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Sample records for associados pelotas rs

  1. Biochronostratigraphy and paleoenvironment analysis of Neogene deposits from the Pelotas Basin (well 2-TG-96-RS), Southernmost Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wagner G; Zerfass, Geise S A; Souza, Paulo A; Helenes, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the integration of micropaleontological (palynology and foraminifera) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) analysis of a selected interval from the well 2-TG-96-RS, drilled on the onshore portion of the Pelotas Basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of eight samples of the section between 140.20 and 73.50 m in depth was selected for palynological analysis, revealing diversified and abundant palynomorph associations. Species of spores, pollen grains and dinoflagellate cysts are the most common palynomorphs found. Planktic and benthic calcareous foraminifera were recovered from the lowest two levels of the section (140.20 and 134.30 m). Based on the stratigraphic range of the species of dinoflagellate cysts and sporomorphs, a span age from Late Miocene to Early Pliocene is assigned. The relative age obtained from the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in shells of calcareous foraminifers indicates a Late Miocene (Messinian) correspondence, corroborating the biostratigraphic positioning performed with palynomorphs. Paleoenvironmental interpretations based on the quantitative distribution of organic components (palynomorphs, phytoclasts and amorphous organic matter) throughout the section and on foraminiferal associations indicate a shallow marine depositional environment for the section. Two palynologicals intervals were recognized based on palynofacies analysis, related to middle to outer shelf (140.20 to 128.90 m) and inner shelf (115.75 to 73.50 m) conditions.

  2. Determination of hydrocarbons transported by urban runoff in sediments of São Gonçalo Channel (Pelotas - RS, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sanches Filho, Pedro J; Böhm, Emerson M; Böhm, Giani M B; Montenegro, Gissele O; Silveira, Lucas A; Betemps, Glauco R

    2017-01-30

    A high concentration of hydrocarbons in the environment is indicative of pollution. To evaluate the effect of hydrocarbons transported by urban runoff, the present study analyzed total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and n-alkanes of the sediments of the canal that cross the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The carbon preference index (CPI), terrigenous/aquatic ratio (TAR), and pristane/phytane ratio were determined. The TPH content ranged from 177,043.7μg·kg(-1)±13.4% to 5,892,667.0μg·kg(-1)±5.9%. The total aliphatic content ranged from 116,268.8μg·kg(-1)±11.1% to 2,393,592.6μg·kg(-1)±7.7%, indicating chronic contamination of n-alkanes petrogenic and biogenic sources. The levels of hydrocarbons (TPH, AHs, and n-alkanes) were considered relatively high, confirming the effect of urban runoff on the drainage system of cities and their consequent effect on the estuarine region of Patos Lagoon and other water resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Mobility and Mental Disorders at 30 Years of Age in Participants of the 1982 Cohort, Pelotas, Rio Grande Do Sul – RS

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Lenice de Castro Muniz; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Carraro, André; Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mental disorders at 30 years of age and social mobility by formally testing three hypotheses: Risk Accumulation; Critical Period; and Social Mobility. The study was performed using data from the 30-year follow-up of the Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, conducted in 1982, and data from previous follow-ups. The tool used to evaluate mental health was the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20). For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test with the Yates correction was used to estimate the prevalence of mental disorder, and the Poisson regression with robust variance was used to formally test the hypotheses according to the Risk Accumulation, Critical Period and Social Mobility Models. The analyses were stratified by gender. The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) was 24.3% (95% CI 22.9–25.7) when the whole sample was considered. The highest prevalence, 27.1% (95% CI 25.1–29.2), was found in women, and the difference between genders was significant (p < 0.001). CMDs were more frequent in participants who remained “poor” in the three follow-ups. In both men and women, the best fit was obtained with the Risk Accumulation Model, with p = 0.6348 and p = 0.2105, respectively. The results indicate the need to rethink public income maintenance policies. Finally, we suggest further studies to investigate the role of different public policies in decreasing the prevalence of mental disorders and thus contribute proposals of new policies that may contribute to the prevention of these disorders. PMID:26448480

  4. Potentially inappropriate medications among older adults in Pelotas, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Bárbara Heather; Miranda, Vanessa Irribarem Avena; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2017-06-22

    To assess the use of potentially inappropriate medications among older adults. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1,451 older individuals aged 60 years or more in the city of Pelotas, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. We have investigated the use of medications in the last 15 days. Using the Beers criteria (2012), we have verified the use of potentially inappropriate medications and their relationship with socioeconomic and demographic variables, polypharmacy, self-medication, and burden of disease. Among the 5,700 medications used, 5,651 could be assessed as to being inappropriate. Of these, 937 were potentially inappropriate for the older adults according to the 2012 Beers criteria (16.6%). Approximately 42.4% of the older adults studied used at least one medication considered as potentially inappropriate. The group of medications for the nervous system accounted for 48.9% of the total of the potentially inappropriate medications. In the adjusted analysis, the variables female, advanced age, white race, low educational level, polypharmacy, self-medication, and burden of disease were associated with the use of potentially inappropriate medications. It is important to known the possible consequences of the use of medication among older adults. Special attention should be given to the older adults who use polypharmacy. Specific lists should be created with more appropriate medications for the older population in the National Essential Medicine List. Avaliar o uso de medicamentos potencialmente inadequados entre idosos. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 1.451 idosos com 60 anos ou mais em Pelotas, RS, em 2014. Investigou-se o uso de medicamentos nos últimos 15 dias. Utilizando os critérios de Beers (2012), verificou-se a potencial inadequação dos medicamentos e sua relação com variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, polifarmácia, automedicação e carga de doença. Dentre os 5.700 medicamentos utilizados, 5

  5. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-04-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012-13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome.

  6. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012–13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome. PMID:25733577

  7. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE EXCRETA OF WILD BIRDS IN SCREENING CENTERS IN PELOTAS, RS, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Josiara Furtado; Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Coimbra, Marco Antônio A.; de Ferreira, Gracialda Ferreira; Gonçalves, Carolina Lambrecht; Nascente, Patrícia da Silva; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the fungal species belonging to the healthy microflora in animals is a precondition for the recognition of pathological processes causing them. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi in the feces of wild birds collected in Screening Centers. Samples were collected from the feces of 50 cages with different species of birds. The samples were processed according to the modified method STAIB and the plates incubated at 32 °C for up to ten days with daily observation for detection of fungal growth. The isolation of the following species was observed: Malassezia pachydermatis, Candida albicans, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. sphaerica, C. globosa, C. catenulata, C. ciferri, C. intermedia, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Geotrichum klebahnii, Aspergillus spp., A. niger and Penicillium spp. Knowing the character of some opportunistic fungi is important in identifying them, facilitating the adoption of preventive measures, such as proper cleaning of cages, since the accumulation of excreta may indicate a risk for both health professionals and centers for screening public health. PMID:25351548

  8. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  9. Hospitalizations for primary care-sensitive conditions in Pelotas, Brazil: 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias da; Teixeira, Ana Maria Ferreira Borges; Moraes, Mauricio; Strauch, Eliane Schneider; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Carret, Maria Laura Vidal; Fantinel, Everton

    2017-01-01

    To verify the hospitalization trend for primary care sensitive-conditions in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil from 1998 to 2012. An ecological study compared hospitalizations rates of the city of Pelotas with the rest of state of Rio Grande do Sul. Analysis was conducted using direct standardization of rates, coefficients were stratified by sex and the Poisson regression was used. Hospitalizations for sensitive conditions decreased in Pelotas and Rio Grande do Sul. In Pelotas, a 63.8% decrease was detected in the period observed, and there was a 43.1% decrease in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Poisson regression coefficients showed a decrease of 7% in Pelotas and of 4% in the rest of Rio Grande do Sul each year. During the study period, several changes were introduced in the Brazilian Unified Health System ("Sistema Único de Saúde") that may have influenced the results, including changes in administration, health funding, and a complete reworking of primary care through the creation of the Family Health Strategy program ("Estratégia Saúde da Família").

  10. Determinants of out-of-pocket health expenditure on children: an analysis of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelo Torres; Barros, Aluísio J D; Bertoldi, Andréa D; de Andrade Jacinto, Paulo; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo

    2015-06-09

    The present study aimed to examine the impact of socioeconomic, demographic, and health status-related factors on out-of-pocket expenditure on health care for children. Data were obtained from a birth cohort study conducted in the city of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, in 2004. The final sample is a result of adjusts made in order to keep in the analysis only those that attended to 3 follow-ups (at 12, 24 and 48 months of age). Estimates were carried out using the Panel Data Tobit Model with random effects. The study showed that expenditure on medicines was 20 % less likely in those considered healthy children by their mothers and, if there was any expenditure with healthy children, the expected expenditure was reduced by 58 %. A 1 % increase in household income increased the expected expenditure on medicines by 16 %, and by 23 % in children with private health insurance coverage. All types of health care expenditures examined were higher for children covered by private health insurance. Although total health care expenditure was higher for children of better-off families, it represented a lower share of these families' income evidencing income inequality in health care expenditures.

  11. RS-25 engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-10

    RS-25 series rocket engine No. 2059 is unloaded and positioned at Stennis Space Center on April 10, 2012, for future testing and use on NASA's new Space Launch System. The engine was the last of 15 RS-25 engines to be delivered from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to Stennis, where all will be stored until testing begins.

  12. Fighting for Excellence: The Case of the Federal University of Pelotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Silvina; Moreira, Cristiane; Roberto, Teresa; Azambuja, Flavia

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the implementation and evaluation of quality management systems within the higher education sector in Brazil. It is based on Institutional and Neo Institutional theories and presents the case of the Federal University of Pelotas, to discuss higher education institutions' options in a context of wide and complex…

  13. Fighting for Excellence: The Case of the Federal University of Pelotas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Silvina; Moreira, Cristiane; Roberto, Teresa; Azambuja, Flavia

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the implementation and evaluation of quality management systems within the higher education sector in Brazil. It is based on Institutional and Neo Institutional theories and presents the case of the Federal University of Pelotas, to discuss higher education institutions' options in a context of wide and complex…

  14. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a fresh mixed sausage processing line in Pelotas-RS by PFGE

    PubMed Central

    von Laer, Ana Eucares; de Lima, Andréia Saldanha; Trindade, Paula dos Santos; Andriguetto, Cristiano; Destro, Maria Teresa; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium capable to adhere to the surfaces of equipment and utensils and subsequently form biofilms. It can to persist in the food processing environmental for extended periods of time being able to contaminate the final product. The aim of this study was to trace the contamination route of L. monocytogenes on a fresh mixed sausage processing line, from raw material to the final product. The isolates obtained were characterized by serotyping and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzymes ApaI and AscI. L. monocytogenes was detected in 25% of the samples. The samples of raw material were not contaminated, however, the microorganism was detected in 21% of the environmental samples (food contact and non-food contact), 20.8% of the equipments, 20% of the food worker’s hands, 40% of the mass ready to packaging and in all the final products samples, demonstrating that the contamination of final product occurred during the processing and the importance of cross contamination. PFGE yielded 22 pulsotypes wich formed 7 clusters, and serotyping yielded 3 serotypes and 1 serogroup, however, the presence of serotypes 4b and 1/2b in the final product is of great concern for public health. The tracing of contamination showed that some strains are adapted and persisted in the processing environment in this industry. PMID:24031402

  15. [Laboratory performance of primary care units in tuberculosis diagnosis in Pelotas, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira Beduhn, Dagoberta Alves; Harter, Jenifer; Pieren Dos Reis, Simone; Barbosa Antunes, Luize; Cardozo-Gonzales, Roxana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess laboratory performance of Primary Care Units (UAP, Spanish acronym) in TB diagnosis though the sputum smear test in Pelotas, Brazil, a descriptive study was completed which included all sputum smear tests requested at eleven primary care units from 2007 to 2010. To assess laboratory performance, the number of sputum smear tests requested was quantified as well as the time between the request and the reading of the glass slides at the lab. 477 requests were registered at UAP. Of this total, only 51,8% were found in the laboratory’s record book, the lowest performance was 24,2% and the highest 71,4%. Regarding the reading of glass slides, it was determined that 27,7% readings took 8 days or more. It is concluded that the primary care units in Pelotas have a low laboratory performance in TB diagnosis by sputum smear tests.

  16. RS-25D engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-17

    Employees unload a RS25D rocket engine at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on Jan. 17. The engine - and 14 others - will be stored at the facility for future testing and use on NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS is a new heavy-lift launch vehicle that will expand human presence beyond low-Earth orbit and enable new missions of exploration across the solar system. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is leading the design and development of the Space Launch System for NASA, including the engine testing program. Delivery of the 15 RS-25 engines will continue throughout the next few months

  17. Disruption of the Pelota Gene Causes Early Embryonic Lethality and Defects in Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Adham, Ibrahim M.; Sallam, Mahmoud A.; Steding, Gerd; Korabiowska, Monika; Brinck, Ulrich; Hoyer-Fender, Sigrid; Oh, Changkyu; Engel, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Mutations in either the Drosophila melanogaster pelota or pelo gene or the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologous gene, DOM34, cause defects of spermatogenesis and oogenesis in Drosophila, and delay of growth and failure of sporulation in yeast. These phenotypes suggest that pelota is required for normal progression of the mitotic and meiotic cell cycle. To determine the role of the pelota in mouse development and progression of cell cycle, we have established a targeted disruption of the mouse Pelo. Heterozygous animals are variable and fertile. Genotyping of the progeny of heterozygous intercrosses shows the absence of Pelo−/− pups and suggests an embryo-lethal phenotype. Histological analyses reveal that the homozygous Pelo deficient embryos fail to develop past day 7.5 of embryogenesis (E7.5). The failure of mitotic active inner cell mass of the Pelo−/− blastocysts to expand in growth after 4 days in culture and the survival of mitotic inactive trophoplast indicate that the lethality of Pelo-null embryos is due to defects in cell proliferation. Analysis of the cellular DNA content reveals the significant increase of aneuploid cells in Pelo−/− embryos at E7.5. Therefore, the percent increase of aneuploid cells at E7.5 may be directly responsible for the arrested development and suggests that Pelo is required for the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:12556505

  18. Geologic evolution and sequence stratigraphy of the offshore Pelotas Basin, southeast Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, V.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Brazilian marginal basins have been studied since the beginning of the 70s. At least nine large basins are distributed along the entire Eastern continental margin. The sedimentary infill of these basins consists of lower Cretaceous (continental/lacustrine) rift section underlying marine upper Cretaceous (carbonate platforms) and marine upper Cretaceous/Tertiary sections, corresponding to the drift phase. The sedimentary deposits are a direct result of the Jurassic to lower Cretaceous break-up of the Pangea. This study will focus on the geologic evolution and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pelotas basin (offshore), located in the Southeast portion of the Brazilian continental margin between 28{degrees} and 34{degrees} S, covering approximately 50,000 Km{sup 2}. During the early Cretaceous, when the break-up of the continent began in the south, thick basaltic layers were deposited in the Pelotas basin. These basalts form a thick and broad wedge of dipping seaward reflections interpreted as a transitional crust. During Albian to Turonian times, due to thermal subsidence, an extensive clastic/carbonate platform was developed, in an early drift stage. The sedimentation from the upper Cretaceous to Tertiary was characterized by a predominance of siliciclastics in the southeast margin, marking an accentuate deepening of the basin, showing several cycles related to eustatic fluctuations. Studies have addressed the problems of hydrocarbon exploration in deep water setting within a sequence stratigraphic framework. Thus Pelotas basin can provide a useful analogue for exploration efforts worldwide in offshore passive margins.

  19. Geologic evolution and sequence stratigraphy of the offshore Pelotas Basin, southeast Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, V.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Brazilian marginal basins have been studied since the beginning of the 70s. At least nine large basins are distributed along the entire Eastern continental margin. The sedimentary infill of these basins consists of lower Cretaceous (continental/lacustrine) rift section underlying marine upper Cretaceous (carbonate platforms) and marine upper Cretaceous/Tertiary sections, corresponding to the drift phase. The sedimentary deposits are a direct result of the Jurassic to lower Cretaceous break-up of the Pangea. This study will focus on the geologic evolution and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pelotas basin (offshore), located in the Southeast portion of the Brazilian continental margin between 28[degrees] and 34[degrees] S, covering approximately 50,000 Km[sup 2]. During the early Cretaceous, when the break-up of the continent began in the south, thick basaltic layers were deposited in the Pelotas basin. These basalts form a thick and broad wedge of dipping seaward reflections interpreted as a transitional crust. During Albian to Turonian times, due to thermal subsidence, an extensive clastic/carbonate platform was developed, in an early drift stage. The sedimentation from the upper Cretaceous to Tertiary was characterized by a predominance of siliciclastics in the southeast margin, marking an accentuate deepening of the basin, showing several cycles related to eustatic fluctuations. Studies have addressed the problems of hydrocarbon exploration in deep water setting within a sequence stratigraphic framework. Thus Pelotas basin can provide a useful analogue for exploration efforts worldwide in offshore passive margins.

  20. RS-25 engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-10

    The last of 15 RS-25 rocket engines arrived at Stennis Space Center from Kennedy Space Center in Flordia , on April 10, 2012. The engines will be stored at Stennis until testing begins for the engines to be used on NASA's new Space Launch System.

  1. Rare Species (RS)

    Treesearch

    Steve Sutherland

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON Rare Species (RS) method is used to assess changes in uncommon, perennial plant species when other monitoring methods are not effective. This method monitors individual plants and statistically quantifies changes in plant survivorship, growth, and reproduction over time. Plants are spatially located using distance along and from a permanent baseline, and...

  2. [MaRS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aruljothi, Arunvenkatesh

    2016-01-01

    The Space Exploration Division of the Safety and Mission Assurances Directorate is responsible for reducing the risk to Human Space Flight Programs by providing system safety, reliability, and risk analysis. The Risk & Reliability Analysis branch plays a part in this by utilizing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) tools to identify possible types of failure and effective solutions. A continuous effort of this branch is MaRS, or Mass and Reliability System, a tool that was the focus of this internship. Future long duration space missions will have to find a balance between the mass and reliability of their spare parts. They will be unable take spares of everything and will have to determine what is most likely to require maintenance and spares. Currently there is no database that combines mass and reliability data of low level space-grade components. MaRS aims to be the first database to do this. The data in MaRS will be based on the hardware flown on the International Space Stations (ISS). The components on the ISS have a long history and are well documented, making them the perfect source. Currently, MaRS is a functioning excel workbook database; the backend is complete and only requires optimization. MaRS has been populated with all the assemblies and their components that are used on the ISS; the failures of these components are updated regularly. This project was a continuation on the efforts of previous intern groups. Once complete, R&M engineers working on future space flight missions will be able to quickly access failure and mass data on assemblies and components, allowing them to make important decisions and tradeoffs.

  3. RS-84 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, E.

    2003-01-01

    The RS-84 is the first reusable hydrocarbon staged combustion liquid rocket engine. This engine is being developed to meet NASA s crew safety goals with a highly reliable and low cost main engine as a part of the NASA Space Launch Initiative program for the next generation reusable launch system. The NASA-MSFC and Rocketdyne team brings over 50 years of successful rocket engine development experience to meet the challenges of this new program. This team s extensive design database has been anchored with almost five decades of hydrocarbon rocket engine development and flight operations experience including Delta, Atlas, and Saturn vehicles and nearly three decades of successfully operating the world s only reusable pump-fed rocket engine, the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The team also fully benefits from the proven and experienced engineering staffs that recently completed the successful MC-1 FASTRAC , XRS-2200, and RS-68 engine development programs and the ongoing IPD and RS-76 technology development. Advances in integrated parametric design and analysis tools, advanced materials knowledge base, and state-of-the-art fabrication processes anchored and refined during the recent engine development programs are already being used by the team to design this engine.

  4. Avoidable deaths until 48 [corrected] months of age among children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Gorgot, Luis Ramon Marques da Rocha; Santos, Iná; Valle, Neiva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Matisajevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D; Albernaz, Elaine

    2011-04-01

    To describe avoidable deaths of children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The death of 92 children between 2004/2008 from Pelotas Birth Cohort were identified and classified according to the Brazilian List of Avoidable Causes of Mortality of Brazilian Unified Healthcare System. The Mortality Information System (SIM) for the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) and the city of Pelotas were screened to search for deaths that occurred outside the city, as well as causes of deaths after the 1st year. Causes of infant deaths (<1 year of age) were compared between information from a sub-study and SIM. Mortality coefficients per 1,000 LB and proportional mortality for avoidable causes, including by type of health facility (traditional or Family Health Strategy) were calculated. The mortality coefficient was 22.2/ 1,000 LB, 82 the deaths occurred in the first year of life (19.4/1,000LB), and these included 37 (45%) in the first week. More than ¾ of the deaths (70/92) were avoidable. In infancy, according to the sub-study, the majority (42/82) could be prevented through adequate care of the woman during pregnancy; according to SIM, the majority could have been prevented through adequate newborn care (32/82). There was no difference in the proportion of avoidable deaths by type of health facility. The proportion of avoidable deaths is high. The quality of death certificate registries needs improvement so that avoidable deaths can be employed as an indicator to monitor maternal and child health care.

  5. [Illness and death: slaves in the city of Pelotas, 1870-1880].

    PubMed

    Loner, Beatriz Ana; Gill, Lorena Almeida; Scheer, Micaele Irene

    2012-12-01

    The article analyzes diseases presented by slaves hospitalized at Santa Casa de Misericórdia in Pelotas. The focus is on the workers at 'charqueadas' (processing plants for dried meat), whose harsh and rigid work regimen had serious health consequences. Although we can find many descriptions of beef processing at 'charqueadas', we find less evidence of concerns about how slave labor was employed at these plants. By analyzing the period from 1870 to 1880, based on hospital records, travelers' observations, and newspaper reports, the article intends to contribute towards a better understanding of the health conditions of captives in the southern part of the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  6. The age of developing diabetes and FTO polymorphisms (rs9939609, rs1421085, and rs9930506).

    PubMed

    Grzeszczak, Władysław; Molsa, Maciej; Tłuczykont, Marek; Markowicz, Anna; Swoboda, Ryszard; Biedak, Marta; Kałuża, Anna; Sirek, Sebastian; Strojek, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a common complex metabolic disorder that has a strong genetic predisposition. Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is one of the genes of interest to us. Hypomethylation of a CpG site in the FTO gene was significantly associated with the risk of T2DM. The aim of the study was to find the answer to the question of whether the polymorphism changes of the FTO gene in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes are comparable in young, middle aged, and elderly people. The study involved 282 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes, who attended a primary healthcare clinic in Southern Poland. The study subjects were divided into three groups according to the age at which type 2 diabetes mellitus was diagnosed (> 40 years old, 40-60 years old, and > 60 years old). The genotyping of rs9939609, rs1421085, and rs9930506 FTO polymorphisms was conducted using TaqManPre-designed SNP Genotyping Assay. No statistically significant difference was shown between the examined FTO polymorphism (rs9939609, rs1421085, and rs9930506) distribution between the subjects diagnosed with diabetes < 40 years , 40-60 years, and > 60 years old. There were no statistically significant relationships between the different analysed anthropometric and other parameters and distribution of examined FTO polymorphisms (rs9939609 , rs1421085, and rs9930506). The age of diabetes was not affect by the tested FTO polymorphisms (rs9939609 , rs1421085, and rs9930506).

  7. The Late Neoproterozoic granitoid magmatism of the Pelotas Batholith, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Machado, Rômulo

    2005-09-01

    Geological mapping, petrography, geochemistry, and isotope studies enable the division of the Pelotas Batholith into six granitic suites: Pinheiro Machado (PMS), Erval (ES), Viamão (VS), Encruzilhada do Sul (ESS), Cordilheira (CS), and Dom Feliciano (DFS). The rocks of the PMS show a large compositional range (granite through granodiorite to tonalite), and the suite is considered pre- to syncollisional. Other suites show restricted compositional variations (granite to granodiorite) and are late to postcollisional. In general, the suites are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (PMS, ES, and VS) or peraluminous (CS) or have alkaline tendencies (ESS and DFS). The magmatic evolution corresponds to high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism. The suites are enriched in K, Rb, and REE compared with rocks of typical calc-alkaline series. Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios vary from 0.705 to 0.716, except in the CS, where they attain values of 0.732-0.740. Sm-Nd T DM model ages vary between 0.98 and 2.0 Ga, with initial ɛ Nd values ranging from -0.3 to -10. U-Pb zircon dates of samples from PMS, VS, and ESS suggest an age between 0.63 and 0.59 Ga for magmatism. Rb-Sr dates of samples of alkaline granites from DFS present ages between 0.57 and 0.55 Ga. The main tectonic controls of the magmatism of the Pelotas Batholith are high-dip sinistral shear zones.

  8. Mutagenic potential of water from Pelotas Creek in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, T C O; Maciel, L F; Leal, K S; Bender, A E N; Paiva, T S; Garcias, G L; Martino-Roth, M G

    2009-09-01

    Water resource degradation is one of mankind's greatest worries, as it causes direct and indirect damage to the associated biota. We initiated a water monitoring study in Pelotas Creek in 2003 in order to assess the mutagenic effect of the creek's waters. Allium cepa cells exposed to water samples and a chronically exposed macrophyte were analyzed, through evaluation of the mitotic index, mitotic anomalies, interphase anomalies, and total anomalies. Five points were chosen along the lower course of Pelotas Creek, from which water samples and floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, Apiaceae) were collected in 2006 and 2007. The enteric bacterium Escherichia coli was found at all sampling points; in the physical-chemical analysis, a few variables exceeded permitted limits, pH (from 6 to 9), chloride (250 mg/L), hardness (from 10 to 200 mg CaCO(3)/L), and conductivity (100 microOmega/cm). There was an increased number of cytogenetic anomalies in exposed A. cepa cells and in the pennywort in 2006 relative to 2007, which may be explained by the increased rainfall, which was three times greater in 2007 at some stations than in 2006.Omega/cm). There was an increased number of cytogenetic anomalies in exposed A. cepa cells and in the pennywort in 2006 relative to 2007, which may be explained by the increased rainfall, which was three times greater in 2007 at some stations than in 2006.

  9. Methodology of the Pelotas birth cohort study from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods employed in the longitudinal and follow-up studies of children born in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. METHODS: The cohort began with a perinatal health survey that included all 6,011 children born in maternity wards in Pelotas in 1982. The 5,914 children born alive in the city were included in the follow-up studies. By 2004-5, we had conducted eight follow-ups, which consisted of the administration of questionnaires to mothers and/or cohort members, depending on age, in addition to anthropometric and clinical examination. Cohort subjects are described in terms of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables collected during early follow-up studies, which are used as exposure variables. RESULTS: The majority of subjects in the cohort were followed for 23 years and on multiple occasions. The most successful follow-ups were those preceded by a city census. Using this method, we were able to locate 87.2% of subjects in 1984 (mean age 19 months), 84.1% in 1986 (mean age 43 months), and 77.4% in 2004-5, and 77.4% in 2004-5 (mean age 23 years). CONCLUSIONS: Birth cohort studies can be carried out successfully in developing countries, and the methods employed in this life-cycle study have allowed us to investigate the influence of early exposures in determining disease outcomes in adult life. PMID:19142340

  10. The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

  11. Association of lactase persistence genotype with milk consumption, obesity and blood pressure: a Mendelian randomization study in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort, with a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Smith, George Davey; de Mola, Christian Loret; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Milk intake has been associated with lower blood pressure (BP) in observational studies, and randomized controlled trials suggested that milk-derived tripeptides have BP-lowering effects. Milk intake has also been associated with body mass index (BMI). Nevertheless, it is unclear whether increasing milk consumption would reduce BP in the general population. Methods: We investigated the association of milk intake with obesity and BP using genetically-defined lactase persistence (LP) based on the rs4988235 polymorphism in a Mendelian randomization design in the 1982 Pelotas (Southern Brazil) Birth Cohort. These results were combined with published reports identified through a systematic review using meta-analysis. Results: In the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort, milk intake was 42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 18; 67) ml/day higher in LP individuals. In conventional observational analysis, each 1-dl/day increase in milk intake was associated with −0.26 (95% CI: −0.33; −0.19) kg/m2 in BMI and −0.31 (95% CI: −0.46; −0.16) and -0.35 (95% CI: −0.46; −0.23) mmHg in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. These results were not corroborated when analysing LP status, but confidence intervals were large. In random effects meta-analysis, LP individuals presented higher BMI [0.17 (95% CI: 0.07; 0.27) kg/m2] and higher odds of overweight-obesity [1.09 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.17)]. There were no reliable associations for BP. Conclusions: Our study supports that LP is positively associated with obesity, suggesting that the negative association of milk intake with obesity is likely due to limitations of conventional observational studies. Our findings also do not support that increased milk intake leads to lower BP. PMID:27170764

  12. [Adult obesity in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the association with socioeconomic status].

    PubMed

    Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Silvia, Macedo

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe obesity prevalence in a Brazilian city; (2) test the association between obesity and socio-demographic variables; and (3) compare results with a survey in the same city in 1994. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a random sample of 1,968 20-69-year-olds residing in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. Obesity was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2). Age and sex-adjusted obesity prevalence was 19.4%. Schooling was not associated with obesity in men. Obesity prevalence was higher in middle-income men. Women with more schooling had lower obesity rates. There was a non-statistically significant reduction in obesity rates compared to a similar study from 1994.

  13. Cohort profile update: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort follow-up visits in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cf; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana Mb

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we update the profile of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, with emphasis on a shift of priority from maternal and child health research topics to four main categories of outcome variables, collected throughout adolescence: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); (iv) human capital. We were able to trace 81.3% (n = 4106) of the original cohort at 18 years of age. For the first time, the 18-years visit took place entirely on the university premises, in a clinic equipped with state-of-the-art equipment for the assessment of body composition. We welcome requests for data analyses from outside scientists. For more information, refer to our website (http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.projetos_de_pesquisas/estudos/coorte_1993) or e-mail the corresponding author. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  14. Post-collisional subvolcanic rhyolites associated with the Neoproterozoic Pelotas Batholith, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Diego Skieresz de; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Lima, Evandro Fernandes de; Basei, Miguel Ângelo Stipp

    2015-11-01

    Neoproterozoic volcanic and subvolcanic rhyolitic systems in southernmost Brazil are correlated with acid magmatism linked to different petrotectonic associations of the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield. A portion of this volcanism in the Dom Feliciano Belt is associated with the Pelotas Batholith, which resulted from magmatic episodes associated with the Ediacaran post-collisional evolution of southern Brazil. Ana Dias Rhyolite is the main subvolcanic occurrence of this volcanism that took place in the Quitéria region, in the central part of Rio Grande do Sul State. The acid magmatism has been commonly associated with the most differentiated granite suite phases during the final stages of emplacement of the Pelotas Batholith. The Ana Dias Rhyolite is characterized as an intrusive body with rocks that present a porphyritic to seriated texture and a gradational variation to fine-grained equigranular rocks. New zircon U-Pb dating indicates crystallization age of 581.9 ± 1.9 Ma for the Ana Dias Rhyolite. Geochemistry data characterize the rhyolites as belonging to the alkaline series; they present a metaluminous to peraluminous character; elevated SiO2 and alkali concentrations, high FeOt/FeOt + MgO ratios and agpaitic index; and low Al2O3, CaO, and MgO contents. The Zr, Rb, Y, Nb, and Ga concentrations are moderate when compared with the relatively low Ba and Sr contents. These geochemistry characteristics are common in acid magmas with alkaline affinity. The behavior of certain trace elements and REE demonstrate enrichment in more incompatible elements, in addition to the negative anomaly of Ba, the slight enrichment in Ce relative to adjacent elements, as well as the enrichment in K2O and Rb relative to Nb, suggesting magmas derived from mantle sources enriched in incompatible elements with some crustal contamination. The chemical characteristics are similar to those of A-type granites associated with Neoproterozoic post-collision magmatism in the Sul

  15. JAK-1 rs2780895 C-related genotype and allele but not JAK-1 rs10789166, rs4916008, rs2780885, rs17127114, and rs3806277 are associated with higher susceptibility to asthma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yao-Yuan; Chang, Chi-Chen; Hsu, Chin-Mu; Wan, Lei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2011-12-01

    Asthma, one major respiratory consequence, might be caused by a complex interaction between multiple candidate genes and environmental factors. Herein, we aimed to investigate whether Janus kinase (JAK)-1 gene polymorphisms are associated with asthma susceptibility. Patients were divided into two groups: (1) asthma (n=117) and (2) nonasthma (n=60). The JAK-1 polymorphisms (rs2780895, rs10789166, rs4916008, rs2780885, rs17127114, and rs3806277) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and detected by electrophoresis after restriction enzyme (HpyCH4IV, Tsp45I, HpaII, XmnI, MspI, and HpaII) digestions. Genotypes, allelic frequencies, and association of haplotypes in both groups were compared. JAK-1 rs2780895 gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to asthma. Distributions of JAK-1 rs2780895*CC/CT/TT and C/T allele in both groups are: (1) 80/4/16% and 82/18%; (2) 48/45/7% and 71/29%. Other 5 JAK-1 SNPs (rs10789166, rs4916008, rs2780885, rs17127114, and rs3806277) are not associated with asthma susceptibilities. Distributions of JAK-1 rs10789166*AA/AG/GG, rs4916008*CC/CT/TT, rs2780885*CC/CT/TT, rs17127114*AA/AG/GG, rs3806277*AA/AG/GG in both groups are: (1) 50/40/10%, 42/49/9%, 50/40/10%, 9/37/54%, 8/35/57%; (2) 43/50/7%, 40/50/10%, 50/43/7%, 7/48/45%, 6/42/52%. Haplotype analyses for JAK-1 gene polymorphisms (rs2780895-rs10789166-rs4916008-rs2780885-rs17127114-rs3806277) revealed that JAK-1 haplotypes are not associated with asthma susceptibilities. JAK-1 rs2780895 C-related genotype and allele are associated with higher susceptibility to asthma. JAK-1 rs10789166, rs4916008, rs2780885, rs17127114, and rs3806277 single-nucleotide polymorphisms are not associated with asthma development. Some JAK-related genetic variations might be associated with asthma pathogenesis, which deserve further surveys.

  16. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Matijasevich A, Howe LD, Tilling K, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Lawlor DA. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 236–249. Socio-economic inequalities in attained height have been reported in many countries. The aim of this study was to explore the age at which maternal education inequalities in child height emerge among children from a middle-income country. Using data from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study from Brazil we modelled individual height growth trajectories in 2106 boys and 1947 girls from birth to 4 years using a linear spline mixed-effects model. We examined the associations of maternal education with birth length and trajectories of growth in length/height, and explored the effect of adjusting for a number of potential confounder or mediator factors. We showed linear and positive associations of maternal education with birth length and length/height growth rates at 0–3 months and 12–29/32 months with very little association at 3–12 months, particularly in boys. By age 4 years the mean height of boys was 101.06 cm (SE = 0.28) in the lowest and 104.20 cm (SE = 0.15) in the highest education category (mean difference 3.14 cm, SE = 0.32, P < 0.001). Among girls the mean height was 100.02 cm (SE = 0.27) and 103.03 cm (SE = 0.15) in the lowest and highest education categories, respectively (mean difference 3.01 cm, SE = 0.31, P < 0.001). For both boys and girls there was on average a 3-cm difference between the extreme education categories. Adjusting for maternal height reduced the observed birth length differences across maternal education categories, but differences in postnatal growth rates persisted. Our data demonstrate an increase in the absolute and relative inequality in height after birth; inequality increases from approximately 0.2 standard deviations of birth length to approximately 0.7 standard deviations of height at age

  17. PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity in Latvians, Lithuanians and Taiwanese

    PubMed Central

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Paramonova, Natalia; Wu, Lawrence Shi-Shin; Zemeckiene, Zivile; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2014-01-01

    PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity was investigated in 1438 unrelated subjects from Latvia, Lithuania and Taiwan. In general, polymorphism of each individual locus showed tendencies similar to determined previously in HapMap populations. Main differences concern Taiwanese and include presence of rs2277460 rare allele A not found before in Asians and absence of rs2295827 rare alleles homozygotes TT observed in all other human populations. Observed patterns of SNPs and haplotype diversity were compatible with expectation of neutral model of evolution. Linkage disequilibrium between the rs2295826 and rs2295827 was detected to be complete in Latvians and Lithuanians (D´ = 1; r2 = 1) and slightly disrupted in Taiwanese (D´ = 0.978; r2 = 0.901). Population differentiation (FST statistics) was estimated from pairwise population comparisons of loci variability, five locus haplotypes and PSMA6 and PSMC6 two locus haplotypes. Latvians were significantly different from all Asians at each of 5 SNPs and from Lithuanians at the rs1048990 and PSMC6 loci. Lithuanian and Asian populations exhibited similarities at the PSMC6 loci and were different at the PSMA6 and PSMA3 SNPs. Considering five locus haplotypes all European populations were significantly different from Asian; Lithuanian population was different from both Latvian and CEU. Allele specific patterns of transcription factor binding sites and splicing signals were predicted in silico and addressed to eventual functionality of nucleotide substitutions and their potential to be involved in human genome evolution and geographical adaptation. Current study represents a novel step toward a systematic analysis of the proteasomal gene genetic diversity in human populations. PMID:25606411

  18. Criminal victimization in childhood and adolescence according to official records: the Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo Gallo, Erika Alejandra; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Murray, Joseph; Duarte da Silva, Luciana Anselmi; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This article describes different types of officially recorded victimization among 5,249 children in the 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Official data were obtained from the Secretariat for Public Security and the Special Court for Children and Youth. Victimization was registered for in 1,150 cohort members, with 1,396 incidents recorded as of December 31, 2012. The total incidence of victimization was 15.7 ocorrences per 1,000 person-years, with the majority involving violent victimization (12.7 per 1,000 person-years). Victimization increased gradually in childhood and rapidly throughout adolescence. The highest incidence rates were among females (p < 0.05), the poor (p < 0.05), children of adolescent mothers (p < 0.001), and children of single mothers (p < 0.05). The most common violent victimization types were physical injuries, robbery, and crimes against personal freedom; non-violent victimization mainly involved theft. Studies like this help identify lifetime risk and protective factors for victimization, highlighting the importance of surveillance and control measures against violence. PMID:27580232

  19. Tracking of physical activity during adolescence: the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mario Renato; Menezes, Ana Maria; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Gonçalves, Helen; Arumi, Ignasi; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze physical activity during adolescence in participants of the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil. METHODS Data on leisure time physical activity at 11, 15, and 18 years of age were analyzed. At each visit, a cut-off point of 300 min/week was used to classify adolescents as active or inactive. A total of 3,736 participants provided data on physical activity at each of the three age points. RESULTS A significant decline in the proportion of active adolescents was observed from 11 to 18 years of age, particularly among girls (from 32.9% to 21.7%). The proportions of girls and boys who were active at all three age points were 28.0% and 55.1%, respectively. After adjustment for sex, economic status, and skin color, participants who were active at 11 and 15 years of age were 58.0% more likely to be active at 18 years of age compared with those who were inactive at 11 and 15 years of age. CONCLUSIONS Physical activity declined during adolescence and inactivity tended to track over time. Our findings reinforce the need to promote physical activity at early stages of life, because active behavior established early tends to be maintained over time. PMID:26039395

  20. Taming troubled teens: The social production of mental morbidity amongst young mothers in Pelotas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, D.P.; Gonçalves, H.D.; Gigante, D.; Kirkwood, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Explanations for the association between teen-childbearing and subsequent mental morbidity vary considerably, from those based on neurological theories of development to those investigating underlying social and economic determinants. Based on longitudinal epidemiological and ethnographic sub-studies of the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, this paper explores the hypothesis that teen childbearing and subsequent mental morbidity have become associated through the interplay of culture, society, and biology in situations where teen pregnancy has become a stigmatised object of scientific and public health attention. Results show that the effect of teen childbearing on subsequent mental morbidity remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Ethnographic analysis, together with epidemiological effect modification analyses, suggest that this association is partially accounted for by the fact that it is more pronounced amongst a specific subgroup of women of low socio-economic status who, being more politicised about societal injustice, were also more critically engaged with – and thus troubled by – the inequitable institutionalisation of life-cycle transitions. With time, these women became highly critical of the institutionalised identification of early childbearing as a key violation of life-cycle norms and the differential class-based application of scientific knowledge on its causes and consequences. Public health campaigns should consider how the age-based institutionalisation of developmental norms has enabled the stigmatisation of those identified as transgressors. PMID:22196249

  1. Electronic data collection in epidemiological research. The use of REDCap in the Pelotas birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Blumenberg, Cauane; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes the use of Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) to conduct one of the follow-up waves of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort. The aim is to point out the advantages and limitations of using this electronic data capture environment to collect data and control every step of a longitudinal epidemiological research, specially in terms of time savings and data quality. We used REDCap as the main tool to support the conduction of a birth cohort follow-up. By exploiting several REDCap features, we managed to schedule assessments, collect data, and control the study workflow. To enhance data quality, we developed specific reports and field validations to depict inconsistencies in real time. Using REDCap it was possible to investigate more variables without significant increases on the data collection time, when comparing to a previous birth cohort follow-up. In addition, better data quality was achieved since negligible out of range errors and no validation or missing inconsistencies were identified after applying over 7,000 interviews. Adopting electronic data capture solutions, such as REDCap, in epidemiological research can bring several advantages over traditional paper-based data collection methods. In favor of improving their features, more research groups should migrate from paper to electronic-based epidemiological research.

  2. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring growth in childhood: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Brion, Marie-Jo; Menezes, Ana M; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring growth using three approaches: (1) multiple adjustments for socioeconomic and parental factors, (2) maternal–paternal comparisons as a test of putative intrauterine effects and (3) comparisons between two birth cohort studies. Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1993 and 2004. Cohort members were followed up at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between maternal and paternal prenatal smoking and offspring anthropometric indices. In the 2004 cohort, the association of smoking with trunk length, leg length and leg-to-sitting-height ratio at 48 months was also explored. Results Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with reduced z scores of length/height-for-age at each follow-up in both cohorts and reduced leg length at 48 months in the 2004 cohort. Children older than 3 months born to smoking women showed a higher body mass index-for-age z score than children of non-smoking women. Conclusions The results of this study strongly support the hypothesis that maternal smoking during pregnancy impairs linear growth and promotes overweight in childhood. PMID:21377989

  3. Education and work in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of biological and socioeconomic factors throughout life on entry into the university and insertion in the work force of young adults from the 1982 birth cohort. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 5,914 births that took place in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982. Data was collected by means of questionnaires applied on young adults when accompanying the 1982 cohort in 2004-5. Information was gathered concerning educational level and insertion in the labor market. Poisson Regression was utilized to study the effect of demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as birth weight and maternal breastfeeding, on the outcomes. RESULTS: On the average, these young adults had 9.4 (± 3.1) years of schooling and 42% of them were attending school in 2004-5. One in five young adults had entered a university and approximately two thirds were working during the month prior to the interview. Entry in the university was determined by economic conditions. Furthermore, women's birth weight and breastfeeding among men influenced this outcome. Insertion in the labor market was more frequent among the poorer men, but this did not affect women's outcomes in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: The low inclusion in the university and the need to enter the labor market among the poor families maintains a vicious circle that reproduces the dominant social hierarchy. PMID:19142341

  4. Analysis of the haplotype and linkage disequilibrium of PPARγ gene polymorphisms rs3856806, rs12490265, rs1797912, and rs1175543 among patients with metabolic syndrome in Kazakh of Xinjiang Province.

    PubMed

    Guo, S X; Guo, H; Ma, R L; Ding, Y S; Zhang, J Y; Liu, J M; Zhang, M; Niu, Q; Qiang, N; Li, S G; Qi, C N

    2014-10-27

    We investigated the relationship between haplotype and linkage disequilibrium of the PPARγ gene polymorphisms rs3856806, rs12490265, rs1797912, and rs1175543 and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the Kazakh people of Xinjiang Province. For PPARγ, rs3856806, rs12490265, rs1797912, and rs1175543 genotypes were detected in 489 subjects (including 245 MS patients and 244 controls) using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Frequencies of rs3856806T, rs12490265A, rs1797912C, and rs1175543G alleles in MS patients were significantly lower than those of controls [rs3856806T allele: 12.53 vs 17.01% (P = 0.044), rs12490265A allele: 31.84 vs 38.52% (P = 0.029), rs1797912C allele: 35.31 vs 43.24% (P = 0.011), rs1175543G allele: 40.61 vs 47.54% (P = 0.029)]. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between the PPARγ rs1797912 and rs1175543 polymorphisms as well as between the rs12490265 and rs1175543 polymorphisms. A total of 14 haplotypes were found. Patients with rs3856806T, rs12490265A, rs1797912C, and rs1175543G were observed 0.267 times more frequently [95% confidence interval = 0.126-0.566] than those with rs3856806C, rs12490265G, rs1797912A, and rs1175543A, respectively. The PPARγ gene polymorphisms rs3856806, rs12490265, rs1797912, and rs1175543 were associated with MS in Kazakh subjects. Very strong linkage disequilibrium was found between the PPARγ rs1797912 and rs1175543 polymorphisms as well as between the rs12490265 and rs1175543 polymorphisms. AGCC and GAAT haplotypes may serve as protective factors against MS. The rs3856806T, rs12490265A, rs1797912C, and rs1175543G alleles may enhance the protective effect of MS.

  5. Early life determinants of low IQ at age 6 in children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort: a predictive approach.

    PubMed

    Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Fernando C

    2014-12-16

    Childhood intelligence is an important determinant of health outcomes in adulthood. The first years of life are critical to child development. This study aimed to identify early life (perinatal and during the first year of life) predictors of low cognitive performance at age 6. A birth cohort study started in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, in 2004 and children were followed from birth to age six. Information on a broad set of biological and social predictors was collected. Cognitive ability-the study outcome-was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). IQ scores were standardized into z-scores and low IQ defined as z < -1. We applied bootstrapping methods for internal validation with a multivariate logistic regression model and carried out external validation using a second study from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The proportion of children with IQ z-score < -1 was 16.9% (95% CI 15.6-18.1). The final model included the following early life variables: child's gender; parents' skin color; number of siblings; father's and mother's employment status; household income; maternal education; number of persons per room; duration of breastfeeding; height-for-age deficit; head circumference-for-age deficit; parental smoking during pregnancy; and maternal perception of the child's health status. The area under the ROC curve for our final model was 0.8, with sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 74%. Similar results were found when testing external validation by using data from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort. The study results suggest that a child's and her/his family's social conditions are strong predictors of cognitive ability in childhood. Interventions for promoting a healthy early childhood development are needed targeting children at risk of low IQ so that they can reach their full cognitive potential.

  6. Prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M B; Lima, Rosângela C; Minten, Gicele C; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults, and to explore the effect of some variables on the prevalence of this condition. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study on individuals born in the city of Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. A total of 4,297 subjects was traced in 2004-5, representing 77.4% of the original cohort. Data were collected by means of interviews using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Steering Committee) questionnaire. Associations between the outcome “occurrence of wheezing in the chest within the 12 months prior to the interview” and the variables of socioeconomic, demographic and birth characteristics were tested by means of multivariable analyses, using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of wheezing over the preceding year was 24.9%. Among the individuals reporting wheezing, 54.6% reported difficulty in sleeping, and 12.9% reported difficulty in speaking due to wheezing. The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was significantly higher among women. This association was maintained in analyses adjusted for non-white skin color, family history of asthma and low socioeconomic level. Among men, there was no significant association in the analyses adjusted for skin color and family income at birth. Family histories of asthma and poverty throughout life presented significant associations with wheezing in the chest. For both sexes, there were no associations with the variables of birth weight and breastfeeding duration. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was high, and subjects with low family income at birth were more likely to have had wheezing in the chest over the preceding year. PMID:19142351

  7. Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. RESULTS Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth’s age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. CONCLUSIONS There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health. PMID:19142344

  8. Early age at menarche and wheezing in adolescence. The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Gary; Baptista Menezes, Ana Maria; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of menarche before 11 years of age on the incidence of wheezing/asthma in girls 11 to 18 years of age. Methods The study sample comprised 1,350 girls from a birth cohort that started in 1993 in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil; this cohort was followed until 18 years of age. We assessed wheezing by the question, “Have you ever had wheezing in the chest at any time in the past?,” from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Early menarche was defined as occurring before 11 years of age. We estimated the cumulative incidence of wheezing excluding from the analysis all those participants who reported wheezing before age of 11 years. We performed the chi-square test to assess the association between ever wheezing and independent variables. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate cumulative incidence ratios. Results The average age at menarche in the cohort girls was 12 years (95% CI: 11.1–12.1). The prevalence of early menarche before 11 years of age was 11% (95% CI: 9.7–12.3). The cumulative incidence of wheezing from 11 to 18 years of age was 33.5% (95% CI: 30.9– 36.0). The crude association between ever wheezing in adolescence and early menarche before age 11 was 1.19 (95% CI: 0.96–1.48). After adjusting for early childhood and contemporaneous variables, no significant association for early menarche before 11 years of age and wheezing during adolescence was found (CIR: 1.18; CI95%: 0.93-1.49). Conclusion Early menarche before 11 years of age is not associated with an increased risk of wheezing during adolescence. PMID:26870751

  9. Maternal depression and bullying victimization among adolescents: Results from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study.

    PubMed

    Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Barros, Fernando C; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2017-10-01

    Maternal depression impacts on several detrimental outcomes during a child's life course, and could increase their risk of victimization. This longitudinal study examined the association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization at 11 years. We included 3,441 11-year-old adolescents from the 2004 Pelotas Cohort Study. Antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression data were assessed during the follow-up waves. Bullying victimization was self-reported by the adolescents. We used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for the association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization. The most prevalent type of bullying was verbal victimization (37.9%). We observed a positive association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and physical bullying victimization. Maternal mood symptoms during pregnancy were associated with physical (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.11-1.53), verbal (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49), and any victimization (OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.05-1.41). Severe current maternal depression was associated with physical (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.10-1.62), social manipulation (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.08-1.53), attacks on property (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.08-1.57) and any victimization (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.12-1.56). Regarding maternal depression trajectories, the "chronic-high" group was associated with higher risk of social manipulation, attacks on property and any victimization, than the "low" group. Our results strengthen the evidence of association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization, and physical victimization appears to be the main component. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to elucidate the theoretical pathways for this longitudinal association. © 2017 Wiley

  10. A Novel Route Controlling Begomovirus Resistance by the Messenger RNA Surveillance Factor Pelota

    PubMed Central

    Lapidot, Moshe; Karniel, Uri; Gelbart, Dana; Fogel, Doron; Evenor, Dalia; Kutsher, Yaarit; Makhbash, Zion; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Reuveni, Moshe; Levin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a devastating disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that can be effectively controlled by the deployment of resistant cultivars. The TYLCV-resistant line TY172 carries a major recessive locus for TYLCV resistance, designated ty-5, on chromosome 4. In this study, the association between 27 polymorphic DNA markers, spanning the ty-5 locus, and the resistance characteristics of individual plants inoculated with TYLCV in 51 segregating recombinant populations were analyzed. These analyses localized ty-5 into a 425 bp region containing two transversions: one in the first exon of a gene encoding the tomato homolog of the messenger RNA surveillance factor Pelota (Pelo), and a second in its proximal promoter. Analyses of susceptible and resistant lines revealed that the relative transcript level of the gene remained unchanged, regardless of whether the plants were infected with TYLCV or not. This suggests that the polymorphism discovered in the coding region of the gene controls the resistance. Silencing of Pelo in a susceptible line rendered the transgenic plants highly resistant, while in the resistant line TY172 had no effect on symptom development. In addition, over-expression of the susceptible allele of the gene in the resistant TY172 line rendered it susceptible, while over-expression of the resistant allele in susceptible plants had no effect. These results confirm that Pelo is the gene controlling resistance at the ty-5 locus. Pelo, implicated in the ribosome recycling-phase of protein synthesis, offers an alternative route to promote resistance to TYLCV and other viruses. PMID:26448569

  11. Trajectories of maternal depression and offspring psychopathology at 6 years: 2004 Pelotas cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Joseph; Cooper, Peter J.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.; Santos, Iná S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have addressed the course and severity of maternal depression and its effects on child psychiatric disorders from a longitudinal perspective. This study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns of maternal depression and to evaluate whether distinct depression trajectories predict particular psychiatric disorders in offspring. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months and 6 years after delivery. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA) instrument. Trajectories of maternal depression were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Results We identified five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms: a “low” trajectory (34.8%), a “moderate low” (40.9%), a “increasing” (9.0%), a “decreasing” (9.9%), and a “high-chronic” trajectory (5.4%). The probability of children having any psychiatric disorder, as well as both internalizing and externalizing problems, increased as we moved from the “low” to the “high-chronic” trajectory. These differences were not explained by maternal and child characteristics examined in multivariate analyses. Limitations Data on maternal depression at 3-months was available on only a sub-sample. In addition, we had to rely on maternal report of child’s behavior alone. Conclusions The study revealed an additive effect on child outcome of maternal depression over time. We identified a group of mothers with chronic and severe symptoms of depression throughout the first six years of the child life and for this group child psychiatric outcome was particularly compromised. PMID:25553403

  12. Focus and coverage of Bolsa Família Program in the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Kelen H; Labrecque, Jeremy; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Fernando C; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the focalization and coverage of Bolsa Família Program among the families of children who are part of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (2004 cohort). METHODS The data used derives from the integration of information from the 2004 cohort and the Cadastro Único para Programas Sociais do Governo Federal (CadÚnico – Register for Social Programs of the Federal Government), in the 2004-2010 period. We estimated the program coverage (percentage of eligible people who receive the benefit) and its focus (proportion of eligible people among the beneficiaries). We used two criteria to define eligibility: the per capita household income reported in the cohort follow-ups and belonging to the 20% poorest families according to the National Economic Indicator (IEN), an asset index. RESULTS Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of families in the cohort that received the benefit increased from 11% to 34%. We observed an increase in all wealth quintiles. In 2010, by income and wealth quintiles (IEN), 62%-72% of the families were beneficiaries among the 20% poorest people, 2%-5% among the 20% richest people, and about 30% of families of the intermediate quintile. According to household income (minus the benefit) 29% of families were eligible in 2004 and 16% in 2010. By the same criteria, the coverage of the program increased from 43% in 2004 to 71% in 2010. In the same period, by the wealth criterion (IEN), coverage increased from 29% to 63%. The focalization of the program decreased from 78% in 2004 to 32% in 2010 according to income, and remained constant (37%) according to the IEN. CONCLUSIONS Among the families of the 2004 cohort, there was a significant increase in the program coverage, from its inception until 2010, when it was near 70%. The focus of the program was below 40% in 2010, indicating that more than half of the beneficiaries did not belong to the target population. PMID:28380211

  13. RS CVn stars - Chromospheric phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    The observational information regarding chromospheric emission features in surface-active RS CVn stars is reviewed. Three optical features are considered in detail: Ca II H and K, Balmer H-alpha and He I 10830 A. While the qualitative behavior of these lines is in accord with solar-analogy/rotation-activity ideas, the quantitative variation and scaling are very poorly understood. In many cases, the spectroscopic observations with sufficient SNR and resolution to decide these questions have simply not yet been made. The FK Com stars, in particular, present extreme examples of rotation that may well tax present understanding of surface activity to its limits.

  14. RS CVn stars - Chromospheric phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    The observational information regarding chromospheric emission features in surface-active RS CVn stars is reviewed. Three optical features are considered in detail: Ca II H and K, Balmer H-alpha and He I 10830 A. While the qualitative behavior of these lines is in accord with solar-analogy/rotation-activity ideas, the quantitative variation and scaling are very poorly understood. In many cases, the spectroscopic observations with sufficient SNR and resolution to decide these questions have simply not yet been made. The FK Com stars, in particular, present extreme examples of rotation that may well tax present understanding of surface activity to its limits.

  15. RS CVn stars - Chromospheric phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    The observational information regarding chromospheric emission features in surface-active RS CVn stars is reviewed. Three optical features are considered in detail: Ca II H and K, Balmer H-alpha and He I 10830 A. While the qualitative behavior of these lines is in accord with solar-analogy/rotation-activity ideas, the quantitative variation and scaling are very poorly understood. In many cases, the spectroscopic observations with sufficient SNR and resolution to decide these questions have simply not yet been made. The FK Com stars, in particular, present extreme examples of rotation that may well tax present understanding of surface activity to its limits.

  16. BODY COMPOSITION AND SOMATOTYPE OF PROFESSIONAL AND U23 HAND BASQUE PELOTA PLAYERS.

    PubMed

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Valtueña, Jara; Holway, Francis; Cordova, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: casi no hay ninguna referencia sobre las características antropométricas, la composición corporal y el somatotipo de la mano de los jugadores de pelota vasca (pelotaris) en la literatura científica. Objetivos: el objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar la composición corporal de pelotaris profesionales y sub-23 para crear el perfil antropométrico de este deporte. Métodos: participaron diez pelotaris sub-23 y ocho pelotaris profesionales. Las medidas antropométricas fueron recogidas siguiendo el protocolo de la Sociedad Internacional de Promoción de Protocolo Cineantropometría (ISAK). La masa grasa (FM) se calculó utilizando la ecuación Yushasz modificada por Carter, y la masa muscular (MM) mediante la ecuación de Lee. Los componentes del somatotipo fueron estimados mediante la ecuación Carter y Heath. El nivel de hidratación de los pelotaris se midió con un analizador tetrapolar de impedancia bioeléctrica (BIA). Resultados: los pelotaris profesionales tienen significativamente menor FM (en % (p = 0,001); en kg (p = 0,025) y en los sumatorios de 4, 6 y 8 pliegues cutáneos (p = 0,001); mayor MM (p = 0,015) y un menor componente endomórfico (p < 0,001) que los pelotaris sub-23. Asimismo, los profesionales tienen una mayor cantidad de agua corporal (p = 0,001) y un diámetro mayor biestiloideo de muñeca (p = 0,014). Los pelotaris profesionales son un morfotipo caracterizado por una baja FM (8,9 ± 1,1%) y una intermedia MM (47 ± 1,7%), además de tener una altura de 183,0 ± 7,1 cm y un peso de 85,9 ± 7,6 kg. Conclusión: los principales resultados de este estudio mostraron que las características antropométricas no modificables por el entrenamiento (por ejemplo, altura, envergadura y diámetro de la muñeca) son componentes importantes para convertirse en un pelotari profesional. Por otra parte, las características relacionadas con el entrenamiento y la dieta han mostrado ser mejores en los pelotaris profesionales (menor FM

  17. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-05-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in attained height have been reported in many countries. The aim of this study was to explore the age at which maternal education inequalities in child height emerge among children from a middle-income country. Using data from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study from Brazil we modelled individual height growth trajectories in 2106 boys and 1947 girls from birth to 4 years using a linear spline mixed-effects model. We examined the associations of maternal education with birth length and trajectories of growth in length/height, and explored the effect of adjusting for a number of potential confounder or mediator factors. We showed linear and positive associations of maternal education with birth length and length/height growth rates at 0-3 months and 12-29/32 months with very little association at 3-12 months, particularly in boys. By age 4 years the mean height of boys was 101.06 cm (SE = 0.28) in the lowest and 104.20 cm (SE = 0.15) in the highest education category (mean difference 3.14 cm, SE = 0.32, P < 0.001). Among girls the mean height was 100.02 cm (SE = 0.27) and 103.03 cm (SE = 0.15) in the lowest and highest education categories, respectively (mean difference 3.01 cm, SE = 0.31, P < 0.001). For both boys and girls there was on average a 3-cm difference between the extreme education categories. Adjusting for maternal height reduced the observed birth length differences across maternal education categories, but differences in postnatal growth rates persisted. Our data demonstrate an increase in the absolute and relative inequality in height after birth; inequality increases from approximately 0.2 standard deviations of birth length to approximately 0.7 standard deviations of height at age 4, indicating that height inequality, which was already present at birth, widened through differential growth rates to age 2 years. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Focus and coverage of Bolsa Família Program in the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kelen H; Labrecque, Jeremy; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Fernando C; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-03-30

    To describe the focalization and coverage of Bolsa Família Program among the families of children who are part of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (2004 cohort). The data used derives from the integration of information from the 2004 cohort and the Cadastro Único para Programas Sociais do Governo Federal (CadÚnico - Register for Social Programs of the Federal Government), in the 2004-2010 period. We estimated the program coverage (percentage of eligible people who receive the benefit) and its focus (proportion of eligible people among the beneficiaries). We used two criteria to define eligibility: the per capita household income reported in the cohort follow-ups and belonging to the 20% poorest families according to the National Economic Indicator (IEN), an asset index. Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of families in the cohort that received the benefit increased from 11% to 34%. We observed an increase in all wealth quintiles. In 2010, by income and wealth quintiles (IEN), 62%-72% of the families were beneficiaries among the 20% poorest people, 2%-5% among the 20% richest people, and about 30% of families of the intermediate quintile. According to household income (minus the benefit) 29% of families were eligible in 2004 and 16% in 2010. By the same criteria, the coverage of the program increased from 43% in 2004 to 71% in 2010. In the same period, by the wealth criterion (IEN), coverage increased from 29% to 63%. The focalization of the program decreased from 78% in 2004 to 32% in 2010 according to income, and remained constant (37%) according to the IEN. Among the families of the 2004 cohort, there was a significant increase in the program coverage, from its inception until 2010, when it was near 70%. The focus of the program was below 40% in 2010, indicating that more than half of the beneficiaries did not belong to the target population. Descrever a focalização e a cobertura do Programa Bolsa Família nas famílias de crianças que fazem parte da coorte

  19. Polymorphisms FTO rs9939609, PPARG rs1801282 and ADIPOQ rs4632532 and rs182052 but not lifestyle are associated with obesity related-traits in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Yáñez, C; Pérez-Morales, R; Moreno-Macías, H; Calleros-Rincón, E; Ballesteros, G; González, R. A; Espinosa, J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Concerning the genetic factors of obesity, no consistent association between populations has been reported, which may be due to the frequency of polymorphisms, the lifestyle of studied populations and its interaction with other factors. We studied a possible association of polymorphisms FTO rs9939609, PPARG rs1801282, and ADIPOQ rs4632532 and rs182052 with obesity phenotypes in 215 Mexican children. Glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL were measured. In addition, weight, height, waist circumference and triceps skin thickness were recorded. High-energy diets and sedentary behavior were evaluated with a validated questionnaire. In contrast with other reports, only FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity related-traits, including BMI (p = 0.03), waist circumference (p = 0.02), triceps skinfold (p = 0.03) and waist/height ratio (p = 0.01), and also with cholesterol levels (p = 0.02) and LDL (p = 0.009). Lower levels of triglycerides (p=0.04) were related with presence of PPARG rs1801282, while ADIPOQ rs4632532 showed an effect on HDL (p = 0.03) levels. On the other hand, diet, physical activity and screen time were not related with obesity. In summary, only FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity related-traits, while PPARG2 rs1801282 and ADIPOQ rs4632532 were involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:27560839

  20. Polymorphisms FTO rs9939609, PPARG rs1801282 and ADIPOQ rs4632532 and rs182052 but not lifestyle are associated with obesity related-traits in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Yáñez, C; Pérez-Morales, R; Moreno-Macías, H; Calleros-Rincón, E; Ballesteros, G; González, R A; Espinosa, J

    2016-01-01

    Concerning the genetic factors of obesity, no consistent association between populations has been reported, which may be due to the frequency of polymorphisms, the lifestyle of studied populations and its interaction with other factors. We studied a possible association of polymorphisms FTO rs9939609, PPARG rs1801282, and ADIPOQ rs4632532 and rs182052 with obesity phenotypes in 215 Mexican children. Glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL were measured. In addition, weight, height, waist circumference and triceps skin thickness were recorded. High-energy diets and sedentary behavior were evaluated with a validated questionnaire. In contrast with other reports, only FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity related-traits, including BMI (p = 0.03), waist circumference (p = 0.02), triceps skinfold (p = 0.03) and waist/height ratio (p = 0.01), and also with cholesterol levels (p = 0.02) and LDL (p = 0.009). Lower levels of triglycerides (p=0.04) were related with presence of PPARG rs1801282, while ADIPOQ rs4632532 showed an effect on HDL (p = 0.03) levels. On the other hand, diet, physical activity and screen time were not related with obesity. In summary, only FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity related-traits, while PPARG2 rs1801282 and ADIPOQ rs4632532 were involved in lipid metabolism.

  1. [Tobacco, alcohol, and drug use by teenagers in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: a gender approach].

    PubMed

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Morales, Blanca; Strey, Marlene Neves

    2007-04-01

    This study assesses the relationship between gender and use of psychoactive substances (alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs) by teenagers. In 2002, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Multi-stage sampling was used to obtain a sample of adolescents, 15 to 18 years of age. Subjects were interviewed using a self-applied confidential questionnaire. Smoking was more prevalent among girls, while alcohol consumption in the previous month was more common among boys. Meanwhile, the proportion of adolescents that reported drug use in the previous month was unrelated to gender. Higher cigarette consumption by girls suggests an increase in smoking by women in the future, which highlights the need for a special focus on this area.

  2. Polymorphisms in TP53 (rs1042522), p16 (rs11515 and rs3088440) and NQO1 (rs1800566) genes in Thai cervical cancer patients with HPV 16 infection.

    PubMed

    Chansaenroj, Jira; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Junyangdikul, Pairoj; Swangvaree, Sukumarn; Karalak, Anant; Chinchai, Teeraporn; Poovorawan, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The risk of cervical cancer development in women infected with HPV varies in relation to the individual host's genetic makeup. Many studies on polymorphisms as genetic factors have been aimed at analyzing associations with cervical cancer. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3 genes were investigated in relation to cervical cancer progression in HPV16 infected women with lesions. Two thousand cervical specimens were typed by PCR sequencing methods for TP53 (rs1042522), p16 (rs11515 and rs3088440) and NQO1 (rs1800566). Ninety two HPV16 positive cases and thirty two normal cases were randomly selected. Analysis of TP53 (rs1042522) showed a significantly higher frequency in cancer samples (OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.004-1.481, p-value=0.016) while differences in frequency were not significant within each group (p-value=0.070). The genotype distributions of p16 (rs11515 and rs3088440) and NQO1 (rs1800566) did not show any significantly higher frequency in cancer samples (p-value=0.106, 0.675 and 0.132, respectively) or within each group (p-value=0.347, 0.939 and 0.111, respectively). The results indicated that the polymorphism in TP53 (rs1042522) might be associated with risk of cervical cancer development in HPV16 infected women. Further studies of possible mechanisms of influence on cervical cancer development would be useful to manage HPV infected patients.

  3. Association between dental caries and obesity evaluated by air displacement plethysmography in 18-year-old adolescents in Pelotas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Justo, Fabiano de Castro; Fontanella, Vania Regina Camargo; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecília; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and obesity, evaluated by air displacement plethysmography, among 18-year-old adolescents from a birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study nested in a birth cohort study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. A random sample of 986 18-year-old adolescents was selected. The outcome variable was the occurrence of dental caries (DMFT ≥ 1) according to clinical examination by a trained and calibrated dentist. For the exposure variable (obesity), body fat percentage was measured using air displacement plethysmography and classified as normal weight (P95). Sociodemographic and behavior variables were collected using a questionnaire. We performed multivariable Poisson regression analyses with robust variance to examine the association between dental caries and obesity. DMFT ranged from 0 to 19; mean (SD) was 2 (2.3), and median (P25-P75) was 1 (0-3). Body fat percentage ranged from 0.9 to 57.6%; mean (SD) percentage was 24.4% (11.6%), and median (P25-P75) was 25.1% (14.0-32.9%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.5% (95% CI 63.6-69.5%), being significantly higher in female adolescents with lower maternal education, lower education, and sugar intake more than once a day. There were no differences in the probability of dental caries among individuals with normal weight, overweight, or obesity in the unadjusted model (P = 0.846) or after adjustment for sociodemographic (P = 0.864) variables. Overweight and obesity were not associated with the occurrence of dental caries in 18-year-old adolescents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bed-sharing and risk of hospitalisation due to pneumonia and diarrhoea in infancy: the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Ngale, Kátia M A; Santos, Iná S; González-Chica, David A; de Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the association between bed-sharing with the mother at 3 months of age and incidence of hospitalisation due to pneumonia and diarrhoea between 3 and 12 months. The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort included all live births to mothers living in Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004. Information on bed-sharing was obtained at the 3-month follow-up visit, and on hospitalisations at the 12-month visit, both based on mothers' reports. Only singleton infants with complete information on hospitalisation were analysed. 3906 infants were included. The bed-sharing prevalence at 3 months was 46.4% (95% CI 44.9 to 48.0%). The incidence of pneumonia admissions between 3 and 12 months was 3.6% (95% CI 3.3 to 4.2%) and diarrhoea, 0.9% (95% CI 0.6 to 1.2%). In crude analyses, bed-sharing with the mother was associated with higher incidence of hospitalisation due to both pneumonia and diarrhoea. There was interaction between bed-sharing and duration of breastfeeding regarding the chance of admission due to pneumonia. Among infants breastfed for 3 months or less, the chance of hospitalisation due to pneumonia among bed-sharers was almost twice as high as among non-bed-sharers (adjusted OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.08 to 3.55). There was no association between bed-sharing and hospitalisation due to pneumonia among infants breastfed for longer than 3 months in crude or adjusted analyses. The association between bed-sharing and admissions due to diarrhoea lost statistical significance after allowing for confounders. The effect of bed-sharing in infancy on the risk of hospitalisation due to pneumonia depends on breastfeeding, such that weaned children present higher risk.

  5. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (634) and all 4-year olds from the 2004 cohort (3750) were assessed for behavioral/emotional problems through maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Response rates in these two population-based cohorts were above 90%. Results We found a significant increase in CBCL total problems, internalizing and externalizing mean scores over the 11-year period. For 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohorts, respectively, CBCL mean values (SE) total problems scores were 27.9 (0.8) and 34.7 (0.3); for internalizing scores, 5.7 (0.2) and 6.3 (0.1) and for externalizing scores, 12.4 (0.4) and 15.5 (0.1). After adjusting for confounding variables, the largest increase from 1993 to 2004 was identified in the aggressive behavior syndrome score (Cohen's d = .50), followed by the externalizing problem score (Cohen's d = .40) and CBCL total problem score (Cohen's d = .36), respectively. The rise in child psychological problems was more marked in children from families with fewer assets and with less educated mothers. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a substantial increase in preschool behavioral problems among children in Brazil over an 11-year period. PMID:24735354

  6. RS CV sub n binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to place in context the vast amount of data obtained as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. Emphasis is on the RS CVn systems and their long period analogs. The following questions are considered: (1) are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) what is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) have any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems been derived? (4) what do the flare observations tell about magnetic fields in RS CVn systems? (5) is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  7. Systematic Pressure and Temperature Differences between Vaisala RS80 and RS92 Radiosonde-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecht, W.; Claude, H.; Schönenborn, F.

    2008-12-01

    National meteorological centers are replacing the widely used Vaisala RS80 radiosonde with the newer RS90 or RS92. Such change-overs often introduce erroneous steps into long-term atmospheric temperature records. We show that twin-flight campaigns with RS80 and RS92 sondes on the same balloon, and the transition from RS80 to RS92 in operational radio-soundings over Germany, consistently indicate higher temperature readings from RS92 sondes in the stratosphere. In our presentation we summarize these main differences between RS80 and RS92. Significant differences are found in the stratosphere, above the 100~hPa level. The accuracy of our temperature results is of the order of 0.1 to 0.5~K, and at this level we were not able to find significant differences in the troposphere, although there are indications for slightly higher daytime temperatures from RS92 sondes. During day-time and near 50~hPa, RS92s report +0.3 ± 0.2~K higher temperature than RS80s, increasing to +0.7 ± 0.4~K near 10~hPa (2σ uncertainties). At night, the difference is smaller, +0.1 ± 0.1~K near 50~hPa to +0.35 ± 0.2~K near 10~hPa. The mean day-to-night difference (12-00~UT) is also larger for RS92s, by 0.1± 0.06~K near 70~hPa, and by 0.76± 0.16~K near 10~hPa. The main contribution to this stratospheric day-time difference comes from an over-correction of the radiation error in the Vaisala RS80 data processing. The night-time difference at stratospheric levels (and part of the day-time difference) is due to a low bias of the RS80 pressure measurement, typically by -0.4~hPa near 10~hPa. This shifts temperature readings to lower pressure/ higher altitude. For stratospheric levels, it results in lower temperatures from RS80 sondes (due to the vertical temperature increase). Generally, RS92s give better temperature repeatabiliy, ±0.25~K (2σ) near 50~hPa, and much more precise pressure, ±0.2~hPa near 50~hPa, compared to RS80 systems, ±0.5~K, or ±1.5~hPa. Geopotential heights from RS92s are

  8. Search for RS-gravitons at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Strologas, John; /New Mexico U.

    2011-09-01

    We present a search for Randall-Sundrum (RS) gravitons decaying to diphotons or dielectrons or dimuons, performed with the CDF II detector and using up to 5.7 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The respective mass spectra are consistent with the ones expected by the standard model. For the RS-model parameter k/{bar M}{sub Pl} = 0.1, RS-gravitons with mass less than 1111 GeV/c{sup 2} are excluded at 95% CL.

  9. The 3Rs of Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Chris; Reeve, Brock

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 3Rs for a good education are “reading, 'riting, and 'rithmetic.” The basis for good health care solutions for the emergent field of cell therapy in the future will also involve 3Rs: regulation, reimbursement, and realization of value. The business models in this new field of cell therapy will involve these 3Rs. This article brings forth realities facing this new industry for its approaches to provide curative health care solutions. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:17–21 PMID:28170173

  10. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; ...

    2015-11-02

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. Thus, in order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturermore » specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.« less

  11. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains site

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Michael P.; Holdridge, Donna J.; Survo, Petteri; Lehtinen, Raisa; Baxter, Shannon; Toto, Tami; Johnson, Karen L.

    2016-07-20

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41 (fourth generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity, and pressure. In order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in north-central Oklahoma, USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results show that for most of the observed conditions the RS92 and RS41 measurements agree much better than the manufacturer-specified combined uncertainties with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the “wet-bulbing” effect appears to be mitigated for several cases in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements of temperature and humidity, with applied correction algorithms, also appear to show less sensitivity to solar heating. In addition, these results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions. For many science applications – such as atmospheric process studies, retrieval development, and weather forecasting and climate modeling – the differences between the RS92 and RS41 measurements should have little impact. However, for long-term trend analysis and other climate applications, additional characterization of the RS41 measurements and their relation to the long-term observational records will be required.

  12. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; Lehtinen, R.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Johnson, K. L.

    2015-11-02

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. Thus, in order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturer specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.

  13. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains site

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Michael P.; Holdridge, Donna J.; Survo, Petteri; Lehtinen, Raisa; Baxter, Shannon; Toto, Tami; Johnson, Karen L.

    2016-06-20

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41 (fourth generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity, and pressure. In order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in north-central Oklahoma, USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results show that for most of the observed conditions the RS92 and RS41 measurements agree much better than the manufacturer-specified combined uncertainties with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the “wet-bulbing” effect appears to be mitigated for several cases in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements of temperature and humidity, with applied correction algorithms, also appear to show less sensitivity to solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions. For many science applications – such as atmospheric process studies, retrieval development, and weather forecasting and climate modeling – the differences between the RS92 and RS41 measurements should have little impact. However, for long-term trend analysis and other climate applications, additional characterization of the RS41 measurements and their relation to the long-term observational records will be required.

  14. HEUS-RS applications study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The final report of a High Energy Upper Stage Restartable Solid (HEUS-RS) Applications Study is presented. The material deals with launch program cost comparisons associated with meeting NASA mission model requirements with several different launch vehicle approaches.

  15. Role of redoximiRs in fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fierro-Fernández, Marta; Miguel, Verónica; Lamas, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    Fibrosis can be defined as an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, ultimately leading to stiffness, scarring and devitalized tissue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, 19-25 nucleotides (nt), non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Recently, miRNAs have also emerged as powerful regulators of fibrotic processes and have been termed "fibromiRs". Oxidative stress represents a self-perpetuating mechanism in fibrogenesis. MiRNAs can also influence the expression of genes responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence and are termed "redoximiRs". Here, we review the current knowledge of mechanisms by which "redoximiRs" regulate fibrogenesis. This new set of miRNAs may be called "redoxifibromiRs".

  16. [Characteristic of the Genetic Variability of Four Polymorphic Variants (rs2069705, rs17880053, rs11126176, and rs804271) in Representative Samples of Indigenous and Alien Populations of Siberia].

    PubMed

    Kucher, A N; Babushkina, N P; Kulish, E V; Makeeva, O A; Bragina, E Yu; Goncharova, I A; Eremina, E R; Puzyrev, V P

    2015-08-01

    The variability of potentially important functional polymorphic variants rs2069705 (5'UTR of the IFNG gene), rs17880053 (near 5'UTR of the IFNGR2), rs11126176 (LOC100287361 pseudogene), and rs804271 (near 5'UTR of the NEIL2 gene) was characterized in representatives of four ethnic groups living in the Siberian region. These ethnic groups included three indigenous Mongoloid ethnic groups (Yakuts, the residents of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Tuvinians from the Republic of Tuva, and Buryats from the Republic Buryatia) and the alien Russian population. All of the examined variants were polymorphic. The frequency of the rs2069705 allele C in Russians was 0.5833, while it was in a range from 0.7842 to 0.8967 in representatives of the indigenous populations. The frequency of rs17880053 deletion was 0.8073 in Russians and from 0.4474 to 0.5521 in the indigenous ethnic groups. The frequency of the rs11126176 allele A was equal to 0.5398 in Russians but was recorded with lower frequencies in indigenous ethnic groups (from 0.2722 to 0.4551). The frequency of the rs804271 allele Gwas 0.5215 in Russians and from 0.2527 to 0.4022 indigenous ethnic groups. With respect to the genotype structure, the alien Russian population was considerably distanced from indigenous Mongoloid populations. Specifically, the genetic distance was 0.0742 between Russians and Yakuts, 0.1365 between Russians and Tuvinians, and 0.1433 between Russians and Buryats. Among the Mongoloid indigenous ethnic groups of Siberia, Tuvinians and Yakuts were the most distant from each other (0.0262). The genetic distance was equal to 0.0151 between Yakuts and Buryats and 0.0127 between Buryats and Tuvinians.

  17. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val158Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14–1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09–1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings. PMID:27426045

  18. Sedentary behavior in adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dumith, Samuel C; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana M B; Araújo, Cora Luiza

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sedentary behavior and investigate associated factors in adolescents 11 years of age from the 1993 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Sedentary behavior was investigated with a questionnaire, and was defined as spending more than two hours per day watching television, playing videogames, or using the computer. Of the 4,452 adolescents interviewed, 98% reported watching television, 44% playing videogames, and 22% using the computer. The average time spent on each of these electronic media was 197, 36, and 17 minutes per day, respectively. Prevalence of sedentary behavior was 79.7% (95%CI: 78.6; 80.9) and showed a positive association with socioeconomic level and nutritional status and a negative association with well-being. These 11-year-olds spent extensive time at TV viewing, videogames, and the computer. Special attention should be given to the most exposed groups of adolescents, including the more affluent, overweight, and those with limited schooling.

  19. Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. METHODS Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson’s regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. RESULTS Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. CONCLUSIONS Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions. PMID:19142347

  20. Diet quality of preschool children aged 2 to 5 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Katharine Konrad; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; França, Giovanny Vinicius Araújo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; dos Santos, Iná; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the dietary quality of preschool children in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Methods: Dietary quality was measured according to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), adapted to Brazil. Food consumption was obtained using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The index score was obtained by a score, ranging from 0 to 100, distributed in 13 food groups that characterize different components of a healthy diet. The better the quality of the diet, the closer the score is to 100. Results: Dietary quality was evaluated in 556 preschoolers. The mean HEI score value was 74.4 points, indicating that diets need improvement. The mean scores were significantly higher among girls and in children from families with income between one and less than three minimum wages. Conclusions: The children showed vegetable consumption below the recommended level, while foods of the food group of oils and fats, as well as the group of sugars, candies, chocolates and snacks, were consumed in excess. It is important to reinforce guidelines to promote healthier eating habits, which may persist later in life. PMID:26122208

  1. [Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen

    2008-12-01

    Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields.

  2. Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. METHODS: The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields. PMID:19142353

  3. Is the number of siblings associated with dietary patterns in adolescents? The 1993 birth cohort of Pelotas (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Meller, F O; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; Loret de Mola, C; Dahly, D L; Vaz, J S; Barros, F C

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to estimate the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns in adolescents. Prospective longitudinal study was developed using data from the birth cohort of the city of Pelotas, Brazil, which included 5249 participants. At the 18-year-old follow-up, from 4563 individuals located, 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3%). Of these, 3751 were included in our principal component analysis of dietary patterns. Regular dietary intake of 45 food groups over the previous year was measured with a food frequency questionnaire. We identified four patterns, which accounted for 40% of the total variance in food group consumption. These were labeled "Protein and fast food", "Fruit and vegetables", "Common Brazilian", and "Sweets, soft drinks, and dairy products". Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns were performed using linear regression. The number of siblings was positively associated with a higher adherence to each dietary pattern, with the exception of the "Common Brazilian" patterns, for which there was no apparent relationship with number of siblings. The findings showed that a greater number of siblings is related to a more diverse diet in the later adolescence, which may predict better nutrient adequacy and health outcomes.

  4. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3) and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9), respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children. PMID:20653949

  5. Is the number of siblings associated with dietary patterns in adolescents? The 1993 birth cohort of Pelotas (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Meller, F. O.; Assunção, M. C. F.; Schäfer, A. A.; Loret de Mola, C.; Dahly, D. L.; Vaz, J. S.; Barros, F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Our study aimed to estimate the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns in adolescents. Prospective longitudinal study was developed using data from the birth cohort of the city of Pelotas, Brazil, which included 5249 participants. At the 18-year-old follow-up, from 4563 individuals located, 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3%). Of these, 3751 were included in our principal component analysis of dietary patterns. Regular dietary intake of 45 food groups over the previous year was measured with a food frequency questionnaire. We identified four patterns, which accounted for 40% of the total variance in food group consumption. These were labeled “Protein and fast food”, “Fruit and vegetables”, “Common Brazilian”, and “Sweets, soft drinks, and dairy products”. Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between number of siblings and dietary patterns were performed using linear regression. The number of siblings was positively associated with a higher adherence to each dietary pattern, with the exception of the “Common Brazilian” patterns, for which there was no apparent relationship with number of siblings. The findings showed that a greater number of siblings is related to a more diverse diet in the later adolescence, which may predict better nutrient adequacy and health outcomes. PMID:28333975

  6. Oral health follow-up studies in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study: methodology and principal results

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marco A.; Barros, Aluísio Jardim; Peres, Karen Glazer; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe oral health follow-up studies nested in a birth cohort. A population-based birth cohort was launched in 1993 in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two oral health follow-up studies were conducted at six (n = 359) and 12 (n = 339) years of age. A high response rate was observed at 12 years of age; 94.4% of the children examined at six years of age were restudied in 2005. The mean DMF-T index at age 12 was 1.2 (SD = 1.6) for the entire sample, ranging from 0.6 (SD = 1.1) for children that were caries-free at age six, 1.3 (SD = 1.5) for those with 1-3 carious teeth at six years, and 1.8 (SD = 1.8) for those with 4-19 carious teeth at six years (p < 0.01). The number of individuals with severe malocclusions at 12 years was proportional to the number of malocclusions at six years. Oral health problems in early adolescence were more prevalent in individuals with dental problems at six years of age. PMID:20963297

  7. [Diet quality of preschool children aged 2 to 5 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Leal, Katharine Konrad; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; França, Giovanny Vinicius Araújo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; dos Santos, Iná; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-01-01

    To assess the dietary quality of preschool children in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Dietary quality was measured according to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), adapted to Brazil. Food consumption was obtained using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The index score was obtained by a score, ranging from 0 to 100, distributed in 13 food groups that characterize different components of a healthy diet. The better the quality of the diet, the closer the score is to 100. Dietary was evaluated in 556 preschoolers. The mean HEI score value was 74.4 points, indicating that diets need improvement. The mean scores were significantly higher among girls and in children from families with income between one and less than three minimum wages. The children showed vegetable consumption below the recommended level, while the food group of oils and fats, as well as the group of sugars, candies, chocolates and snacks were consumed in excess. It is important to reinforce guidelines to promote healthier eating habits, which may persist later in life. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's eating behavior: comparison between normal and overweight children from a school in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, Darlise Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Maciel, Francine Villela; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in children's eating behavior in relation to their nutritional status, gender and age. METHODS: Male and female children aged six to ten years were included. They were recruited from a private school in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, in 2012. Children´s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) subscales were used to assess eating behaviors: Food Responsiveness (FR), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Desire to Drink (DD), Emotional Overeating (EOE), Emotional Undereating (EUE), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE). Age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated according to the WHO recommendations to assess nutritional status. RESULTS: The study sample comprised 335 children aged 87.9±10.4 months and 49.3% had normal weight (n=163), 26% were overweight (n=86), 15% were obese (n=50) and 9.7% were severely obese (n=32). Children with excess weight showed higher scores at the CEBQ subscales associated with "food approach" (FR, EF, DD, EOE, p<0.001) and lower scores on two "food avoidance" subscales (SR and SE, p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively) compared to normal weight children. Differences in the eating behavior related to gender and age were not found. CONCLUSIONS: "Food approach" subscales were positively associated to excess weight in children, but no associations with gender and age were found. PMID:25662562

  9. [Methodological description of accelerometry for measuring physical activity in the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts].

    PubMed

    Knuth, Alan Goularte; Assunção, Maria Cecília F; Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Ramires, Virgílio Viana; Silva, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsamb da; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the methodology of data collection on physical activity using accelerometry in two birth cohorts (2004 and 1993) in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, at the 6-7 and 18-year follow-up visits, respectively. During visits to the study headquarters for a health evaluation, cohort subjects received the accelerometer to be worn on the wrist for 5 to 8 days, after which the device was retrieved at their homes. Genea and GENEActiv triaxial estimators of gravity (g) acceleration were employed. Accelerometry data were collected from 3,331 children (93.7% of those included in follow-up) and 3,816 adolescents (99% of those in follow-up). The study characterizes the data collection methodology in more than 7,000 individuals and discusses issues in its implementation. It thus provides a methodological framework aimed at helping to plan future population-based studies with the use of such technology and to improve understanding of physical activity in the context of epidemiological studies.

  10. [Nutritional status of first to fourth-grade students of urban schools in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Maria de Fátima Alves; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Madruga, Samanta Winck; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Matijasevich, Alicia; Leal, Cynthia Munhoz dos Anjos; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    2008-07-01

    This cross-sectional study included 20,084 students from urban schools (first to fourth-grade) in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Weight and height were measured, and nutritional status was classified according to the World Health Organization (height deficit) and International Obesity Task Force (overweight and obesity) criteria. The study also recorded the variables age, gender, type of school, and schooling (grade-for-age adequacy). Prevalence of height-for-age deficit was 3.5% (3.9% in boys and 3.1% in girls). Prevalence rates for overweight and obesity were 29.8% and 9.1%, respectively. Overweight and obesity were more frequent in private schools, while height-for-age deficit was more frequent in municipal or State schools. For both boys and girls, age was positively associated with underweight and inversely related to overweight and obesity. Inadequate schooling was associated with increased risk of height deficit and decreased risk of overweight and obesity. In conclusion, primary students' nutritional status depends not only on demographic and socioeconomic factors, but also on type of school.

  11. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-07-18

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val(158)Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14-1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09-1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings.

  12. Determinants of early sexual initiation in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Helen; Béhague, Dominique P; Gigante, Denise P; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297) were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (≤13 years of age) was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult’s level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5). Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health outcomes. PMID:19142343

  13. [Physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Camargo, Aline Lins; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, followed at 11 (N = 4,452), 15 (N = 4,325), and 18 years of age (N = 4,106). The study recorded the use of medicines in the previous 15 days, continuous use of some medication, level of physical activity (by questionnaire and accelerometry), and screen time (TV, computer, and videogame). One-third of adolescents had used at least one medicine in the previous 15 days and approximately 10% were on some continuous medication. In the adjusted analysis, the results showed that higher levels of physical activity at 18 years and less screen time at 15 years in boys were associated with lower overall use of medicines (p < 0.05). For boys, physical activity at 11 and 18 years were inversely related to continuous medication (p < 0.05). More physically active boys and those with less screen time in adolescence showed lower use of medicines at 18 years of age.

  14. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains site

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, Michael P.; Holdridge, Donna J.; Survo, Petteri; ...

    2016-07-20

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41 (fourth generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity, and pressure. In order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in north-central Oklahoma, USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results show that for most of the observed conditions the RS92 andmore » RS41 measurements agree much better than the manufacturer-specified combined uncertainties with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the “wet-bulbing” effect appears to be mitigated for several cases in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements of temperature and humidity, with applied correction algorithms, also appear to show less sensitivity to solar heating. In addition, these results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions. For many science applications – such as atmospheric process studies, retrieval development, and weather forecasting and climate modeling – the differences between the RS92 and RS41 measurements should have little impact. However, for long-term trend analysis and other climate applications, additional characterization of the RS41 measurements and their relation to the long-term observational records will be required.« less

  15. NASA Concludes Summer of RS-25 Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    NASA engineers closed a summer of hot fire testing Aug. 30 for flight controllers on RS-25 engines that will help power the new Space Launch System (SLS) rocket being built to carry astronauts to deep-space destinations, including Mars. The 500-second hot fire an RS-25 engine flight controller unit on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi marked another step toward the nation’s return to human deep-space exploration missions.

  16. Pattern of health services utilization by adults of the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal S; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the pattern of health services utilization by young adults. METHODS Longitudinal study in Pelotas (Southern Brazil), in which the individuals were identified at birth in 1982 and followed up until 23 years of age. The outcome was defined by information collected about visits to health professionals that were attended in the year before the interview, between 2004 and 2005. The places where the visits occurred were categorized as public, private or belonging to health plan systems. Descriptive analyses were carried out for utilization and type of health service. Poisson Regression was employed in the adjusted analysis. RESULTS Of the interviewees, 72.0% visited health professionals in the year before the interview; 86.2% (95% CI 84.7;87.7) of the women and 59.3% (95% CI 57.3;61.3) of the men. Even when gynecological visits were excluded, the women still attended more visits than the men, 68.4% (95% CI 66.4;70.4). Health services utilization was more frequent among interviewees of better socioeconomic level. A difference of lower use in relation to non-white skin color was observed only among male youths. There were differences regarding the type of professional visited by men and women and also according to family income. Men and women used more frequently the public system, the health plan system and, in a smaller proportion, the private system. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic situation influenced the utilization and the type of health service, with men and women classified as “poor at the moment”, which indicates lower utilization of services. Such socioeconomic differences may indicate difficulties in the access to the health system. PMID:19142345

  17. Antenatal and postnatal maternal mood symptoms and psychiatric disorders in pre-school children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal mood symptoms have been associated with psychiatric disorders in children. This study aimed to assess critical periods when maternal symptoms would be more deleterious. Methods Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Mood symptoms during pregnancy were self-reported by mothers at perinatal interview; and at 3-months postpartum, mothers answered the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the Development and Well-Being Assessment instrument. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of mood symptoms in pregnancy was 24.6% (23.2–26.0%) and at three months postpartum 22.5% (21.1–23.9%). Prevalence of mental disorders in children was 13.3% (12.2–14.4%). After adjustment for confounders children of mothers with mood symptoms during pregnancy were 82% more likely of presenting psychiatric disorders than children of mothers that did not (1.82; 1.48–2.25); and the chance of having mental disorders among children whose mothers had positive SRQ-20 at three months postpartum was 87% greater than the observed among children whose mothers had it negative (1.87; 1.50–2.33). Limitations Because maternal anxiety/depression may interfere with interpretation of the child behavior, child׳s mental health being obtained by interviewing the mother is a limitation of this study. Lack of information on other risk factors may have lead to residual confounding on the effect of maternal mood symptoms at three months postpartum. Conclusions Children of mothers presenting mood symptoms during pregnancy and in the first months postpartum are more likely to present psychiatric disorders at 6 years of age. PMID:24856563

  18. Gene-environment interaction in externalizing problems among adolescents: evidence from the Pelotas 1993 Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kieling, Christian; Hutz, Mara H; Genro, Júlia P; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Anselmi, Luciana; Camey, Suzi; Hallal, Pedro C; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Menezes, Ana M B; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2013-03-01

    The study of gene-environment interactions (G × E) is one of the most promising strategies to uncover the origins of mental disorders. Replication of initial findings, however, is essential because there is a strong possibility of publication bias in the literature. In addition, there is a scarcity of research on the topic originated from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of this study was to replicate G × E hypotheses for externalizing problems among adolescents in a middle-income country. As part of the Pelotas 1993 Birth Cohort Study, 5,249 children were enrolled at birth and followed up to the age of 15 years, with an 85.7% retention rate. We sought an interaction between the homozygosity of the 10-repeat allele at the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and prenatal maternal smoking in the development of hyperactivity problems during adolescence assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We also tested for an interaction between the uVNTR polymorphism at the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and the experience of childhood maltreatment in the occurrence of conduct problems among adolescent boys. Although there was a clear association between prenatal maternal smoking and hyperactivity scores in adolescence (p < 0.001), no main genetic or interaction effects for the DAT1 gene were detected. Similarly, childhood maltreatment showed to be associated with conduct problems among boys (p < 0.001), with no observable main genetic or interaction effects for the MAOA gene. In the largest mental health G × E study performed in a LMIC to date, we did not replicate previous positive findings from the literature. Despite the presence of main environmental effects, there was no evidence of effect modification by genotype status. Additional replication efforts to measure G × E are needed to better understand the origins of mental health and illness, especially in LMIC. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association

  19. Associations between XRCC2 rs3218536 and ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphisms and ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zhifen

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies explored XRCC2 rs3218536 and ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphisms and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. However, the association between these two single nucleotide polymorphisms and OC risk remains conflicting. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association. We searched the databases of PubMed, and Embase. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using fixed-effect or random-effect models. 15 case-control studies published in 11 papers including 4,757 cases and 8,431 controls were included in this meta-analysis. No associations were obtained between XRCC2 rs3218536 and ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphisms and OC risk. Stratification analyses of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium status indicated that rs3218536 polymorphism was associated with the decreased risk of OC when in analysis of combined HWE positive studies. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that XRCC2 rs3218536 and ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphisms may not be associated with the risk of OC. PMID:27863412

  20. Association between ACE (rs4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883), MTHFR (rs1801133), FTO (rs9939609) Genes Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes with Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Raza, Syed Tasleem; Abbas, Shania; Siddiqi, Zeba; Mahdi, Farzana

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia is one of the leading causes of coronary artery disease (CAD) death. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the association of ACE (rs4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883), MTHFR (rs1801133) and FTO (rs9939609) genes polymorphism in T2DM with dyslipidemia. Totally, 559 subjects including 221 T2DM cases with dyslipidemia, 158 T2DM without dyslipidemia and 180 controls were enrolled. ACE genes polymorphism was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while MTHFR, FABP2, FTO genes polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Significant association of ACE and MTHFR genes polymorphisms were found in both group of cases [T2DM with dyslipidemia (P<0.001, and P=0.008, respectively) and T2DM without dyslipidemia (P=0.003, and P=0.010, respectively)] while FABP2 and FTO genes polymorphisms were significantly associated with T2DM without dyslipidemia (P=0.038, and P= 0.019, respectively). This study concludes that ACE, FABP2, FTO and MTHFR genes are associated with T2DM. Additionally, it also seems that ACE and MTHFR genes might be further associated with the development of dyslipidemia in T2DM cases.

  1. Association between ACE (rs4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883), MTHFR (rs1801133), FTO (rs9939609) Genes Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes with Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Syed Tasleem; Abbas, Shania; Siddiqi, Zeba; Mahdi, Farzana

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia is one of the leading causes of coronary artery disease (CAD) death. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the association of ACE (rs4646994), FABP2 (rs1799883), MTHFR (rs1801133) and FTO (rs9939609) genes polymorphism in T2DM with dyslipidemia. Totally, 559 subjects including 221 T2DM cases with dyslipidemia, 158 T2DM without dyslipidemia and 180 controls were enrolled. ACE genes polymorphism was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while MTHFR, FABP2, FTO genes polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Significant association of ACE and MTHFR genes polymorphisms were found in both group of cases [T2DM with dyslipidemia (P<0.001, and P=0.008, respectively) and T2DM without dyslipidemia (P=0.003, and P=0.010, respectively)] while FABP2 and FTO genes polymorphisms were significantly associated with T2DM without dyslipidemia (P=0.038, and P= 0.019, respectively). This study concludes that ACE, FABP2, FTO and MTHFR genes are associated with T2DM. Additionally, it also seems that ACE and MTHFR genes might be further associated with the development of dyslipidemia in T2DM cases. PMID:28890888

  2. Meta-analysis of polymorphism rs6311 and rs6313 in the 5-HT2AR gene and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Xu, Ping; Zhou, Yan-Gang; Zuo, Shan-Ru; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphism of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor has been widely studied regarding association with susceptibility to schizophrenia, but the results remained inconsistent. This study aimed to assess the association between rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphism and schizophrenia using a meta-analysis. Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase databases were searched for all articles linking rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphism and schizophrenia. All studies which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the association between rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphism and schizophrenia risk. Sub-group analysis was also performed by different ethnic studies (Asian and Caucasian) and different minor allelic studies (rs6311: minor allele = A and minor allele = G; rs6313: minor allele = T and minor allele = C). Forty articles, including 50 case-control studies, were included in this meta-analysis. Specifically, 12 studies with 4100 cases and 4541 controls involved rs6311, 38 studies with 8960 cases and 9729 controls involved rs6313. The results showed that rs6311 and rs6313 were not associated with schizophrenia. Moreover, no associations were found between rs6311 and schizophrenia in different sub-groups, rs6313 was found to associated with schizophrenia among studies in which C is the minor allele. This meta-analysis indicates that rs6311 and rs6313 polymorphisms of 5-HT2AR are not associated with schizophrenia. However, the rs6313 polymorphism is associated with schizophrenia in studies in which the minor allele is C.

  3. Metabolism of 2(RS),3-epiminosqualene to 24(RS),25-epiminolanosterol byGibberella fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Nes, W D; Parish, E J

    1988-04-01

    The metabolic fate of 2(RS),3-epiminosqualene (Isq.), a demonstrable inhibitor of the 2,3-oxidosqualene-lanosterol cyclase, has been studied inGibberella fujikuroi. The fungus transforms Isq. to a tetracyclic product for which the 24(RS),25-epiminolanosterol (EL) formulation was indicated by chromatographic and spectral data. The results are consistent with the pathway: Isq.→2,3-imino-22, 23-oxidosqualene→EL.

  4. Association between ANKK1 (rs1800497) and LTA (rs909253) Genetic Variants and Risk of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Arwa H.; Elhawary, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has assessed associations between schizophrenia and genetic variants of the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) genes among individuals of Middle Eastern ancestry. Here we present the first association study investigating the ANKK1 rs1800497 (T>C) and LTA rs909253 (A>G) single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an Egyptian population. Among 120 patients with DSM-IV and PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) assessments of schizophrenia and 100 healthy controls, we determined the genotypes for the polymorphisms using endonuclease digestion of amplified genomic DNA. Results confirmed previous findings from different ethnic populations, in that the rs1800497 and rs909253 polymorphisms were both associated with risk of schizophrenia. Differences between the genotypes of cases and controls were strongly significant (P = 0.0005 for rs1800497 and P = 0.001 for rs909253). The relative risk to schizophrenia was 1.2 (P = 0.01) for the C allele and 0.8 (P = 0.04) for the G allele. The CC, GG, and combined CC/AA genotypes were all more frequent in cases than in controls. These results support an association between ANKK1 and LTA genetic markers and vulnerability to schizophrenia and show the potential influence of just one copy of the mutant C or G allele in the Egyptian population. PMID:26114114

  5. Association of IL-23R Polymorphisms (rs6682925, rs10889677, rs1884444) With Cancer Risk: A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Han; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Kang, Hua-Feng; Lin, Shuai; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Meng; Liu, Kang; Dai, Cong; Wang, Xi-Jing; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Although interleukin (IL)-23 receptor (IL-23R) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers, its association with cancer risk is inconsistent across different studies. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of resolving the relationship among the 3 common polymorphisms of IL-23R (rs6682925, rs10889677, rs1884444) and cancer risk.Case-control studies evaluating the association between IL-23R polymorphisms (rs6682925, rs10889677, rs1884444) and cancer risk were searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and CNKI databases.Data were included in the meta-analysis if they were from original studies adopting a case-control design investigating the association between IL-23R polymorphisms and risk of any cancer; all cancer cases must have been confirmed by histology or pathology, and controls selected from noncancer individuals. Case-only studies and review papers were excluded.Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the relationship of IL-23R polymorphisms (rs6682925, rs10889677, rs1884444) with cancer risk. A random-effects model or fixed-effects model was used depending on the heterogeneity of the data.Ultimately, 15 studies, involving 8784 cancer patients and 10,321 cancer-free controls, were included in our meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, the rs10889677 polymorphism was associated with breast cancer (BC) under the allelic, homozygous, dominant, and heterozygous models. Rs1884444 polymorphism was relevant to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under the homozygous, recessive, and allelic models. However, no evidence of a relationship between IL-23R polymorphisms (rs6682925, rs10889677, rs1884444) and cancer risk was found in the overall population.Our meta-analysis provides no evidence supporting a global association of IL-23R polymorphisms (rs6682925, rs10889677, rs1884444) with the risk of cancer. However, rs10889677 may be associated with BC susceptibility and rs1884444 had association with HCC risk

  6. Complex Bedforms and Complex Water Masses: A Case Study from the Tertiary to Present-day, Pelotas Basin, Offshore Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P.; Badalini, G.; Wrigley, S.; Walker, R.; Argent, J.; Hernandez-Molina, J.; de Santa Ana, H.; Soto, M.; Tomasini, J.

    2015-12-01

    Contour currents are commonly associated with bedform development on modern seabeds yet there is a general paucity of published examples from the ancient record. Recently acquired 3D seismic data, covering over 13000km2 of the Pelotas Basin, offshore Uruguay, provides a unique opportunity to study the architecture and development of a variety of bedform. The data shows that, throughout the Tertiary, contour currents were the dominant control on sedimentation along the Uruguayan margin. The first evidence of contour current activity is during the Early Tertiary in the form of a major regional unconformity that, even though it was fully subaqueous, does not show any major features associated with downslope sedimentation. In the mid-slope region, the unconformity coincides with an extensive (1500km2) intra-slope scour-field orientated parallel to the slope. Individual scours are up to 40m deep, 500m wide and 3km long. Coeval with these scours are a group of coalesced basin floor scours, which run parallel to the base of slope and extend over 400km2. Individual scours exhibit an asymmetric shape - similar to giant flute marks - that are up to 150m deep, 20km wide and extend for at least 40km along slope. The development of these scoured areas shows clear evidence of two major north-flowing water masses. Directly above this regional unconformity are a series of ribbon-like bedforms that developed oblique to the slope. Individual bedforms are up to 40km in length with wavelengths of 5km and heights up to 100m. These bedforms are overlain by a set of barchan-like dunes, up to 30km in length with wavelengths of 10km. Individual dunes are in the order of 100m thick and stack to form an overall package up to 500m thick. These features show a clear change from erosion/bypass to deposition/reworking that is linked to a decrease in ocean current velocity and/ or sediment supply. The features observed suggest a complex oceanic regime was present throughout the Tertiary that

  7. PTK2 rs7460 and rs7843014 Polymorphisms and Exceptional Longevity: A Functional Replication Study

    PubMed Central

    Fuku, Noriyuki; He, Zi-hong; Tian, Ye; Arai, Yasumichi; Abe, Yukiko; Murakami, Haruka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Yvert, Thomas; Venturini, Letizia; Santiago, Catalina; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Gabriel; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Emanuele, Enzo; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Focal adhesion is critical for cell survival. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK, or PTK2) is an important component of the human interactome and thus is a potential longevity-related protein. Here we studied the association between two PTK2 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7843014, rs7460) and exceptional longevity (EL). In addition to gaining insight into their functionality by determining luciferase gene reporter activity, we studied the genotype/allele frequency of these two SNPs among three different cohorts: (1) Spanish centenarians (n=175, 100–111 years, 144 women) and healthy controls (n=355, 20–50 years, 284 women); (2) Italian centenarians (n=79, 100–104 years, 40 women) and controls (n=316, 29–50 years, 156 women); and (3) Japanese centenarians (n=742, 100–116 years, 623 women) and healthy controls (n=499, 23–59 years, 356 women). Both SNPs had functional significance, with the A allele up-regulating luciferase activity compared to the other allele (rs7460 T allele and rs7843014 C allele, respectively). The A allele of both SNPs was negatively associated with EL in the Spanish cohort (rs7460, odds ratio [OR] adjusted by sex=0.40, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.3, 0.6, p<0.001); rs7843014, OR=0.37, 95% CI 0.3, 0.5, p<0.001). The OR of being a centenarian if having the rs7460-TT genotype was 6.68 (95% CI 4.1, 10.8, p<0.001). The rs7843014 CC genotype was also positively associated with EL (OR=7.58, 95% CI 4.6, 12.3, p<0.001]. No association was, however, found for the Italian or Japanese cohorts. Thus, two genotypes of the FAK gene, rs7460 TT and rs7843014 CC, are possibly associated with lower gene expression and might favor the likelihood of reaching EL in the Spanish population. Further research is needed to unveil the mechanisms by which FAK expression could perhaps influence the rate of aging. PMID:24930376

  8. Associations between Rs4244285 and Rs762551 gene polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Stasiukonyte, Neringa; Liutkeviciene, Rasa; Vilkeviciute, Alvita; Banevicius, Mantas; Kriauciuniene, Loresa

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in elderly individuals in developed countries. The etiology and pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration have not been elucidated yet. Knowing that the main pathological change of age-related macular degeneration is formation of drusen containing about 40% of lipids, there have been attempts to find associations between age-related macular degeneration and genes controlling lipid metabolism. To determine the frequency of CYP2C19 (G681A) Rs4244285 and CYP1A2 (-163C>A) Rs762551 genotypes in patients with age-related macular degeneration. The study enrolled 150 patients with early age-related macular degeneration and 296 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The genotyping of Rs4244285 and Rs762551 was carried out by using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. The CYP1A2 (-163C>A) Rs762551 C/C genotype was more frequently detected in patients with age-related macular degeneration than in the control group (32.7% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.011) and was associated with an increased risk of developing early age-related macular degeneration (OR = 1.759, 95% CI: 1.133-2.729; p = 0.012). The CYP1A2 (-163C>A) Rs762551 C/A genotype was more frequently documented in the control group compared with patients with age-related macular degeneration (46.3% vs. 30.7%, p = 0.002) and was associated with a decreased risk of having age-related macular degeneration (OR = 0.580. 95% CI: 0.362-0.929, p = 0.023) in the co-dominant model. The study showed that the CYP1A2 (-163C>A) Rs762551 C/C genotype was associated with an increased risk of age-related macular degeneration.

  9. Association between vitamin D concentration and levels of sex hormones in an elderly Polish population with different genotypes of VDR polymorphisms (rs10735810, rs1544410, rs7975232, rs731236).

    PubMed

    Laczmanski, Lukasz; Lwow, Felicja; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Puzianowska-Kuznicka, Monika; Szwed, Małgorzata; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska, Barbara; Bar-Andziak, Ewa; Chudek, Jerzy; Sloka, Natalia; Milewicz, Andrzej

    2015-03-15

    Vitamin D co-regulates the synthesis of sex hormones in part by interaction with its nuclear receptor. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association of vitamin D concentration vs the level of sex hormones in elderly Polish individuals with different genotypes of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Rs10735810, rs1544410, rs7975232, and rs731236 polymorphisms of VDR, the serum sex hormone level, free estrogen index (FEI) and free androgen index (FAI) as well as vitamin D, were evaluated in 766 persons (362 women and 404 men) selected from 5695 Polish population, aged 65-90years from the PolSenior survey. We observed that women with GG (rs731236), TT (rs7975232), BB (rs1544410) and FF (rs10735810) genotypes were characterized by a significant correlation between vitamin D vs testosterone concentration and FAI value. We found a significant correlation between testosterone level and FAI vs vitamin D concentration in men with heterozygote AG in the rs731236 polymorphism and in the GG (rs7975232), the BB (rs1544410), and the Ff (rs10735810) genotypes. In elderly selected Polish population with different genotypes of VDR polymorphisms, a statistically significant relationship between vitamin D concentration vs testosterone level was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SMIM1 variants rs1175550 and rs143702418 independently modulate Vel blood group antigen expression

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Mikael K.; Jöud, Magnus; Ajore, Ram; Vege, Sunitha; Ljungdahl, Klara W.; Westhoff, Connie M.; Olsson, Martin L.; Storry, Jill R.; Nilsson, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The Vel blood group antigen is expressed on the red blood cells of most individuals. Recently, we described that homozygosity for inactivating mutations in SMIM1 defines the rare Vel-negative phenotype. Still, Vel-positive individuals show great variability in Vel antigen expression, creating a risk for Vel blood typing errors and transfusion reactions. We fine-mapped the regulatory region located in SMIM1 intron 2 in Swedish blood donors, and observed a strong correlation between expression and rs1175550 as well as with a previously unreported tri-nucleotide insertion (rs143702418; C > CGCA). While the two variants are tightly linked in Caucasians, we separated their effects in African Americans, and found that rs1175550G and to a lesser extent rs143702418C independently increase SMIM1 and Vel antigen expression. Gel shift and luciferase assays indicate that both variants are transcriptionally active, and we identified binding of the transcription factor TAL1 as a potential mediator of the increased expression associated with rs1175550G. Our results provide insight into the regulatory logic of Vel antigen expression, and extend the set of markers for genetic Vel blood group typing. PMID:28084402

  11. TERT polymorphisms rs2853669 and rs7726159 influence on prostate cancer risk in Russian population.

    PubMed

    Shadrina, Alexandra S; Boyarskikh, Uljana A; Oskina, Natalja A; Sinkina, Tatiana V; Lazarev, Alexandr F; Petrova, Valentina D; Filipenko, Maxim L

    2015-02-01

    Telomere length and telomerase activity have been hypothesized to play a role in cancer development. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of allelic variants of three functional polymorphisms rs2853669, rs2736100, and rs7726159 in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene with the risk of the breast cancer and prostate cancer in Russian population. Six hundred sixty women with breast cancer, 372 men with prostate cancer, and corresponding control groups of 523 women and 363 men were included in the present case-control study. We observed an association of allele rs2853669 C with increased risk of prostate cancer (co-dominant model TC vs. TT OR = 1.65, P = 0.002; additive model OR = 1.42, P = 0.005; dominant model: OR = 1.64, P = 0.001) and allele rs7726159 A with reduced risk of this malignancy (сo-dominant model: AA vs. CC OR = 0.42, P = 0.002; additive model: OR = 0.69, P = 0.002; dominant model: OR = 0.67, P = 0.01; recessive model: OR = 0.48, P = 0.005). None of the studied polymorphisms showed an association with the risk of breast cancer. Our results provide evidence that the TERT gene variability modulate prostate cancer predisposition in ethnical Russians.

  12. PSCA gene variants (rs2294008 and rs2978974) confer increased susceptibility of gallbladder carcinoma in females.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajani; Sharma, Kiran L; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

    2013-11-10

    PSCA is a tissue specific tumor suppressor or oncogene which has been found to be associated with several human tumors including gallbladder cancer. It is considered to be involved in the cell-proliferation inhibition and/or cell-death induction activity. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of PSCA gene polymorphisms in gallbladder cancer risk in North Indian population. A total of 405 gallbladder cancer patients and 247 healthy controls were included in the case-control study for risk prediction. We examined the association of two functional SNPs, rs2294008 and rs2978974 in PSCA gene by genotyping using Taqman allelic discrimination assays. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software, version 17. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis was done with the help of SNPstats software. FDR test was used to correct for multiple comparisons. No significant associations of rs2294008 and rs2978974 genetic variants of the PSCA gene were found with GBC risk at allele, genotype or haplotype levels. Stratifying the subjects on the basis of gallstone also did not show any significant result. However, on gender stratification, we found a significant association of Trs2294008-Grs2978974 haplotype with higher risk of GBC in females (FDR Pcorr=0.021, OR=1.6). In contrary, Trs2294008-A rs2978974 haplotype conferred significant lower risk in males (FDR Pcorr=0.013; OR=0.25). These findings suggest that PSCA genetic variants may have a significant effect on GBC susceptibility in a gender specific manner. © 2013.

  13. Cenozoic synthem stratigraphic architecture of the SE Brazilian shelf and its global eustatic context: evidence from the Pelotas Basin (offshore Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santana dos Anjos Zerfass, Geise; Ruban, Dmitry A.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Zerfass, Henrique

    2013-12-01

    The Pelotas Basin, located on the SE Brazilian shelf, has evolved since the Aptian. Stratigraphical data from the basin can be used for delineation of the unconformity-bounded units (synthems) on the shelf, which is a first step towards a full understanding of its stratigraphic architecture, evolution, and hydrocarbon potential. Hiatuses in the Cenozoic succession of the Pelotas Basin are established with both biostratigraphic (planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannofossils) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) data. The seven recognised hiatuses are dated respectively as (1) Palaeocene (Danian- Thanetian), (2) Palaeocene/Eocene boundary (Thanetian-Ypresian), (3) Eocene (Ypresian-Lutetian), (4) Eocene-Oligocene (Lutetian-Rupelian), (5) early-late Oligocene (Rupelian-Chattian), (6) early Miocene (Aquitanian-Burdigalian), and (7) middle-late Miocene (Serravallian-Tortonian). These intervals between the hiatuses are correlated with those of the Santos and Campos Basins north from the Pelotas Basin. The breaks in sedimentation that these basins have in common occurred (1) at the Palaeocene-Eocene and (2) Eocene-Oligocene transitions, (3) in the early Miocene, and (4) in the middle-late Miocene. These main unconformities outline five synthems on the SE Brazilian shelf, viz. the SEBS-1 (Palaeocene), SEBS-2 (Eocene), SEBS-3 (Oligocene), SEBS-4 (early-middle Miocene) and SEBS-5 (late Miocene-Holocene). The above unconformities are correlated with those established in the Cenozoic sedimentary successions of different regions such as Western Siberia, Arabia, NW and NE Africa, peninsular India, S Australia, the Gulf of Mexico, NW Europe, and South Africa. The only regional unconformity, near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, coincides with the nearly-global sedimentation break. The latter was resulted from a climatic event, i.e., the `Mi-1 glaciation'. Thus, a eustatic origin is supposed for this regional unconformity. The other regional unconformities also correspond to global sea

  14. AB111. Genetic variations rs11892031 and rs401681 are associated with bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Hu, Hailong; Tian, Dawei; Wu, Changli

    2016-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic variants associated with risk of bladder cancer in populations of European descent. Methods we assessed association of two of these variants, rs11892031 (2q37.1 region) and rs401681 (5p15.33 region) in a Chinese case-control study, which included 367 bladder cancer cases and 420 controls. Results We found that the AC genotype of rs11892031 was associated with remarkably decreased risk of bladder cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.09–0.81; P=0.019), compared with the AA genotype of rs11892031; and that CT/CC genotypes of rs401681 were associated with significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.10–2.91; P=0.02), compared with the TT genotype of rs401681. We further conducted stratification analysis to examine the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11892031/rs401681 and tumor grade/stage. Results showed that heterogeneity in ORs of tumor categories was not significant for either rs11892031 or rs401681 (P>0.05), indicating that the two SNPs seemingly do not associate with tumor grade and stage of bladder cancer in our study population. Conclusions The present study suggests that the SNPs rs11892031 and rs401681 are associated with bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  16. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  17. [Prevention of neural tube defects: prevalence of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and associated factors in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Cíntia Leal Sclowitz; Garcias, Gilberto de Lima; Sclowitz, Marcelo Leal; Sclowitz, Iandora Timm; Brum, Clarice Brinck; Fontana, Tiago; Unfried, Ricardo Issler

    2007-11-01

    To determine folic acid use and associated factors, a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in all five maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Data were collected from April 1 to August 15, 2006 (n = 1,450 women). A standard questionnaire was applied in the hospitals. Statistical analysis used Poisson regression. Prevalence of folic acid consumption during pregnancy was 31.8%, and periconceptional use was 4.3%. The following were associated with folic acid use: white skin color, schooling > 9 years, family income > R$600, age > 30 years, planned pregnancy, > or =7 prenatal visits, knowledge on folic acid, and prenatal care in the private health system. In order to prevent neural tube defects, it is important to promote folic acid use among childbearing-age women and to supply folic acid to poor women.

  18. Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

  19. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. Methods In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. Results In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. Conclusions It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. PMID:26678603

  20. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. LEP rs7799039, LEPR rs1137101, and ADIPOQ rs2241766 and 1501299 Polymorphisms Are Associated With Obesity and Chemotherapy Response in Mexican Women With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Hernández, Alejandra; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha Patricia; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Espinosa Fematt, Jorge; Pérez-Morales, Rebeca

    2017-10-01

    Obesity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) are important in the regulation of adipose tissue. The response to cancer treatment depends on the histological and molecular tumor type, clinical stage, and genetic variability that might promote carcinogenic development. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overweight/obesity and polymorphisms in the LEP (rs7799039), LEP receptor (LEPR; rs1137101), and ADIPOQ genes (rs2241766, rs1501299) with the response to breast cancer treatment in Mexican women. A sample of 177 patients with primary breast cancer (stage I-III) and who received neoadjuvant therapy were included. Polymorphisms were genotyped and their serum LEP concentrations (n = 59) were quantified. The patients' median age was 53.1 years, the frequency of overweight and obesity was 57 and 84 patients, respectively, 117 were postmenopausal, and 64 of the patients did not respond to chemotherapy. An association of the LEP rs7799039, LEPR rs1137101, and ADIPOQ rs1501299 polymorphisms with overweight/obesity was found. The patients who did not respond to treatment were more frequently obese, at clinical stage III, had metastases, and high levels of glucose. Moreover, in samples that were positive for estrogen receptor, higher levels of LEP were found, and in wild type genotypes for LEP rs7799039 and LEPR rs1137101. There was a direct association between the polymorphisms in LEP rs7799039 and ADIPOQ rs1501299 with overweight/obesity, and these genotypes affected the response to chemotherapeutic treatment, suggesting that an obesogenic microenvironment is more favorable for tumoral progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucleotide sequence analysis of pRS2 and pRS3, two small cryptic plasmids from Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Mesas, J M; Rodríguez, M C; Alegre, M T

    2001-09-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of two cryptic plasmids, pRS2 (2544 bp) and pRS3 (3948 bp), from Oenococcus oeni revealed the presence in both of three major open reading frames with significant similarity to other small cryptic plasmids from O. oeni. The results suggest that those plasmids could be separated into two subfamilies, one represented by pLo13 and pRS3, the other represented by pOg32, pRS1, and pRS2.

  3. High-Speed RaPToRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henchen, Robert; Esham, Benjamin; Becker, William; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Thomas; Glebov, Vladimir

    2008-11-01

    The High-Speed Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (HS-RaPToRS) system, designed to quickly and safely move radioactive materials, was assembled and tested at the Mercury facility of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. A sample, which is placed inside a four-inch-diameter carrier, is activated before being transported through a PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the end station where it pneumatically brakes prior to the gate. A magnetic latch releases the gate when the carrier arrives and comes to rest. The airflow, optical carrier-monitoring devices, and end gate are controlled manually or automatically with LabView software. The installation and testing of the RaPToRS system at NRL was successfully completed with transport times of less than 3 seconds. The speed of the carrier averaged 16 m/s. Prospective facilities for similar systems include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility.

  4. Association of obesity with rs1421085 and rs9939609 polymorphisms of FTO gene.

    PubMed

    Solak, Mustafa; Ozdemir Erdogan, Mujgan; Yildiz, Saliha Handan; Ucok, Kagan; Yuksel, Seref; Arıkan Terzi, Evrim Suna; Bestepe, Ahmet

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic influence of polymorphisms in fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene on a sample of obese subjects and controls. Obesity is an epidemic all over the world. Several polymorphisms in the first intron of FTO gene have been associated with common forms of human obesity. In this research rs1421085 and rs9939609 polymorphisms of FTO gene were genotyped in 190 obese patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) (Body Mass Index) and 97 healthy controls with a BMI of 18.5-24.9. Genotyping of SNPs was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Body composition was established with bioelectric impedance analysis. Waist-to-hip ratio was determined for all participants. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between obese cases and controls in terms of genotype frequencies of rs1421085 and rs9939609 polymorphisms in our study. Also there were no significant correlations between genotypes and obesity related (anthropometric-body composition) parameters (P > 0.05).

  5. RaPToRS Sample Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henchen, Robert; Shibata, Kye; Krieger, Michael; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Glebov, Vladimir; Sangster, Craig

    2010-11-01

    At various labs (NIF, LLE, NRL), activated material samples are used to measure reaction properties. The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system quickly and safely moves these radioactive samples through a closed PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the control and analysis station, pneumatically braking at the outlet. A reversible multiplexer routes samples from various locations near the shot chamber to the analysis station. Also, the multiplexer allows users to remotely load unactivated samples without manually approaching the reaction chamber. All elements of the system (pneumatic drivers, flow control valves, optical position sensors, multiplexers, Geiger counters, and release gates at the analysis station) can be controlled manually or automatically using a custom LabVIEW interface. A prototype is currently operating at NRL in Washington DC. Prospective facilities for Raptors systems include LLE and NIF.

  6. Characterization of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 transcription factor genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, X B; Liu, Z; Xu, L; Wang, Y; Zhu, X W; Zhang, W; Chen, W; Zhu, Y L; Su, X J; Everlyne, M; Liu, L W

    2016-09-23

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae plants. Previous studies have mainly focused on GSL contents, types, and biosynthesis-related genes, but the molecular characterization patterns of GSL biosynthesis-related transcription factors remain largely unexplored in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To isolate transcription factor genes regulating the GSL biosynthesis, genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were isolated in radish. Two R2R3-MYB domains were identified in the deduced amino acid sequences. Subcellular localization and yeast-one hybrid assays indicated that both the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were located in the nucleus and possessed transactivation activity. Reverse transcription quantitative analysis showed that the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were expressed in seeds, leaves, stems, and roots at the seedling, taproot thickening, and mature stages. Both genes were highly expressed during the seedling and taproot thickening stages. The expression level of RsMYB28 was found to be up-regulated following wounding, glucose, and abscisic acid treatments, whereas RsMYB29 was up-regulated following wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments. These results provide insights into the biological function and characterization of the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes, and facilitate further dissection of the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the GSL biosynthesis in radish.

  7. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 launched over the oceans from the Arctic to the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Yoshimi; Katsumata, Masaki; Oshima, Kazuhiro; Hori, Masatake E.; Inoue, Jun

    2017-07-01

    To assess the differences between the RS92 radiosonde and its improved counterpart, the Vaisala RS41-SGP radiosonde version with a pressure sensor, 36 twin-radiosonde launches were made over the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, western North Pacific Ocean, and the tropical Indian Ocean during two cruises of R/V Mirai in 2015. The biases, standard deviations, and root mean squares (rms's) of the differences between the RS41 and RS92 data over all flights and altitudes were smaller than the nominal combined uncertainties of the RS41, except that the rms of the differences of pressure above 100 exceeded 0.6 hPa. A comparison between daytime and nighttime flights in the tropics revealed that the pressure difference was systematically larger during the day than at night above an altitude of 4.5 km, suggesting that there was some effect of solar heating on the pressure measurements, but the exact reason is unclear. The agreement between the RS41 and RS92 temperature measurements was better than the combined uncertainties. However, there were some noteworthy discrepancies presumably caused by the wet-bulbing effect on the RS92 radiosonde and the stagnation of the balloon. Although the median of the relative humidity differences was only a little more than 2 % of the relative humidity at all altitudes, the relative humidity of the RS92 was much lower than that of the RS41 at altitudes of about 17 km in the tropics. This dry bias might have been caused by the incomplete solar radiation correction of the RS92, and a correction table for the daytime RS92 humidity was calculated. This study showed that the RS41 measurements were consistent with the specifications of the manufacturer in most cases over both the tropical and polar oceans. However, further studies on the causes of the discrepancies are needed.

  8. The radish defensins RsAFP1 and RsAFP2 act synergistically with caspofungin against Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Kim; Cools, Tanne L; Harvey, Peta J; Craik, David J; Braem, Annabel; Vleugels, Jozef; De Coninck, Barbara; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The radish defensin RsAFP2 was previously characterized as a peptide with potent antifungal activity against several plant pathogenic fungi and human pathogens, including Candida albicans. RsAFP2 induces apoptosis and impairs the yeast-to-hypha transition in C. albicans. As the yeast-to-hypha transition is considered important for progression to mature biofilms, we analyzed the potential antibiofilm activity of recombinant (r)RsAFP2, heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, against C. albicans biofilms. We found that rRsAFP2 prevents C. albicans biofilm formation with a BIC-2 (i.e., the minimal rRsAFP2 concentration that inhibits biofilm formation by 50% as compared to control treatment) of 1.65 ± 0.40 mg/mL. Moreover, biofilm-specific synergistic effects were observed between rRsAFP2 doses as low as 2.5 μg/mL to 10 μg/mL and the antimycotics caspofungin and amphotericin B, pointing to the potential of RsAFP2 as a novel antibiofilm compound. In addition, we characterized the solution structure of rRsAFP2 and compared it to that of RsAFP1, another defensin present in radish seeds. These peptides have similar amino acid sequences, except for two amino acids, but rRsAFP2 is more potent than RsAFP1 against planktonic and biofilm cultures. Interestingly, as in case of rRsAFP2, also RsAFP1 acts synergistically with caspofungin against C. albicans biofilms in a comparable low dose range as rRsAFP2. A structural comparison of both defensins via NMR analysis revealed that also rRsAFP2 adopts the typical cysteine-stabilized αβ-motif of plant defensins, however, no structural differences were found between these peptides that might result in their differential antifungal/antibiofilm potency. This further suggests that the conserved structure of RsAFP1 and rRsAFP2 bears the potential to synergize with antimycotics against C. albicans biofilms.

  9. B-cell lymphocyte kinase polymorphisms rs13277113, rs2736340, and rs4840568 and risk of autoimmune diseases: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chang; Fang, Cheng; Weng, Hong; Xu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Tianyang; Li, Wenhua

    2017-09-01

    B-cell lymphocyte kinase (BLK) is an inhibitor of B cells that has an important influence on several autoimmune diseases, but there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of its association with autoimmune diseases. Hence, it is meaningful to conduct a comprehensive analysis. A systematic literature search was performed on the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases up to June 30, 2016. The data were extracted and quality-assessed before conducting the meta-analysis. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were assessed with the STATA version 12.0 software. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis were conducted to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Altogether, 33 studies with 68,874 cases and 90,684 controls, 24 studies with 31,095 cases and 39,077 controls for rs13277113, 21 studies with 26,388 cases and 40,635 controls for rs2736340, and 4 studies with 11,391 cases and 10,972 controls for rs4840568 were included in this meta-analysis. The results revealed that the BLK rs13277113 and rs2736340 polymorphisms increased the risk of autoimmune diseases in the total analysis (A vs G: OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.27-1.39, P < .01; T vs C: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.27-1.41, P < .01), and rs4840568 was positively associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (A vs G: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.22-1.43, P = .01). This meta-analysis shows that the BLK (rs13277113, rs2736340, rs4840568) polymorphisms may be a risk factor for developing autoimmune diseases, especially for Asian populations and SLE.

  10. Association Study of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Rs4552569/Rs17095830 with Ankylosing Spondylitis in A Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingwen; Yang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Jiyang; Lin, Qi; Wang, Luo; Fanga, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    Genetics play a key role in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) showed that rs4552569 (on 5q14.3) and rs17095830 (on 12q12) were associated with the risk of AS in Han Chinese, which was not replicated in other two studies. In the current study, rs4552569 and rs17095830 were genotyped in 735 Han Chinese AS patients and 1204 healthy controls using high resolution melting analysis (HRMA). We compared the distributions of genotypes and alleles between AS cases and healthy controls. Rs30187 and rs10865331, which were reported to be associated with AS susceptibility in various populations, were also genotyped and analyzed as positive controls. The results showed that no association between rs4552569/rs17095830 polymorphisms and AS susceptibility was found. On the other hand, an association between rs17095830 and one of AS complication (inflammatory bowel disease) was observed (allelic P value=0.0180; odds ratio[OR]=1.739; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.146-2.639). PMID:27047576

  11. Polymorphisms in Four Genes (KCNQ1 rs151290, KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 and MTNR1B rs10830963) and Their Correlation with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Han Chinese in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kaiping; Wang, Jinjin; Li, Linlin; Zhai, Yujia; Ren, Yongcheng; You, Haifei; Wang, Bingyuan; Wu, Xuli; Li, Jianna; Liu, Zichen; Li, Xiong; Huang, Yaxin; Luo, Xin-Ping; Hu, Dongsheng; Ohno, Kinji; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-02-26

    Genetic variants at KCNQ1 rs151290, KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 and MTNR1B rs10830963 have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the results are contradictory in Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of these four SNPs with T2DM in a large population of Han Chinese at Henan province, China. Seven-hundred-thirty-six patients with T2DM (cases) and Seven-hundred-sixty-eight healthy glucose-tolerant controls were genotyped for KCNQ1 rs151290, KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 and MTNR1B rs10830963. The association of genetic variants in these four genes with T2DM was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Genotypes and allele distributions of KCNQ1 rs151290 were significantly different between the cases and controls (p < 0.05). The AC and CC genotypes and the combined AC + CC genotype of rs151290 in KCNQ1 were associated with increases risk of T2DM before (OR = 1.482, 95% CI = 1.062-2.069; p = 0.021; OR = 1.544, 95% CI = 1.097-2.172, p = 0.013; and OR = 1.509, 95% CI = 1.097-2.077, p = 0.011, respectively) and after (OR = 1.539, 95% CI = 1.015-2.332, p = 0.042; OR = 1.641, 95% CI = 1.070-2.516, p = 0.023; and OR = 1.582, 95% CI = 1.061-2.358, p = 0.024; respectively) adjustment for sex, age, anthropometric measurements, biochemical indexes, smoking and alcohol consumption. Consistent with results of genotype analysis, the C allele of rs151290 in KCNQ1 was also associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR = 1.166, 95% CI = 1.004-1.355, p = 0.045). No associations between genetic variants of KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 or MTNR1B rs10830963 and T2DM were detected. The AC and CC genotypes and the C allele of rs151290 in KCNQ1 may be risk factors for T2DM in Han Chinese in Henan province.

  12. Polymorphisms in Four Genes (KCNQ1 rs151290, KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 and MTNR1B rs10830963) and Their Correlation with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Han Chinese in Henan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kaiping; Wang, Jinjin; Li, Linlin; Zhai, Yujia; Ren, Yongcheng; You, Haifei; Wang, Bingyuan; Wu, Xuli; Li, Jianna; Liu, Zichen; Li, Xiong; Huang, Yaxin; Luo, Xin-Ping; Hu, Dongsheng; Ohno, Kinji; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variants at KCNQ1 rs151290, KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 and MTNR1B rs10830963 have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the results are contradictory in Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of these four SNPs with T2DM in a large population of Han Chinese at Henan province, China. Seven-hundred-thirty-six patients with T2DM (cases) and Seven-hundred-sixty-eight healthy glucose-tolerant controls were genotyped for KCNQ1 rs151290, KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 and MTNR1B rs10830963. The association of genetic variants in these four genes with T2DM was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Genotypes and allele distributions of KCNQ1 rs151290 were significantly different between the cases and controls (p < 0.05). The AC and CC genotypes and the combined AC + CC genotype of rs151290 in KCNQ1 were associated with increases risk of T2DM before (OR = 1.482, 95% CI = 1.062–2.069; p = 0.021; OR = 1.544, 95% CI = 1.097–2.172, p = 0.013; and OR = 1.509, 95% CI = 1.097–2.077, p = 0.011, respectively) and after (OR = 1.539, 95% CI = 1.015–2.332, p = 0.042; OR = 1.641, 95% CI = 1.070–2.516, p = 0.023; and OR = 1.582, 95% CI = 1.061–2.358, p = 0.024; respectively) adjustment for sex, age, anthropometric measurements, biochemical indexes, smoking and alcohol consumption. Consistent with results of genotype analysis, the C allele of rs151290 in KCNQ1 was also associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR = 1.166, 95% CI = 1.004–1.355, p = 0.045). No associations between genetic variants of KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 or MTNR1B rs10830963 and T2DM were detected. The AC and CC genotypes and the C allele of rs151290 in KCNQ1 may be risk factors for T2DM in Han Chinese in Henan province. PMID:26927145

  13. Radio emission from RS CVn binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doiron, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The RS CVn binary stellar systems UX Ari, HR 1099, AR Lac, HR 5110, II Peg, lambda And, and SZ Psc were investigated by use of radio interferometry during the period from July 1982 through August 1983. Interferometry took two forms: Very Large Array (VLA) observations and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The VLA observations determined the characteristic polarization and flux behavior of the centimeter wavelength radio emission. The observed spectral index was near zero during quiescent periods, rising to between 0.5 and 1.0 during active periods. No net linear polarization is observed to a limit of 1.7%. This is expected since the Faraday depth of thermal electrons deduced from x-ray observations is approx. 10/sup 5/. Circular polarization is observed to be less than 20% at all frequencies often with a helicity reversal between 1.6 GHz and 5 GHz. The VLBI observations have shown that the brightness temperatures are often T/sub B/ approx.> 10/sup 10/ /sup 0/K and size sources smaller than or comparable to the overall size of the binary system. These data are consistent with incoherent gyrosynchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons which are optically thick to their own radiation at 1.6 GHz and optically thin at 5 GHz and above. The spectral behavior suggests that the radio emission is due to a power-law distribution of electrons.

  14. The evolution of the Three Rs.

    PubMed

    Farnaud, Sebastien

    2009-07-01

    Whilst the whole world is celebrating the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the 150th anniversary of the publication of his renowned book, The Origin of Species, another anniversary should not be forgotten - the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. The concomitance of the anniversaries of the two publications is not a coincidence, since, as reflected by the numerous quotes chosen by Russell from Darwin's masterpiece, numerous analogies can be found between the two works and the new ideas they describe. From a discrete birth, and after decades of struggle, the Three Rs concept can now celebrate its 50th anniversary, the result of its evolution through harsh selection and adaptation. The emergence of new types of techniques, in combination with the descent of modified old ones, testify to the undeniable change in our society toward a more efficient and more ethical science, through the progressive replacement of animal models. Both Darwin and Russell would no doubt have welcomed such progress, not only in terms of science, but also of moral values. One could also expect that, if Russell could have foreseen the incredible technological advances achieved 50 years later, where Replacement becomes a reality, as illustrated by some edifying examples, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique would have probably been defined as the One R concept. 2009 FRAME.

  15. Configuration control plan for the ports NCS IBM RS/6000

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.S.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes the actions and responsibilities for maintaining the quality and integrity of the NS software resident on the IBM RS/6000 workstation managed by the Nuclear Criticality Safety group at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This document does not address the validation of NS software packages for the RS/6000.

  16. Fast decoding of a d(min) = 6 RS code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, H.; Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A method for high speed decoding a d sub min = 6 Reed-Solomon (RS) code is presented. Properties of the two byte error correcting and three byte error detecting RS code are discussed. Decoding using a quadratic equation is shown. Theorems and concomitant proofs are included to substantiate this decoding method.

  17. 10 CFR 434.103 - Referenced standards (RS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referenced standards (RS). 434.103 Section 434.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Administration and Enforcement-General § 434.103 Referenced standards (RS)....

  18. 10 CFR 434.103 - Referenced standards (RS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referenced standards (RS). 434.103 Section 434.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Administration and Enforcement-General § 434.103 Referenced standards (RS)....

  19. 10 CFR 434.103 - Referenced standards (RS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referenced standards (RS). 434.103 Section 434.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Administration and Enforcement-General § 434.103 Referenced standards (RS). 103.1...

  20. 10 CFR 434.103 - Referenced standards (RS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referenced standards (RS). 434.103 Section 434.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Administration and Enforcement-General § 434.103 Referenced standards (RS)....

  1. 10 CFR 434.103 - Referenced standards (RS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referenced standards (RS). 434.103 Section 434.103 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Administration and Enforcement-General § 434.103 Referenced standards (RS)....

  2. Responding to the 5Rs: An Alternate Perspective of Slowmation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidman, Gillian; Keast, Stephen; Cooper, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Hoban and Neilsen's (2010) Five Rs model for understanding how learners engage with slowmation. An alternative model (the Learning MMAEPER Model) that builds on the 5Rs model is explained in terms of its use in secondary science preservice teacher education. To probe into the surface and deep learning that can occur…

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms rs911160 in AURKA and rs2289590 in AURKB mitotic checkpoint genes contribute to gastric cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mesic, Aner; Markocic, Ela; Rogar, Marija; Juvan, Robert; Hudler, Petra; Komel, Radovan

    2017-08-26

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mitotic checkpoint genes could confer increased susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC). We investigated the association of Aurora kinase A (AURKA), Aurora kinase B (AURKB), Aurora kinase C (AURKC), Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and Budding uninhibited by benzimidazol 3, yeast (BUB3) gene polymorphisms with GC risk. Genotyping of 6 SNPs in AURKA (rs911160 and rs8173), AURKB (rs2289590), AURKC (rs11084490), PLK1 (rs42873), and BUB3 (rs7897156) was performed using TaqMan genotyping assays. Our study demonstrated that rs911160 (AURKA) heterozygous genotype was associated with an increased GC risk (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01-2.22, P = 0.043). Analysis of rs911160 (AURKA) showed significant association with an increased risk for intestinal type GC (OR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.01-3.21, P = 0.040) and the risk was significantly higher in women than men (OR = 2.65, 95%CI = 1.02-6.87, P = 0.033). SNP rs2289590 in AURKB might contribute to susceptibility for the development of gastric cancer, particularly in women (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.05-4.09, P = 0.032). Our findings suggested that AURKA (rs911160) and AURKB (rs2289590) polymorphisms could affect GC risk. Further validation studies in larger and multi-ethnical populations are needed to elucidate their functional impact on the development of GC. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content.

  5. Leukocyte Telomere Length-Related rs621559 and rs398652 Genetic Variants Influence Risk of HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Juan; Lu, Chao; Wei, Jinyu; Li, Lichao; Zhou, Changchun; Yuan, Qipeng; Zhou, Liqing; Yang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified eleven leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Since LTL has been associated with risk of many malignancies, LTL-related SNPs may contribute to cancer susceptibility. To test this hypothesis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we genotyped these eleven LTL-related SNPs in a case-control set including 1186 HBV-related HCC cases, 508 chronic HBV carriers and 1308 healthy controls at the discovery stage. The associations of HCC risk with these SNPs were further confirmed in an independent case-control set. We found that 1p34.2 rs621559 and 14q21 rs398652 were significantly associated with HBV-related HCC risk (both P<0.005 after Bonferroni corrections). There was no significant difference of either rs621559 or rs398652 genotypes between chronic HBV carriers and healthy controls, demonstrating that the association was not due to predisposition to HBV infection. In the pooled analyses (1806 HBV-related HCC cases and 1954 controls), we observed a decreased HCC risk, 0.72-times, associated with the 1p34.2 rs621559 AA genotype compared to the GG genotype (P = 1.6×10−6). Additionally, there was an increased HCC risk, 1.27-fold, associated with the rs398652 GG genotype (P = 3.3×10−6). A statistical joint effect between the rs621559 GG and rs398652 GG genotypes may exist in elevating risk of HBV-related HCC. We show, for the first time, that rs398652 and rs621559 might be marker genetic variants for risk of HBV-related HCC in the Chinese population. PMID:25365256

  6. Frequency of rs731236 (Taql), rs2228570 (Fok1) of Vitamin-D Receptor (VDR) gene in Emirati healthy population.

    PubMed

    Osman, Enas; Al Anouti, Fatme; El Ghazali, Gehad; Haq, Afrozul; Mirgani, Rajaa; Al Safar, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D is getting more attention everyday due to its importance in maintaining bone and calcium homeostasis, cellular proliferation, differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D is derived from diet or elicited in the skin by the activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is an inert molecule that must be activated by ultraviolet light to form pre-vitamin D3. Recent studies connected the gene encoding for vitamin D (VDR) to the genetic control of bone mass and other diseases. As VDR SNPs have been associated with several disorders and diseases, it's important to investigate the allelic and genotypic distribution among populations. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) variants in healthy Emirati individuals and compare their genotype and allele distribution with other populations. In this study 282 (female, 187; male, 95) unrelated healthy UAE nationals were involved. Two hundreds and eight two DNA samples been collected to genotype rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) VDR SNPs. Our results indicate that the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) vary considerably in different populations. In the Emirati population the distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) were AA 38%, AG 42%, GG 20% and AA 27%, AG 42%, GG 31% respectively. The Emirati population genotype and allele distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) had no difference with Caucasians from USA and France. However, there was significant difference with Asian populations.

  7. Combined effects of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 on obesity and BMI in Chinese Han populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Sun, Yanlei; Sun, Jiazhong

    2011-02-01

    Genetic variants of FTO and MC4R have been linked with obesity and T2DM in populations of Europeans. In this study, we have investigated the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with obesity and T2DM in the Chinese population and analyzed the relationship between rs9939609 and rs17782313. 2351 individuals were recruited. We tested the rs9939609 and rs17782313 by sequences retrieval method. Clinical and biochemical characteristics were measured. The rs9939609 per-A allele and rs17782313 per-C allele increases of OR for obesity was 1.42 (95% CI 1.39-3.74) and 1.39 (95% CI 1.21-3.53).The genotypic OR for obesity was 1.92 (95% CI 1.81-4.67) for AA genotype, 1.71 (95% CI 1.47-4.54) for AT genotype, 1.87 (95% CI 1.72-4.00) for CC genotype, and 1.44 (95% CI 1.20-3.18) for CT genotype. BMI of participants carrying neither FTO nor MC4R risk allele was 25.9 ± 4.9, one risk allele was 26.4 ± 5.1, two risk alleles was 28.1 ± 5.5, and there or four risk alleles was 33.2 ± 6.3. We found no association between FTO and MC4R and the Chinese population with T2DM (P > 0.05). Our data support that the rs9939609 and rs17782313 are strongly associated with obesity and BMI. Their combined effects were significant in Chinese population. No association between FTO and MC4R and Chinese population with T2DM was found.

  8. Cohort profile update: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Body composition, mental health and genetic assessment at the 6 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Zanini, Roberta; Chrestani Cesar, Maria Aurora; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-10-01

    This is an update of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort profile, originally published in 2011. In view of the high prevalence of overweight and mental health problems among Brazilian children, together with the availability of state-of-the-art equipment to assess body composition and diagnostic tests for mental health in childhood, the main outcomes measured in the fifth follow-up (mean age 6.8 years) included child body composition, mental health and cognitive ability. A total of 3722 (90.2%) of the original mothers/carers were interviewed and their children examined in a clinic where they underwent whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and a 3D photonic scan. Saliva samples for DNA were obtained. Clinical psychologists applied the Development and Well-Being Assessment questionnaire and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to all children. Results are being compared with those of the two earlier cohorts to assess the health effects of economic growth and full implementation of public policies aimed at reducing social inequalities in the past 30 years. For further information visit the programme website at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/coorte_2004/questionarios.php]. Applications to use the data should be made by contacting 2004 cohort researchers and filling in the application form available at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/estudos/formularios.php].

  9. A SURVEY OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL BIOPSIES IN CHILDREN. A SINGLE-CENTER RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 20 YEARS IN PELOTAS-BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Giana da Silveira; Fontes, Silvia Terra; de Araújo, Lenita Maria Aver; Etges, Adriana; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutzling

    2008-01-01

    Despite the large number of published cases about oral and maxillofacial pediatric lesions, the literature is scarce on epidemiological studies regarding the prevalence of these entities. This study retrieved oral and maxillofacial pediatric lesions from the Center of Diagnosis of Oral Diseases (CDDB) at the Dental School of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPEL), comprising a 20-year period (1983-2002). From the total of 9,465 biopsies received in this period, 625 (6.6%) were from children aged 0 to 14 years. Regardless of the histopathological diagnosis, patient data referring to lesion location, sex and age were collected. Diagnoses were grouped in 13 categories. As much as 89% of the cases occurred in patients aged 7 to 14 years (53% in females and 47% in males). Mucocele (17.2%) was the most common type of lesion, followed by dentigerous cyst (8.6%). In the category of odontogenic tumors, odontoma was the most frequent lesion (64.2%). Malignant lesions were observed in a small section of the sample (1.2%). Generally, the results of the present study are in line with those reported in the literature concerning the most prevalent lesions in the pediatric population. Most lesions were benign, and malignant lesions were diagnosed in a very small part of the sample. PMID:19082398

  10. Breastfeeding and bone mass at the ages of 18 and 30: prospective analysis of live births from the Pelotas (Brazil) 1982 and 1993 cohorts.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Wehrmeister, Fernando Cesar; Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany; Gonçalves, Helen; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of total breastfeeding, breastfeeding duration and type of breastfeeding at 3 months of age on bone mass at 18 and 30 years. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted with two birth cohorts (1982 and 1993) in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at 18 and 30 years of age were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Information on breastfeeding was collected during the first 4 years of life. Analyses were performed by linear regression and stratified by sex. A total of 1109 and 3226 participants provided complete information on breastfeeding in early life and bone mass at 18 and 30 years, respectively. No association between breastfeeding and bone mass was observed in women at both ages nor among men at age 30. Among men at the age of 18, BMC and BMD were higher among those breastfed regardless of duration (p=0.032 and p=0.043, respectively). Despite a very weak positive effect of breastfeeding (yes/no) on BMC and BMD at age 18 in men, most findings pointed to a lack of association between breastfeeding and bone mass until young adulthood.

  11. Cohort Profile Update: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Body composition, mental health and genetic assessment at the 6 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Matijasevich, Alicia; Zanini, Roberta; Chrestani Cesar, Maria Aurora; Camargo-Figuera, Fabio Alberto; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    This is an update of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort profile, originally published in 2011. In view of the high prevalence of overweight and mental health problems among Brazilian children, together with the availability of state-of-the-art equipment to assess body composition and diagnostic tests for mental health in childhood, the main outcomes measured in the fifth follow-up (mean age 6.8 years) included child body composition, mental health and cognitive ability. A total of 3722 (90.2%) of the original mothers/carers were interviewed and their children examined in a clinic where they underwent whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and a 3D photonic scan. Saliva samples for DNA were obtained. Clinical psychologists applied the Development and Well-Being Assessment questionnaire and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to all children. Results are being compared with those of the two earlier cohorts to assess the health effects of economic growth and full implementation of public policies aimed at reducing social inequalities in the past 30 years. For further information visit the programme website at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/coorte_2004/questionarios.php]. Applications to use the data should be made by contacting 2004 cohort researchers and filling in the application form available at [http://www.epidemio-ufpel.org.br/site/content/estudos/formularios.php]. PMID:25063002

  12. Factors associated with weight loss dieting among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Madruga, Samanta W; Azevedo, Mario Renato de; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Menezes, Ana M B; Hallal, Pedro C

    2010-10-01

    Evidence has shown the negative effects of unsupervised diets and those with excessive calorie restriction. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of adolescents engaging in weight loss dieting and associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study of 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. The outcome was defined as adolescents that reported having practiced some type of weight loss dieting in the previous 12 months. Prevalence of such dieting was 8.6% (95%CI: 7.7;9.4), and was higher in girls. Elevated maternal body mass index (BMI) was associated with dieting among girls. The adolescent's and parents' view of the adolescent's weight, excess weight, and consumption of diet or light soft drinks were associated with adolescent dieting. There was a positive association between dieting and socioeconomic status. The findings provide important backing for policies aimed at improving adolescents' diet, since they express a major concern over weight and thus a significant percentage of individuals with erroneous and unhealthy behaviors.

  13. Association between RAD 51 rs1801320 and susceptibility to glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, S; Tomei, S; Mazzanti, C M; Lessi, F; Aretini, P; La Ferla, M; De Gregorio, V; Pasqualetti, F; Zavaglia, K; Bevilacqua, G; Naccarato, A G

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor. Despite decades of research and the advent of new therapies, patients with glioblastoma continue to have a very poor prognosis. Radiation therapy has a major role as adjuvant treatment for glioblastoma following surgical resection. Many studies have shown that polymorphisms of genes involved in pathways of DNA repair may affect the sensitivity of the cells to treatment. Although the role of these polymorphisms has been investigated in relation to response to radiotherapy, their role as predisposing factors to glioblastoma has not been clarified yet. In the present study, we evaluated the association between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, namely: XRCC1 rs25487, XRCC3 rs861539 and RAD51 rs1801320, with the susceptibility to develop glioblastoma. Eighty-five glioblastoma patients and 70 matched controls were recruited for this study. Data from the 1000 Genomes Project (98 Tuscans) were also downloaded and used for the association analysis. Subjects carrying RAD51 rs1801320 GC genotype showed an increased risk of glioblastoma (GC vs GG, χ(2) = 10.75; OR 3.0087; p = 0.0010). The C allele was also significantly associated to glioblastoma (χ(2) = 8.66; OR 2.5674; p = 0.0032). Moreover, RAD51 rs1801320 C allele increased the risk to develop glioblastoma also when combined to XRCC1 rs25487 G allele and XRCC3 rs861539 C allele (χ(2) = 6.558; p = 0.0053).

  14. Interleukin-10 rs2227307 and CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphisms modulate the predisposition to septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Cristina Padre; de Oliveira, Argenil José de Assis; Botoni, Fernando Antônio; Rezende, Isabela Cristina Porto; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Cunha, Fernando de Queiroz; Estanislau, Juliana de Assis Silva Gomes; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Rios-Santos, Fabricio

    2015-01-01

    Despite major improvements in its treatment and diagnosis, sepsis is still a leading cause of death and admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU). Failure to identify patients at high risk of developing septic shock contributes to an increase in the sepsis burden and rapid molecular tests are currently the most promising avenue to aid in patient risk determination and therapeutic anticipation. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the genetic susceptibility that affects sepsis outcome in 72 sepsis patients admitted to the ICU. Seven polymorphisms were genotyped in key inflammatory response genes in sepsis, including tumour necrosis factor-α, interlelukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, IL-8, Toll-like receptor 4, CXCR1 and CXCR2. The primary finding showed that patients who were homozygous for the major A allele in IL-10 rs1800896 had almost five times higher chance to develop septic shock compared to heterozygotes. Similarly, selected clinical features and CXCR2 rs1126579 single nucleotide polymorphisms modulated septic shock susceptibility without affecting survival. These data support the hypothesis that molecular testing has clinical usefulness to improve sepsis prognostic models. Therefore, enrichment of the ICU portfolio by including these biomarkers will aid in the early identification of sepsis patients who may develop septic shock. PMID:26038959

  15. Enantioselective degradation of (2RS,3RS)-paclobutrazol in peach and mandarin under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangyun; Qi, Peipei; Yang, Guiling; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Hao; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    In this study we investigated the enantioselective degradation of (2RS,3RS)-paclobutrazol in peach and mandarin fruits under field conditions after foliar treatment at 500 mg active ingredient/L using a Lux Cellulose-1 chiral column on a reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Degradations of paclobutrazol in both fruits followed first-order kinetics, with half-lives of about 9 days. Initial deposits were 1.63 mg/kg on peach and 1.99 mg/kg on mandarin; terminal concentrations were lower than 0.05 mg/kg, which was acceptable in most cases. As anticipated, paclobutrazol levels in peels of mature mandarin were about 6.3 times higher than in pulp, indicating the potential risk of peel consumption. We also observed that paclobutrazol degradation in mature mandarin was relatively slow, indicating it might not be efficient enough to hold mandarin fruits on trees for lowering paclobutrazol concentrations. Significant enantioselectivity was observed: the (2R,3R)-enantiomer was preferentially degraded in mandarin (whole fruit, peels, and pulp) but enriched in peach. Because of its more rapid degradation in mandarin and the lower levels observed in pulp compared with peels, potential endocrine-related side effects due to the (2R,3R)-enantiomer pose less of a risk in mandarin than in peach.

  16. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Burnside, Christopher G.; Bruno, Cy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program, specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. As originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small

  17. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Bruno, Cy

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the decommissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single

  18. The association of vaspin rs2236242 and leptin rs7799039 polymorphism with metabolic syndrome in Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Alnory, Amina; Gad, Hoda; Hegazy, Gehan; Shaker, Olfat

    2016-11-17

    Genetic predisposition is implicated in the etiology of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the1397645907association of vaspin rs2236242 and leptin rs7799039 polymorphisms with their serum levels and with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome in Egyptian women. This case control study included 100 Egyptian women with metabolic syndrome and 100 without metabolic syndrome. The genotypes of vaspin rs2236242 and leptin rs7799039 were detected by a methodology based on PCR-RFLP. Serum vaspin and leptin levels were determined by ELISA. The metabolic syndrome group was associated with higher serum vaspin and leptin levels when compared to the nonmetabolic syndrome group. The AA genotype of leptin rs7799039 was associated with metabolic syndrome and with higher serum leptin levels, while the different genotypes of vaspin rs2236242 were not associated with metabolic syndrome or different serum vaspin levels. The AA genotype of leptin rs7799039 was associated with metabolic syndrome and higher serum leptin levels. Serum leptin and vaspin can be used as diagnostic markers of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms (rs10636 and rs28366003) in metallothionein 2A increase breast cancer risk in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi-Jing; Kang, Hua-Feng; Jin, Tian-Bo; Zhang, Shu-Qun; Guan, Hai-Tao; Yang, Peng-Tao; Liu, Kang; Liu, Xing-Han; Xu, Peng; Zheng, Yi; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of MT2A are frequently observed in many different cancers. We performed this case-control study, including 459 breast cancer (BC) patients and 549 healthy controls from Northwest China, to evaluate the associations between two common MT2A polymorphisms (rs10636 and rs28366003) and BC risk. The MT2A polymorphisms were genotyped via Sequenom MassARRAY. The individuals with the rs28366003 A/G, A/G-G/G genotypes underwent a higher risk of BC (P<0.0001). And, the minor allele G of rs28366003 was related to an increased BC risk (P<0.0001). We also found a significantly increased BC risk with rs10636 polymorphism among homozygote and recessive models (P<0.05). Further subgroup analysis by clinical characteristics of BC patients showed that Scarff, Bloom and Richardson tumor grade (SBR) 1-2 have a higher expression of the minor allele of these two MT2A loci than SBR 3. Our results indicated that the rs10636 and rs28366003 polymorphisms in MT2A increased BC risk in Northwest Chinese Han population.   PMID:28228606

  20. Association of Renalase SNPs rs2296545 and rs2576178 with the Risk of Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wang-Ge; Yan, Ding-Yi; Zheng, Wen-Ling; Chu, Chao; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Two renalase single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2296545 and rs2576178 have been reported to be associated with the susceptibility to hypertension (HT). Given the inconsistent results, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between these two SNPs and the risk of HT. Methods Electronic databases were systematically searched to find relevant studies. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to the different concomitant diseases and ethnicities in the study population. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using fixed-effect or random-effect models. Results A total of six case–control studies on rs2296545 and six studies on rs2576178 were included. In the combined analysis, results showed a significant association between SNP rs2296545 and risk of HT in all genetic models (dominant model CG+CC/GG: OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.24–1.65; recessive model CC/CG+GG: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.09–1.69; codominant model CC/GG: OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.20–2.20, CG/GG: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.12–1.52; allelic model C/G: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.10–1.51). In subgroup analysis, we observed a significant association between rs2296545 and risk of essential HT. Although we did not observe an association between rs2576178 polymorphism and HT in the combined analysis, an increased risk was observed in the essential HT patients versus healthy controls (subgroup 1) analysis under the dominant, recessive, and codominant genetic models. Conclusions Renalase gene rs2296545 polymorphism is significantly associated with increased risk of HT, whereas rs2576178 polymorphism may not be associated with the susceptibility to HT. PMID:27434211

  1. Association between miR-199a rs74723057 and MET rs1621 polymorphisms and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Qin, Linyuan; Tan, Shengkui; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Qiu, Xiaoqiang; Tang, Bo; Jin, Junfei; Liao, Weijia; Qiu, Moqin; Tan, Lijun; He, Gaofeng; Li, Xiaomei; He, Songqing; Yu, Hongping

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels, thereby influence cancer risk. The aim of the current study is to investigate association between miR-199a rs74723057 and MET rs1621 and HCC risk in 1032 HCC patients and 1060 cancer-free controls. These two SNPs were genotyped by using the Agena MassARRAY genotyping system. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the associations. We found that compared with the wild-type AA genotype of MET rs1621, the variant GG genotype was associated with a decreased risk for HCC (OR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.06–0.96, P = 0.043). No association between miR-199a rs74723057 and HCC risk was observed. In addition, an interaction effect on HCC risk between the selected two SNPs was found. Among those who carried the CG/GG genotypes of miR-199a rs74723057, those who carried the GG genotype of MET rs1621 had a reduced risk of HCC, when compared with those who carried the AG/AA genotypes of MET rs1621 (OR = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.03~0.73, P for interaction = 0.018). Our results suggest that MET rs1621 polymorphism, alone and combined with miR-199a rs74723057, may influence susceptibility to HCC. Further large-scale association studies and functional studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:27813498

  2. Analysis of MC4R rs17782313, POMC rs1042571, APOE-Hha1 and AGRP rs3412352 genetic variants with susceptibility to obesity risk in North Indians.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Apurva; Mittal, Balraj; Prakash, Jai; Srivastava, Pranjal; Srivastava, Neena

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The physiological pathways associated with obesity are complex and involve several genes. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the association of genetic variants of melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), apolipoprotein E (APOE) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) with obesity in the North Indian population. MC4R rs17782313, POMC rs1042571, APOE-Hha1 and AGRP rs3412352 polymorphisms were investigated for their association in 396 obese individuals with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and 300 healthy non-obese individuals with BMI < 30 kg/m(2). Genotyping was performed using Taqman probes and PCR-RFLP methods. Single locus logistic regression analysis was conducted using (SPSS), ver.19 and PLINK software Version 1.01 and high order genetic interactions associated with obesity risk were analysed using MDR software (version 2.3.0.2). The genotypes of MC4R rs17782313, POMC rs1042571 and APOE-Hha1 were significantly associated with obese individuals (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) when compared with non-obese individuals (BMI < 30 kg/m(2)). No association of AGRP rs34123523 was seen with obesity. The best interaction model for predicting obesity risk by MDR analysis was the three factor model including POMC (C > T), MC4R (T > C) and APOE (Hha1) polymorphisms. Genetic variants in MC4R, POMC and APOE genes might play significant roles in predisposing obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) in the North Indian population.

  3. Relationship Between Chronic Tinnitus and Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene rs3812047, rs1110149, and rs884344 Polymorphisms in a Turkish Population.

    PubMed

    Orenay-Boyacioglu, Seda; Coskunoglu, Aysun; Caki, Zerrin; Cam, Fethi Sirri

    2016-08-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays a key role in early development of central auditory pathway and the inner ear. However, the auditory pathway studies of GDNF gene polymorphisms are scarce in the literature, and the studies especially associated with tinnitus are limited. Our study aimed to identify whether GDNF gene polymorphisms play any roles in the pathophysiology of tinnitus by investigating the relationship between tinnitus and GDNF polymorphisms. A total of 52 patients with chronic tinnitus and ages ranging from 18 to 55 were admitted to the Ear-Nose-Throat outpatient clinic of Celal Bayar University Medical Faculty Hospital of Manisa, Turkey and constituted the study group. Another 42 patients of the same age range, without tinnitus symptoms and lacking any systemic disease, were also admitted to the clinic and formed the control group. The tympanometric, audiological, and psychoacoustic assessments of the subjects were performed. Deoxyribonucleic acid samples obtained using venous blood taken for routine inspections were used to investigate GDNF gene polymorphisms (rs884344, rs3812047, and rs1110149) by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. No correlation could be detected between GDNF rs884344 and rs3812047 polymorphisms and subjects with tinnitus (p > 0.05). Heterozygosity was significantly lower for GDNF rs1110149 polymorphism in tinnitus subjects compared to the controls (p < 0.05). However, the allele frequencies for all 3 polymorphisms were not significantly different between tinnitus and control groups (p > 0.05). Failure to detect correlations between tinnitus and GDNF gene polymorphisms suggests this may be due to the fact that the GDNF gene has a variable expression pattern in different tissues and pathologies. Therefore, the study should be improved and its scope should be expanded by including a larger group of patients and different tissues to investigate the expression

  4. Regional Science and Technology (RS&T) Organizations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RS&T Organizations perform analytical and other work that: practices sound science, implements the principles of environmental protection, and promotes partnerships with states, Indian Nations, and local governments.

  5. AirMSPI SEAC4RS Ellipsoid Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    ... AirMSPI SEAC4RS Ellipsoid-projected Georegistered Radiance Data AirMSPI Ellipsoid-Projected Georegistered Radiance Product ... Polarized Radiance DOLP AOLP Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search SCAR-B ...

  6. AirMSPI SEAC4RS Terrain Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-08-16

    ... AirMSPI SEAC4RS Terrain-projected Georegistered Radiance Data L1B2 Terrain-Projected Georectified Radiance and Polarimetry Data Current version available below. If you require an earlier version ...

  7. Impact of DCC (rs714) and PSCA (rs2294008 and rs2976392) Gene Polymorphism in Modulating Cancer Risk in Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Vishal; Kim, Jong Joo; Gupta, Usha; Mittal, Balraj; Rai, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have investigated the association of gene variant of Deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC) and Prostate Stem cell antigen (PSCA) with various cancer susceptibility; however, the results are discrepant. Since SNPs are emerging as promising biomarker of cancer susceptibility, here, we aimed to execute a meta-analysis of DCC (rs714 A > G) and PSCA (rs2294008 C > T, rs2976392 G > A) polymorphism to demonstrate the more accurate strength of these associations. We followed a rigorous inclusion/exclusion criteria and calculated the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the pooled analysis showed that the DCC rs714 conferred increased risk of cancer only in Asians (AA vs. GG: OR = 1.86, p ≤ 0.0001; AG vs. GG: OR = 1.43, p = 0.005; GA + AA vs. GG: OR = 1.66, p ≤ 0.0001; AA vs. GG + GA; OR = 1.52, p ≤ 0.004, A vs. G allele: OR = 1.41, p ≤ 0.0001). PSCA rs2294008 was associated with increased overall cancer risk (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.28, p = 0.002; CT vs. CC: OR = 1.21, p ≤ 0.0001; CT + TT vs. CC: OR = 1.24, p ≤ 0.0001; TT vs. CC + CT; OR = 1.17, p ≤ 0.005, T vs. C allele: OR = 1.16, p ≤ 0.0001); however, in stratified analysis this association was limited only to gastric and bladder cancer and the strength was more prominent in Asians. In contrast, the PSCA rs2976392 SNP did not modulate the cancer risk. Therefore, we concluded that rs714 and rs2294008 polymorphism may represent a potential genetic biomarker for cancer risk in Asians and gastric as well as bladder cancer, respectively. However, since our study is limited to Asians and cancer types, further larger studies involving other cancers and/or population, gene-environment interactions and the mechanism of DCC and PSCA gene deregulation are desired to define the role of genotype with overall cancer risk. PMID:26891331

  8. The optimal algorithm for Multi-source RS image fusion.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wei; Huang, Shui-Guang; Li, Zeng-Shun; Shen, Hao; Li, Jun-Shuai; Wang, Peng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the issue which the fusion rules cannot be self-adaptively adjusted by using available fusion methods according to the subsequent processing requirements of Remote Sensing (RS) image, this paper puts forward GSDA (genetic-iterative self-organizing data analysis algorithm) by integrating the merit of genetic arithmetic together with the advantage of iterative self-organizing data analysis algorithm for multi-source RS image fusion. The proposed algorithm considers the wavelet transform of the translation invariance as the model operator, also regards the contrast pyramid conversion as the observed operator. The algorithm then designs the objective function by taking use of the weighted sum of evaluation indices, and optimizes the objective function by employing GSDA so as to get a higher resolution of RS image. As discussed above, the bullet points of the text are summarized as follows.•The contribution proposes the iterative self-organizing data analysis algorithm for multi-source RS image fusion.•This article presents GSDA algorithm for the self-adaptively adjustment of the fusion rules.•This text comes up with the model operator and the observed operator as the fusion scheme of RS image based on GSDA. The proposed algorithm opens up a novel algorithmic pathway for multi-source RS image fusion by means of GSDA.

  9. Exosomal miRs in Lung Cancer: A Mathematical Model

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xiulan; Friedman, Avner

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, primarily non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and worldwide. While early detection significantly improves five-year survival, there are no reliable diagnostic tools for early detection. Several exosomal microRNAs (miRs) are overexpressed in NSCLC, and have been suggested as potential biomarkers for early detection. The present paper develops a mathematical model for early stage of NSCLC with emphasis on the role of the three highest overexpressed miRs, namely miR-21, miR-205 and miR-155. Simulations of the model provide quantitative relationships between the tumor volume and the total mass of each of the above miRs in the tumor. Because of the positive correlation between these miRs in the tumor tissue and in the blood, the results of the paper may be viewed as a first step toward establishing a combination of miRs 21, 205, 155 and possibly other miRs as serum biomarkers for early detection of NSCLC. PMID:28002496

  10. Determination of RS,E/Z-tocotrienols by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Drotleff, A M; Ternes, W

    2001-02-16

    Synthetic alpha-tocotrienol was separated into four geometrical E/Z side chain isomers by preparative HPLC (permethylated beta-cyclodextrin phase). The isolated isomers were resolved in ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, converted into the corresponding methyl ether using dimethyl sulfate, and the tocotrienol methyl ethers were extracted with n-hexane. A subsequent HPLC separation on a chiral phase (adsorbent cellulose derivated with 3,5-dimethyl phenyl carbamate) discriminates between the enantiomers of each E/Z side chain isomer, achieving the complete resolution of the eight occurring synthetic RS,E/Z-alpha-tocotrienols. The method can be shortened by omitting the preparative separation of the E/Z tocotrienol isomers prior to the chromatography on the chiral dimethyl phenyl carbamate phase. The simplified method achieved the following separation: RS,E/Z-alpha-tocotrienol separated into five peaks, RS,E/Z-beta-tocotrienol into eight, RS,E/Z-gamma-tocotrienol into six and RS,E/Z-delta-tocotrienol into eight peaks. The naturally occurring R,E-E-tocotrienol isomer could be identified within the synthetic RS,E/Z-isomers by co-chromatography with tocotrienol methyl ethers derived from natural sources, respectively.

  11. Correction: Interleukin-10 rs1800896 and CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphisms modulate the predisposition to septic shock.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Vol. 110 (4): 453-460, 2015. p. 453. "Interleukin-10 rs2227307 and CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphisms modulate the predisposition to septic shock" should read: "Interleukin-10 rs1800896 and CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphisms modulate the predisposition to septic shock". == Vol. 110 (6): 797-800, 2015 .p. 797. "Financial support: IOC/FIOCRUZ, PAPESIV/VPPDT/FIOCRUZ, FAPERJ-APQ1 (E-26/110.497/2011), CNPq (458858/2014-5)" should read: "Financial support: IOC/FIOCRUZ, PAPESIV/VPPDT/FIOCRUZ, FAPERJ-APQ1 (E-26/110.497/2011), CNPq (458858/2014-5),FAPEAM/CNPq/PPP-FAPEAM (010/2011), MCT/CNPq (014/2011)"

  12. Angiotensinogen (AGT) gene missense polymorphisms (rs699 and rs4762) and diabetic nephropathy in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Makuc, Jana; Šeruga, Maja; Završnik, Matej; Cilenšek, Ines; Petrovič, Daniel

    2017-08-20

    Gene polymorphisms associated with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) have been extensively studied in diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients, due to therapeutic potential of targeting the RAAS and slowing down the disease progression. The aim of our study was to examine the association between angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms (rs699 and rs4762) and DN in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 651 unrelated Slovenian (Caucasian) T2DM patients were tested for AGT rs699 and rs4762 polymorphisms using a novel fluorescence-based kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASPar) assay. A study group consisted of 276 T2DM patients with DN, while control group included 375 patients without DN but who have had T2DM for >10 years. For rs699 polymorphism, the frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 20.6%, 52.2% and 27.2%, respectively in T2DM patients and 23.4%, 48.1% and 28.5%, respectively in controls. The distributions of GG, GA and AA genotypes for rs4762 polymorphism were 73.9%, 23.2% and 2.9%, respectively in T2DM patients and 70.4%, 27.5% and 2.1%, respectively in controls. No significant differences in the allele frequencies were found between T2DM patients and controls for both polymorphisms. AGT rs699 and rs4762 missense polymorphisms are not associated with DN in our subset of Slovenian T2DM patients.

  13. The TERT promoter mutation incidence is modified by germline TERT rs2736098 and rs2736100 polymorphisms in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaotian; Cheng, Guanghui; Yu, Jingya; Zheng, Shunzhen; Sun, Chao; Sun, Qing; Li, Kailin; Lin, Zhaomin; Liu, Tiantian; Li, Ping; Xu, Yiteng; Kong, Feng; Bjorkholm, Magnus; Xu, Dawei

    2017-04-04

    Telomerase activation via induction of the catalytic component telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays essential roles in malignant transformation. TERT promoter-activating mutations were recently identified as a novel mechanism to activate telomerase in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and many other malignancies. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TERT rs2736098 and rs2736100 are significantly associated with cancer susceptibility. It is currently unclear whether different germline TERT variants modify TERT promoter mutations. Here we analyzed the TERT promoter status and genotyped the TERT SNPs at rs2736098 and rs2736100 in patients with HCC. Thirty percent of HCCs harbored TERT promoter mutations and there was a significant difference in rs2736098 and rs2736100 genotypes between wt and mutant TERT promoter-bearing HCC tumors (P = 0.007 and 0.018, respectively). For rs2736100, the cancer risk genotype CC was significantly associated with a reduced incidence of TERT promoter mutations compared to AA + AC variants [Odds ratio (OR): 0.181, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.0543-0.601, P = 0.004]. The rs2736098_CT genotype was significantly associated with the TERT promoter mutation-positive tumors compared to the TT genotype (OR: 5.391, 95% CI: 1.234-23.553, P = 0.025). These differences in genotype distribution did not differ between patients with a wt TERT promoter and controls. The presence of TERT promoter mutations was not associated with clinico-pathological variables. Taken together, the germline TERT genetic background may significantly affect the onset of TERT promoter mutations in HCCs, which provides a better understanding of HCC-related TERT promoter mutations and telomerase regulation in cancer.

  14. The TERT promoter mutation incidence is modified by germline TERT rs2736098 and rs2736100 polymorphisms in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jingya; Zheng, Shunzhen; Sun, Chao; Sun, Qing; Li, Kailin; Lin, Zhaomin; Liu, Tiantian; Li, Ping; Xu, Yiteng; Kong, Feng; Bjorkholm, Magnus; Xu, Dawei

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase activation via induction of the catalytic component telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays essential roles in malignant transformation. TERT promoter-activating mutations were recently identified as a novel mechanism to activate telomerase in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and many other malignancies. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TERT rs2736098 and rs2736100 are significantly associated with cancer susceptibility. It is currently unclear whether different germline TERT variants modify TERT promoter mutations. Here we analyzed the TERT promoter status and genotyped the TERT SNPs at rs2736098 and rs2736100 in patients with HCC. Thirty percent of HCCs harbored TERT promoter mutations and there was a significant difference in rs2736098 and rs2736100 genotypes between wt and mutant TERT promoter-bearing HCC tumors (P = 0.007 and 0.018, respectively). For rs2736100, the cancer risk genotype CC was significantly associated with a reduced incidence of TERT promoter mutations compared to AA + AC variants [Odds ratio (OR): 0.181, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.0543–0.601, P = 0.004]. The rs2736098_CT genotype was significantly associated with the TERT promoter mutation-positive tumors compared to the TT genotype (OR: 5.391, 95% CI: 1.234–23.553, P = 0.025). These differences in genotype distribution did not differ between patients with a wt TERT promoter and controls. The presence of TERT promoter mutations was not associated with clinico-pathological variables. Taken together, the germline TERT genetic background may significantly affect the onset of TERT promoter mutations in HCCs, which provides a better understanding of HCC-related TERT promoter mutations and telomerase regulation in cancer. PMID:28416747

  15. COMT and DAT1 genes are associated with hyperactivity and inattention traits in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort: evidence of sex-specific combined effect

    PubMed Central

    Akutagava-Martins, Glaucia C.; Salatino-Oliveira, Angelica; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Julia P.; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Gonçalves, Helen; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Rohde, Luis A.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are dimensionally distributed in the population. This study aimed to assess the role of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes on ADHD symptoms in the general population. Methods We investigated 4101 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at ages 11 and 15 years. The SDQ hyperactivity/inattention scores were the main outcomes. Results Linear regression analyses demonstrated that the increasing number of COMT158Val and DAT1 10R alleles significantly predicted increasing SDQ hyperactivity/inattention scores in boys at both 11 and 15 years of age (β coefficient = 0.049, t = 2.189, p = 0.029, R2 = 0.012, and β coefficient = 0.064, t = 2.832, p = 0.005, R2 = 0.008, respectively). The presence of both COMT158Val and DAT1 10R alleles was also associated with full categorical ADHD diagnosis at 18 years of age in boys (χ2 = 4.561, p = 0.033, odds ratio 2.473, 95% confidence interval 1.048–5.838) from this cohort. We did not observe these associations in girls. Limitations Our analyses of SDQ hyperactivity/inattention scores were not corrected for SDQ scores of conduct problems because these variables were highly correlated. Conclusion This study demonstrates a role for COMT and DAT1 genes on hyperactivity/inattention symptoms and provides further support for ADHD as the extreme of traits that vary in the population. It also confirms previous evidence for sexual dimorphism on COMT and DAT1 gene expression. PMID:27327562

  16. Diet-Induced Overweight and Obesity and Periodontitis Risk: An Application of the Parametric G-Formula in the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Peres, Karen G; Do, Loc G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Corrêa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio F

    2017-03-15

    We aimed to estimate hypothetical effects of habits (smoking, alcohol consumption, and fat and carbohydrates consumption) combined with diet-induced overweight/obesity on the risk of periodontitis. The risk of any periodontitis, moderate/severe periodontitis, and the combination of bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) was estimated using the parametric g-formula in adults aged 31 years from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort in Brazil. Individuals in this cohort have been followed since birth. Hypothetical conditions were set independently for each risk factor and in combination for the entire population. A total of 539 participants had oral examinations in 2013. The cumulative 31-year risk under no intervention was 33.3% for any periodontitis, 14.3%, for moderate/severe periodontitis, and 14.7%, for BOP and CAL. According to our statistical approach, diet-induced overweight/obesity increased the risk of all outcomes: 11% (overweight) and 22% (obesity) higher risk of periodontitis; 12% (overweight) and 27% (obesity) higher risk of moderate/severe periodontitis; 21% (overweight) and 57% (obesity) higher risk of CAL and BOP. When overweight/obesity was combined with other unhealthy habits, the risk was even greater. Our findings suggest that the combination of diet-induced obesity with other risk factors may increase the risk of periodontitis. Further research in the field is required to corroborate our study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Food intake profiles of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months from the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort: an exploratory analysis using principal components

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify food intake profiles of children during their first four years of life and assess its variations according to sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Methods The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study (Brazil) recruited 4,231 liveborns, who were followed-up at ages 3, 12, 24 and 48 months. Food consumption data of children aged 12, 24 and 48 months was collected using a list of foods consumed during a 24-hour period prior to the interview. The food profiles were identified with the use of principal component analysis (PCA) for each age studied. Results Five components were identified at each age, four of them similar in all time points, namely: beverages, milks, staple, and snacks. A meat & vegetables component was identified at 12 and 24 months and a treats component at 48 months. The greatest nutritional differences were found among children from different socioeconomic levels. With regard to the milks component, higher breast milk intake compared to cow's milk was seen among poorer children (12- and 24-month old) and higher milk and chocolate powdered milk drink consumption was seen among more affluent children aged 48 months. Poorer children of less educated mothers showed higher adherence to the treats component (48 months). Regarding to the snack component, poorer children consumed more coffee, bread/cookies while more affluent children consumed proportionately more fruits, yogurt and soft drinks. Child care outside of the home was also a factor influencing food profiles more aligned with a healthier diet. Conclusions The study results showed that very early in life children show food profiles that are strongly associated with social (maternal schooling, socioeconomic position and child care) and behavioral characteristics (breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding and pacifier use). PMID:22510615

  18. Distribution of Glycated Haemoglobin According to Early-Life and Contemporary Characteristics in Adolescents and Adults without Diabetes: The 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Silveira, Vera M.; Miranda, Jaime J.; Gonçalves, Helen D.; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Menezes, Ana Maria; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of glucose control in individuals with diabetes mellitus, is also related with the incidence of cardiometabolic risk in populations free of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of HbA1c levels according to early-life and contemporary factors in adolescents and adults without diabetes mellitus. Methods HbA1c was measured in adults aged 30 years and adolescents aged 18 years who are participants in the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe the HbA1c mean values according to early-life and contemporary characteristics collected prospectively since birth. Results The distribution of the HbA1c was approximately normal in both cohorts, with a mean (SD) 5.10% (0.43) in the 1982 cohort, and 4.89% (0.50) in the 1993 cohort. HbA1c mean levels were significantly higher in individuals self-reported as black/brown skin color compared to those self-reported as white in both cohorts. Parental history of diabetes was associated with higher HbA1c mean in adults, while stunting at one year old presented an inverse relation with the outcome in adolescents. No other early and contemporary factors were associated with HbA1c levels in adults or adolescents. Conclusions We found a consistent relationship between HbA1c and skin color in both cohorts. Further research is needed to understand the role of genomic ancestry on levels of HbA1c concentrations which may inform policies and preventive actions for diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27626274

  19. The Tutorial Education Program on the Formation of the New Milenium's Meteorologist: 20 Years of Project Experience at Universidade Federal de Pelotas - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Programa de Educação Tutorial (Tutorial Education Program), also known as "PET", has the objective to finance students with potential, encouraging and providing extracurricular activities in order to promote the integration with the academic market and the development of study programs in graduate school, preparing a professional that in the future will operate in a global market, transforming and fighting for the professional interests of their class. The design of the program dates back to 1970 and is based on the model of learning and guidance to form the student. The groups are composed gradually, through an annual selection. The deployment and implementation of the groups consider the inclusion of new members in different stages of their school program, working in an integrated manner. To apply, students must submit satisfactory academic performance, without failures on any course and commit to devote a minimum of twenty hours per week to the program activities. Deployed at Universidade Federal de Pelotas - Brazil, in 1991, the group has contributed to the training of students of Meteorology through the concept of teaching-research-extension activities. We believe that PET has been of utmost importance in the training of the new millennium's professional, given that the objectives of this program seek to provide an excellent level of academic training to undergraduates, encouraging their entry into the graduate studies; stimulating the improvement of the quality of teaching degree through the development of new practices and teaching experience; multiplying the activities developed by scholars and increase their interactions with program's faculty and other students of the institution. With the highly competitive market requiring specialized professionals, the high investment in students with potential can be reversed for the benefit of the profession.

  20. Association between IL-1α rs17561 and IL-1β rs1143634 polymorphisms and periodontitis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, W T; Pan, Y P; Lin, L

    2016-02-05

    Genetic variations in human interleukin-1 (IL-1) genes are known to be involved in inflammatory disorders. The rs17561 and rs1143634 polymorphisms of IL-1α and IL-1β, respectively, have been increasingly recognized as important regulators in the development of periodontitis. However, the existence of a specific association remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between IL-1 polymorphism and periodontitis risk. Based on our inclusion criteria, six case-control studies were used, involving a total of 336 periodontitis cases and 366 healthy controls. Our meta-analysis results showed that the T allele of IL-1α rs17561 is positively associated with periodontitis susceptibility. In addition, carriers of this allele (TC + TT genotypes) demonstrated increased risk of this disease. The IL-1β rs1143634 T allele was also positively connected to periodontitis, with TC + TT genotype carriers being significantly more at risk. These results demonstrate that the IL-1α rs17561 and IL-1β rs1143634 polymorphisms are associated with periodontitis.

  1. Prognostic significance of interleukin-6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in neuroblastoma: rs1800795 (promoter) and rs8192284 (receptor)

    PubMed Central

    Lagmay, Joanne P.; London, Wendy B.; Gross, Thomas G.; Termuhlen, Amanda; Sullivan, Nicholas; Axel, Amy; Mundy, Bethany; Ranalli, Mark; Canner, Jason; McGrady, Patrick; Hall, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system and many patients present with high risk disease. Risk stratification, based on pathology and tumor-derived biomarkers, has improved prediction of clinical outcomes, but overall survival rates remain unfavorable and new therapeutic targets are needed. Some studies suggest a link between interleukin-6 and more aggressive behavior in neuroblastoma tumor cells. Therefore, we examined the impact of two IL-6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on neuroblastoma disease progression. Experimental design DNA samples from 96 high risk neuroblastoma patients were screened for two SNP that are known to regulate the serum levels of IL-6 and the soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), rs1800795 and rs8192284 respectively. The genotype for each SNP was determined in a blinded fashion and independent statistical analysis was performed to determine SNP-related event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Results The rs1800795 IL-6 promoter SNP is an independent prognostic factor for EFS and OS in -high risk neuroblastoma patients. In contrast, the rs8192284 IL-6 receptor SNP revealed no prognostic value. Conclusions The rs1800795 SNP (-174 IL-6 (G>C) represents a novel and independent prognostic marker for both EFS and OS in high risk neuroblastoma. Since the rs1800795 SNP (-174 IL-6 (G>C) has been shown to correlate with production of IL-6, this cytokine may represent a target for development of new therapies in neuroblastoma. PMID:19671870

  2. NEURL rs6584555 and CAND2 rs4642101 contribute to postoperative atrial fibrillation: a prospective study among Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chong; Shen, Jiayi; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a serious, common complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Recently, 5 novel loci were identified to be associated with atrial fibrillation susceptibility using a combination of genotyping, eQTL mapping, and functional validation. In current study, we aim to evaluated the positive findings for POAF susceptibility after CABG among Chinese population, using a population-based, two-stage, nested case-control study with 1,400 patients. NEURL rs12415501 and CAND2 rs4642101 were significantly associated with POAF susceptibility after CABG among Chinese population in both stages. When pooled together, the ORs for each additional copy of minor allele was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.13-1.48, P = 1.7×10−4) for NEURL rs12415501, and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08-1.36, P = 9.8×10−4) for CAND2 rs4642101. Functional validation experiments found the AF risk allele of NEURL rs6584555 and CAND2 rs4642101 correlated with an increased expression of its corresponding genes (P<0.001). In this independently collected cardiac surgery cohort, we replicated the previous findings, and 2 novel loci are independently associated with POAF risk in patients who undergo CABG surgery in Chinese population. PMID:27203392

  3. CREM variants rs4934540 and rs2295415 conferred susceptibility to nonobstructive azoospermia risk in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Jin; Song, Bing; Du, Wei-Dong; Cao, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Ruan, Jian; Tian, Hui; Zhou, Fu-Sheng; Zuo, Xian-Bo; Wu, Huan; Zha, Xing; Xie, Xu-Shi; Wei, Zhao-Lian; Zhou, Ping

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the association of variants related to spermatogenesis with susceptibility to Chinese idiopathic nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), seventeen tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CREM, ACT, KIF17b, and SPAG8 were analyzed in 361 NOA patients and 368 controls by Sequenom iplex technology. The results showed that two CREM SNPs, rs4934540 and rs22954152, were significantly associated with NOA and played protective roles against the disease (P value with Bonferroni correction = 0.00017, odds ratio [OR] = 0.624 and P = 0.012, OR = 0.686, respectively). Haplotype analysis of CREM gene variants suggested that haplotype CGTG of the SNPs, rs4934540, rs2295415, rs11592356, and rs1148247, exhibited significant protective effect against the occurrence of NOA (P = 0.001, OR = 0.659). The haplotype TATG conferred a significantly increased risk of NOA (P = 0.011, OR = 1.317). Furthermore, making use of quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that relative mRNA expression of CREM in NOA patients with maturation arrest was only one-third of that in the controls with normal spermatogenesis (P < 0.0001). Our findings indicated that the polymorphisms of CREM gene were associated with NOA in the Chinese population and low CREM expression might be involved in the pathogenesis of spermatogenesis maturation arrest.

  4. MTRR rs1801394 and its interaction with MTHFR rs1801133 in colorectal cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Haerian, Monir Sadat; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Molanaei, Saadat; Kosari, Farid; Sabeti, Shahram; Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Abdolali, Ebrahim

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the association between the MTRR rs1801394 alone or in interaction with the MTHFR rs1801133 and susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC) and its characteristics in Iranian population. Additionally, both a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to derive a more precise assessment of this association. Genomic DNA of 2332 subjects was genotyped for rs1801394. These data were pooled with 17 eligible studies for meta-analysis. No significant association was found between the rs1801394 or rs1801394-rs1801133 and CRC risk. Meta-analysis results also demonstrated no significant relationship between the rs1801394 and CRC risk. Results of this study showed that the rs1801394 alone or together with the rs1801133 is not a risk factor for CRC in Iranian population.

  5. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 °C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1-4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h.

  6. OxymiRs in Cutaneous Development, Wound Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Chandan K.; Roy, Sashwati

    2013-01-01

    The state of tissue oxygenation is widely recognized as a major microenvironmental cue that is known to regulate the expression of coding genes. Recent works have extended that knowledge to demonstrate that the state of tissue oxygenation may potently regulate the expression of microRNAs (miRs). Collectively, such miRs that are implicated in defining biological outcomes in response to a change in the state of tissue oxygenation may be referred to as oxymiRs. Broadly, oxymiRs may be categorized into three groups: (A) the existence (expression and/or turnover) of which is directly influenced by changes in the state of tissue oxygenation; (B) the existence of which is indirectly (e.g. oxygen-sensitive proteins, metabolites, pH etc) influenced by changes in the state of tissue oxygenation; and (C) those that modify biological outcomes to changes in the state of tissue oxygenation by targeting oxygen sensing pathways. This work represents the first review of how oxymiRs may regulate development, repair and regeneration. Currently known oxymiRs may affect the functioning of a large number of coding genes which have hitherto fore never been linked to oxygen sensing. Many of such target genes have been validated and that number is steadily growing. Taken together, our understanding of oxymiRs has vastly expanded the implications of changes in the state of tissue oxygenation. This emerging paradigm has major implications in untangling the complexities underlying diseases associated with ischemia and related hypoxic insult such as chronic wounds. PMID:23063665

  7. Associations of the APOB rs693 and rs17240441 polymorphisms with plasma APOB and lipid levels: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Caiqin; Luo, Zhi; Yu, Liuqin; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yun; Luo, Xin; Lai, Feiya; Song, Yongyan

    2017-09-06

    The associations of the apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) rs693 and rs17240441 polymorphisms with plasma levels of APOB and lipids have been widely explored, but the results were inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify the associations of the rs693 and rs17240441 polymorphisms with fasting APOB and lipid levels. Sixty-one studies (50,018 subjects) and 23 studies (8425 subjects) were respectively identified for the rs693 and rs17240441 polymorphisms by searching in PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, VIP and CNKI databases. The following information was collected for each study: first author, age, gender, ethnicity, health condition, sample size, genotyping, lipid assay method, mean and standard deviation or standard error of APOB and lipid variables by genotypes. A dominant model was used for this meta-analysis. The carriers of the rs693 variant allele (T) had higher levels of APOB [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16-0.36, P < 0.01], triglycerides (TG) (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.05-0.20, P < 0.01), total cholesterol (TC) (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.17-0.30, P < 0.01) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (SMD = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.14-0.30, P < 0.01), and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (SMD = -0.06, 95% CI = -0.11-0.01, P = 0.01) than the non-carriers. The carriers of the rs17240441 deletion allele had higher levels of APOB (SMD = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.06-0.20, P < 0.01), TC (SMD = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.07-0.26, P < 0.01) and LDL-C (SMD = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.07-0.23, P < 0.01) than the non-carriers. The rs693 polymorphism is significantly associated with higher levels of APOB, TG, TC and LDL-C, and lower levels of HDL-C. The rs17240441 polymorphism is significantly associated with higher levels of APOB, TC and LDL-C. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  8. Expression, purification, and characterization of rhTyrRS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) catalyze the first step of protein synthesis. Emerging evidence indicates that AARSs may have additional functions, playing a role in signal transduction pathways regulating thrombopoiesis and inflammation. Recombinant human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (rhTyrRS) is engineered with a single amino acid substitution that unmasks its cytokine activity. An industrial production method that provides high yield as well as high purity, quality, and potency of this protein is required for preclinical research. Results We expressed codon-optimized rhTyrRS in Escherichia coli under fermentation conditions. Soluble protein was purified by a three-step purification method using cation exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and anion exchange chromatography. We also established a method to test the biological activity of rhTyrRS by measuring aminoacylation and IL-8 release in rhTyrRS-treated HL-60 cells. Conclusions The characterization of purified rhTyrRS indicated that this protein can be used in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:25027604

  9. Genetic Association of CHAT rs3810950 and rs2177369 Polymorphisms with the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Chen, Qicong; Liu, Xu; Dou, Mengmeng; Li, Silu; Zhou, Jiahui; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yongfu; Huang, Zunnan

    2016-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) rs3810950 and rs2177369 polymorphisms have been implicated in susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to the inconsistent results from previous studies, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between these polymorphisms and AD risk more precisely. Pooled results of our meta-analysis indicated CHAT rs2177369 polymorphism was correlated with decreasing AD risk in one of five genetic models (dominant: OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96), while rs3810950 mutant was associated with AD development in three models (allelic: OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.37, homozygous: OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.09-2.42, and recessive: OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.20-2.26). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the association between CHAT rs3810950 polymorphism and AD risk was just found in the recessive model (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.05-2.07) among Caucasians, while four genetic models (allelic: OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.01-1.48; homozygous: OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.48-3.39; dominant: OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.40; and recessive: OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.45-3.29) assumed this association in Asians. In conclusion, our meta-analysis indicated CHAT rs2177369 polymorphism might play a protective role in AD, while rs3810950 variant was a risk factor for AD but its single heterozygous mutations might not influence susceptibility to AD.

  10. Assessment of IL-28: rs12979860 and rs8099917 Polymorphisms in a Cohort of Cuban Chronic HCV Genotype 1b Patients

    PubMed Central

    Palenzuela Gardón, Daniel; Guillen, Isabel Alicia; Fernández, Julio R.; Camacho, Hamlet; Estevez, Zurina Cinza; Dueñas, Santiago; Alvares-Lajonchere, Liz; Amador, Yalena; Martinez-Donato, Gillian; Han, Junsong; Zhang, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaona; Gao, Yang; Campaña, Juan Roca; Novoa, Lidia I.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant global public health problem with >185 million infections worldwide. A series of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified IL-28B polymorphisms as a predictor of sustained virologic response (SVR), as well as spontaneous clearance in chronic HCV genotype 1 patients. The objective of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of IL-28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms in Cuban chronic HCV patients. The study cohort included 73 chronic HCV patients treated with concomitant administration of CIGB-230 and nonpegylated IFN-α plus ribavirin (non-pegIFN-α/R) antiviral therapy. The genotype distribution of IL-28B rs12979860CC, -CT, and -TT was 29, 41, and 30%, respectively, and the distribution for rs8099917TT, -TG, and -GG was 63, 31, and 5%, respectively. The allele frequencies for rs12979860C and -T alleles were 51 and 49%, respectively, and for rs8099917G and -T alleles, the values were 21 and 79%, respectively. SVR rates were 55, 42, and 35% for rs12979860CC, -CT, and -TT, respectively, and 52, 30, and 25% for rs8099917TT, -GT, and -GG, respectively. The combined assessment of both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) resulted in 3 major genotypes (rs12979860CC/rs8099917TT, rs12979860CT/rs8099917TT, and rs12979860CT/rs8099917GG) with a frequency of 30.1, 21.9, and 20.5%, respectively. In patients with heterozygous variant rs12979860CT, the additional genotyping of rs8099917 contributed to increase the SVR rate. It is concluded that in Cuban HCV-infected patients, the responder homogeneous variant rs8099917TT is the most frequent genotype. The simultaneous genotyping of 2 IL-28B SNPs could improve the prediction of SVR contributing to better therapeutic decisions and treatment management. PMID:28058039

  11. Gaussian Mixture Model and Rjmcmc Based RS Image Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Zhao, Q. H.

    2017-09-01

    For the image segmentation method based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), there are some problems: 1) The number of component was usually a fixed number, i.e., fixed class and 2) GMM is sensitive to image noise. This paper proposed a RS image segmentation method that combining GMM with reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC). In proposed algorithm, GMM was designed to model the distribution of pixel intensity in RS image. Assume that the number of component was a random variable. Respectively build the prior distribution of each parameter. In order to improve noise resistance, used Gibbs function to model the prior distribution of GMM weight coefficient. According to Bayes' theorem, build posterior distribution. RJMCMC was used to simulate the posterior distribution and estimate its parameters. Finally, an optimal segmentation is obtained on RS image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can converge to the optimal number of class and get an ideal segmentation results.

  12. NeurimmiRs: microRNAs in the neuroimmune interface.

    PubMed

    Soreq, Hermona; Wolf, Yochai

    2011-10-01

    Recent reports of microRNA (miR) modulators of both neuronal and immune processes (here termed NeurimmiRs) predict therapeutic potential for manipulating NeurimmiR levels in diseases affecting both the immune system and higher brain functions, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and anxiety-related disorders. In our opinion, NeurimmiRs that function within both the nervous and the immune systems, such as miR-132 and miR-124, may act as 'negotiators' between these two interacting compartments. We suggest that NeurimmiRs primarily target transcriptional or other regulatory genes, which enables modulation of both immune and cognitive processes through direct or indirect alterations of neuron-glia and/or brain-to-body signaling. Thus, manipulating NeurimmiR control over the immune contributions to cognitive pathways may offer new therapeutic targets.

  13. Optical and UV spectra of RS CVn stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1990-01-01

    The observed phenomenology in RS CVn and related binary systems is considered in terms of its modeling according to solar activity by examining UV and optical spectroscopy. Current data are examined to validate the existence of cool starspots, plage, prominences, and flares, as well as to determine the consistency of spatial correlations given by these data. RS CVn stars show spots at or near the poles, contrasting the low latitudes of solar spots; plage appears to be associated with cool spots on BY Draconis-like systems; plage and prominences, although identified as distinct phenomena, are theorized to be the same event in some cases. More spectroscopic and photometric observations are proposed to identify the detailed structure and locations of spots. UV and visible data are also required to distinguish plage regions from flare variations as well as determine the relation of extended structures to starspot and plage phenomena in RS CVn systems.

  14. Amyloid arthropathy revealed by RS3PE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magy, N; Michel, F; Auge, B; Toussirot, E; Wendling, D

    2000-01-01

    Amyloid arthropathy is a form of primary AL amyloidosis with a monoclonal component in the blood and/or urine, and RS3PE syndrome is acute edematous polysynovitis in subjects older than 60 years. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with both disorders. He was admitted for benign acute polyarthritis of the hands and feet and reported carpal tunnel symptoms predominating on the right. A synovial biopsy at the right wrist disclosed deposits that stained with Congo red even after potassium permanganate treatment (positive Wright's test). Articular AL amyloidosis was diagnosed. The symptoms resolved under glucocorticoid therapy alone, casting some doubt on their relationship with the amyloidosis. Roentgenograms showed geodes, a feature not present in RS3PE. Whether RS3PE may be among the possible presentations of articular amyloidosis is discussed.

  15. Theoretical studies of the RS Canum Venaticorum stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The activity in RS Canum Venaticorum (CVn) is investigated. Models for chromospheric structure are developed and the role of magnetic fields both in the photosphere as well as in the chromosphere and upper atmosphere are examined. T Tau stars are also studied from the same points of view. The properties of magnetic field loops are used to help understand the atmospheric structure in RS CVn stars. The concepts developed in the case of these stars appear to be applicable over a much broader region of the HR diagram. The absence of stable magnetic loops in the atmospheres of late type giant stars suggests that the atmospheres of RS CVn active components are qualitatively distinct from the solar atmosphere.

  16. Association of rs2233678 and rs2233679 polymorphisms in the PIN1 gene with cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhenzhen, Li; Ning, Sun; Xianghua, Liu

    2014-01-01

    To data, epidemiological studies have assessed the association between peptidyl-propyl-cis/trans isomerase 1 (PIN1) gene polymorphisms and cancer risk, including breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and laryngeal squamous cell cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. We aimed to examine the associations between two SNPs (rs2233678 and rs2233679) of PIN1 gene and cancer risk by conducting a meta-analysis of case-control studies. A total of seven publications were included in this meta-analysis for both rs2233678 and rs2233679. Overall, rs2233678 polymorphism was found to be associated with decreased cancer risk in four genetic models (C-allele vs. G-allele: odd ratio (OR) = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-0.88; CC vs. GG: OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36-0.84; CC+CG vs. GG: OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.90; CC vs. CG+GG: OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.89). However, the rs2233679 polymorphism of PIN1 gene did not appear to have an influence on caner susceptibility. In the subgroup analysis by cancer type, we observed that the PIN1 rs2233678 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased breast cancer risk (C-allele vs. G-allele: OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60-0.89; CC+CG vs. GG: OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.89). Further subgroup analyses showed that the PIN1 rs2233678 polymorphism was associated with decreased cancer risk among Asian people (C-allele vs. G-allele: OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.51-0.79; CC vs. GG: OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25-0.80; CC+CG vs. GG: OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.50-0.79; CC vs. CG+GG: OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.86). In conclusion, PIN1 rs2233678 polymorphism might be a potential biomarker for cancer risk among Asians, especially for breast cancer. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  17. Polymorphisms rs12998 and rs5780218 in KiSS1 Suppressor Metastasis Gene in Mexican Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Quevedo, Edhit Guadalupe; Mimendi Aguilar, Gabriela Monserrat; Juárez Aguilar, Luis Anselmo; Gutierrez Rubio, Susan Andrea; Flores Martínez, Silvia Esperanza; Dávalos Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia; Sánchez Corona, José; Torres Morán, Martha Isabel; Rosales Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Morán Moguel, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Aims. KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene associated with inhibition of cellular chemotaxis and invasion attenuating the metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. Along the KiSS-1 gene at least 294 SNPs have been described; however the association of these polymorphisms as genetic markers for metastasis in breast cancer studies has not been investigated. Here we describe two simple PCR-RFLPs protocols to identify the rs5780218 (9DelT) and the rs12998 (E20K) KiSS1 polymorphisms and the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic frequencies in Mexican general population (GP) and patients with benign breast disease (BBD) or breast cancer (BC). Results. The rs5780218 polymorphism was individually associated with breast cancer (P = 0.0332) and the rs12998 polymorphism shows statistically significant differences when GP versus case (BC and BBD) groups were compared (P < 0.0001). The H1 Haplotype (G/-) occurred more frequently in BC group (0.4256) whereas H2 haplotype (G/T) was the most prevalent in BBD group (0.4674). Conclusions. Our data indicated that the rs5780218 polymorphism individually confers susceptibility for development of breast cancer in Mexican population and a possible role as a genetic marker in breast cancer metastasis for H1 haplotype (Wt/variant) in KiSS1 gene must be analyzed in other populations. PMID:25810563

  18. Polymorphisms rs12998 and rs5780218 in KiSS1 suppressor metastasis gene in Mexican patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, Edhit Guadalupe Cruz; Aguilar, Gabriela Monserrat Mimendi; Aguilar, Luis Anselmo Juárez; Rubio, Susan Andrea Gutierrez; Martínez, Silvia Esperanza Flores; Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia Dávalos; Corona, José Sánchez; Morán, Martha Isabel Torres; Gómez, Roberto Carlos Rosales; Moguel, María Cristina Morán

    2015-01-01

    KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene associated with inhibition of cellular chemotaxis and invasion attenuating the metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. Along the KiSS-1 gene at least 294 SNPs have been described; however the association of these polymorphisms as genetic markers for metastasis in breast cancer studies has not been investigated. Here we describe two simple PCR-RFLPs protocols to identify the rs5780218 (9DelT) and the rs12998 (E20K) KiSS1 polymorphisms and the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic frequencies in Mexican general population (GP) and patients with benign breast disease (BBD) or breast cancer (BC). The rs5780218 polymorphism was individually associated with breast cancer (P = 0.0332) and the rs12998 polymorphism shows statistically significant differences when GP versus case (BC and BBD) groups were compared (P < 0.0001). The H1 Haplotype (G/-) occurred more frequently in BC group (0.4256) whereas H2 haplotype (G/T) was the most prevalent in BBD group (0.4674). Our data indicated that the rs5780218 polymorphism individually confers susceptibility for development of breast cancer in Mexican population and a possible role as a genetic marker in breast cancer metastasis for H1 haplotype (Wt/variant) in KiSS1 gene must be analyzed in other populations.

  19. Testing a new engine controller system for the RS-25

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-25

    Engineers conduct the third in a series of RS-25 flight controller tests on July 25, 2017, for NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. The more than 8 1/2 minute test on the A-1 Test Stand at NASA’s Stennis Space Center in Mississippi signaled another step toward launch of NASA’s new Space Launch System (SLS). The SLS rocket, powered by four RS-25 engines, along with the Orion spacecraft will take astronauts on a new era of exploration beyond Earth’s orbit into deep space.

  20. Final RS-25 Engine Test of the Summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    On Aug. 30, engineers at our Stennis Space Center wrapped up a summer of hot fire testing for flight controllers on RS-25 engines that will help power the new Space Launch System rocket being built to carry astronauts to deep-space destinations, including Mars. The 500-second hot fire of a flight controller or “brain” of the engine marked another step toward the nation’s return to human deep-space exploration missions. Four RS-25 engines, equipped with flight-worthy controllers will help power the first integrated flight of our Space Launch System rocket with our Orion spacecraft, known as Exploration Mission One.

  1. Video File - RS-25 Engine Test 2017-08-30

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    NASA engineers closed a summer of hot fire testing Aug. 30 for flight controllers on RS-25 engines that will help power the new Space Launch System (SLS) rocket being built to carry astronauts to deep-space destinations, including Mars. The 500-second hot fire an RS-25 engine flight controller unit on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi marked another step toward the nation’s return to human deep-space exploration missions.

  2. Restoring New Agegraphic Dark Energy in RS II Braneworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Karami, K.; Sheykhi, A.

    2011-10-01

    Motivated by recent works (Saridakis in Phys. Lett. B 660:138, 2008; Sheykhi in Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 19(3):305, 2010), we investigate the new agegraphic model of dark energy in the framework of RS II braneworld. We also include the case of variable gravitational constant G in our model. Moreover, we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the quintessence, tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of the new agegraphic dark energy model in RS II braneworld cosmology including varying G.

  3. MMP-9 gene polymorphisms (rs3918242, rs3918254 and rs4810482) and the risk of psoriasis vulgaris: No evidence for associations in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingyao; Zhao, Tian; Yang, Juan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Sanquan; Huang, Zhenming; Lin, Rihua; Zhang, Xibao

    2015-12-01

    Several previous studies including one of them co-authored by our group have revealed that serum and psoriatic plaque expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was significantly upregulated in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of MMP-9 (rs3918242, rs3918254 and rs4810482) with psoriasis vulgaris in a Chinese Han population. The serum levels of MMP-9 in 245 psoriasis vulgaris cases and 256 healthy controls were assessed using ELSA kits, and the three SNPs were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction (PCR-LDR) method. Four haplotypes based on the three SNPs were also analyzed. Our study showed that the serum MMP-9 levels in patients with psoriasis vulgaris were significantly higher than that in controls (P<0.05). However, the three SNPs were not significantly associated with psoriasis vulgaris susceptibility (all P>0.05). Similar results were found in further subgroup analysis based on gender, age of onset, family history, and serum MMP-9 levels, except that a protective effect of psoriasis vulgaris was detected among female subjects with the CT genotype of rs3918254 (OR=0.47, 95% CI=0.23-0.96, P=0.038), but this association did not survive after Bonferroni correction (P(adj)=0.076). The haplotype analysis also failed to show any association with psoriasis vulgaris. We found no evidence for the association between the MMP-9 polymorphisms and psoriasis vulgaris susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.

  4. Validation of Omron RS8, RS6, and RS3 home blood pressure monitoring devices, in accordance with the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hakuo; Yoshika, Masamichi; Yokoi, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Allowing patients to measure their blood pressure at home is recognized as being of clinical value. However, it is not known how often these measurements are taken correctly. Blood pressure monitors for home use fall into two types based on the position of the cuff, ie, at the upper arm or the wrist. The latter is particularly convenient, as measurements can be taken fully clothed. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the wrist-type blood pressure monitors Omron RS8 (HEM-6310F-E), Omron RS6 (HEM-6221-E), and Omron RS3 (HEM-6130-E). A team of three trained doctors validated the performance of these devices by comparing the measurements obtained from these devices with those taken using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. All the devices met the validation requirements of the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010. The difference in blood pressure readings between the tested device and the standard mercury sphygmomanometer was within 3 mmHg, which is acceptable according to the European Society of Hypertension guidelines. All the home devices tested were found to be suitable for measuring blood pressure at home because their performance fulfilled the requirement of the guidelines.

  5. The CARD9 Polymorphisms rs4077515, rs10870077 and rs10781499 Are Uncoupled from Susceptibility to and Severity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Iannaconne, Marco; McEwen, Gayle; Ciontea, Marius Sorin; Olaru, Marian; Capparelli, Rosanna; Ioana, Mihai; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Dorhoi, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variants in the CARD9 gene predispose to inflammatory disorders and chronic infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease affecting the lung, is lethal in Card9-deficient mice. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the CARD9 gene influence TB progression and disease-associated lung damage in humans. We tested genotype distributions of the CARD9 polymorphisms rs4077515, rs10781499 and rs10870077 in TB patients and healthy subjects in a Caucasian cohort. SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium and none of the haplotypes was significantly enriched in the TB group. We determined total and differential leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and plasma abundance of cytokines and chemokines as markers for systemic inflammation and scored chest X-rays to assess lung involvement in TB subjects. Most disease parameters segregated independently of the CARD9 haplotypes. In contrast to multifactorial chronic inflammation, selected genetic variants in the CARD9 gene leave host responses apparently unaffected in TB, at least in the population analyzed here. PMID:27684065

  6. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.545 Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4...) General. (1) A tolerance of 1.0 ppm is established for residues of the insecticide prallethrin (RS)-2...

  7. Association of Versican (VCAN) gene polymorphisms rs251124 and rs2287926 (G428D), with intracranial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda V.; Balan, Shabeesh; Easwer, H.V.; Premkumar, S.; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Alapatt, Jacob P.; Banerjee, Moinak

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85% of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) and is mainly caused due to the weakening of arterial wall. The structural integrity of the intracranial arteries is mainly influenced by the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The Proteoglycan Versican plays an important role in extracellular matrix assembly and plays a major role in the pathogenesis of IA. The linkage studies also indicated VCAN as a putative candidate gene for IA in the 5q22–31 region. Using a case–control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in VCAN gene, nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of Glycosaminoglycan α (GAG-α) and GAG-β and two reported SNPs involved in splicing rs251124 and rs173686 can increase the risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 250 ethnically, age and sex matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. The present study reiterated the earlier association of rs251124 with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0002) and also found a novel association with rs2287926 (G428D) in exon 7 coding for GAG-α with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0015). Interestingly, both these SNPs contributed to higher risk for aneurysm in males. In-silico analysis predicted this SNP to have the highest functional relevance in the gene which might have a potentially altered regulatory role in transcription and splicing. Using meta-analysis with available literature rs251124 was found to be the strongest intracranial aneurysm marker for global ethnicities. This study with a novel functional SNP rs2287926 (G428D) further substantiates the potential role of VCAN in the pathogenesis of IA. PMID:25606449

  8. Analysis of RANKL gene polymorphism (rs9533156 and rs2277438) in Iranian patients with chronic periodontitis and periimplantitis.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Ebadian, Ahmad Reza; Gholami, Gholam Ali; Khosravi, Alireza; Tabari, Zahra Alizadeh

    2013-05-01

    RANK/OPG/RANKL pathway plays a significant role in osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast activation, and regulation of bone resorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of RANKL gene polymorphisms (rs9533156 and rs2277438) with chronic periodontitis and peri-implantitis in an Iranian population. 77 patients with chronic periodontitis, 40 patients with peri-implantitis and 89 periodontally healthy patients were enrolled in this study. 5cc of blood was obtained from the cephalic vein of subjects arms and transferred into tubes containing EDTA. Genomic DNA was extracted using Miller's Salting Out technique. The DNA was transferred into 96 division plates, transported to Kbioscience Institute in United Kingdom and analyzed using the Kbioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) technique. Differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles in the disease and control groups were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact statistical tests. Comparison of frequency of alleles in SNP rs9533156 of RANKL gene between the chronic periodontitis group with the control and peri-implantitis groups revealed statistically significant differences (P=0.024 and P=0.027, respectively). Comparison of genotype expression of SNP rs9533156 on RANKL gene between the peri-implantitis group with chronic periodontitis and control groups revealed statistically significant differences (P=0.001); the prevalence of CT genotype was significantly higher amongst the chronic periodontitis group. Regarding SNP rs2277438 of RANKL gene, comparison of prevalence of genotypes and frequency of alleles did not reveal any significant differences (P=0.641/P=0.537, respectively). The results of this study indicate that CT genotype of rs9533156 RANKL gene polymorphism was significantly associated with peri-implantitis, and may be considered as a genetic determinant for peri-implantitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Peraluminous leucogranites of the Cordilheira Suite: A record of Neoproterozoic collision and the generation of the Pelotas Batholith, Dom Feliciano Belt, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; de Campos, Roberto Sacks

    2013-04-01

    The Cordilheira Suite is comprised of peraluminous granites that constitute, together with the Quitéria granite, the beginning of the formation of the Pelotas Batholith in the central portion of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The batholith is composed of seven granitic suites with minor occurrences of gabbro, diorite and subvolcanic rocks. Its evolution between 650 and 550 million years ago is characterised by a ranging from metaluminous to peraluminous rocks and from calc-alkaline to alkaline and peralkaline series. The Cordilheira Suite is composed of the Cordilheira, Arroio Francisquinho, Butiá and Três Figueiras granites, which contain muscovite and/or biotite, with the following accessory minerals: tourmaline, garnet, sillimanite, apatite, zircon, monazite and ilmenite. The granitic bodies are elongate; their ascent and emplacement were controlled by high-angle shear zones oriented at N45-70°E. They have mylonitic structures with magmatic foliation accompanied by a low-angle stretching lineation, indicating that these bodies were emplaced under syn-kinematic conditions during a transcurrent event. The granites have high-K calc-alkaline affinity and are peraluminous. The LILE and REE contents are low. The K2O/Na2O and CaO/Na2O ratios are approximately 1 and less than 0.3, respectively. Pseudosections calculated using the Perple X program suggests that the granites were formed at partial melting temperatures between 740 and 820 °C and pressure between 8.5 and 9 kbar. Petrographic and chemical data suggest that the magmas were generated by the partial melting of the migmatitic pelitic gneisses of the Várzea do Capivarita Complex and, to a lesser degree, orthogneisses of the Arroio dos Ratos Complex, which left a granulitic residue. UHT conditions of granulite facies metamorphism were recorded in the Várzea do Capivarita paragneisses by mineral paragenesis and indicate that temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C and pressures between 4 and 8 kbar were required for

  10. Sirtuin 1 rs1467568 and rs7895833 in South African Indians with early-onset coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramkaran, Prithiksha; Moodley, Devapregasan; Chuturgoon, Anil A; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Khan, Sajidah

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a class III histone deacetylase, has been identified as a candidate molecule affecting the epigenetic mechanisms of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have shown that some SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, cholesterol metabolism and coronary artery calcification. We investigated two A>G SIRT1 SNPs, rs1467568 and rs7895833, in young South African (SA) Indians with coronary artery disease (CAD) and compared them to Indian and black controls. Methods For rs1467568, a total of 287 subjects were recruited into this study (104 CAD patients, 99 age-, gender- and race-matched controls, and 84 age- and gender-matched black controls). For rs7895833, a total of 281 subjects were recruited into this study (100 CAD patients, 99 age-, gender- and race-matched controls, and 82 age- and gender-matched black controls). All patients were male, of Indian ethnicity, stable CAD confirmed on angiography, mean age 37.5 years; range 24–45. All subjects were genotyped using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results The variant allele for both SNPs was found at a higher frequency in the total Indian group compared to the total black population (rs1467568: 41 vs 18.5%, respectively, p < 0.0001, OR = 3.190, 95% CI: 2.058–40943; and rs7895833: 41 vs 22%, respectively, p < 0.0001, OR = 2.466, 95% CI: 1.620– 3.755). Indian controls presented with a higher frequency for both SNPs compared to black controls (rs1467568: 40 vs 18.5%, respectively, p < 0.0001, OR = 2.996, 95% CI: 1.850– 4.853; and rs7895833: 41 vs 22%, respectively, p < 0.0001, OR = 2.513, 95% CI: 1.578–4.004). No difference was seen in the distribution of both SNPs between CAD patients and either control group. We did not observe any association between the SNPs and clinical parameters in CAD patients and controls. Conclusion: Both SNP variant alleles occurred more frequently in SA Indians than in SA

  11. Association of the FTO (rs9939609) and MC4R (rs17782313) gene polymorphisms with maternal body weight during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maisa Cruz; Trujillo, Janet; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes have been consistently associated with the risk for obesity, but few studies have examined the association of the obesity risk alleles with gestational outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FTO (rs9939609) and MC4R (rs17782313) genes with changes in maternal body weight during pregnancy. A sample of 136 pregnant women were followed in a prospective cohort at 5 to 13, 20 to 26, and 30 to 36 wk gestation and 30 to 45 d postpartum. SNPs were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Associations between polymorphisms and the outcomes were investigated through longitudinal linear mixed-effects models, multiple linear regression models, and Poisson regression models. An SNP in the FTO (rs9939609) gene but not in the MC4R (rs17782313) gene was significantly associated with prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m(2) (relative riskFTO = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.1). SNPs were not statistically associated with excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) or postpartum weight retention (PPWR). For the FTO (rs9939609) gene, women with the AA genotype were heavier in the body weight trajectory of pregnancy, but not when their weight had been adjusted for prepregnancy BMI (βFTO = 0.5 kg; 95% CI, -1.9 to 3). These women started pregnancy heavier but gained less weight (FTO*gestational age = -0.1; 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.03) compared with those who had at least one T allele. The FTO (rs9939609) AA genotype is positively associated with prepregnancy excessive weight. We found no evidence of a significant effect of the MC4R (rs17782313) or the FTO (rs9939609) gene polymorphisms on the GWG and PPWR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of ESR1 rs9340799 and ESR2 rs1256049 polymorphisms on prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chenying; Dong, Wen-Qi; Wang, Ani; Qiu, Guozhen

    2014-08-01

    Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) may play a role in the development of prostate cancer. Many studies focused on ESR1 rs9340799 and ESR2 rs1256049 polymorphisms to explore associations with prostate cancer risk. These studies showed inconsistent and conflicting results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the pooled association of ESR1 rs9340799 and ESR2 rs1256049 polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify related studies (up to February 2014) in several online databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, CNKI and Wanfang online libraries. A total of 16 eligible articles were enrolled in this updated meta-analysis. The result suggested that ESR1 rs9340799 polymorphism was significantly associated with prostate cancer in overall populations (GG+GA vs. AA: P = 0.002; G vs. A: P = 0.004), Caucasians (GG+GA vs. AA: P = 0.008; G vs. A: P = 0.016) and Africans (GG+GA vs. AA: P = 0.005; G vs. A: P = 0.006), but not in Asians (GG+GA vs. AA: P = 0.462; G vs. A: P = 0.665). The result also showed that there was a significant association between ESR2 rs1256049 polymorphism and prostate cancer in Caucasians (AA+AG vs. GG: P = 0.016; A vs. G: P = 0.005), but no association in overall populations (AA+AG vs. GG: P = 0.826; A vs. G: P = 0.478), Asians (AA+AG vs. GG: P = 0.177; A vs. G: P = 0.703) and Africans (AA+AG vs. GG: P = 0.847; A vs. G: P = 0.707). The cumulative meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis showed the results were robust. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that ESR1 rs9340799 polymorphism was associated with prostate cancer risk in overall populations, Caucasians and Africans, while ESR2 rs1256049 polymorphism was associated with prostate cancer risk in Caucasians. However, the biological mechanisms need to be further investigated.

  13. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    The Android-based smartphone or tablet is used in conjunction with a USB to serial bridge to operate as the bus master in the system. The Android device...operates in USB Host mode and communicates to the RS-485 bus as if a single peripheral on the USB bus .

  14. Work in Progress: The Seven Rs of Team Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunelli, Jean; Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that supportive teams--including professionals, paraprofessionals, and parents--can teach staff members how to identify and implement best practices in early intervention settings. The authors describe "the seven Rs of team building" distilled from their many years of team building and maintenance: 1) Reading cues; 2) Regular…

  15. An extended d(min) = 4 RS code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, H.; Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A minimum distance d sub m - 4 extended Reed - Solomon (RS) code over GF (2 to the b power) was constructed. This code is used to correct any single byte error and simultaneously detect any double byte error. Features of the code; including fast encoding and decoding, are presented.

  16. INFeRS: Interactive Numeric Files Retrieval System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Katherine; And Others

    In 1988 Mann Library at Cornell University proposed to develop a computer system that would support interactive access to significant electronic files in agriculture and the life sciences. This system was titled the Interactive Numeric Files Retrieval System (INFeRS). This report describes how project goals were met and it presents the project's…

  17. FAS rs2234767 and rs1800682 polymorphisms jointly contributed to risk of colorectal cancer by affecting SP1/STAT1 complex recruitment to chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shizhi; Wu, Shenshen; Meng, Qingtao; Li, Xiaobo; Zhang, Jinchun; Chen, Rui; Wang, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    FAS rs2234767 (−1377 G>A), rs1800682 (−670 A>G) and FASLG rs763110 (−844 C>T) promoter polymorphisms can influence transcriptional activities of the genes and thus multiple tumors susceptibility. To investigate their association with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), the three SNPs were genotyped in 878 cases and 884 controls and the results showed that the FAS rs2234767 and rs1800682 were in a high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other (D’ = 0.994) and jointly contributed to an increased risk of CRC (without vs. with rs2234767 GG/rs1800682 AA genotypes, adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.05 − 1.61). In vivo ChIP assays evaluated the effect of rs2234767 and rs1800682 on recruitment of SP1 and STAT1, respectively, to chromatin. The results showed SP1 interacting specifically with STAT1 recruited to their respective motifs for transcriptional activation. The mutant alleles rs2234767 A and rs1800682 G jointly affected coupled SP1 and STAT1 recruitment to chromatin. The interplay between SP1 and STAT1 was critical for the functional outcome of rs2234767 and rs1800682 in view of their high LD. In conclusion, the FAS rs2234767 and rs1800682 polymorphisms were in high LD with each other, and they jointly contributed to an increased risk of CRC by altering recruitment of SP1/STAT1 complex to the FAS promoter for transcriptional activation. PMID:26759270

  18. Association between PNPLA3 (rs738409), LYPLAL1 (rs12137855), PPP1R3B (rs4240624), GCKR (rs780094), and elevated transaminase levels in overweight/obese Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Flores, Yvonne N; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Ramírez, Paula; Bañuelos, Manuel; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yee, Hal F; Chang, Shen-Chih; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Quiterio, Manuel; Cabrera-Alvarez, Guillermo; Patiño, Nelly; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-12-01

    There is scarce information about the link between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of liver disease among Latinos, despite the disproportionate burden of disease among this population. Our aim was to investigate nine SNPs in or near the following genes: PNPLA3, LYPLAL1, PPP1R3B, GCKR, NCAN, IRS1, PPARG, and ADIPOR2 and examine their association with persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in Mexican adults. Data and samples were collected from 741 participants in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study, in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We identified 207 cases who had persistently elevated levels of ALT or AST (≥40 U/L) and 534 controls with at least two consecutive normal ALT or AST results in a 6 month period, during 2004-2006 and 2011-2013. TaqMan assays were used to genotype the SNPs. The risk allele of PNPLA3 rs738409 was found to be associated with persistently elevated levels of ALT or AST, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, type 2 diabetes, and ancestry: (OR 2.28, 95 % CI 1.13, 4.58). A significant association was found between the LYPLAL1, PPP1R3B, and GCKR risk alleles and elevated ALT or AST levels among overweight/obese adults. These results suggest that among Mexicans, the PNPLA3 (rs738409), LYPLAL1 (rs12137855), PPP1R3B (rs4240624), and GCKR (rs780094) polymorphisms may be associated with a greater risk of chronic liver disease among overweight adults. This study is the first to examine these nine SNPs in a sample of adults in Mexico.

  19. Relationship between clinical toxicities and ERCC1 rs3212986 and XRCC3 rs861539 polymorphisms in cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sílvia; Nogueira, Augusto; Coelho, Ana; Assis, Joana; Pereira, Deolinda; Bravo, Isabel; Medeiros, Rui

    2017-07-07

    Several studies have suggested that there are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be considered potential biomarkers in the prognosis and therapeutic response of cancer patients. The present study investigated the association between ERCC1 rs3212986 and XRCC3 rs861539 polymorphisms and clinical toxicities induced by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in cervical cancer. This hospital-based retrospective cohort study included 260 patients with cervical cancer, FIGO stages Ib2-IVa, who underwent CRT (cisplatin). Genetic polymorphisms analysis was performed by allelic discrimination with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results indicated a link between ERCC1 rs3212986 and the onset of late gastrointestinal toxicity (p = 0.038). Furthermore, using a recessive model (AA vs. CC/CA), we found that patients carrying AA homozygous genotype presented a fourfold increased risk of developing late gastrointestinal toxicity when compared with patients with the C allele (odds ratio = 3.727, 95% confidence interval, 1.199-11.588; p = 0.017). No association was found regarding the XRCC3 rs861539 polymorphism and any clinical toxicity event. This is the first study evaluating the relationship between these polymorphisms and clinical toxicities in cervical cancer patients submitted to CRT with cisplatin. These results may contribute toward a better understanding of the influence of genetic polymorphisms in genes associated with DNA repair in the clinical response to CRT of patients with cervical cancer.

  20. XRCC2 R188H (rs3218536), XRCC3 T241M (rs861539) and R243H (rs77381814) single nucleotide polymorphisms in cervical cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; Crivaro, Andrea; Barbisan, Gisela; Poleri, Lucia; Golijow, Carlos Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. Transformation may be induced by several mechanisms, including oncogene activation and genome instability. Individual differences in DNA damage recognition and repair have been hypothesized to influence cervical cancer risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the double strand break gene polymorphisms XRCC2 R188H G>A (rs3218536), XRCC3 T241M C>T (rs861539) and R243H G>A (rs77381814) are associated to cervical cancer in Argentine women. A case control study consisting of 322 samples (205 cases and 117 controls) was carried out. HPV DNA detection was performed by PCR and genotyping of positive samples by EIA (enzyme immunoassay). XRCC2 and 3 polymorphisms were determined by pyrosequencing. The HPV-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of XRCC2 188 GG/AG genotypes was OR = 2.4 (CI = 1.1-4.9, p = 0.02) for cervical cancer. In contrast, there was no increased risk for cervical cancer with XRCC3 241 TT/CC genotypes (OR = 0.48; CI = 0.2-1; p = 0.1) or XRCC3 241 CT/CC (OR = 0.87; CI = 0.52-1.4; p = 0.6). Regarding XRCC3 R243H, the G allele was almost fixed in the population studied. In conclusion, although the sample size was modest, the present data indicate a statistical association between cervical cancer and XRCC2 R188H polymorphism. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Association of rs10757274 and rs2383206 Polymorphisms on 9p21 locus with Coronary Artery Disease in Turkish Population

    PubMed Central

    Okyay, Kaan; Yılmaz, Akın; Şahinarslan, Asife; Yar Sağlam, Atiye Seda; Eyiol, Azmi; Bolayır, Hasan Ata; Sezenöz, Burak; Menevşe, Sevda; Çengel, Atiye

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Genetic predisposition is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of rs10757274 and rs2383206 polymorphisms in chromosome 9p21 on presence and severity of CAD in a Turkish population. Subjects and Methods A total of 646 patients who underwent coronary angiography were included in this study. Coronary vessel score and Gensini score were calculated to assess the angiographic severity of CAD. Alleles of AA, AG, and GG were determined for rs10757274 (polymorphism-1) and rs2383206 (polymorphism-2) polymorphisms located in chromosome 9p21 from the blood samples. Results There was a significant difference between the alleles in polymorphism-1 in the presence of coronary artery disease (38.9% in AA, 48.0% in GG and 56.4% in AG, p=0.017). However, there was no difference between the alleles in polymorphism-2. According to vessel scores, there was a significant difference between the alleles in polymorphism-1 (AA 0.71±1.04, GG 0.88±1.07, AG 1.06±1.12, p=0.018). In polymorphism-2, vessel scores did not show a difference between the alleles. In polymorphism-1, there was a significant difference in Gensini score (p=0.041). Gensini scores did not differ between the alleles in polymorphism-2 (p>0.05 for all). In multivariate analyses, none of the alleles was an independent factor for presence of CAD. Conclusion The presence of rs10757274 polymorphism including AG allele in chromosome 9p21 was related to CAD. However, this relationship was not independent of other cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27721851

  2. Association of rs10757274 and rs2383206 Polymorphisms on 9p21 locus with Coronary Artery Disease in Turkish Population.

    PubMed

    Yayla, Çağrı; Okyay, Kaan; Yılmaz, Akın; Şahinarslan, Asife; Yar Sağlam, Atiye Seda; Eyiol, Azmi; Bolayır, Hasan Ata; Sezenöz, Burak; Menevşe, Sevda; Çengel, Atiye

    2016-09-01

    Genetic predisposition is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of rs10757274 and rs2383206 polymorphisms in chromosome 9p21 on presence and severity of CAD in a Turkish population. A total of 646 patients who underwent coronary angiography were included in this study. Coronary vessel score and Gensini score were calculated to assess the angiographic severity of CAD. Alleles of AA, AG, and GG were determined for rs10757274 (polymorphism-1) and rs2383206 (polymorphism-2) polymorphisms located in chromosome 9p21 from the blood samples. There was a significant difference between the alleles in polymorphism-1 in the presence of coronary artery disease (38.9% in AA, 48.0% in GG and 56.4% in AG, p=0.017). However, there was no difference between the alleles in polymorphism-2. According to vessel scores, there was a significant difference between the alleles in polymorphism-1 (AA 0.71±1.04, GG 0.88±1.07, AG 1.06±1.12, p=0.018). In polymorphism-2, vessel scores did not show a difference between the alleles. In polymorphism-1, there was a significant difference in Gensini score (p=0.041). Gensini scores did not differ between the alleles in polymorphism-2 (p>0.05 for all). In multivariate analyses, none of the alleles was an independent factor for presence of CAD. The presence of rs10757274 polymorphism including AG allele in chromosome 9p21 was related to CAD. However, this relationship was not independent of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  3. Angioqueratomas de fordyce múltiplos de vulva associados à cirrose hepática.

    PubMed

    Souza Teixeira, Marcelo; Dos Santos Lima, Caren; De Abreu Neves Salles1, Simone; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Roberta Duarte Bezerra Pinto, Roberta; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-05-15

    Fordyce angiokeratoma is a benign skin neoplasm, characterized by erythematous-violet keratotic papules with mamillated surface, which follows a chronic and minimally symptomatic course. However, symptoms can be related such as itching, burning, bleeding, dyspareunia; aesthetic and social concerns may prompt request for treatment. The condition mainly affects men and usually occurs in the scrotum, but rarely may occur in women. A 30-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension is described. Over a period of two years she developed multiple angiokeratomas of the vulva, complicated by frequent bleeding. Histopathologic analysis of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis of angiokeratoma and all lesions were surgically removed. The results of the treatment were very satisfactory, with no relapses or complications.Angioqueratoma de Fordyce é uma dermatose incomum que compõe o grupo das neoplasias cutâneas benignas, caracterizando-se pelo aparecimento de lesões papuloceratósicas, eritemato-violáceas de superfície mamilonada, que apresentam curso crônico e oligossintomático. No entanto, outros sintomas podem estar associados, como prurido, ardência, sangramento e dispareunia, além de problemas estéticos e de ordem social. Afeta principalmente homens, acometendo a região escrotal, sendo raro seu surgimento em mulheres. Relata-se caso de uma paciente com 30 anos de idade, portadora de cirrose hepática e hipertensão portal evoluindo há 2 anos com múltiplos angioqueratomas na vulva de sangramento frequente. A análise histopatológica confirmou o diagnóstico de angioqueratoma e a paciente foi submetida à exérese cirúrgica das lesões. Os resultados terapêuticos foram satisfatórios, sem recidivas ou complicações.

  4. Predicting pKa for proteins using COSMO-RS

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jan Halborg; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2013-01-01

    We have used the COSMO-RS implicit solvation method to calculate the equilibrium constants, pKa, for deprotonation of the acidic residues of the ovomucoid inhibitor protein, OMTKY3. The root mean square error for comparison with experimental data is only 0.5 pH units and the maximum error 0.8 pH units. The results show that the accuracy of pKa prediction using COSMO-RS is as good for large biomolecules as it is for smaller inorganic and organic acids and that the method compares very well to previous pKa predictions of the OMTKY3 protein using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics. Our approach works well for systems of about 1000 atoms or less, which makes it useful for small proteins as well as for investigating portions of larger proteins such as active sites in enzymes. PMID:24244915

  5. Evolved Expandable Launch Vehicle System: RS-68 Main Engine Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portanova, P. L.; Conley, D. S., , Capt; Lee, N. Y.; Wood, B. K.

    2002-01-01

    Delta IV is one of two competing Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) systems being developed in an industry/United States Government partnership to meet the need for the new era of space transportation for the early decades of the 21st Century. The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne, and United States Air Force have developed a 650 Klbf (2.9 NM) class liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen main engine for the Delta IV family of EELV. The purpose of this paper is to present the innovative approach to the design, development, testing, and certification of the RS-68 engine over the last several years. With the initial production process underway, RS-68 is implementing additional innovative concepts to produce an affordable main engine, and provide assured access to space. 1) The Aerospace Corporation3) The Aerospace Corporation 2) Captain, United States Air Force4) The Boeing Company/Rocketdyne

  6. Radiation Dry Bias of the Vaisala RS92 Humidity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vomel, H.; Selkirk, H.; Miloshevich, L.; Valverde-Canossa, J.; Valdes, J.; Kyro, E.; Kivi, R.; Stolz, W.; Peng, G.; Diaz, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of simultaneous humidity measurements by the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde and by the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) launched at Alajuela, Cosla Rica, during July 2005 reveals a large solar radiation dry bias of the Vaisala RS92 humidity sensor and a minor temperature-dependent calibration error. For soundings launched at solar zenith angles between 10" and 30 , the average dry bias is on the order of 9% at the surface and increases to 50% at 15 km. A simple pressure- and temperature-dependent correction based on the comparison with the CFH can reduce this error to less than 7% at all altitudes up to 15.2 km, which is 700 m below the tropical tropopause. The correction does not depend on relative humidity, but is able to reproduce the relative humidity distribution observed by the CFH.

  7. Radiation Dry Bias of the Vaisala RS92 Humidity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vomel, H.; Selkirk, H.; Miloshevich, L.; Valverde-Canossa, J.; Valdes, J.; Kyro, E.; Kivi, R.; Stolz, W.; Peng, G.; Diaz, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of simultaneous humidity measurements by the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde and by the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) launched at Alajuela, Cosla Rica, during July 2005 reveals a large solar radiation dry bias of the Vaisala RS92 humidity sensor and a minor temperature-dependent calibration error. For soundings launched at solar zenith angles between 10" and 30 , the average dry bias is on the order of 9% at the surface and increases to 50% at 15 km. A simple pressure- and temperature-dependent correction based on the comparison with the CFH can reduce this error to less than 7% at all altitudes up to 15.2 km, which is 700 m below the tropical tropopause. The correction does not depend on relative humidity, but is able to reproduce the relative humidity distribution observed by the CFH.

  8. RS Ophiuchi: The Gift that Keeps on Giving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrfield, S.

    2008-12-01

    RS Oph experienced its sixth recorded outburst in 2006 and was observed in virtually every wavelength region from hard X-rays to the radio. Each observation, especially those with instruments that have come online since its last outburst in 1985, provided new and exciting information about the explosion. As a result, some of us organized a second workshop on the RS Oph outburst and it was held in June 2007 at Keele University. I gave the lead off talk in which I presented a number of questions to be discussed during the workshop, a brief summary of what had been discovered in previous outbursts concentrating on the ultraviolet studies with IUE, and a few observations of the 2006 outburst concentrating on the results from Swift and HST.

  9. Journal editorial policies, animal welfare, and the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Nicola J; Payne, Daisy; Newman, Michael L

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the editorial policies of a randomized sample of English language peer-reviewed journals that publish original research involving the use of animals. The aim is to identify whether journals have editorial policies relating to the use of animals in the research that they are prepared to publish and whether any policies are likely to promote animal welfare and dissemination of information on the 3Rs (reduction, refinement, replacement) within the scientific community. The results demonstrate that a significant proportion of journals publishing original research involving animals do not have any editorial policy relating to the use of animals. Of those journals that do have policies the majority simply request that the research be carried out in accordance with standard regulatory requirements. This paper aims to provide editors and publishers with the information they need to review their own editorial policies to ensure they are fulfilling their potential to promote animal welfare and dissemination of the 3Rs.

  10. Combined effects of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 on elevated nocturnal blood pressure in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanlei; Jun, Wu; Sun, Jiazhong; Yang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim In this study we investigated the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R. rs17782313 with elevated blood pressure in the Chinese Han population, and analysed the relationship between the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants. Methods We tested the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants with the sequence-retrieval method. Results The increase in odds ratios of the A allele of rs9939609 and the C allele of rs17782313 for nocturnal blood pressure were 1.37 and 1.69. The nocturnal blood pressure of participants simultaneously carrying the A and C alleles was significantly higher than the blood pressure of those carrying neither FTO nor MC4R risk alleles (p < 0.05), and that of the controls carrying only the A or C alleles (p < 0.05). No association between the FTO or MC4R genes with daytime hypertension was found in this Chinese population (p > 0.05). Conclusion Our data suggest that the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants may be significantly associated with nocturnal but not daytime blood pressure levels and their combined effects were significant in this Chinese Han population. PMID:26324055

  11. Combined effects of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 on elevated nocturnal blood pressure in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanlei; Sun, Jiazhong; Wu, Jun; Yang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with elevated blood pressure in the Chinese Han population, and analysed the relationship between the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants. We tested the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants with the sequence-retrieval method. The increase in odds ratios of the A allele of rs9939609 and the C allele of rs17782313 for nocturnal blood pressure were 1.37 and 1.69. The nocturnal blood pressure of participants simultaneously carrying the A and C alleles was significantly higher than the blood pressure of those carrying neither FTO nor MC4R risk alleles (p < 0.05), and that of the controls carrying only the A or C alleles (p < 0.05). No association between the FTO or MC4R genes with daytime hypertension was found in this Chinese population (p > 0.05). Our data suggest that the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants may be significantly associated with nocturnal but not daytime blood pressure levels and their combined effects were significant in this Chinese Han population.

  12. Association of the IGF-1 rs35767 and rs972936 polymorphisms with the risk of osteoporosis in a Chinese postmenopausal female population.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y K; Ma, H L; Guo, Y Z; Yang, B H; Pang, W X

    2015-11-13

    The aim of our study was to conduct a case-control study in a Chinese postmenopausal population to evaluate the roles of the IGF-1 rs35767 and rs972936 polymorphisms on bone mineral density (BMD) levels and osteoporosis risk. A total of 272 consecutive postmenopausal women with a primary diagnosis of osteoporosis and 272 controls were enrolled in the study between 2012 and 2014. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to genotype the rs35767 and rs972936 IGF-1 polymorphisms. By comparing the demographic characteristics between patients and controls, patients with osteoporosis were found to be more likely to have a habit of alcohol drinking (P = 0.023). Furthermore, the BMD levels of the L1-L4 vertebrae, femoral necks, total hips, and trochanters in patients with osteoporosis were significantly lower than those in controls. By conditional regression analysis, we found that the IGF-1 rs2288377 and rs972936 gene polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of osteoporosis (P < 0.05). However, the CT+TT genotype of rs35767 and the AG+GG genotype of rs972936 were significantly associated with lower BMD levels in the femoral neck. Overall, our study suggests that IGF-1 rs2288377 and rs972936 gene polymorphisms do not influence the risk osteoporosis.

  13. Reduced Sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX) Part II: Sympathetic Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    solid composite rocket propellants including high burn rate, low signature and low vulnerability formulations, and more recently on formulating and...Cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine HTPB Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene IM Insensitive Munitions IPDI Isophorone diisocyanate I-RDX Insensitive RDX...4, 5] has shown that ADI1 Grade A RDX [6] has equivalent properties to I-RDX and is classified as a Reduced Sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX), which is the

  14. Higher Curvature Effects in the ADD and RS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2006-07-05

    Over the last few years several extra-dimensional models have been introduced in attempt to deal with the hierarchy problem. These models can lead to rather unique and spectacular signatures at Terascale colliders such as the LHC and ILC. The ADD and RS models, though quite distinct, have many common feature including a constant curvature bulk, localized Standard Model(SM) fields and the assumption of the validity of the EH action as a description of gravitational interactions.

  15. A Rainbow View of NASA's RS-25 Engine Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-22

    NASA engineers conducted their first RS-25 test of 2017 on the A-1 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, on Feb. 22, continuing to collect data on the performance of the rocket engine that will help power the new Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. Shown from the viewpoint of an overhead drone, the test of development engine No. 0528 ran the scheduled 380 seconds (six minutes and 20 seconds), allowing engineers to monitor various engine operating conditions. The test represents another step forward in development of the rocket that will launch humans aboard Orion deeper into space than ever before. Four RS-25 engines, together with a pair of solid rocket boosters, will power the SLS at launch on its deep-space missions. The engines for the first four SLS flights are former space shuttle main engines, which were tested extensively at Stennis and are some of the most proven engines in the world. Engineers are conducting an ongoing series of tests this year for SLS on both development and flight engines for future flights to ensure the engine, outfitted with a new controller, can perform at the higher level under a variety of conditions and situations. Stennis is also preparing its B-2 Test Stand to test the core stage for the first SLS flight with Orion, known as Exploration Mission-1. That testing will involve installing the flight stage on the stand and firing its four RS-25 engines simultaneously, just as during an actual launch. The Feb. 22 test was conducted by Aerojet Rocketdyne and Syncom Space Services engineers and operators. Aerojet Rocketdyne is the prime contractor for the RS-25 engines. Syncom Space Services is the prime contractor for Stennis facilities and operations. PAO Name:Kim Henry Phone Number:256-544-1899 Email Address: kimberly.m.henry@nasa.gov

  16. Association of vitamin D receptor BsmI (rs1544410), Fok1 (rs2228570), TaqI (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) gene polymorphism with the nephrolithiasis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zong-Pei; Li, Ai-Hua; Ju, Lang

    2015-04-01

    Association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism with the risk of nephrolithiasis from the published reports is still conflicting. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between VDR BsmI (rs1544410), Fok1 (rs2228570), TaqI (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) gene polymorphism and the risk of nephrolithiasis using meta-analysis method. The association studies were identified from PubMed, and Cochrane Library on 1 April 2014, and eligible investigations were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. Six reports were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of VDR BsmI, Fok1, TaqI and ApaI gene polymorphism with nephrolithiasis susceptibility. In this meta-analysis, VDR BsmI, Fok1, TaqI and ApaI gene polymorphism were not associated with nephrolithiasis susceptibility for overall populations and in Caucasians. However, the Fok1 f allele and ff genotype were associated with the risk of nephrolithiasis in Asians, but the FF genotype not. Furthermore, TaqI TT genotype was associated with the risk of nephrolithiasis in Asians, but the t allele and tt genotype not. However, ApaI gene polymorphism was not associated with nephrolithiasis susceptibility in Asians. In conclusion, VDR BsmI, Fok1, TaqI and ApaI gene polymorphism were not associated with nephrolithiasis risk in overall populations and in Caucasians. But, the Fok1 f allele and ff genotype, TaqI TT genotype, ApaI gene polymorphism were associated with the risk of nephrolithiasis in Asians. However, more studies should be conducted to confirm it.

  17. PSCA rs2294008 Polymorphism with Increased Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Peiliang; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Ning; Ou, Juanjuan; Xie, Ganfeng; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Xiaoxin; Xiang, Lisha; Liao, Yunmei; Liang, Houjie

    2015-01-01

    Background Published data on the association between PSCA rs2294008 polymorphism and cancer risk have implicated inconclusive results. To determine the relationship and to precisely assess the effect size estimate of the association, we performed a meta-analysis. Methods We searched published literature in Embase and PubMed databases using the search terms “PSCA”, “prostate stem cell antigen”, “variants”, “polymorphism”, “polymorphisms”, and “cancer”. A total of 21 eligible articles were retrieved, with 27, 197 cancer cases and 48, 237 controls. Results On the whole, we found the association between PSCA rs2294008 polymorphism and cancer risk was statistically significant: TT vs CC: OR = 1.18, 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.27; TT + CT vs CC: OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.10; TT vs CT + CC: OR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.21; T vs C: OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.14; CT vs CC: OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.13. Stratified analyses in cancer type and ethnicity showed similar results. Conclusions Based on the statistical evidence, we can draw a conclusion that the rs2294008 polymorphism of PSCA gene is likely to play a role in cancer carcinogenesis, especially in gastric cancer and bladder cancer. PMID:26308216

  18. IRF4 rs12203592 functional variant and melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Potrony, Miriam; Rebollo-Morell, Aida; Giménez-Xavier, Pol; Zimmer, Lisa; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Tell-Marti, Gemma; Sucker, Antje; Badenas, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Schadendorf, Dirk; Puig, Susana

    2017-04-15

    Inherited genetic factors may modulate clinical outcome in melanoma. Some low-to-medium risk genes in melanoma susceptibility play a role in melanoma outcome. Our aim was to assess the role of the functional IRF4 SNP rs12203592 in melanoma prognosis in two independent sets (Barcelona, N = 493 and Essen, N = 438). Genotype association analyses showed that the IRF4 rs12203592 T allele increased the risk of dying from melanoma in both sets (Barcelona: odds ratio [OR] = 6.53, 95% CI 1.38-30.87, Adj p = 0.032; Essen: OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.04-2.72, Adj p = 0.035). Survival analyses only showed significance for the Barcelona set (hazard ratio = 4.58, 95% CI 1.11-18.92, Adj p = 0.036). This SNP was also associated with tumour localization, increasing the risk of developing melanoma in head or neck (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.07-2.98, Adj p = 0.032) and protecting from developing melanoma in the trunk (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.85, Adj p = 0.004). These findings suggest for the first time that IRF4 rs12203592 plays a role in the modulation of melanoma outcome and confirms its contribution to the localization of the primary tumour.

  19. A Three Dimensional Picture of RS CVN Stellar Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    The ROSAT all-sky survey provides a unique opportunity to study an RS CVn system simultaneously at x-ray, EUV, UV, optical, and radio wavelengths at many phases throughout an orbital period. ROSAT can detect the x-ray flux of each candidate system during each 30 second viewing 16 times per day for at least 2 days. We request a block of 7 IUE shifts to obtain NEAR SIMULTANEOUS emission line fluxes (SWP-LO) and Mg IT line profiles (LWP-HI), and we will obtain contemporaneous optical photometry and spectroscopy and VLA radio fluxes (3.6, 6, and 20 cm). one objective of this PROPOSAL is to obtain the FIRST 3-D MODEL OF THE INHOMOGENEOUS PHOTOSPHERE, CHROMOSPHERE, AND CORONA OF A STAR OTHER THAN THE SUN. We will use optical photometry and spectroscopy to map the spotted photospheres of each star, and the Mg II line profiles to DOPPLERIMAGE their chromospheres, to determine the location, size, and surface flux of the active regions. We will then use the time variation of the UV emission line and x-ray fluxes to determine what fluxes are due to the quiet and active regions separately. These data will provide SURFACE FLUXES for the quiet and active regions separately. We will then will model BOTH REGIONS independently using an emission measure analysis. We will also model any flares observed. The second part of the program will be a simultaneous UV/X-ray SURVEY with the objective of DETERMINING THE RANGE OF PHYSICAL MODELS APPLICABLE TO THE CHROMOSPHERES AND CORONAE OF RS CVN SYSTEMS. We propose to obtain emission line fluxes (SWP-LO) and Mg II line profiles (LWP-HI) of all bright RS CVns observed by ROSAT from mid-July through September 1990 that meet the IUE observing constraints. About 17 systems in the Strassmeier catalog will likely be observed during this period. While many RS CVn systems have been observed separately by IUE and x-ray satellites, SIMULTANEOUS UV and x-ray observations are required to model these spatially inhomogenous and timevariable systems. This

  20. FTO gene polymorphisms (rs9939609 and rs17817449) as predictors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in obese Iraqi population.

    PubMed

    Younus, Laith A; Algenabi, Abdul Hussein A; Abdul-Zhara, Mohammed S; Hussein, Majid K

    2017-09-05

    The variation of the SNPs in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are improved to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in some ethnic groups for example in European while, this consistency is controversial in Asians and there were few studies in Iraqi population about the effect of this gene on the development of T2DM in obese patients. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the two common FTO gene variants in the development of T2DM in obese Iraqi patients. A case-control study in which the FTO gene variants rs9939609 and rs17817449 were genotyping in a total of 800 individuals, 400 T2DM obese patients (patients group) and 400 healthy control obese volunteers (control group) to explore the relation of these SNPs with T2DM in obese Iraqi population. The patients group was enrolled from diabetic clinic in Al Najaf al Ashraf based on WHO guidelines of T2DM. From whole blood the DNA was extraction and genotyped by using ScaI and AlwNI enzymes respectively in the PCR-RFLP technique. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to compare the proportions of genotypes and alleles. The odd's ratio, t-test P value at 95% confidence interval were measured before and after adjustment of BMI, age and sex adjustment. The genetic power, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium and haplotype analysis were tested in the present study. It was observed that the presence of T allele in the two SNPs rs9939609 and rs17817449 in the FTO gene polymorphisms was associated with increased risk for the development of T2DM in Iraqi obese individuals. The minor allele (T) in rs9939609 was significantly higher (P=0.0001) in T2DM (31.25%) when compared with that of the control obese group (20%). The Homozygous genotype (TT) significantly (OR=3.25, CI 95% 1.87-5.64, P=0.000) increased the risk of T2DM by three folds with respect to those of wild type (AA) after adjustment for age, sex and BMI, furthermore, it was significantly increased the risk in the

  1. Physico-chemical, functional and structural properties of RS3/RS4 from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gani, Adil; Jan, Amreen; Shah, Asima; Masoodi, F A; Ahmad, Mudasir; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Akhter, Rehana; Wani, Idrees Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Starch isolated from four kidney bean cultivars (Yellow bean, Red bean, Black bean and White bean) were physically and chemically modified in order to prepare resistant starch (RS3/RS4). Following the Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and Citric acid modification (CT) of the native starch, the amylose content got decreased whereas bulk and tapped density (g/ml) increased. Both HMT and CT reduced the swelling power and the solubility of native starch. Pasting temperature increased and peak, breakdown, final, and set-back viscosity decreased after both the modifications. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis displayed peaks at 1020cm(-1) in HMT and 1724cm(-1) in CT starches. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that samples were more stable after modification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed reordering of chain segments to more crystalline structure. These results suggested modifications resulted in starch with improved properties and could be a possible method for the RS preparation with better thermal stability.

  2. TIMP-2 SNPs rs7342880 and rs4789936 are linked to risk of knee osteoarthritis in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tianbo; Wang, Jihong; Fan, Dongsheng; Hao, Zengtao; Jing, Shangfei; Han, ChaoQian; Du, Jieli; Jiang, Dong; Wen, Shuzheng; Wang, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether functional polymorphisms in the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) gene are associated with susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the Chinese Han population. Six TIMP-2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assayed using MassARRAY in 300 patients clinically and radiographically diagnosed with knee OA and in 428 controls. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between groups. Logistic regression adjusting for age and gender was used to estimate risk associations between specific genotypes and knee OA by computing odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We found that allele “A” in rs7342880 was significantly associated with increased risk of knee OA (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.09-1.91, p = 0.035). In addition, in the over-dominant model, rs4789936 correlated with reduced risk of knee OA, adjusting for age and gender (OR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.49-0.98, p = 0.036). Finally, rs7342880 correlated with increased risk of knee OA in females. This study provides evidence that TIMP-2 is a knee OA susceptibility gene in the Chinese population and a potential diagnostic and preventive marker for the disease. PMID:27901480

  3. A population association study of PPAR δ gene rs2016520 and rs9794 polymorphisms and haplotypes with body mass index and waist circumference in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenshu; Chen, Fengmei; Guo, Zhirong; Wu, Ming; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yao, Xingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene plays an important role in obesity and PPAR δ protein is a potent inhibitor; however, few previous studies have focused on this gene. To investigate the association of haplotypes of PPAR δ gene rs2016520 and rs9794 with abnormal weight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2)) and abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females) in a Chinese Han population. In total, 820 subjects (270 men, 550 women) were randomly selected from the PMMJS cohort population and no individuals were related. rs2016520 and rs9794 were detected by TaqMan fluorescence probe. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was used to detect genotype typing errors by Fisher's exact test. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between polymorphisms was estimated by using SHEsis. Two PPAR δ SNPs (rs2016520 and rs9794) were analysed by using the logistic regression model. After adjustment for covariates, the haplotype containing the rs1026520-C and rs9794-C alleles was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of obesity (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.48-0.84, p = 0.0015). Coincidentally, the haplotype containing the rs1026520-C and rs9794-C alleles was also associated with a statistically decreased risk of abdominal obesity after covariate adjustment (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45-0.77, p < 0.001). C-C haplotype, constructed from rs2016520 and rs9794 alleles, showed a significant protective effect for both abnormal weight and abdominal obesity.

  4. Genetic Association for P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 Polymorphisms for Susceptibility of Gout in Korean Men: Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms and gout susceptibility in male Korean subjects. This study enrolled a total of 242 male patients with gout and 280 healthy controls. The polymorphisms of two individual genes including rs3751142(C>A) in the P2X7R gene and rs2043211(A>T) in the CARD8 gene were assessed using Taq-Man analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and logistic regression analyses. A difference in genotypic frequency of the P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genes was not detected between gout and control patients. Clinical parameters including age, onset age, disease duration, body mass index, and serum uric acid levels were not different among the three genotypes for either P2X7R or CARD8 (P > 0.05 for all). A pair-wise comparison of P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genotype combinations revealed that subjects with the CA P2X7R rs3751142 genotype and the TT CARD8 rs2043211 genotype had a trend toward a higher risk of gout compared to the CC/AA combination (P = 0.056, OR = 2.618, 95% CI 0.975 - 7.031). In conclusion, this study revealed that genetic variability of the P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genes might, in part, be associated with susceptibility for gout. PMID:27550484

  5. Different angiogenesis effect of mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS by systemic administration of modified siRNAs in rats with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Zeng, Zhi; Liu, Wei-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Rui; Qiang, Ou; Li, Xian

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to clarify the different angiogenesis effects of mini-tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS)/minitryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) in rodent primates with acute myocardial infarction, by delivering small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) systemically in a liposomal formulation. Left coronary artery ligation was used to establish the model of acute myocardial infarction in rats; mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS-specific siRNAs were encapsulated in stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALP), and administered by intravenous injection to rats. Rats were divided into four experiment groups: sham operated group (no left anterior descending artery [LAD] occlusion); negative control group (LAD occlusion + saline injection); mock transfection group (LAD occlusion + mock transfected injection); experiment group (LAD occlusion + mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS-specific siRNAs injection). Silencing efficiency was assayed by Western blotting. To determine whether mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS affected the angiogenesis activity of rats with myocardial infarction, we measured the myocardial infarction size by TTC staining, and the capillary density using immunohistochemistry staining, to investigate the expression of factor VIII. The myocardial infarction size and the capillary density of mini-TyrRS-siRNA group were respectively 18.89% and 8.64/0.1 mm(2) 1 month after ligation, while in the mini-TrpRS-siRNA group these values were 7.33% and 17.32/0.1 mm(2), significantly different compared with the mock transfection group (14.19%; 13.56/0.1 mm(2)) and negative control group (14.28%; 13.89/0.1 mm(2)), P < 0.05. There were no significant changes between the mock transfection group and the negative control group, P > 0.05. These results indicated that angiogenesis is either stimulated by mini-TyrRS or inhibited by mini-TrpRS in rat models with acute myocardial infarction.

  6. CACNA1C SNP rs1006737 associates with bipolar I disorder independent of the Bcl-2 SNP rs956572 variant and its associated effect on intracellular calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Takuji; Green, Marty; Warsh, Jerry J

    2016-10-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) dyshomeostasis (ICDH) has been implicated in bipolar disorder (BD) pathophysiology. We previously showed that SNP rs956572 in the B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) gene associates with elevated B lymphoblast (BLCL) intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]B) differentially in BD-I. Genome-wide association studies strongly support the association between BD and the SNP rs1006737, located within the L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel α1C subunit gene (CACNA1C). Here we investigated whether this CACNA1C variant also associates with ICDH and interacts with SNP rs956572 on [Ca(2+)]B in BD-I. CACNA1C SNP rs1006737 was genotyped in 150 BD-I, 65 BD-II, 30 major depressive disorder patients, and 70 healthy subjects with available BLCL [Ca(2+)]B and Bcl-2 SNP rs956572 genotype measures. SNP rs1006737 was significantly associated with BD-I. The [Ca(2+)]B was significantly higher in BD-I rs1006737 A compared with healthy A allele carriers and also in healthy GG compared with A allele carriers. There was no significant interaction between SNP rs1006737 and SNP rs956572 on [Ca(2+)]B. Our study further supports the association of SNP rs1006737 with BD-I and suggests that CACNA1C SNP rs1006737 and Bcl-2 SNP rs956572, or specific causal variants in LD with these proxies, act independently to increase risk and ICDH in BD-I.

  7. Genetic Association for P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 Polymorphisms for Susceptibility of Gout in Korean Men: Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Won; Lee, Shin Seok; Oh, Dong Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Choi, Jung Ran; Chae, Soo Cheon; Yun, Ki Jung; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung Yoon; Kim, Seong Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms and gout susceptibility in male Korean subjects. This study enrolled a total of 242 male patients with gout and 280 healthy controls. The polymorphisms of two individual genes including rs3751142(C>A) in the P2X7R gene and rs2043211(A>T) in the CARD8 gene were assessed using Taq-Man analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and logistic regression analyses. A difference in genotypic frequency of the P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genes was not detected between gout and control patients. Clinical parameters including age, onset age, disease duration, body mass index, and serum uric acid levels were not different among the three genotypes for either P2X7R or CARD8 (P > 0.05 for all). A pair-wise comparison of P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genotype combinations revealed that subjects with the CA P2X7R rs3751142 genotype and the TT CARD8 rs2043211 genotype had a trend toward a higher risk of gout compared to the CC/AA combination (P = 0.056, OR = 2.618, 95% CI 0.975 - 7.031). In conclusion, this study revealed that genetic variability of the P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genes might, in part, be associated with susceptibility for gout.

  8. A molecular case-control study of association of HNF1A gene polymorphisms (rs2259816 and rs7310409) with risk of coronary artery disease in Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Barzi, Samaneh Adami; Ghaderian, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein; Noormohammadi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the one of the most common heart diseases, being the main factor of mortality and morbidity worldwide. CAD has been known as a multifactorial disease and its progression depends on genetic and environmental factors. Numerous studies have shown evidence for association between 12q24.3 locus and CAD. In the present study, the association of two HNF1A polymorphisms, rs2259816 and rs7310409, located on 12q24.3 locus with CAD was investigated in Iranian patients. Whole genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood obtained from 411 Iranian volunteer. Then, the polymorphisms rs2259816 and rs7310409 located on 12q24.3 locus were genotyped using TaqMan Probe Real Time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software, version 19. rs2259816 (p-value = 0.006) and rs7310409 (p-value = 0.001) showed statistically significant association with CAD risk. Our results indicated that there was a significant correlation between rs2259816 and blood triglyceride. However, no correlation was found between rs2259816, rs7310409 and other CAD risk factors.

  9. A water-mediated and substrate-assisted aminoacylation mechanism in the discriminating aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase GlnRS and non-discriminating GluRS.

    PubMed

    Aboelnga, Mohamed M; Hayward, John J; Gauld, James W

    2017-09-27

    Glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) catalyzes the aminoacylation of glutamine to the corresponding tRNA(Gln). However, most bacteria and all archaea lack GlnRS and thus an indirect noncanonical aminoacylation is required. With the assistance of a non-discriminating version of Glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (ND-GluRS) the tRNA(Gln) is misaminoacylated by glutamate. In this study, we have computationally investigated the aminoacylation mechanism in GlnRS and ND-GluRS employing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, Quantum Mechanics (QM) cluster and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. Our investigations demonstrated the feasibility of a water-mediated, substrate-assisted catalysis pathway with rate limiting steps occurring at energy barriers of 25.0 and 25.4 kcal mol(-1) for GlnRS and ND-GluRS, respectively. A conserved lysine residue participates in a second proton transfer to facilitate the departure of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) group. Thermodynamically stable (-29.9 and -9.3 kcal mol(-1) for GlnRS and ND-GluRS) product complexes are obtained only when the AMP group is neutral.

  10. Effects of Two Common Polymorphisms rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs11614913 in miR-196a2 on Gastric Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qing; Yin, Junfeng; Wang, Xiangjun; Liu, Xinnong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding microRNAs may play important role in the development of gastric cancer. It has been reported that common SNPs rs2910164 in miR-146a and rs11614913 in miR-196a2 are associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer. The published results remain inconclusive or even controversial. A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess potential association between the two common SNPs and gastric cancer risk. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was performed in multiple internet-based electronic databases. Data from 12 eligible studies were extracted to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results. C allele of rs2910164 is associated with reduced gastric cancer risk in heterozygote model and dominant model whereas rs11614913 indicates no significant association. Subgroup analysis demonstrates that C allele of rs2910164 and rs11614913 may decrease susceptibility to diffuse type gastric cancer in dominant model and recessive model, respectively, while rs11614913 increased intestinal type gastric cancer in dominant model. Conclusion. SNPs rs2910164 and rs11614913 might have effect on gastric cancer risk in certain genetic models and specific types of cancer. Further well-designed studies should be considered to validate the potential effect. PMID:25983750

  11. Exceptional longevity and muscle and fitness related genotypes: a functional in vitro analysis and case-control association replication study with SNPs THRH rs7832552, IL6 rs1800795, and ACSL1 rs6552828

    PubMed Central

    Fuku, Noriyuki; He, Zi-hong; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Tian, Ye; Arai, Yasumichi; Abe, Yukiko; Murakami, Haruka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Zempo, Hirofumi; Naito, Hisashi; Yvert, Thomas; Verde, Zoraida; Venturini, Letizia; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Romo, Gabriel; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Emanuele, Enzo; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There are several gene variants that are candidates to influence functional capacity in long-lived individuals. As such, their potential association with exceptional longevity (EL, i.e., reaching 100+ years) deserves analysis. Among them are rs7832552 in the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) gene, rs1800795 in the interleukin-6 (IL6) gene and rs6552828 in the coenzyme A synthetase long-chain 1 (ACSL1) gene. To gain insight into their functionality (which is yet unknown), here we determined for the first time luciferase gene reporter activity at the muscle tissue level in rs7832552 and rs6552828. We then compared allele/genotype frequencies of the 3 abovementioned variants among centenarians [n = 138, age range 100–111 years (114 women)] and healthy controls [n = 334, 20–50 years (141 women)] of the same ethnic and geographic origin (Spain). We also studied healthy centenarians [n = 79, 100–104 years (40 women)] and controls [n = 316, 27–81 years (156 women)] from Italy, and centenarians [n = 742, 100–116 years (623 women)] and healthy controls [n = 499, 23–59 years (356 women)] from Japan. The THRH rs7832552 T-allele and ACSL1 rs6552828 A-allele up-regulated luciferase activity compared to the C and G-allele, respectively (P = 0.001). Yet we found no significant association of EL with rs7832552, rs1800795 or rs6552828 in any of the 3 cohorts. Further research is needed with larger cohorts of centenarians of different origin as well as with younger old people. PMID:25999849

  12. rs1801275 Interleukin-4 receptor alpha polymorphism in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Muñoz-Torrero, Juan F; Rivas, Maria D; Zamorano, Jose; Alonso, Rodrigo; Joya-Vazquez, Pedro; Padró, Teresa; Mata, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) has been linked with atherogenic effects and some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL4/13 receptors (ILR4/13) have been associated with enhanced response to IL-4. We investigated the frequency of SNP ILR4/13 in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) compared with control relatives without FH and their possible association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). ILR4/13 polymorphisms were studied in 626 subjects included in the Spanish FH cohort, 408 patients with FH and 218 healthy relative control subjects. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between SNP, clinical data, and CVD. A total of 143 (35%) FH patients had rs1801275 polymorphisms (AG or GG) of the IL-4Rα, whereas only 52 (24%) of the control group had these polymorphisms, P = .002. No differences were observed between the groups when the IL13RA2 rs638376 polymorphisms were analyzed. The multivariate analysis found association (odds ratio: 95% confidence interval) between CVD and smoking history (2.22: 1.30-3.80), low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.72: 1.07-2.75), hypertension (2.25: 1.32-3.85), age > 60 years (2.50: 1.52-4.07), and FH diagnosis (13.1: 6.65-26), but not with IL-4Rα rs1801275 polymorphisms. Our data suggest that SNP of IL-4Rα is more frequent in FH patients than in the relative controls. Conversely to the general population, IL-4 does not seems to play a role in the risk of developing CVD in FH patients. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic Polymorphisms of rs3077 and rs9277535 in HLA-DP associated with Systemic lupus erythematosus in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junlong; Zhan, Wenli; Yang, Bin; Tian, Anning; Chen, Lin; Liao, Yun; Wu, Yongkang; Cai, Bei; Wang, Lanlan

    2017-01-01

    Although the SLE risk gene loci of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been gradually revealed by recent Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS), the association of HLA-DP polymorphisms with SLE was minimally reported. Considering that the variants in rs3077 and rs9277535 in the HLA-DP region could influence the immune response by affecting antigen presentation of HLA class II molecules to CD4+ T cells, the present study aimed to explore the role of HLA-DP polymorphisms in SLE. In total, samples from 335 SLE patients and 635 healthy controls were collected and genotyped by a polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melting (PCR-HRM) assay. A significant positive correlation was observed between the SNP rs3077, rs9277535 of HLA-DP and SLE susceptibility (rs3077, OR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.60–0.91, P = 0.004; rs9277535, OR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.59–0.88, P = 0.001). Rs3077 polymorphism was corelated to IL-17, INF-γ and cutaneous vasculitis (P = 0.037, P = 0.020 and P = 0.006, respectively). Additionally, rs3077 AA genotype carriers showed lower concentration of inflammatory cytokines and lower cutaneous vasculitis incidence than did the other two genotype. No significant association was observed between rs9277535 and cytokines or any clinical features. In conclusion, HLA-DP polymorphisms (rs3077 and rs9277535) were associated with SLE susceptibility and the levels of some inflammatory cytokines in SLE patients. PMID:28094303

  14. Polymorphism of rs7688672 and rs10033237 in cGKII/PRKG2 and gout susceptibility of Han population in northern China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Cheng, Zhifeng; Li, Changgui; Li, Shanshan; Li, Ming; Wang, Mingli; Xu, Jinmei; Tang, Yingying; Wang, Yujing; Qiu, Wenli; Liu, Xiaomin

    2015-05-10

    Gout is a genetic or acquired metabolic disease caused by increase of uric acid synthesis resulted from purine metabolic abnormalities. Whether cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 (cGKII/PRKG2) is correlated with gout remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between polymorphism of cGKII/PRKG2 and gout susceptibility of Han population in northern China. Four hundred and five male patients with gout in the case group and 429 controls in the control group were collected from the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. A case-control study method was used to study the correlation between cGKII/PRKG2 polymorphism rs7688672 and rs10033237 and gout susceptibility. The genotype frequencies of rs7688672 and rs10033237 polymorphisms of cGKII/PRKG2 in the case group and the control group both were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were significant differences of rs10033237 in the allele frequencies and genotype distributions (P<0.05) between the two groups, while no association was found between rs7688672 and gout. Combined mutation sites AA(*) from rs7688672 and rs10033237 were negatively correlated with gout susceptibility, whereas haplotype GG(*) was positively correlated with gout susceptibility. In conclusion, patients with rs10033237 polymorphism of cGKII/PRKG2 gene are more likely to suffer from gout. With regard to haplotypes of rs10033237 and rs7688672, both AA(*) and GG(*) are related to gout. AA(*) is a gout susceptible gene, whereas GG(*) is a protective gene.

  15. Effects of FTO RS9939906 and MC4R RS17782313 on obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and blood pressure in patients with hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variants of the FTO gene rs9939609 A/T and the MC4R gene rs17782313 C/T have been associated with obesity. Individuals with mutations in MC4R gene have lower blood pressure (BP), independently of obesity. This study aimed to investigate the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with anthropometric indexes, BP, and type 2 diabetes mellitus among hypertensive patients. Methods We genotyped 217 individuals (86 men and 131 women) with hypertension (systolic or diastolic BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg or using antihypertensive drugs). Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Waist and neck circumferences (cm), Body Adiposity Index (BAI,%), Lipid Accumulation Product Index (LAP, cm.mmol.l) and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were analyzed using analysis of covariance or modified Poisson’s regression. Results Rare allele frequencies were 0.40 for A for FTO rs9939609 and 0.18 for C for MC4R rs17782313. A positive association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with BMI was observed in the overall sample. Among men and women, neck circumference was associated with the FTO genotype and, for women, MC4R genotype. In contrast, in men we found a negative association of MC4R rs17782313 with diastolic BP (TT 90.1 ±12.2, TC/CC 83.2 ±12.1; P = 0.03) and borderline association for systolic BP after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions Common genetic variants of FTO rs9939609 have positive associations with BMI and neck circumference and MC4R rs17782313 in women, but a negative association with diastolic and mean blood pressure in men with hypertension. PMID:23849767

  16. Effects of FTO RS9939906 and MC4R RS17782313 on obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and blood pressure in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Marcadenti, Aline; Fuchs, Flavio D; Matte, Ursula; Sperb, Fernanda; Moreira, Leila B; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2013-07-12

    Genetic variants of the FTO gene rs9939609 A/T and the MC4R gene rs17782313 C/T have been associated with obesity. Individuals with mutations in MC4R gene have lower blood pressure (BP), independently of obesity. This study aimed to investigate the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with anthropometric indexes, BP, and type 2 diabetes mellitus among hypertensive patients. We genotyped 217 individuals (86 men and 131 women) with hypertension (systolic or diastolic BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg or using antihypertensive drugs). Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Waist and neck circumferences (cm), Body Adiposity Index (BAI,%), Lipid Accumulation Product Index (LAP, cm.mmol.l) and body mass index (BMI, kg/m²) were analyzed using analysis of covariance or modified Poisson's regression. Rare allele frequencies were 0.40 for A for FTO rs9939609 and 0.18 for C for MC4R rs17782313. A positive association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with BMI was observed in the overall sample. Among men and women, neck circumference was associated with the FTO genotype and, for women, MC4R genotype. In contrast, in men we found a negative association of MC4R rs17782313 with diastolic BP (TT 90.1 ±12.2, TC/CC 83.2 ±12.1; P = 0.03) and borderline association for systolic BP after controlling for age and BMI. Common genetic variants of FTO rs9939609 have positive associations with BMI and neck circumference and MC4R rs17782313 in women, but a negative association with diastolic and mean blood pressure in men with hypertension.

  17. Effect of IL15 rs10833 and SCARB1 rs10846744 on virologic responses in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Sahar; Davari, Mehdi; Asli, Esmaeil; Gharibzadeh, Safoora; Vaziri, Farzam; Jamnani, Fatemeh Rahimi; Fateh, Abolfazl; Siadat, Seyed Davar

    2017-09-30

    The scavenger receptor type B class I (SCARBI) is known to be involved in the entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into the host, while interleukin-15 (IL15) is an important cytokine in both the innate and acquired immune responses against HCV infection. We investigated the association of IL15 rs10833 or SCARB1 rs10846744 polymorphisms with treatment responses in patients with chronic HCV (CHC). SCARB1 rs10846744 and IL15 rs10833 were identified in 365 treatment-naïve CHC patients through genotyping by TaqMan® Real-Time PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), respectively. Of these 365 CHC treatment-naïve patients, rapid virological response (RVR), complete early virological response (cEVR), and sustained virological response (SVR) were observed in 53.2%, 76.4%, and 66.0% of the patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that RVR was associated with sex (P=0.016), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P=0.026), IL15 rs10833 (AA) genotype (P<0.001), and SCARB1 rs10846744 (CC) genotype (P<0.001), while there was a relationship between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P=0.013) and IL15 rs10833 (AA) genotype (P<0.001) with cEVR. Age (<40years) (P=0.001), AST (P=0.029), ALP (P=0.028), HCV genotypes (P=0.005), HCV viral load (P=0.026), IL15 rs10833 (AA) genotype (P<0.001), and SCARB1 rs10846744 (CC) genotype (P=0.001) were strongly associated with SVR. In conclusion, the SCARB1 rs10846744 (CC) and IL15 rs10833 (AA) genotypes can be considered as powerful predictors of treatment responses in CHC patients treated with an interferon-based therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. RS INDI - A photometric analysis using the grid technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, S. F.; Grieco, A.; Lapasset, E.; Sistero, R. F.; Claria, J. J.

    1990-10-01

    Simultaneous solutions from 2484 UBV photelelectric observations of the EB-type system RS Indi has been obtained with the Wilson-Devinney code. Using the grid technique, families of solutions were found for all possible configurations. As different configurations gave similar quality of fit, the more probable configuration was suggested by physical criteria. New times of minimum light obtained in the years 1985 and 1986 confirm the decreasing period of the system. No interpretation was found for the asymmetries observed in the light curves.

  19. SEAC4RS Aerosol Radiative Effects and Heating Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, S.; Schmidt, S.; Redemann, J.; Hair, J. W.; Ferrare, R. A.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; LeBlanc, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    We will present (a) aerosol optical properties, (b) aerosol radiative forcing, (c) aerosol and gas absorption and heating rates, and (d) spectral surface albedo for cases from August 19th and 26th of the SEAC4RS mission. This analysis is based on irradiance data from the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR), spectral aerosol optical depth from the Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR), and extinction profiles from the DIAL/High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). We derive spectrally resolved values of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, and surface albedo from the data, and determine profiles of absorption and heating rate segregated by absorber (aerosol and gas).

  20. RS CVn binaries: Testing the solar-stellar dynamo connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite to study the coronal emission from the EUV-bright RS CVn binaries Sigma2 CrB, observed February 10-21, 1994, and II Peg, observed October 1-5, 1993. We present time-resolved and integrated EUV short-, medium-, and long-wavelength spectra for these binaries. Sigma2 CrB shows significant first-order emission features in the long-wavelength region. The coronal emission distributions and electron densities are estimated for those active coronae dominated by high temperature plasma.

  1. Radio polarization characteristics of two RS CVn binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutel, R. L.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Doiron, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of multifrequency epoch VLA observations of polarized radio emission from the nearby active RS CVn binaries UX Arietis and HR 1099 are reported. For both systems, there is an excellent correlation between handedness of circular polarization and frequency. Helicity reversal is almost always seen between 1.4 and 5.0 GHz, possibly due to optical depth effects. There may also be an anticorrelation between total intensity and fractional circular polarization, especially at 5 GHz. This is consistent with models in which intense flares are associated with compact selfabsorbed synchrotron sources, while the quiescent emission arises from larger gyrosynchrotron-emitting plasma.

  2. R/S analysis of the Dst index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, B. V.

    2017-05-01

    The paper addresses estimation of the Hurst exponent for time series of the hourly values of the Dst index for the period from 1957 to 2011. It is found that the Hurst exponent is 0.79-0.94 for yearly intervals and 0.8-1.0 for monthly intervals. Based on R/S graphs, the Dst cycles are identified; they range from 3-4 months to 2.2 years and from 8.5 to 22 years in length. It is shown that a Dst time series can be quite satisfactorily described by an α-stable Levy process.

  3. Evolved expendable launch vehicle system: RS-68 main engine development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, David; Lee, Norman Y.; Portanova, Peter L.; Wood, Byron K.

    2003-08-01

    Delta IV is one of two competing Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) systems being developed in an industry/United States Government partnership to meet the needs of the new era of space launch for the early decades of the 21 st Century. The Rocketdyne Division of The Boeing Company and the United States Air Force have developed a 650 Klbf sea-level (2.9 MN) class liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen main engine for the Delta IV family of EELV. The purpose of this paper is to present the innovative approach to the design, development, testing and certification of the RS-68 engine.

  4. [Medication adherence of elderly in Porto Alegre, RS].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristiane Hoffmeister; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Sueiro; Ferreira, Caroline; Faggiani, Fabiana Tôrres; Schroeter, Guilherme; de Souza, Antônio Carlos Araújo; DeCarli, Geraldo Attilio; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; Werlang, Maria Cristina

    2008-04-01

    Polipharmacy and medication non-adherence are problems faced frequently in the treatment of elderly patients. An exploratory cross-sectional study and quantitative approach were conducted to assess the frequency of treatment-adherence in elderly and how polipharmacy can affect adherence. Four hundred and sixty six elderly answered a questionnaire in Porto Alegre, RS in individual interviews. The adherence frequency found was 173 (37.1%) and was higher among those, who use less medication. These results indicate the need for implementing educational programs for the elderly in order to help them to follow their drug therapy.

  5. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.545 Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4...-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate as follows: (2) In or on food commodities in food handling establishments where food and food products are held, processed, prepared and/or...

  6. Role of IL-8 rs4073 and rs2227306 polymorphisms in the development of primary gouty arthritis in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y X; Zhao, H; Guo, H Q

    2016-10-17

    In this study, we investigated the role of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of the interleukin-8 gene (IL-8; rs4073 and rs2227306) in the susceptibility to primary gouty arthritis in a Chinese population. Three hundred and twelve patients with primary gouty arthritis and 340 healthy controls were recruited from the Yan'an University Affiliated Hospital between January 2014 and March 2015. The IL-8 rs4073 and rs2227306 polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism. Unconditional multiple-logistic regression analysis revealed that the TT genotype of rs4073 was correlated with primary gouty arthritis risk, compared to the AA genotype [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-2.54; P = 0.02]. In addition, the IL-8 rs4073 T allele was associated with a significant elevated risk of primary gouty arthritis, in comparison to the A allele (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.07-1.67; P = 0.01). However, we observed no significant relationship between the IL-8 rs2227306 polymorphism and primary gouty arthritis risk. The results of this study suggest that the IL-8 rs4073 polymorphism could be a marker for primary gouty arthritis development.

  7. The relationship between toll like receptor 4 gene rs4986790 and rs4986791 polymorphisms and sepsis susceptibility: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Mo, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Hui-Li; Tan, Yan; Wen, Xiu-Jie; Deng, Man-Jing; Yan, Hong; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represents the important etiologic factor for sepsis. Some previous studies have reported the relationship between common polymorphisms rs4986790 and rs4986791 in the coding gene for this receptor and the susceptibility to sepsis, but there were distinct divergences between those findings. We therefore designed this meta-analysis incorporated 28 published articles containing 6,537 sepsis patients and 8,832 controls for a more comprehensive conclusion on this matter. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association of toll like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms rs4986790 and rs4986791 with sepsis risk. Heterogeneity between included studies was inspected using Q test, and sensitivity analysis was implemented via sequential deletion of each included study to investigate the stability of overall estimates. Funnel plot and Egger’s test were adopted to examine publication bias across selected studies. We found no significant association for either the polymorphism rs4986790 or rs4986791 with sepsis susceptibility in total analysis under any genetic models. Neither did we after combining these two polymorphisms. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the rs4986790 and rs4986791 polymorphisms in toll like receptor 4 gene may have no statistically significant influence on sepsis susceptibility. PMID:27958344

  8. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, NOS1) rs693534 and rs7977109 variants and risk for restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix Javier; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Martínez, Carmen; Zurdo, Martín; Turpín-Fenoll, Laura; Millán-Pascual, Jorge; Adeva-Bartolomé, Teresa; Cubo, Esther; Navacerrada, Francisco; Rojo-Sebastián, Ana; Rubio, Lluisa; Calleja, Marisol; Plaza-Nieto, José Francisco; Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Belén; Arroyo-Solera, Margarita; García-Albea, Esteban; García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A G

    2015-06-01

    Several biochemical, neuropathological, and experimental data suggest a possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1) gene (rs7977109 and rs693534) have been found to be associated with the risk for RLS in Germans, although only one of them (rs7977109) remained as significant after multiple comparison tests. The aim of our study was to replicate the possible association between these SNPs and risk for RLS in the Spanish population. We studied the allelic and genotype frequencies of the SNPs rs7977109 and rs693534 in 205 patients with RLS and 328 healthy controls using TaqMan genotyping. The rs7977109 and rs693534 genotypes and allelic frequencies did not significantly differ between patients with RLS and controls and were unrelated with the age at onset of RLS, gender, ferritin levels, and response to dopaminergic or gabaergic agents. The rs7999109GA genotype was overrepresented in RLS patients with positive family history of RLS, and in patients with symptomatic response to clonazepam. The results of our study suggest that these two NOS1 SNPs are not related to the overall risk for RLS in the Spanish population.

  9. VIIRS Aerosol Products During the SEAC4RS Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, L. A.; Munchak, L. A.; Huang, J.; Martins, J. V.; Espinosa, R.; Orozco, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field experiment that took place during August and September 2013 offered an in depth portrait of the aerosol system over much of the continental United States. Heavily instrumented aircraft, including the NASA DC-8 sampled a wide variety of aerosol types including transported Saharan dust, both fresh and aged smoke from western wildfires, urban pollution plumes and also biogenic aerosol produced by the "green volcano" in the vegetated Ozarks. Complementing these aircraft measurements was an enhanced array of AERONET stations sprinkled across the country and also concentrated in a mesoscale array near the home base of Houston Texas. This rich collection of suborbital aerosol information permits a more comprehensive evaluation of the VIIRS aerosol product that includes validation of the products across the mesoscale and choices of case studies in which we can delve deeper into the VIIRS retrieval to test algorithm assumptions. We will compare VIIRS retrievals during SEAC4RS with MODIS retrievals, with AERONET observations and retrievals, and with measurements and retrievals from the Polar Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) that flew aboard the NASA DC-8.

  10. Extremely active long-period RS CVn binary HD 12545

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.; Fekel, Francis C.; Aufdenberg, Jason P.; Dempsey, Robert; Dadonas, Virgilijus

    1993-01-01

    The active-chromosphere giant HD 12545 is noteworthy for its remarkable 1990 photmetric amplitude of 0.6 mag in V, which implies that nearly half the visible hemisphere of the star was covered by cool spots. We report the results of a spectroscopic study of HD 12545, showing it to be an active-chromosphere binary with an orbital period of 23.97 days. We establish the spectral type as KO III, and measure v sin i = 17 +/- 2 km/s. The various indicators of activity in the optical and ultraviolet suggest that HD 12545 is one of the most active RS CVn systems yet observed. H alpha is a broad, variable emission feature, with a strength comparable to what is observed in very active RS CVn systems such as V711 Tau (HR 1099) or II Peg. The surface fluxes of chromospheric and transition-regions lines in the UV range from 10 to nearly 400 times the solar values. With a moderately strong Li I lambda 6707 feature and a large space motion, HD 12545 is an unusual but not unique giant, since these properties are similar to those of the single active-chromosphere giant HD 33798.

  11. Enantioresolution of (RS)-baclofen by liquid chromatography: A review.

    PubMed

    Batra, Sonika; Bhushan, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Baclofen is a commonly used racemic drug and has a simple chemical structure in terms of the presence of only one stereogenic center. Since the desirable pharmacological effect is in only one enantiomer, several possibilities exist for the other enantiomer for evaluation of the disposition of the racemic mixture of the drug. This calls for the development of enantioselective analytical methodology. This review summarizes and evaluates different methods of enantioseparation of (RS)-baclofen using both direct and indirect approaches, application of certain chiral reagents and chiral stationary phases (though very expensive). Methods of separation of diastereomers of (RS)-baclofen prepared with different chiral derivatizing reagents (under microwave irradiation at ease and in less time) on reversed-phase achiral columns or via a ligand exchange approach providing high-sensitivity detection by the relatively less expensive methods of TLC and HPLC are discussed. The methods may be helpful for determination of enantiomers in biological samples and in pharmaceutical formulations for control of enantiomeric purity and can be practiced both in analytical laboratories and industry for routine analysis and R&D activities.

  12. The POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-yan; Liu, Xiao-man; Huang, Hong-bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-xi; Li, Jia-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Results: Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Conclusion: The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868–rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese

  13. The POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-Xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-Ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Hong-Bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-Xi; Li, Jia-Li

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868-rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  14. The FTO rs9939609 and LEPR rs1137101 mothers–newborns gene polymorphisms and maternal fat mass index effects on anthropometric characteristics in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Mărginean, Claudiu; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Iancu, Mihaela; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Tripon, Florin; Bănescu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mothers’ and newborns’ fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 and leptin receptor (LEPR) rs1137101 gene polymorphisms on neonatal anthropometric parameters in order to identify a potential risk for developing obesity. We performed a cross-sectional study on 355 mother–newborn couples in an Obstetrics Gynecology Tertiary Hospital from Romania, evaluated with regard to anthropometric parameters, clinical and laboratory parameters besides 2 genetic polymorphisms (FTO rs9939609 and LEPR rs1137101). Newborns with mothers carrying variant AT or AA genotype for FTO rs9939609 presented lower BMI (P = 0.012) and lower MUAC (P = 0.029). There was a significant interaction effect between newborn and mother LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism on birth weight (P = 0.009) and BMI (P = 0.007). We noticed significantly increased birth weight and BMI in newborns carriers of AG + GG genotype, coming from mothers with AA genotype (P = 0.006). There was no evidence of significant interaction effect between newborn and mother FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on the studied anthropometrical data (P > 0.05). In addition, lower BMI scores (P = 0.042) were observed in newborns carriers of TT genotype whose mothers had AA + AT genotype. Lower MUAC scores (P = 0.041) were noticed in newborns carriers of AA + AT genotype whose mothers had AA + AT genotype for FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism. Newborns carriers of the AG + GG genotype (P = 0.003) of LEPR rs1137101 coming from mothers with increased FMI (upper tertile) had significantly increased BMIs. Presence of the variant A allele of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in mothers decreased BMI and MUAC in newborns. The impact of LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism on BMI and birth weight in newborns differed depending on the presence/absence of the dominant LEPR allele in mothers. In addition, we noticed that maternal FMI presented a significant positive effect on

  15. NQO1 rs1800566 (C609T), PON1 rs662 (Q192R), and PON1 rs854560 (L55M) polymorphisms segregate the risk of childhood acute leukemias according to age range distribution.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Gonçalves, Bruno Alves; Vasconcelos, Gisele M; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Andrade, Camilla; Faro, Alessandra; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Emerenciano, Mariana; de Camargo, Beatriz; Bernstain, Luna; Neves, Cynthia Curvello; Agareno, Jozina Maria de Andrade; de Carvalho, Lilian Maria Burlacchini; Araújo, Flávia Nogueira Serafim; de Brito, Nilma Pimentel; Magalhães, Isis Q; Cordoba, José Carlos; Pimenta, Flávia; Gadelha, Andreia; Cartaxo, Eloísa; Basegio, Rosania Maria; Mnayarji, Atalla; Souza, Marcelo S; Arencibia, Alejandro; Melaragno, Renato; Cóser, Virgínia Maria; Lafayete, Thereza Christina; Koifman, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    The risk of developing childhood leukemia has been associated with gene polymorphisms that decrease the activity of detoxifying metabolic enzymes and enzymes involved in systemic oxidative stress. We investigated the NQO1 and PON1 polymorphisms for associations with susceptibility to childhood leukemia. Samples from 1,027 Brazilian children (519 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, ALL; 107 acute myeloid leukemia, AML; 401 controls) were analyzed. TaqMAN real-time assays were used to determine the NQO1 rs1800566 (C609T), PON1 rs662 (Q192R), and PON1 rs854560 (L55M) frequencies. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of polymorphisms with cases and controls, with age and somatic fusion genes (MLL-r and ETV6-RUNX1) as covariables. Children with at least one NQO1 variant allele were at lower risk for developing infant AML (odds ratio (OR) 0.26, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.68); no association was detected for ALL. PON1 rs854560 (L55M) was associated with an increased risk of developing childhood leukemia (LM + MM, OR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.32-2.81). The PON1 rs662 R192R genotype had a statistically significant decreased frequency in ALL (OR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.43-0.93). Infant ALL cases were more likely to harbor homozygous PON1 rs854560 alleles than controls (OR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.03-2.89); at least one M allele was associated with an increased risk of ALL in children older than 1 year (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.17-3.3). The NQO1 rs1800566 (C609T), PON1 rs854560 (L55M), and PON1 rs662 (Q192R) polymorphisms modified risk depending on leukemia subtype (decreased in AML, increased and decreased in ALL, respectively), age strata, and variant genotype combinations.

  16. Association between three functional microRNA polymorphisms (miR-499 rs3746444, miR-196a rs11614913 and miR-146a rs2910164) and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yafei; Yan, Wanjun; Wang, Wen; Zhao, Xixi; Ma, Xingcong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shuqun

    2017-01-01

    Three functional microRNA polymorphisms (miR-499 rs3746444 A > G, miR-196a rs11614913 C > T and miR-146a rs2910164 G > C) have been reported to be associated with breast cancer (BC) risk. However, the results of the published studies are inconsistent. In order to obtain a more credible result, we conducted this meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. Thirty-eight eligible studies with 17,417 cases and 18,988 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Our results showed that the rs3746444 was associated with an increased breast cancer risk in the four genetic models (G vs. A: OR = 1.17, P = 0.008; GG vs. AA: OR = 1.41, P < 0.001; AG vs. AA: OR = 1.10, P = 0.036; GG+AG vs. AA: OR = 1.16, P = 0.001). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant correlation remained in Asians but not in Caucasians. For rs11614913, obvious decreased breast cancer risk was observed in Caucasian populations (T vs. C: OR = 0.93, P = 0.044). However, we couldn't detect an association between rs2910164 and breast cancer risk. This meta-analysis demonstrates that rs3746444 could increase breast cancer risk in Asians and in general populations, while rs11614913 could decrease the risk of breast cancer in Caucasians. The rs2910164 polymorphism has no association with breast cancer risk. More multicenter studies with larger sample sizes are required to verify our results. PMID:27880723

  17. Impact of G-quadruplex structures and intronic polymorphisms rs17878362 and rs1642785 on basal and ionizing radiation-induced expression of alternative p53 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Perriaud, Laury; Marcel, Virginie; Sagne, Charlotte; Favaudon, Vincent; Guédin, Aurore; De Rache, Aurore; Guetta, Corinne; Hamon, Florian; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Hainaut, Pierre; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Hall, Janet

    2014-01-01

    G-quadruplex (G4) structures in intron 3 of the p53 pre-mRNA modulate intron 2 splicing, altering the balance between the fully spliced p53 transcript (FSp53, encoding full-length p53) and an incompletely spliced transcript retaining intron 2 (p53I2 encoding the N-terminally truncated Δ40p53 isoform). The nucleotides forming G4s overlap the polymorphism rs17878362 (A1 wild-type allele, A2 16-base pair insertion) which is in linkage disequilibrium with rs1642785 in intron 2 (c.74+38 G>C). Biophysical and biochemical analyses show rs17878362 A2 alleles form similar G4 structures as A1 alleles although their position is shifted with respect to the intron 2 splice acceptor site. In addition basal FSp53 and p53I2 levels showed allele specific differences in both p53-null cells transfected with reporter constructs or lymphoblastoid cell lines. The highest FSp53 and p53I2 levels were associated with combined rs1642785-GG/rs17878362-A1A1 alleles, whereas the presence of rs1642785-C with either rs17878362 allele was associated with lower p53 pre-mRNA, total TP53, FSp53 and p53I2 levels, due to the lower stability of transcripts containing rs1642785-C. Treatment of lymphoblastoid cell with the G4 binding ligands 360A or PhenDC3 or with ionizing radiation increased FSp53 levels only in cells with rs17878362 A1 alleles, suggesting that under this G4 configuration full splicing is favoured. These results demonstrate the complex effects of intronic TP53 polymorphisms on G4 formation and identify a new role for rs1642785 on mRNA splicing and stability, and thus on the differential expression of isoform-specific transcripts of the TP53 gene. PMID:25269805

  18. Film coating of seeds with Bacillus cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement.

    PubMed

    Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Wittaya-Areekul, Sakchai; Plianbangchang, Pinyupa

    2008-10-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus RS87 was previously reported to promote plant growth in various crops in both greenhouse and field trials. To apply as a plant growth promoting agent with practical use, it is essential to ease the burden of routine preparation of a fresh suspension of strain RS87 in laboratory. The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of film-coating seeds with B. cereus RS87 spores for early plant growth enhancement and to reveal the indoleacetic acid (IAA) production released from strain RS87. The experiment consisted of the following 5 treatments: nontreated seeds, water-soaked seeds, film-coated seeds, seeds soaked with vegetative cells of strain RS87, and film-coated seeds with strain RS87 spores. Three experiments were conducted separately to assess seed emergence, root length, and plant height. Results showed that both vegetative cells and spores of strain RS87 significantly promoted (P < or = 0.05) seed emergence, root length and plant height over the control treatments. The strain RS87 also produced IAA. In conclusion, the film coating of seeds with spores of B. cereus RS87 demonstrated early plant growth enhancement as well as seeds using their vegetative cells. IAA released from strain RS87 would be one of the mechanisms for plant growth enhancement.

  19. Creative Implementation of 3Rs Principles within Industry Programs: Beyond Regulations and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Bratcher, Natalie A; Reinhard, Gregory R

    2015-01-01

    The industry involved with using animals as an essential part of research has supported the theory and philosophy of the 3Rs for years. However, both the culture and approach surrounding the 3Rs is evolving rapidly, and many institutions are attempting to surpass the regulations and guidelines to implement the 3Rs for improved science and animal welfare. Regulatory documents and guidelines such as the Animal Welfare Act, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training clearly outline how the IACUC should address the 3Rs, but there are many additional paradigms and resources that an institution can use to promote the 3Rs creatively. We review the legal mandates and guidelines that institutions must or should follow, and we present some creative approaches toward their compliance, including the creation of full-time dedicated 3Rs roles as well as temporary 3Rs-focused positions such as visiting scientist and postdoctoral fellowships and internships. We also discuss how to creatively achieve 3Rs progress through internal committees and working groups, involvement in 3Rs consortia, recognizing 3Rs advances through awards programs, and creating 3Rs volunteer opportunities. Adherence to regulations and guidelines creates a solid foundation for good animal care and science, and creative 3Rs approaches enable the growth of a robust animal welfare culture that enhances the potential for 3Rs benefits to animals and science. PMID:25836958

  20. Creative implementation of 3Rs principles within industry programs: beyond regulations and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bratcher, Natalie A; Reinhard, Gregory R

    2015-03-01

    The industry involved with using animals as an essential part of research has supported the theory and philosophy of the 3Rs for years. However, both the culture and approach surrounding the 3Rs is evolving rapidly, and many institutions are attempting to surpass the regulations and guidelines to implement the 3Rs for improved science and animal welfare. Regulatory documents and guidelines such as the Animal Welfare Act, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training clearly outline how the IACUC should address the 3Rs, but there are many additional paradigms and resources that an institution can use to promote the 3Rs creatively. We review the legal mandates and guidelines that institutions must or should follow, and we present some creative approaches toward their compliance, including the creation of full-time dedicated 3Rs roles as well as temporary 3Rs-focused positions such as visiting scientist and postdoctoral fellowships and internships. We also discuss how to creatively achieve 3Rs progress through internal committees and working groups, involvement in 3Rs consortia, recognizing 3Rs advances through awards programs, and creating 3Rs volunteer opportunities. Adherence to regulations and guidelines creates a solid foundation for good animal care and science, and creative 3Rs approaches enable the growth of a robust animal welfare culture that enhances the potential for 3Rs benefits to animals and science.

  1. Small interfering RNA knockdown of mini-TyrRS and mini-TrpRS effects angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in hypoxic culture.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Zeng, Zhi; Liu, Rui; Qiang, Ou; Jiang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xian; Wang, Hao-Yu

    2008-03-01

    Aim We studied the role of mini-TyrRS and mini-TrpRS in angiogenesis by using small interfering RNA-mediated mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS knockout in hypoxic culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods SiRNA was used as the main method to inhibited the gene function. Silencing efficiency was assayed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The angiogenic activity in vitro was evaluated by transwell migration assay and Matrigel-induced capillary tube formation in hypoxic culture. Cell proliferation was determined by crystal violet staining. Results The results showed that levels of the mini-TyrRS/mini-TrpRS gene and protein in mock transfection group and negative control group were higher, but noticeably decreased in experimental group. However, no significant difference was detected between mock transfection group and negative control group, but there was a statistically significant difference compared with experimental group. For mini-TyrRS-siRNA group, the cell migration, tube formation and the rate of cell proliferation were respectively inhibited by (47.4, 56.3, 65.4, 73.7%), (60.5, 69.1, 75.9, 83.6%) and (40.4, 56.2, 61.2, 68.0%). For mini-TrpRS-siRNA, were respectively increased by (18.0, 33.8, 45.1, 56.4%), (18.3, 31.2, 40.3, 45.7%) and (8.4, 26.4, 38.2, 46.6%). Conclusion These results indicated that angiogenesis is either stimulated by mini-TyrRS or inhibited by mini-TrpRS in matrigel models in hypoxic culture, raising the possibility that mini-TyrRS stimulates a common downstream signaling event. Thus, naturally occurring fragments of two proteins involved in translation, TyrRS and TrpRS, have opposing activity on endothelial cell angiogenesis in the matrigel assays. The opposing activities of the two tRNA synthetases suggest tight regulation of the balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic stimuli.

  2. Effects of APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/GSTT1 Polymorphism on Plasma and Erythrocyte Antioxidant Parameters and Cognition in Old Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linhong; Liu, Jinmeng; Dong, Li; Cai, Can; Wang, Sisi; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Rong

    2015-09-24

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and oxidative damage were correlated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphism was proved to be associated with body antioxidant capacity and involved in the oxidative damage related chronic diseases. To explore the combined effects of APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/T1 polymorphism on antioxidant parameters and cognition in old Chinese adults, a community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 Chinese adults aged from 55 to 75. Information on demography and lifestyle of the participants was collected with a questionnaire. Cognitive function was measured by using a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Fasting venous blood samples were collected for APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/T1 genotyping, and parameter measurement. No association of APOE rs7412, rs429358 and GSTM1/T1 polymorphisms with cognition was detected in the old Chinese adults. APOE rs429358, rs7412 polymorphism was mainly associated with plasma α-tocopherol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels (p < 0.05). Interaction of APOE rs429358 and GSTT1 genotype on the plasma triglyceride (TG) level and erythrocyte catalase (CAT) and GST enzyme activities were detected (p < 0.05). The subjects with APOE rs429358 T/C + C/C and GSTT1- genotype were found to have the highest plasma TG level, erythrocyte CAT enzyme activity, and the lowest GST enzyme activity compared to subjects with other genotypes (p < 0.05). Lowest erythrocyte CAT enzyme activity and highest glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity were detected in the subjects with APOE rs7412 T/C + T/T and GSTM1+ genotype as compared with subjects with other genotypes. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters were APOE genotype associated. GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotype modified the influence of APOE rs7412, rs429358 polymorphism on antioxidant parameters.

  3. MM Herculis - An eclipsing binary of the RS CVn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sowell, J. R.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.; Burke, E. W., Jr.; Milone, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    V, B and U differential photoelectric photometry has been obtained for the RS Canum Venaticorum-class eclipsing binary star MM Her, with the light outside the eclipse being Fourier-analyzed to study wave migration and amplitude. These, together with the mean light level of the system, have been monitored from 1976 through 1980. Observations within the eclipse have revealed eclipses to be partial, rather than total as previously thought. The geometric elements of the presently rectified light curve are forced on the pre-1980 light curves and found to be compatible. With these elements, and previously obtained double line radial velocity curves, new absolute dimensions of 1.18 solar masses and 1.58 solar radii are calculated for the hotter star and 1.27 solar masses and 2.83 solar radii for the cooler star. The plotting of color indices on the color-color curve indicates G2V and K2IV spectral types.

  4. Milli-Arcsecond Infrared Observations of the Nova RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.; Danchi, W. C.; Koresko, C.; Kuchner, M.; Traub, W. A.; Monnier, J. D.; Serabyn, E.; Mennesson, B.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Colavita, M. M.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We report on infrared interferometric measurements of the 2006 outburst of Nova RS Oph in H, K, and N bands. These measurements, conducted using the Infrared and Optical Telescope Array, the Palomar Testbed Interferometer, and the Keck Interferometer, show a small variation in the 3 mas size if this resolved source during the first 65 days of the outburst. Additionally, using interferometric closure phases, these observations show an unambiguous departure from point symmetry of the object. We also describe simultaneous N-band observations of the nova in two separate milli-arcsecond spatial regimes on day four in which we detect line emission indicating onset of the optically thin phase. These data represent the first science from the Keck Interferometer's nulling mode.

  5. Flaring on RS CVn systems: Results from EUVE Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osten, R. A.; Brown, A.; Ayres, T. R.

    We present broadband EUV photometry for a sample of RS CVn systems observed with the Deep Survey Spectrometer and Right Angle Program (RAP) Scanners on the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). We have developed robust data analysis and light curve software for the interpretation of these data. Large-scale flaring activity is seen on 15 of the 18 systems studied. These binaries cover a range in orbital period of 0.7 days to 21 days and include a mixture of giant, subgiant, and dwarf luminosity classes. For many systems the photometric coverage extends over several orbital periods and flaring is unambiguously characterized. We present statistics on the distribution of variability in the survey. Correlations of flaring with binary properties are examined.

  6. New BVR photometry of six prominent RS Canum Venaticorum binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmakar; Pandey, S. K.

    1999-08-01

    A new BVR photometry of six prominent RS CVn stars: V711 Tau, UX Ari, IM Peg, II Peg, sigma Gem and lambda And, carried out during 1995-97, is presented. The new results reveal significant evolution in the shape as well as in the amplitude of light curves of these binaries. The traditional two-starspot model has been used to obtain the spot parameters from the observed light curves of the stars. Changes in spot area and their location on stellar surface can be noticed from extracted spot parameters. Some of these stars are found to have significant variation in (B-V) and (V-R) colour indices. The (V-R) colour index variation found in IM Peg, II Peg and lambda And have been used for determining starspot effective temperatures.

  7. Relationships between FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms and the occurrence of selected metabolic and hormonal disorders in middle-aged and elderly men – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Iwona; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Adler, Grażyna; Rył, Aleksandra; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Metabolic disorders, including MetS, obesity, and lipid disorders, may be related to genetic factors. Metabolic disorders are associated with decreased TS levels in aging men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms and the presence of MetS and its components, the concurrent lipid disorders, as well as sex hormone concentrations. Subjects and methods This study involved 272 men of Caucasian descent aged 50–75 years. Lipid profile, including TCh, LDL, HDL, and TG, was evaluated by spectrophotometric method. Anthropometric measurements concerned WC and blood pressure. MetS was diagnosed according to the criteria of the IDF. Sex hormone profile, including TST, FTS, E2, DHEAS, and SHBG, was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymorphisms within FTO, MC4R, and PPARγ genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism. Results This study did not show links between the analyzed genetic polymorphisms and the presence of MetS, T2DM, HT, and obesity. However, higher concentrations of TCh and LDL were found in men with the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in the recessive mode of inheritance (P=0.03 and P=0.05, respectively). Lower WC was found to be associated with MC4R rs17782313 gene inherited in the same model (P=0.005). Conclusion FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms seem to have little effect on the incidence of metabolic malfunctions and no effect on androgen-related disorders in the examined middle-aged and elderly men. PMID:27920511

  8. Relationships between FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms and the occurrence of selected metabolic and hormonal disorders in middle-aged and elderly men - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Iwona; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Adler, Grażyna; Rył, Aleksandra; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic disorders, including MetS, obesity, and lipid disorders, may be related to genetic factors. Metabolic disorders are associated with decreased TS levels in aging men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms and the presence of MetS and its components, the concurrent lipid disorders, as well as sex hormone concentrations. This study involved 272 men of Caucasian descent aged 50-75 years. Lipid profile, including TCh, LDL, HDL, and TG, was evaluated by spectrophotometric method. Anthropometric measurements concerned WC and blood pressure. MetS was diagnosed according to the criteria of the IDF. Sex hormone profile, including TST, FTS, E2, DHEAS, and SHBG, was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymorphisms within FTO, MC4R, and PPARγ genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism. This study did not show links between the analyzed genetic polymorphisms and the presence of MetS, T2DM, HT, and obesity. However, higher concentrations of TCh and LDL were found in men with the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in the recessive mode of inheritance (P=0.03 and P=0.05, respectively). Lower WC was found to be associated with MC4R rs17782313 gene inherited in the same model (P=0.005). FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms seem to have little effect on the incidence of metabolic malfunctions and no effect on androgen-related disorders in the examined middle-aged and elderly men.

  9. SNPs rs4656317 and rs12071048 located within an enhancer in FCGR3A are in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs396991 and influence NK cell-mediated ADCC by transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Oboshi, Wataru; Watanabe, Toru; Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Ueno, Ichiro; Aki, Kensaku; Tada, Tomoki; Hosoi, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    CD16 receptors are mainly expresses on the surface of NK cells and mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The authors previously reported that NK cell-mediated ADCC is influenced by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs396991 (T>G; F158V), and the structure and expression levels of CD16 differed among these genotypes. The authors examined haplotype frequency distributions among rs396991 and other SNPs, rs10917571 (G>T), rs4656317 (C>G), and rs12071048 (G>A), located in an enhancer of the FCGR3A gene. A total of 101 healthy Japanese were genotyped for the presence of these SNPs. The authors also measured ADCC activity, FCGR3A transcript levels, and surface CD16 expression on NK cells. We found that the regulatory SNPs (rSNPs) rs4656317 and rs12071048 were in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs396991. These two SNPs with major alleles had higher ADCC activity than those with minor alleles. In addition, FCGR3A transcript levels and surface CD16 expression levels were regulated by these SNPs. These findings suggest that NK cell-mediated ADCC could be influenced by transcriptional regulation of these rSNPs. These findings help to clarify our understanding of the linkage disequilibrium among functional SNPs in the FCGR3A gene, and provide a resource for investigating the roles of functional SNPs in NK cell-mediated ADCC. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Opportunities to Apply the 3Rs in Safety Assessment Programs.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Fiona; Edwards, Joanna; Prior, Helen; Robinson, Sally

    2016-12-01

    Before a potential new medicine can be administered to humans it is essential that its safety is adequately assessed. Safety assessment in animals forms an integral part of this process, from early drug discovery and initial candidate selection to the program of recommended regulatory tests in animals. The 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement of animals in research) are integrated in the current regulatory requirements and expectations and, in the EU, provide a legal and ethical framework for in vivo research to ensure the scientific objectives are met whilst minimizing animal use and maintaining high animal welfare standards. Though the regulations are designed to uncover potential risks, they are intended to be flexible, so that the most appropriate approach can be taken for an individual product. This article outlines current and future opportunities to apply the 3Rs in safety assessment programs for pharmaceuticals, and the potential (scientific, financial, and ethical) benefits to the industry, across the drug discovery and development process. For example, improvements to, or the development of, novel, early screens (e.g., in vitro, in silico, or nonmammalian screens) designed to identify compounds with undesirable characteristics earlier in development have the potential to reduce late-stage attrition by improving the selection of compounds that require regulatory testing in animals. Opportunities also exist within the current regulatory framework to simultaneously reduce and/or refine animal use and improve scientific outcomes through improvements to technical procedures and/or adjustments to study designs. It is important that approaches to safety assessment are continuously reviewed and challenged to ensure they are science-driven and predictive of relevant effects in humans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Associations between CYP1A1 rs1048943 A > G and rs4646903 T > C genetic variations and colorectal cancer risk: Proof from 26 case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Wang, Weiye; Xue, Wenji; Wang, Yiwei; Zheng, Leizhen; Zhu, Mei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) enzyme is one of the most important metabolizing enzymes responsible for the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics. Numerous individual case-control studies have investigated the associations between the CYP1A1 rs1048943 A > G and rs4646903 T > C genetic variations and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but the conclusions were controversial. To obtain a scientific conclusion, we performed a meta-analysis based on a total of 26 publications, including 20 studies with 8665 cases and 9953 controls on rs1048943 A > G and 19 studies with 6416 cases and 7551 controls on rs4646903 T > C, respectively. The pooled analysis indicated that rs1048943 A > G was associated with an increased risk of CRC (G vs. A: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08−1.52; GG vs. AA: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.25−1.91; GA vs. AA: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.00−1.60; GG/GA vs. AA: OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.05−1.64; GG vs. GA/AA: OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.26−1.91). Stratification analysis showed the association between rs1048943 A > G and CRC risk was more obvious in studies with the population-based (PB) design or high quality score. The association between rs4646903 T > C and CRC risk did not reach statistical significance in the pooled analysis as well as stratification analysis. This meta-analysis demonstrated CYP1A1 rs1048943 A > G may increase the susceptibility to CRC instead of rs4646903 T > C. This conclusion suggested CYP1A1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of CRC. PMID:27384991

  12. Family-Based Association Study of rs17300539 and rs12495941 Polymorphism in Adiponectin Gene and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xianchang; Wu, Xingguo; Duan, Yunmin; Liu, Guanghai; Yu, Xinyan; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Backgriond Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease that has both genetic and environmental components. Adiponectin plays an important role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS. The aim of this study was to determine 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) variants (rs12495941 and rs17300539) of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) families. Material/Methods We recruited 197 PCOS probands, their biological parents, and 192 controls. Anthropometric variables, including hip circumference (HC) and waist circumference (WC), were measured in all subjects during their first visit to the outpatient department. Serum T, FBG, FINS, TC, TG, LDL, and HDL levels were measured. PCOS patients were divided into 2 groups based on BMI: group A (BMI <25 kg/m2) and group B (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Parents of PCOS were accordingly categorized into group C and group D (fathers), and group E and group F (mothers). The associations among ADIPOQ rs12495941, rs17300539, and PCOS were analyzed using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). Results A significant association was found between SNP rs17300539 and PCOS in our Chinese population. The levels of TG and FINS and the genotype frequencies of rs17300539 are significantly different between overweight and lean PCOS. No significant association was detected for rs12495941. Conclusions TDT confirms that rs17300539 of ADIPOQ is strongly associated with the risk of PCOS in a Chinese Han population, but rs12495941 of ADIPOQ is not associated with the occurrence of PCOS. PMID:28060790

  13. Interleukin-28B rs12979860C/T and rs8099917T/G contribute to spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Hua; Li, Yu; Xiao, Dong-Dong; Shi, Ke-Qing; Fan, Yu-Chen; Chen, Li-Li; Liu, Wen-Yue; Luo, Ying-Wan; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2013-04-15

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860C/T and rs8099917T/G around interleukin-28B (IL28B) locus have been extensively investigated in their association with hepatitis C virus (HCV) spontaneous clearance. However, with the variable and even inconsistent results, it is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis. A literature search was conducted to seek articles about genetic variation of IL28B and spontaneous clearance of HCV. Odds ratio with 95% confidential interval were calculated to estimate their relationship. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis was performed to search for potential affective factors. A total of 8 studies including 2460 patients with chronic HCV infection and 1052 individuals with spontaneous HCV clearance met inclusion criteria, in which seven studies describing rs12979860 and three studies describing rs8099917. Analysis performed in Caucasian populations indicated that rs12979860CC and rs8099917TT contributed to HCV spontaneous clearance in both dominant model (CC vs. CT+TT, P<1×10(-4); TT vs. TG+GG, P<10(-4), respectively) and co-dominant model (CC vs. CT, P<1×10(-4), CC vs. TT, P<1×10(-4); TT vs. TG, P<10(-4), TT vs. GG, P=0.012, respectively). Meta-regression analysis suggested that male proportion (P=1×10(-5)) and mean age (P=1×10(-3)) might weaken the effect of rs12979860CC, but HCV genotype 1/4 (P=4×10(-4)) might contribute to it. IL28B rs12979860CC and rs8099917TT genotypes contribute to spontaneous HCV clearance in Caucasians.

  14. F11 rs2289252T and rs2036914C Polymorphisms Increase the Activity of Factor XI in Post-trauma Patients with Fractures Despite Thromboprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Song, Nan; Tian, Ai-Xian; Zhang, Jian-Min; Jiang, Hong-Qiang; Zang, Jia-Cheng; Ma, Xin-Long

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the association between F11 rs2289252, rs2036914 polymorphisms and the activity of clotting factor XI in post-trauma patients with fractures receiving routine anticoagulation therapy for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A case-control study involving 110 consecutive post-trauma patients with fractures and DVT in our hospital was conducted from April 2014 to October 2015; these patients comprised a DVT group. Another 40 sex- and age-matched patients with fractures but without DVT served as controls. Additionally, 40 sex- and age-matched healthy people were chosen as a normal group. Venous blood samples (2 mL) were drawn from all participants and genomic DNA extracted from the leukocytes of the patients with fracture-related DVT, whose genotype and allele frequency distribution of F11 gene rs2089252 and rs2036914 single nucleotide polymorphism were then assessed by a sequencing method. The activity of factor XI was measured by a solidification method in all participants, including those in control and normal groups. The activity of factor XI in patients with fracture-related DVT and F11 rs2089252 CT was 1.16 times that of those with CC genotypes (P < 0.0001), whereas in patients with fracture-related DVT and F11 rs2089252 TT genotypes it was 1.32 times that of those with CC genotypes (P < 0.0001), in patients with fracture-related DVT and F11 rs2089252 T allele it was 1.24 times that of those with C allele (P < 0.05), in patients with fracture-related DVT and F11 rs2036914 CC it was 1.35 times that of those with TT genotypes, in patients with fracture-related DVT and F11 rs2036914 CT genotypes it was 1.12 times that of those with TT genotypes (P < 0.05), and in patients with fracture-related DVT F11 and rs2036914 C allele it was 1.22 times that of those with T allele (P < 0.05). The activity of factor XI was significantly higher in the control than in the normal group (P < 0.05). High activity of factor XI indicates a risk of occurrence of DVT in post

  15. The obesity-associated polymorphisms FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 and endometrial cancer risk in non-Hispanic white women.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Galina; Gaudet, Mia M; Spurdle, Amanda B; Carney, Michael E; Wilkens, Lynne R; Yang, Hannah P; Weiss, Noel S; Webb, Penelope M; Thompson, Pamela J; Terada, Keith; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Prescott, Jennifer; Orlow, Irene; O'Mara, Tracy; Olson, Sara H; Narod, Steven A; Matsuno, Rayna K; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liang, Xiaolin; Levine, Douglas A; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; De Vivo, Immaculata; Chen, Chu; Brinton, Louise A; Akbari, Mohammad R; Goodman, Marc T

    2011-02-08

    Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with endometrial cancer. Several independent genome-wide association studies recently identified two common polymorphisms, FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313, that are linked to increased body weight and obesity. We examined the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with endometrial cancer risk in a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies within the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2). This analysis included 3601 non-Hispanic white women with histologically-confirmed endometrial carcinoma and 5275 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 genotypes to the risk of endometrial cancer. Among control women, both the FTO rs9939609 A and MC4R rs17782313 C alleles were associated with a 16% increased risk of being overweight (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). In case-control analyses, carriers of the FTO rs9939609 AA genotype were at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma compared to women with the TT genotype [odds ratio (OR)  = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.32, p = 0.01]. However, this association was no longer apparent after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), suggesting mediation of the gene-disease effect through body weight. The MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism was not related to endometrial cancer risk (per allele OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91-1.06; p = 0.68). FTO rs9939609 is a susceptibility marker for white non-Hispanic women at higher risk of endometrial cancer. Although FTO rs9939609 alone might have limited clinical or public health significance for identifying women at high risk for endometrial cancer beyond that of excess body weight, further investigation of obesity-related genetic markers might help to identify the pathways that influence endometrial carcinogenesis.

  16. The Obesity-Associated Polymorphisms FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 and Endometrial Cancer Risk in Non-Hispanic White Women

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Galina; Gaudet, Mia M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Carney, Michael E.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Yang, Hannah P.; Weiss, Noel S.; Webb, Penelope M.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Terada, Keith; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Prescott, Jennifer; Orlow, Irene; O'Mara, Tracy; Olson, Sara H.; Narod, Steven A.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liang, Xiaolin; Levine, Douglas A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; De Vivo, Immaculata; Chen, Chu; Brinton, Louise A.; Akbari, Mohammad R.; Goodman, Marc T.

    2011-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with endometrial cancer. Several independent genome-wide association studies recently identified two common polymorphisms, FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313, that are linked to increased body weight and obesity. We examined the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with endometrial cancer risk in a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies within the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2). This analysis included 3601 non-Hispanic white women with histologically-confirmed endometrial carcinoma and 5275 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 genotypes to the risk of endometrial cancer. Among control women, both the FTO rs9939609 A and MC4R rs17782313 C alleles were associated with a 16% increased risk of being overweight (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). In case-control analyses, carriers of the FTO rs9939609 AA genotype were at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma compared to women with the TT genotype [odds ratio (OR)  = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.32, p = 0.01]. However, this association was no longer apparent after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), suggesting mediation of the gene-disease effect through body weight. The MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism was not related to endometrial cancer risk (per allele OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91–1.06; p = 0.68). FTO rs9939609 is a susceptibility marker for white non-Hispanic women at higher risk of endometrial cancer. Although FTO rs9939609 alone might have limited clinical or public health significance for identifying women at high risk for endometrial cancer beyond that of excess body weight, further investigation of obesity-related genetic markers might help to identify the pathways that influence endometrial carcinogenesis. PMID:21347432

  17. Post-bronchiolitis wheezing is associated with toll-like receptor 9 rs187084 gene polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Törmänen, Sari; Teräsjärvi, Johanna; Vuononvirta, Juho; Koponen, Petri; Korppi, Matti; Helminen, Merja; Peltola, Ville; He, Qiushui

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity receptors play a critical role in host defence, as well as in allergy and asthma. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether there are associations between TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084 or TLR10 rs4129009 polymorphisms and viral findings, clinical characteristics or subsequent wheezing in infants with bronchiolitis. In all, 135 full-term infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis at age less than 6 months: 129 of them were followed-up until the age of 1.5 years. The outcome measures were repeated wheezing, use of inhaled corticosteroids, atopic dermatitis during the first 1.5 years of life and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). There were no significant associations between the genotypes or allele frequencies of TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084 or TLR10 rs4129009 polymorphisms and clinical characteristics or the severity of bronchiolitis during hospitalization. During follow-up, repeated wheezing was more common in children with TLR9 rs187084 variant genotype CC (30.5%) than in children with TLR9 wild-type genotype TT (12.2%) (p = 0.02, aOR 2.73, 95% CI 1.02–7.29). The TLR10 rs4129009 minor allele G was associated with elevated total serum IgE. TLR9 rs187084 gene polymorphism may be associated with post-bronchiolitis wheezing, and TLR10 rs4129009 gene polymorphism may be associated with atopy. PMID:27498757

  18. rs3806268 of NLRP3 gene polymorphism is associated with the development of primary gout

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jianping; Lin, Wen; Chen, Yunpeng; Wang, Xin; Yin, Zhong; Yao, Chunhong; Liu, Tangbing; Lv, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between seven functional SNPs in NALP3 gene and the susceptibility to primary gout. A total of 247 patients with primary gout and 247 controls were selected in this study. Genotyping of NALP3 rs4612666, rs3806268, rs12239046, rs10754558, rs7512998, rs12137901 and rs12565738 was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Comparison analysis showed that primary gout patients were more likely to have a higher body mass index, DBP, SBP, TG, urea nitrogen and uric acid (P < 0.05). According to logistic regression analysis, individuals carrying with the GG genotype of rs3806268 were associated with increased risk of primary gout when compared with the AA genotype (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.03-3.26). However, no significant associations were identified for the remaining SNPs. In conclusion, we found a significant association between rs3806268 in NLRP3 gene and the risk of primary gout in a Chinese population. Further clinical and genetic studies are required to investigate the mechanisms underlying the association between NALP3 polymorphisms and the development of primary gout. PMID:26722603

  19. ESR1 rs9340799 Is Associated with Endometriosis-Related Infertility and In Vitro Fertilization Failure

    PubMed Central

    Paskulin, Diego Davila; Cunha-Filho, João Sabino; Paskulin, Livia Davila; Souza, Carlos Augusto Bastos; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha has a central role in human fertility by regulating estrogen action in all human reproductive tissues. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expression, a cytokine critical for blastocyst implantation, is mediated by estrogen signaling, so we hypothesized that ESR1 gene polymorphisms might be candidate risk markers for endometriosis-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. We included 98 infertile women with endometriosis, 115 infertile women with at least one IVF failure and also 134 fertile women as controls. TaqMan SNP assays were used for genotyping LIF (rs929271), MDM2 (rs2279744), MDM4 (rs1563828), USP7 (rs1529916), and ESR1 (rs9340799 and rs2234693) polymorphisms. The SNP ESR1 rs9340799 was associated with endometriosis-related infertility (P < 0.001) and also with IVF failure (P = 0.018). After controlling for age, infertile women with ESR1 rs9340799 GG genotype presented 4-fold increased risk of endometriosis (OR 4.67, 95% CI 1.84–11.83, P = 0.001) and 3-fold increased risk of IVF failure (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.38–8.03, P = 0.007). Our results demonstrate an association between ESR1 rs9340799 polymorphism and infertile women with endometriosis and also with women who were submitted to IVF procedures and had no blastocyst implantation. PMID:24427778

  20. XPG rs2296147 T>C polymorphism predicted clinical outcome in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin-Hong; Hua, Rui-Xi; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Li, Xi-Zhao; Wang, Tong-Min; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG), one of key components of nucleotide excision repair pathway (NER), is involved in excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the XPG gene have been reported to associate with the clinical outcome of various cancer patients. We aimed to assess the impact of four potentially functional SNPs (rs2094258 C>T, rs2296147 T>C, rs751402 G>A, and rs873601 G>A) in the XPG gene on prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A total of 1901 patients diagnosed with pathologically confirmed CRC were genotyped for four XPG polymorphisms. Cox proportional hazards model analysis controlled for several confounding factors was conducted to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of the four included SNPs, only rs2296147 was shown to significantly affect progression-free survival (PFS) in CRC. Patients carrying rs2296147 CT/TT genotype had a significantly shorter median 10 years PFS than those carrying CC genotype (88.5 months vs. 118.1 months), and an increased progression risk were observed with rs2296147 (HR = 1.324, 95% CI = 1.046–1.667). Moreover, none of the four SNPs were associated with overall survival. In conclusion, our study showed that XPG rs2296147 CT/TT variants conferred significant survival disadvantage in CRC patients in term of PFS. XPG rs2296147 polymorphism could be predictive of unfavorable prognosis of CRC patients. PMID:26887052

  1. rs3806268 of NLRP3 gene polymorphism is associated with the development of primary gout.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jianping; Lin, Wen; Chen, Yunpeng; Wang, Xin; Yin, Zhong; Yao, Chunhong; Liu, Tangbing; Lv, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between seven functional SNPs in NALP3 gene and the susceptibility to primary gout. A total of 247 patients with primary gout and 247 controls were selected in this study. Genotyping of NALP3 rs4612666, rs3806268, rs12239046, rs10754558, rs7512998, rs12137901 and rs12565738 was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Comparison analysis showed that primary gout patients were more likely to have a higher body mass index, DBP, SBP, TG, urea nitrogen and uric acid (P < 0.05). According to logistic regression analysis, individuals carrying with the GG genotype of rs3806268 were associated with increased risk of primary gout when compared with the AA genotype (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.03-3.26). However, no significant associations were identified for the remaining SNPs. In conclusion, we found a significant association between rs3806268 in NLRP3 gene and the risk of primary gout in a Chinese population. Further clinical and genetic studies are required to investigate the mechanisms underlying the association between NALP3 polymorphisms and the development of primary gout.

  2. The interpretation and application of the three Rs by animal ethics committee members.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David

    2005-10-01

    The Three Rs form the basis of review of animal-use protocols by Animal Ethics Committees (AECs), but little research has examined how AECs actually interpret and implement the Three Rs. This topic was explored through in-depth, open-ended interviews with 28 members of AECs at four Canadian universities. In describing protocol review, AEC members rarely mentioned the Three Rs, but most reported applying some aspects of the basic concepts. Comments identified several factors that could impede full application of the Three Rs: incomplete understanding of the Three Rs (especially Refinement), trust that researchers implement Replacement and Reduction themselves, belief by some members that granting agency review covers the Three Rs, focus on sample size rather than experimental design to achieve Reduction, focus on harm caused by procedures to the exclusion of housing and husbandry, and lack of consensus on key issues, notably on the nature and moral significance of animal pain and suffering, and on whether AECs should minimise overall harm to animals. The study suggests ways to achieve more consistent application of the Three Rs, by providing AECs with up-to-date information on the Three Rs and with access to statistical expertise, by consensus-building on divisive issues, and by training on the scope and implementation of the Three Rs.

  3. Roles of CDKN1A gene polymorphisms (rs1801270 and rs1059234) in the development of cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Torres, Sandra Liliana; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Silva, Amanda Lima; Klumb, Evandro Mendes; da Rocha Guillobel, Heloísa Carneiro; de Camargo, Maria José; Santos-Rebouças, Cíntia Barros; Russomano, Fábio Bastos; Macedo, Jacyara Maria Brito

    2016-08-01

    The CDKN1A gene product is a p53 downstream effector, which participates in cell differentiation, development process, repair, apoptosis, senescence, migration, and tumorigenesis. The objective of our study was investigated the importance of two polymorphisms in the CDKN1A gene, rs1801270 (31C>A) and rs1059234 (70C>T), for the development of cervical lesions in a Southeastern Brazilian population (283 cases, stratified by lesion severity, and 189 controls). CDKN1A genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and/or DNA sequencing. CDKN1A 31A allele presents a genetic pattern of protection for the development of high-grade cervical lesions (CC vs CA genotype: OR = 0.60; 95 % CI = 0.38-0.95; p = 0.029; CA+AA vs CC genotype: OR = 0.60; 95 % CI = 0.39-0.93; p = 0.021). Allele distributions of the CDKN1A 70C>T polymorphism were also different between the two study groups, with the CDKN1A 70T allele being less prevalent among cases. Moreover, the double heterozygote genotype combination 31CA-70CT decreases the chance of developing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and cancer (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.32-0.93; p = 0.034) by 50 %, representing a protective factor against the development of more severe cervical lesions.

  4. Can mothers rely on the Brazilian health system for their deliveries? An assessment of use of the public system and out-of-pocket expenditure in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Aluísio JD; Santos, Iná S; Bertoldi, Andréa D

    2008-01-01

    Background In a country where comprehensive free health care is provided via a public health system (SUS), an unexpected high frequency of catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure has been described. We studied how deliveries were financed among mothers of a birth cohort and whether they were an important source of household out-of-pocket expenditure. Methods All deliveries occurring in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. All mothers were interviewed just after birth and three months later. Comprehensive data on the pregnancy, delivery, birth conditions and newborn health were collected, along with detailed information on expenses related to the delivery. Results The majority of the deliveries (81%) were financed by the public health system, a proportion that increased to more than 95% among the 40% poorest mothers. Less than 1% of these mothers reported some out-of-pocket expenditure. Even among those mothers covered by a private health plan, nearly 50% of births were financed by the SUS. Among the 20% richest, a third of the deliveries were paid by the SUS, 50% by private health plans and 17% by direct payment. Conclusion The public health system offered services in quantity and quality enough to attract even beneficiaries of private health plans and spared mothers from the poorest strata of the population of practically any expense. PMID:18366672

  5. Can mothers rely on the Brazilian health system for their deliveries? An assessment of use of the public system and out-of-pocket expenditure in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Bertoldi, Andréa D

    2008-03-18

    In a country where comprehensive free health care is provided via a public health system (SUS), an unexpected high frequency of catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure has been described. We studied how deliveries were financed among mothers of a birth cohort and whether they were an important source of household out-of-pocket expenditure. All deliveries occurring in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. All mothers were interviewed just after birth and three months later. Comprehensive data on the pregnancy, delivery, birth conditions and newborn health were collected, along with detailed information on expenses related to the delivery. The majority of the deliveries (81%) were financed by the public health system, a proportion that increased to more than 95% among the 40% poorest mothers. Less than 1% of these mothers reported some out-of-pocket expenditure. Even among those mothers covered by a private health plan, nearly 50% of births were financed by the SUS. Among the 20% richest, a third of the deliveries were paid by the SUS, 50% by private health plans and 17% by direct payment. The public health system offered services in quantity and quality enough to attract even beneficiaries of private health plans and spared mothers from the poorest strata of the population of practically any expense.

  6. A Combination of CD28 (rs1980422) and IRF5 (rs10488631) Polymorphisms Is Associated with Seropositivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Spoutil, Frantisek; Vlcek, Miroslav; Krskova, Katarina; Penesova, Adela; Meskova, Milada; Marko, Andrea; Raslova, Katarina; Vohnout, Branislav; Rovensky, Jozef; Killinger, Zdenko; Jochmanova, Ivana; Lazurova, Ivica; Steiner, Guenter; Smolen, Josef; Imrich, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse genetic architecture of RA by utilizing multiparametric statistical methods such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). Methods A total of 1393 volunteers, 499 patients with RA and 894 healthy controls were included in the study. The presence of shared epitope (SE) in HLA-DRB1 and 11 SNPs (PTPN22 C/T (rs2476601), STAT4 G/T (rs7574865), CTLA4 A/G (rs3087243), TRAF1/C5 A/G (rs3761847), IRF5 T/C (rs10488631), TNFAIP3 C/T (rs5029937), AFF3 A/T (rs11676922), PADI4 C/T (rs2240340), CD28 T/C (rs1980422), CSK G/A (rs34933034) and FCGR3A A/C (rs396991), rheumatoid factor (RF), anti–citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and clinical status was analysed using the LDA and RDA. Results HLA-DRB1, PTPN22, STAT4, IRF5 and PADI4 significantly discriminated between RA patients and healthy controls in LDA. The correlation between RA diagnosis and the explanatory variables in the model was 0.328 (Trace = 0.107; F = 13.715; P = 0.0002). The risk variants of IRF5 and CD28 genes were found to be common determinants for seropositivity in RDA, while positivity of RF alone was associated with the CTLA4 risk variant in heterozygous form. The correlation between serologic status and genetic determinants on the 1st ordinal axis was 0.468, and 0.145 on the 2nd one (Trace = 0.179; F = 6.135; P = 0.001). The risk alleles in AFF3 gene together with the presence of ACPA were associated with higher clinical severity of RA. Conclusions The association among multiple risk variants related to T cell receptor signalling with seropositivity may play an important role in distinct clinical phenotypes of RA. Our study demonstrates that multiparametric analyses represent a powerful tool for investigation of mutual relationships of potential risk factors in complex diseases such as RA. PMID:27092776

  7. Association between Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Gene rs12423791 or rs6214 Polymorphisms and High Myopia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Du, Xueying; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene rs12423791 and rs6214 polymorphisms with high myopia. Methods An electronic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese Biological Abstract Database for articles published prior to May 6, 2014. A meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.1 and Stata 12.0, and the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in fixed or random effects models based on the results of the Q test. The subgroup analysis was conducted on the basis of the various regions, the sensitivity analysis was also performed to evaluate the stability of the results, and the publication bias was evaluated by a funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression analysis. Results This comprehensive meta-analysis included 2808 high myopia patients and 2778 controls from five unrelated studies. The results demonstrated that the significant association was not present in any genetic models between IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 and high myopia. However, subgroup analysis indicated that rs12423791 polymorphism was associated with high myopia in the Chinese populations in the allelic contrast model (C vs. G: OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.48 in the fixed-effects model), the dominant model (CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.16-1.69 in the fixed-effects model), and the codominant model (CG vs. GG: OR=1.37, 95% CI= 1.12-1.68 in the fixed-effects model). Additionally, none of the individual studies significantly affected the association between IGF-1 rs12423791 and high myopia, according to sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 gene polymorphism is not associated with high myopia. PMID:26076017

  8. The rs4646 and rs12592697 Polymorphisms in CYP19A1 Are Associated with Disease Progression among Patients with Breast Cancer from Different Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Shah, Vallabh O.; Aguirre, Lina E.; Meisner, Angela L. W.; Qualls, Clifford; Royce, Melanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Given the racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer, we evaluated the association between CYP19A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on disease progression in women with breast cancer from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 327 women with breast cancer in the Expanded Breast Cancer Registry program of the University of New Mexico. Stored DNA samples were analyzed for CYP19A1 SNPs using a custom designed microarray panel. Genotype-phenotype correlations were analyzed. Of the 384 SNPs, 2 were associated with clinically significant outcomes, the rs4646 and rs12592697. The T allele for the rs4646 was associated with advanced stage of the disease at the time of presentation (odds ratio [OR]:1.8, confidence intervals [CI]: 1.05–3.13, p < 0.05) and a more progressive disease (OR: 2.1 [CI: 1.1–4.0], p = 0.04). For the rs12592697, the variant T allele was more frequent in Hispanic women and associated with a more progressive disease (OR: 2.05 [CI: 1.0–4.0], p = 0.04). However, further analysis according to menopausal status showed that the association between these 2 SNPs with disease progression or the stage at diagnosis are confined only to postmenopausal women. The odds ratios of disease progression among postmenopausal women carrying the T allele for the rs4646 and rs12592697 are 3.05 (1.21, 7.74, p = 0.02) and 3.80 (1.24, 11.6, p = 0.02), respectively. Regardless, differences in disease progression among the different genotypes for both SNPs disappeared after adjustment for treatment. In summary, the rs4646 and the rs12592697 SNPs in CYP19A1 are associated with differences in disease progression in postmenopausal women. However, treatment appears to mitigate the differences in genetic risk. PMID:27994616

  9. Muscle-Related Polymorphisms (MSTN rs1805086 and ACTN3 rs1815739) Are Not Associated with Exceptional Longevity in Japanese Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Yvert, Thomas; Zempo, Hirofumi; Naito, Hisashi; Abe, Yukiko; Arai, Yasumichi; Murakami, Haruka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Emanuele, Enzo; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are potentially associated with preservation of muscle mass and oxidative capacity, respectively. To explore the possible role of these genes in exceptional longevity (EL), the allele/genotype frequency distribution of two polymorphisms in MSTN (rs1805086, K153R) and ACTN3 (rs1815739, R577X) was studied in Japanese centenarians of both sexes (n = 742) and healthy controls (n = 814). The rs1805086 R-allele (theoretically associated with muscle mass preservation at the expense of oxidative capacity) was virtually absent in the two groups, where genotype distributions were virtually identical. Likewise, no differences in allele (p = 0.838 (women); p = 0.193 (men); p = 0.587 (both sexes)) or genotype distribution were found between groups for ACTN3 rs1815739 (p = 0.975 (women), p = 0.136 (men), p = 0.752 (both sexes)). Of note, however, the frequency of the rs1805086 R-allele observed here is the lowest been reported to date whereas that of the ‘highly oxidative/efficient’ rs1815739 XX genotype in Japanese male centenarians (33.3%) or supercentenarians of both sexes (≥110 years) are the highest (32.6%), for a non-American population. No definite conclusions can be inferred in relation to EL owing to its lack of association with both rs1815739 and rs1805086. However, it cannot be excluded that these gene variants could eventually be related to a “healthy” metabolic phenotype in the Japanese population. Further research might determine if such metabolic profile is among the factors that can potentially predispose these individuals to live longer than Caucasians and what genetic variants might be actually involved. PMID:27861536

  10. SMAD7 Variant rs4939827 Is Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk in Croatian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kirac, Iva; Matošević, Petar; Augustin, Goran; Šimunović, Iva; Hostić, Vedran; Župančić, Sven; Hayward, Caroline; Antoljak, Natasa; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Velimir Vrdoljak, Danko; Kovačević, Dujo; Zgaga, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Background Twenty common genetic variants have been associated with risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) in genome wide association studies to date. Since large differences between populations exist, generalisability of findings to any specific population needs to be confirmed. Aim The aim of this study was to perform an association study between risk variants: rs10795668, rs16892766, rs3802842 and rs4939827 and CRC risk in Croatian population. Methods An association study was performed on 320 colorectal cancer cases and 594 controls recruited in Croatia. We genotyped four variants previously associated with CRC: rs10795668, rs16892766, rs3802842 and rs4939827. Results SMAD7 variant rs4939827 (18q21.1) was significantly associated with CRC risk in Croatian population. C allele was associated with a decreased risk, odds ratio (OR): 0.70 (95% CI: 0.57-0.85, P=3.5E-04). Compared to TT homozygotes, risk was reduced by 34% in heterozygotes (OR=0.66, 95% CI: 0.47-0.92) and by 52% in CC homozygotes (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.33-0.72). Conclusion Our results show association of rs4939827 with colorectal cancer risk in Croatian population. The higher strength of the association in comparison to other studies suggests population-specific environmental or genetic factors may be modifying the association. More studies are needed to further describe role of rs4939827 in CRC. Likely reason for failure of replication for other 3 loci is inadequate study power. PMID:24066093

  11. Polymorphisms in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs associate with sensations from sampled ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alissa L.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variation in chemosensory genes can explain variability in individual’s perception of and preference for many foods and beverages. To gain insight into variable preference and intake of alcoholic beverages, we explored individual variability in the responses to sampled ethanol. In humans, ethanol elicits sweet, bitter and burning sensations. Here, we explore the relationship between variation in ethanol sensations and polymorphisms in genes encoding bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and a polymodal nociceptor (TRPV1). Methods Caucasian participants (n=93) were genotyped for 16 SNPs in TRPV1, 3 SNPs in TAS2R38 and 1 SNP in TAS2R13. Participants rated sampled ethanol on a generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale. Two stimuli were presented: a 16% ethanol whole mouth sip-and-spit solution with a single time-point rating of overall intensity, and a cotton swab saturated with 50% ethanol on the circumvallate papillae (CV) with repeated ratings made over 3 minutes. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the time-intensity data. Results The ethanol whole mouth solution had overall intensity ratings near ‘very strong’. Burning/stinging had the highest mean AUC values, followed by bitterness and sweetness. Whole mouth intensity ratings were significantly associated with burning/stinging and bitterness AUC values on the CV. Three TRPV1 SNPs (rs224547, rs4780521, rs161364) were associated with ethanol sensations on the CV, with two (rs224547 and rs4780521) exhibiting strong linkage disequilibrium. Additionally, the TAS2R38 SNPs rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939 formed a haplotype, and were associated with bitterness on the CV. Lastly, overall intensity for whole mouth ethanol associated with the TAS2R13 SNP rs1015443. Conclusions These data suggest genetic variations in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs influence sensations from sampled ethanol and may potentially influence how individuals initially respond to alcoholic beverages. PMID:25257701

  12. Acetylation promotes TyrRS nuclear translocation to prevent oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xuanye; Li, Chaoqun; Xiao, Siyu; Tang, Yunlan; Huang, Jing; Zhao, Shuan; Li, Xueyu; Li, Jixi; Zhang, Ruilin; Yu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is well known for its essential aminoacylation function in protein synthesis. Recently, TyrRS has been shown to translocate to the nucleus and protect against DNA damage due to oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of TyrRS nuclear localization has not yet been determined. Herein, we report that TyrRS becomes highly acetylated in response to oxidative stress, which promotes nuclear translocation. Moreover, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), an acetyltransferase, and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, regulate the nuclear localization of TyrRS in an acetylation-dependent manner. Oxidative stress increases the level of PCAF and decreases the level of SIRT1 and deacetylase activity, all of which promote the nuclear translocation of hyperacetylated TyrRS. Furthermore, TyrRS is primarily acetylated on the K244 residue near the nuclear localization signal (NLS), and acetylation inhibits the aminoacylation activity of TyrRS. Molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the in silico acetylation of K244 induces conformational changes in TyrRS near the NLS, which may promote the nuclear translocation of acetylated TyrRS. Herein, we show that the acetylated K244 residue of TyrRS protects against DNA damage in mammalian cells and zebrafish by activating DNA repair genes downstream of transcription factor E2F1. Our study reveals a previously unknown mechanism by which acetylation regulates an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, thus affecting the repair pathways for damaged DNA. PMID:28069943

  13. Association of the ACE rs4646994 and rs4341 polymorphisms with the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, S; Novák, J; Tkáčová, N; Nikolajević Starčević, J; Šantl Letonja, M; Makuc, J; Cokan Vujkovac, A; Letonja, J; Bregar, D; Zorc, M; Rojko, M; Mankoč, S; Kruzliak, P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current study was designed to reveal possible associations between the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms (rs4646994 and rs4341) with markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a 4-year-long follow-up study. Five hundred and ninety-five T2DM subjects and 200 control subjects were enrolled. Genotyping of ACE polymorphisms was performed using KASPar assays, and ultrasound examinations were performed twice (at the enrollment and at follow-up). With regard to the progression of atherosclerosis in subjects with T2DM, statistically significant differences were demonstrated in the change of the sum of carotid plaques thickness for the rs4646994 polymorphism. We did not demonstrate an association between the tested polymorphisms (rs4646994 and rs4341) and either carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) or CIMT progression in a 3.8-year period. In our study, we demonstrated that subjects with T2DM with the DD genotype of the rs4646994 [ACE insertion/deletion (I/D)] polymorphism had faster progression of atherosclerosis in comparison to subjects with other genotypes. PMID:27785395

  14. Association between 8q24 (rs13281615 and rs6983267) polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis involving 117,355 subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yafei; Zeng, Xianling; Lu, Hongwei; Ji, Hong; Zhao, Enfa; Li, Yiming

    2016-10-18

    Published data on the association between 8q24 polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) risk are inconclusive. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between 8q24 (rs13281615 and rs6983267) polymorphism and BC risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science and the Cochrane Library up to August 13, 2015 for relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of associations. Twenty-six studies published from 2008 to 2014, with a total of 52,683 cases and 64,672 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that there was significant association between 8q24 rs13281615 polymorphism and BC risk in any genetic model. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the effects remained in Asians and Caucasians. However, no genetic models reached statistical association in Africans. There was no association in any genetic model in rs6983267. This meta-analysis suggests that 8q24 rs13281615 polymorphism is a risk factor for susceptibility to BC in Asians, Caucasians and in overall population, While, there was no association in Africans. The rs6983267 polymorphism has no association with BC risk in any genetic model. Further large scale multicenter epidemiological studies are warranted to confirm this finding.

  15. Genetic and Functional Assessment of the Role of the rs13431652-A and rs573225-A Alleles in the G6PC2 Promoter That Are Strongly Associated With Elevated Fasting Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bonnefond, Amélie; Baerenwald, Devin A.; Marchand, Marion; Bugliani, Marco; Marchetti, Piero; Pattou, François; Printz, Richard L.; Flemming, Brian P.; Umunakwe, Obi C.; Conley, Nicholas L.; Vaxillaire, Martine; Lantieri, Olivier; Balkau, Beverley; Marre, Michel; Lévy-Marchal, Claire; Elliott, Paul; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Meyre, David; Dina, Christian; Oeser, James K.; Froguel, Philippe; O'Brien, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Genome-wide association studies have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs560887, located in a G6PC2 intron that is highly correlated with variations in fasting plasma glucose (FPG). G6PC2 encodes an islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit. This study examines the contribution of two G6PC2 promoter SNPs, rs13431652 and rs573225, to the association signal. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We genotyped 9,532 normal FPG participants (FPG <6.1 mmol/l) for three G6PC2 SNPs, rs13431652 (distal promoter), rs573225 (proximal promoter), rs560887 (3rd intron). We used regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and BMI to assess the association with FPG and haplotype analyses to assess comparative SNP contributions. Fusion gene and gel retardation analyses characterized the effect of rs13431652 and rs573225 on G6PC2 promoter activity and transcription factor binding. RESULTS Genetic analyses provide evidence for a strong contribution of the promoter SNPs to FPG variability at the G6PC2 locus (rs13431652: β = 0.075, P = 3.6 × 10−35; rs573225 β = 0.073 P = 3.6 × 10−34), in addition to rs560887 (β = 0.071, P = 1.2 × 10−31). The rs13431652-A and rs573225-A alleles promote increased NF-Y and Foxa2 binding, respectively. The rs13431652-A allele is associated with increased FPG and elevated promoter activity, consistent with the function of G6PC2 in pancreatic islets. In contrast, the rs573225-A allele is associated with elevated FPG but reduced promoter activity. CONCLUSIONS Genetic and in situ functional data support a potential role for rs13431652, but not rs573225, as a causative SNP linking G6PC2 to variations in FPG, though a causative role for rs573225 in vivo cannot be ruled out. PMID:20622168

  16. An investment in the Three Rs can be very profitable.

    PubMed

    Curren, Rodger

    2009-12-01

    The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by William Russell and Rex Burch provides exceptional value, both to practitioners of alternative methodologies and to bibliophiles who enjoy the pursuit of an out-of-print book. I was stimulated to find an original edition by my first visits to FRAME and its Chairman, Michael Balls. The search continued for several years, until I was able to find an edition suitable for presentation to him. During this hunt, I was able to learn a great deal about the Three Rs of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, and the programmes that FRAME initiated to educate scientists and the general public about alternative approaches. Very importantly, I was able to use many of FRAME's successful strategies to build up a similar organisation in the United States, the Institute for In Vitro Sciences. The double value of this book is now revealed - not only are its concepts scientifically and ethically valuable, but the price now being charged by secondhand booksellers means a more than ten-fold increase in the value of my investment!

  17. The axisymmetric envelopes of RS Cnc and EP Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bertre, T.; Hoai, D. T.; Nhung, P. T.; Winters, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    We report on observations obtained at IRAM on two semi-regular variable Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, RS Cnc and EP Aqr, undergoing mass loss at an intermediate rate of ˜ 10^{-7} MȯMd. Interferometric data obtained with the Plateau-de-Bure interferometer (NOEMA) have been combined with On-The-Fly maps obtained with the 30-m telescope in the CO(1-0) and (2-1) rotational lines. The spectral maps of spatially resolved sources reveal an axisymmetric morphology in which matter is flowing out at a low velocity (˜ 2 kms) in the equatorial planes, and at a larger velocity (˜ 8 kms) along the polar axes. There are indications that this kind of morpho-kinematics is relatively frequent among stars at the beginning of their evolution on the Thermally-Pulsing AGB, in particular among those that show composite CO line profiles, and that it might be caused by the presence of a companion. We discuss the progress that could be expected for our understanding of the mass loss mechanisms in this kind of sources by increasing the spatial resolution of the observations with ALMA or NOEMA.

  18. Brush Seal Arrangement for the RS-68 Turbopump Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunez, D.; Ransom, D.; Prueger, G.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of the RS-68 turbopumps requires that the hydrogen seals separating the pump from the turbine must have extremely low levels of leakage and be contained in small packages. Conventional seal technologies are not able to reasonably satisfy such design requirements. A review of experimental measurements and analysis publications suggests that brush seals are well suited for the design requirements. Brush seals are shown to have less leakage than conventional labyrinth and damper seals and have no adverse effects on the rotordynamics of the machine. The bulk-flow analysis presented by Hendricks et al. is used as a guideline to create a spreadsheet that provides mass flow through the seal and heat generated by the rubbing contact of the bristles on the shaft. The analysis is anchored to published data for LN2 and LH2 leakage tests. Finally, the analysis is used to design seals for both applications. It is observed that the most important analysis parameter is the thickness of the bristle pack and its relationship to seal clearance, lay angle and pressure drop.

  19. RASSF1A and the rs2073498 Cancer Associated SNP

    PubMed Central

    Donninger, Howard; Barnoud, Thibaut; Nelson, Nick; Kassler, Suzanna; Clark, Jennifer; Cummins, Timothy D.; Powell, David W.; Nyante, Sarah; Millikan, Robert C.; Clark, Geoffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    RASSF1A is one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressors yet identified in human cancer. It is pro-apoptotic and appears to function as a scaffolding protein that interacts with a variety of other tumor suppressors to modulate their function. It can also complex with the Ras oncoprotein and may serve to integrate pro-growth and pro-death signaling pathways. A SNP has been identified that is present in approximately 29% of European populations [rs2073498, A(133)S]. Several studies have now presented evidence that this SNP is associated with an enhanced risk of developing breast cancer. We have used a proteomics based approach to identify multiple differences in the pattern of protein/protein interactions mediated by the wild type compared to the SNP variant protein. We have also identified a significant difference in biological activity between wild type and SNP variant protein. However, we have found only a very modest association of the SNP with breast cancer predisposition. PMID:22649770

  20. Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples - RaPToRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalino, S.; Barrios, M.; Sangster, C.

    2005-10-01

    Some ICF neutron activation diagnostics require quick retrieval of the activated sample. Minimizing retrieval times is particularly important when the half-life of the activated material is on the order of the transport time or the degree of radioactivity is close to the background counting level. These restrictions exist in current experiments performed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, thus motivating the development of the RaPToRS system. The system has been designed to minimize transportation time while requiring no human intervention during transport or counting. These factors will be important if the system is to be used at the NIF where radiological hazards will be present during post activation. The sample carrier is pneumatically transported via a 4 inch ID PVC pipe to a remote location in excess of 100 meters from the activation site at a speed of approximately 7 m/s. It arrives at an end station where it is dismounted robotically from the carrier and removed from its hermetic package. The sample is then placed by the robot in a counting station. This system is currently being developed to measure back-to-back gamma rays produced by positron annihilation which were emitted by activated graphite. Funded in part by the U.S. DOE under sub contract with LLE at the University of Rochester.

  1. Performance Characterization of RaPToRS Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, K.; Krieger, M.; Fallica, J.; Henchen, R.; Pogozelski, E.; Padalino, S.; SUNY Geneseo Collaboration; LaboratoryLaser Energetics at University of Rochester Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (RaPToRS) system can quickly and efficiently move radioactive materials from their activation site to a counting station. Facilities such as the NIF and LLE are considering these systems while NRL is currently using one. The system is essentially a 10 cm diameter pneumatic tube with a cylindrical sample carrier. The performance of the system depends on many factors, including the mass of the carrier, length of the tube, angle and difference in height of the tube's endpoints, the carrier's physical design, and the number, type, and distribution of blowers attached to the tube. These factors have been systematically examined to develop the fastest and most reliable system. The most significant factors are the mass and the vertical travel of the carrier. When the carrier mass is low, moving air supports the carrier in the tube, resulting in low friction. The terminal velocity ranges from 13.5 to 2.5 m/s for masses varying from 1 kg to 3 kg. Using a single 1100 W blower, the initial force exerted on the carrier was 11.3 N. This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy through the LLE.

  2. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  3. Validation of the Official Slovak Version of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS).

    PubMed

    Skorvanek, Matej; Minar, Michal; Grofik, Milan; Kracunova, Katarina; Han, Vladimir; Cibulcik, Frantisek; Necpal, Jan; Gurcik, Ladislav; Valkovic, Peter

    2015-01-01

    After successful clinimetric testing of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS), a program for translation and validation of non-English versions of the UDysRS was initiated. The aim of this study was to validate and confirm the factor structure of the Slovak translation of the UDysRS. We examined 251 patients with Parkinson's disease and dyskinesia using the Slovak version of the UDysRS. The average age of our sample was 65.2 ± 9.2 years and average disease duration was 10.9 ± 5.0 years. Slovak data were compared using confirmatory factor analysis with the Spanish data. To be designated as the official Slovak UDysRS translation, the comparative fit index (CFI) had to be ≥0.90 relative to the Spanish language version. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to explore the underlying factor structure without the constraint of a prespecified factor structure. For all four parts of the Slovak UDysRS, the CFI, in comparison with the Spanish language factor structure, was ≥0.98. Isolated differences in the factor structure of the Slovak UDysRS were identified by exploratory factor analysis compared with the Spanish version. The Slovak version of the UDysRS was designated as an official non-English translation and can be downloaded from the website of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Identification of rs671, a common variant of ALDH2, as a gout susceptibility locus.

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Masayuki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-05-16

    Gout is a common disease resulting from hyperuricemia. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified an association between gout and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2188380, located on an intergenic region between MYL2 and CUX2 on chromosome 12. However, other genes around rs2188380 could possibly be gout susceptibility genes. Therefore, we performed a fine-mapping study of the MYL2-CUX2 region. From 8,595 SNPs in the MYL2-CUX2 region, 9 tag SNPs were selected, and genotyping of 1,048 male gout patients and 1,334 male controls was performed by TaqMan method. Eight SNPs showed significant associations with gout after Bonferroni correction. rs671 (Glu504Lys) of ALDH2 had the most significant association with gout (P = 1.7 × 10(-18), odds ratio = 0.53). After adjustment for rs671, the other 8 SNPs no longer showed a significant association with gout, while the significant association of rs671 remained. rs671 has been reportedly associated with alcohol drinking behavior, and it is well-known that alcohol drinking elevates serum uric acid levels. These data suggest that rs671, a common functional SNP of ALDH2, is a genuine gout-associated SNP in the MYL2-CUX2 locus and that "A" allele (Lys) of rs671 plays a protective role in the development of gout.

  5. Meta-analysis of association between rs1447295 polymorphism and prostate cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Anyou; Wang, Fengchao; Kang, Shuxia; Pei, Yunfeng; Cao, Chunping; Ding, Chen; Wang, Duping; Sun, Li; Niu, Guoping

    2017-09-15

    A number of studies have found that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 8q24 region of genome were associated with the susceptibility of prostate cancer. Association between 8q24 SNP variant rs1447295 and higher risk of prostate cancer had been investigated, but those studies were incomplete and the conclusions were obscure. To better elucidate the relationship between rs1447295 polymorphism and the susceptibility of prostate cancer, we performed a more comprehensive meta-analysis about the association between rs1447295 polymorphism and prostate cancer susceptibility by collecting relevant articles published up to November, 2016 and excluding many replicated cohort data existing in previous reports, which made the conclusion more reliant and objective. The results showed that there was a significant prostate cancer risk associated with rs1447295 polymorphism not only in the total groups, but also in American, European and Asian descent subgroups. Meanwhile, a comprehensive analysis about the association between rs1447295 polymorphism and prostate cancer risk were conducted by using different clinical characteristic stratifications including Gleason score, tumor stage and PSA level. The result showed that rs1447295 polymorphism was correlated with different stages of prostate cancer. There are strong association between rs1447295 polymorphism and prostate cancer susceptibility in different ethnic groups and different prostate cancer stage, suggesting that rs1447295 might serve as a reliable biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis.

  6. CLU rs9331888 Polymorphism Contributes to Alzheimer's Disease Susceptibility in Caucasian But Not East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Xuling; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Liao, Mingzhi; Feng, Rennan; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Jiafeng; Wang, Guangyu; Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Qinghua; Li, Keshen; Liu, Guiyou

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms rs11136000, rs2279590, and rs9331888 in CLU gene to be significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Caucasian ancestry. Both rs11136000 and rs2279590 variants were successfully replicated in Asian population. However, previous studies reported either a weak association or no association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in Asian population. Here, we searched the PubMed, AlzGene, and Google Scholar databases. We selected 12 independent studies that evaluated the association between the rs9331888 polymorphism and AD using a case-control design. Using an additive model, we did not identify significant heterogeneity among these 12 studies. We observed significant association between rs9331888 polymorphism and AD in pooled populations (P = 2.26E - 07, odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.14). In subgroup analysis, we did not identify significant heterogeneity in both Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified significant association in Caucasian population (P = 1.67E - 08, OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.18) but not in East Asian population (P = 0.49, OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.96-1.10).

  7. Obesity-associated gene FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in relation to the risk of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Wang, Fengliang; Pan, Hongqiu; Qiu, Sangsang; Lü, Jieqiong; Wu, Liang; Wang, Jianming; Lu, Cheng

    2014-11-07

    Obesity is known to affect cell-mediated immune responses. Recent studies have revealed that genetic polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are related to human obesity. We hypothesize that this gene may also play a role in the risk of immune-related infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. This case-control study included 1625 pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 1570 unaffected controls recruited from the Jiangsu province in China. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs9939609 and rs8050136, in the FTO gene were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the unconditional logistic regression model. We observed a significant association between the genetic polymorphism rs9939609 and tuberculosis risk. Compared with the common genotype TT, individuals carrying AA had a significantly increased risk, with an OR of 3.77 (95% CI: 2.26-6.28). After adjusting for potential confounders, the relationship remains significant. An additive model showed that carriers of an allele A had a 26% increased risk of tuberculosis compared with the T allele (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.08-1.48). Compared with the common haplotype rs9939609T-rs8050136C, the haplotype rs9939609A-rs8050136C was related to an increased risk of tuberculosis (OR = 6.09, 95% CI: 3.27-12.34). The FTO polymorphism rs9939609 is associated with a risk of pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chinese population.

  8. Genetic Variant rs10757278 on Chromosome 9p21 Contributes to Myocardial Infarction Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangyuan; Fu, Xiuhua; Wang, Guangyu; Liu, Guiyou; Bai, Xiuping

    2015-05-21

    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed that rs10757278 polymorphism (or its proxy rs1333049) on chromosome 9p21 is associated with myocardial infarction (MI) susceptibility in individuals of Caucasian ancestry. Following studies in other populations investigated this association. However, some of these studies reported weak or no significant association. Here, we reevaluated this association using large-scale samples by searching PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Our results showed significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI with p = 6.09 × 10-22, odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.36 in pooled population. We further performed a subgroup analysis, and found significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI in Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified that the association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI did not vary substantially by excluding any one study. However, the heterogeneity among the selected studies varies substantially by excluding the study from the Pakistan population. We found even more significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI in pooled population, p = 3.55 × 10-53, after excluding the study from the Pakistan population. In summary, previous studies reported weak or no significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that rs10757278 polymorphism is significantly associated with MI susceptibility by analyzing large-scale samples.

  9. Identification of rs671, a common variant of ALDH2, as a gout susceptibility locus

    PubMed Central

    Sakiyama, Masayuki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Gout is a common disease resulting from hyperuricemia. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified an association between gout and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2188380, located on an intergenic region between MYL2 and CUX2 on chromosome 12. However, other genes around rs2188380 could possibly be gout susceptibility genes. Therefore, we performed a fine-mapping study of the MYL2-CUX2 region. From 8,595 SNPs in the MYL2-CUX2 region, 9 tag SNPs were selected, and genotyping of 1,048 male gout patients and 1,334 male controls was performed by TaqMan method. Eight SNPs showed significant associations with gout after Bonferroni correction. rs671 (Glu504Lys) of ALDH2 had the most significant association with gout (P = 1.7 × 10−18, odds ratio = 0.53). After adjustment for rs671, the other 8 SNPs no longer showed a significant association with gout, while the significant association of rs671 remained. rs671 has been reportedly associated with alcohol drinking behavior, and it is well-known that alcohol drinking elevates serum uric acid levels. These data suggest that rs671, a common functional SNP of ALDH2, is a genuine gout-associated SNP in the MYL2-CUX2 locus and that “A” allele (Lys) of rs671 plays a protective role in the development of gout. PMID:27181629

  10. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao

    2017-03-01

    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  11. Nanostructured lipid carrier surface modified with Eudragit RS 100 and its potential ophthalmic functions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenji; Li, Xuedong; Ye, Tiantian; Chen, Fen; Yu, Shihui; Chen, Jianting; Yang, Xinggang; Yang, Na; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Jinlu; Pan, Weisan; Kong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the ocular performance of a cationic Eudragit (EDU) RS 100-coated nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). The genistein encapsulated NLC (GEN-NLC) was produced using the melt-emulsification technique followed by surface absorption of EDU RS 100. The EDU RS 100 increased the surface zeta potential from −7.46 mV to +13.60 mV, by uniformly forming a spherical coating outside the NLC surface, as shown by transmission electron microscopy images. The EDU RS 100 on the NLC surface effectively improved the NLC stability by inhibiting particle size growth. The obtained EDU RS 100-GEN-NLC showed extended precorneal clearance and a 1.22-fold increase in AUC (area under the curve) compared with the bare NLC in a Gamma scintigraphic evaluation. The EDU RS 100 modification also significantly increased corneal penetration producing a 3.3-fold increase in apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) compared with references. Draize and cytotoxicity testing confirmed that the developed EDU RS 100-GEN-NLC was nonirritant to ocular tissues and nontoxic to corneal cells. These results indicate that the NLC surface modified by EDU RS 100 significantly improves the NLC properties and exhibits many advantages for ocular use. PMID:25246787

  12. Association of polymorphisms of rs179247 and rs12101255 in thyroid stimulating hormone receptor intron 1 with an increased risk of Graves' disease: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Jiang, Shu-Jun; Wang, Ding-Kun; Dong, Hui; Chen, Guang; Fang, Ke; Cui, Jin-Rui; Lu, Fu-Er

    2016-08-01

    The polymorphisms of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) intron 1 rs179247 and rs12101255 have been found to be associated with Graves' disease (GD) in genetic studies. In the present study, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine this association. Two reviewers systematically searched eligible studies in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). A meta-analysis on the association between GD and TSHR intron 1 rs179247 or rs12101255 was performed. The odd ratios (OR) were estimated with 95% confidence interval (CI). Meta package in R was used for the analyses. Seven articles (13 studies) published between 2009 and 2014, involving 5754 GD patients and 5768 controls, were analyzed. The polymorphism of rs179247 was found to be associated with an increased GD risk in the allele analysis (A vs. G: OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.33-1.48) and all genetic models (AA vs. GG: OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.73-2.19; AA+AG vs. GG: OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.41-1.74; AA vs. AG+GG: OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.43-1.66). The site rs12101255 also conferred a risk of GD in the allele analysis (T vs. C: OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.40-1.60) and all genetic models (TT vs. CC: OR=2.22, 95% CI=1.92-2.57; TT+TC vs. CC: OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.50-1.83; TT vs. TC+CC: OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.53-1.98). Analysis of the relationship between rs179247 and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) showed no statistically significant correlation (A vs. G: OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.97-1.07). Publication bias was not significant. In conclusion, GD is associated with polymorphisms of TSHR intron 1 rs179247 and rs12101255. There is no association between rs179247 SNPs and GO.

  13. Association of IL-1α rs17561 and IL-1 RN rs315952 polymorphisms with Tourette syndrome: a family-based study.

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Shao, Xiaohui; Yi, Mingji; Wang, Yu; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Liu, Shiguo

    2015-01-01

    Immune system dysregulation has been implicated to play a key role in pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS). IL-1α and IL-1RN are important inflammatory cytokines that mediate the inflammation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-1α and IL-1RN and the susceptibility to TS in Chinese Han population. A total of 276 children with TS and their parents were recruited in the study. All DNA from our subjects were genotyped for SNPs of IL-1α rs17561 and IL-1RN rs315952 using predesigned TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. The genetic contributions of two polymorphisms were evaluated using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and haplotype relative risk (HRR) design. In addition, to increase the efficiency of the test, the haplotype-based HRR (HHRR) was performed. No significant differences were observed in allelic and genotypic frequency of rs17561 in IL-1α and rs315952 in IL-1RN between the transmitted group and non-transmitted group (for IL-1α rs17561: TDT=0.890, df=1, P=0.402; HRR=1.011, X(2)=3.016, P=0.082, 95% CI=0.999-1.024; for IL-1RN rs315952: TDT=0.095, df=1, P=0.805; HRR=0.984, X(2)=0.008, P=0.929, 95% CI=0.695-1.394). Similarly, the analysis of HHRR also did not support a significant association (for IL-1α rs17561: HHRR=1.226, X(2)=0.915, P=0.339, 95% CI=0.807-1.863; for IL-1RN rs315952: HHRR=0.963, X(2)=0.094, P=0.759, 95% CI=0.758-1.225). Our results suggest that IL-1α rs17561 and IL-1RN rs315952 polymorphisms may not be associated with susceptibility to TS in Chinese Han population. However, the results still need to be replicated in a larger sample size and different populations.

  14. Two-component signal transduction system SaeRS positively regulates Staphylococcus epidermidis glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qiang; Qi, Yijun; Ma, Yuanfang; Qu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a causative pathogen of nosocomial infection, expresses its virulent traits such as biofilm and autolysis regulated by two-component signal transduction system SaeRS. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the S. epidermidis 1457 wild-type and saeRS mutant to identify candidates regulated by saeRS using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/lonization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Of 55 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two strains, 15 were upregulated and 40 were downregulated. The downregulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis and TCA cycle, suggesting that glucose is not properly utilized in S. epidermidis when saeRS was deleted. The study will be helpful for treatment of S. epidermidis infection from the viewpoint of metabolic modulation dependent on two-component signal transduction system SaeRS.

  15. Dose-responses of Bacillus cereus RS87 for growth enhancement in various Thai rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Plianbangchang, Pinyupa

    2010-12-01

    To achieve the goal of reducing the levels of chemical fertilizers applied in rice production, there is a need to develop microorganisms with the capacity to enhance plant growth. Previous studies have demonstrated that Bacillus cereus RS87 promotes growth of various plants in greenhouse and field trials. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the efficacy and determine the optimum concentration of B. cereus RS87 to enhance growth of various Thai rice cultivars, (ii) measure the chlorophyll content in leaves affected by strain RS87, and (iii) investigate the capacity of strain RS87 to solubilize phosphate and produce siderophores. Three concentrations of strain RS87 (log 6.0, log 7.0, and log 8.0 CFU/mL) were applied to each rice cultivar. Superior responses (i.e., enhanced development of roots and shoots of all rice cultivars) were observed using RS87 at log 8.0 CFU/mL compared with lower bacterial concentrations and the water-treated control treatment. In addition, log 8.0 CFU/mL of RS87 provided the greatest root length and plant height of all rice cultivars 45 days after planting in the greenhouse. Rice leaves treated with log 8.0 CFU/mL of RS87 yielded the highest total chlorophyll, specifically chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, compared with the control. Strain RS87 also solubilized phosphate and produced siderophores. The results of these studies demonstrate that log 8.0 CFU/mL is the optimum concentration of strain RS87 for growth promotion of various Thai rice cultivars.

  16. Accuracy Assessment and Correction of Vaisala RS92 Radiosonde Water Vapor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Miloshevich, Larry M.; Vomel, Holger; Leblanc, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Relative humidity (RH) measurements from Vaisala RS92 radiosondes are widely used in both research and operational applications, although the measurement accuracy is not well characterized as a function of its known dependences on height, RH, and time of day (or solar altitude angle). This study characterizes RS92 mean bias error as a function of its dependences by comparing simultaneous measurements from RS92 radiosondes and from three reference instruments of known accuracy. The cryogenic frostpoint hygrometer (CFH) gives the RS92 accuracy above the 700 mb level; the ARM microwave radiometer gives the RS92 accuracy in the lower troposphere; and the ARM SurTHref system gives the RS92 accuracy at the surface using 6 RH probes with NIST-traceable calibrations. These RS92 assessments are combined using the principle of Consensus Referencing to yield a detailed estimate of RS92 accuracy from the surface to the lowermost stratosphere. An empirical bias correction is derived to remove the mean bias error, yielding corrected RS92 measurements whose mean accuracy is estimated to be +/-3% of the measured RH value for nighttime soundings and +/-4% for daytime soundings, plus an RH offset uncertainty of +/-0.5%RH that is significant for dry conditions. The accuracy of individual RS92 soundings is further characterized by the 1-sigma "production variability," estimated to be +/-1.5% of the measured RH value. The daytime bias correction should not be applied to cloudy daytime soundings, because clouds affect the solar radiation error in a complicated and uncharacterized way.

  17. LPA rs10455872 polymorphism is associated with coronary lesions in Brazilian patients submitted to coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in the LPA gene were associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there are differences in the allelic frequencies, Lp(a) levels, and significant association with CAD according to ethnic groups. In this scenario, the main aim of this study was to assess the influence of the LPA polymorphisms on coronary lesions in Brazilian patients. Methods 1,394 consecutive patients submitted to coronary angiography to study suggestive CAD and twenty coronary segments were scored. Genotyping for the LPA rs10455872 and rs3798220 polymorphisms were performed by high resolution melting analysis. Results The frequencies of the rs10455872 G and rs3798220 C variant alleles were 6.4% and 6.2%, respectively. LPA rs10455872 G variant allele was associated with higher odds ratio of having coronary lesions in an adjusted model (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.10-3.72, p = 0.02). Scores of coronary lesions (extension, severity, and Gensini scores) were significantly different among rs10455872 genotype groups. Coronary lesions was not associated with LPA rs3798220 (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.67-1.76, p = 0.73) and scores of coronary lesions were not different among rs3798220 genotypes. Conclusions We confirmed the association of the LPA rs10455872 with CAD in a large sample of Brazilian patients. For the LPA rs3798220, our finding is consistent with studies which showed the lack of this genetic association. PMID:24776095

  18. Association of rs10830963 and rs10830962 SNPs in the melatonin receptor (MTNR1B) gene among Han Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Shi, Yuhua; You, Li; Wang, Laicheng; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the 'melatonin receptor (MTNR1B)' gene polymorphisms are associated with a predisposition for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10830963 and rs10830962, in the MTNR1B gene were detected in 526 patients with PCOS and 547 healthy Chinese Han women. The association between MTNR1B gene variants and plasma glucose and insulin levels during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hormone levels was investigated. The frequencies of three genotypes and two allelotypes of the SNP, rs10830963, differed significantly between women with PCOS and healthy controls (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The SNP, rs10830963, was significantly associated with higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations (P < 0.001) and increased the area under the curve of plasma glucose levels during the OGTT (P < 0.001), as well as increased homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; P = 0.027). No significant differences were observed in the genotypes and allele distributions of rs10830962 polymorphisms between the PCOS and the control groups (P = 0.311 and P = 0.178, respectively). There was no significant difference in the clinical and the metabolic characteristics in women with PCOS with different genotypes in the SNP, rs10830962 (all P > 0.005). The present study suggest that the SNP, rs10830963, in the MTNR1B gene is not only associated with susceptibility to PCOS, but also contributes to the PCOS phenotype.

  19. Association of genetic variants in INS (rs689), INSR (rs1799816) and PP1G.G (rs1799999) with type 2 diabetes (T2D): a case-control study in three ethnic groups from North-West India.

    PubMed

    Sokhi, Jasmine; Sikka, Ruhi; Raina, Priyanka; Kaur, Ramandeep; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Arora, Punit; Bhanwer, Ajs

    2016-02-01

    Genetic contributions towards Type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been assessed through association studies across different world populations with inconsistencies. The majority of the T2D susceptibility loci are common across different races or populations but show ethnicity-specific differences. The pathogenesis of T2D involves genetic variants in the candidate genes. The interactions between the genes involved in insulin signaling and secretory pathways are believed to play an important role in determining an individual's susceptibility towards T2D. Therefore, the present study was initiated to examine the differences, if any, in the contribution of polymorphisms towards T2D susceptibility in the background of different ethnic specifications. The present case-control study included a total of 1216 T2D cases and healthy controls from three ethnic groups (Jat Sikhs, Banias and Brahmins) of North-West India. Polymorphisms were selected on the basis of information available in the literature for INS (rs689), INSR (rs1799816) and PP1G.G (rs1799999) in context to T2D. The genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. The analyses revealed that INS (rs689) polymorphism conferred risk towards T2D susceptibility in all the three ethnic groups whereas INSR (rs1799816) polymorphism conferred risk towards T2D in Brahmins only and PP1G.G (rs1799999) polymorphism indicated T2D risk in Jat Sikhs only. Furthermore, interaction analyses indicated the cumulative role of three genetic variants in modulating T2D susceptibility in the three ethnic groups. In conclusion, our results substantiated the evidences for the role of ethnicity in differential susceptibility to T2D in the background of same genetic variants.

  20. The Two-Component System GrvRS (EtaRS) Regulates ace Expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavindra V.; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V.; Murray, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46°C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and β-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  1. Cephalopods in neuroscience: regulations, research and the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Graziano; Affuso, Andrea; Anderson, David B; Basil, Jennifer; Bonnaud, Laure; Botta, Giovanni; Cole, Alison; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Dennison, Ngaire; Dickel, Ludovic; Di Cosmo, Anna; Di Cristo, Carlo; Gestal, Camino; Fonseca, Rute; Grasso, Frank; Kristiansen, Tore; Kuba, Michael; Maffucci, Fulvio; Manciocco, Arianna; Mark, Felix Christopher; Melillo, Daniela; Osorio, Daniel; Palumbo, Anna; Perkins, Kerry; Ponte, Giovanna; Raspa, Marcello; Shashar, Nadav; Smith, Jane; Smith, David; Sykes, António; Villanueva, Roger; Tublitz, Nathan; Zullo, Letizia; Andrews, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Cephalopods have been utilised in neuroscience research for more than 100 years particularly because of their phenotypic plasticity, complex and centralised nervous system, tractability for studies of learning and cellular mechanisms of memory (e.g. long-term potentiation) and anatomical features facilitating physiological studies (e.g. squid giant axon and synapse). On 1 January 2013, research using any of the about 700 extant species of "live cephalopods" became regulated within the European Union by Directive 2010/63/EU on the "Protection of Animals used for Scientific Purposes", giving cephalopods the same EU legal protection as previously afforded only to vertebrates. The Directive has a number of implications, particularly for neuroscience research. These include: (1) projects will need justification, authorisation from local competent authorities, and be subject to review including a harm-benefit assessment and adherence to the 3Rs principles (Replacement, Refinement and Reduction). (2) To support project evaluation and compliance with the new EU law, guidelines specific to cephalopods will need to be developed, covering capture, transport, handling, housing, care, maintenance, health monitoring, humane anaesthesia, analgesia and euthanasia. (3) Objective criteria need to be developed to identify signs of pain, suffering, distress and lasting harm particularly in the context of their induction by an experimental procedure. Despite diversity of views existing on some of these topics, this paper reviews the above topics and describes the approaches being taken by the cephalopod research community (represented by the authorship) to produce "guidelines" and the potential contribution of neuroscience research to cephalopod welfare.

  2. UBVRI Linear and Circular Polarization of Rs-Canum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaltriti, F.; Piirola, V.; Coyne, G. V.; Koch, R. H.; Elias, N. M.; Holenstein, B. D.

    1993-12-01

    The observed sample of 15 RS CVn binaries contains 6 systems with evidence of circumbinary dust envelopes from an IR excess, and for comparison 6 binaries which do not show any excess, the rest of the objects have an uncertain detection. Four of the binaries, II Peg, DK Dra, GK Hya, and UX Ari were observed with phase coverages sufficient for a second order Fourier analysis. Data for II Peg from 36 nights spanning two observing seasons give evidence for a statistically significant second harmonic in the V band with an amplitude of 0.024±0.007% in the parameter Px. The modulation appears to be stronger (0.042±0.010%) during the first season (1989-90) and to have a decreased amplitude (0.013±0.010%) during the second indicating possible long-term variability. Due to the small number of observations in the R and I bands the detections are less clear. The same is true for the Fourier fits of the other observed binaries. CQ Aur, RZ Eri, and VV Mon are polarized at the 0.20% level (σ ˜ ±0.01%), but the wavelength dependence for these binaries is consistent with interstellar polarization. The mean polarizations for UX Ari and DK Dra are small (0.017±0.010% and 0.032±0.008%, respectively), but show a tendency to increase toward the infrared, which may indicate scattering by large dust particles in optically thin circumstellar material. No correlation between the IR excess and the evidence for intrinsic polarization was found.

  3. Bone mineral density is associated with vitamin D related rs6013897 and estrogen receptor polymorphism rs4870044: The Tromsø study

    PubMed Central

    Jorde, Rolf; Emaus, Nina; Eggen, Anne Elise; Joakimsen, Ragnar Martin; Kamycheva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is determined by bone remodeling processes regulated by endocrine, autocrine and genetic mechanisms. Thus, some studies have reported that BMD is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with vitamin D receptor (VDR), serum 25(OH)D levels and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), but without consensus. Therefore, we aimed to map and compare the risk genotypes for forearm and total hip low BMD. Methods and findings Data were derived from a population-based study in northern Norway; the Tromsø Study. Distal forearm BMD was measured with a single x-ray absorptiometric device, while total hip BMD was measured with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric device. There were 7,317 and 4,082 successful analyses of distal forearm and total hip BMD, respectively, and at least one SNP of interest. We evaluated plausible BMD modulating factors and associations of BMD and SNPs related to vitamin D metabolism (FokI, Cdx2, BsmI, rs2298850, rs10741657, rs3794060, rs6013897), ApaI-BsmI-TaqI haplotypes and ESR1 SNP rs4870044. Results Age, BMI, physical activity and smoking were significantly associated with BMD. In a linear regression model with adjustment for age and gender and with the major homozygote as reference, rs6013897 had a standardized beta coefficient (β) of –0.031 (P = 0.024) for total hip BMD. β for ESR1 SNP rs4870044 was –0.016 (P = 0.036) for forearm BMD and –0.034 (P = 0.015) for total hip BMD. The other SNPs nor serum 25(OH)D were significantly associated with BMD. Conclusions Both forearm and total hip BMD were associated with ESR1 SNP rs4870044. Of the vitamin D–related genes, only CYP24A1 gene rs6013897 was associated with total hip BMD, but the association was weak and needs confirmation in other studies. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with BMD in our population, probably due to the generally sufficient vitamin D levels in the population. PMID:28253304

  4. Pioneering Better Science through the 3Rs: An Introduction to the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs)

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Robinson, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) is an independent scientific organization that is based in the United Kingdom, which was set up by the government to lead the discovery and application of new technologies and approaches that minimize the use of animals in research and improve animal welfare. The NC3Rs uses a range of strategies to improve and advance science through application of the 3Rs. These include funding basic research, open innovation (CRACK IT), and programs run by inhouse scientists. We present several case studies from the NC3Rs portfolio, featuring asthma research, the use of nonhuman primates in monoclonal antibody development, and CRACK IT. Finally, we anticipate the future, as we use our experience to move into new research fields and expand toward international collaboration. Here we highlight how equipping scientists with relevant and emerging 3Rs tools can help overcome the challenges and limitations of the use of animals in research to the benefit of the whole bioscience community. PMID:25836967

  5. Evaluation of interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 (IFITM3) rs7478728 and rs3888188 polymorphisms and the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Mohammad; Abedipour, Fatemeh; Bahari, Gholamreza; Rezaei, Maryam; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the possible association between the interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 (IFITM3) gene polymorphisms and risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a sample population. This case-control study was conducted on 188 PTB patients and 169 healthy subjects. The rs7478728 and rs3888188 variants of IFITM3 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The findings showed no significant association between rs7478728 polymorphism and risk of PTB. Regarding rs3888188 polymorphism, the TG genotype as well as G allele significantly increased the risk of PTB [odds ratio (OR)=2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42–4.53; P=0.002, and OR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.33–3.86; P=0.003, respectively]. In conclusion, the findings revealed that rs3888188 polymorphism increased the risk of PTB in a sample of Iranian population. Additional investigation with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are needed to verify our findings. PMID:27882230

  6. Pioneering better science through the 3Rs: an introduction to the national centre for the replacement, refinement, and reduction of animals in research (NC3Rs).

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Robinson, Vicky

    2015-03-01

    The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) is an independent scientific organization that is based in the United Kingdom, which was set up by the government to lead the discovery and application of new technologies and approaches that minimize the use of animals in research and improve animal welfare. The NC3Rs uses a range of strategies to improve and advance science through application of the 3Rs. These include funding basic research, open innovation (CRACK IT), and programs run by inhouse scientists. We present several case studies from the NC3Rs portfolio, featuring asthma research, the use of nonhuman primates in monoclonal antibody development, and CRACK IT. Finally, we anticipate the future, as we use our experience to move into new research fields and expand toward international collaboration. Here we highlight how equipping scientists with relevant and emerging 3Rs tools can help overcome the challenges and limitations of the use of animals in research to the benefit of the whole bioscience community.

  7. Two common functional catalase gene polymorphisms (rs1001179 and rs794316) and cancer susceptibility: evidence from 14,942 cancer cases and 43,285 controls

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xijing; Kang, Huafeng; Lin, Shuai; Yang, Pengtao; Dai, Cong; Xu, Peng; Li, Shanli; Dai, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the associations of catalase polymorphisms with various types of cancer, including cervical and prostate cancers. However, the results were inconsistent. To obtain a more reliable conclusion, we evaluated the relationship between the two common catalase gene polymorphisms (rs1001179 and rs794316) and cancer risk by a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 37 published studies involving 14,942 cancer patients and 43,285 cancer-free controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the cancer risk. The results demonstrated that the rs1001179 polymorphism was associated with an increased cancer risk in the recessive and homozygote models (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.19, P = 0.01; TT vs. CT+CC: OR = 1.19, P <0.001). Furthermore, stratified analyses revealed a significant association between the rs1001179 polymorphism and prostate cancer in all models except the homozygote comparison. An association of the rs794316 polymorphism with cancer risk was detected in two genetic models (TT vs. AA: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.03–1.74, P <0.001; TT vs. AT+AA: OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.09–1.77, P = 0.01). Additional well-designed studies with large samples should be performed to validate our results. PMID:27449288

  8. MAOA rs1137070 and heroin addiction interactively alter gray matter volume of the salience network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Linwen; Feng, Jiajia; Yue, Weihua; Lu, Lin; Fan, Yong; Shi, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The rs1137070 polymorphism of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is associated with alcoholism and smoking behavior. However, the association between rs1137070 and heroin addiction remains unclear. In this study, we examined the allelic distribution of rs1137070 in 1,035 heroin abusers and 2,553 healthy controls and investigated the interactive effects of rs1137070 and heroin addiction on gray matter volume (GMV) based on 78 heroin abusers and 79 healthy controls. The C allele frequency of rs1137070 was significantly higher in heroin abusers. Heroin addiction and the rs1137070 variant interactively altered measures of GMV in the anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole, and insula, which were correlated with cognitive function. Heroin abusers with the C allele had lower measures of GMV in these regions than the healthy controls with the same allele, whereas those with the T allele displayed a different trend. The altered brain regions were connected with white matter tracts, yielding a structural network that partially overlapped with the salience network. These findings suggest that the low activity-related C allele of MAOA rs1137070 is associated with an increase in the sensitivity to heroin addiction and the damaging effects of heroin abuse on cognition and the salience network. PMID:28345608

  9. Brucella melitensis Methionyl-tRNA-Synthetase (MetRS), a Potential Drug Target for Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Ranae M.; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Dranow, David M.; Myers, Janette B.; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa Hewitt, Steve; Edwards, Thomas E.; Davies, Douglas R.; Lorimer, Donald; Boyle, Stephen M.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Brucella melitensis methionyl-tRNA-synthetase (BmMetRS) with molecular, structural and phenotypic methods to learn if BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. Recombinant BmMetRS was expressed, purified from wild type Brucella melitensis biovar Abortus 2308 strain ATCC/CRP #DD-156 and screened by a thermal melt assay against a focused library of one hundred previously classified methionyl-tRNA-synthetase inhibitors of the blood stage form of Trypanosoma brucei. Three compounds showed appreciable shift of denaturation temperature and were selected for further studies on inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity and cell viability against wild type B. melitensis strain 16M. BmMetRS protein complexed with these three inhibitors resolved into three-dimensional crystal structures and was analyzed. All three selected methionyl-tRNA-synthetase compounds inhibit recombinant BmMetRS enzymatic functions in an aminoacylation assay at varying concentrations. Furthermore, growth inhibition of B. melitensis strain 16M by the compounds was shown. Inhibitor-BmMetRS crystal structure models were used to illustrate the molecular basis of the enzyme inhibition. Our current data suggests that BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. However, further studies are needed to optimize lead compound potency, efficacy and safety as well as determine the pharmacokinetics, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment. PMID:27500735

  10. Brucella melitensis Methionyl-tRNA-Synthetase (MetRS), a Potential Drug Target for Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Kayode K; Ranade, Ranae M; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Dranow, David M; Myers, Janette B; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa Hewitt, Steve; Edwards, Thomas E; Davies, Douglas R; Lorimer, Donald; Boyle, Stephen M; Barrett, Lynn K; Buckner, Frederick S; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Brucella melitensis methionyl-tRNA-synthetase (BmMetRS) with molecular, structural and phenotypic methods to learn if BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. Recombinant BmMetRS was expressed, purified from wild type Brucella melitensis biovar Abortus 2308 strain ATCC/CRP #DD-156 and screened by a thermal melt assay against a focused library of one hundred previously classified methionyl-tRNA-synthetase inhibitors of the blood stage form of Trypanosoma brucei. Three compounds showed appreciable shift of denaturation temperature and were selected for further studies on inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity and cell viability against wild type B. melitensis strain 16M. BmMetRS protein complexed with these three inhibitors resolved into three-dimensional crystal structures and was analyzed. All three selected methionyl-tRNA-synthetase compounds inhibit recombinant BmMetRS enzymatic functions in an aminoacylation assay at varying concentrations. Furthermore, growth inhibition of B. melitensis strain 16M by the compounds was shown. Inhibitor-BmMetRS crystal structure models were used to illustrate the molecular basis of the enzyme inhibition. Our current data suggests that BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. However, further studies are needed to optimize lead compound potency, efficacy and safety as well as determine the pharmacokinetics, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment.

  11. A Functional IL22 Polymorphism (rs2227473) Is Associated with Predisposition to Childhood Cerebral Malaria.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Sandrine; Conte, Ianina; Poudiougou, Belco; Argiro, Laurent; Dessein, Hélia; Couturier, Charlène; Burté, Florence; Oumar, Aboubacar A; Brown, Biobele J; Traore, Abdoualye; Afolabi, Nathaniel K; Barry, Abdoulaye; Omokhodion, Samuel; Shokunbi, Wuraola A; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro; Doumbo, Ogobara; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro; Dessein, Alain J

    2017-01-31

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This encephalopathy is characterized by coma and is thought to result from mechanical microvessel obstruction and an excessive activation of immune cells leading to pathological inflammation and blood-brain barrier alterations. IL-22 contributes to both chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases, and may have protective or pathogenic effects, depending on the tissue and disease state. We evaluated whether polymorphisms (n = 46) of IL22 and IL22RA2 were associated with CM in children from Nigeria and Mali. Two SNPs of IL22, rs1012356 (P = 0.016, OR = 2.12) and rs2227476 (P = 0.007, OR = 2.08) were independently associated with CM in a sample of 115 Nigerian children with CM and 160 controls. The association with rs2227476 (P = 0.01) was replicated in 240 nuclear families with one affected child from Mali. SNP rs2227473, in linkage disequilibrium with rs2227476, was also associated with CM in the combined cohort for these two populations, (P = 0.004, OR = 1.55). SNP rs2227473 is located within a putative binding site for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a master regulator of IL-22 production. Individuals carrying the aggravating T allele of rs2227473 produced significantly more IL-22 than those without this allele. Overall, these findings suggest that IL-22 is involved in the pathogenesis of CM.

  12. Analysis of the Association between MDM4 rs4245739 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Negar; Pouladi, Nasser; Feizi, Mohammad A Hosseinpour; Montazeri, Vahid; Sakhinia, Ebrahim; Estiar, Mehrdad A

    2016-07-01

    MDM4 is a negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppression pathway. Recent studies have revealed that the rs4245739 A>C polymorphism of MDM4 in the 3-untranslated region makes it a miR-191 target site which leads to lower MDM4 expression. This study is aimed to detect if rs4245739 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the MDM4 gene influences the breast cancer development in Iranian-Azeri women. Blood samples were taken from 260 healthy controls and 220 breast cancer women with ethnicity of Iranian-Azeri. Genotyping was done using Tetra-ARMS PCR. Alleles of MDM4 rs4245739 SNP had no significant different frequency between patients and controls (p > 0.05). Additionally, genotypes of MDM4 rs4245739 SNP did not increase or decrease breast cancer risk in patients when compared to healthy women. Also, there was no significant association between the alleles of MDM4 rs4245739 SNP and clinicopathological factors (p > 0.05). Considering the lack of association between MDM4 rs4245739 polymorphism and breast cancer, rs4245739 polymorphism of this gene seems to have no significant role in the pathophysiology of the disease.

  13. Nicotinamide-N-Methyltransferase gene rs694539 variant and migraine risk.

    PubMed

    Sazci, Ali; Sazci, Gensay; Sazci, Bilgen; Ergul, Emel; Idrisoglu, Halil Atilla

    2016-12-01

    Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder affecting 10 to 20 % of the world population usually subdivided into migraine with auro (MA) and migraine without auro (MO). Homocysteine is involved in the pathophysiology of a number of neurological disorders. Elevated levels of homocysteine in the plasma is produced by the MTHFR gene rs 1801133 and rs 1801131 variants as well as the NNMT gene rs 694539 variant. With the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method developed recently in our laboratory, we were able to show an association between the NNMT gene rs694539 variant and migraine for the first time. Here we report the association of the Nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase gene (NNMT) rs694539 variant with migraine in a case-control study of 433 patients with migraine and 229 healthy controls (χ2 = 6.076, P = 0.048). After stratification, we were able only to show an association between the NNMT gene rs694539 variant and female patients with migraine on the genotype and allelic levels. However there was no association in male patients with migraine (χ2 = 1.054, P = 0.590). Consequently our results clearly indicate that the NNMT gene rs694539 variant is a genetic risk factor for migraine.

  14. The CD14 rs2569190 TT Genotype is Associated with Chronic Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Ishaan, Dilshi; Parthasarathy, Harinath; Ponnaiyan, Deepa; Tadepalli, Anupama

    2017-09-01

    The genetic variation in the CD14 rs2569190 promoter region contributes to the susceptibility of developing periodontitis. Since, CD14 gene polymorphism studies among various ethnic populations have produced conflicting results, the present study was designed to unearth the association between the CD14 rs2569190 gene polymorphism and generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) in a South Indian population of Tamil ethnicity. Polymorphisms in the CD14 rs2569190 promoter region were analyzed in 96 subjects who were periodontally healthy and 96 patients with GCP. DNA extracted from peripheral venous blood was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. One-way analysis of variance, Chi-square testing, and logistic regression analysis were used to test association between GCP and the CD14 rs2569190 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The distribution of the CD14 rs2569190 genotypes and allele frequencies showed significant differences between the test and control groups. Prevalence of the polymorphic TT genotype and T allele of the CD14 rs2569190 were significantly increased in GCP patients when compared with healthy controls. The results of the present study suggest that the T allele and the TT genotype of the rs2569190 SNP in the promoter region of the CD14 gene are associated with GCP in a South Indian population of Tamil ethnicity.

  15. MicroRNAs and their isomiRs function cooperatively to target common biological pathways

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Variants of microRNAs (miRNAs), called isomiRs, are commonly reported in deep-sequencing studies; however, the functional significance of these variants remains controversial. Observational studies show that isomiR patterns are non-random, hinting that these molecules could be regulated and therefore functional, although no conclusive biological role has been demonstrated for these molecules. Results To assess the biological relevance of isomiRs, we have performed ultra-deep miRNA-seq on ten adult human tissues, and created an analysis pipeline called miRNA-MATE to align, annotate, and analyze miRNAs and their isomiRs. We find that isomiRs share sequence and expression characteristics with canonical miRNAs, and are generally strongly correlated with canonical miRNA expression. A large proportion of isomiRs potentially derive from AGO2 cleavage independent of Dicer. We isolated polyribosome-associated mRNA, captured the mRNA-bound miRNAs, and found that isomiRs and canonical miRNAs are equally associated with translational machinery. Finally, we transfected cells with biotinylated RNA duplexes encoding isomiRs or their canonical counterparts and directly assayed their mRNA targets. These studies allow us to experimentally determine genome-wide mRNA targets, and these experiments showed substantial overlap in functional mRNA networks suppressed by both canonical miRNAs and their isomiRs. Conclusions Together, these results find isomiRs to be biologically relevant and functionally cooperative partners of canonical miRNAs that act coordinately to target pathways of functionally related genes. This work exposes the complexity of the miRNA-transcriptome, and helps explain a major miRNA paradox: how specific regulation of biological processes can occur when the specificity of miRNA targeting is mediated by only 6 to 11 nucleotides. PMID:22208850

  16. Positive association between PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism and coronary heart disease in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Ye, H D; Li, Y R; Hong, Q X; Zhou, A N; Zhao, Q L; Xu, L M; Xu, M Q; Xu, X T; Tang, L L; Dai, D J; Jiang, D J; Huang, Y; Wang, D W; Duan, S W

    2015-06-11

    PPARD encodes peroxisome proliferator-activated re-ceptor delta, which has been shown to play an important role in control-ling lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. In this case-control study, we explored the relationship between PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Han Chinese population. A to-tal of 657 CHD cases and 640 controls were included in the associa-tion study. rs2016520 polymorphism genotyping was performed using the melting temperature-shift polymerase chain reaction method. The PPARD rs2016520-G allele reduced CHD risk by 17.9% (χ(2) = 5.061, P = 0.025, OR = 0.821, 95%CI = 0.692-0.975). Furthermore, a signifi-cant difference in CHD risk was observed for the PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism in the dominant model (AG + GG vs AA: χ(2) = 4.751, degrees of freedom (df) = 1, P = 0.029, OR = 0.784, 95%CI = 0.631- 0.976). Analysis by age suggested that the G-allele decreased CHD risk by 14.8% in ages greater than 65 years (χ(2) = 4.446, P = 0.035, OR = 0.852, 95%CI = 0.684-1.060). In contrast, meta-analysis of PPARD rs2016520 among 3732 cases and 5042 controls revealed no associa-tion between PPARD rs2016520 and CHD (P = 0.19). We found that the PPARD rs2016520-GG genotype decreased CHD risk in a Han Chinese population. Moreover, we found an association between serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and PPARD rs2016520 in senior individuals aged ≥ 65 years. The meta-analysis revealed no association between PPARD rs2016520 and CHD, suggesting ethnic differences in the association between the PPARD locus and CHD.

  17. Expression of the CLE-RS3 gene suppresses root nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hanna; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Suzaki, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Cell-to-cell communication, principally mediated by short- or long-range mobile signals, is involved in many plant developmental processes. In root nodule symbiosis, a mutual relationship between leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, the mechanism for the autoregulation of nodulation (AON) plays a key role in preventing the production of an excess number of nodules. AON is based on long-distance cell-to-cell communication between roots and shoots. In Lotus japonicus, two CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) peptides, encoded by CLE-ROOT SIGNAL 1 (CLE-RS1) and -RS2, act as putative root-derived signals that transmit signals inhibiting further nodule development through interaction with a shoot-acting receptor-like kinase HYPERNODULATION ABERRANT ROOT FORMATION 1 (HAR1). Here, an in silico search and subsequent expression analyses enabled us to identify two new L. japonicus CLE genes that are potentially involved in nodulation, designated as CLE-RS3 and LjCLE40. Time-course expression patterns showed that CLE-RS1/2/3 and LjCLE40 expression is induced during nodulation with different activation patterns. Furthermore, constitutive expression of CLE-RS3 significantly suppressed nodule formation in a HAR1-dependent manner. TOO MUCH LOVE, a root-acting regulator of AON, is also required for the CLE-RS3 action. These results suggest that CLE-RS3 is a new component of AON in L. japonicus that may act as a potential root-derived signal through interaction with HAR1. Because CLE-RS2, CLE-RS3 and LjCLE40 are located in tandem in the genome and their expression is induced not only by rhizobial infection but also by nitrate, these genes may have duplicated from a common gene.

  18. Role of polymorphic loci in HLA-region rs2647012 and rs805288 in the development of non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas in Western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Weiner, A S; Berezina, O V; Ovchinnikov, V S; Surovtseva, M N; Voropaeva, E N; Pospelova, T I; Filipenko, M L

    2014-06-01

    The data of genome-wide association analysis suggest that human 6p21.3 chromosomal region (localization of HLA genes) contains polymorphic loci influencing the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. We analyzed association of rs2647012 and rs805288 loci with the risk for non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas in the population of Western Siberia. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined in the group of 298 patients and in the control group including 551 individuals. Subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (86 patients) and follicular lymphoma (25 patients) were analyzed separately. An association of rs2647012 А/А genotype with increased risk of the disease (OR = 2.78, p = 0.002) was detected in the subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  19. Assay of bovine interferons in cultures of the porcine cell line IB-RS-2.

    PubMed Central

    Ahl, R; Rump, A

    1976-01-01

    An assay for bovine interferons has been developed using the porcine cell line IB-RS-2 and a bovine enterovirus, CBV-D, as challenge virus. The method is based on estimation of cytopathic effect measured by uptake of neutral red. Teh assay is simple, sensitive, and reproducible. A comparative test of different viruses in IB-RS-2 cells and secondary calf kidney cells revealed that the sensitivity of a virus to interferon can vary up to 1,000-fold in the two cell systems. Vesicular stomatitis virus was found to be rather insensitive to interferon in IB-RS-2 cells. PMID:184049

  20. Radio outbursts in RS Canum Venaticorum stars - coronal heating and electron runaway

    SciTech Connect

    Mullan, D.J.

    1985-08-01

    Radio outbursts of RS CVn stars are sometimes thought of as analogs of flares in red dwarf stars. The possibility is examined that the outbursts are not due to flares, but rather to a highly efficient case of coronal heating: mechanical energy reaching the corona from the convection zone of an RS CVn star gives rise to induced electric fields which may be so large that electron runaway becomes possible. It is proposed that gyrosynchrotron emission from fast electrons which are produced by this process are the source of radio outbursts from RS CVn stars. 31 references.

  1. LINGO1 rs9652490 is associated with essential tremor and Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Ross, Owen A; Wider, Christian; Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Cobb, Stephanie A; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I; Kachergus, Jennifer M; Keeling, Brett H; Dachsel, Justus C; Melrose, Heather L; Behrouz, Bahareh; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J; Aasly, Jan O; Rajput, Alex; Farrer, Matthew J

    2010-02-01

    Recently, a variant in LINGO1 (rs9652490) was found to associate with increased risk of essential tremor. We set out to replicate this association in an independent case-control series of essential tremor from North America. In addition, given the clinical and pathological overlap between essential tremor and Parkinson disease, we also evaluate the effect of LINGO1 rs9652490 in two case-control series of Parkinson disease. Our study demonstrates a significant association between LINGO1 rs9652490 and essential tremor (P = 0.014) and Parkinson disease (P = 0.0003), thus providing the first evidence of a genetic link between both diseases.

  2. RS-34 (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Orbital Debris Application Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) lead a study to evaluate the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an orbital debris removal design reference mission. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study, preceded by a utilization study to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions, sought to further understand application for an orbital debris design reference mission as the orbital debris removal mission was found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. The RS-34 Orbital Debris Application Concept Study sought to identify multiple configurations varying the degree of modification to trade for dry mass optimization and propellant load for overall capability and evaluation of several candidate missions. The results of the RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study show that the system is technically sufficient to successfully support all of the missions

  3. Mapping a region within the 1RS.1BL translocation in common wheat affecting grain yield and canopy water status.

    PubMed

    Howell, Tyson; Hale, Iago; Jankuloski, Ljupcho; Bonafede, Marcos; Gilbert, Matthew; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    This study identifies a small distal region of the 1RS chromosome from rye that has a positive impact on wheat yield. The translocation of the short arm of rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome one (1RS) onto wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 1B (1RS.1BL) is used in wheat breeding programs worldwide due to its positive effect on yield, particularly under abiotic stress. Unfortunately, this translocation is associated with poor bread-making quality. To mitigate this problem, the 1RS arm was engineered by the removal and replacement of two interstitial rye segments with wheat chromatin: a distal segment to introduce the Glu-B3/Gli-B1 loci from wheat, and a proximal segment to remove the rye Sec-1 locus. We used this engineered 1RS chromosome (henceforth 1RS(WW)) to develop and evaluate two sets of 1RS/1RS(WW) near isogenic lines (NILs). Field trials showed that standard 1RS lines had significantly higher yield and better canopy water status than the 1RS(WW) NILs in both well-watered and water-stressed environments. We intercrossed the 1RS and 1RS(WW) lines and generated two additional NILs, one carrying the distal (1RS(RW)) and the other carrying the proximal (1RS(WR)) wheat segment. Lines not carrying the distal wheat region (1RS and 1RS(WR)) showed significant improvements in grain yield and canopy water status compared to NILs carrying the distal wheat segment (1RS(WW) and 1RS(RW)), indicating that the 1RS region replaced by the distal wheat segment carries the beneficial allele(s). NILs without the distal wheat segment also showed higher carbon isotope discrimination and increased stomatal conductance, suggesting that these plants had improved access to water. The 1RS(WW), 1RS(WR) and 1RS(RW) NILs have been deposited in the National Small Grains Collection.

  4. The Impact of rs3762271 and rs930557 Polymorphisms of ASPM and MCPH1 Genes on the Anatomy and Function of the Brain.

    PubMed

    Pierzak-Sominka, Joanna; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Rudnicki, Jacek; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The ASPM and MCPH1 genes are involved in early neurogenesis and are thus potential candidates for affecting the formation of the anatomical and functional characteristics of the brain. However, the results of studies to date have been conflicting, an issue for which the factor of ethnicity may be responsible. We aimed to examine whether the rs3762271 and rs930557 polymorphisms of these two genes can influence brain anatomy and function. We enrolled 97 Caucasian neonates, with males predominating (53.6%). The anatomy of the brain was examined using ultrasound, while Doppler ultrasound was used to establish the blood flow indices in particular brain blood vessels. Genetic analysis was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The CC and AA homozygotes of rs3762271 were more common in males. The CC genotype of rs3762271 was significantly associated with birth weight (pRE = .03) and body length (pRE = .02). One mutant allele of rs3762271 was significantly associated with higher values of maximum (Vmax, p = .04), minimum (Vmin, p = .04), and average (Vmean, p = .02) speed in the pericallosal artery in newborns of both genders. Similar relationships were found in females only (Vmax p = .03, Vmean p = .02). The CC genotype of rs930557 was more frequently observed in male infants, but no impact on any anthropometric indices or anatomical and functional parameters of the brain was established. The ASPM gene may play a role in shaping the functional parameters of the brain in Caucasians. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Genome-wide association study-identified SNPs (rs3790844, rs3790843) in the NR5A2 gene and risk of pancreatic cancer in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Morimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Hiroshi; Matsuyama, Masato; Kuruma, Sawako; Egawa, Naoto; Nakao, Haruhisa; Mori, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nojima, Masanori; Wakai, Kenji; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Takahashi, Mami; Shimada, Kazuaki; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong

    2015-01-01

    We genotyped 2 SNPs (rs3790844 T/C and rs3790843 G/A) in the NR5A2 gene that were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of pancreatic cancer in populations of mainly European ancestry, and we examined their associations with pancreatic cancer risk in a case-control study of 360 patients and 400 control subjects in Japan. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.80). For rs3790843, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.41–1.36) and 0.60 (95%CI: 0.33–1.08) for subjects with the AG and AA genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the GG genotype. The per allele OR was 0.78 (0.62–0.99) (P = 0.046). For rs3790844, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.37–1.14) and 0.47 (95%CI: 0.27–0.83) for subjects with the CT and CC genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the TT genotype. The per allele OR was 0.70 (0.56–0.89) (P = 0.003). Our case-control study found that rs3790843 and rs3790844 in the NR5A2 gene are associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese subjects. The direction of association is consistent with the prior findings from GWASs. PMID:26592175

  6. Genome-wide association study-identified SNPs (rs3790844, rs3790843) in the NR5A2 gene and risk of pancreatic cancer in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Morimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Hiroshi; Matsuyama, Masato; Kuruma, Sawako; Egawa, Naoto; Nakao, Haruhisa; Mori, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nojima, Masanori; Wakai, Kenji; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Takahashi, Mami; Shimada, Kazuaki; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong

    2015-11-23

    We genotyped 2 SNPs (rs3790844 T/C and rs3790843 G/A) in the NR5A2 gene that were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of pancreatic cancer in populations of mainly European ancestry, and we examined their associations with pancreatic cancer risk in a case-control study of 360 patients and 400 control subjects in Japan. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.80). For rs3790843, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.41-1.36) and 0.60 (95%CI: 0.33-1.08) for subjects with the AG and AA genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the GG genotype. The per allele OR was 0.78 (0.62-0.99) (P = 0.046). For rs3790844, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.37-1.14) and 0.47 (95%CI: 0.27-0.83) for subjects with the CT and CC genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the TT genotype. The per allele OR was 0.70 (0.56-0.89) (P = 0.003). Our case-control study found that rs3790843 and rs3790844 in the NR5A2 gene are associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese subjects. The direction of association is consistent with the prior findings from GWASs.

  7. Contribution of CDKAL1 rs7756992 and IGF2BP2 rs4402960 polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes, diabetic complications, obesity risk and hypertension in the Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Lasram, Khaled; Ben Halim, Nizar; Benrahma, Houda; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Arfa, Imen; Hsouna, Sana; Kefi, Rym; Jamoussi, Henda; Ben Ammar, Slim; Bahri, Sonia; Abid, Abdelmajid; Benhamamouch, Soraya; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Abdelhak, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) and the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 1-like 1 (CDKAL1) identified through genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been shown to be associated with Type 2 diabetes in various ethnic groups. In this study, we investigated the association of the rs7756992 of CDKAL1 and the rs4402960 of IGF2BP2 with Type 2 diabetes, diabetic complications (nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular disease), obesity and hypertension in a Tunisian population. A case-control association study including 200 Type 2 diabetes Tunisian patients (World Health Organization criteria) and 208 controls (age ≥40; fasting plasma glucose <6.1 mmol/L; without first degree family history of diabetes) has been performed. Other parameters such as diabetic nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, overweight/obesity and hypertension have been also collected. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan technology. A significant association between the rs4402960 and Type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.34-2.58, P < 10(-4) ) has been found. Overweight/obese subjects bearing the T-allele have an increased risk to develop Type 2 diabetes (OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.40-3.03, P < 10(-4) ). Furthermore, the rs7756992 was found to be associated with the reduced risk of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.27-0.73, P = 0.001). The present study confirms that the rs4402960 of IGF2BP2 gene is a strong candidate for Type 2 diabetes susceptibility and overweight/obesity risk in the Tunisian population. Interestingly, our data suggest that the rs7756992 of CDKAL1 gene have a protective effect against diabetic nephropathy. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. TIM-1 rs41297579 G>A (-1454) and TIM-4 rs7700944 gene polymorphisms as possible risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis: relation to activity and severity.

    PubMed

    Mosaad, Y M; El-Bassiony, S R; El-Ghaweet, A E; Elhindawy, M M; El-Deek, B S; Sultan, W A

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of both TIM-1 rs41297579 G>A (-1454) and TIM-4 rs7700944 polymorphisms on susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a cohort of Egyptian population and to evaluate for the first time their relation to activity, severity, disease-related disability and erosion. TIM-1 rs41297579 G>A (-1454) and TIM-4 rs7700944 gene polymorphisms were typed by RFLP for 128 patients with RA and 125 healthy controls. The A allele, A-containing genotypes (GA and AA) of the TIM-4 and GA haplotype were present with significant higher frequency in patients with RA than healthy controls (Pc  < 0.001). These findings suggest that the A allele, A-containing genotypes (GA and AA) and GA haplotype may be a susceptibility risk factor for RA [OR = 5.83 (3.6-9.4), OR = 9.41 (5.0-17.6) and OR = 4.21 (1.07-19.2), respectively]. No associations were found between TIM genotypes and disease activity, severity or presence of erosion. However, the RA patients with GA genotype of TIM-4 have higher grade of rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity (P = 0.018), and have worse disease-related disability (P = 0.007) and worse pain (0.025). TIM-4 rs7700944 and not TIM-1 rs41297579 G>A (-1454) is associated with RA in the present cohort of Egyptian and may be a risk factor for development of RA in Egyptian. Both SNPs have no effect on disease activity, severity or erosion. However, TIM-4 GA genotype is associated with higher grade of RF positivity and worse disease-related disability and pain.

  9. Construction, expression, and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana 4CL and Arachis hypogaea RS fusion gene 4CL::RS in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erhao; Guo, Xuefeng; Meng, Zhifen; Wang, Jin; Sun, Jia; Yao, Xi; Xun, Hang

    2015-09-01

    Resveratrol is an important antioxidant that confers several beneficial effects on human health. 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase (4CL) and resveratrol synthase (RS) are key rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol. Using gene fusion technology, the fusion gene, 4CL::RS, was constructed by the 4CL gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and RS gene from Arachis hypogaea. DNAMAN analysis showed that the fusion gene encoded a 964-amino acid protein with an approximate weight of 104.7 kDa and a pI of 5.63. A prokaryotic expression vector containing Nco-I and EcoR-I restriction sites, pET-30a/4CL::RS, was identified by liquid culture bacterial PCR, enzyme digestion, and sequencing, and then used in the induction of expression. Subsequently, a biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol was constructed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) that harbored pET-30a/4CL::RS. The recombinant strains were induced to express the fusion protein at 28 °C for 8 h. After bacterial cells were disrupted by hypothermic ultrasonication, the 4CL::RS fusion protein was thoroughly separated from tags using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, and then detected by SDS-PAGE analysis. When the recombinant strains expressed the fusion protein, the precursor, p-coumaric acid, was converted to resveratrol. In the present study, the final concentration of resveratrol derived from 1 mM p-coumaric acid was 80.524 mg/L, with a 35.28 % (mol/mol) conversion yield.

  10. Role of TLR4  rs4986790A>G and rs4986791C>T Polymorphisms in the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying; Zhnag, Dao-Rong; Du, Ya-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The present meta-analysis investigated the contribution of TLR4 rs4986790A>G and rs4986791C>T genetic polymorphisms in increasing the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. Databases were searched using a combination of keywords related to TLR4 and IBD. Relevant studies were selected based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of the data extracted from the selected studies was performed using CMA 2.0 statistical analysis software. Results. Out of the 70 studies retrieved by database search, only 13 studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis and these 13 studies contained a total number of 4409 IBD patients and 5693 healthy controls. The meta-analysis results demonstrated that TLR4 rs4986790A>G polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of IBD (allele model: OR = 1.268, 95% CI = 1.124~1.431, and P < 0.001; dominant model: OR = 1.240, 95% CI = 1.090~1.409, and P = 0.001). Similarly, TLR4 rs4986791C>T polymorphism also conferred an increased risk of IBD (allele model: OR = 1.259, 95% CI = 1.092~1.453, and P = 0.002; dominant model: OR = 1.246, 95% CI = 1.072~1.447, and P = 0.004). Conclusion. Our meta-analysis results demonstrate that TLR4 rs4986790A>G and rs4986791C>T genetic polymorphisms are associated with the etiopathogenesis of IBD. PMID:26089865

  11. Association of rs6265 and rs2030324 Polymorphisms in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene with Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhutian; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between polymorphisms rs6265 and rs2030324 in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been widely reported, but the results remain controversial. Methods A comprehensive search of Pubmed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Med Online and China Biology Medical literature database (CBM) was performed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed or random-effects models. We excluded the studies with OR>3.0 or OR<0.3 for sensitive analysis. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity, form of AD and gender was carried out. Meta-regression was conducted to explore the potential sources of between-study heterogeneity. Results 29 articles with 7548 cases and 7334 controls concerning rs6265 and 22 articles with 5796 cases and 5706 controls concerning rs2030324 were included in this meta-analysis. The combined evidence suggested rs6265 contributing significantly to the increased risk of AD in females (codominant: fixed-effects model (FEM): OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04–1.23; dominant: FEM: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05–1.31), especially for Caucasian females (codominant: FEM: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.03–1.34; dominant: FEM: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.01–1.37) and female late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) patients (codominant: FEM: OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.05–1.41; dominant: FEM: OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03–1.46). No evidence indicated an association between rs2030324 with AD in codominant (random-effects model (REM): OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.89–1.26) and dominant (REM: OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.86–1.27) models. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggested A allele of rs6265 might increase the risk of AD in Caucasian females and female LOAD patients. In addition, no evidence indicated an association between rs2030324 with AD. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:24733169

  12. Association between 12p13 SNPs rs11833579/rs12425791 near NINJ2 gene and ischemic stroke in East Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Hu; Zhang, Li-Li; Yin, Yan-Wei; Pi, Yan; Guo, Lu; Yang, Qing-Wu; Gao, Chang-Yue; Fang, Chuan-Qin; Wang, Jing-Zhou; Li, Jing-Cheng

    2012-05-15

    Meta-analysis in European population found no association between rs12425791/rs11833579 and ischemic stroke. Several studies focused on East Asians have evaluated the association between this two SNPs and risk of ischemic stroke, but the results have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to investigate a more authentic association between rs12425791 and rs11833579 G>A mutation and ischemic stroke in East Asian population, as well as in Chinese Han population. Systematic searches of electronic databases Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and CBM as well as hand searching of the references of identified articles and the meeting abstracts were performed. Study selection, data abstraction and study quality evaluation were independently conducted in duplicate. Statistical analyses were performed using software Stata 11.0. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were performed. Different effects models were used according to the difference in heterogeneity. Publication bias was tested by Begg's funnel plot and Egger's regression test. A total of 4 publications including 7 studies were involved. For rs12425791, significant association was found in allelic model (OR=1.06, 95%CI=1.00-1.11) and dominant model (OR=1.10, 95%CI=1.03-1.18), whereas no evidence of association was found for additive model (OR=1.04, 95%CI=0.93-1.17) and for recessive model (OR=0.99, 95%CI=0.88-1.10). For rs11833579, no evidence of association was found for all genetic models. In the analysis of Chinese Han population, there is lack of evidence for association of ischemic stroke for both SNPs. In summary, our meta-analysis suggests that rs12425791 is significantly associated with ischemic stroke in East Asian population but not Chinese Han population, of which A alleles increase the risk of ischemic stroke, whereas no evidence of association was found for rs11833579 in East Asian population as well as Chinese Han population. Copyright

  13. The FTO gene polymorphism (rs9939609) is associated with metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese subjects from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rosario; Labruna, Giuseppe; Alfieri, Andreina; Martone, Domenico; Farinaro, Eduardo; Contaldo, Franco; Sacchetti, Lucia; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Buono, Pasqualina

    2014-08-01

    Gene variants in MC4R, SIRT1 and FTO are associated with severe obesity and metabolic impairment in Caucasians. We investigated whether common variants in these genes are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large group of morbidly obese young adults from southern Italy. One thousand morbidly obese subjects (62% women, mean body mass index 46.5 kg/m(2), mean age 32.6 years) whose families had lived in southern Italy for at least 2 generations were recruited. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs12970134, rs477181, rs502933 (MC4R locus), rs3818292, rs7069102, rs730821, rs2273773, rs12413112 (SIRT1 locus) and rs1421085, rs9939609, 9930506, 1121980 (FTO locus) were genotyped by Taqman assay; blood parameters were assayed by routine methods; the Fat Mass, Fat Free Mass, Respiratory Quotient, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and waist circumference were also determined. Binomial logistic regression showed that the TA heterozygous genotype of SNP rs9939609 in the FTO gene was associated with the presence of MetS in our population [OR (95% CI): 2.53 (1.16-5.55)]. Furthermore, the FTO rs9939609 genotype accounted for 21.3% of the MetS phenotype together with total cholesterol, BMR and age. Our results extend the knowledge on genotype susceptibility for MetS in relation to a specific geographical area of residence.

  14. MAPT1 gene rs1052553 variant is unrelated with the risk for restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roco, Angela; Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix Javier; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Martínez, Carmen; Zurdo, Martín; Turpín-Fenoll, Laura; Millán, Jorge; Adeva-Bartolomé, Teresa; Cubo, Esther; Navacerrada, Francisco; Rojo-Sebastián, Ana; Rubio, Lluisa; Calleja, Marisol; Plaza-Nieto, José Francisco; Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Belén; Arroyo-Solera, Margarita; García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A G

    2013-03-01

    Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) can cause frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to the chromosome 17, and are associated with the risk for progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease, corticobasal degeneration, and multiple system atrophy. We tried to establish, whether MAPT H1 discriminating haplotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (rs1052553) is associated with the risk for restless legs syndrome (RLS). We studied the allelic and genotype frequencies of the SNP rs1052553 in 205 patients with RLS and 324 healthy controls using TaqMan genotyping. rs1052553 genotype and allelic frequencies did not differ significantly between patients with RLS and controls, and were unrelated with the age at onset of RLS, gender, family history of RLS, and severity of RLS. The results of the present study suggest that the SNP rs1052553 is not related with the risk for RLS.

  15. Preparation and characterization of ketoprofen loaded eudragit RS polymeric nanoparticles for controlled release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Chi, Nguyen T.; Khai Tran, T.; Tuyen Dao, T. P.; Nhan Le, N. T.; Mau Chien, Dang; Hoai, Nguyen To

    2012-12-01

    Nanospheres containing ketoprofen (Keto) and polymer eudragit RS were prepared using an emulsion solvent evaporation method. The ultrasonic probe (VCX500, vibracell) was used as a tool to disperse oil phase into aqueous phase leading to water/oil emulsion. Nanoparticles were successfully prepared and their morphologies and diameters were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. The result showed that particles were spherical with submicron size. The particle size was dependent on the RS concentration, emulsification tools and the types of organic solvents. For the encapsulation ability, Keto-loaded RS nanoparticle showed 9.8% of Keto in nanoparticle, which was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, the drug release behavior of Keto-loaded eudragit RS nanoparticle was also investigated in vitro at pH 7.4 and compared to referential profenid.

  16. Consideration and Checkboxes: Incorporating Ethics and Science into the 3Rs

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Margaret S; Shriver, Adam J; Mueller, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Members of the research community aim to both produce high-quality research and ensure that harm is minimized in animals. The primary means of ensuring these goals are both met is the 3Rs framework of replacement, reduction, and refinement. However, some approaches to the 3Rs may result in a ‘check box mentality’ in which IACUC members, researchers, administrators, and caretakers check off a list of tasks to evaluate a protocol. We provide reasons for thinking that the 3Rs approach could be enhanced with more explicit discussion of the ethical assumptions used to arrive at an approved research protocol during IACUC review. Here we suggest that the notion of moral considerability, and all of the related issues it gives rise to, should be incorporated into IACUC discussions of 3Rs deliberations during protocol review to ensure that animal wellbeing is enhanced within the constraints of scientific investigation. PMID:25836970

  17. RS rearrangement frequency as a marker of receptor editing in lupus and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Anil K; Goodman, Noah G; Eisenberg, Robert A; Rickels, Michael R; Naji, Ali; Luning Prak, Eline T

    2008-12-22

    Continued antibody gene rearrangement, termed receptor editing, is an important mechanism of central B cell tolerance that may be defective in some autoimmune individuals. We describe a quantitative assay for recombining sequence (RS) rearrangement that we use to estimate levels of antibody light chain receptor editing in various B cell populations. RS rearrangement is a recombination of a noncoding gene segment in the kappa antibody light chain locus. RS rearrangement levels are highest in the most highly edited B cells, and are inappropriately low in autoimmune mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and type 1 diabetes (T1D), including those without overt disease. Low RS rearrangement levels are also observed in human subjects with SLE or T1D.

  18. RS rearrangement frequency as a marker of receptor editing in lupus and type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Anil K.; Goodman, Noah G.; Eisenberg, Robert A.; Rickels, Michael R.; Naji, Ali; Luning Prak, Eline T.

    2008-01-01

    Continued antibody gene rearrangement, termed receptor editing, is an important mechanism of central B cell tolerance that may be defective in some autoimmune individuals. We describe a quantitative assay for recombining sequence (RS) rearrangement that we use to estimate levels of antibody light chain receptor editing in various B cell populations. RS rearrangement is a recombination of a noncoding gene segment in the κ antibody light chain locus. RS rearrangement levels are highest in the most highly edited B cells, and are inappropriately low in autoimmune mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and type 1 diabetes (T1D), including those without overt disease. Low RS rearrangement levels are also observed in human subjects with SLE or T1D. PMID:19075293

  19. Association of rs1122608 with Coronary Artery Disease and Lipid Profile: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Xiu, Bingqiu; Liu, Jingdong; Xue, Aimin; Tang, Qiqun; Shen, Yiwen; Xie, Jianhui

    2016-05-01

    It has been reported that rs1122608 adjacent to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol receptor (LDLR) locus is associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and blood lipid profile in the Caucasian population. Due to the contradictory results in the Asian population, we conducted a meta-analysis to systematically summarize and clarify the association between rs1122608 with CAD risk and lipid profile. A systematic search regarding studies on the association of rs1122608 with CAD risk and lipid profile was conducted in databases including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to pool the effect size. A total of five case-control studies were included in this study. A statistically significant association was identified between rs1122608-G allele and CAD risk in overall analysis (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.48-2.97) and in both Asian (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.04-3.18) and Caucasian subgroups (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.48-3.60). The rs1122608-G allele was associated with increased triglyceride (TG) level (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.52), but not with total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or LDL cholesterol level. Moreover, the rs1122608-G allele is associated with increased CAD risk in the Asian male population (OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.51-9.86) but not in the Asian female population. The rs1122608 is associated with the risk of CAD and TG level. The rs1122608-G allele was a significant risk factor of CAD in the Asian male population but not in the Asian female population. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The gender-specific association of rs334558 in GSK3β with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sha; Wang, Le; Sun, Ning; Yang, Chunxia; Liu, Zhifen; Li, Xinrong; Cao, Xiaohua; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Kerang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric illnesses with a heritability ranging from 40% to 50%. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs334558 on the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) gene has been identified as a genetic risk loci associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, results from replication studies examining the association between rs334558 and MDD remain inconsistent. In the present study, first, we conducted a meta-analysis of the association between rs334558 and MDD by combining 5 available case-control samples totaling 2311 cases and 2535 controls. Second, genotyping data from patients with MDD at our institution, after further stratification by gender, were analyzed to determine the association between rs334558 and MDD. All studies retrieved and included in the meta-analysis were from Korea and China. The meta-analysis suggested that the functional polymorphism rs334558 within the GSK3β promoter region was associated with MDD risk (P < 0.05). The associations were observed both in the allelic and genetic models. Analysis of the genotyping data extracted from our hospital database revealed that rs334558 exhibited exclusive association with MDD in female patients (P=0.015). Our findings suggest that GSK3β rs334558 polymorphisms might be a potential risk for MDD, and females with GSK3β rs334558 polymorphisms might have higher penetrance of MDD. If validated in larger scale samples and in different ethnic populations, these findings might be of value as diagnostic references for MDD. PMID:28099358

  1. Survey of Canadian animal-based researchers' views on the Three Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Nicole; Danielson, Peter; Griffin, Gilly

    2011-01-01

    The 'Three Rs' tenet (replacement, reduction, refinement) is a widely accepted cornerstone of Canadian and international policies on animal-based science. The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) initiated this web-based survey to obtain greater understanding of 'principal investigators' and 'other researchers' (i.e. graduate students, post-doctoral researchers etc.) views on the Three Rs, and to identify obstacles and opportunities for continued implementation of the Three Rs in Canada. Responses from 414 participants indicate that researchers currently do not view the goal of replacement as achievable. Researchers prefer to use enough animals to ensure quality data is obtained rather than using the minimum and potentially waste those animals if a problem occurs during the study. Many feel that they already reduce animal numbers as much as possible and have concerns that further reduction may compromise research. Most participants were ambivalent about re-use, but expressed concern that the practice could compromise experimental outcomes. In considering refinement, many researchers feel there are situations where animals should not receive pain relieving drugs because it may compromise scientific outcomes, although there was strong support for the Three Rs strategy of conducting animal welfare-related pilot studies, which were viewed as useful for both animal welfare and experimental design. Participants were not opposed to being offered "assistance" to implement the Three Rs, so long as the input is provided in a collegial manner, and from individuals who are perceived as experts. It may be useful for animal use policymakers to consider what steps are needed to make replacement a more feasible goal. In addition, initiatives that offer researchers greater practical and logistical support with Three Rs implementation may be useful. Encouragement and financial support for Three Rs initiatives may result in valuable contributions to Three Rs knowledge and improve

  2. Association between MC4R rs17782313 Polymorphism and Overeating Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J.; Kaplan, Allan S.; Levitan, Robert D.; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Kennedy, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Melanocortins play a crucial role in appetite and weight regulation. Although the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene has been repeatedly linked to obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain, the mechanism behind how it leads to this effect in still undetermined. The goal of this study was to conduct an in-depth and sophisticated analysis of MC4R polymorphisms, body mass index (BMI), eating behaviour, and depressed mood. Subjects/Methods We genotyped 328 individuals of European ancestry on the following MC4R markers based on the relevant literature on obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain: rs571312, rs17782313, rs489693, rs11872992, and rs8087522. Height and weight were measured, and information on depressed mood and overeating behaviours was obtained during the in-person assessment. Results BMI was associated with rs17782313 C allele; however this finding did not survive correction for multiple testing (p=0.018). Although rs17782313 was significantly associated with depressed mood and overeating behaviours, tests of indirect effects indicated that emotional eating and food cravings, rather than depressed mood, uniquely accounted for the effect of this marker and BMI (n=152). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the link between MC4R rs17782313, mood and overeating behaviour, as well as to demonstrate possible mechanisms behind MC4R’s influence on body weight. If replicated in a larger sample, these results may have important clinical implications, including potential for the use of MC4R agonists in the treatment of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:24827639

  3. Interleukin-16 rs11556218 is associated with a risk of osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Qinghua; Tian, He; Wang, Jianming; Liu, Sanyun; Wang, Baoliang; Wang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    Interleukins (ILs), a multifunctional cytokine, play a fundamental role in inflammatory diseases, as well as in the development of osteoporosis. However, there are no data about the role of IL-16 polymorphism in development of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the association between the IL-16 rs11556218 T/G and rs4072122 C/T polymorphisms respectively, and the risk of osteoporosis among 230 patients with osteoporosis and 230 healthy controls. Serum IL-16 level and its correlation with the IL-16 rs11556218 T/G genotypes were analyzed. Significant differences of genotype distribution were observed between osteoporosis cases and controls at the IL-16 rs11556218 T/G genotypes. Compared with the IL-16 rs11556218 T/G homozygote TT, the heterozygous TG genotype was associated with significantly increased risk for osteoporosis (OR=2.29, 95% CI=(1.15-3.82), p=0.026); the GG genotype was associated with increased risk for osteoporosis (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.48-3.97, p=0.015). TG and GG combined variants that were associated with increased risk for osteoporosis compared with the TT genotype (OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.43-4.86, p=0.023). Moreover, in patients with osteoporosis, there was a correlation between the serum IL-16 and rs11556218 T/G genotype. However, the genotype and allele frequencies of IL-16 rs4072122 C/T polymorphisms in osteoporosis patients were not significantly different from controls. IL-16 rs11556218 T/G genotype was associated with increased risk for development of osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A suite of RS/1 procedures for chemical laboratory statistical quality control and Shewhart control charting

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1990-09-01

    A suite of RS/1 procedures for Shewhart control charting in chemical laboratories is described. The suite uses the RS series product QCA (Quality Control Analysis) for chart construction and analysis. The suite prompts users for data in a user friendly fashion and adds the data to or creates the control charts. All activities are time stamped. Facilities for generating monthly or contiguous time segment summary charts are included. The suite is currently in use at Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  5. Fatty acid translocase gene CD36 rs1527483 variant influences oral fat perception in Malaysian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hing-Huat; Tan, Yen-Nee; Say, Yee-How

    2017-01-01

    We determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the fatty acid translocase CD36 gene - a receptor for fatty acids - is associated with oral fat perception (OFP) of different fat contents in custards and commercially-available foods, and obesity measures in Malaysian subjects (n=313; 118 males, 293 ethnic Chinese; 20 ethnic Indians). A 170-mm visual analogue scale was used to assess the ratings of perceived fat content, oiliness and creaminess of 0%, 2%, 6% and 10% fat content-by-weight custards and low-fat/regular versions of commercially-available milk, mayonnaise and cream crackers. Overall, the subjects managed to significantly discriminate the fat content, oiliness and creaminess between low-fat/regular versions of milk and mayonnaise. Females rated the perception of fat content and oiliness of both milks higher, but ethnicity, obesity and adiposity status did not seem to play a role in influencing most of OFP. The overall minor allele frequencies for rs1761667 and rs1527483 were 0.30 and 0.26, respectively. Females and individuals with rs1527483 TT genotype significantly perceived greater creaminess of 10% fat-by-weight custard. Also, individuals with rs1527483 TT genotype and T allele significantly perceived greater fat content of cream crackers, independent of fat concentration. rs1761667 SNP did not significantly affect OFP, except for cream crackers. Both gene variants were also not associated with obesity measures. Taken together, this study supports the notion that CD36 - specifically rs1527483, plays a role in OFP, but not in influencing obesity in Malaysian subjects. Besides, gender is an important factor for OFP, where females had higher sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interleukin-21 gene polymorphism rs2221903 is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Damian; Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine which plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Genetic polymorphisms in the IL-21 gene may alter the synthesis of IL-21. The aim of this study was to examine IL-21 and IL-21R polymorphisms in patients with RA. Material and methods We examined 422 patients with RA and 338 healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the IL-21 (rs6822844 G>T, rs6840978 C>T, rs2221903 T>C) and IL-21R (rs2285452 G>A) genes were genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of studied genotypes and alleles between RA patients and the control group. To examine whether IL-21 polymorphisms affect disease activity in RA patients, we compared the distribution of IL-21 genotypes between patients with DAS28 ≤ 2.5 (patients with remission of disease symptoms) and patients with DAS28 > 2.5 (patients with active RA). Among patients with DAS28 > 2.5, increased prevalence of rs2221903 CT and CC genotypes was observed (OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.04–2.28; p = 0.035). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that IL-21 and IL-21R gene polymorphisms are not risk loci for RA susceptibility, whereas the IL-21 rs2221903 polymorphism is associated with disease activity. PMID:28883856

  7. Interleukin-21 gene polymorphism rs2221903 is associated with disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Damian; Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine which plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Genetic polymorphisms in the IL-21 gene may alter the synthesis of IL-21. The aim of this study was to examine IL-21 and IL-21R polymorphisms in patients with RA. We examined 422 patients with RA and 338 healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the IL-21 (rs6822844 G>T, rs6840978 C>T, rs2221903 T>C) and IL-21R (rs2285452 G>A) genes were genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of studied genotypes and alleles between RA patients and the control group. To examine whether IL-21 polymorphisms affect disease activity in RA patients, we compared the distribution of IL-21 genotypes between patients with DAS28 ≤ 2.5 (patients with remission of disease symptoms) and patients with DAS28 > 2.5 (patients with active RA). Among patients with DAS28 > 2.5, increased prevalence of rs2221903 CT and CC genotypes was observed (OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.28; p = 0.035). The results of this study suggest that IL-21 and IL-21R gene polymorphisms are not risk loci for RA susceptibility, whereas the IL-21 rs2221903 polymorphism is associated with disease activity.

  8. Association of rs9939609 Polymorphism with Metabolic Parameters and FTO Risk Haplotype Among Tunisian Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elouej, Sahar; Belfki-Benali, Hanen; Nagara, Majdi; Lasram, Khaled; Attaoua, Redha; Sallem, Om Kalthoum; Kamoun, Ines; Chargui, Mariem; Romdhane, Lilia; Jamoussi, Henda; Turki, Zinet; Abid, Abdelmajid; Ben Slama, Claude; Bahri, Sonia; Abdelhak, Sonia; Grigorescu, Florin; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Kefi, Rym

    2016-03-01

    Variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aims to assess the association of the rs9939609 variant and haplotypes in FTO gene with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in a Tunisian population sample. A total of 685 Tunisian subjects were genotyped for the rs9939609T>A using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Two variants rs1421085T>C and rs8057044A>G already genotyped in a previous study were used to test haplotype association of the FTO gene. Genotype distribution of the variant rs9939609 was different between MetS and controls (P = 0.017). Individuals carrying TA genotypes had a significantly increased risk independently of body mass index or age (P = 0.009). The variant rs9939609 was also associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (P = 0.002). Among the eight haplotypes in the population, the haplotype GCA was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing the MetS, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher levels of fasting glucose and triglycerides (TGs) in the total sample and females, separately. Separate analysis by gender revealed a protective haplotype TGT among women (P = 0.023). FTO haplotypes have a strong influence on blood pressures and TG and IFG levels. These findings provide evidence that FTO gene may play a critical role in leading to MetS in Tunisian population.

  9. Meta-analysis of the rs2075650 polymorphism and risk of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    He, Ya; Li, Chen; Yang, Ying; Li, Yizhou; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Hua; Jin, Tianbo; Chen, Songsheng

    2016-10-01

    Several researchers have suggested that the rs2075650 polymorphism is significantly associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD) in European. However, some others found inconsistent results in Asian (Chinese and Korean). We addressed the controversy through performing a meta-analysis of the relationship between rs2075650 in TOMM40 (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homologue) and Alzheimer disease. We selected eight case-control studies involving 4290 cases of Alzheimer disease and 5556 healthy individuals. The association between the TOMM40 rs2075650 polymorphism and Alzheimer disease was examined by overall odds ratio (OR) with a 95 % confidence interval (CI). We used different genetic model analysis, sensitivity analysis, and assessments of bias in our meta-analysis. The pooled analysis showed the inconsistent results that TOMM40 rs2075650 polymorphism was associated with Alzheimer disease in European and Korean population in all genetic models, but there was no significant association between the TOMM40 rs2075650 polymorphism and Alzheimer disease risk in Chinese population. We conclude that rs2075650 in TOMM40 gene may increase the risk of Alzheimer disease.

  10. Smoking attenuated the association between IκBα rs696 polymorphism and defective spermatogenesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Ding, Q; Zheng, T; Jiang, L; Li, Q; Sun, X; Bai, C; Huang, Z

    2015-11-01

    Defective spermatogenesis is prevalent in infertile men, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its aetiology are largely unknown. In this study, a proposed association between IκBα SNPs, smoking-related ROS and sperm quality was investigated. Two polymorphisms in the IκBα gene, rs2233406 and rs696 were genotyped in 342 controls and 338 patients with defective spermatogenesis from a southern Chinese population. The results showed the rs696 AA genotype to be significantly more common (21.60% versus 14.33%, P = 0.013) and the rs696 GG genotype to be significantly rarer (28.99% versus 37.13%, P = 0.024) in the cases than in the controls. After subjects were stratified into smokers and nonsmokers, these differences were only observed in nonsmokers. Further analysis showed the rs696 AA genotype to be significantly closely associated with defective spermatogenesis in all subjects (P = 0.014, OR = 1.647) and in nonsmokers (P = 0.036, OR = 1.889). In a TM3 cell model, exposure to cigarette smoke condensate was found to activate NF-κB luciferase activity and altered transcriptional level of NF-κB pathway genes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an association between functional polymorphisms of the IκBα rs696 and cigarette smoking with the risk of defective spermatogenesis, suggesting some interaction between the NF-κB signalling pathway and smoking-related ROS in human spermatogenesis.

  11. CDKN2B gene rs1063192 polymorphism decreases the risk of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenxian; He, Chenliang

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitor-2B (CDKN2B) gene rs1063192 polymorphism and glaucoma risk. We searched the databases of PubMed, and Embase. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using fixed-effect or random-effect models. A total of 14 case-control studies involving 11,316 cases and 24,055 controls were included. Meta-analysis showed that CDKN2B gene rs1063192 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of glaucoma. Stratification analysis of ethnicity indicated that rs1063192 polymorphism decreased the risk of glaucoma among Caucasians and Asians. Stratification analysis by type of glaucoma revealed that rs1063192 polymorphism conferred a protective factor of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and non-POAG. Stratification by source of controls uncovered an association between rs1063192 polymorphism and glaucoma in groups of population-based controls. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that CDKN2B gene rs1063192 polymorphism is significantly associated with a decreased risk of glaucoma.

  12. PON1 Q192R polymorphism (rs662) is associated with childhood embryonal tumors.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Gisele M; Gonçalves, Bruno Aguiar Alves; Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Rafaela; Thuler, Luiz Claúdio Santos; Braga, Flavio Henrique Paraguassu; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2014-09-01

    Genetic susceptibility and environment exposures are associated risk factors in carcinogenesis. Gene polymorphisms that decrease the activity of detoxifying carcinogen substances may modify the effect of exposures. We investigated whether the polymorphisms PON1 rs662 (Q192R), and PON1 rs854560 (L55M) would be associated with embryonal tumors in Brazilian children. Blood samples from 163 children with embryonal tumors and 342 as control group were genotyped by TaqMAN real-time PCR assays. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the polymorphisms of cases and controls groups, adjusted by skin color and age strata. When all tumors were taken together, the presence of the PON1 rs662 (Q192R) variant genotype (RR) was associated with an increased risk of developing embryonal tumors (OR = 2.80, 95 % CI 1.12-7.02). The presence of at least one variant PON1 rs662 R allele increased the risk of developing Wilms´ Tumor although without statistical power. However, it was observed a significant association of PON1 rs662 (Q192R) variant genotype (RR) with retinoblastoma (OR = 4.08, 95 % CI 1.13-14.97), whereas the PON1 rs854560 (L55M) polymorphism was not associated with any tumor. These results indicate that PON1 polymorphisms may have an influence on the risk of developing embryonal tumors.

  13. Association between JAK2 rs4495487 Polymorphism and Risk of Budd-Chiari Syndrome in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peijin; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Hui; Ma, He; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xiuyin; Xu, Hao; Lu, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are the leading cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), and the C allele of JAK2 rs4495487 was reported to be an additional candidate locus that contributed to MPNs. In the present study, we examined the role of JAK2 rs4495487 in the etiology and clinical presentation of Chinese BCS patients. 300 primary BCS patients and 311 healthy controls were enrolled to evaluate the association between JAK2 rs4495487 polymorphism and risk of BCS. All subjects were detected for JAK2 rs4495487 by real-time PCR. Results. The JAK2 rs4495487 polymorphism was associated with JAK2 V617F-positive BCS patients compared with controls (P < 0.01). The CC genotype increased the risk of BCS in patients with JAK2 V617F mutation compared with individuals presenting TT genotype (OR = 13.60, 95% CI = 2.04–90.79) and non-CC genotype (OR = 12.00, 95% CI = 2.07–69.52). We also observed a significantly elevated risk of combined-type BCS associated with CC genotype in the recessive model (OR = 4.44, 95% CI = 1.31–15.12). This study provides statistical evidence that the JAK2 rs4495487 polymorphism is susceptibility factor JAK2 V617F positive BCS and combined BCS in China. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26557140

  14. Association Between MIF-AS rs755622 and Nephrolithiasis Risk in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gaoxiang; Yuan, Qinbo; Wang, Qiangdong; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Dong, Zhenjia; Xiao, Xu; Wang, Meilin; Qin, Chao; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-02-20

    BACKGROUND Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located at lncRNA may affect the stability and splicing processes of mRNA formation, which result in the alteration of its interacting partners. The SNP rs755622 within exon of antisense lncRNA MIF- AS and promoter of MIF was implicated in renal disease risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this case-control study, we genotyped the SNP rs755622 in 230 patients diagnosed with nephrolithiasis and 250 controls in a Chinese population. RESULTS We found that the rs755622 CG and CC genotypes had a significantly increased nephrolithiasis risk (adjusted OR=1.52, 95% CI=1.03-2.25; OR=2.63, 95% CI=1.21-5.72, P=0.015), compared with GG genotype in the additive model. The rs755622 C carriers (GC/CC) had an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.14-2.39, P=0.016), compared with the GG genotype in the dominant model. This hazardous effect was more pronounced in subgroup age >46, BMI >24, hypertension, ever smoking, and ever drinking subjects. Moreover, we found that rs755622 could modulate the function of MIF-AS by influencing its folding. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that the MIF-AS rs755622 polymorphism may have a crucial role in the development of nephrolithiasis.

  15. The Use of Systematic Reviews and Reporting Guidelines to Advance the Implementation of the 3Rs

    PubMed Central

    Avey, Marc T; Fenwick, Nicole; Griffin, Gilly

    2015-01-01

    In 1959, Russell and Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which included concrete advice on factors that they considered would govern progress in the implementation of these principles (enunciated as the 3Rs [Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement in animal-based studies]). One challenge to the implementation of the 3Rs was identified as information retrieval. Here, we further explore this challenge—the need for ‘research on research’—and the role that systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can play in implementation of the 3Rs. First, we examine the 2-fold nature of the challenge of information retrieval: 1) the identification of relevant publications spread throughout a large population of nonrelevant publications and 2) the incomplete reporting of relevant details within those publications. Second, we evaluate how systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can be used generally to address this challenge. Third, we assess the explicit reporting of the 3Rs in a cohort of preclinical animal systematic reviews. Our results show that Reduction methods are the most commonly reported by authors of systematic reviews but that, in general, reporting on how findings relate to the 3Rs is limited at best. Although systematic reviews are excellent tools for resolving the challenge of information retrieval, their utility for making progress in implementation of the 3Rs may be limited unless authors improve their reporting of these principles. PMID:25836961

  16. Association study of BUD13-ZNF259 gene rs964184 polymorphism and hemorrhagic stroke risk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengjun; Zhao, Jikuang; Wang, Zhepei; Li, Keqin; Nie, Sheng; Gao, Feng; Sun, Jie; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association of rs964184 of BUD13-ZNF259 gene with the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HS). A total of 138 HS cases and 587 controls were recruited for the association of rs964184 of BUD13-ZNF259 gene with the risk of HS. Tm shift PCR was used for genotyping. We were unable to find the association of rs964184 of BUD13-ZNF259 gene with the risk of HS (P>0.05). Significant difference was found in the TG level among the three genotypes (CC: 1.51±1.02; CG: 1.68±1.10; GG: 1.90±1.11, P=0.036). The TG level showed strong correlation with rs964184 genotypes (P=0.010, correlation=0.101). Significantly higher TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C levels were observed in the case group. And no difference was found in the TG, ApoA-I, ApoB. Our case-control study supported the significant association between rs964184 genotype and the blood TG concentration, although we were unable to find association between BUD13-ZNF259 rs964184 and the risk of HS in Han Chinese.

  17. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.545 Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4... operation provided exposed food has been covered or removed from the area being treated prior to...

  18. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.545 Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4... served. (3) Application shall be limited to space, general surface, and spot and/or crack and crevice... served. General surface or space spray applications may be used only when the facility is not in...

  19. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.545 Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4... served. (3) Application shall be limited to space, general surface, and spot and/or crack and crevice... served. General surface or space spray applications may be used only when the facility is not in...

  20. CIITA rs4774 and rs6498122 polymorphisms are associated with oral lichen planus in Chinese people: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Lifeng; Sun, Mao; Wang, Guoxia; Fu, Shanmin; Dong, Guangying; Wu, Yuanming

    2013-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common autoimmune inflammatory disorder that is difficult to cure, and its pathogenesis is still largely unknown. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA) gene has been reported to be an important candidate in some classical autoimmune diseases, and certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CIITA have been confirmed to be associated with susceptibility to some autoimmune diseases. We conducted this research to investigate the existence of any correlation between OLP and SNPs in CIITA. A case-control study was performed to genotype 15 SNPs in the CIITA gene from 42 patients with OLP and from 86 controls; this was carried out by the PCR and then by a locus-specific single-base extension reaction. Allele detection was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The SNP rs4774 variant in exon 11 (+1614G/C, Gly500Ala) of CIITA is significantly associated with OLP in healthy persons, both in genotype frequency and in allele frequency. Another intronic SNP, rs6498122, showed significant differences only in allele frequency. In conclusion, our data show that the two SNPs rs4774 and rs6498122 are associated with OLP and could also indicate the autoimmune characteristics of OLP.

  1. Association and interaction of myopia with SNP markers rs13382811 and rs6469937 at ZFHX1B and SNTB1 in Han Chinese and European populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiali; Jiao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qingjiong; Hejtmancik, J Fielding

    2017-01-01

    Previously, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified rs13382811 (near ZFHX1B) and rs6469937 (near SNTB1) to be associated with high myopia. The present study evaluates the association of these two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with moderate to high myopia in two Chinese cohorts and two cohorts of European populations. Two Chinese university student cohorts, including one with 300 unrelated subjects with high myopia and 308 emmetropic controls from Guangzhou and a second with 96 unrelated individuals with moderate to high myopia and 96 emmetropic controls of Chaoshanese origin in Guangzhou, were enrolled in this study. Two SNPs, rs6469937 and rs13382811, were selected for genotyping based on their reported associations with severe myopia. The SNPs were genotyped via DNA sequencing. In addition, association analysis of both SNPs was performed using genotype data from the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) involving a total of 2,423 samples in two independent cohorts of European-derived populations, as follows: Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA) and TwinsUK. The allelic and genotypic distribution among cases and controls were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the SNP-SNP interaction. Fisher's exact test was used for two-SNP comparisons. In the Guangzhou cohort, SNP rs13382811 near ZFHX1B showed significant association with high myopia (pallelic = 0.0001, pgenotypic = 4.07 × 10(-5)), with the minor T allele showing an increased risk of high myopia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-2.20). SNP rs6469937 near SNTB1 showed nominal evidence of association (pallelic = 0.0085, pgenotypic = 0.0166), which did not withstand correction for multiple testing. No significant association was detected in the smaller Chaoshan cohort alone. The association of SNPs rs13382811 and rs6469937 remained significant when both Han Chinese cohorts were combined

  2. Effect of IAA produced by Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 on cotton growth under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Zaiqiang; Yao, Lixia; Yue, Haitao; Li, Hui; Li, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 isolated with ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase activity as the sole nitrogen source could obviously promote cotton seedling growth under salt stress and produce phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The amount of IAA produced by the strain Rs-5 was measured, and the effect of IAA on cotton growth under salt stress was studied. Different treatments were set to treat cotton seeds with fermentation broth containing strain Rs-5 (FB), strain Rs-5, fermentation broth with bacteria removed (FB-NB), fermentation broth without bacteria or IAA (FB-NB-NI) and single IAA solutions (SI) according to the IAA concentration after strain Rs-5 culturing of 48, 72 and 120 h. The germination rate, dry weight, plant height, root length and malondialdehyde (MDA), proline and endogenous IAA content in roots were determined. The results showed that both IAA produced by strain Rs-5 and the strain were effective in promoting cotton growth under salt stress. The growth and ability to resist salt stress of cotton seedlings were increased with the enhancement of IAA concentration. The treatment of FB containing bacteria and IAA at 120 h obtained the best state of cotton growth, when the IAA content was the highest in the fermentation broth (42.14 μg·L(-1)). The germination rate, dry weight, plant height and root length were increased by 29.4%, 24.3%, 27.2% and 27.2% , respectively, compared to the saline control. The strain Rs-5 and/or IAA could obviously reduce the MDA and proline content and increase the endogenous IAA content in cotton seedlings. However, the efficacy of other components in the fermentation broth was inconspicuous.

  3. A Functional IL22 Polymorphism (rs2227473) Is Associated with Predisposition to Childhood Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Sandrine; Conte, Ianina; Poudiougou, Belco; Argiro, Laurent; Dessein, Hélia; Couturier, Charlène; Burté, Florence; Oumar, Aboubacar A.; Brown, Biobele J.; Traore, Abdoualye; Afolabi, Nathaniel K.; Barry, Abdoulaye; Omokhodion, Samuel; Shokunbi, Wuraola A.; Sodeinde, Olugbemiro; Doumbo, Ogobara; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro; Dessein, Alain J.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This encephalopathy is characterized by coma and is thought to result from mechanical microvessel obstruction and an excessive activation of immune cells leading to pathological inflammation and blood-brain barrier alterations. IL-22 contributes to both chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases, and may have protective or pathogenic effects, depending on the tissue and disease state. We evaluated whether polymorphisms (n = 46) of IL22 and IL22RA2 were associated with CM in children from Nigeria and Mali. Two SNPs of IL22, rs1012356 (P = 0.016, OR = 2.12) and rs2227476 (P = 0.007, OR = 2.08) were independently associated with CM in a sample of 115 Nigerian children with CM and 160 controls. The association with rs2227476 (P = 0.01) was replicated in 240 nuclear families with one affected child from Mali. SNP rs2227473, in linkage disequilibrium with rs2227476, was also associated with CM in the combined cohort for these two populations, (P = 0.004, OR = 1.55). SNP rs2227473 is located within a putative binding site for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a master regulator of IL-22 production. Individuals carrying the aggravating T allele of rs2227473 produced significantly more IL-22 than those without this allele. Overall, these findings suggest that IL-22 is involved in the pathogenesis of CM. PMID:28139719

  4. Biocompatibility of rapidly solidified magnesium alloy RS66 as a temporary biodegradable metal.

    PubMed

    Willbold, Elmar; Kalla, Katharina; Bartsch, Ivonne; Bobe, Katharina; Brauneis, Maria; Remennik, Sergei; Shechtman, Dan; Nellesen, Jens; Tillmann, Wolfgang; Vogt, Carla; Witte, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-based alloys are very promising materials for temporary implants. However, the clinical use of magnesium-based alloys is often limited by rapid corrosion and by insufficient mechanical stability. Here we investigated RS66, a magnesium-based alloy with extraordinary physicochemical properties of high tensile strength combined with a high ductility and a homogeneous grain size of ~1 μm which was obtained by rapid solidification processing and reciprocal extrusion. Using a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, we analyzed the biodegradation behavior and the biocompatibility of this alloy. In vitro, RS66 had no cytotoxic effects in physiological concentrations on the viability and the proliferation of primary human osteoblasts. In vivo, RS66 cylinders were implanted into femur condyles, under the skin and in the muscle of adult rabbits and were monitored for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks. After explantation, the RS66 cylinders were first analyzed by microtomography to determine the remaining RS66 alloy and calculate the corrosion rates. Then, the implantation sites were examined histologically for healing processes and foreign body reactions. We found that RS66 was corroded fastest subcutaneously followed by intramuscular and bony implantation of the samples. No clinical harm with transient gas cavities during the first 6 weeks in subcutaneous and intramuscular implantation sites was observed. No gas cavities were formed around the implantation site in bone. The corrosion rates in the different anatomical locations correlated well with the local blood flow prior to implantation. A normal foreign body reaction occurred in all tissues. Interestingly, no enhanced bone formation could be observed around the corroding samples in the condyles. These data show that RS66 is biocompatible, and due to its interesting physicochemical properties, this magnesium alloy is a promising material for biodegradable implants.

  5. Synaptic pathology and therapeutic repair in adult retinoschisis mouse by AAV-RS1 transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jingxing; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Ziccardi, Lucia; Chen, Shan; Zeng, Yong; Marangoni, Dario; Pope, Jodie G.; Bush, Ronald A.; Wu, Zhijian; Li, Wei; Sieving, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies aimed at invoking synaptic plasticity have therapeutic potential for several neurological conditions. The human retinal synaptic disease X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is characterized by impaired visual signal transmission through the retina and progressive visual acuity loss, and mice lacking retinoschisin (RS1) recapitulate human disease. Here, we demonstrate that restoration of RS1 via retina-specific delivery of adeno-associated virus type 8-RS1 (AAV8-RS1) vector rescues molecular pathology at the photoreceptor–depolarizing bipolar cell (photoreceptor-DBC) synapse and restores function in adult Rs1-KO animals. Initial development of the photoreceptor-DBC synapse was normal in the Rs1-KO retina; however, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6/transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily M member 1–signaling (mGluR6/TRPM1-signaling) cascade was not properly maintained. Specifically, the TRPM1 channel and G proteins Gαo, Gβ5, and RGS11 were progressively lost from postsynaptic DBC dendritic tips, whereas the mGluR6 receptor and RGS7 maintained proper synaptic position. This postsynaptic disruption differed from other murine night-blindness models with an electronegative electroretinogram response, which is also characteristic of murine and human XLRS disease. Upon AAV8-RS1 gene transfer to the retina of adult XLRS mice, TRPM1 and the signaling molecules returned to their proper dendritic tip location, and the DBC resting membrane potential was restored. These findings provide insight into the molecular plasticity of a critical synapse in the visual system and demonstrate potential therapeutic avenues for some diseases involving synaptic pathology. PMID:26098217

  6. Research on texture feature of RS image based on cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Xue, Lixia

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new method applied to texture feature representation in RS image based on cloud model. Aiming at the fuzziness and randomness of RS image, we introduce the cloud theory into RS image processing in a creative way. The digital characteristics of clouds well integrate the fuzziness and randomness of linguistic terms in a unified way and map the quantitative and qualitative concepts. We adopt texture multi-dimensions cloud to accomplish vagueness and randomness handling of texture feature in RS image. The method has two steps: 1) Correlativity analyzing of texture statistical parameters in Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and parameters fuzzification. GLCM can be used to representing the texture feature in many aspects perfectly. According to the expressive force of texture statistical parameters and by Correlativity analyzing of texture statistical parameters, we can abstract a few texture statistical parameters that can best represent the texture feature. By the fuzziness algorithm, the texture statistical parameters can be mapped to fuzzy cloud space. 2) Texture multi-dimensions cloud model constructing. Based on the abstracted texture statistical parameters and fuzziness cloud space, texture multi-dimensions cloud model can be constructed in micro-windows of image. According to the membership of texture statistical parameters, we can achieve the samples of cloud-drop. By backward cloud generator, the digital characteristics of texture multi-dimensions cloud model can be achieved and the Mathematical Expected Hyper Surface(MEHS) of multi-dimensions cloud of micro-windows can be constructed. At last, the weighted sum of the 3 digital characteristics of micro-window cloud model was proposed and used in texture representing in RS image. The method we develop is demonstrated by applying it to texture representing in many RS images, various performance studies testify that the method is both efficient and effective. It enriches the cloud

  7. RS-25 for the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle: The Evolution of SSME for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Michael H.; Genge, Gary G.; Greene, William D.; Jacobs, William; McArthur, J. Craig; Mims, Michael J.; Tepool, J. Eric; Wofford, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    As a first step towards the fulfillment of the National Vision for Space Exploration, NASA has begun development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). The CLV will act, in conjunction with the Crew Exploration Vehicle, as the next generation human launch system to first support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), then later to support the lunar return missions, and then after that to exploration missions to Mars and beyond. The CLV is a two-stage launch vehicle with the first stage based upon the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster. The newly designed, expendable second stage is powered by a single RS-25 liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen rocket engine. The RS-25 is essentially the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) evolved for a new mission, new environments, and new conditions. The CLV Upper-Stage Engine (USE) office has been established to develop the RS-25 in support of the CLV Project. This paper presents an outline and discussion of the risks associated with this endeavor of transforming the SSME into the upper-stage, altitude-start RS-25 and the plans being undertaken to understand and mitigate these risks. In addition, to meet the long-term requirements of the CLV launch manifest, it will be necessary to redevelop the RS-25, with its long history as the reusable SSME for the Space Shuttle Program, as an expendable engine. While the first flights of CLV will be using heritage SSME hardware, beyond that a new version of RS-25 as an expendable engine is being pursued by the CLV USE element. The goals of this work include the need to make the hardware more producible while maintaining the inherent and inherited reliability of the basic design. This paper will also discuss the risks and present the plans for developing both this next generation version of the RS-25 and for developing the manufacturing capacity necessary to support the CLV Project.

  8. Association between CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jia-Li; Sun, Jing; Ge, Hui-Juan; Cao, Yun-Xia; Wu, Xiao-Ke; Liang, Feng-Jing; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Ke, Lu; Yi, Long; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yong

    2009-12-16

    Several studies have reported the association of the SNP rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene with hyperandrogenism, which is one of the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). These studies suggest that SNP rs2414096 may be involved in the etiopathogenisis of PCOS. To investigate whetherthe CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to PCOS, we designed a case-controlled association study including 684 individuals. A case-controlled association study including 684 individuals (386 PCOS patients and 298 controls) was performed to assess the association of SNP rs2414096 with PCOS. Genotyping of SNP rs2414096 was conducted by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method that was performed on genomic DNA isolated from blood leucocytes. Results were analyzed in respect to clinical test results. The genotypic distributions of rs2414096 (GG, AG, AA) in the CYP19 gene (GG, AG, AA) in women with PCOS (0.363, 0.474, 0.163, respectively) were significantly different from that in controls (0.242, 0.500, 0.258, respectively) (P = 0.001). E2/T was different between the AA and GG genotypes. Age at menarche (AAM) and FSH were also significantly different among the GG, AG, and AA genotypes in women with PCOS (P = 0.0391 and 0.0118, respectively). No differences were observed in body mass index (BMI) and other serum hormone concentrations among the three genotypes, either in the PCOS patients or controls. Our data suggest that SNP rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene is associated with susceptibility to PCOS.

  9. The 8q24 rs6983267G variant is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Estrada, Ana; Lott, Paul; Martin, Lynn; Polanco Echeverry, Guadalupe; Velez, Alejandro; Neta, Gila; Takahasi, Meiko; Saenko, Vladimir; Mitsutake, Norisato; Jaeguer, Emma; Duque, Carlos Simon; Rios, Alejandro; Bohorquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Criollo, Angel; Echeverry, Magdalena; Tomlinson, Ian; Carmona, Luis G Carvajal

    2015-10-01

    The G allele of the rs6983267 single-nucleotide polymorphism, located on chromosome 8q24, has been associated with increased risk of several cancer types. The association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer (TC) has been tested in different populations, mostly of European ancestry, and has led to inconclusive results. While significant associations have been reported in the British and Polish populations, no association has been detected in populations from Spain, Italy and the USA. To further investigate the role of rs6983267G in TC susceptibility, we evaluated rs6983267 genotypes in three populations of different continental ancestry (British Isles, Colombia and Japan), providing a total of 3067 cases and 8575 controls. We detected significant associations between rs6983267G and TC in the British Isles (odds ratio (OR)=1.19, 95% CI: 1.11-1.27, P=4.03×10(-7)), Japan (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.03-1.41, P=0.022) and a borderline significant association of similar effect direction and size in Colombia (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.99-1.44, P=0.069). A meta-analysis of our multi-ethnic study and previously published non-overlapping datasets, which included a total of 5484 cases and 12 594 controls, confirmed the association between rs6983267G and TC (P=1.23×10(-7), OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18). Our results therefore support the notion that rs6983267G is a bona fide TC risk variant that increases the risk of disease by ∼13%. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Basigin rs8259 Polymorphism Confers Decreased Risk of Chronic Heart Failure in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu-Peng; Hu, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Yong-Long; Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Zhou, Ji-Peng; Peng, Li-Ming; Tang, Jie; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular remodeling is an essential risk factor contributing to the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF). Basigin (BSG) promotes cardiovascular inflammation and myocardial remodeling processes by induction of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory cytokines. BSG rs8259 polymorphism was associated with BSG expression and risk of acute coronary syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether rs8259 polymorphism contributes to risk and prognosis of CHF in Chinese patients. In total 922 adult patients with CHF and 1107 matched healthy controls were enrolled. BSG rs8259 polymorphism was genotyped using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Whole blood BSG mRNA expression data from Genotype-Tissue Expression project was accessed. Evaluation of follow-up data was performed in only 15.2% (140) of the patients with CHF. BSG rs8259 TT genotype was associated with a decreased risk of CHF (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.72–0.96, p = 0.010), especially in patients with hypertension (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.68–0.95, p = 0.011) and coronary heart disease (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.69–0.96, p = 0.013) after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Rs8259 T allele was associated with decreased BSG mRNA in whole blood from 338 healthy normal donors (p = 1.31 × 10−6). However, rs8259 polymorphism failed to exhibit an association with cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.283). BSG rs8259 polymorphism may contribute to decreased risk of CHF in a Chinese Han population. PMID:28230811

  11. 8q24 rs6983267G variant is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Estrada, Ana; Lott, Paul; Martin, Lynn; Echeverry, Guadalupe Polanco; Velez, Alejandro; Neta, Gila; Takahasi, Meiko; Saenko, Vladimir; Mitsutake, Norisato; Jaeguer, Emma; Duque, Carlos Simon; Rios, Alejandro; Bohorquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Criollo, Angel; Echeverry, Magdalena; Tomlinson, Ian; Carvajal Carmona, Luis G.

    2015-01-01

    The G allele of the rs6983267 single nucleotide polymorphism, located on chromosome 8q24, has been associated with increased risk of several cancer types. The association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer has been tested in different populations, mostly of European ancestry, and has led to inconclusive results. While significant associations have been reported in the British and Polish populations, no association has been detected in populations from Spain, Italy and the USA. To further investigate the role of rs6983267G in thyroid cancer susceptibility, we evaluated rs6983267 genotypes in three populations of different continental ancestry (British Isles, Colombia and Japan), providing a total of 3,067 cases and 8,575 controls. We detected significant associations between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer in the British Isles (Odds Ratio, OR= 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.11–1.27, P= 4.03 × 10−7), Japan (OR= 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03–1.41, P= 0.022) and a borderline significant association of similar effect direction and size in Colombia (OR= 1.19, 95% CI: 0.99–1.44, P= 0.069). A meta-analysis of our multi-ethnic study and previously published non-overlapping datasets, which included a total of 5,484 cases and 12,594 controls, confirmed the association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer (P= 1.23 × 10−7, OR= 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07–1.18). Our results therefore support the notion that rs6983267G is a bona fide thyroid cancer risk variant that increases the risk of disease by ~13%. PMID:26290501

  12. Survey of Canadian Animal-Based Researchers' Views on the Three Rs: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Nicole; Danielson, Peter; Griffin, Gilly

    2011-01-01

    The ‘Three Rs’ tenet (replacement, reduction, refinement) is a widely accepted cornerstone of Canadian and international policies on animal-based science. The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) initiated this web-based survey to obtain greater understanding of ‘principal investigators’ and ‘other researchers’ (i.e. graduate students, post-doctoral researchers etc.) views on the Three Rs, and to identify obstacles and opportunities for continued implementation of the Three Rs in Canada. Responses from 414 participants indicate that researchers currently do not view the goal of replacement as achievable. Researchers prefer to use enough animals to ensure quality data is obtained rather than using the minimum and potentially waste those animals if a problem occurs during the study. Many feel that they already reduce animal numbers as much as possible and have concerns that further reduction may compromise research. Most participants were ambivalent about re-use, but expressed concern that the practice could compromise experimental outcomes. In considering refinement, many researchers feel there are situations where animals should not receive pain relieving drugs because it may compromise scientific outcomes, although there was strong support for the Three Rs strategy of conducting animal welfare-related pilot studies, which were viewed as useful for both animal welfare and experimental design. Participants were not opposed to being offered “assistance” to implement the Three Rs, so long as the input is provided in a collegial manner, and from individuals who are perceived as experts. It may be useful for animal use policymakers to consider what steps are needed to make replacement a more feasible goal. In addition, initiatives that offer researchers greater practical and logistical support with Three Rs implementation may be useful. Encouragement and financial support for Three Rs initiatives may result in valuable contributions to Three Rs

  13. RS-25 for the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle: The Evolution of SSME for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Michael H.; Genge, Gary G.; Greene, William D.; Jacobs, William; McArthur, J. Craig; Mims, Michael J.; Tepool, J. Eric; Wofford, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    As a first step towards the fulfillment of the National Vision for Space Exploration, NASA has begun development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). The CLV will act, in conjunction with the Crew Exploration Vehicle, as the next generation human launch system to first support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), then later to support the lunar return missions, and then after that to exploration missions to Mars and beyond. The CLV is a two-stage launch vehicle with the first stage based upon the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster. The newly designed, expendable second stage is powered by a single RS-25 liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen rocket engine. The RS-25 is essentially the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) evolved for a new mission, new environments, and new conditions. The CLV Upper-Stage Engine (USE) office has been established to develop the RS-25 in support of the CLV Project. This paper presents an outline and discussion of the risks associated with this endeavor of transforming the SSME into the upper-stage, altitude-start RS-25 and the plans being undertaken to understand and mitigate these risks. In addition, to meet the long-term requirements of the CLV launch manifest, it will be necessary to redevelop the RS-25, with its long history as the reusable SSME for the Space Shuttle Program, as an expendable engine. While the first flights of CLV will be using heritage SSME hardware, beyond that a new version of RS-25 as an expendable engine is being pursued by the CLV USE element. The goals of this work include the need to make the hardware more producible while maintaining the inherent and inherited reliability of the basic design. This paper will also discuss the risks and present the plans for developing both this next generation version of the RS-25 and for developing the manufacturing capacity necessary to support the CLV Project.

  14. Effects of PSCA rs2294008 (C/T) and c-MYC rs9642880 (G/T) polymorphisms on bladder cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Yang, Peng-Tao; Diao, Yan; Kang, Hua-Feng; Zhao, Yang; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Zi-Ming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Xi-Jing; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the associations between the two polymorphisms (prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) rs2294008 C/T and c-MYC rs9642880 G/T) and bladder cancer (BC) risk. However, the results are inconsistent. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between PSCA/c-MYC polymorphisms and BC risk. We searched PubMed up to November 2014 to identify potentially eligible literatures. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the associations, the data were further stratified by ethnicity. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Q test and I2 statistics. Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test were used to assess the publication bias. 11 studies from 9 articles were identified, including a total of 16,814 cancer cases and 52,868 case-free controls. We found a significant association between PSCA rs2294008 polymorphism and BC risk (the allele contrast model: OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.11-1.18; homozygote comparison: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.20-1.37; heterozygote comparison: OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.17-1.30; dominant model: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.19-1.31 and recessive model: OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.20). Moreover, a significant increased risk of BC was confirmed both in Caucasian and in Asians. For c-MYC rs9642880 polymorphism, significant increased BC risk was detected under the following genetic models (the allele contrast model: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.13-1.27; homozygote comparison: OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.21-1.55; heterozygote comparison: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.09-1.32; dominant model: OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.14-1.37 and recessive model: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.13-1.40). Further stratified analysis by ethnicity also observed the same results. This meta-analysis suggested that PSCA rs2294008 and c-MYC rs9642880 polymorphisms may increase the BC risk. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects. PMID:25932146

  15. Genetic variants in PARP1 (rs3219090) and IRF4 (rs12203592) genes associated with melanoma susceptibility in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Peña-Chilet, Maria; Blanquer-Maceiras, Maite; Ibarrola-Villava, Maider; Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Martin-Gonzalez, Manuel; Gomez-Fernandez, Cristina; Mayor, Matias; Aviles, Juan Antonio; Lluch, Ana; Ribas, Gloria

    2013-03-27

    Few high penetrance genes are known in Malignant Melanoma (MM), however, the involvement of low-penetrance genes such as MC1R, OCA2, ASIP, SLC45A2 and TYR has been observed. Lately, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been the ideal strategy to identify new common, low-penetrance susceptibility loci. In this case-control study, we try to validate in our population nine melanoma associated markers selected from published GWAS in melanoma predisposition. We genotyped the 9 markers corresponding to 8 genes (PARP1, MX2, ATM, CCND1, NADSYN1, CASP8, IRF4 and CYP2R1) in 566 cases and 347 controls from a Spanish population using KASPar probes. Genotypes were analyzed by logistic regression and adjusted by phenotypic characteristics. We confirm the protective role in MM of the rs3219090 located on the PARP1 gene (p-value 0.027). Additionally, this SNP was also associated with eye color (p-value 0.002). A second polymorphism, rs12203592, located on the IRF4 gene was associated with protection to develop MM for the dominant model (p-value 0.037). We have also observed an association of this SNP with both lentigines (p-value 0.014) and light eye color (p-value 3.76 × 10(-4)). Furthermore, we detected a novel association with rs1485993, located on the CCND1 gene, and dark eye color (p-value 4.96 × 10(-4)). Finally, rs1801516, located on the ATM gene, showed a trend towards a protective role in MM similar to the one firstly described in a GWAS study. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these SNPs have been associated with MM in a Spanish population. We confirmed the proposed role of rs3219090, located on the PARP1 gene, and rs12203592, located on the IRF4 gene, as protective to MM along the same lines as have previous genome-wide associated works. Finally, we have seen associations between IRF4, PARP1, and CCND1 and phenotypic characteristics, confirming previous results for the IRF4 gene and presenting novel data for the last two, suggesting that

  16. Genetic variants in PARP1 (rs3219090) and IRF4 (rs12203592) genes associated with melanoma susceptibility in a Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few high penetrance genes are known in Malignant Melanoma (MM), however, the involvement of low-penetrance genes such as MC1R, OCA2, ASIP, SLC45A2 and TYR has been observed. Lately, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been the ideal strategy to identify new common, low-penetrance susceptibility loci. In this case–control study, we try to validate in our population nine melanoma associated markers selected from published GWAS in melanoma predisposition. Methods We genotyped the 9 markers corresponding to 8 genes (PARP1, MX2, ATM, CCND1, NADSYN1, CASP8, IRF4 and CYP2R1) in 566 cases and 347 controls from a Spanish population using KASPar probes. Genotypes were analyzed by logistic regression and adjusted by phenotypic characteristics. Results We confirm the protective role in MM of the rs3219090 located on the PARP1 gene (p-value 0.027). Additionally, this SNP was also associated with eye color (p-value 0.002). A second polymorphism, rs12203592, located on the IRF4 gene was associated with protection to develop MM for the dominant model (p-value 0.037). We have also observed an association of this SNP with both lentigines (p-value 0.014) and light eye color (p-value 3.76 × 10-4). Furthermore, we detected a novel association with rs1485993, located on the CCND1 gene, and dark eye color (p-value 4.96 × 10-4). Finally, rs1801516, located on the ATM gene, showed a trend towards a protective role in MM similar to the one firstly described in a GWAS study. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first time that these SNPs have been associated with MM in a Spanish population. We confirmed the proposed role of rs3219090, located on the PARP1 gene, and rs12203592, located on the IRF4 gene, as protective to MM along the same lines as have previous genome-wide associated works. Finally, we have seen associations between IRF4, PARP1, and CCND1 and phenotypic characteristics, confirming previous results for the IRF4 gene and presenting novel data

  17. Association of methionine synthase rs1801394 and methionine synthase reductase rs1805087 polymorphisms with meningioma in adults: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, XIAN-TAO; LU, JUN-TI; TANG, XIANG-JUN; WENG, HONG; LUO, JIE

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies suggested that methionine synthase (MTRR) rs1801394 and methionine synthase reductase (MTR) rs1805087 polymorphisms may be involved in the risk of meningioma in adults; however, the results from different case-control studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association of MTRR and MTR polymorphisms with meningioma. PubMed, Web of Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases were searched up to October 30, 2013 and 3 publications, involving 7 case-control studies, were finally included. Following data extraction, a meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 software. The pooled results based on the fixed effects model demonstrated that the MTRR rs1801394 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of meningioma [odds ratio (OR)=1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05–1.32 for G vs. A; OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.12–1.77 for GG vs. AA; OR=1.08, 95% CI: 0.94–1.33 for AG vs. AA; OR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.01–1.40 for (AG+GG) vs. AA; and OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.07–1.63 for GG vs. (AG+AA)]; however, an association between the MTR rs1805087 polymorphism and the risk of meningioma was not identified [OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.88–1.12 for G vs. A; OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.80–1.48 for GG vs. AA; OR=0.95, 95% CI: 0.82–1.11 for AG vs. AA; OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.84–1.13 for (AG+GG) vs. AA; and OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.80–1.48 for GG vs. (AG+AA)]. Therefore, the currently available evidence suggests that the MTRR rs1801394 polymorphism may increase the risk of meningioma, whereas the MTRR rs1801394 polymorphism is not associated with meningioma. PMID:24748989

  18. RS-34 Phoenix In-Space Propulsion System Applied to Active Debris Removal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In-space propulsion is a high percentage of the cost when considering Active Debris Removal mission. For this reason it is desired to research if existing designs with slight modification would meet mission requirements to aid in reducing cost of the overall mission. Such a system capable of rendezvous, close proximity operations, and de-orbit of Envisat class resident space objects has been identified in the existing RS-34 Phoenix. RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC has obtained permission from the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. The MSFC Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) was commissioned to lead a study for evaluation of the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an active debris removal design reference mission for resident space object targets including Envisat. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy payloads at multiple orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study lead by sought to further understand application for a similar orbital debris design reference mission to provide propulsive capability for rendezvous, close proximity operations to support the capture phase of the mission, and deorbit of single or multiple large class resident space objects. Multiple configurations varying the degree of modification were identified to trade for dry mass optimization and

  19. p15RS Attenuates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling by Disrupting β-Catenin·TCF4 Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yinyuan; Zhang, Yanquan; Zhang, Haiwei; Yang, Xi; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Liu, Huitu; Zhai, Yonggong; Jia, Baoqing; Yu, Jun; Chang, Zhijie

    2010-01-01

    The formation of a β-catenin·TCF4 complex in the nucleus of cells is well known as a prerequisite for the transcription of Wnt target genes. Although many co-factors have been identified to regulate the activity of the β-catenin·TCF4 complex, it remains unclear how the complex association is negatively regulated. In this study, we report that p15RS, a negative regulator of the cell cycle, blocks β-catenin·TCF4 complex formation and inhibits Wnt signaling. We observed that p15RS interacts with β-catenin and TCF4. Interestingly, whereas the interaction of p15RS with β-catenin is increased, its interaction with TCF4 is decreased upon Wnt1 stimulation. Moreover, overexpression of p15RS reduces the interaction of β-catenin with TCF4, whereas the depletion of p15RS enhances their interaction. We further demonstrate that overexpression of p15RS suppresses canonical Wnt signaling and results in retarded cell growth, whereas depletion of p15RS shows an enhanced effect on Wnt signaling. We analyzed that inhibition of Wnt signaling by p15RS leads to decreased expression of CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, two Wnt targeted genes critical for cell growth. Our data suggest that p15RS inhibits Wnt signaling by interrupting β-catenin·TCF4 complex formation and that Wnt signaling initiates downstream gene expression by removing p15RS from promoters. PMID:20739273

  20. The CYP7A1 gene rs3808607 variant is associated with susceptibility of tuberculosis in Moroccan population

    PubMed Central

    Qrafli, Mounia; Amar, Youssef; Bourkadi, Jamaleddine; Ben Amor, Jouda; Iraki, Ghali; Bakri, Youssef; Amzazi, Saaîd; Lahlou, Ouafae; Seghrouchni, Fouad; El Aouad, Rajae; Sadki, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the medical progress in treatment. Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a serious global health problem. A genome-wide linkage study identified a major susceptibility locus on chromosomal region 8q12-q13 in Moroccan TB patients. The CYP7A1 gene is located in this region and codes for cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in cholesterol catabolism. Methods We selected three SNPs (rs3808607, rs8192875 and rs8192879) and studied their genotype and allele frequencies distribution in patients with pulmonary (PTB) or pleural TB (pTB), and compared them to Healthy Controls (HC). Genotyping of rs8192875 and rs8192879 SNPs was carried out using the Taq Man SNP genotyping Assay while rs3808607 was investigated by PCR-RFLP. Results We reported here for the first time a statistically significant increase in the AA homozygote genotype frequency of rs3808607 in PTB patients compared to HC (p = 0.02, OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.93 (1.07;3.49). The increased risk of developing TB was maintained when we combined the groups of patients (PTB-pTB) (p = 0.01, OR= 1.91, 95% CI = (1.07 - 3.42). In contrast, no genetic association was observed between the rs8192875 or rs8192879 polymorphisms and TB. Conclusion Our investigations suggest that rs3808607 may play a role in susceptibility to TB in a Moroccan population. PMID:25360185

  1. DeAnnIso: a tool for online detection and annotation of isomiRs from small RNA sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Zang, Qiguang; Zhang, Huan; Ban, Rongjun; Yang, Yifan; Iqbal, Furhan; Li, Ao; Shi, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Small RNA (sRNA) Sequencing technology has revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are capable of exhibiting frequent variations from their canonical sequences, generating multiple variants: the isoforms of miRNAs (isomiRs). However, integrated tool to precisely detect and systematically annotate isomiRs from sRNA sequencing data is still in great demand. Here, we present an online tool, DeAnnIso (Detection and Annotation of IsomiRs from sRNA sequencing data). DeAnnIso can detect all the isomiRs in an uploaded sample, and can extract the differentially expressing isomiRs from paired or multiple samples. Once the isomiRs detection is accomplished, detailed annotation information, including isomiRs expression, isomiRs classification, SNPs in miRNAs and tissue specific isomiR expression are provided to users. Furthermore, DeAnnIso provides a comprehensive module of target analysis and enrichment analysis for the selected isomiRs. Taken together, DeAnnIso is convenient for users to screen for isomiRs of their interest and useful for further functional studies. The server is implemented in PHP + Perl + R and available to all users for free at: http://mcg.ustc.edu.cn/bsc/deanniso/ and http://mcg2.ustc.edu.cn/bsc/deanniso/. PMID:27179030

  2. Anti Pneumococcal Activity of Azithromycin-Eudragit RS100 Nano-Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Adibkia, Khosro; Khorasani, Golrokh; Payab, Shahriar; Lotfipour, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bacterial pneumonia is a common lung infection caused by different types of bacteria. Azithromycin (AZI), an azalide antibiotic, is widely used to manage pneumococcal infections. Studies have shown that antibiotics in nanocarriers may lead to increased antibacterial activity and reduced toxicity. The aim of this work was to valuate in vitro antibacterial performance azithromycin-Eudragit RS100 nano-formulations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanoparticles were prepared via electrospinning technique and the in vitro antibacterial performance against S. pneumoniae and S. aureus were assessed using agar dilution method. Results: Nanofibers in the sizes about 100-300 nm in diameter and micro scale in length and nanobeads in the range of 100-500 nm were achieved. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) showed an enhancement in the antimicrobial effect of AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanofibers (40 µg/ml) compare to untreated AZI solution (>160 µg/ml) against S. pneumonia. The MIC value for AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanofibers against S. aureus was >128 µg/ml, same as that of the untreated AZI solution. Conclusion: The enhanced efficiency of AZI in nanofibers could be related to the more adsorption opportunity of nanofibers to S. pneumonia capsulated cell wall which provides an antibiotic depot on the bacterial surface compared to S. aureus. AZI-Eudragit RS100 nanofibers with enhanced antimicrobial effect against S. pneumonia can be considered as a candidate for in vivo evaluations in antibiotic therapy of Pneumococcal infections. PMID:27766231

  3. SNP rs1511412 in FOXL2 gene as a risk factor for keloid by meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wensheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Liu, Shengli; Ding, Maoqian; Xie, Jian; Yao, Xiuhua; Zhang, Lanfang; Hu, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Determine whether SNP rs1511412 is associated with keloid. One large-scale GWAS identified association between SNP rs1511412 in the FOXL2 gene and keloid disease in the Japanese population. However, researchers didn't observe significant association for keloid in Chinese Han population (PBonferroni>0.05). It's probable that the frequency of this variant in Chinese Han population was relatively low and the sample size was not very large in this study (power =45.5). We performed an independent case control association study in the Chinese Han population and a follow-up large scale meta-analysis for SNP rs1511412. Our study included 309 keloid patients and 1080 controls of the Chinese Han population. A significant association was found between SNP and keloid (P=0.02, OR=2.23). Meta-analysis included 1847 keloid patients and 7229 controls combined from five Asian populations. The association between SNP rs1511412 and keloid became highly significant (P<1×10(-8) OR=1.89). We conclude that SNP rs1511412 in FOXL2 is indeed a genetic risk factor for keloid across different ethnic populations.

  4. SNP rs1511412 in FOXL2 gene as a risk factor for keloid by meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wensheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Liu, Shengli; Ding, Maoqian; Xie, Jian; Yao, Xiuhua; Zhang, Lanfang; Hu, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether SNP rs1511412 is associated with keloid. Design and methods: One large-scale GWAS identified association between SNP rs1511412 in the FOXL2 gene and keloid disease in the Japanese population. However, researchers didn’t observe significant association for keloid in Chinese Han population (PBonferroni>0.05). It’s probable that the frequency of this variant in Chinese Han population was relatively low and the sample size was not very large in this study (power =45.5). We performed an independent case control association study in the Chinese Han population and a follow-up large scale meta-analysis for SNP rs1511412. Results: Our study included 309 keloid patients and 1080 controls of the Chinese Han population. A significant association was found between SNP and keloid (P=0.02, OR=2.23). Meta-analysis included 1847 keloid patients and 7229 controls combined from five Asian populations. The association between SNP rs1511412 and keloid became highly significant (P<1×10-8 OR=1.89). Conclusion: We conclude that SNP rs1511412 in FOXL2 is indeed a genetic risk factor for keloid across different ethnic populations. PMID:25932232

  5. The TP53 gene rs1042522 C>G polymorphism and neuroblastoma risk in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Wang, Fenghua; Zhu, Jinhong; Zhang, Zhuorong; Zou, Yan; Zhang, Ruizhong; Yang, Tianyou; Xia, Huimin

    2017-03-08

    TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, plays a critical role in cell cycle control, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair. Previous studies have indicated that the TP53 gene Arg72Pro (rs1042522 C>G) polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to various types of cancer. We evaluated the association of the TP53 gene rs1042522 C>G polymorphism with neuroblastoma susceptibility in a hospital-based study among the Chinese Han population. Enrolled were 256 patients and 531 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) generated using logistic regression models were used to determine the strength of the association of interest. No association was detected between rs1042522 C>G polymorphism and neuroblastoma risk. In our stratification analysis of age, gender, sites of origin, and clinical stages, we observed that subjects with rs1042522 CG/GG genotypes had a lower risk of developing neuroblastoma in the mediastinum (Adjusted OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.33-0.82, P=0.005) than those carrying the CC genotype. These results indicate that TP53 gene rs1042522 C>G polymorphism may exert a weak and site-specific effect on neuroblastoma risk in Southern Chinese children and warrant further confirmation.

  6. FIRE, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dale M. Meade

    2004-10-21

    The overall vision for FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing D-T [deuterium-tritium] fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains {approx}10, self-driven currents of {approx}80%, fusion power {approx}150-300 MW, and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma-facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. ''Steady-state'' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high beta, high bootstrap fraction, and 100% noninductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/A T operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE high-confinement modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3-10 MWm{sup -3} and neutron wall loading from 2-4 MWm{sup -2} which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies.

  7. CLU rs2279590 polymorphism contributes to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Donghui; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wu, Lina; Shang, Hong; Liu, Jiafeng; Feng, Rennan; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Yong; Liu, Guiyou; Li, Keshen

    2015-03-01

    It is reported that CLU rs2279590 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in European ancestry. Recent studies investigated rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian population (Chinese, Japanese and Korean). Four studies showed negative association and two studies showed weak association between rs2279590 and AD. We believe that the weak association or no association may be caused by the relatively small sample size in Asian population. Here, we reinvestigated the association in Asian population. Meanwhile, to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of the rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian and Caucasian populations, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases and selected 11 independent studies (6 studies in Asian population and 5 studies in Caucasian population) including 20,655 individuals (8,605 cases and 12,050 controls) for meta-analysis. Our results showed significant association between rs2279590 polymorphism and AD in Asian population with P = 2.00E-04 and P = 2.00E-04 using additive and recessive models, respectively. We observed no significant heterogeneity between Asian and Caucasian populations. We believe that our results may be helpful to understand the mechanisms of CLU in AD pathogenesis and will be useful for future genetic studies in AD.

  8. Assessment of possible association between rs3787016 and prostate cancer risk in Serbian population

    PubMed Central

    Nikolić, Zorana Z; Brajušković, Goran N; Pavićević, Dušanka Lj Savić; Kojić, Aleksandar S; Vukotić, Vinka D; Tomović, Saša M; Cerović, Snežana J; Filipović, Vladimir; Mišljenović, Đuro; Romac, Stanka P

    2013-01-01

    Recent study, which included meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies (GWAS), followed by a replication, identified the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3787016 at 19p13 and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Considering possible genetic differences between populations, we conducted the study in order to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with prostate cancer risk in Serbian population. 261 samples of peripheral blood were obtained from the patients with PCa and 257 samples from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 106 volunteers who gave samples of bucal swabs comprised the control group. For individuals diagnosed with PCa clinicopathological characteristics including serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis, Gleason score (GS) and clinical stage were determined. Genotypization of rs3787016 was performed by using Taqman® SNP Genotyping Assay. The differences in alelle and genotype frequencies between analyzed groups of subjects were performed by using PLINK, SPSS 17.0 for Windows and SNPStats statistical software. No significant association of rs3787016 with PCa risk was determined comparing allele and genotype frequencies among group of patients diagnosed with PCa and the control group, as well as among groups of patients with PCa and BPH. Also, no evidence of association of rs3787016 with PCa risk was shown using tests for association under dominant and recessive genetic models. SNP rs3787016 showed no significant association with standard prognostic parameters regarding PCa progression, nor with the risk of disease progression assessed according to two different risk classification systems. PMID:23236559

  9. Assessment of possible association between rs3787016 and prostate cancer risk in Serbian population.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorana Z; Brajušković, Goran N; Pavićević, Dušanka Lj Savić; Kojić, Aleksandar S; Vukotić, Vinka D; Tomović, Saša M; Cerović, Snežana J; Filipović, Vladimir; Mišljenović, Duro; Romac, Stanka P

    2013-01-01

    Recent study, which included meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies (GWAS), followed by a replication, identified the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3787016 at 19p13 and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Considering possible genetic differences between populations, we conducted the study in order to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with prostate cancer risk in Serbian population. 261 samples of peripheral blood were obtained from the patients with PCa and 257 samples from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 106 volunteers who gave samples of bucal swabs comprised the control group. For individuals diagnosed with PCa clinicopathological characteristics including serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis, Gleason score (GS) and clinical stage were determined. Genotypization of rs3787016 was performed by using Taqman(®) SNP Genotyping Assay. The differences in alelle and genotype frequencies between analyzed groups of subjects were performed by using PLINK, SPSS 17.0 for Windows and SNPStats statistical software. No significant association of rs3787016 with PCa risk was determined comparing allele and genotype frequencies among group of patients diagnosed with PCa and the control group, as well as among groups of patients with PCa and BPH. Also, no evidence of association of rs3787016 with PCa risk was shown using tests for association under dominant and recessive genetic models. SNP rs3787016 showed no significant association with standard prognostic parameters regarding PCa progression, nor with the risk of disease progression assessed according to two different risk classification systems.

  10. Fire, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, Dale M.

    2005-04-15

    The overall vision for FIRE is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing DT fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains {approx}10, self-driven currents of {approx}80%, fusion power {approx} 150 - 300 MW and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. 'Steady-state' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high {beta}, high bootstrap fraction and 100% non-inductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/AT operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE H-modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3 - 10 MWm{sup -3} and neutron wall loading from 2 - 4 MW m{sup -2} which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies.

  11. The crystal structure of human GlnRS provides basis for the development of neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ognjenović, Jana; Wu, Jiang; Matthies, Doreen; Baxa, Ulrich; Subramaniam, Sriram; Ling, Jiqiang; Simonović, Miljan

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) is the singular enzyme responsible for translation of glutamine codons. Compound heterozygous mutations in GlnRS cause severe brain disorders by a poorly understood mechanism. Herein, we present crystal structures of the wild type and two pathological mutants of human GlnRS, which reveal, for the first time, the domain organization of the intact enzyme and the structure of the functionally important N-terminal domain (NTD). Pathological mutations mapping in the NTD alter the domain structure, and decrease catalytic activity and stability of GlnRS, whereas missense mutations in the catalytic domain induce misfolding of the enzyme. Our results suggest that the reduced catalytic efficiency and a propensity of GlnRS mutants to misfold trigger the disease development. This report broadens the spectrum of brain pathologies elicited by protein misfolding and provides a paradigm for understanding the role of mutations in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in neurological diseases. PMID:26869582

  12. Prediction of solubilities for ginger bioactive compounds in hot water by the COSMO-RS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaimah Syed Jaapar, Syaripah; Azian Morad, Noor; Iwai, Yoshio

    2013-04-01

    The solubilities in water of four main ginger bioactives, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol, were predicted using a conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) calculations. This study was conducted since no experimental data are available for ginger bioactive solubilities in hot water. The σ-profiles of these selected molecules were calculated using Gaussian software and the solubilities were calculated using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of these ginger bioactives were calculated at 50 to 200 °C. In order to validate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS method, the solubilities of five hydrocarbon molecules were calculated using the COSMO-RS method and compared with the experimental data in the literature. The selected hydrocarbon molecules were 3-pentanone, 1-hexanol, benzene, 3-methylphenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde. The calculated results of the hydrocarbon molecules are in good agreement with the data in the literature. These results confirm that the solubilities of ginger bioactives can be predicted using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of the ginger bioactives are lower than 0.0001 at temperatures lower than 130 °C. At 130 to 200 °C, the solubilities increase dramatically with the highest being 6-shogaol, which is 0.00037 mole fraction, and the lowest is 10-gingerol, which is 0.000039 mole fraction at 200 °C.

  13. Common variant of FTO gene, rs9939609, and obesity in Pakistani females.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Adeela; Rana, Sobia; Saeed, Shahid; Imran, Muhammad; Afzal, Nasir; Mahmood, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies confirmed the association of FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) common variant, rs9939609, with obesity in European populations. However, studies in Asian populations revealed conflicting results. We examined the association of rs9939609 variant of FTO gene with obesity and obesity-related anthropometric and metabolic parameters in Pakistani population. Body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and blood pressure (BP) were measured. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, leptin, and leptin receptors were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The results showed association of FTO gene, rs9939609, with obesity in females (>18 years of age). FTO minor allele increased the risk of obesity by 2.8 times (95% CI = 1.3-6.0) in females. This allele showed association with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, BP, plasma FBG levels, HOMA-IR, plasma insulin levels, and plasma leptin levels. In conclusion, FTO gene, rs9939609, is associated with BMI and risk of obesity in adult Pakistani females. Association of rs9939609 variant with higher FBG, plasma insulin, and leptin levels indicates that this polymorphism may disturb the metabolism in adult females and predispose them to obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the above-mentioned findings were not seen in children or males.

  14. The crystal structure of human GlnRS provides basis for the development of neurological disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Ognjenovic, Jana; Wu, Jiang; Matthies, Doreen; Baxa, Ulrich; Subramaniam, Sriram; Ling, Jiqiang; Simonovic, Miljan

    2016-02-10

    Cytosolic glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) is the singular enzyme responsible for translation of glutamine codons. Compound heterozygous mutations in GlnRS cause severe brain disorders by a poorly understood mechanism. Herein, we present crystal structures of the wild type and two pathological mutants of human GlnRS, which reveal, for the first time, the domain organization of the intact enzyme and the structure of the functionally important N-terminal domain (NTD). Pathological mutations mapping in the NTD alter the domain structure, and decrease catalytic activity and stability of GlnRS, whereas missense mutations in the catalytic domain induce misfolding of the enzyme. Our results suggest that the reduced catalytic efficiency and a propensity of GlnRS mutants to misfold trigger the disease development. As a result, this report broadens the spectrum of brain pathologies elicited by protein misfolding and provides a paradigm for understanding the role of mutations in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in neurological diseases. Keywords

  15. The crystal structure of human GlnRS provides basis for the development of neurological disorders

    DOE PAGES

    Ognjenovic, Jana; Wu, Jiang; Matthies, Doreen; ...

    2016-02-10

    Cytosolic glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) is the singular enzyme responsible for translation of glutamine codons. Compound heterozygous mutations in GlnRS cause severe brain disorders by a poorly understood mechanism. Herein, we present crystal structures of the wild type and two pathological mutants of human GlnRS, which reveal, for the first time, the domain organization of the intact enzyme and the structure of the functionally important N-terminal domain (NTD). Pathological mutations mapping in the NTD alter the domain structure, and decrease catalytic activity and stability of GlnRS, whereas missense mutations in the catalytic domain induce misfolding of the enzyme. Our results suggestmore » that the reduced catalytic efficiency and a propensity of GlnRS mutants to misfold trigger the disease development. As a result, this report broadens the spectrum of brain pathologies elicited by protein misfolding and provides a paradigm for understanding the role of mutations in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in neurological diseases. Keywords« less

  16. [The study of FTO rs9939609-gene polymorphism in the Sverdlovsk Region].

    PubMed

    Baturin, A K; Sorokina, E Iu; Pogozheva, A V; Anokhina, O V; Tutel'ian, V A

    2012-01-01

    Recently independent studies, including genome-wide scans, have shown that the rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene were significantly associated with obesity in populations of European origin, in certain Asian (e.g.,Japanese and Chinese) and African American populations. In this study we examined the association between rs9939609 FTO variant and obesity related parameters in 394 individuals (262 males and 132 females; ages 20-70 years) from the Sverdlovsk area, Russia. A SNP variant rs9939609 was genotyped with the use of an allelic discrimination assay. The TaqMan-based real-time PCR method was applied. The prevalence of TT, TA and AA genotypes of rs9939609 FTO gene of this study was 34%, 47.5%, 18.5%, respectively, the minor A-allele frequency was 42.3%. In comparison to males, females had significantly higher the frequency of minor A-allele and AA genotype. The AA genotype was significantly more frequent in obese individuals (defined as body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2) than in non-obese (27.7 and 13.0%, respectively). Compared to the carriers of TT genotype, the likelihood of obesity was 3.0 for the carriers of AA genotype and 1.73 for the carriers of AA+AT genotype. These results confirm that genetic variation (rs9939609) FTO gene contributes to the etiology of obesity in the Sverdlovsk area.

  17. Common Variant of FTO Gene, rs9939609, and Obesity in Pakistani Females

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Adeela; Rana, Sobia; Saeed, Shahid; Imran, Muhammad; Afzal, Nasir; Mahmood, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies confirmed the association of FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene) common variant, rs9939609, with obesity in European populations. However, studies in Asian populations revealed conflicting results. We examined the association of rs9939609 variant of FTO gene with obesity and obesity-related anthropometric and metabolic parameters in Pakistani population. Body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and blood pressure (BP) were measured. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, leptin, and leptin receptors were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The results showed association of FTO gene, rs9939609, with obesity in females (>18 years of age). FTO minor allele increased the risk of obesity by 2.8 times (95% CI = 1.3–6.0) in females. This allele showed association with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, BP, plasma FBG levels, HOMA-IR, plasma insulin levels, and plasma leptin levels. In conclusion, FTO gene, rs9939609, is associated with BMI and risk of obesity in adult Pakistani females. Association of rs9939609 variant with higher FBG, plasma insulin, and leptin levels indicates that this polymorphism may disturb the metabolism in adult females and predispose them to obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the above-mentioned findings were not seen in children or males. PMID:24102053

  18. Association of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism with obesity in Roma/Gypsy population.

    PubMed

    Mačeková, Soňa; Bernasovský, Ivan; Gabriková, Dana; Bôžiková, Alexandra; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Boroňová, Iveta; Behulová, Regina; Svíčková, Petra; Petrejčíková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Sovičová, Adriana; Carnogurská, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The rs9939609 SNP located in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) has been found to be associated with common obesity mainly in populations of European descent. The Roma/Gypsy population as an ethnic minority of Asian Indian origin is well known for its adverse health status with a high prevalence of obesity. The main aim of this study was to examine the contribution of the rs9939609 FTO polymorphism to the high prevalence of obesity in the Roma/Gypsy population. Following a number of anthropometric measurements, the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in 312 Roma/Gypsy individuals. We observed significant differences in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio between different genotypes (P = 0.003, P = 0.012, and P = 0.03, respectively). The waist circumference in the subjects with AA genotype was about 7.1 cm larger than in those with TT genotypes (P = 0.005). However, the strongest association of minor allele A of the rs9939609 FTO polymorphism was found with BMI (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.129-2.128; P = 0.007), even after adjusting for age, sex, and smoking status. This study provides the first report of allele and genotype frequencies for the rs9939609 polymorphism and also the first evidence of the association of the FTO variant with obesity in the Roma/Gypsy population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. No Expanding Fireball: Resolving the Recurrent Nova RS Ophiuchi with Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, J. D.; Barry, R. K.; Traub, W. A.; Lane, B. F.; Akeson, R. L.; Ragland, S.; Schuller, P. A.; Le Coroller, H.; Berger, J.-P.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Pedretti, E.; Schloerb, F. P.; Koresko, C.; Carleton, N. P.; Lacasse, M. G.; Kern, P.; Malbet, F.; Perraut, K.; Kuchner, M. J.; Muterspaugh, M. W.

    2006-08-01

    Following the recent outburst of the recurrent nova RS Oph on 2006 February 12, we measured its near-infrared size using the IOTA, Keck, and PTI Interferometers at multiple epochs. The characteristic size of ~3 mas hardly changed over the first 60 days of the outburst, ruling out currently popular models whereby the near-infrared emission arises from hot gas in the expanding shock. The emission was also found to be significantly asymmetric, evidenced by nonzero closure phases detected by IOTA. The physical interpretation of these data depends strongly on the adopted distance to RS Oph. Our data can be interpreted as the first direct detection of the underlying RS Oph binary, lending support to the recent ``reborn red giant'' models of Hachisu & Kato. However, this result hinges on an RS Oph distance of <~540 pc, in strong disagreement with the widely adopted distance of ~1.6 kpc. At the farther distance, our observations imply instead the existence of a nonexpanding, dense, and ionized circumbinary gaseous disk or reservoir responsible for the bulk of the near-infrared emission. Longer baseline infrared interferometry is uniquely suited to distinguish between these models and to ultimately determine the distance, binary orbit, and component masses for RS Oph, one of the closest known (candidate) Type 1a supernova progenitor systems.

  20. Association of Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) rs53576 Polymorphism with Sociality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yajun; Li, Rena; Broster, Lucas S.; Zhou, Chenglin; Yang, Suyong

    2015-01-01

    A common variant in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, has been broadly linked to socially related personality traits and behaviors. However, the pattern of published results is inconsistent. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association. The literature was searched for relevant studies and effect sizes between individuals homozygous for the G allele (GG) and individuals with A allele carriers (AA/AG). Specifically, two indices of sociality were evaluated independently: i) general sociality (24 samples, n = 4955), i.e., how an individual responds to other people in general; and ii) close relationships (15 samples, n = 5262), i.e., how an individual responds to individuals with closed connections (parent-child or romantic relationship). We found positive association between the rs53576 polymorphism and general sociality (Cohen’s d = 0.11, p = .02); G allele homozygotes had higher general sociality than the A allele carriers. However, the meta-analyses did not detect significant genetic association between rs53576 and close relationships (Cohen’s d = 0.01, p = .64). In conclusion, genetic variation in the rs53576 influences general sociality, which further implies that it is worthy to systematically examine whether the rs53576 is a valid genetic marker for socially related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26121678

  1. An evaluation of association between a novel hippocampal biology related SNP (rs7294919) and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiewei; Numata, Shusuke; Ikeda, Masashi; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Zheng, Xue-Bin; Luo, Xiongjian; Kinoshita, Makoto; Nunokawa, Ayako; Someya, Toshiyuki; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Bei, Jin-Xin; Chong, Siow-Ann; Lee, Jimmy; Li, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jianjun; Iwata, Nakao; Shi, Yongyong; Li, Ming; Su, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Recent genetic analyses have implicated several candidate susceptibility variants for schizophrenia. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7294919 is likely a schizophrenia-susceptibility variant according to its significant association with hippocampal volume, hippocampus function, and cognitive performance as well as the nominal association with schizophrenia. However, all previous analyses were conducted only in Europeans, and whether rs7294919 is associated with schizophrenia in other populations are yet to be tested. Here, we conducted a case-control analysis of rs7294919 with schizophrenia in six independent Chinese (N = 3) and Japanese (N = 3) samples, including a total of 7,352 cases and 10,824 controls. The results of our association analysis were not able to confirm the association of rs7294919 with schizophrenia (p = 0.51 in total samples, odds ratio = 1.02 for allele[C]). The absence of rs7294919's association in Chinese and Japanese suggest a potential genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of schizophrenia on this locus and also demonstrate the difficulties in replicating associations of schizophrenia across different ethnic populations.

  2. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine disturbs depotentiation by modulating mAChRs and impairs reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo Seok; Cha, Jin Hee; Yoon, Sang Ho; Cho, Young Seon; Park, Kyeong-Yeol; Kim, Myoung-Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Antipsychotic medication is an essential component for treating schizophrenia, which is a serious mental disorder that affects approximately 1% of the global population. Olanzapine (Olz), one of the most frequently prescribed atypical antipsychotics, is generally considered a first-line drug for treating schizophrenia. In contrast to psychotic symptoms, the effects of Olz on cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are still unclear. In addition, the mechanisms by which Olz affects the neural circuits associated with cognitive function are unknown. Here we show that Olz interrupts depotentiation (reversal of long-term potentiation) without disturbing de novo LTP (long-term potentiation) and LTD (long-term depression). At hippocampal SC-CA1 synapses, inhibition of NMDARs (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors), mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), or mAChRs (muscarinic acetylcholine receptors) disrupted depotentiation. In addition, co-activation of NMDARs, mGluRs, and mAChRs reversed stably expressed LTP. Olz inhibits the activation of mAChRs, which amplifies glutamate signaling through enhanced NMDAR opening and Gq (Gq class of G protein)-mediated signal transduction. Behaviorally, Olz impairs spatial reversal learning of mice in the Morris water maze test. Our results uncover a novel mechanism underpinning the cognitive modulation of Olz and show that the anticholinergic property of Olz affects glutamate signaling and synaptic plasticity.

  3. NQO1 gene rs1800566 variant is not associated with risk for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis has been suggested. The detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) has been found up-regulated in MS lesions. A previous report described an association between the SNP rs1800566 in the NQO1 gene and the risk for MS in the Greek population. The aim of this study was to replicate a possible influence of the. SNP rs1800566 in the NQO1 gene in the risk for MS in the Spanish Caucasian population. Methods We analyzed allelic and genotypic frequency of NQO1 rs1800566 in 290 patients with MS and 310 healthy controls, using TaqMan Assays. Results NQO1 rs1800566 allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ significantly between MS patients and controls, and were unrelated with age of onset of MS, gender, and clinical type of MS. Conclusions Our results indicate that NQO1 rs1800566 does not have an effect on MS disease risk. PMID:24755231

  4. Lack of association between human leukocyte antigen polymorphisms rs9277535 and rs7453920 and chronic hepatitis B in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Pereira, V R Z B; Wolf, J M; Stumm, G Z; Boeira, T R; Galvan, J; Simon, D; Lunge, V R

    2017-05-31

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. The progression of the disease depends on several host and viral factors and may result in fulminant hepatitis (very rare), acute hepatitis with spontaneous clearance, and chronic hepatitis B infection. Previous studies demonstrated that variations in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II (HLA-DPB1 and HLA-DQB2 genes) are related to the chronic HBV infection. This study aimed to investigate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), one in the HLA-DPB1 (rs9277535) and one in the HLA-DQB2 (rs7453920), with chronic hepatitis B infection in a southern Brazilian sample. This case-control study included 260 HBV patients attended in a Specialized Center for Health in Caxias do Sul (Brazil) between 2014 and 2016. The same number of controls (matching for age, gender, and ethnicity) was obtained in a University Hospital in the same city and period. Blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Genotyping were performed by real-time Taqman PCR method. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and significance level of 5% (P < 0.05) were calculated. Allele frequencies in the SNP rs9277535 were 72.6% for A and 27.4% for G nucleotides in cases and 75.0% for A and 25.0% for G in controls. Allele frequencies in the SNP rs7453920 were of 25.7% for A and 74.3% for G in cases and 28.8% for A and 71.2% for G in controls. No statistically significant association was found between both SNPs and chronic hepatitis B (P > 0.05).

  5. TSHR intronic polymorphisms (rs179247 and rs12885526) and their role in the susceptibility of the Brazilian population to Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Bufalo, N E; Dos Santos, R B; Marcello, M A; Piai, R P; Secolin, R; Romaldini, J H; Ward, L S

    2015-05-01

    Intronic thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor polymorphisms have been associated with the risk for both Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, but results have been inconsistent among different populations. We aimed to investigate the influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor intronic polymorphisms in a large well-characterized population of GD patients. We studied 279 Graves' disease patients (231 females and 48 males, 39.80 ± 11.69 years old), including 144 with Graves' ophthalmopathy, matched to 296 healthy control individuals. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor genotypes of rs179247 and rs12885526 were determined by Real Time PCR TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping. A multivariate analysis showed that the inheritance of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor AA genotype for rs179247 increased the risk for Graves' disease (OR = 2.821; 95 % CI 1.595-4.990; p = 0.0004), whereas the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor GG genotype for rs12885526 increased the risk for Graves' ophthalmopathy (OR = 2.940; 95 % CI 1.320-6.548; p = 0.0083). Individuals with Graves' ophthalmopathy also presented lower mean thyrotropin receptor antibodies levels (96.3 ± 143.9 U/L) than individuals without Graves' ophthalmopathy (98.3 ± 201.9 U/L). We did not find any association between the investigated polymorphisms and patients clinical features or outcome. We demonstrate that thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor intronic polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy in the Brazilian population, but do not appear to influence the disease course.

  6. ACACβ gene (rs2268388) and AGTR1 gene (rs5186) polymorphism and the risk of nephropathy in Asian Indian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Viral N; Cheema, Balneek Singh; Sharma, Rajni; Khullar, Madhu; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Mohan, Viswanathan; Bhansali, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are usually obese and concurrent obesity results into activation of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) which is a risk factor for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Gene-gene interaction between acetyl-coenzymeA carboxylase beta (ACACβ) gene, which is involved in fatty acid metabolism and angiotensin II receptors (AGTR1) gene, which mediates RAS proteins actions on renal tissue, polymorphism with DN have not been studied earlier. The present study was designed with the aim to examine the association of an ACACβ (rs2268388) and AGTR1 (rs5186) gene polymorphism with the risk of DN in Asian Indians. 1,158 patients with T2DM belonging to two independently ascertained North Indian and one South Indian cohorts were genotyped for ACACβ (rs2268388) and AGTR1 (rs5186) polymorphism using real time PCR-based Taq-man assay and PCR-RFLP assays. In all the three cohorts, a significantly higher frequency of T allele and TT genotypes of ACACβ and C allele and CC genotypes of AGTR1 were found in patients with DN as compared to patients without nephropathy. Further, T allele of ACACβ and C allele of AGTR1 were found to be significantly associated with proteinuria, a hallmark of DN. We also found significant epistatic interactions between these two genes. TT genotypes of ACACβ gene and CC genotype of AGTR1 gene confers the risk of DN and both genes had significant epistatic interaction in Asian Indian patients with T2DM.

  7. Functional epistatic interaction between rs6046G>A in F7 and rs5355C>T in SELE modifies systolic blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    El Shamieh, Said; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Stathopoulou, Maria G; Murray, Helena A; Masson, Christine; Lamont, John V; Fitzgerald, Peter; Benetos, Athanase; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous genetic studies have been performed, only 0.9% of blood pressure phenotypic variance has been elucidated. This phenomenon could be partially due to epistatic interactions. Our aim was to identify epistatic interaction(s) associated with blood pressure levels in a pre-planned two-phase approach. In a discovery cohort composed of 3,600 French individuals, we found rs6046A allele in F7 associated with decreased blood pressure levels (P≤3.7×10(-3)) and rs5355T allele in SELE associated with decreased diastolic blood pressure levels (P = 5×10(-3)). Both variants interacted in order to influence blood pressure levels (P≤0.048). This interaction was replicated with systolic blood pressure in 4,620 additional European individuals (P = 0.03). Similarly, in this replication cohort, rs6046A was associated with decreased blood pressure levels (P≤8.5×10(-4)). Furthermore, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a subsample of 90 supposed healthy individuals, we found rs6046A positively associated with NAMPT mRNA levels (P≤9.1×10(-5)), suggesting an eventual involvement of NAMPT expression in blood pressure regulation. Confirming this hypothesis, further transcriptomic analyses showed that increased NAMPT mRNA levels were positively correlated with ICAM1, SELL, FPR1, DEFA1-3, and LL-37 genes expression (P≤5×10(-3)). The last two mRNA levels were positively associated with systolic blood pressure levels (P≤0.01) and explained 4% of its phenotypic variation. These findings reveal the importance of epistatic interactions in blood pressure genetics and give new insights for the role of inflammation in its complex regulation.

  8. Functional Epistatic Interaction between rs6046G>A in F7 and rs5355C>T in SELE Modifies Systolic Blood Pressure Levels

    PubMed Central

    El Shamieh, Said; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Murray, Helena A.; Masson, Christine; Lamont, John V.; Fitzgerald, Peter; Benetos, Athanase; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Background Although numerous genetic studies have been performed, only 0.9% of blood pressure phenotypic variance has been elucidated. This phenomenon could be partially due to epistatic interactions. Our aim was to identify epistatic interaction(s) associated with blood pressure levels in a pre-planned two-phase approach. Methods and Results In a discovery cohort composed of 3,600 French individuals, we found rs6046A allele in F7 associated with decreased blood pressure levels (P≤3.7×10−3) and rs5355T allele in SELE associated with decreased diastolic blood pressure levels (P = 5×10−3). Both variants interacted in order to influence blood pressure levels (P≤0.048). This interaction was replicated with systolic blood pressure in 4,620 additional European individuals (P = 0.03). Similarly, in this replication cohort, rs6046A was associated with decreased blood pressure levels (P≤8.5×10−4). Furthermore, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a subsample of 90 supposed healthy individuals, we found rs6046A positively associated with NAMPT mRNA levels (P≤9.1×10−5), suggesting an eventual involvement of NAMPT expression in blood pressure regulation. Confirming this hypothesis, further transcriptomic analyses showed that increased NAMPT mRNA levels were positively correlated with ICAM1, SELL, FPR1, DEFA1-3, and LL-37 genes expression (P≤5×10−3). The last two mRNA levels were positively associated with systolic blood pressure levels (P≤0.01) and explained 4% of its phenotypic variation. Conclusion These findings reveal the importance of epistatic interactions in blood pressure genetics and give new insights for the role of inflammation in its complex regulation. PMID:22815813

  9. An Xp22.1-p22.2 YAC contig encompassing the disease loci for RS, KFSD, CLS, HYP and RP15: refined localization of RS.

    PubMed

    Van de Vosse, E; Bergen, A A; Meershoek, E J; Oosterwijk, J C; Gregory, S; Bakker, B; Weissenbach, J; Coffey, A J; van Ommen, G J; Den Dunnen, J T

    1996-01-01

    To facilitate the positional cloning of the genes involved in retinoschisis (RS), keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD), Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS), X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH, locus name HYP) and X-linked dominant cone-rod degeneration (locus name RP15), we have extended the molecular map of the Xp22 region. Screening of several YAC libraries allowed us to identify 156 YACs, 52 of which localize between markers DXS414 (P90) and DXS451 (kQST80H1). Analysis of their marker content facilitated the construction of a YAC contig from the region spanning (in this order): DXS414 - DXS987 - DXS207 - DXS1053 - DXS197 - DXS 43 - DXS1195 - DXS418 - DXS999 - PDHA1 - DXS7161 - DXS443 - DXS 7592 - DXS1229 - DXS365 - DXS7101 - DXS7593 - DXS1052 - DXS274 - DXS989 - DXS451. The region between DXS414 and DXS451 covers about 4.5-5 Mb. Two additional markers (DXS7593 and DXS7592) were placed in the region, thereby increasing the genetic resolution. Using the deduced marker order, the analysis of key recombinants in families segregating RS allowed us to refine the critical region for RS to 0.6 Mb, between DXS418 and DXS7161.

  10. NASA Marches on with Test of RS-25 Engine for New Space Launch System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-29

    NASA engineers conducted a successful developmental test of RS-25 rocket engine No. 0528 July 29, 2016, to collect critical performance data for the most powerful rocket in the world – the Space Launch System (SLS). The engine roared to life for a full 650-second test on the A-1 Test Stand at NASA’s Stennis Space Center, near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, marking another step forward in development of the SLS, which will launch humans deeper into space than ever before, including on the journey to Mars. Four RS-25 engines, joined with a pair of solid rocket boosters, will power the SLS core stage at launch. The RS-25 engines used on the first four SLS flights are former space shuttle main engines, modified to operate at a higher performance level and with a new engine controller, which allows communication between the vehicle and engine.

  11. P-bRS: A Physarum-Based Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wangyang; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wu, Qingtao

    2014-01-01

    Routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an extremely challenging issue due to the features of WSNs. Inspired by the large and single-celled amoeboid organism, slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we establish a novel selecting next hop model (SNH). Based on this model, we present a novel Physarum-based routing scheme (P-bRS) for WSNs to balance routing efficiency and energy equilibrium. In P-bRS, a sensor node can choose the proper next hop by using SNH which comprehensively considers the distance, energy residue, and location of the next hop. The simulation results show how P-bRS can achieve the effective trade-off between routing efficiency and energy equilibrium compared to two famous algorithms. PMID:24672326

  12. Genomic characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum phage ϕRS138 of the family Siphoviridae.

    PubMed

    Van Truong Thi, Bich; Pham Khanh, Nguyen Huan; Namikawa, Ryuta; Miki, Kaito; Kondo, Akihiro; Dang Thi, Phuong Thao; Kamei, Kaeko

    2016-02-01

    ϕRS138, a bacteriophage of the family Siphoviridae that lyses Ralstonia solanacearum, was isolated. The genomic DNA of ϕRS138 was 41,941 bp long with a GC content of 65.1 % and contained 56 putative open reading frames. The ϕRS138 genome could be divided into three regions based on similarities to other genomes: (1) a region containing genes encoding a