.042). Conclusion: The prevalence of Carpal tunnel syndrome in KSU hospitals’ medical laboratory staff (25.3%) was close to what was found in literature (21.5%). So laboratory workers are at risk of developing CTS, especially females and technicians with the dominant hand most likely to be affected. PMID:26101485
Badr, M A; El-Saadany, Hosam F; Ali, Adel S A; Abdelrahman, D
This study assessed the prevalence of H. pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain attending the Outpatient Pediatric Clinic of Zagazig University Hospitals. The study was conducted on 100 children suffering from different GIT symptoms mainly recurrent abdominal pain, they were categorized into 3 categories according to their ages. First category below 5 years, second category between 5 and 10 years and last category above 10 years. All subjects underwent full history taking, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Protozoa infection was in 29% of patients, helminthes 10%, chronic constipation 4% and UTI 4%. The patients with apparent etiology were excluded. The data do not support the hypothesis that there is a direct role for H. pylori infection as a causative agent for Recurrent Abdominal Pain (RAP) in children. The mean +/- SD of age of patients were 5.7 +/- 3.7, with range of 1:18 years. Male to female ratio was 1:1.1. H. pylori serum IgG antibodies were in 26 patients (43.3%) and 24 controls (p = 0.71), and H. pylori stool Ag in stool of 22 cases and 20 controls (p = 0.7).
Wang, Dalin; Ma, Linlin; Wu, Zhenyu; Li, Mingcheng; Li, Xiaohan; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Kun
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanni isolated from surgical wards in a university hospital, China. A total of 143 non-duplicate A. baumannii were isolated from 517 inpatients in surgery intensive care units (ICUs), burn wards, and general surgery wards. Of these, 102 isolates of A. baumannii (71.3%) were resistant to imipenem. Among imipenem-resistant isolates, all isolates were resistant to almost all antimicrobial agents except polymyxin E, all isolates were positive for blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 in addition to ISAba1, 52 (51%) were positive for blaOXA-58, 8 (7.8%) contained blaVIM-2, which co-harbored with blaOXA-58. Molecular typing revealed the presence of three clones among imipenem-resistant isolates. This study confirmed that A. baumannii strains harboring OXA or VIM type β-lactamases are widely distributed throughout the surgery wards. The data demonstrate that there was a high prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii infection in the region.
De Sutter, Petra
Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is not a new concept, having been around since the beginning of assisted reproductive technology. Countries having taken the lead in developing new technologies have seen an influx of patients from other countries, because of legal limitations or the unavailability of good-quality care in their home country. This paper describes the experience of the Ghent University Hospital fertility centre with Dutch and French patients and tries to set out standards of care for CBRC patients. Dutch patients usually have longer histories, more complex pathology and are better informed, more outspoken and more financially secure. Thus, the care for these patients is challenging. The standards of care should be the same for local patients and CBRC patients; however, the nature of the complexity of the problems they come with will necessitate more time investment. Experience shows that many patients who have no access to treatment in their own country obtain reasonably good results. Some of them, however, are beyond possible help and these patients need a high standard of psychological care. All should be done to avoid that cross-border patients compromise the local care system. Special arrangements should be taken to manage possible complications following treatment.
Basuni, M; Mohamed, Z; Ahmad, M; Zakaria, N Z; Noordin, R
Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of a number of important human infections in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected helminths and protozoan infections among patients admitted with gastrointestinal disorders at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia using multiplex real-time PCR. In addition microscopic examination was also performed following direct smear, zinc sulphate concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques; and the presence of protozoan parasites was confirmed using trichrome and acid-fast stains. Of the 225 faecal samples analysed, 26.2% were positive for intestinal parasites by the multiplex real-time PCR, while 5.3% were positive by microscopy. As compared to microscopy, the multiplex real-time PCR detected 5.8 and 4.5 times more positives for the selected helminth and protozoan infections respectively. Among the selected helminths detected in this study, hookworm was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, while Ascaris lumbricoides was detected the most by microscopy. Meanwhile, among the selected protozoa detected in this study, Entamoeba histolytica was the most prevalent by real-time PCR, however microscopy detected equal number of cases with E. histolytica and Giardia lamblia. This study showed that real-time PCR can be used to obtain a more accurate prevalence data on intestinal helminths and protozoa.
Lioussfi, Zineb; Errami, Zineb; Radoui, Aicha; Rhou, Hakima; Ezzaitouni, Fatima; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Bayahia, Rabea; Benamar, Loubna
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients at the Rabat University Hospital and to identify the major risk factors for transmission. A retrospective study was performed in 67 chronic HD and 36 peritoneal dialysis patients. For the screening of viral infections, we tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HBs antigen (Hbs Ag). We compared infected and non-infected patients in order to determine the risk factors for contamination. In the HD unit, the prevalence of anti-HCV was 60% and the prevalence of HBs Ag was 6%. Duration of dialysis (P = 0.001) was the only risk factor in our HD patients. In peritoneal dialysis (PD), the prevalence of anti-HCV was 8%. Hbs Ag was detected in 2.6% of our PD patients. Viral hepatitis C is the main viral infection in our HD unit. The duration of dialysis is the main risk factor for infection in our study. The transmission is essentially nosocomial, requiring a strict adherence to infection control procedures.
Alfandari, S; Leroy, O; de Botton, S; Yakoub-Agha, I; Durand-Joly, I; Leroy-Cotteau, A; Beaucaire, G
Invasive aspergillosis is a severe complication in immunocompromised patients. The arrival of new antifungal agents motivated the redaction of guidelines, regularly updated, by a Lille University hospital multidisciplinary task force. These guidelines assess diagnostic and therapeutic issues. The main recommended diagnosis tool is the chest CT scan, ordered at the smallest suspicion and, also, measure of the blood and broncho alveolar lavage fluid galactomannan. Treatment guidelines assess prophylaxis, empirical and documented therapy. Primary prophylaxis is warranted in only two cases, pulmonary graft or stem cell transplant in patients with chronic GVH and receiving corticosteroids. Empirical therapy should use one of the available amphotericin B formulations, chosen according to the patient history. Caspofungin is another choice. Documented therapy, depending on presentation, can be a single drug or a combination. First line therapy for single drug is i.v. voriconazole. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B are another choice. A combination therapy can be used as a first line treatment, for multiple lesions, or as salvage therapy. It must include caspofungin, associated with liposomal amphotericin B or voriconazole. A tight cooperation with thoracic surgeons is recommended.
Nagi, Sana Ehsen; Khan, Farhan Raza; Ali, Rabia
The aim of the retrospective study was to assess the clinical and radiographic outcome of the dental implant surgery and prosthetics. It was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised of medical charts and radiographic records of patients visiting between 2010 and 2015. Variables such as implant dimensions, final prosthesis, method of retention, loading protocol and patient factors were analysed. A total of 223 implants (143(64.1%) in maxilla and 80(35.9%) in mandible) were placed in 92 subjects (50(54.3%) males and 42(45.7%) females). All implants were Zimmer tapered screw-vent. Length of 108(48.4%) implants was 11.5mm and diameter of 84(37.7%) implants was 4.7mm. Besides, 6(2.7%) implants failed to osseointegrate, whereas 1(0.4%) implant failed at 12 months of loading. Among the 216(96.9%) successful implants, 140(64.8%) served as bridge abutments, 72(33.3%) were single crown abutments and 4(1.9%) were overdenture abutments. Also, 37(17.1%) implants were immediately loaded. The six-year survival rate of implants was 96.9%.
Frickmann, Hagen; Schmeja, Wibke; Reisinger, Emil; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Mitzner, Karen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Warnke, Philipp; Podbielski, Andreas
This study assessed protective effects of a continuous introduction of safe instruments in terms of reduction of needle stick injuries. The retrospective study analyzed correlations between the increasing proportion of safe instruments and a reduction of the incidence of needle stick injuries linked to such instruments in a German university hospital over 5 years. Incidents declined about 17.6% from 80.3 incidents per 1000 employees to 66.2, associated with an increase in the proportions of injuries due to instruments without protective mechanisms such as scalpels or hypodermic needles by 12.2%. For injuries due to venipuncture cannulae in various surgical and internal medicine departments, there was a negative association between the proportion of safe instruments and the incidence of injuries. For injection needles, portacath needles, and lancets in selected internal medicine departments, the number of injuries also dropped during this study interval. However, there was no clear-cut association with the percentage of safe instruments. This observational study suggests a correlation between the implementation of use of safe instruments and the reduction of needle stick injuries in a case of a graduated implementation. However, the effects are much less pronounced than in previous interventional studies. PMID:27766172
Background Although the majority of the snakebite cases in Malaysia are due to non-venomous snakes, venomous bites cause significant morbidity and mortality if treatment measures, especially ant-venom therapy, are delayed. Methods To determine the demographic characteristics, we conducted a retrospective study on all snakebite patients admitted to the Emergency Department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) from January 2006 to December 2010. Results In the majority of the 260 cases that we found (138 cases or 52.9%), the snake species was unidentified. The most common venomous snakebites among the identified species were caused by cobras (52 cases or 20%). Cobra bites are significantly more likely to result in severe envenomation compared to non-cobra bites. Post hoc analysis also showed that cobra bite patients are significantly less likely to have complete recovery than non-cobra bite patients (48 cases, 75.0% vs. 53 cases, 94.6%; p = 0.003) and more likely to result in local gangrene (11 cases, 17.2% vs. 3 cases, 5.4%; p = 0.044). Conclusion Cobra bites are significantly more likely to result in severe envenomation needing anti-venom administration and more likely to result in local gangrene, and the patients are significantly less likely to have complete recovery than those with non-cobra bites. PMID:21752254
Magi, Tatjana; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Torchetti, Loredana; Wengenroth, Laura; Lüer, Sonja; Frei-Erb, Martin
Background Though complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are frequently used by children and adolescents with cancer, there is little information on how and why they use it. This study examined prevalence and methods of CAM, the therapists who applied it, reasons for and against using CAM and its perceived effectiveness. Parent-perceived communication was also evaluated. Parents were asked if medical staff provided information on CAM to patients, if parents reported use of CAM to physicians, and what attitude they thought physicians had toward CAM. Study Design All childhood cancer patients treated at the University Children’s Hospital Bern between 2002–2011 were retrospectively surveyed about their use of CAM. Results Data was collected from 133 patients (response rate: 52%). Of those, 53% had used CAM (mostly classical homeopathy) and 25% of patients received information about CAM from medical staff. Those diagnosed more recently were more likely to be informed about CAM options. The most frequent reason for choosing CAM was that parents thought it would improve the patient’s general condition. The most frequent reason for not using CAM was lack of information. Of those who used CAM, 87% perceived positive effects. Conclusions Since many pediatric oncology patients use CAM, patients’ needs should be addressed by open communication between families, treating oncologists and CAM therapists, which will allow parents to make informed and safe choices about using CAM. PMID:26694320
Lamboro, Tesfahun; Bacha, Ketema
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8%) and 2 (1.1%), respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100%) followed by tetracycline (47.4%) and nalidixic acid (26.3%) while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each). Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large. PMID:27642307
Huyke, Johanna; Martin, Ronny; Walther, Grit; Weber, Michael; Kaerger, Kerstin; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Elias, Johannes; Kurzai, Oliver
From an eight-year-span, 99 Candida bloodstream isolates were collected at the University Hospital Wuerzburg, Germany. In this study, all strains were analyzed using molecular and phenotypic typing methods. Confirmatory species identification revealed three isolates that were initially diagnosed as C. albicans to be actually C. dubliniensis. Two isolates contained a mixed culture of C. albicans and C. glabrata, in one of the specimens both species could be separated while it was not possible to recover C. albicans in the other sample. The remaining 95 C. albicans isolates were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phylogenetic analyses showed a highly heterogenous collection of strains, associated with many different clades and constituting a set of new diploid sequence types (DST). For all strains with identical DST, patient data were reviewed for potential nosocomial transmission. In addition, all isolates were tested for their susceptibility to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole. No clinically relevant resistance could be detected. Furthermore, these data underline that correlation between minimal inhibitory concentrations for caspofungin and anidulafungin is low.
Obisesan, Oluranti J.; Olowe, Olugbenga A.; Taiwo, Samuel S.
The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140
Tamer, Gülden Sönmez; Calişkan, Seyda; Willke, Ayşe
In this study, 5178 fecal samples collected from patients who applied to our university during May 2003 through June 2005 were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Out of 5178 samples, 4560 of them were collected with cellophane tape preparations. Fecal samples were examined using native- Lugol and the trichrome staining method after sedimentation by formal-ethyl acetate concentration. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was evaluated with respect to age, gender and the months in which cases were seen. One or more parasites were found in 553 (10.67%) of the 5178 stool samples. Of these, 39.8% were female and 60.2, male. The distribution of the intestinal parasites was as follows; G. intestinalis in 138 cases (24.9%), E. vermicularis in 129 cases (23.3%), D. fragilis in 10 cases (1.8%), I. bütschlii cysts in 26 cases (4.7%), Taenia spp in 17 cases (3.07%) and Chilomastix mesnili in one case (0.18%). The rate of the presence of intestinal parasites in the 0-14 age group was higher than that of other groups. The incidence of parasitic diseases was lower in this study as compared to the results previously reported from our hospital. In our region intestinal parasites were predominantly protozoan whereas a lower rate of helminth isolations was noticeable. Parasitic infections continue to be an important public health problem in our country.
Obisesan, Oluranti J; Olowe, Olugbenga A; Taiwo, Samuel S
The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31-45 and 16-30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere.
Couat, J-F; Cegarra, J; Rodsphon, T; Geeraerts, T; Lelardeux, C; Sol, J-C; Lagarrigue, P; Minville, V; Lubrano, V F
The operating room (OR) is a high-risk complex setting, where patient safety relies on the coordinated efforts of multiple team members. However, little attention has been paid to evaluating the strategies employed by OR practitioners to prevent and correct incidents that inevitably occur during surgery. Therefore, we were prompted to investigate human factor (HF) engineering methods that have been used in an innovative way in order to systematically observe and analyze the management of incidents in the neurosurgical OR of a French university hospital. A technical case report illustrates our approach that associates the following procedures: the recording of OR team member activities and behaviour by video cameras and direct observation of a HF researcher, with the description and the explicit demonstration of safety related procedures in self- and cross-confrontation interviews of OR team members. This technical report emphasizes complementary aspects of clinical performance related to safety skills. Moreover, individual and team performances rely on complementary abilities that associate practical knowledge, skills, and attitudes, which are engaged at various degrees to prevent and manage incidents. This report also enlightens new quality-improvement opportunities as well as further objectives for future studies.
Frauenfelder, T; Puhan, M A; Lazor, R; von Garnier, C; Bremerich, J; Niemann, T; Christe, A; Montet, X; Gautschi, O; Weder, W; Kohler, M
The discussion about setting up a program for lung cancer screening was launched with the publication of the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, which suggested reduced mortality in high-risk subjects undergoing CT screening. However, important questions about the benefit-harm balance and the details of a screening program and its cost-effectiveness remain unanswered. A panel of specialists in chest radiology, respiratory medicine, epidemiology, and thoracic surgery representing all Swiss university hospitals prepared this joint statement following several meetings. The panel argues that premature and uncontrolled introduction of a lung cancer screening program may cause substantial harm that may remain undetected without rigorous quality control. This position paper focuses on the requirements of running such a program with the objective of harmonizing efforts across the involved specialties and institutions and defining quality standards. The underlying statement includes information on current evidence for a reduction in mortality with lung cancer screening and the potential epidemiologic implications of such a program in Switzerland. Furthermore, requirements for lung cancer screening centers are defined, and recommendations for both the CT technique and the algorithm for lung nodule assessment are provided. In addition, related issues such as patient management, registry, and funding are addressed. Based on the current state of the knowledge, the panel concludes that lung cancer screening in Switzerland should be undertaken exclusively within a national observational study in order to provide answers to several critical questions before considering broad population-based screening for lung cancer.
Rosen, M. A.; Sampson, J. B.; Jackson, E. V.; Koka, R.; Chima, A. M.; Ogbuagu, O. U.; Marx, M. K.; Koroma, M.; Lee, B. H.
Background Anaesthesia care in developed countries involves sophisticated technology and experienced providers. However, advanced machines may be inoperable or fail frequently when placed into the austere medical environment of a developing country. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a method for engaging local staff in identifying real or potential breakdowns in processes or work systems and to develop strategies to mitigate risks. Methods Nurse anaesthetists from the two tertiary care hospitals in Freetown, Sierra Leone, participated in three sessions moderated by a human factors specialist and an anaesthesiologist. Sessions were audio recorded, and group discussion graphically mapped by the session facilitator for analysis and commentary. These sessions sought to identify potential barriers to implementing an anaesthesia machine designed for austere medical environments—the universal anaesthesia machine (UAM)—and also engaging local nurse anaesthetists in identifying potential solutions to these barriers. Results Participating Sierra Leonean clinicians identified five main categories of failure modes (resource availability, environmental issues, staff knowledge and attitudes, and workload and staffing issues) and four categories of mitigation strategies (resource management plans, engaging and educating stakeholders, peer support for new machine use, and collectively advocating for needed resources). Conclusions We identified factors that may limit the impact of a UAM and devised likely effective strategies for mitigating those risks. PMID:24833727
da Silva, Rosângela Marion; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; de Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo; Prestes, Francine Cassol
ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the effects of work on the health of nurses who work in clinical surgery departments at university hospitals in relation to physical, social and psychological suffering and pain. Methods: a quantitative transversal study was carried out between 2012 and 2013 in four institutions in a state located in the south of Brazil. We studied 65 nurses who responded to questions on their habits. We also obtained sociodemographical information on them as well as conducting an evaluation on work relational damage using an evaluation scale. Associations were checked through the use of the Chi-Sqaure and Fisher's exact test. Correlations were checked using the Spearmann test. Results: we found that physical ailments persisted and that there were connections between social and psychological pain/suffering and variable physical activities as well as connections with accidents in the work place and the option to work shifts. We noted correlations between social and psychological pain/suffering. Conclusion: nurses had their health compromised due to their work in clinical surgery departments. PMID:27508914
Chomba, Elwyn; Murray, Laura; Kautzman, Michele; Haworth, Alan; Kasese-Bota, Mwaba; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwansa, Kaunda; Amaya, Mia; Thea, Don; Semrau, Katherine
Objective. To improve care of sexually abused children by establishment of a "One Stop Centre" at the University Teaching Hospital. Methodology. Prior to opening of the One Stop Centre, a management team comprising of clinical departmental heads and a technical group of professionals (health workers, police, psychosocial counselors lawyers and media) were put in place. The team evaluated and identified gaps and weaknesses on the management of sexually abused children prevailing in Zambia. A manual was produced which would be used to train all professionals manning a One Stop Centre. A team of consultants from abroad were identified to offer need based training activities and a database was developed. Results. A multidisciplinary team comprising of health workers, police and psychosocial counselors now man the centre. The centre is assisted by lawyers as and when required. UTH is offering training to other areas of the country to establish similar services by using a Trainer of Trainers model. A comprehensive database has been established for Lusaka province. Conclusion. For establishment of a One Stop Centre, there needs to be a core group comprising of managers as well as a technical team committed to the management and protection of sexually abused children.
Mgahed, M; El-Helbawy, R; Omar, A; El-Meselhy, H; Abd El-Halim, R
Pneumonia is common among critically ill burn patients and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among them. Prediction of mortality in patients with severe burns remains unreliable. The aim of this research is to study the incidence, early diagnosis and management of nosocomial pneumonia, and to discuss the relationship between pneumonia and death in burn patients. This prospective study was carried out on 80 burn patients (35 males and 45 females) admitted to Menoufiya University Hospital Burn Center and Chest Department, Egypt, from September 2011 to March 2012. Our findings showed an overall burn patient mortality rate of 26.25 % (21/80), 15% (12/80) incidence of pneumonia, and a 50% (6/12) mortality rate among patients with pneumonia compared to 22 % (15/68) for those without pneumonia. The incidence of pneumonia was twice as high in the subset of patients with inhalation injury as among those without inhalation injury (P< 0.001). It was found that the presence of pneumonia, inhalation injury, increased burn size, and advanced age were all associated with increased mortality (P< 0.001). In the late onset pneumonia, other associated factors also contributed to mortality. Severity of disease, severity of illness (APACHE score), organ failure, underlying co-morbidities, and VAP PIRO score all have significant correlations with mortality rate. Pneumonia was an important factor for predicting burn patient mortality. Early detection and management of pneumonia are absolutely essential.
Hsiung, P C; Tsai, Y F; Hung, C C; Chen, M Y
The purpose of this study was to investigate internal medicine residents' HIV-related knowledge and their attitudes towards caring for HIV-infected patients, and determine the extent to which these variables influence their care-providing intention. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 56 internal medicine residents at a university hospital in Taiwan. Results showed residents' lack of sufficient knowledge was reflected by their inaccurate assessment of HIV-associated risk and their tendency to overuse protective gear in unnecessary situations. In general, residents expressed slightly positive attitudes with a neutral intention to care for HIV-infected patients. Knowledge and attitudes were significantly correlated with intention. The use of stepwise regression analysis revealed attitudes accounted for 59% of the variance in intention. Future efforts should focus on designing, implementing, and evaluating educational programmes that address residents' needs to ensure a solid HIV-related knowledge base, support their positive attitudes, address their ambivalent feelings toward providing HIV care, and enhance their intention to care for HIV-infected patients.
Kouéta, Fla; Yé, Diarra; Dao, Lassina; Zoungrana-Kaboré, Alice; Ouédraogo, Sylvie Armelle P; Napon, M; Sawadogo, Alphonse
To compare the clinical and radiological aspects of lung diseases in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children, we conducted a retrospective case control study covering a 3-year period from January 2003 through December 2005 at Charles de Gaulle University Pediatric Hospital Center in Ouagadougou. HIV-positive patients hospitalised for lung disease were matched to HIV-negative patients controls, hospitalised for the same symptoms, by age and date of hospitalisation. The study included 186 patients (93 HIV-positive and 93 HIV-negative) and collected data on age, sex, clinical signs, radiological signs and short-term course. Of the 93 HIV-positive children suspected to have been contaminated by mother-to-child transmission, 92 had HIV1 and 1 had a double infection of HIV1 and 2. The mean age in both groups was 48 months. Clinically severe lung disease (44%) was more common in HIV-positive children. Radiology showed that interstitial syndrome was significantly more common in HIV-positive children (p=0001) with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 60%. The case-fatality rate was 4.2% among HIV-positive children. This study allows us to remind paediatricians of the importance of lung disease in HIV-infected children. Moreover, the vertical transmission responsible for disease in all our patients shows the need to accelerate the scaling up of the program for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in our country.
Arrayhani, Mohamed; El Youbi, Randa; Sqalli, Tarik
Introduction. Acute kidney injury (PRAKI) continues to be common in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to study AKI characteristics in pregnancy and identify the factors related to the unfavorable evolution. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez, Morocco, from February 01, 2011 to January 31, 2012. All patients presenting PRAKI were included. Results. 37 cases of PRAKI were listed. Their ages varied from 20 to 41 years old, with an average of 29.03 ± 6.3 years and an average parity of 1.83. High blood pressure was the most common symptom (55.6%). Thirty-nine percent were oliguric. PRAKI occurred during the 3rd trimester in 66.6% of the cases and 25% of the cases in the postpartum. Hemodialysis was necessary in 16.2% of cases. The main causes were preeclampsia, hemorrhagic shocks, and functional, respectively, in 66.6%, 25%, and 8.3% of the cases. The outcome was favorable, with a complete renal function recovery for 28 patients. Poor prognosis was related to two factors: age over 38 years and advanced stage of AKI according to RIFLE classification. Conclusion. Prevention of PRAKI requires an improvement of the sanitary infrastructures with the implementation of an obligatory prenatal consultation.
El-Sheikh, M.; El-Ghazaly, G.
Worldwide, hemodialysis (HD) constitutes the most common form of renal replacement therapy. Many studies have shown strong correlation between HD dose and clinical outcome. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 patients in Hemodialysis Unit at Tanta University Hospital, Egypt. Data were collected using a reliable questionnaire (including clinical, demographic, dialysis, laboratory, and radiological data). SpKt/V was used to assess the adequacy of HD. The results revealed inadequate HD dose among 60% of the study population. The results also showed that increasing time and frequency of dialysis, blood flow rates, low recirculation percentages, reduction of intradialytic complaints, and well-functioning vascular access are associated with better HD adequacy. Our findings showed a positive correlation between dialysis dose and hemoglobin, serum albumin, normalized protein catabolic rate, and physical health. A great percentage of patients had inadequate HD. HD adequacy was influenced by several factors such as duration and frequency of dialysis session, patients’ complaints, and well-functioning vascular access. PMID:27942169
Asuquo, Maurice E.; Ekpo, R.; Ngim, Ogbu; Agbor, C.
Background: Burn injuries are among the most devastating injuries seen in the emergency units. The epidemiology of this injury varies from one part of the world to another. This is a 3-year report in an attempt to provide information on the current epidemiology of burns in this center. Method: Patients admitted into the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, with burn injuries were prospectively studied between February 2005 and January 2008. Results: The 59 patients (33 males and 26 females) accounted for 3.7% of trauma patients and their ages ranged from 15 to 70 years (mean 29.4 years). Flame burn was the commonest injury seen in 48 (81.3%) patients because of petrol and kerosene, whereas chemical burn that involved 7 (11.9%) patients ranked second. Morbidity included burns wound infection in 13 (22%) patients and contractures in 6 (10.2%) patients. The outcome was fatal in 15 (25.4%) patients. Conclusion: The establishment of burn support groups dedicated to publicity on prevention based on areas of risk highlighted in this study and provision of financial aid as well as provision of modern burn care facilities would improve outcome. PMID:18716653
Aljarrah, Adil; Malik, Kamran Ahmad; Jamil, Husam; Jaffer, Zoheb; Sawhney, Sukhpal; Lakhtakia, Ritu
Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to correlate the significance and accuracy of the colour of nipple discharge and breast ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of intraductal papilloma. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 34 patients who underwent 36 microdochectomies in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in the Sultanate of Oman, over a 4 year period of January 2009 till December 2012. The confounders considered were patient age, physical examination findings, nipple discharge cytology result, ultrasound results and biopsy report following microdochectomy. Comparisons analysis, charts and graphs were made using the SPSS software (version 20). Results: The mean age of the patients was 44(27-73) years old. Twenty-seven out 36 (75%) patients had presented with nipple discharge, 14 out 27 (52%) had blood stained nipple discharge and 13(48%) with coloured discharge (yellow, brown and green), 9 patients had no discharge. The final histopathology showed intraductal papilloma 13 (36%), duct ectasia 18(50%), DCIS 1 (2.7%), fibrocystic disease 3(8.3%) and LCIS 1(2.7%). Thirteen out of 36 had intraductal papilloma on final histopathology. The correlation between blood stained discharge and final histopathology of intraductal papilloma was insignificant (p=0.44). Conclusion: Nipple discharge is irrelevant to the diagnosis of intraductal papilloma. Spontaneous nipple discharge regardless of color is to be referred to breast surgeon and to be assessed with triple assessment. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. PMID:26101505
Faraji-Khiavi, F; Ghobadian, S; Moradi-Joo, E
Background and Objective: Knowledge management is introduced as a key element of quality improvement in organizations. There was no such research in university hospitals of Ahvaz. This study aimed to determine the association between the effectiveness of the processes of knowledge management and the health services quality from the managers’ view in the educational hospitals of Ahvaz city. Materials and Methods: in this correlational and research, the research population consisted of 120 managers from hospitals in University of Medical Sciences Ahvaz. Due to the limited population, the census was run. Three questionnaires were used for data collection: Demographic characteristics, the effectiveness of knowledge management processes and the quality of medical services. To analyze the data, the Spearman association analysis, The Kruskal-Wallis, the Mann–Whitney U test, were used in SPSS. Results: estimation of average scoring of the effectiveness of knowledge management processes and its components were relatively appropriate. Quality of medical services was estimated as relatively appropriate. Relationship of quality of health services with the effectiveness of knowledge management processes showed a medium and positive correlation (p < 0.001). Managers with different genders showed significant differences in knowledge development and transfer (P = 0.003). Conclusion: a significant and positive association was observed between the effectiveness of knowledge management processes and health care quality. To improve the health care quality in university hospitals, managers should pay more attention to develop the cultures of innovation, encourage teamwork, and improve communication and creative thinking in the knowledge management context PMID:28316735
Faraji-Khiavi, F; Ghobadian, S; Moradi-Joo, E
Background and Objective: Knowledge management is introduced as a key element of quality improvement in organizations. There was no such research in university hospitals of Ahvaz. This study aimed to determine the association between the effectiveness of the processes of knowledge management and the health services quality from the managers' view in the educational hospitals of Ahvaz city. Materials and Methods: in this correlational and research, the research population consisted of 120 managers from hospitals in University of Medical Sciences Ahvaz. Due to the limited population, the census was run. Three questionnaires were used for data collection: Demographic characteristics, the effectiveness of knowledge management processes and the quality of medical services. To analyze the data, the Spearman association analysis, The Kruskal-Wallis, the Mann-Whitney U test, were used in SPSS. Results: estimation of average scoring of the effectiveness of knowledge management processes and its components were relatively appropriate. Quality of medical services was estimated as relatively appropriate. Relationship of quality of health services with the effectiveness of knowledge management processes showed a medium and positive correlation (p < 0.001). Managers with different genders showed significant differences in knowledge development and transfer (P = 0.003). Conclusion: a significant and positive association was observed between the effectiveness of knowledge management processes and health care quality. To improve the health care quality in university hospitals, managers should pay more attention to develop the cultures of innovation, encourage teamwork, and improve communication and creative thinking in the knowledge management context.
Yoshino, Kazuho; Nishiumi, Noboru; Kushino, Nobuhisa; Tsukada, Michiko; Douzono, Sachiko; Saito, Yuki; Yagame, Mitsunori; Tokuda, Yutaka
The palliative care team's roles are to provide a symptom relief to cancer patients, help them accept their medical conditions, and offer advice regarding the selection of appropriate medical treatments to suit their needs. Seeking the comfort of their homes, patients prefer a home care of superior medical care provided at hospitals. In 2008, 25 of the end-stage cancer patients at hospitals were expressed their desires to have a home medical care, and 10 of them were allowed to do so. We considered the following contributing factors that a patient should have for a smooth transition from hospital care to home medical care: (1) life expectancy of more than 2 months, (2) no progressive breathing difficulties experienced daily, (3) good awareness of medical condition among patients and families, (4) living with someone who has a good understanding of the condition, (5) availability of an appropriate hospital in case of a sudden change in medical requirements, and (6) good collaboration between emergency care hospitals, home physicians, and visiting nurses. To treat the end-stage cancer patients at home, there is a need for information sharing and a joint training of physicians specialized in cancer therapy, palliative care teams, home physicians, and visiting nurses. This would ensure a sustainable "face-to-face collaboration" in community health care.
Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Nishiya, Masako; Miyamoto, Toshiko; Shikishima, Michiyo; Imura, Mitsuko; Nakanishi, Rika; Ariuchi, Kazuyo; Akaishi, Akiyo; Takai, Shigemi; Abe, Shinji; Kisyuku, Masatoshi; Kageyama, Chieko; Sato, Chiho; Yamagami, Makiko; Urakawa, Noriko; Sone, Saburo; Irahara, Minoru
The development of new and useful pharmaceutical drugs is essential in order to improve the quality of drug therapeutics. Clinical trials play a central role in drug development. Over time, the clinical trial infrastructure has improved and is now integrating the contribution of clinical research coordinators (CRC). Nevertheless, the attitude of doctors towards clinical trials still favors conventional/historical methodologies. In the present study, we explored the view of doctors towards clinical trials for drug development, in order to improve communication among participants, sponsors, and investigators.A questionnaire was designed for this pilot study. The questionnaire included general attitudes, difficult points, the benefit of doctors in participating as investigators, special attention requirements, and the expected role of CRC in clinical trials for drug approval. In addition, the appropriate use of the outpatient clinic was examined. The questionnaire was provided to doctors in each department of Tokushima University Hospital in 2000 and 2004. Because of the small number of subjects included in this pilot study, no statistical analysis is presented. A total of 89 (81%) and 62 (56%) doctors among 110 responded to the survey in 2000 and 2004, respectively. Inquiries about the familiarity of the physicians with clinical trials for drug approval revealed that 84% in 2000 and 66% in 2004 were aware of such trials. The attitude towards participating as investigators in the clinical trials was favorable, with a response of 66% in 2000 and 58% in 2004. Patients' refusal and the informed consent process were considered difficult areas by many doctors. Expected roles of CRC included activities based on the nurse's specialty. Although many doctors agreed to take care of the study participants separately from the clinical practice, they lacked the time to do so. In spite of the doctors' workload reduction by introduction of the CRC concept, their views regarding
Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Zerouali, Khalid; Katfy, Khalid; El Otmani, Fatima; Timinouni, Mohammed; Elmdaghri, Naima
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and the characteristics of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiellapneumoniae isolates recovered from various clinical specimens in the university hospital of Casablanca, in Morocco. We conducted a prospective study on a total of 166 K. pneumoniae isolates collected from June to August 2011. The strains suspected to carry carbapenemase showed reduced susceptibility to imipenem or ertapenem. The PCR and a sequencing strategy were used to identify carbapenemases, expended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases, plasmid mediated quinolone resistance and aminoglycoside resistance determinants. The clonal relationships between isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 166 K. pneumoniae isolates studied, 11 (6%) were carbapenemases producers, 9 of which harbored blaOXA-48 and 2 were positive for blaNDM-1. All carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae were also ESBL producers and the blaCTX-M-15 was the most frequent ESBL gene detected (n=9), blaCTX-M-28 and blaSHV-28 were also encountered in one isolate each. The K.pneumoniae isolates carried also non-ESBL genes blaTEM-1 (n=9), blaSHV-1 (n=8) and blaOXA-1 (n=3). Five isolates harbored qnr genes, qnrS1 (n=3) and qnrB1 (n=2) variants. Six isolates were positive for aac(6')-Ib-cr gene and two for aac(3)-II gene. The class 1 integron was detected in five isolates. PFGE has revealed the presence of a clonal dissemination in our hospital. The results of conjugation experiments indicated that blaOXA-48+blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-48+blaCTX-M-28, blaNDM-1+blaCTX-M-15+blaTEM-1+blaOXA-1+qnrS1+aac(6')-Ib-cr and blaNDM-1+blaCTX-M-15+blaTEM-1+qnrB1+aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were co-transferred and that these genes were carried by a conjugative plasmid of high molecular weight.
Meiner, Zeev; Tuchner, Maya; Shiri, Shimon; Tsenter, Jeanna; Shochina, Mara; Shoshan, Yigal; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Schwartz, Isabella
From late September 2000 until 2005, the State of Israel was attacked by continuing acts of terrorism known as the Al Aqsa Intifada. During this period the number of terror victims treated in rehabilitation facilities has escalated significantly. The city of Jerusalem has a unique place in the heart of the Israel-Palestinian conflict and, therefore, almost 20% of national atrocities have been carried out in Jerusalem. Between September.2000 and September 2004, 72 terror victims were treated in the department of rehabilitation in Hadassah University Hospital. Among them, 47 (65%) suffered from multiple trauma without CNS involvment, 19 (26%) suffered from traumatic brain injury and 6 (8%) suffered from spinal cord injury. The rehabilitation outcomes of terror victims was compared to the rehabilitation outcomes of non-terror multiple trauma patients treated in the same rehabilitation facility over the same period. The rehabilitation outcomes were evaluted using the following parameters: length of hospitalization (LOH) in acute care departments, inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation departments, functional outcome (Functional Independence Measurement, FIM), occupational outcome (returning to previous occupation) and psychological outcome (Salomon PTSD questionnaire). The mean LOH of terror victims was 218 +/- 131 days as opposed to 152 +/- 114 days for the non-terror group (p < 0.01). The difference between FIM value at entry and discharge (delta FIM) was significantlly higher in terror victims as compared to controls (41.1 +/- 21.6 vs. 30.8 +/- 21.8, p = 0.002). The rate of PTSD was higher among terror victims than non-terror control (40.9% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.04). The rate of returning to previous occupation was similar between terror and non-terror victims (53% vs. 46.9% respectively). Long term study showed that terror victims still suffer from lower quality of life and life satisfaction 2 years after the insult. In summary, terror victims spent longer periods in
Dávila, Leticia Hernández; Rivera, Nixzaliz Rodríguez; Valentin, Mariel López; Haddock, Lillian; Martínez, Renil Rodríguez; Bossolo, Alex González
Vitamin D has been attracting increased attention due to higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency than expected in areas with sufficient sun exposure. Even though sunlight exposure and diet are the main determinants of Vitamin D status, other factors such as: age, race, use of sunscreen, medications, and malabsorptive conditions affect vitamin D levels. Recent studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in different populations. However, there is limited data of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Puerto Rico. To answer that question we evaluated a sample of 51 internal medicine residents from ages 25 to 39 of the University Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico by means of a questionnaire about basic socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric data, and lifestyle characteristics and obtained blood sampling for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 21 ng/mL (range, 7–38 ng/mL). Forty-five participants (88.2%) had 25 hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <30 ng/mL. We found vitamin D deficiency in 43.1% of the population and insufficiency in 45.1%. Contributory factors to our findings include limited exposure to sunlight during the periods of higher sun intensity, increased body mass index and a limited area of body exposed to sunlight. A relationship between lower physical activity levels and hypovitaminosis D was also found. Both calcium intake and vitamin D intake, which were markedly below recommended daily allowance, were positively correlated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, but with a weak association. PMID:26061058
Ramírez-Vick, Margarita; Hernández-Dávila, Leticia; Rodríguez-Rivera, Nixzaliz; López-Valentín, Mariel; Haddock, Lillian; Rodríguez-Martínez, Renil; González-Bossolo, Alex
Vitamin D has been attracting increased attention because of higher prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency than expected in areas with sufficient sun exposure. Even though sunlight exposure and diet are the main determinants of vitamin D status, other factors, such as age, race, the use (or not) of sunscreen, medications, and malabsorptive conditions, also affect vitamin D levels. Recent studies have found high prevalences of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in different populations. However, there are limited data regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Puerto Rico. To shed more light on the subject, we evaluated a sample of 51 internal medicine residents and research fellows, aged from 25 to 39 years at the University District Hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico, doing so by means of a questionnaire that explored basic socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics and collected anthropometric data; in addition, we obtained blood samples in order to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The median 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 21 ng/mL (range, 7-38 ng/mL). Forty-five participants (88.2%) had 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of lower than 30 ng/mL. We found vitamin D deficiencies in 43.1% of the population and insufficiencies in 45.1%. Contributory factors to our findings include limited exposure to sunlight during periods of high sun intensity, increased body mass index, and a limited area of the body being exposed to sunlight. A relationship between reduced physical activity levels and hypovitaminosis D was also found. Both calcium intake and vitamin D intake, which were markedly below recommended daily allowances, were positively correlated with 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, but with a weak association.
Al-Maddah, Esraa M.; Al-Dabal, Badria K.; Khalil, Mohammad S.
Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common among medical residents of all specialties. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms among medical residents in King Fahd University Hospital (KFUH) in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the association between sleep deprivation, sleepiness and depressive symptoms was examined. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and April 2012 and involved 171 KFUH medical residents of different specialties. Data were collected using a specifically designed questionnaire eliciting demographic information, working hours and number of hours of sleep. In addition, validated Arabic versions of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-2 (BDI-2) were used. Results: The prevalence of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep deprivation among residents in KFUH was 85.9% and 63.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overall sleepiness was 52%; 43.3% reported being excessively sleepy in certain situations while 8.8% reported being excessively sleepy regardless of the situation. Based on the BDI-2, the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe depressive symptoms was 43.3%, 15.2% and 4.7%, respectively. Significant associations were found between sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms; depressive symptoms and sleepiness, and depressive symptoms and being a female resident. Conclusion: The vast majority of medical residents had acute sleep deprivation, with more than half suffering from chronic sleep deprivation. The number of hours and quality of sleep among the residents were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. New regulations are recommended regarding the number of working hours and night duties for medical residents. Further studies should assess these new regulations on a regular basis. PMID:25685390
Leeungurasatien, Thidarat; Khunsongkiet, Preeyanuch; Pathanapitoon, Kassara; Wiwatwongwana, Damrong
Background: To determine the incidence of early postoperative complications and associated factors after primary trabeculectomy in Thai glaucoma patients. Design: This was a retrospective observational study performed in Chiang Mai University Hospital. Participants: One hundred and eighteen glaucoma patients participated in the study. Methods: All glaucoma patients underwent primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) using fornix-based conjunctival flap technique between December 2011 and May 2013. Surgical complications during the first 3 months of follow-up were recorded, and associated risk factors were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: The incidence of posttrabeculectomy complications was the main outcome measure. Results: One hundred and eighteen eyes of 118 patients were included. Early postoperative complications developed in 55 eyes (56.7%). Complications included hypotony (25 eyes, 27.2%), serous choroidal detachment (CD) (14 eyes, 15.6%), subconjunctival hemorrhage (12 eyes, 13.0%), hyphema (11 eyes, 12.4%), bleb leak (8 eyes, 8.8%), encapsulated bleb (2 eyes, 2.2%), aqueous misdirection (1 eyes, 1.1%), corneal epithelial defect (1 eyes, 1.1%), and overfiltration (1 eyes, 1.1%). There were no reported cases of endophthalmitis or blebitis. Hypotony was associated with serous CD (P = 0.006), and hyphema was associated with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) patients (P = 0.009). NVG was not associated with the increased rate of surgical failure (P = 0.083). Conclusions: The incidence of early complications after first-time trabeculectomy with MMC was high (56.7%) in this Thai clinic setting, but most were transient and self-limited conditions. The correlations between hypotony and CD as well as hyphema and NVG were compatible with the previous studies. PMID:27905335
Baldé, I S; Diallo, F B; Conté, I; Diallo, M H; Sylla, I; Diallo, B S; Diallo, T S; Sy, T
The objectives of this study were to calculate the frequency of ectopic pregnancy in the department, define its epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects, and determine a clear therapeutic approach appropriate to our setting. In this prospective study, we compiled all cases of ectopic pregnancy seen in 2011 and 2012 in the obstetrics-gynecology department at Ignace Deen University Hospital in Conakry. Ectopic pregnancies represented 1.3% of all deliveries over this period. In the 111 cases in this population, women aged 30-34 years accounted for 31.5%, those pregnant for the first time 40.5%, nulliparous women 35.1%, married women 72.1%, those without schooling 43.2%), and those with a history of sexually transmitted infection 57.6% (these categories are not exclusive, and the same women may be included in several). Secondary amenorrhea with abdominopelvic pain and metrorrhagia was the reason for admission in 56.5% of cases. Ultrasound in early pregnancy is infrequent in Conakry. Almost all of our patients underwent emergency surgery (80.2%) More than half of the ectopic pregnancies were located in the ampulla of the uterine tubes (73.0%). There were three abdominal pregnancies and 2 ovarian. In all cases the treatment was surgical, most often salpingectomy. Postoperative complications occurred in 35.1% of cases, most often anemia (27.9% of all cases) requiring blood transfusion in 11.7% of all cases before, during, or after surgery. The maternal death rate was 1.8%. Ectopic pregnancy remains a major concern at Ignace Deen CHU. Reduction of its frequency requires increased population awareness of sexually transmitted infections and illegal abortions. Management should be prompt and appropriate.
Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy. PMID:22410271
Shalaby, Mona Fattouh Mohamed; El-din, Asmaa Nasr; El-Hamd, Mohammed Abu
Aim The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and explore the in-vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of dermatophytes isolated from clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis (tinea infections) attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. Methods This study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital from December 2014 to December 2015. Clinical samples (e.g., skin scrapings and hair stumps) were collected under aseptic precautions. The identification of dermatophytes was performed through microscopic examination using 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) with 40% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) mounts and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and on Dermasel agar base media, both supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. All dermatophytes isolates were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing using the agar-based disk diffusion (ABDD) method against Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Fluconazole, and Griseofulvin. Data were analyzed via SPSS 16, using Chi square and a screening test (cross-tabulation method). Results A total of 110 patients of dermatophytosis were studied. The patients were clinically diagnosed and mycologically confirmed as having tinea capitis (49), tinea corporis (30), tinea pedis (16), tinea cruris (9), or tinea barbae (6). The dermatophytes isolates belonged to 4 species: Microsporum canis 58 (52.7%), Microsporum gypseum 23 (20.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18 (16.4%), and Microsporum audouinii 11 (10%). The most effective antifungal drugs tested were Clotrimazole, followed by Miconazole (95.5% and 84.5% of isolates were susceptible, respectively). Conclusion Every patient with a tinea infection should be properly studied for a mycological examination and should be treated accordingly. Dermasel agar is more useful as an identification medium in the isolation of dermatophytes. The ABDD method appears to be a simple, cost-effective, and promising method for the evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes. PMID
Chagan, Larisa; Bernstein, Diane; Cheng, Judy WM; Kirschenbaum, Harold L; Rozenfeld, Vitalina; Caliendo, Gina C; Meyer, Joanne; Mehl, Bernard
Background The use of complementary and alternative products including Biological Based Therapy (BBT) has increased among patients with various medical illnesses and conditions. The studies assessing the prevalence of BBT use among patients with cardiovascular diseases are limited. Therefore, an evaluation of BBT in this patient population would be beneficial. This was a survey designed to determine the effects of demographics on the use of Biological Based Therapy (BBT) in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the education level on the use of BBT in cardiovascular patients. This survey also assessed the perceptions of users regarding the safety/efficacy of BBT, types of BBT used and potential BBT-drug interactions. Method The survey instrument was designed to assess the findings. Patients were interviewed from February 2001 to December 2002. 198 inpatients with cardiovascular diseases (94 BBT users and 104 non-users) in a university hospital were included in the study. Results Users had a significantly higher level of education than non-users (college graduate: 28 [30%] versus 12 [12%], p = 0.003). Top 10 BBT products used were vitamin E [41(43.6%)], vitamin C [30(31.9%)], multivitamins [24(25.5%)], calcium [19(20.2%)], vitamin B complex [17(18.1%)], fish oil [12(12.8%)], coenzyme Q10 [11(11.7%)], glucosamine [10(10.6%)], magnesium [8(8.5%)] and vitamin D [6(6.4%)]. Sixty percent of users' physicians knew of the BBT use. Compared to non-users, users believed BBT to be safer (p < 0.001) and more effective (p < 0.001) than prescription drugs. Forty-two potential drug-BBT interactions were identified. Conclusion Incidence of use of BBT in cardiovascular patients is high (47.5%), as is the risk of potential drug interaction. Health care providers need to monitor BBT use in patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15745441
Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M
Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines.
Clements, Ronald H; Katasani, Venkata G; Palepu, Rajendra; Leeth, Ruth R; Leath, Teresa D; Roy, Brandon P; Vickers, Selwyn M
Vitamin deficiency after gastric bypass surgery is a known complication. The purpose of this study was to measure the incidence of vitamin deficiency after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in a university hospital setting. All patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from January 2002 to December 2004 and completed a 1- and 2-year follow-up after surgery were selected. Of the total 493 patients, 318 (65%) had vitamin results at 1-year follow-up. Of the 366 eligible for the 2-year follow-up, 141 (39%) had vitamin results. Patients were further grouped based on gender, race, and Roux limb length, and incidence of vitamin deficiencies were studied. The incidence of vitamin A (retinol) deficiency was 11 per cent, vitamin C was 34.6 per cent, vitamin D25OH was 7 per cent, vitamin B1 was 18.3 per cent, vitamin B2 was 13.6 per cent, vitamin B6 was 17.6 per cent, and vitamin B12 was 3.6 per cent 12 months after surgery. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of vitamin deficiencies between 1 and 2 years. In univariate and multivariate logistic regression of 1- and 2-year follow up, black patients (vitamins A, D, and B1 for 1 year and B1 and B6 for 2 years) and women (vitamin C at 1 year) were more likely to have vitamin deficiencies. Vitamin deficiencies after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are more common and involve more vitamins, even those that are water soluble, than previously appreciated. Black patients tend to have more deficiencies than other groups. The bariatric surgeon should be committed to the long-term follow-up and care of these patients. Further prospective and randomized studies are necessary to provide appropriate guidelines for supplementation.
Costa, Altair da Silva; Leão, Luiz Eduardo Villaça; de Novais, Maykon Anderson Pires; Zucchi, Paola
ABSTRACT Objective To assess the operative time indicators in a public university hospital. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using data from operating room database. The sample was obtained from January 2011 to January 2012. The operations performed in sequence in the same operating room, between 7:00 am and 5:00 pm, elective or emergency, were included. The procedures with incomplete data in the system were excluded, as well as the operations performed after 5:00 pm or on weekends or holidays. Results We measured the operative and non-operative time of 8,420 operations. The operative time (mean and standard deviation) of anesthesias and operations were 177.6±110 and 129.8±97.1 minutes, respectively. The total time of the patient in operative room (mean and standard deviation) was 196.8±113.2. The non-operative time, e.g., between the arrival of the patient and the onset of anesthesia was 14.3±17.3 minutes. The time to set the next patient in operating room was 119.8±79.6 minutes. Our total non-operative time was 155 minutes. Conclusion Delays frequently occurred in our operating room and had a major effect on patient flow and resource utilization. The non-operative time was longer than the operative time. It is possible to increase the operating room capacity by management and training of the professionals involved. The indicators provided a tool to improve operating room efficiency. PMID:26761557
Yé, Diarra; Kouéta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Kaboret, Sonia; Sawadogo, Alphonse
Sickle cell disease is a genetic disease most common in blacks. We retrospectively collected records for patients with sickle cell disease who were seen from January 2002 through September 2006 to assess the care provided for this disease at Charles de Gaulle University Children's Hospital of Ouagadougou. In all, 88 patients were monitored quarterly at outpatient visits for sickle cell disease, in the absence of any crisis. Their age ranged from 6 months to 16 years, with an average age of 7. There were more boys than girls, with a sex ratio of 1.44. The distribution according to sickle cell genotype showed that SC accounted for 62% of cases, while SS forms were more frequent until the age of 5. All children have received the immunizations in the standard Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) [diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, measles and yellow fever]. The immunization rates for non-EPI vaccines including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae B, Salmonella typhi, meningitis, pneumonia and the combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella ranged from 94 to 100%. A prophylactic anti-anaemic agent was made with folic acid often associated with iron. In addition, patients receive malaria chemoprophylaxis. Chloroquine was initially provided, and since 2006, children have been receiving sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Our encouraging results deserve reinforcement in the short-term - at the local level by neonatal screening, the creation of an immunization unit, and the systematization of antibiotic prophylaxis, and in the medium-term by implementation of a National sickle cell disease programme to help meet the objective of a 40% reduction in mortality among affected children younger than 5 years by 2015, set by the Sickle Cell Disease International Organization.
Background Vancomycin is the primary treatment for infections caused by methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The association of vancomycin treatment failures with increased vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is a well-recognized problem. A number of single-centre studies have identified progressive increases in glycopeptide MICs for S. aureus strains over recent years – a phenomenon known as vancomycin MIC creep. It is unknown if this is a worldwide phenomenon or if it is localized to specific centers. Methods The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend of vancomycin MIC for isolates of MRSA over a 3-year period in a tertiary university hospital in Portugal. MRSA isolates from samples of patients admitted from January 2007 to December 2009 were assessed. Etest method was used to determine the respective vancomycin MIC. Only one isolate per patient was included in the final analysis. Results A total of 93 MRSA isolates were studied. The vancomycin MICs were 0.75, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/L for 1 (1.1%), 19 (20.4%), 38 (40.9%), 35 (37.6%) isolates, respectively. During the 3 year period, we observed a significant fluctuation in the rate of MRSA with a vancomycin MIC > 1 mg/L (2007: 86.2%; 2008: 93.3%; 2009: 58.8%, p = 0.002). No MRSA isolate presented a MIC > 2 mg/L. Conclusions We were unable to find in our institution data compatible to the presence of vancomycin MIC creep during the study period. This phenomenon seems not to be generalized; as a result each institution should systematically monitor MRSA vancomycin MIC over time. PMID:23422012
Bernasinski, M; Gette, S; Malinovsky, J-M; Viry Babel, F; Charpentier, C; Audibert, G; Guirlet, M N; Lorne, E; Moubarak, M; Zogheib, E; Dupont, H; Ozier, Y; Mertes, P-M
"Transfusion-related acute lung injury" (TRALI) is a post-transfusion lesional pulmonary edema, potentially severe, better defined since the conference of Toronto in 2004. The incidence of TRALI reported in France remains low in part because of its ignorance by physicians. The objective of our study was to evaluate retrospectively transfusion accidents with respiratory complications that occurred in Nancy University Hospital and reported to the haemovigilance between 1996 and 2006, from the software "Traceline" listing all the blood transfusion complications from signs observed. The analysis of the files has been performed by applying rigorously diagnostic criteria of Toronto. Forty-one cases of respiratory complications were found in 34,573 blood products. Ten cases of TRALI were diagnosed while only one case had been reported to the haemovigilance. The remaining nine cases were previously labeled transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO). No cases of TRALI have been identified in the ICU. Our work can find an incidence of TRALI 10 times greater than previously reported. Ignorance of TRALI and the lack of consensus definition before 2004 are not sufficient to explain these results. This study demonstrates the potential interest of database and computerized declaration system based on the symptoms observed. It highlights the vulnerability of the current haemovigilance too dependent on a single medical observer. Although TRALI are recognized as serious complications, sometimes requiring resuscitative care, our work was not isolated severe TRALI in ICU. Physician awareness of TRALI to the identification and to the declaration, including ICU should be continued. Finally, the diagnostic criteria for TRALI must be adapted to the ICU.
Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Amsalu, Anteneh; Shimelis, Techalew
Background Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis(CT) is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) world-wide, especially in developing nations where routine laboratory diagnosis is unavailable. Little is known about the epidemiology of this infection in Ethiopia where other STIs are prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT infection among women of reproductive age. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 consecutive women aged between 15–49 years at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from November 2014 to April 2015. Data on socio-demography and potential risk factors for genital infection were collected using structured questionnaires. Moreover, endocervical swabs were collected from all participants, screened for CT antigen using rapid immunochromatography assay, and cultured following the standard bacteriological method to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Result In this study, the overall prevalence of CT antigen and N. gonorrhoeae infection was 61(18.9%) and 1(0.31%), respectively. Women aged 15–24 years had the highest prevalence of CT infection (24.2%), followed by those aged 25–34 years (16.8%) and those aged 35–49 years (9.6%). CTinfection was associated with women who had unprotected sex within the last six months (aOR = 3.459; 95% CI = 1.459–8.222) and were sexually active for 6–10 years (aOR = 3.076; 95% CI = 1.152–8.209). None of the clinical symptoms and diagnoses was significantly associated with CT antigen positivity. Conclusions The high prevalence of genital CT infection in this study highlights the need for further large-scale studies on the general population. Thus, screening of women regardless of their symptoms should be in place. PMID:28006003
Martínez, Andrea Isabel
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological therapy used to alleviate pain and is among the current available treatments offered by the Units of Pain Management (Unidades del Dolor) in Spanish Hospitals. The goal of this study was to identify the characteristics of portable electro-stimulator use, and its costs in the Unit of Pain Management of the Alcorcón Foundation University Hospital (Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón). A retrospective descriptive study was carried out between January, 1999, and October, 2010, in the Unit of Pain Management of the Alcorcón Foundation University Hospital. The information on TENS delivery forms and its supplies was collected, and the characteristics of use and the associated costs were calculated. It was observed that the longest period of time used was less than a year. The cost of delivery for the portable equipment was 148 050 euros and the average annual cost for the use of TENS by a patient was 854 euros. From the information gathered, it can be concluded that the use of electro-analgesia is a valid option in terms of expenses for long periods of use, thereby allowing a reduction in costs and decreasing the use of other healthcare treatments.
Wang, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Jun-Ying; Howng, Shen-Long
The reimbursement system changed from fee-for-service to fixed prospective payments in Taiwan, the effect on the physician-patient's relationship is worth being studied. We examined the relationship between patient visit experience, cost perceptions and the two important aspects of quality of care, curing and interpersonal performance, and patients' loyalty to the hospital physicians. A total of 404 patients from an acute care hospital in Taiwan, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital (KMUH), were investigated using a self-administered mailing survey. All measures including patient loyalty (PL), curing service quality (CSQ), interpersonal service quality (ISQ), visit experience (VE) and perceived switching costs (PSC), were adapted and modified from existing scales. Our results showed that the physician's CSQ and ISQ positively affected patients' loyalty to KMUH. The interaction between the main effects of service quality, patients' VE and three types of switching visit costs, yielded additional insights into the importance of service quality for patient retention. The CSQ of physicians becomes a more important determinant of loyalty than ISQ as patients' VE increases. The importance of CSQ and ISQ increases in relation to PL as the perceived procedural and relational costs of changing care providers increases. Neither CSQ nor ISQ has a reduced relationship with PL as the perceived financial costs of switching hospitals increase. Our study indicates that the impact of CSQ and ISQ on loyalty varies according to the perceived visit costs of changing hospitals and the patients' VE.
Kouassi, K C; Lamboni, C
Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the protein-calorie nutritional status of elderly hospitalized patients admitted to the hepato-gastroenterology, cardiology and internal medicine departments of the Lomé Campus University Hospital and identify the endogenous and mixed undernutrition to provide patients with better nutrition and assistance. Methodology. This cross-sectional study conducted between April 1 and July 31, 2009, included 33 hospitalized case patients aged at least 55 years and 30 age-matched outpatient control subjects. Patients were evaluated according to body mass index (BMI), the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and their serum albumin, serum prealbumin and orosomucoid levels. Results. Among the hospitalized case patients, 37% had protein-calorie undernutrition (low serum albumin), and 73% were at risk of this undernutrition (low serum prealbumin). Five patients (16%) were endogenously undernourished and 17 (57%) exogenously undernourished. Six to 13% of the oupatient controls were undernourished and 33% at risk of undernutrition according to the MNA scale. A significant difference existed between the mean albumin values of case patients and controls (38 ± 9 g/L vs 46 ± 7 g/L, p = 0.002). Conclusion. Our results confirm that the elderly inpatients were regularly malnourished. Knowledge of their nutritional profile has allowed us to launch an improved nutritional assistance program and to supervise it properly.
Peron, Isabela Haddad; Reichert-Lima, Franqueline; Busso-Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Nagasako, Cristiane Kibune; Lyra, Luzia; Moretti, Maria Luiza
Candida albicans caused 44% of the overall candidemia episodes from 2006 to 2010 in our university tertiary care hospital. As different antifungal agents are used in therapy and also immunocompromised patients receive fluconazole prophylaxis in our institution, this study aimed to perform an antifungal susceptibility surveillance with the C.albicans bloodstream isolates and to characterize the fluconazole resistance in 2 non-blood C.albicans isolates by sequencing ERG11 gene. The study included 147 C. albicans bloodstream samples and 2 fluconazole resistant isolates: one from oral cavity (LIF 12560 fluconazole MIC: 8μg/mL) and one from esophageal cavity (LIF-E10 fluconazole MIC: 64μg/mL) of two different patients previously treated with oral fluconazole. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to amphotericin B (AMB), 5-flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), caspofungin (CASP) was performed by broth microdilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute documents (M27-A3 and M27-S4, CLSI). All blood isolates were classified as susceptible according to CLSI guidelines for all evaluated antifungal agents (MIC range: 0,125–1.00 μg/mL for AMB, ≤0.125–1.00 μg/mL for 5FC, ≤0.125–0.5 μg/mL for FLC, ≤0.015–0.125 μg/mL for ITC, ≤0.015–0.06 μg/mL for VRC and ≤0.015–0.125 μg/mL for CASP). In this study, we also amplified and sequenced the ERG11 gene of LIF 12560 and LIF-E10 C.albicans isolates. Six mutations encoding distinct amino acid substitutions were found (E116D, T128K, E266D, A298V, G448V and G464S) and these mutations were previously described as associated with fluconazole resistance. Despite the large consumption of antifungals in our institution, resistant blood isolates were not found over the trial period. Further studies should be conducted, but it may be that the very prolonged direct contact with the oral antifungal agent administered to the patient from which
Abdela, Ousman Abubeker; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Getachew, Henok; Kelifa, Yohannes
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are often accompanied with comoribidities and complications leading to taking multiple drugs and thus are more liable to be exposed to drug-related problems (DRPs). DRPs can occur at any stages of medication process from prescription to follow-up treatment. However, a few studies have assessed the specific risk factors for occurrence of at least one potential DRP per patient with CVDs in sub-Saharan African region. Aim: We aim to assess the risk factors for developing potential DRPs in patients with CVDs attending Gondar University Referral Hospital (GUH). Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study. A structured systematic data review was designed focusing on patients with CVDs (both out and inpatients) with age >18 years of both genders attending GUH from April to June 2015. All DRPs were assessed using drugs.com and Medscape. The causes of DRPs were classified using Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe version 6.2. Risk factors that could cause DRPs were assessed using binary logistic regression showing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 227 patients with CVDs were reviewed with a mean age of 52.0 ± 1.7 years. Majority were females (143, 63%), outpatients (133, 58.6%), and diagnosed with heart failure (71, 31.3%). Diuretics (199, 29.5%) were the most commonly prescribed drugs. A total of 265 DRPs were identified, 63.4% of patients have at least one DRP (1.17 ± 1.1). The most common DRPs were found to be an inappropriate selection of drug (36.1%) and dose (24.8%). The most identified risk factors causing DRPs were: Need of additional drug therapy and lack of therapeutic monitoring. Conclusion: The most identified risk factors for developing DRPs were the need of additional drug therapy and lack of therapeutic monitoring. There is a need for clinical pharmacist interventions to monitor and prevent the risk of developing DRPs and contribute to
Okpa, Henry Ohem; Bisong, Elvis Mbu; Enang, Ofem Egbe; Monjok, Emmanuel; Essien, Ekere James
Background The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, at the expense of the development of long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and its associated mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of HTN and to identify possible predictors among HIV-infected patients attending the HIV Special Treatment Clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out over a 5-month period from February to July 2016. A total of 112 HIV-infected persons were consecutively recruited and their blood pressures were measured in two consecutive clinic visits. They were compared with the HIV-negative control group (n=309). Data collected were analyzed with SPSS 18, and statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results There was a female preponderance in both the HIV-infected individuals and HIV-negative control group (57.5% vs. 57.4%). The mean ages were 39.3 and 33.9 years in HIV-infected and HIV-negative subjects, respectively. The risk factors that were associated with HTN in both groups were older age (>40 years), increased weight and body mass index (BMI), and presence of obesity. Male sex and duration of exposure to HAART and CD4 count levels >200 cells/mm3 were associated with HTN in HIV-infected patients, whereas the absence of family history of HTN was significantly associated with HTN in both groups. However, in a multivariate logistic regression, the predictors of HTN in both groups are absence of family history of HTN and older age in HIV-infected patients and HIV-negative subjects, respectively. Conclusion Traditional risk factors such as older age, increased BMI, and obesity were linked to HTN in both HIV-infected and HIV-negative subjects, but higher CD4 count level and
Background The increasing demand on hospitalisation, either due to elective activity from the waiting lists or due to emergency admissions coming from the Emergency Department (ED), requires looking for strategies that lead to effective bed management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a surgery admission unit for major elective surgery patients who were admitted for same-day surgery. Methods We included all patients admitted for elective surgery in a university tertiary hospital between the 1st of September and the 31st of December 2006, as well as those admitted during the same period of 2008, after the introduction of the Surgery Admission Unit. The main outcome parameters were global length of stay, pre-surgery length of stay, proportion of patients admitted the same day of the surgery and number of cancellations. Differences between the two periods were evaluated by the T-test and Chi-square test. Significance at P < 0.05 was assumed throughout. Results We included 6,053 patients, 3,003 during 2006 and 3,050 patients during 2008. Global length of stay was 6.2 days (IC 95%:6.4-6) in 2006 and 5.5 days (IC 95%:5.8-5.2) in 2008 (p < 0.005). Pre-surgery length of stay was reduced from 0.46 days (IC 95%:0.44-0.48) in 2006 to 0.29 days (IC 95%:0.27-0.31) in 2008 (p < 0.005). The proportion of patients admitted for same-day surgery was 67% (IC 95%:69%-65%) in 2006 and 76% (IC 95%:78%-74%) in 2008 (p < 0.005). The number of cancelled interventions due to insufficient preparation was 31 patients in 2006 and 7 patients in 2008. Conclusions The implementation of a Surgery Admission Unit for patients undergoing major elective surgery has proved to be an effective strategy for improving bed management. It has enabled an improvement in the proportion of patients admitted on the same day as surgery and a shorter length of stay. PMID:20096114
Isaac, Iz; Mainasara, As; Erhabor, Osaro; Omojuyigbe, St; Dallatu, Mk; Bilbis, Ls; Adias, Tc
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human enzyme deficiencies in the world. It is particularly common in populations living in malaria-endemic areas, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. This present study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children visiting the Emergency Paediatric Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital for pediatric-related care. The study included 118 children, made up of 77 (65.3%) males and 41 (34.7%) females aged ≤5 years with mean age of 3.26 ± 1.90 years. Randox G6PD quantitative in vitro test screening was used for the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency. Of the 118 children tested, 17 (14.4%) were G6PD-deficient. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency was concentrated predominantly among male children (22.1%). Male sex was significantly correlated with G6PD deficiency among the children studied (r = 7.85, P = 0.01). The highest prevalence occurred among children in the 2- to 5-year age-group. Of the 17 G6PD-deficient children, twelve (70.2%) were moderately deficient, while five (29.4%) were severely deficient. Blood film from G6PD-deficient children indicated the following morphological changes; Heinz bodies, schistocytes, target cells, nucleated red cells, spherocytes, and polychromasia. This present study has shown a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children residing in Sokoto in the northwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The study indicated a male sex bias in the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the children studied. There is a need for the routine screening of children for G6PD deficiency in our environment, to allow for evidence-based management of these children and to ensure the avoidance of food, drugs, and infective agents that can potentially predispose these children to oxidative stress as well as diseases that deplete micronutrients that protect against oxidative stress. There is need to build capacity in our
How do Supervising Clinicians of a University Hospital and Associated Teaching Hospitals Rate the Relevance of the Key Competencies within the CanMEDS Roles Framework in Respect to Teaching in Clinical Clerkships?
Jilg, Stefanie; Möltner, Andreas; Berberat, Pascal; Fischer, Martin R.; Breckwoldt, Jan
Background and aim: In German-speaking countries, the physicians’ roles framework of the “Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists” (CanMEDS) is increasingly used to conceptualize postgraduate medical education. It is however unclear, whether it may also be applied to the final year of undergraduate education within clinical clerkships, called “Practical Year” (PY). Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how clinically active physicians at a university hospital and at associated teaching hospitals judge the relevance of the seven CanMEDS roles (and their (role-defining) key competencies) in respect to their clinical work and as learning content for PY training. Furthermore, these physicians were asked whether the key competencies were actually taught during PY training. Methods: 124 physicians from internal medicine and surgery rated the relevance of the 28 key competencies of the CanMEDS framework using a questionnaire. For each competency, following three aspects were rated: “relevance for your personal daily work”, “importance for teaching during PY”, and “implementation into actual PY teaching”. Results: In respect to the main study objective, all questionnaires could be included into analysis. All seven CanMEDS roles were rated as relevant for personal daily work, and also as important for teaching during PY. Furthermore, all roles were stated to be taught during actual PY training. The roles “Communicator”, “Medical Expert”, and “Collaborator” were rated as significantly more important than the other roles, for all three sub-questions. No differences were found between the two disciplines internal medicine and surgery, nor between the university hospital and associated teaching hospitals. Conclusion: Participating physicians rated all key competencies of the CanMEDS model to be relevant for their personal daily work, and for teaching during PY. These findings support the suitability of the Can
Ojofeitimi, E O; Aderounmu, A O; Lomuwagun, A F; Owolabi, O O; Fadiora, A O; Asa, S S; Bamiwuye, S O; Ihedioha, O D
The objectives of this study were to assess both the predisposing and precipitating risk factors in the aetiology of any form of cancer among hospital workers at two teaching Hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria. Pre-tested and modified questionnaires were administered to 250 respondents. One hundred and seventy questionnaires were duly filled and completed. Less than 9% of the respondents consumed fruits and vegetables on a daily basis; while the highest percentage (65%) regularly consumed butter/margarine, followed with consumption of red meat. Twenty nine percent (29%) from both locations were classified as overweight and obese. Half did physical exercise twice a week. Of the 168 respondents. 34 (20.2%) did meet the criteria for completely emptying their bowels within a specified time of three minutes. It is concluded that whilst predisposing risk factors do not pose a threat to the onset of any form of cancer among respondents, precipitating factors are real major factors that need to be addressed through information, education and communication (I.E.C). Such an I.E.C. should be geared towards promotion of healthy eating and life style strategies. Alter all, 'the first step in cancer prevention is knowing the risk profile'.
This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.
Arquès, Isabelle; Vincent, Martine; Olive, Claude; Cabié, André; Canivet, Isabelle; Hochedez, Patrick
Few data related to the care of children injured in an earthquake are available. The objective of our study was to analyze the results of clinical and microbiologic characteristics of children treated in a Fort de France hospital after the Haiti earthquake. Bacteria were mainly Gram-negative bacteria. Some of these infections seemed to be environmental; a significant portion was related to acquisition during hospitalization.
Stancić, Vladimir; Stancić, Nevenka; Vucelić, Vesna; Lang, Nada; Grbac, Ljiljana
The Coagulation Section at Laboratory of Hematology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb, was founded in 1955 by Ljubomir Popović, hematologist and assistant at School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, in cooperation with hard-working laboratory technicians. Apart from papers on hematologic neoplasms, plasmacytoma and lymphoma, Ljubomir Popović published a number of papers in the field of anticoagulant therapy with heparin and oral anticoagulants, some of which are also in use today. After Ljubomir Popović left the Hospital in 1964, the Laboratory was run by Professor Nedjeljko Milić, head of the newly founded Division of Hematology. In 1968, the management of the Laboratory of Hematology was taken over by Biserka Raić, MS, medical biochemist, until her retirement in 2007. Great development in morphological and cytometric studies of blood and blood cells has been paralleled by continuous progress and almost dominating activities in the diagnosis of hemostasis disorders. In the 1970s, Marko Koprcina, hematologist, and Biserka Raić introduced the then latest tests in practice at all Hospital departments. In that golden age of the Coagulation Section, M. Koprcina, B. Raić and their associates transferred their knowledge to all colleagues in the Hospital. Through that collaboration, high standards in the diagnosis of hemostasis disorders were achieved, from which the currently high level of clinical knowledge about coagulation disorders and their treatment has derived, making Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital one of the leading hospitals in this field in the country. By describing development of the Coagulation Section and the life of its founder Ljubomir Popović, the authors tried to provide an answer to the following question: can today's clinicians still have a deciding role in laboratory development, considering that assessments of different phenomena are always initiated by an interested clinician who is trying to interpret and understand
Ologeanu-Taddei, R; Morquin, D; Bourret, R
The goal of this study was to examine the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of a Hospital Information System (HIS) for the care staff. We administrated a questionnaire composed of open-end and closed questions. As results, the perceived usefulness and ease of use are correlated with medical occupations. Content analysis of open questions highlights three factors influencing these constructs: ergonomics, errors in the documenting process and insufficient compatibility with the medical department or the occupation. While the results are consistent with literature, they show medical occupations do not report the same low rate of perceived usefulness and of ease of use. The main explanation consists in the medical risk in the prescription process for anesthesiologists, surgeons and physicians.
Olusanya, Adeola Adenike; Adeleye, Amos Olufemi; Aladelusi, Timothy Olukunle; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo
Many studies have been undertaken in Nigeria on maxillofacial trauma. However, only a few have considered both the skeletal and soft tissue injuries (in general) involving all the aspects of the maxillofacial region or considered other etiological sources of trauma apart from road traffic crashes. Fewer still have reviewed the outcome of management of facial injuries in our low-resource environment. This study sets out to examine the recent trends in both the clinical and epidemiological patterns of all facial injuries from all causes seen in a low-resource practice of a developing country. It also assessed the in-hospital treatment outcomes, and the levels of the patients' satisfaction with treatment received in this setting. Over a 12-month period, the clinical records of consecutive patients who were evaluated and treated for maxillofacial injuries in our unit were prospectively acquired, entered into predesigned forms and subsequently analyzed. There were 259 patients (79.5% males) during the study period. The mean age was 32.21( ± 16.588) years. Overall, motor bike crashes, 42.1%, were the commonest source of these traumas; and armed robbery was the commonest form (69.0%) of assault. Mandibular fractures were the commonest maxillofacial fractures (37.8%) whereas head injury had the highest frequency among the associated injuries (71.4%). Closed reduction and immobilization was deployed in 88.0% of those who had treatment and majority was satisfied with the esthetic outcome of the treatment received. Mean length of hospital stay was 12.6 ( ± 4.423) days. Maxillofacial trauma poses a significant socioeconomic burden on affected individuals in this study population. This is made worse by the presence of associated injuries in the other body systems. More local studies on the outcome of management of maxillofacial trauma will improve the available literature in this region. PMID:25709753
Pakyz, Amy L; Oinonen, Michael; Polk, Ronald E
Many hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs restrict the availability of selected drugs by requiring prior approval. Carbapenems may be among the restricted drugs, but it is unclear if hospitals that restrict availability actually use fewer carbapenems than hospitals that do not restrict use. Nor is it clear if restriction is related to resistance. We evaluated the relationship between carbapenem restriction and the volume of carbapenem use and both the incidence rate and proportion of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 2002 through 2006 in a retrospective, longitudinal, multicenter analysis among a consortium of academic health centers. Carbapenem use was measured from billing records as days of therapy per 1,000 patient days. Hospital antibiograms were used to determine both the incidence rate and proportion of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. A survey inquired about restriction policies for antibiotics, including carbapenems. General linear mixed models were used to examine study outcomes. Among 22 hospitals with sufficient data for analysis, overall carbapenem use increased significantly over the 5 years of study (P < 0.0001), although overall carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa did not change. Hospitals that restricted carbapenems (n = 8; 36%) used significantly fewer carbapenems (P = 0.04) and reported lower incidence rates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (P = 0.01) for all study years. Fluoroquinolone use was a potential confounder of these relationships, but hospitals that restricted carbapenems actually used fewer fluoroquinolones than those that did not. Restriction of carbapenems is associated with both lower use and lower incidence rates of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa.
Digbeu, Hippolyte; Heerengt, Gilles; Aké-Assi, Marie Hélène; Timité-Konan, Marguerite; Mallol, Nathalie; Kohler, François
The aim of this study is to demonstrate that it can be relevant to implement medicalized data in the African hospitals in order to establish morbidity statistics and economical evaluation. A retrospective survey has been carried out on 300 children hospitalized in the paediatrics service in the Yopougon University Hospital from January 1st to December 31st 1999. Data have been collected on forms similar to the ones used in France for discharge summaries. The file batching used for these 300 files is the French DRG named GHM: it shows that, once the files have been divided up in main categories(CMD), CMD 18 (infectious and parasitic diseases) amounts to nearly half of the stays (43.7%). Likewise, in the Case Mix, GHM 611 (others infectious or parasitic diseases) represents, with 38%, more than one third of the stays. The most frequent diagnosis is the B50.9, plasmodium falciparum malaria without precision, with 24.3% of the stays. The patients' stays are shorter than in France. But according to the quality of the collected data, the inadequacy of the tools used and the category of the patients taken into consideration, these results have to be interpreted with restriction. However, this survey shows that it is possible to collect medicalized data in the African hospitals. Other services should feel concerned and more appropriate classifications that would reckon with epidemiological specificities should be applied.
Berardinelli, Luisa; Raiteri, Mauro; Beretta, Claudio; Pasciucco, Antonio; Giussani, Antenore; Carini, Monica; Marenghi, Cristina; Rossetti, Antonello; Piccolo, Giuseppe
The activity of kidney transplantation at Policlinico University Hospital, now the Ca' Granda Foundation, was established by Professor Edmondo Malan, who performed the first deceased donor transplantation in Milan, Italy, in 1969. Since then, 2989 kidney transplant procedures (2760 first, 219 second, 10 third transplants) have been performed through the end of November 2011, 2617 of them coming from deceased donors and 372 from living donors. Patient and graft survival have increased since the introduction of cyclosporine and tacrolimus in the last 28 years: 323 living donor-recipients under calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) show patient survival of 95.4% at five years and 88% at 10 years, not significantly different when compared with those of 1968 deceased donor-recipients (93.5% and 86.2%, respectively, at the same time points). Crude graft survival for living donor-recipients under CNI is 84.2% at 5 years and 70.2% at 10 years, not significantly different from those of deceased donor-recipients (80.3% and 64.3% for at the same time points). Actuarial graft survival censored by death is 87.2% at 5 years and 76.5% at 10 years for living donor-recipients vs. 84.4% and 72.2% for deceased donor-recipients, respectively. Previously unacceptable living or deceased kidneys are now successfully transplanted after being repaired with microsurgical techniques at bench. The rate of donors over 60 years of age has increased from 3.8% in the period of 1983-1995 to 20.8% in the last 15 years. It is interesting to note that 306 older kidneys (living donor, deceased donor, first, second, third transplants, with mean donor age of 64.6 +/- 4.0 yrs. and range 60-77 yrs.), always transplanted singularly, have similar behavior if compared with organs coming from donors aging 11-49 years. Survival rates are 93.1%, 90.1%, 88.4%, and 73.2% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years post-transplant for the older donor grafts vs. 91.2%, 88.1%, 85.4%, and 74.4% for the younger donor grafts at the same time
Kudo, Michiaki; Nomura, Takahiro; Yomoda, Sachie; Tanimoto, Koichi; Tomita, Haruyoshi
Compared with other developed countries, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are not widespread in clinical environments in Japan. There have been no VRE outbreaks and only a few VRE strains have sporadically been isolated in our university hospital in Gunma, Japan. To examine the drug susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis and nosocomial infection caused by non-VRE strains, a retrospective surveillance was conducted in our university hospital. Molecular epidemiological analyses were performed on 1711 E. faecalis clinical isolates collected in our hospital over a 6-year period [1998-2003]. Of these isolates, 1241 (72.5%) were antibiotic resistant and 881 (51.5%) were resistant to two or more drugs. The incidence of multidrug resistant E. faecalis (MDR-Ef) isolates in the intensive care unit increased after enlargement and restructuring of the hospital. The major group of MDR-Ef strains consisted of 209 isolates (12.2%) resistant to the five drug combination tetracycline/erythromycin/kanamycin/streptomycin/gentamicin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the major MDR-Ef isolates showed that nosocomial infections have been caused by MDR-Ef over a long period (more than 3 years). Multilocus sequence typing showed that these strains were mainly grouped into ST16 (CC58) or ST64 (CC8). Mating experiments suggested that the drug resistances were encoded on two conjugative transposons (integrative conjugative elements), one encoded tetracycline-resistance and the other erythromycin/kanamycin/streptomycin/gentamicin-resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of nosocomial infection caused by vancomycin-susceptible MDR-Ef strains over a long period in Japan.
Aba, Y T; Cissé, L; Abalé, A K; Diakité, I; Koné, D; Kadiané, J; Diallo, Z; Kra, O; Oulaï, S; Bissagnéné, E
The lack of data on neonatal tetanus and children in university hospitals (UH) in Abidjan for over a decade has motivated the realization of this study. The objective of this study is to evaluate the morbidity and mortality related to neonatal tetanus (NT) and child tetanus (CT) in Abidjan University Hospital from 2001 to 2010. It is a retrospective study, multicenter analysis with records of newborns and children suffering from tetanus in the three UH of Abidjan. The collection and analysis of data were made by the SPHINX 4.5 and EPI.INFO 6.0 software. In ten years, 242 cases of tetanus (53 NT cases and 189 CT cases) were collected with a predominance of cases after the fifth year of life (59.5%). The incidence rate of NT was less than 1 case per 1,000 live births. All mothers of the newborns were inhabiting the city of Abidjan. Their median age was 19 years [16-32] and 64% were teenagers. Gateways were dominated by umbilical wounds (77.3%) in the NTand skin wounds (59%) in CT. The cure rate was 30.2% in the NT and 60% in the CT. Lethality was 60% for NT and 22% for CT with a positive correlation with young age (neonates: p = 4.10-7, age <5 years: p = 0.01), lack of intraspinal injection of tetanus serum (p = 8.10-6), the absence of conventional antibiotic therapy (p = 0.023), the existence of metabolic complications (p = 2.10-5), the score of ≥ 4 Dakar (p = 0.005). Tetanus remains a real morbidly cause among children in Abidjan University Hospital with high lethality. However, the incidence of NT seems consistent with the incidence threshold desired by WHO.
Canturk, Nuh Zafer; Korun, Nusret; Ocakoglu, Gokhan
Purpose The aim of this study was to define the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients operated on for primary hyperpatathyroidism (PHPT) at university hospitals in Türkiye, and to investigate the differences in the clinical presentations of the disease between different geographical regions. Methods Patients operated on for PHPT in the university hospitals of Türkiye were included in the study. The demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings and the operational data of the patients were investigated according to the whole country and to different geographical regions. Comparisons were performed according to whole country and regions. Results A total of 1,162 cases were included in the study from different regions and 20 university hospitals. The mean age of patients was 52.4 ± 0.38 (mean ± standard error) in the general population of Türkiye. The rates of hypertension, urolithiasis, bone disease and 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency were 35%, 18.6%, 67.6%, and 63%, respectively. The median parathormone (PTH), serum total calcium (Ca+2) and phosphorus value were 220 pg/mL (range, 70–2,500 pg/mL), 11.2 mg/dL (range, 9.5–11.2 mg/dL), and 2.4 mg/dL (range, 1–4.7 mg/dL), respectively. The median size of the adenomas resected was 16 mm (range, 4–70 mm). Significant differences were observed in the clinical and laboratory findings of the patients operated on due to PHPT between different geographical regions of Türkiye (P < 0.05). Conclusion The clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients with PHPT in different geographical regions of Türkiye differ. Furthermore, the general findings of the cases in Türkiye give us a hint that the severity of the disease here is somewhere between Eastern and Western countries. PMID:27433459
Nkwabong, E; Takang, W Ako; Kouam, L
Ruptured ectopic pregnancies are life-threatening emergencies, especially in developing countries, where many patients do not consult until rupture, sometimes with the patient already in hemorrhagic shock. In this situation, immediate blood transfusion is essential. Homologous blood products are not always available. Furthermore, homologous transfusion carries the risk of transmitting viruses such as HIV and hepatitis B and C. Autologous transfusion (intraoperative blood salvage) may thus be helpful. The authors present 6 cases of autologous transfusion performed at the Yaounde University Hospital (Cameroon) and recommend this method in developing countries where good quality blood cannot always be obtained rapidly.
Girou, E; Oppein, F
The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.
Bailey, P.; Dean, C.; Collier, J.; Dasappa, V.; Goldberg, W.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on December 29, 1993, promulgated self-guarantee requirements that materials licensees may use to demonstrate financial assurance for decommissioning costs. However, nonprofit colleges and universities, nonprofit hospitals, and for-profit firms that do not issue bonds are currently precluded, by their unique accounting and financial reporting systems, or by other features of their business practices, from using the financial tests for self-guarantors adopted by the NRC. This Report evaluates several alternative financial tests that might serve as the basis for self-guarantee by these three categories of licensees.
This moving clinical account describes the psychotherapeutic work of a child psychotherapist undertaken in a hospital room with 13-year-old Maya, after the sudden onset of a terrifying and serious illness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, leaving her with paralysis and extreme weakness. The first session takes place almost three weeks after Maya's…
Díaz, María Lilia; Muñoz, Sulma; Garcíad, Liz Betty
TB is a public health problem in the world. In Colombia the Health 100 Law caused changes in prevention programs. The TB control program was compromised too. The actions in relation with active looking and examination of respiratory symptomatic people has been lowering. This retrospective study describes the clinical, epidemiological and medical care characteristics of tuberculosis patients attended in the Hospital Universitario San José de-Popayán. The clinical expedients and laboratory registers were investigated. 120 cases of 187 registered patients were included; finally only 89 were tuberculosis cases: 39 pulmonary (43.8%) and 50 extrapulmonary (56.2%). The extrapulmonary forms were: miliar, 39 patients; pleural, 4: of lymph nodes, 3; osteoarticular, 2, and meningitis, 2 cases. 49% of patients were 15-59 years old, 28% more than 59; males 64% and 65% coming from country areas. Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) smear was positive in 22% of 59 sputums of pulmonary TB and 20.2% of 94 extrapulmonary TB samples: mycobacteria culture positive in 14.3% of 14 pulmonary TB sputum, and 29.6% of 54 extrapulmonary TB samples. The media days into hospital/yard was 4-26 and the media days to begin tuberculosis treatment/yard was 4-8. In summary there are important request for TB medical care to universitary hospital, however the diagnosis is difficult and takes a long time while mycobacteria can be transmitted to hospital contacts. It is necessary to get a better efficiency of diagnostic tests in the hospital and appropriated survey of the cases that begin treatment.
Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup
In response to a considerable increase in the infections caused by ESBL/AmpC-producing Klebsiella pneumonia in 2008, a multidisciplinary intervention, with a main focus on antimicrobial stewardship, was carried out at one university hospital. Four other hospitals were used as controls. Stringent guidelines for antimicrobial treatment and prophylaxis were disseminated throughout the intervention hospital; cephalosporins were restricted for prophylaxis use only, fluoroquinolones for empiric use in septic shock only, and carbapenems were selected for penicillin-allergic patients, infections due to ESBL/AmpC-producing and other resistant bacteria, in addition to their use in severe sepsis/septic shock. Piperacillin-tazobactam ± gentamicin was recommended for empiric treatments of most febrile conditions. The intervention also included education and guidance on infection control, as well as various other surveillances. Two year follow-up data on the incidence rates of patients with selected bacterial infections, outcomes, and antibiotic consumption were assessed, employing before-and-after analysis and segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series, using the other hospitals as controls. The intervention led to a sustained change in antimicrobial consumption, and the incidence of patients infected with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae decreased significantly (p<0.001). The incidences of other hospital-associated infections also declined (p’s<0.02), but piperacillin-tazobactam-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium infections increased (p’s<0.033). In wards with high antimicrobial consumption, the patient gut carrier rate of ESBL-producing bacteria significantly decreased (p = 0.023). The unadjusted, all-cause 30-day mortality rates of K. pneumoniae and E. coli were unchanged over the four-year period, with similar results in all five hospitals. Although not statistically significant, the 30-day mortality rate of patients with ESBL
Durdiyeva, Muhabbet Koralp; Besim, Hasan; Arslan, Kalbim; Özkayalar, Hanife; Yılmaz, Güliz; Mocan, Gamze Kuzey; Bulakbaşı, Nail
Objective This study is about determination and eveluation of the breast cancer cases which were diagnosed during the early diagnosis and screening programs covering a three years of digital mammography images at the Near East University Hospital. Materials and Methods This study covers 2136 women patients who applied to the early diagnosis and screening program of the Near East University Hospital between July 2010 and July 2013. The mamographic images were re evaluated retrospectively according to ACR’s (The American College of Radiology) BİRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System). The mamographic results as required were correlated with breast ultrasound (US) and compared with the pathologic results of materials obtained by surgery or biopsy. The results were analyzed statistically in comparison with the literature data. Results The women who were screened aged between 34–73 years with a median of 53.5 (SD = 27.5). Suspected malignancy were evaluated in 54 patients, which 42 of them were diagnosed BIRADS 4 and 12 patients BIRADS 5 and 21 patients were correleted breast cancer based on histopathologic examination. 17 patients had the breast-conserving surgery and 4 patients were treated with mastectomy. Conclusion Breast cancers that are detected at early stages by breast cancer screening tests are more likely to be smaller and still confined to the breast resulting in more simple operations and more succesfull treatment. Promoting the breast cancer screening and registration programs in our country will help to control the desease at our region.
Doumbia, Mariam; Uwingabiye, Jean; Bissan, Aboubacar; Rachid, Razine; Benkirane, Souad; Masrar, Azlarab
The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological, cytologic and immunophenotypic aspects of acute leukemias (AL) in children diagnosed at IBN SINA University Hospital Center and to determine the concordance between cytology and immunophenotyping results. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the hematology laboratory of IBN SINA University Hospital Center between June 2012 and May 2014. Among the 104 cases with diagnosed AL, 52% were boys with a sex-ratio H/F= 1.32, the average age was 5.7 years. The distribution of different types of AL was: lymphoid AL (LAL) (74%), myeloid (AML) (20.2%), biphenotypic AL (BAL) (65.8%). Among the LALs, 78% were classified as B LAL and 22% as T LAL. Clinical signs were mainly presented with tumor syndrome (73.1%), fever (61%) and hemorrhagic syndrome (50%). The most common blood count abnormalities were: thrombopenia (89.4%), anemia (86.5%), hyperleukocytosis (79.8%). The rate of peripheral and bone marrow blasts was statistically higher for LAL than for AML and BAL (p <0.001). The rate of relapse and mortality was 21.2% and 16. 3% respectively. Concordance rate between the results of cytology and of immunophenotyping was 92.7% for LAL and 82.6% for AML. Diagnosis of AL is always based primarily on cytology. Immunophenotyping allowed us to make a better distinction between acute leukemias. The management of paediatric AL is a major health problem which requires specialized care centers.
Lubarsky, D A; Hahn, C; Bennett, D H; Smith, L R; Bredehoeft, S J; Klein, H G; Reves, J G
We sought to determine the actual cost to Duke University Medical Center of a perioperative red blood cell transfusion. A recent audit at Duke University Medical Center determined the base average direct and indirect hospital costs for providing a unit of red blood cells. The Transfusion Service's base cost for providing an allogeneic unit of red blood cells was $113.58. To obtain the actual hospital cost of transfusing a unit of red blood cells in the perioperative period, associated costs were calculated and added to the Transfusion Service's base cost. These associated costs included compatibility tests on multiple units per each unit transfused in the perioperative period, performing ABO and Rh typing and antibody screening on samples from patients who were not subsequently transfused, compatibility tests on units not issued, handling costs of units issued but not used, physically administering the blood, and the cost of the recipient contracting an infectious disease or developing a transfusion reaction. These associated costs increased the cost of transfusing an allogeneic unit of red blood cells in the perioperative period to $151.20. Perhaps the techniques described in the study can be used to quantify cost/benefit ratios associated with future changes in transfusion practice.
At the University of Tokyo Hospital, investigator-driven clinical development of novel drugs and medical devices is mainly supported by the Translational Research Center and Clinical Research Support Center. The former supports non-clinical research and the preparation of test materials and the latter supports clinical trials. The Clinical Research Support Center was established in 2010 by the reorganization of the former Clinical Research Center, which was established in 2001. The center adopted International Conference on Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP) as a standard guideline for clinical trials and prepared standard operation procedures and templates for protocols and informed consent documents in 2001 and, thereafter, provided consultation services to researchers for protocol development. In 2010, the service was extended to project management, data management and monitoring to support the credibility of clinical trials. In 2011, The University of Tokyo Hospital was selected by the government as a base for the early and exploratory clinical development of drugs in the fields of psychological and neurological diseases. For this purpose, a phase 1 unit for early phase clinical pharmacology trials is now being built. The center provides training courses for clinical research coordinators and hold seminars for clinical researchers; however, the biggest challenge remains the education and training of medical students who will lead clinical trials in the future.