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Sample records for association fiber tracts

  1. Damage to association fiber tracts impairs recognition of the facial expression of emotion.

    PubMed

    Philippi, Carissa L; Mehta, Sonya; Grabowski, Thomas; Adolphs, Ralph; Rudrauf, David

    2009-12-02

    An array of cortical and subcortical structures have been implicated in the recognition of emotion from facial expressions. It remains unknown how these regions communicate as parts of a system to achieve recognition, but white matter tracts are likely critical to this process. We hypothesized that (1) damage to white matter tracts would be associated with recognition impairment and (2) the degree of disconnection of association fiber tracts [inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and/or inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF)] connecting the visual cortex with emotion-related regions would negatively correlate with recognition performance. One hundred three patients with focal, stable brain lesions mapped onto a reference brain were tested on their recognition of six basic emotional facial expressions. Association fiber tracts from a probabilistic atlas were coregistered to the reference brain. Parameters estimating disconnection were entered in a general linear model to predict emotion recognition impairments, accounting for lesion size and cortical damage. Damage associated with the right IFOF significantly predicted an overall facial emotion recognition impairment and specific impairments for sadness, anger, and fear. One subject had a pure white matter lesion in the location of the right IFOF and ILF. He presented specific, unequivocal emotion recognition impairments. Additional analysis suggested that impairment in fear recognition can result from damage to the IFOF and not the amygdala. Our findings demonstrate the key role of white matter association tracts in the recognition of the facial expression of emotion and identify specific tracts that may be most critical.

  2. Functional organization of human occipital-callosal fiber tracts

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Robert F.; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Bammer, Roland; Brewer, Alyssa A.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking (FT) were used to measure the occipital lobe fiber tracts connecting the two hemispheres in individual human subjects. These tracts are important for normal vision. Also, damage to portions of these tracts is associated with alexia. To assess the reliability of the DTI-FT measurements, occipital-callosal projections were estimated from each subject's left and right hemispheres independently. The left and right estimates converged onto the same positions within the splenium. We further characterized the properties of the estimated occipital-callosal fiber tracts by combining them with functional MRI. We used functional MRI to identify visual field maps in cortex and labeled fibers by the cortical functional response at the fiber endpoint. This labeling reveals a regular organization of the fibers within the splenium. The dorsal visual maps (dorsal V3, V3A, V3B, V7) send projections through a large band in the middle of the splenium, whereas ventral visual maps (ventral V3, V4) send projections through the inferior-anterior corner of the splenium. The agreement between the independent left/right estimates, further supported by previous descriptions of homologous tracts in macaque, validates the DTI-FT methods. However, a principal limitation of these methods is low sensitivity: a large number of fiber tracts that connect homotopic regions of ventral and lateral visual cortex were undetected. We conclude that most of the estimated tracts are real and can be localized with a precision of 1-2 mm, but many tracts are missed because of data and algorithm limitations. PMID:15883384

  3. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila ventral nervous system: Neuroglian expression reveals the adult hemilineage associated fiber tracts in the adult thoracic neuromeres

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Robin; Williams, Darren W.; Truman, James W.

    2016-01-01

    During larval life most of the thoracic neuroblasts (NBs) in Drosophila undergo a second phase of neurogenesis to generate adult‐specific neurons that remain in an immature, developmentally stalled state until pupation. Using a combination of MARCM and immunostaining with a neurotactin antibody, Truman et al. (2004; Development 131:5167–5184) identified 24 adult‐specific NB lineages within each thoracic hemineuromere of the larval ventral nervous system (VNS), but because of the neurotactin labeling of lineage tracts disappearing early in metamorphosis, they were unable extend the identification of these lineages into the adult. Here we show that immunostaining with an antibody against the cell adhesion molecule neuroglian reveals the same larval secondary lineage projections through metamorphosis and bfy identifying each neuroglian‐positive tract at selected stages we have traced the larval hemilineage tracts for all three thoracic neuromeres through metamorphosis into the adult. To validate tract identifications we used the genetic toolkit developed by Harris et al. (2015; Elife 4) to preserve hemilineage‐specific GAL4 expression patterns from larval into the adult stage. The immortalized expression proved a powerful confirmation of the analysis of the neuroglian scaffold. This work has enabled us to directly link the secondary, larval NB lineages to their adult counterparts. The data provide an anatomical framework that 1) makes it possible to assign most neurons to their parent lineage and 2) allows more precise definitions of the neuronal organization of the adult VNS based in developmental units/rules. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2677–2695, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878258

  4. Fiber pathways of attention subnetworks revealed with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography.

    PubMed

    Ge, Haitao; Yin, Xuntao; Xu, Junhai; Tang, Yuchun; Han, Yan; Xu, Wenjian; Pang, Zengchang; Meng, Haiwei; Liu, Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that attention can be divided into three subnetworks - alerting, orienting and executive control (EC), and the subnetworks of attention are linked to distinct brain regions. However, the association between specific white matter fibers and the subnetworks of attention is not clear enough. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the white matter connectivity related to the performance of attention was assessed by attention network test (ANT) in 85 healthy adolescents. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic diffusion tractography analysis demonstrated that cerebellothalamic tract was involved in alerting, while orienting depended upon the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). In addition, EC was under the control of anterior corona radiata (ACR). Our findings suggest that different fiber pathways are involved in the three distinct subnetworks of attention. The current study will yield more precise information about the structural substrates of attention function and may aid the efforts to understand the neurophysiology of several attention disorders.

  5. Listeria monocytogenes-Associated Biliary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Fevre, Cindy; Travier, Laetitia; Cazenave, Benoît; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Podevin, Juliette; Assomany, Daher; Guilbert, Lydie; Bossard, Céline; Carpentier, Françoise; Cales, Valérie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At present, little is known regarding Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infection, a rare form of listeriosis. In this article, we will study 12 culture-proven cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1996 to 2013 and review the 8 previously published cases. Twenty cases were studied: 17 cholecystitis, 2 cholangitis, and 1 biliary cyst infection. Half were men with a median age of 69 years (32–85). Comorbidities were present in 80%, including cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. Five patients received immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor biotherapies. Half were afebrile. Blood cultures were positive in 60% (3/5). Gallbladder histological lesions were analyzed in 3 patients and evidenced acute, chronic, or necrotic exacerbation of chronic infection. Genoserogroup of the 12 available strains were IVb (n = 6), IIb (n = 5), and IIa (n = 1). Their survival in the bile was not enhanced when compared with isolates from other listeriosis cases. Adverse outcome was reported in 33% (5/15): 3 deaths, 1 recurrence; 75% of the patients with adverse outcome received inadequate antimicrobial therapy (P = 0.033). Biliary tract listeriosis is a severe infection associated with high mortality in patients not treated with appropriate therapy. This study provides medical relevance to in vitro and animal studies that had shown Listeria monocytogenes ability to survive in bile and induce overt biliary infections. PMID:25319439

  6. In Vivo Tractography of Fetal Association Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Mitter, Christian; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Weber, Michael; Kasprian, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Association fibers connect different cortical areas within the same hemisphere and constitute an essential anatomical substrate for a diverse range of higher cognitive functions. So far a comprehensive description of the prenatal in vivo morphology of these functionally important pathways is lacking. In the present study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to visualize major association fiber tracts and the fornix in utero in preselected non-motion degraded DTI datasets of 24 living unsedated fetuses between 20 and 34 gestational weeks (GW). The uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were depicted as early as 20 GW, while in vivo 3D visualization of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum and fornix was successful in older fetuses during the third trimester. Provided optimal scanning conditions, in utero DTI and tractography have the potential to provide a more accurate anatomical definition of developing neuronal networks in the human fetal brain. Knowledge about the normal prenatal 3D association tract morphology may serve as reference for their assessment in common developmental diseases. PMID:25742520

  7. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Warren, J W

    2001-04-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection acquired in both hospitals and nursing homes and is usually associated with catheterization. This infection would be even more common but for the use of the closed catheter system. Most modifications have not improved on the closed catheter itself. Even with meticulous care, this system will not prevent bacteriuria. After bacteriuria develops, the ability to limit its complications is minimal. Once a catheter is put in place, the clinician must keep two concepts in mind: keep the catheter system closed in order to postpone the onset of bacteriuria, and remove the catheter as soon as possible. If the catheter can be removed before bacteriuria develops, postponement becomes prevention.

  8. Fiber Tractography Reveals Disruption of Temporal Lobe White Matter Tracts in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Clark, Kristi A.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Hageman, Nathan S.; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have demonstrated abnormal anisotropic diffusion in schizophrenia. However, examining data with low spatial resolution and/or a low number of gradient directions and limitations associated with analysis approaches sensitive to registration confounds may have contributed to mixed findings concerning the regional specificity and direction of results. This study examined three major white matter tracts connecting lateral and medial temporal lobe regions with neocortical association regions widely implicated in systems-level functional and structural disturbances in schizophrenia. Using DTIstudio, a previously validated regions of interest tractography method was applied to 30 direction diffusion weighted imaging data collected from demographically similar schizophrenia (n=23) and healthy control subjects (n=22). The diffusion tensor was computed at each voxel after intra-subject registration of diffusion-weighted images. Three-dimensional tract reconstruction was performed using the Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking (FACT) algorithm. Tractography results showed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) of the arcuate fasciculi (AF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF) in patients compared to controls. FA changes within the right ILF were negatively correlated with measures of thought disturbance. Reduced volume of the left AF was also observed in patients. These results, which avoid registration issues associated with voxel-based analyses of DTI data, support that fiber pathways connecting lateral and medial temporal lobe regions with neocortical regions are compromised in schizophrenia. Disruptions of connectivity within these pathways may potentially contribute to the disturbances of memory, language, and social cognitive processing that characterize the disorder. PMID:19028423

  9. Interactive Exploration and Visualization using MetaTracts extracted from Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arindam; Weissenbock, Johannes; Wenger, Rephael; Amirkhanov, Artem; Kastner, Johann; Heinzl, Christoph

    2016-06-16

    This work introduces a tool for interactive exploration and visualization using MetaTracts. MetaTracts is a novel method for extraction and visualization of individual fiber bundles and weaving patterns from X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scans of endless carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs). It is designed specifically to handle XCT scans of low resolutions where the individual fibers are barely visible, which makes extraction of fiber bundles a challenging problem. The proposed workflow is used to analyze unit cells of CFRP materials integrating a recurring weaving pattern. First, a coarse version of integral curves is used to trace subsections of the individual fiber bundles in the woven CFRP materials. We call these sections MetaTracts. In the second step, these extracted fiber bundle sections are clustered using a two-step approach: first by orientation, then by proximity. The tool can generate volumetric representations as well as surface models of the extracted fiber bundles to be exported for further analysis. In addition a custom interactive tool for exploration and visual analysis of MetaTracts is designed. We evaluate the proposed workflow on a number of real world datasets and demonstrate that MetaTracts effectively and robustly identifies and extracts fiber bundles.

  10. Aging process of myelinated nerve fibers in the human Lissauer tract.

    PubMed

    Motoura, Hiroyuki; Goto, Noboru; Goto, Jun; Ezure, Hiromitsu; Shibata, Masakazu

    2005-03-01

    We calculated numbers and axonal areas of myelinated nerve fibers in the Lissauer tract of the human lumbar spinal cord (L1) from the viewpoint of the aging process. We examined 20 human spinal cords from 13 males and 7 females, age ranging from 41 to 88 years old. We found that, although the number of nerve fibers showed no significant change in relation to the age of the subject, the axonal area of myelinated nerve fiber in the Lissauer tract did decrease with age.

  11. White matter fiber tract segmentation in DT-MRI using geometric flows.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lisa; Bresson, Xavier; Hagmann, Patric; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Meuli, Reto; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we present a 3D geometric flow designed to segment the main core of fiber tracts in diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images. The fundamental assumption of our fiber segmentation technique is that adjacent voxels in a tract have similar properties of diffusion. The fiber segmentation is carried out with a front propagation algorithm constructed to fill the whole fiber tract. The front is a 3D surface that evolves with a propagation speed proportional to a measure indicating the similarity of diffusion between the tensors lying on the surface and their neighbors in the direction of propagation. We use a level set implementation to assure a stable and accurate evolution of the surface and to handle changes of topology of the surface during the evolution process. The fiber tract segmentation method does not need a regularized tensor field since the surface is automatically smoothed as it propagates. The smoothing is done by an intrinsic surface force, based on the minimal principal curvature. This segmentation can be used for obtaining quantitative measures of the diffusion in the fiber tracts and it can also be used for white matter registration and for surgical planning.

  12. Polynomial fitting of DT-MRI fiber tracts allows accurate estimation of muscle architectural parameters.

    PubMed

    Damon, Bruce M; Heemskerk, Anneriet M; Ding, Zhaohua

    2012-06-01

    Fiber curvature is a functionally significant muscle structural property, but its estimation from diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging fiber tracking data may be confounded by noise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of polynomial fitting of fiber tracts for improving the accuracy and precision of fiber curvature (κ) measurements. Simulated image data sets were created in order to provide data with known values for κ and pennation angle (θ). Simulations were designed to test the effects of increasing inherent fiber curvature (3.8, 7.9, 11.8 and 15.3 m(-1)), signal-to-noise ratio (50, 75, 100 and 150) and voxel geometry (13.8- and 27.0-mm(3) voxel volume with isotropic resolution; 13.5-mm(3) volume with an aspect ratio of 4.0) on κ and θ measurements. In the originally reconstructed tracts, θ was estimated accurately under most curvature and all imaging conditions studied; however, the estimates of κ were imprecise and inaccurate. Fitting the tracts to second-order polynomial functions provided accurate and precise estimates of κ for all conditions except very high curvature (κ=15.3 m(-1)), while preserving the accuracy of the θ estimates. Similarly, polynomial fitting of in vivo fiber tracking data reduced the κ values of fitted tracts from those of unfitted tracts and did not change the θ values. Polynomial fitting of fiber tracts allows accurate estimation of physiologically reasonable values of κ, while preserving the accuracy of θ estimation.

  13. Polynomial Fitting of DT-MRI Fiber Tracts Allows Accurate Estimation of Muscle Architectural Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Damon, Bruce M.; Heemskerk, Anneriet M.; Ding, Zhaohua

    2012-01-01

    Fiber curvature is a functionally significant muscle structural property, but its estimation from diffusion-tensor MRI fiber tracking data may be confounded by noise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of polynomial fitting of fiber tracts for improving the accuracy and precision of fiber curvature (κ) measurements. Simulated image datasets were created in order to provide data with known values for κ and pennation angle (θ). Simulations were designed to test the effects of increasing inherent fiber curvature (3.8, 7.9, 11.8, and 15.3 m−1), signal-to-noise ratio (50, 75, 100, and 150), and voxel geometry (13.8 and 27.0 mm3 voxel volume with isotropic resolution; 13.5 mm3 volume with an aspect ratio of 4.0) on κ and θ measurements. In the originally reconstructed tracts, θ was estimated accurately under most curvature and all imaging conditions studied; however, the estimates of κ were imprecise and inaccurate. Fitting the tracts to 2nd order polynomial functions provided accurate and precise estimates of κ for all conditions except very high curvature (κ=15.3 m−1), while preserving the accuracy of the θ estimates. Similarly, polynomial fitting of in vivo fiber tracking data reduced the κ values of fitted tracts from those of unfitted tracts and did not change the θ values. Polynomial fitting of fiber tracts allows accurate estimation of physiologically reasonable values of κ, while preserving the accuracy of θ estimation. PMID:22503094

  14. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to help prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections if I have a catheter? • Always clean your hands before and after doing catheter care. • Always keep your urine bag below the level ...

  15. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Ly, Melissa; Bonilla, Natasha; Pride, David T.

    2014-01-01

    While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans. PMID:25667584

  16. Spreading of multiple Listeria monocytogenes abscesses via central nervous system fiber tracts: case report.

    PubMed

    Bojanowski, Michel W; Seizeur, Romuald; Effendi, Khaled; Bourgouin, Patrick; Magro, Elsa; Letourneau-Guillon, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Animal studies have shown that Listeria monocytogenes can probably access the brain through a peripheral intraneural route, and it has been suggested that a similar process may occur in humans. However, thus far, its spreading through the central nervous system (CNS) has not been completely elucidated. The authors present a case of multiple L. monocytogenes cerebral abscesses characterized by a pattern of distribution that suggested spread along white matter fiber tracts and reviewed the literature to identify other cases for analysis. They elected to include only those cases with 3 or more cerebral abscesses to make sure that the distribution was not random, but rather followed a pattern. In addition, they included those cases with abscesses in both the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres, but excluded cases in which abscesses were located solely in the brainstem. Of 77 cases of L. monocytogenes CNS abscesses found in the literature, 17 involved multiple abscesses. Of those, 6 were excluded for lack of imaging and 3 because they involved only the brainstem. Of the 8 remaining cases from the literature, one was a case of bilateral abscesses that did not follow a fiber tract; another was also bilateral, but with lesions appearing to follow fiber tracts on one side; and in the remaining 6, to which the authors added their own case for a total of 7, all the abscesses were located exclusively in the same hemisphere and distributed along white matter fiber tracts. The findings suggest that after entering the CNS, L. monocytogenes travels within the axons, resulting in a characteristic pattern of distribution of multiple abscesses along the white matter fiber tracts in the brain. This report is the first description suggesting intraaxonal CNS spread of L. monocytogenes infection in humans following its entry into the brain. This distinct pattern is clearly seen on imaging and its recognition may be valuable in the diagnosis of listeriosis. This finding may allow for

  17. Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain

    PubMed Central

    Hartenstein, Volker; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison; Ngo, Kathy; Viktorin, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, Inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted. Our L1 neuro-anatomical atlas of lineages constitutes an essential step towards following morphologically defined lineages to the neuroblasts of the early embryo, which will ultimately make it possible to link the structure and connectivity of a lineage to the expression of genes in the particular neuroblast that gives rise to that lineage. Furthermore, the L1 atlas will be important for a host of ongoing work that attempts to reconstruct neuronal connectivity at the level of resolution of single neurons and their synapses. PMID:26141956

  18. Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Viktorin, Gudrun

    2015-10-01

    Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted. Our L1 neuro-anatomical atlas of lineages constitutes an essential step towards following morphologically defined lineages to the neuroblasts of the early embryo, which will ultimately make it possible to link the structure and connectivity of a lineage to the expression of genes in the particular neuroblast that gives rise to that lineage. Furthermore, the L1 atlas will be important for a host of ongoing work that attempts to reconstruct neuronal connectivity at the level of resolution of single neurons and their synapses.

  19. Fiber Tract-Specific White Matter Lesion Severity: Findings in Late-Life Depression and by AGTR1 A1166C Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Warren D.; Zhao, Zheen; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Payne, Martha E.; Steffens, David C.; Krishnan, Ranga R.; Hauser, Elizabeth; MacFall, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Past work demonstrated that late-life depression is associated with greater severity of ischemic cerebral hyperintense white matter lesions, particularly frontal lesions. However, these lesions are also associated with other neuropsychiatric deficits, so these clinical relationships may depend on which fiber tracts are damaged. We examined the ratio of lesion to nonlesioned white matter tissue within multiple fiber tracts between depressed and nondepressed elders. We also sought to determine if the AGTR1 A1166C and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms contributed to vulnerability to lesion development in discrete tracts. 3T structural MR images and blood samples for genetic analyses were acquired on 54 depressed and 37 nondepressed elders. Lesion maps were created through an automated tissue segmentation process and applied to a probabilistic white matter fiber tract atlas allowing for identification of the fraction of the tract occupied by lesion. The depressed cohort exhibited a significantly greater lesion ratio only in the left upper cingulum near the cingulate gyrus (F1,86 = 4.62, p = 0.0344), supporting past work implicating cingulate dysfunction in the pathogenesis of depression. In the 62 Caucasian subjects with genetic data, AGTR1 C1166 carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios across multiple tracts including the anterior thalamic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. In contrast, BDNF Met allele carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios only in the frontal corpus callosum. Although these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons, this study supports our hypothesis and provides preliminary evidence that genetic differences related to vascular disease may increase lesion vulnerability differentially across fiber tracts. PMID:22021115

  20. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Nöthlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjønneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quirós, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sánchez, M. J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. Patients and methods The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case–control subset. Results Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17–1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55–0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52–0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23–1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37–0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Conclusions Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk. PMID:23123507

  1. White matter fiber tracts of the human brain: three-dimensional mapping at microscopic resolution, topography and intersubject variability.

    PubMed

    Bürgel, Uli; Amunts, Katrin; Hoemke, Lars; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Gilsbach, Joachim M; Zilles, Karl

    2006-02-15

    The position and extent of individual fiber tracts within the white matter of human brains can be identified in vivo using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking methods. Previous to this study, however, the lack of three-dimensional (3-D) probability maps precluded comparing the anatomical precision of MRI studies with microscopically defined fiber tracts in human postmortem brains. The present study provides 3-D registered maps of the topography, course and intersubject variability of major fiber tracts, which were identified at microscopic resolution. The analyzed tracts include the corticospinal tract, optic and acoustic radiations, fornix, cingulum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal, superior and inferior occipito-frontal and uncinate fascicles; sources and targets of fiber tracts include the lateral and medial geniculate nuclei and mamillary bodies. Tracts and nuclei were identified in serial myelin-stained histological sections of ten postmortem brains. The sections were 3-D reconstructed and registered to a standardized stereotaxic space of an in vivo MR reference brain by means of linear and non-linear, elastic transformations. The individual fiber tracts and nuclei were superimposed in the reference space, and probability maps were generated as a quantitative measure of intersubject variability for each voxel of the stereotaxic space. This study presents the first stereotaxic atlas of the course, location and extent of fiber tracts and related nuclei based on microscopically defined localization and topographic data taken at multiple levels on each of the three orthogonal planes. The maps are useful for evaluating and identifying fiber bundles in DTI, for localizing subcortical lesions visible in anatomical MR images and for studying neuronal connectivity.

  2. Plasticity of left perisylvian white-matter tracts is associated with individual differences in math learning.

    PubMed

    Jolles, Dietsje; Wassermann, Demian; Chokhani, Ritika; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Bammer, Roland; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Plasticity of white matter tracts is thought to be essential for cognitive development and academic skill acquisition in children. However, a dearth of high-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data measuring longitudinal changes with learning, as well as methodological difficulties in multi-time point tract identification have limited our ability to investigate plasticity of specific white matter tracts. Here, we examine learning-related changes of white matter tracts innervating inferior parietal, prefrontal and temporal regions following an intense 2-month math tutoring program. DTI data were acquired from 18 third grade children, both before and after tutoring. A novel fiber tracking algorithm based on a White Matter Query Language (WMQL) was used to identify three sections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) linking frontal and parietal (SLF-FP), parietal and temporal (SLF-PT) and frontal and temporal (SLF-FT) cortices, from which we created child-specific probabilistic maps. The SLF-FP, SLF-FT, and SLF-PT tracts identified with the WMQL method were highly reliable across the two time points and showed close correspondence to tracts previously described in adults. Notably, individual differences in behavioral gains after 2 months of tutoring were specifically correlated with plasticity in the left SLF-FT tract. Our results extend previous findings of individual differences in white matter integrity, and provide important new insights into white matter plasticity related to math learning in childhood. More generally, our quantitative approach will be useful for future studies examining longitudinal changes in white matter integrity associated with cognitive skill development.

  3. Management of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Dielubanza, Elodi J; Mazur, Daniel J; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an overview of non-catheter-associated complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) from a urologic point of view. Discussion includes the evaluation and workup a complicated UTI through history, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and radiographic studies. Specific types of complicated UTI, such as urinary obstruction and renal abscess, are reviewed.

  4. Towards tract-specific fractional anisotropy (TSFA) at crossing-fiber regions with clinical diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Virendra; Guo, Xiaohu; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Huang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose White matter fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure implying microstructure, is significantly underestimated with single diffusion tensor model at crossing-fiber regions (CFR). We propose a tract-specific FA (TSFA), corrected for the effects of crossing-fiber geometry and free water at CFR, and adapted for tract analysis with diffusion MRI (dMRI) in clinical research. Methods At CFR voxels, the proposed technique estimates free water fraction (fiso) as a linear function of mean apparent diffusion coefficient (mADC), fits the dual tensors and estimates TSFA. Digital phantoms were designed for testing the accuracy of fiso and fitted dual-anisotropies at CFR. The technique was applied to clinical dMRI of normal subjects and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) patients to test the effectiveness of TSFA. Results Phantom simulation showed unbiased estimates of dual-tensor anisotropies at CFR and high accuracy of fiso as a linear function of mADC. TSFA at CFR was highly consistent to the single tensor FA at non-CFR within the same tract with normal human dMRI. Additional HSP imaging biomarkers with significant correlation to clinical motor function scores could be identified with TSFA. Conclusion Results suggest the potential of the proposed technique in estimating unbiased TSFA at CFR and conducting tract analysis in clinical research. PMID:25447208

  5. Alimentary Tract Atresias associated with Anorectal Malformations: 10 Years' Experience

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal malformation (ARM) is one of the most common congenital anomaly that requires emergency surgery in the neonatal period. ARMs are frequently associated with other life threatening congenital anomalies. Commonly associated anomalies are genito-urinary, cardiovascular, gastro-intestinal, skeletal and spinal. Alimentary tract anomalies are frequently masked by the intestinal obstruction produced by the anorectal atresia. This retrospective study was carried out to find out the incidence of associated alimentary tract atresias with ARM. In our series, out of 785 cases of high ARM, 14 cases had associated esophageal atresia (1.8%), followed by 7 cases of duodenal atresia (0.89%), and followed by pyloric atresia, jejuno-ileal atresia and colonic atresia. PMID:27896151

  6. Prevention of indwelling catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Dailly, Sue

    2011-03-01

    The use of indwelling urethral catheters has become a common aspect of patient care, but they can be a source of infection. Nurses can help to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections by using aseptic technique on insertion, following best practice in ongoing care and promptly removing catheters. The urinary catheter assessment and monitoring form (UCAM) is used at the Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, to remind staff of best practice and promote their early removal.

  7. White matter tract integrity of frontostriatal circuit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: association with attention performance and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Huan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The frontostriatal circuit has been postulated to account for the core symptoms such as inattention in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated the white matter integrity of frontostriatal fiber tracts using diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) tractography and its correlations with measures of multi-dimensional aspects of inattention based on psychiatric interview and attention tasks in 25 children with ADHD and 25 matched typically developing (TD) children. All the subjects were assessed with comprehensive psychiatric interviews and the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT). DSI data were acquired on a 3-Tesla MRI system. The frontostriatal fiber pathways were reconstructed by deterministic tractography, and generalized fractional anisotropy values were measured along individual targeted tracts to investigate alterations in microstructure integrity. Children with ADHD performed worse than TD children in the dimensions of focused attention, sustained attention, impulsivity, and vigilance of the CCPT, and showed impaired integrity in four bilateral frontostriatal tracts, namely the dorsolateral-caudate, medial prefrontal-caudate, orbitofrontal-caudate, and ventrolateral-caudate tracts, and in global white matter as well. The integrity of the left orbitofronto-caudate tract was associated with the symptom of inattention in children with ADHD, compatible with the attention deficit and motivational dysfunction theories in ADHD. The integrity of the frontostriatal tracts was associated with the attention performance only in TD children, suggestive of possible recruitment of tracts other than the frontostriatal tracts implicated in attention deficits in children with ADHD. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the functional involvement of the frontostriatal circuit with respect to clinical symptoms and attention performance.

  8. Chateter-associated Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Piljic, Dilista; Porobic-Jahic, Humera; Piljic, Dragan; Ahmetagic, Sead; Jahic, Rahima

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hospital-acquired Urinary tract infections make 35% of all the hospital-acquired infections, and about 80% of them are related to the catheterization of the urinary bladder Purpose: To determine clinical characteristics and dominant etiologic factors of Urinary Tract Infections associated with urinary catheter (C-UTIs). Methods: Determined clinical characteristics of C-UTIs were prospectively analyzed on 38 hospitalized patients in the Clinic for Infectious Diseases at the University Clinical Centre Tuzla, from January 1st 2011 to December 31st 2011. The control group constituted of 200 patients with community-acquired Urinary Tract Infections (Co-UTIs) hospitalized in the same period. Results: It was registered on 22 (57.89%) of symptomatic infections, 14 (36.84%) asymptomatic bacteriuria and 2 (5.26%) other C-UTIs. Dominant etiologic factors were: E. coli, caused 14 (36.84%), Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase producing (ESBL) Klebsiella pneumoniae 7 (18.42%), Enterococcus faecium and Candida spp. 3 (7.89%) of C-UTIs. E. coli was significantly most common etiologic factor of C-UTIs in younger women (p=0.04). E. coli from C-UTIS showed significantly higher resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Inadequate antimicrobial therapy was significantly more common prescribed to patients from C-UTIs. Lethal outcome was significantly most common associated with certain clinical and laboratory findings. Conclusion: Initial antimicrobial therapy of those serious infections should be based on data from those research. PMID:24167432

  9. Exposure versus internal dose: Respiratory tract deposition modeling of inhaled asbestos fibers in rats and humans (Presentation Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to asbestos is associated with respiratory diseases, including asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Internal fiber dose depends on fiber inhalability and orientation, fiber density, length and width, and various deposition mechanisms (DM). Species-specific param...

  10. Arrangement of fiber tracts forming Probst bundle in complete callosal agenesis: report of two cases with an evaluation by diffusion tensor tractography.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, H; Yamashita, S; Takano, K; Okazaki, M

    2006-12-01

    We report two patients with complete callosal agenesis in whom Probst bundles in both hemispheres could be depicted by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). While one patient had no associated telencephalic anomaly other than callosal agenesis, the other had cortical dysplasia in the right frontal lobe. Although Probst bundles in the three normal hemispheres were well developed, that in the hemisphere which was affected by cortical dysplasia was small and poorly developed. DTT also showed that the fibers from the frontal pole ran more on the inner side of the Probst bundle than those from a more caudal region of the frontal lobe. Furthermore, fibers from the orbital gyri ran along the outermost side of Probst bundle. The arrangement of these fiber tracts in Probst bundle may reflect the developmental process of callosal fibers in their normal formation.

  11. Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, Jinsoo; Merchant, Thomas E.; Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu; Gajjar, Amar; Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

  12. Glass fibers and vapor phase components of cigarette smoke as cofactors in experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Feron, V.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Spit, B.J.; Reuzel, P.G.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters were given intratracheal instillations of glass fibers with or without BP suspended in saline, once a fortnight for 52 weeks; the experiment was terminated at week 85. No tumors of the respiratory tract were observed in hamsters treated with glass fibers alone. There was no indication that glass fibers enhanced the development of respiratory tract tumors induced by BP. In another study Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to fresh air or to a mixture of 4 major vapor phase components of cigarette smoke, viz. isoprene (800----700 ppm), methyl chloride (1000----900 ppm), methyl nitrite (200----190 ppm) and acetaldehyde (1400----1200 ppm) for a period of at most 23 months. Some of the animals were also given repeated intratracheal instillations of BP or norharman in saline. Laryngeal tumors were found in 7/31 male and 6/32 female hamsters exposed only to the vapor mixture, whereas no laryngeal tumors occurred in controls. The tumor response of the larynx most probably has to be ascribed entirely to the action of acetaldehyde. Simultaneous treatment with norharman or BP did not affect the tumor response of the larynx. Acetaldehyde may occur in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke at levels up to 2000 ppm. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats to acetaldehyde at levels of 0 (controls), 750, 1500 or 3000----1000 ppm resulted in a high incidence of nasal carcinomas, both squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory epithelium and adenocarcinomas of the olfactory epithelium. It was discussed that acetaldehyde may significantly contribute to the induction of bronchogenic cancer by cigarette smoke in man.

  13. Digestive and respiratory tract motor responses associated with eructation.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ivan M; Medda, Bidyut K; Shaker, Reza

    2013-06-01

    We studied the digestive and respiratory tract motor responses in 10 chronically instrumented dogs during eructation activated after feeding. Muscles were recorded from the cervical area, thorax, and abdomen. The striated muscles were recorded using EMG and the smooth muscles using strain gauges. We found eructation in three distinct functional phases that were composed of different sets of motor responses: gas escape, barrier elimination, and gas transport. The gas escape phase, activated by gastric distension, consists of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter and diaphragmatic hiatus and contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the thoracic esophagus and rectus abdominis. All these motor events promote gas escape from the stomach. The barrier elimination phase, probably activated by rapid gas distension of the thoracic esophagus, consists of relaxation of the pharyngeal constrictors and excitation of dorsal and ventral upper esophageal sphincter distracting muscles, as well as rapid contraction of the diaphragmatic dome fibers. These motor events allow esophagopharyngeal air movement by promoting retrograde airflow and opening of the upper esophageal sphincter. The transport phase, possibly activated secondary to diaphragmatic contraction, consists of a retrograde contraction of the striated muscle esophagus that transports the air from the thoracic esophagus to the pharynx. We hypothesize that the esophageal reverse peristalsis is mediated by elementary reflexes, rather than a coordinated peristaltic response like secondary peristalsis. The phases of eructation can be activated independently of one another or in a different manner to participate in physiological events other than eructation that cause gastroesophageal or esophagogastric reflux.

  14. Modeling the mechanics of axonal fiber tracts using the embedded finite element method.

    PubMed

    Garimella, Harsha T; Kraft, Reuben H

    2016-08-08

    A subject-specific human head finite element model with embedded axonal fiber tractography obtained from diffusion tensor imaging was developed. The axonal fiber tractography finite element model was coupled with the volumetric elements in the head model using the embedded element method. This technique enables the calculation of axonal strains and real-time tracking of the mechanical response of the axonal fiber tracts. The coupled model was then verified using pressure and relative displacement-based (between skull and brain) experimental studies and was employed to analyze a head impact, demonstrating the applicability of this method in studying axonal injury. Following this, a comparison study of different injury criteria was performed. This model was used to determine the influence of impact direction on the extent of the axonal injury. The results suggested that the lateral impact loading is more dangerous compared to loading in the sagittal plane, a finding in agreement with previous studies. Through this analysis, we demonstrated the viability of the embedded element method as an alternative numerical approach for studying axonal injury in patient-specific human head models.

  15. Role of Frontotemporal Fiber Tract Integrity in Task-Switching Performance of Healthy Controls and Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kucukboyaci, N. Erkut; Girard, H.M.; Hagler, D.J.; Kuperman, J.; Tecoma, E.S.; Iragui, V.J.; Halgren, E.; McDonald, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationships among frontotemporal fiber tract compromise and task-switching performance in healthy controls and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on 30 controls and 32 patients with TLE (15 left TLE). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated for four fiber tracts [uncinate fasciculus (UncF), arcuate fasciculus (ArcF), dorsal cingulum (CING), and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF)]. Participants completed the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B) and Verbal Fluency Category Switching (VFCS) test. Multivariate analyses of variances (MANOVAs) were performed to investigate group differences in fiber FA and set-shifting performances. Canonical correlations were used to examine the overall patterns of structural-cognitive relationships and were followed by within-group bivariate correlations. We found a significant canonical correlation between fiber FA and task-switching performance. In controls, TMT-B correlated with left IFOF, whereas VFCS correlated with FA of left ArcF and left UncF. These correlations were not significant in patients with TLE. We report significant correlations between frontotemporal fiber tract integrity and set-shifting performance in healthy controls that appear to be absent or attenuated in patients with TLE. These findings suggest a breakdown of typical structure-function relationships in TLE that may reflect aberrant developmental or degenerative processes. PMID:22014246

  16. Fiber tracts of the dorsal language stream in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Yagmurlu, Kaan; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Tanriover, Necmettin; Rhoton, Albert L

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to examine the arcuate (AF) and superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLF), which together form the dorsal language stream, using fiber dissection and diffusion imaging techniques in the human brain. METHODS Twenty-five formalin-fixed brains (50 hemispheres) and 3 adult cadaveric heads, prepared according to the Klingler method, were examined by the fiber dissection technique. The authors' findings were supported with MR tractography provided by the Human Connectome Project, WU-Minn Consortium. The frequencies of gyral distributions were calculated in segments of the AF and SLF in the cadaveric specimens. RESULTS The AF has ventral and dorsal segments, and the SLF has 3 segments: SLF I (dorsal pathway), II (middle pathway), and III (ventral pathway). The AF ventral segment connects the middle (88%; all percentages represent the area of the named structure that is connected to the tract) and posterior (100%) parts of the superior temporal gyri and the middle part (92%) of the middle temporal gyrus to the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (96% in pars opercularis, 40% in pars triangularis) and the ventral premotor cortex (84%) by passing deep to the lower part of the supramarginal gyrus (100%). The AF dorsal segment connects the posterior part of the middle (100%) and inferior temporal gyri (76%) to the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (96% in pars opercularis), ventral premotor cortex (72%), and posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus (56%) by passing deep to the lower part of the angular gyrus (100%). CONCLUSIONS This study depicts the distinct subdivision of the AF and SLF, based on cadaveric fiber dissection and diffusion imaging techniques, to clarify the complicated language processing pathways.

  17. Fiber Tract Stimulation Can Reduce Epileptiform Activity in an in-vitro Bilateral Hippocampal Slice Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Toprani, Sheela; Durand, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common medically refractory neurological disease that has been treated with electrical stimulation of gray matter with limited success. However, stimulation of a white matter tract connecting the hippocampi could maximize treatment efficacy and extent. We tested low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of a novel target that enables simultaneous targeting of bilateral hippocampi: the ventral hippocampal commissure (VHC) with a novel in-vitro slice preparation containing bilateral hippocampi connected by the VHC. The goal of this study is to understand the role of hippocampal interplay in seizure propagation and reduction by commissural fiber tract stimulation. LFS is applied to the VHC as extracellular and intracellular recording techniques are combined with signal processing to estimate several metrics of epilepsy including: (1) total time occupied by seizure activity (%); (2) seizure duration (s); (3) seizures per minute (#); and (4) power in the ictal (V2Hz−1); as well as (5) interictal spectra (V2Hz−1). Bilateral epileptiform activity in this preparation is highly correlated between hippocampi. Application of LFS to the VHC reduces all metrics of epilepsy during treatment in an amplitude and frequency dependent manner. This study lends several insights into the mechanisms of bilateral seizure reduction by LFS of the VHC, including that depolarization blocking, LTD/LTP and GABAA are not involved. Importantly, enhanced post-stimulation 1-Hz spiking correlates with long-lasting seizure reduction and both are heightened by targeting bilateral hippocampi via the VHC. Therefore, stimulating bilateral hippocampi via a single electrode in the VHC may provide an effective MTLE treatment. PMID:23123405

  18. A longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study assessing white matter fiber tracts after sports-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Murugavel, Murali; Cubon, Valerie; Putukian, Margot; Echemendia, Ruben; Cabrera, Javier; Osherson, Daniel; Dettwiler, Annegret

    2014-11-15

    The extent of structural injury in sports-related concussion (SRC) is central to the course of recovery, long-term effects, and the decision to return to play. In the present longitudinal study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity within 2 days, 2 weeks, and 2 months of concussive injury. Participants were right-handed male varsity contact-sport athletes (20.2±1.0 years of age) with a medically diagnosed SRC (no loss of consciousness). They were compared to right-handed male varsity non-contact-sport athletes serving as controls (19.9±1.7 years). We found significantly increased radial diffusivity (RD) in concussed athletes (n=12; paired t-test, tract-based spatial statistics; p<0.025) at 2 days, when compared to the 2-week postinjury time point. The increase was found in a cluster of right hemisphere voxels, spanning the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), the retrolenticular part of the IC, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (sagittal stratum), and the anterior thalamic radiation. Post-hoc, univariate, between-group (controls vs. concussed), mixed-effects analysis of the cluster showed significantly higher RD at 2 days (p=0.002), as compared to the controls, with a trend in the same direction at 2 months (p=0.11). Results for fractional anisotropy (FA) in the same cluster showed a similar, but inverted, pattern; FA was decreased at 2 days and at 2 months postinjury, when compared to healthy controls. At 2 weeks postinjury, no statistical differences between concussed and control athletes were found with regard to either RD or FA. These results support the hypothesis of increased RD and reduced FA within 72 h postinjury, followed by recovery that may extend beyond 2 weeks. RD appears to be a sensitive measure of concussive injury.

  19. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  20. Barophilic Bacteria Associated with Digestive Tracts of Abyssal Holothurians

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Jody W.; Colwell, Rita R.

    1982-01-01

    Abyssal holothurians and sediment samples were collected at depths of 4,430 to 4,850 m in the Demerara abyssal plain. Bacterial concentrations in progressive sections of the holothurian digestive tract, as well as in surrounding surface sediments, were determined by epifluorescence microscopy. Total bacterial counts in sediments recently ingested by the animals were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than in surrounding sediments at the deepest station. Lowest counts were observed consistently in the foregut, where the digestive processes of the holothurian are believed to occur. In most animals, counts increased 3- to 10-fold in the hindgut. Microbial activity at 3°C and in situ and atmospheric pressure were determined for gut and sediment samples by measuring the utilization of [14C]glutamic acid, the doubling time of the mixed-population of culturable bacteria, and the percentage of the total bacterial count responsive to yeast extract in the presence of nalidixic acid, using epifluorescence microscopy. A barophilic microbial population, showing elevated activity under deep-sea pressure, was detected by all three methods in sediments removed from the hindgut. Transmission electron micrographs revealed intact bacteria directly associated with the intestinal lining only in the hindgut. The bacteria are believed to be carried as an actively metabolizing, commensal gut flora that transforms organic matter present in abyssal sediments ingested by the holothurian. Using data obtained in this study, it was calculated that sediment containing organic matter altered by microbial activity cleared the holothurian gut every 16 h, suggesting that abyssal holothurians and their associated gut flora are important participants in nutrient cycles of the abyssal benthic ocean. Images PMID:16346137

  1. Changes of the different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in the diabetic rat's alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Erzsébet; Batbayar, Bayarchimeg; Vér, Agota; Zelles, Tivadar

    2006-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, where neuropeptides and immunocells might play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this article we have quantified the different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat's alimentary tract (tongue, duodenum, colon) using immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers were found in all layers of the alimentary tract and their distribution pattern was similar in both control and diabetic groups. Mast cell-nerve fiber contacts were rarely found in the controls. However, after 4 weeks duration of diabetes the number of IR nerve fibers and the immunocompetent cells increased significantly (P < 0.05), and the number of mast cell-nerve fiber contacts was even more significantly increased (P < 0.001). The distance between nerve fibers and immunocells was about 1 mum or even less. Some of the mast cells were degranulated in the vicinity of nerve fibers. No immunocompetent cells were IR for any antisera in the control. However, after the streptozotocin treatment, a large number of the immunocompetent cells showed immunoreactivity for SP and NPY. Counting all immunocompetent cells in whole sections showed that 12.3% of them were IR for SP and 25.4% were IR for NPY. Increased number of SP-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in diabetes mellitus might be the reason for painful neuropathy and might amplify the inflammatory reaction in an axon reflex manner; the released histamine and leukotrienes, cytokines, and chemokines might cause inflammations and lesions of the mucosa.

  2. High-definition fiber tractography for the evaluation of perilesional white matter tracts in high-grade glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Abhinav, Kumar; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Mansouri, Alireza; Zadeh, Gelareh; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Conventional white matter (WM) imaging approaches, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been used to preoperatively identify the location of affected WM tracts in patients with intracranial tumors in order to maximize the extent of resection and potentially reduce postoperative morbidity. DTI, however, has limitations that include its inability to resolve multiple crossing fibers and its susceptibility to partial volume effects. Therefore, recent focus has shifted to more advanced WM imaging techniques such as high-definition fiber tractography (HDFT). In this paper, we illustrate the application of HDFT, which in our preliminary experience has enabled accurate depiction of perilesional tracts in a 3-dimensional manner in multiple anatomical compartments including edematous zones around high-grade gliomas. This has facilitated accurate surgical planning. This is illustrated by using case examples of patients with glioblastoma multiforme. We also discuss future directions in the role of these techniques in surgery for gliomas.

  3. Syntactic processing depends on dorsal language tracts.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen M; Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Rising, Kindle; Patterson, Dianne K; Henry, Maya L; Ogar, Jennifer M; DeLeon, Jessica; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2011-10-20

    Frontal and temporal language areas involved in syntactic processing are connected by several dorsal and ventral tracts, but the functional roles of the different tracts are not well understood. To identify which white matter tract(s) are important for syntactic processing, we examined the relationship between white matter damage and syntactic deficits in patients with primary progressive aphasia, using multimodal neuroimaging and neurolinguistic assessment. Diffusion tensor imaging showed that microstructural damage to left hemisphere dorsal tracts--the superior longitudinal fasciculus including its arcuate component--was strongly associated with deficits in comprehension and production of syntax. Damage to these dorsal tracts predicted syntactic deficits after gray matter atrophy was taken into account, and fMRI confirmed that these tracts connect regions modulated by syntactic processing. In contrast, damage to ventral tracts--the extreme capsule fiber system or the uncinate fasciculus--was not associated with syntactic deficits. Our findings show that syntactic processing depends primarily on dorsal language tracts.

  4. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  5. Designing a protocol to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections among hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Gokula, Murthy; Smolen, Dianne; Gaspar, Phyllis M; Hensley, Sandra J; Benninghoff, Mary C; Smith, Mindy

    2012-12-01

    Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections comprise 40% of hospital-acquired infections with over 80% of these hospital-acquired urinary tract infections associated with the use of urinary catheters. The process that was used to establish a new hospital protocol using the "IAIMS" (identifying, assessing, implementing, modifying/maintaining, spread/surveillance) model to reduce the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections is described. The example is intended to serve as a framework for the development of protocols to address other hospital-acquired infections.

  6. An in vitro urinary tract catheter system to investigate biofilm development in catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Dohnt, Katrin; Sauer, Marie; Müller, Maren; Atallah, Karin; Weidemann, Marina; Gronemeyer, Petra; Rasch, Detlev; Tielen, Petra; Krull, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    Biofilm development in urinary tract catheters is an often underestimated problem. However, this form of infection leads to high mortality rates and causes significant costs in health care. Therefore, it is important to analyze these biofilms and establish avoiding strategies. In this study a continuous flow-through system for the cultivation of biofilms under catheter-associated urinary tract infection conditions was established and validated. The in vitro urinary tract catheter system implies the composition of urine (artificial urine medium), the mean volume of urine of adults (1 mL min(-1)), the frequently used silicone catheter (foley silicon catheter) as well as the infection with uropathogenic microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three clinical isolates from urine of catheterized patients were chosen due to their ability to form biofilms, their mobility and their cell surface hydrophobicity. As reference strain P. aeruginosa PA14 has been used. Characteristic parameters as biofilm thickness, specific biofilm growth rate and substrate consumption were observed. Biofilm thicknesses varied from 105±16 μm up to 246±67 μm for the different isolates. The specific biofilm growth rate could be determined with a non invasive optical biomass sensor. This sensor allows online monitoring of the biofilm growth in the progress of the cultivation.

  7. An Evidence-Based Approach To the Prevention of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nina M; Reitneier, Laura; Goodloe, Lauren R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a bundle of interventions that effectively reduced the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections on the Acute Care Medicine' Unit, a general medicine/telemetry unit. A series of evidence-based interventions were implemented in October 2011, and since the implementation of these interventions, the 28-bed unit has seen a significant reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  8. Effective G-protein coupling of Y2 receptors along axonal fiber tracts and its relevance for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dum, Elisabeth; Fürtinger, Sabine; Gasser, Elisabeth; Bukovac, Anneliese; Drexel, Meinrad; Tasan, Ramon; Sperk, Günther

    2017-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Y2 receptors are G-protein coupled receptors and, upon activation, induce opening of potassium channels or closing of calcium channels. They are generally presynaptically located. Depending on the neuron in which they are expressed they mediate inhibition of release of NPY and of the neuron's classical transmitter GABA, glutamate or noradrenaline, respectively. Here we provide evidence that Y2 receptor binding is inhibited dose-dependently by GTPγS along Schaffer collaterals, the stria terminalis and the fimbria indicating that Y2 receptors are functionally coupled to G-proteins along these fiber tracts. Double immune fluorescence revealed coexistence of Y2-immunoreactivity with β-tubulin, a marker for axons in the stria terminalis, but not with synaptophysin labeling presynaptic terminals, supporting the localization of Y2 receptors along axonal tracts. After kainic acid-induced seizures in rats, GTPγS-induced inhibition of Y2 receptor binding is facilitated in the Schaffer collaterals but not in the stria terminalis. Our data indicate that Y2 receptors are not only located at nerve terminals but also along fiber tracts and are there functionally coupled to G-proteins.

  9. Antibody-Based Therapy for Enterococcal Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Potretzke, Aaron; Schreiber, Henry L.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Bauman, Tyler M.; Park, Alyssa M.; Desai, Alana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gram-positive bacteria in the genus Enterococcus are a frequent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a disease whose treatment is increasingly challenged by multiantibiotic-resistant strains. We have recently shown that E. faecalis uses the Ebp pilus, a heteropolymeric surface fiber, to bind the host protein fibrinogen as a critical step in CAUTI pathogenesis. Fibrinogen is deposited on catheters due to catheter-induced inflammation and is recognized by the N-terminal domain of EbpA (EbpANTD), the Ebp pilus’s adhesin. In a murine model, vaccination with EbpANTD confers significant protection against CAUTI. Here, we explored the mechanism of protection using passive transfer of immune sera to show that antisera blocking EbpANTD-fibrinogen interactions not only is prophylactic but also can act therapeutically to reduce bacterial titers of an existing infection. Analysis of 55 clinical CAUTI, bloodstream, and gastrointestinal isolates, including E. faecalis, E. faecium, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), revealed a diversity of levels of EbpA expression and fibrinogen-binding efficiency in vitro. Strikingly, analysis of 10 strains representative of fibrinogen-binding diversity demonstrated that, irrespective of EbpA levels, EbpANTD antibodies were universally protective. The results indicate that, despite diversity in levels of fibrinogen binding, strategies that target the disruption of EbpANTD-fibrinogen interactions have considerable promise for treatment of CAUTI. PMID:27795399

  10. A Sensitive and Automatic White Matter Fiber Tracts Model for Longitudinal Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Images in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stamile, Claudio; Kocevar, Gabriel; Cotton, François; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Hannoun, Salem; Frindel, Carole; Guttmann, Charles R. G.; Rousseau, David; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a sensitive tool for the assessment of microstructural alterations in brain white matter (WM). We propose a new processing technique to detect, local and global longitudinal changes of diffusivity metrics, in homologous regions along WM fiber-bundles. To this end, a reliable and automatic processing pipeline was developed in three steps: 1) co-registration and diffusion metrics computation, 2) tractography, bundle extraction and processing, and 3) longitudinal fiber-bundle analysis. The last step was based on an original Gaussian mixture model providing a fine analysis of fiber-bundle cross-sections, and allowing a sensitive detection of longitudinal changes along fibers. This method was tested on simulated and clinical data. High levels of F-Measure were obtained on simulated data. Experiments on cortico-spinal tract and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi of five patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) included in a weekly follow-up protocol highlighted the greater sensitivity of this fiber scale approach to detect small longitudinal alterations. PMID:27224308

  11. Endometriosis-associated nerve fibers and pain

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Melissa G.; Lebovic, Dan I.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment and diagnosis of endometriosis remain elusive targets. Patient and medical-related factors add to delays in the detection and treatment. Recently, investigators have revealed specific nerve fibers present in endometriotic tissue, with existing parallels between density and pain severity. The aim of this review is to compile a comprehensive review of existing literature on endometriosis-related nerve fiber detection, and the effects of medical therapy on these neural fibers. We performed a systematic literature-based review using Medline and PubMed of nerve fibers detected in eutopic endometrium, endometriotic lesions, and the peritoneum. Various arrangements of significant medical terms and phrases consisting of endometriosis, pelvic pain, nerve fiber detection/density in endometriosis, and diagnoses methodology, including treatment and detection were applied in the search. Subsequent references used were cross-matched with existing sources to compile all additional similar reports. Similar nerve fibers were detected within lesions, endometrium, and myometrium, though at varying degrees of density. Hormonal therapy is widely used to treat endometriosis and was shown to be related to a reduction in fiber density. A direct result of specific nerve fiber detection within eutopic endometrial layers points to the use of a minimally invasive endometrial biopsy technique in reducing delay in diagnosis and subsequent possible preservation of fertility. PMID:19657753

  12. [The Effect of Coprophagy on the Size of Plant Fibers in the Digestive Tract of Hares Lepus europaeus and L. timidus (Lagomorpha, Leporidae)].

    PubMed

    Naumova, E I; Zharova, G K; Chistova, T Yu; Kuznetsova, T A

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the distribution of plant fibers of different sizes in the digestive tracts of two hare species: the brown hare (Lepus euopaeus) and the mountain hare (L. timidus). In all studied hares (18 specimens), the highest amount of fine-sized fibers (less than 0.25 mm length) was observed in the cecum (50-70% of the total fiber mass). It was found out that the fine-sized content in the digestive tract, and especially in the cecum, is provided not only by the separation mechanism of the colon, but also by coprophagy. It was shown that repeated passage of food through the digestive tract compensates small volume of the cecum and increases the period of digestion of the same portions of food.

  13. Problem solving, working memory, and motor correlates of association and commissural fiber bundles in normal aging: a quantitative fiber tracking study.

    PubMed

    Zahr, Natalie M; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2009-02-01

    Normal aging is accompanied by decline in selective cognitive and motor functions. A concurrent decline in regional white matter integrity, detectable with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), potentially contributes to waning function. DTI analysis of white matter loci indicates an anterior-to-posterior gradient distribution of declining fractional anisotropy (FA) and increasing diffusivity with age. Quantitative fiber tracking can be used to determine regional patterns of normal aging of fiber systems and test the functional ramifications of the DTI metrics. Here, we used quantitative fiber tracking to examine age effects on commissural (genu and splenium), bilateral association (cingulate, inferior longitudinal fasciculus and uncinate), and fornix fibers in 12 young and 12 elderly healthy men and women and tested functional correlates with concurrent assessment of a wide range of neuropsychological abilities. Principal component analysis of cognitive and motor tests on which the elderly achieved significantly lower scores than the young group was used for data reduction and yielded three factors: Problem Solving, Working Memory, and Motor. Age effects--lower FA or higher diffusivity--in the elderly were prominent in anterior tracts, specifically, genu, fornix, and uncinate fibers. Differential correlations between FA or diffusivity in fiber tracts and scores on Problem Solving, Working Memory, or Motor factors provide convergent validity to the biological meaningfulness of the integrity of the fibers tracked. The observed pattern of relations supports the possibility that regional degradation of white matter fiber integrity is a biological source of age-related functional compromise and may have the potential to limit accessibility to alternative neural systems to compensate for compromised function.

  14. Identifying preoperative language tracts and predicting postoperative functional recovery using HARDI q-ball fiber tractography in patients with gliomas.

    PubMed

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Jordan, Kesshi M; Lobach, Iryna V; Li, Jing; Panara, Valentina; Racine, Caroline A; Sankaranarayanan, Vanitha; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Papinutto, Nico; Berger, Mitchel S; Henry, Roland G

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Diffusion MRI has uniquely enabled in vivo delineation of white matter tracts, which has been applied to the segmentation of eloquent pathways for intraoperative mapping. The last decade has also seen the development from earlier diffusion tensor models to higher-order models, which take advantage of high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) techniques. However, these advanced methods have not been widely implemented for routine preoperative and intraoperative mapping. The authors report on the application of residual bootstrap q-ball fiber tracking for routine mapping of potentially functional language pathways, the development of a system for rating tract injury to evaluate the impact on clinically assessed language function, and initial results predicting long-term language deficits following glioma resection. METHODS The authors have developed methods for the segmentation of 8 putative language pathways including dorsal phonological pathways and ventral semantic streams using residual bootstrap q-ball fiber tracking. Furthermore, they have implemented clinically feasible preoperative acquisition and processing of HARDI data to delineate these pathways for neurosurgical application. They have also developed a rating scale based on the altered fiber tract density to estimate the degree of pathway injury, applying these ratings to a subset of 35 patients with pre- and postoperative fiber tracking. The relationships between specific pathways and clinical language deficits were assessed to determine which pathways are predictive of long-term language deficits following surgery. RESULTS This tracking methodology has been routinely implemented for preoperative mapping in patients with brain gliomas who have undergone awake brain tumor resection at the University of California, San Francisco (more than 300 patients to date). In this particular study the authors investigated the white matter structure status and language correlation in a

  15. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  16. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2–25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions. PMID:27076697

  17. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described i...

  18. Lactic acid bacteria associated with the digestive tract of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Ringø, E; Bendiksen, H R; Wesmajervi, M S; Olsen, R E; Jansen, P A; Mikkelsen, H

    2000-08-01

    The present study reports the effect of excessive handling stress and starvation on the lactic acid bacteria associated with the digestive tract of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). A relatively low population level (approximately 2 x 103 bacteria per gram wet tissue) of viable adherent heterotrophic bacteria was associated with the digestive tract (foregut, midgut and hindgut). Of the 752 bacterial isolates isolated from diet, water and the digestive tract, 201 isolates belonged to the carnobacteria. Of these isolates, one from the diet, one from the rearing water and 80 from the gastrointestinal tract, were further identified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis. All these isolates were identified as being Carnobacterium piscicola-like. Daily repeated stress and starvation of the fish over 11 d had no influence on the total culturable bacterial numbers or population level of C. piscicola associated with the digestive tract. C. piscicola-like isolates colonizing the various intestinal regions (foregut, midgut and hindgut) were also screened for their ability to produce growth inhibitory compounds active against the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Of the 199 C. piscicola isolates tested, 139 inhibited growth of the pathogen.

  19. Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol; Saint, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection remains one of the most common healthcare-associated infections in the intensive care unit and predominantly occurs in patients with indwelling urinary catheters. Duration of catheterization is the most important risk factor for developing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). General strategies for preventing CAUTI include measures such as adherence to hand hygiene. Targeted strategies for preventing CAUTI include limiting the use and duration of urinary catheters, using aseptic technique for catheter insertion, and adhering to proper catheter care. Anti-infective catheters may be considered in some settings. Successful implementation of these measures has decreased urinary catheter use and CAUTI.

  20. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Bosch, G; Pellikaan, W F; Rutten, P G P; van der Poel, A F B; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2008-11-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta were collected from the distal ileum, proximal colon, transverse colon, and rectum of 3 adult dogs. Digesta per part of the GIT were pooled for 3 dogs, diluted (1:25, wt/vol), mixed, and filtered for the preparation of inoculum. A fructan, ground soy hulls, and native potato starch were used as substrates and incubated for cumulative gas production measurement as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. In addition, fermentation bottles with similar contents were incubated but were allowed to release their gas throughout incubation. Fermentation fluid was sampled at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of incubation, and short-chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. Results showed comparable maximal fermentation rates for rectal and proximal colonic inocula (P > 0.05). Production of short-chain fatty acids was least for the ileal and greatest for the rectal inoculum (P < 0.05). Therefore, for in vitro studies, fecal microbiota can be used as an inoculum source but may slightly overestimate in vivo fermentation. Experiment 2 evaluated the gas production, fermentation kinetics, and end product profiles at 8 and 72 h of incubation for citrus pectin, 3 fructans, gum arabic, 3 guar gums, pea fiber, peanut hulls, soy fiber, sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pectin, sugar beet pulp, wheat fiber, and wheat middlings. Feces of 4 adult dogs were used as an inoculum source. Similar techniques were used as in Exp. 1 except for the dilution factor used (1:10, wt/vol). Among substrates, large variations in fermentation kinetics and end product profiles were noted. Sugar beet pectin, the fructans, and the gums were rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate

  1. Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection and the Medicare Rule Changes

    PubMed Central

    Saint, Sanjay; Meddings, Jennifer A.; Calfee, David; Kowalski, Christine P.; Krein, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection, a common and potentially preventable complication of hospitalization, is one of the hospital-acquired complications chosen by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for which hospitals no longer receive additional payment. To help understand the potential consequences of the recent CMS rule changes we examine the preventability of catheter-associated infection, review the CMS rules changes regarding catheter-associated urinary tract infection, offer our assessment of the possible consequences of these changes, and provide guidance for hospital-based administrators and clinicians. Though controversial, we conclude that the CMS rule changes related to catheter-associated urinary tract infection may do more good than harm since hospitals are likely to re-double their efforts in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection, which may minimize unnecessary placement and facilitate prompt removal of indwelling catheters. While we applaud CMS for forcing hospitals to increase efforts to prevent complications stemming from hospital-acquired infection, the opportunity costs and potential for unintended consequences cannot be overlooked. Consequently, how hospitals and physicians respond to the CMS rule changes must be monitored closely. PMID:19528567

  2. Acquired myelinated nerve fibers in association with optic disk drusen.

    PubMed

    Duval, Renaud; Hammamji, Karim; Aroichane, Maryam; Michaud, Jacques L; Ospina, Luis H

    2010-12-01

    Myelinated retinal nerve fibers are a well-recognized anomaly of the ocular fundus associated with many ocular and systemic conditions. Myelination is almost always congenital and stable, but progression has been documented in rare cases. Optic disk drusen are the result of a degenerative process at the optic nerve head and are often found incidentally on ophthalmologic examination. To our knowledge, optic disk drusen have only been reported once in association with acquired and progressive myelinated retinal nerve fibers. We present 2 such cases and consider the implications for the pathogenesis of myelinated nerve fibers.

  3. Appraising the Literature On Bathing Practices And Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention.

    PubMed

    Strouse, Abigail C

    2015-01-01

    As pressure for reduced catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA UTI) rates continues, health care organizations are challenged to find new methods for infection prevention. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the evidence regarding the impact of bathing practices, particularly non-basin bathing, on CAUTI prevention.

  4. Housestaff Knowledge Related to Urinary Catheter Utilization and Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTIs)

    PubMed Central

    Paras, Molly L.; Shenoy, Erica S.; Hsu, Heather E.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Hooper, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite published catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention guidelines, inappropriate catheter use is common. We surveyed housestaff about their knowledge of CAUTIs at a teaching hospital and found the majority is aware of prevention guidelines; however, their application to clinical scenarios and catheter practices fall short of national goals. PMID:26278269

  5. Outbreak of lower respiratory tract illness associated with human enterovirus 68 among American Indian children.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lara M; Redd, John T; Schneider, Eileen; Lu, Xiaoyan; Chern, Shur-Wern W; Oberste, M Steven; Erdman, Dean D; Fischer, Gayle E; Armstrong, Gregory L; Kodani, Maja; Montoya, Jennifer; Magri, Julie M; Cheek, James E

    2012-03-01

    Human enterovirus 68 (EV68) infections are rarely reported. We describe a respiratory outbreak associated with EV68 among 18 children admitted to a remote Indian Health Service facility during August 11, 2010 through September 14, 2010. Clinical illness was characterized by pneumonia and wheezing. EV68 should be considered as an etiology in outbreaks of lower respiratory tract illness.

  6. Association of marine archaea with the digestive tracts of two marine fish species.

    PubMed

    van der Maarel, M J; Artz, R R; Haanstra, R; Forney, L J

    1998-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that archaea which were always thought to live under strict anoxic or extreme environmental conditions are also present in cold, oxygenated seawater, soils, the digestive tract of a holothurian deep-sea-deposit feeder, and a marine sponge. In this study, we show, by using PCR-mediated screening in other marine eukaryotes, that marine archaea are also present in the digestive tracts of flounder and grey mullet, two fish species common in the North Sea, in fecal samples of flounder, and in suspended particulate matter of the North Sea water column. No marine archaea could be detected in the digestive tracts of mussels or the fecal pellets of a copepod species. The archaeal 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries of feces of flounder and the contents of the digestive tracts of grey mullet and flounder were dominated by group II marine archaea. The marine archaeal clones derived from flounder and grey mullet digestive tracts and feces formed a distinct cluster within the group II marine archaea, with 76.7 to 89. 8% similarity to previously described group II clones. Fingerprinting of the archaeal community of flounder digestive tract contents and feces by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of archaeal 16S rRNA genes after restriction with HhaI showed a dominant fragment at 249 bp, which is likely to be derived from group II marine archaea. Clones of marine archaea that were closely related to the fish-associated marine archaea clones were obtained from suspended particulate matter of the water column at two stations in the North Sea. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of the archaeal community present in suspended particulate matter showed the same fragment pattern as was found for the archaeal community of the flounder digestive tract contents and feces. These data demonstrate that marine archaea are present in the digestive tracts and feces of very common marine fish. It is possible that the marine

  7. [Complete lower urinary tract duplication with true diphallia associated to anorrectal and neural malformations].

    PubMed

    Guirao, M J; Zambudio, G; Nortes, L; Jiménez, J I Ruiz

    2008-10-01

    We report a case of complete urinary tract duplication with true diphallia associated to intestinal and neural anomalies. Complete penile duplication with hypospadias and bifidum scrotum were showed. Moreover, he had got anorrectal disease (anterior anus) and neural tube defects (myelomeningocele). Radiological and functional studies were performed and complete duplication lower urinary tract with coordinate miction were found. Combined surgical approach were used: perineal to remove lateralized and hypospadic penile and abdominal for cystoplasty. We report a case due to the extremely low prevalence. Only 15 cases have been described in the literature.

  8. Spectrum of bacterial colonization associated with urothelial cells from patients with chronic lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Khasriya, Rajvinder; Sathiananthamoorthy, Sanchutha; Ismail, Salim; Kelsey, Michael; Wilson, Mike; Rohn, Jennifer L; Malone-Lee, James

    2013-07-01

    Chronic lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), such as urgency and incontinence, are common, especially among the elderly, but their etiology is often obscure. Recent studies of acute urinary tract infections implicated invasion by Escherichia coli into the cytoplasm of urothelial cells, with persistence of long-term bacterial reservoirs, but the role of infection in chronic LUTS is unknown. We conducted a large prospective study with eligible patients with LUTS and controls over a 3-year period, comparing routine urine cultures of planktonic bacteria with cultures of shed urothelial cells concentrated in centrifuged urinary sediments. This comparison revealed large numbers of bacteria undetected by routine cultures. Next, we typed the bacterial species cultured from patient and control sediments under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and we found that the two groups had complex but significantly distinct profiles of bacteria associated with their shed bladder epithelial cells. Strikingly, E. coli, the organism most responsible for acute urinary tract infections, was not the only or even the main offending pathogen in this more-chronic condition. Antibiotic protection assays with shed patient cells and in vitro infection studies using patient-derived strains in cell culture suggested that LUTS-associated bacteria are within or extremely closely associated with shed epithelial cells, which explains how routine cultures might fail to detect them. These data have strong implications for the need to rethink our common diagnoses and treatments of chronic urinary tract symptoms.

  9. Biomaterial bridges enable regeneration and re-entry of corticospinal tract axons into the caudal spinal cord after SCI: Association with recovery of forelimb function.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Kiran; Cummings, Brian J; Thomas, Aline; Shea, Lonnie D; Levine, Ariel; Pfaff, Sam; Anderson, Aileen J

    2015-10-01

    Severed axon tracts fail to exhibit robust or spontaneous regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Regeneration failure reflects a combination of factors, including the growth state of neuronal cell bodies and the regeneration-inhibitory environment of the central nervous system. However, while spared circuitry can be retrained, target reinnervation depends on longitudinally directed regeneration of transected axons. This study describes a biodegradable implant using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) bridges as a carrier scaffold to support regeneration after injury. In order to detect regeneration of descending neuronal tracts into the bridge, and beyond into intact caudal parenchyma, we developed a mouse cervical implantation model and employed Crym:GFP transgenic mice. Characterization of Crym:GFP mice revealed that descending tracts, including the corticospinal tract, were labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP), while ascending sensory neurons and fibers were not. Robust co-localization between GFP and neurofilament-200 (NF-200) as well as GFP and GAP-43 was observed at both the rostral and caudal bridge/tissue interface. No evidence of similar regeneration was observed in mice that received gelfoam at the lesion site as controls. Minimal co-localization between GFP reporter labeling and macrophage markers was observed. Taken together, these data suggest that axons originating from descending fiber tracts regenerated, entered into the PLG bridge at the rostral margin, continued through the bridge site, and exited to re-enter host tissue at the caudal edge of the intact bridge. Finally, regeneration through implanted bridges was associated with a reduction in ipsilateral forelimb errors on a horizontal ladder task.

  10. Association between breast-feeding and severity of acute viral respiratory tract infection.

    PubMed

    Vereen, Shanda; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Hartert, Tina V; Minton, Patricia; Woodward, Kimberly; Liu, Zhouwen; Carroll, Kecia N

    2014-09-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis of 629 mother-infants dyads, breast-feeding (ever vs. never) was associated with decreased relative odds of a lower versus upper respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.99). There was not a significant association between breast-feeding and bronchiolitis severity score or length of hospital stay.

  11. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    PubMed

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour.

  12. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed.

  13. Nr-CAM expression in the developing mouse nervous system: ventral midline structures, specific fiber tracts, and neuropilar regions.

    PubMed

    Lustig, M; Erskine, L; Mason, C A; Grumet, M; Sakurai, T

    2001-05-21

    Nr-CAM is a member of the L1 subfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily. To explore the role of Nr-CAM in the developing nervous system, we prepared specific antibodies against both chick and mouse Nr-CAM using recombinant Fc fusion proteins of chick Nr-CAM and mouse Nr-CAM, respectively. First, we show the specificity of the new anti-chick Nr-CAM antibody compared with a previously employed antibody using the expression patterns of Nr-CAM in the chick spinal cord and floor plate and on commissural axons, where Nr-CAM has been implicated in axon guidance. Using the anti-mouse Nr-CAM antibody, we then studied the expression patterns of Nr-CAM in the developing mouse nervous system along with the patterns of two related CAMs, L1, which labels most growing axons, and TAG-1, which binds to Nr-CAM and has a more restricted distribution. Major sites that are positive for Nr-CAM are specialized glial formations in the ventral midline, including the floor plate in the spinal cord, the hindbrain and midbrain, the optic chiasm, and the median eminence in the forebrain. Similar to what is seen in the chick spinal cord, Nr-CAM is expressed on crossing fibers as they course through these areas. In addition, Nr-CAM is found in crossing fiber pathways, including the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and posterior commissure, and in nondecussating pathways, such as the lateral olfactory tract and the habenulointerpeduncular tract. Nr-CAM, for the most part, is colocalized with TAG-1 in all of these systems. Based on in vitro studies indicating that the Nr-CAM-axonin-1/TAG-1 interaction is involved in peripheral axonal growth and guidance in the spinal cord [Lustig et al. (1999) Dev Biol 209:340-351; Fitzli et al. (2000) J Cell Biol 149:951-968], the expression patterns described herein implicate a role for this interaction in central nervous system axon growth and guidance, especially at points of decussation. Nr-CAM also is

  14. Passage of stable isotope-labeled grass silage fiber and fiber-bound protein through the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Dijkstra, J; Hendriks, W H; Pellikaan, W F

    2013-01-01

    Fractional passage rates are required to predict nutrient absorption in ruminants but data on nutrient-specific passage kinetics are largely lacking. With the use of the stable isotope ratio (δ) as an internal marker, we assessed passage kinetics of fiber and fiber-bound nitrogen (N) of intrinsically labeled grass silage from fecal and omasal excretion patterns of δ(13)C and δ(15)N. In a 6×6 Latin square, lactating dairy cows received grass silages [455 g/kg of total diet dry matter (DM) ] in a 2×3 factorial arrangement from ryegrass swards fertilized at low (45 kg of N/ha) or high (90 kg of N/ha) levels of N and harvested at 3 maturity stages. Feed intake (16.7±0.48 kg of DM/d; mean ± standard error of the mean) and milk yield (26.7±0.92 kg/d) increased at the high level of N fertilization and at decreasing maturity. Nutrient digestibility decreased with increasing plant maturity, particularly at the high level of N fertilization, essentially reflecting dietary treatment effects on the nutritional composition of the grass silage. Fractional rumen passage rates (K1) were highest and total mean retention time in the gastrointestinal tract (TMRT) was lowest when based on the external marker chromium mordanted fiber (Cr-NDF; 0.047/h and 38.0 h, respectively). Fecal δ(13)C in the acid detergent fiber fraction ((13)CADF) provided the lowest K1 (0.023/h) and the highest TMRT (61.1 h) and highest peak concentration time (PCT; 24.3h) among markers. In comparison, fecal fiber-bound N ((15)NADF) had a considerably higher K1 (0.032/h) and lower TMRT (46.4 h) than (13)CADF. Total N (measured with (15)NDM) had a comparable K1 (0.034/h) to that of (15)NADF but provided the highest fractional passage rates from the proximal colon-cecum (K2; 0.37/h) and lowest PCT (17.4 h) among markers. A literature review indicated unclear effects of grass silage maturity on K1 and unknown effects of N fertilization on K1. Our study indicated no effect of advancing maturity on fecal K1

  15. Development and Implementation of a Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) 'Toolkit'.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Mandy; Macfarlane, Gill; MacRae, Morag; Tully, Vicki; Craig, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are a commonly used invasive medical device within acute and non-acute settings in NHS Scotland. The second National Survey of the Prevalence of Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI) in Scotland 2011 identified that 19.2% of patients surveyed had an indwelling urinary catheter. In this survey, Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) were identified as the most prevalent type of HAI at 22.6% in acute settings and 39% in non-acute settings [1]. In September 2013 the Scottish Government released a Chief Executive Letter (CEL 19) which identified Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) as one of the nine Points of Care Priorities within the Scottish Patient Safety Programme, with the aim of reducing CAUTI by 30% by end of December 2015 measured against a national definition [2]. This quality improvement project saw the development, testing and introduction within NHS Tayside of an evidenced based bundle of care. This was to standardise and drive quality care delivery for the insertion and maintenance of urethral urinary catheters with the intention of reducing catheter associated urinary tract infections in our patients. Data collection tools and data reporting mechanisms were also developed, tested and introduced using a national CAUTI definition to capture data for improvement and local and national reporting of progress.

  16. Monkey to human comparative anatomy of the frontal lobe association tracts.

    PubMed

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Valabregue, Romain; Catani, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The greater expansion of the frontal lobes along the phylogeny scale has been interpreted as the signature of evolutionary changes underlying higher cognitive abilities in humans functions in humans. However, it is unknown how an increase in number of gyri, sulci and cortical areas in the frontal lobe have coincided with a parallel increase in connectivity. Here, using advanced tractography based on spherical deconvolution, we produced an atlas of human frontal association connections that we compared with axonal tracing studies of the monkey brain. We report several similarities between human and monkey in the cingulum, uncinate, superior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal aslant tract and orbito-polar tract. These similarities suggest to preserved functions across anthropoids. In addition, we found major differences in the arcuate fasciculus and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. These differences indicate possible evolutionary changes in the connectional anatomy of the frontal lobes underlying unique human abilities.

  17. Excessive urinary tract dilatation and proteinuria in pregnancy: a common and overlooked association?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteinuria and dilatation of the urinary tract are both relatively common in pregnancy, the latter with a spectrum of symptoms, from none to severe pain and infection. Proteinuria is a rare occurrence in acute obstructive nephropathy; it has been reported in pregnancy, where it may pose a challenging differential diagnosis with pre-eclampsia. The aim of the present study is to report on the incidence of proteinuria (≥0.3; ≥0.5 g/day) in association with symptomatic-severe urinary tract dilatation in pregnancy. Methods Case series. Setting: Nephrological-Obstetric Unit dedicated to pregnancy and kidney diseases (January 2000-April 2011). Source: database prospectively updated since the start of the Unit. Retrospective review of clinical charts identified as relevant on the database, by a nephrologist and an obstetrician. Results From January 2000 to April 2011, 262 pregnancies were referred. Urinary tract dilatation with or without infection was the main cause of referral in 26 cases (predominantly monolateral in 19 cases): 23 singletons, 1 lost to follow-up, 1 twin and 1 triplet. Patients were referred for urinary tract infection (15 cases) and/or renal pain (10 cases); 6 patients were treated by urologic interventions (“JJ” stenting). Among them, 11 singletons and 1 triple pregnancy developed proteinuria ≥0.3 g/day (46.1%). Proteinuria was ≥0.5 g/day in 6 singletons (23.1%). Proteinuria resolved after delivery in all cases. No patient developed hypertension; in none was an alternative cause of proteinuria evident. No significant demographic difference was observed in patients with renal dilatation who developed proteinuria versus those who did not. An association with the presence of “JJ” stenting was present (5/6 cases with proteinuria ≥0.5 g/day), which may reflect both severer obstruction and a role for vescico-ureteral reflux, induced by the stent. Conclusions Symptomatic urinary tract dilatation may be associated with

  18. Diagnosis, management, and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Gould, Carolyn V; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is common, costly, and causes significant patient morbidity. CAUTIs are associated with hospital pathogens with a high propensity toward antimicrobial resistance. Treatment of asymptomatic patients with CAUTI accounts for excess antimicrobial use in hospitals and should be avoided. Duration of urinary catheterization is the predominant risk for CAUTI; preventive measures directed at limiting placement and early removal of urinary catheters have an impact on decreasing CAUTI rates. The use of bladder bundles and collaboratives, coupled with the support and active engagement from both hospital leaders and followers, seem to help prevent this common problem.

  19. Modeling transcranial magnetic stimulation from the induced electric fields to the membrane potentials along tractography-based white matter fiber tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geeter, Nele; Dupré, Luc; Crevecoeur, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising non-invasive tool for modulating the brain activity. Despite the widespread therapeutic and diagnostic use of TMS in neurology and psychiatry, its observed response remains hard to predict, limiting its further development and applications. Although the stimulation intensity is always maximum at the cortical surface near the coil, experiments reveal that TMS can affect deeper brain regions as well. Approach. The explanation of this spread might be found in the white matter fiber tracts, connecting cortical and subcortical structures. When applying an electric field on neurons, their membrane potential is altered. If this change is significant, more likely near the TMS coil, action potentials might be initiated and propagated along the fiber tracts towards deeper regions. In order to understand and apply TMS more effectively, it is important to capture and account for this interaction as accurately as possible. Therefore, we compute, next to the induced electric fields in the brain, the spatial distribution of the membrane potentials along the fiber tracts and its temporal dynamics. Main results. This paper introduces a computational TMS model in which electromagnetism and neurophysiology are combined. Realistic geometry and tissue anisotropy are included using magnetic resonance imaging and targeted white matter fiber tracts are traced using tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging. The position and orientation of the coil can directly be retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Incorporating these features warrants both patient- and case-specific results. Significance. The presented model gives insight in the activity propagation through the brain and can therefore explain the observed clinical responses to TMS and their inter- and/or intra-subject variability. We aspire to advance towards an accurate, flexible and personalized TMS model that helps to understand stimulation in the connected

  20. Catheter-associated and nosocomial urinary tract infections: antibiotic resistance and influence on commonly used antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Potic B; Ivan, Ignjatovic M

    2009-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate resistance between community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTI), nosocomialy-acquired urinary tract infections (NAUTI), and empirical therapy adequacy. E. coli is the predominant pathogen of both CAUTI and NAUTI, followed by Klebsiella spp. in NAUTI and Pseudomonas spp. in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The highest level of general resistance was found among isolates of NAUTI and catheter-associated UTI followed by CAUTI isolates. Absolute or high level resistance for commonly used empirical antimicrobial therapy was found in catheter-associated UTI and NAUTI while resistance among CAUTI was respectable. Patients with NAUTI as well as patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infections have similar resistance and similar microorganisms isolated as a causative agents, and should not be empirically treated unless the clinical emergency requests.

  1. Guidelines to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: 1980 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Laurie J.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We set out to review and compare guidelines to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), examine the association between recent federal initiatives and CAUTI guidelines, and recommend practices for preventing CAUTI that are associated with strong evidence and are consistent across guidelines. Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common healthcare-associated infection, and a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Methods A search of the English-language literature for guidelines in the prevention of adult CAUTI, published between 1980 and 2010, was conducted in Medline and the National Guideline Clearinghouse. Results Many recommendations were consistent across 8 guidelines, including limited use of urinary catheters, the insertion of catheters aseptically, and the maintenance of a closed drainage system. The weight of evidence for some endorsed practices was limited, and different grading systems made comparisons across recommendations difficult. Federal initiatives are closely aligned with the 4 most recent guidelines. Conclusion Additional research into the prevention of CAUTI is needed, as is a harmonization of guideline grading systems for recommendations. PMID:21925731

  2. Systematic Review of Factors Associated with Antibiotic Prescribing for Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Allison; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Patrick, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic use is a modifiable driver of antibiotic resistance. In many circumstances, antibiotic use is overly broad or unnecessary. We systematically assessed factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTI). Studies were included if they used actual (not self-reported or intended) prescribing data, assessed factors associated with antibiotic prescribing for RTIs, and performed multivariable analysis of associations. We searched Medline, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts using keyword and MeSH (medical subject headings) search terms. Two authors reviewed each abstract and independently appraised all included texts. Data on factors affecting antibiotic prescribing were extracted. Our searches retrieved a total of 2,848 abstracts, with 97 included in full-text review and 28 meeting full inclusion criteria. Compared to other factors, diagnosis of acute bronchitis was associated with increased antibiotic prescribing (range of adjusted odds ratios [aOR], 1.56 to 15.9). Features on physical exam, such as fever, purulent sputum, abnormal respiratory exam, and tonsillar exudate, were also associated with higher odds of antibiotic prescribing. Patient desire for an antibiotic was not associated or was modestly associated with prescription (range of aORs, 0.61 to 9.87), in contrast to physician perception of patient desire for antibiotics, which showed a stronger association (range of aORs, 2.11 to 23.3). Physician's perception of patient desire for antibiotics was strongly associated with antibiotic prescribing. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should continue to expand in the outpatient setting and should emphasize clear and direct communication between patients and physicians, as well as signs and symptoms that do and do not predict bacterial etiology of upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:27139474

  3. Vesico-amniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction in a fetus with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Kanasugi, Tomonobu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Haba, Gen; Sasaki, Yuri; Isurugi, Chizuko; Oyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-09-01

    Newborn cases of VACTERL association with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) are rare and there have been no reports on those patients undergoing fetal therapy in English literature. We successfully performed vesico-amniotic shunting in a fetus having LUTO caused by abnormality of the external genitalia at 16 weeks' gestation. Although fetal karyotype was normal 46XY, follow-up fetal ultrasound examinations revealed ventriculomegaly in the brain, a small stomach and a right multicystic dysplastic kidney. MRI at 31 weeks' gestation suggested lobar type holoprosencephaly. Diagnosis of VACTERL association was confirmed postnatally. We consider that vesico-amniotic shunting is indicated for a fetus of VACTERL association with LUTO if the parents wish the procedure after genetic counseling and explanations about the fetal conditions.

  4. Complicated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, S. M.; Stickler, D. J.; Mobley, H. L. T.; Shirtliff, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. PMID:18202436

  5. Kirishites—high-carbonaceous hairlike fibers associated with volkhovites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skublov, G. T.; Marin, Yu. B.; Skublov, S. G.; Vasil'Ev, E. V.; Gembitskaya, I. M.; Nechaeva, E. S.; Tarasenko, Yu. N.

    2009-12-01

    Kirishites are highly carbonaceous hairlike fibers 30-100 μm in thickness and 3-30 mm long, which jut out as bunches on the surface of cinder and shungite fragments associated with volkhovites (Holocene tectitelike glasses corresponding to the rocks of kimberlite-lamproite-carbonatite series in composition). Kirishite fibers are zonal. Their inner (axial) zone is composed of high-nitrogen proteinlike compounds, whereas the outer zone is essentially carbonaceous, with a high content of organoelemental complexes (Si, Fe) and numerous micrometer-sized anomalies of major, volatile, trace, and ore elements. Longitudinal zoning is established in aposhungite kirishites: the consecutive change of maximum concentrations—K, Na, Cl, C, Mn → C, S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn → S, N, Ba, Te, Pb, Bi, Nd—is traced from the roots of fibers to their ends. It is suggested that as volkhovites were forming, fragments of cinder and shungite underwent partial melting. The highly carbonaceous compounds released due decompression and explosion were squeezed out from fragments and solidified as fibers during fall of fragments on the Earth’s surface.

  6. The association between biliary tract inflammation and risk of digestive system cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Che-Chen; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Su, Wen-Pang; Lai, Shih-Wei; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lai, Hsueh-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between biliary tract inflammation (BTI) and digestive system cancers is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between BTI and the risks of digestive system cancers. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, information on a cohort of patients diagnosed with BTI (n = 4398) between 2000 and 2009 was collected. A comparison cohort of sex-, age-, and index year-matched persons without BTI (n = 17,592) was selected from the same database. The disease was defined by the ICD-9-CM. Both cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and incidences of digestive system cancers were calculated. The results revealed an increase in adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of biliary tract cancer (24.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.20–65.02), primary liver cancer (1.53; 95% CI: 1.07–2.18), and pancreatic cancer (3.10; 95% CI: 1.20–8.03) in patients with both gallbladder and BTI. The aHR of stomach cancer was also found to be increased (2.73; 95% CI: 1.28–5.81) in patients with gallbladder inflammation only. There were no differences in esophageal cancer (aHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.23–2.87) and colorectal cancer (aHR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.59–1.45). The aHR for digestive system cancers increased by 3.66 times (95% CI: 2.50–5.35) and 12.20 times (95% CI: 8.66–17.17) in BTI visits frequency averaged 2 to 4 visits per year and frequency averaged ≥5 visits per year, respectively. Patients with BTI have significantly higher risk of digestive system cancers, particularly biliary tract, pancreatic, and primary liver cancers, compared with those who are without it. PMID:27495065

  7. Engaging health care workers to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection and avert patient harm.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Mohamad G; Krein, Sarah L; Edson, Barbara; Watson, Sam R; Battles, James B; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) remains a significant challenge for US hospitals. The "On the CUSP: Stop CAUTI" initiative represents the single largest national effort (involving >950 hospitals) to mitigate urinary catheter risk. The program brings together key organizations to assist state hospital associations and hospitals by providing education and coaching support, addressing both the technical aspects of preventing CAUTI and CAUTI-specific socio-adaptive challenges. At the local level, engaging health care workers, from physicians and nurses to other ancillary services, is critical. This includes (1) making the importance of addressing CAUTI stakeholder specific, (2) ensuring support from leaders of essential disciplines, (3) underscoring the importance of the collaborative nature of CAUTI prevention, and (4) identifying champions within the organization to lead and be accountable for the work. Sustainability is ensured by integrating the process into the health care worker's daily routine activities.

  8. Hygiene practices and sexual activity associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Amiri, F N; Rooshan, M H; Ahmady, M H; Soliamani, M J

    2009-01-01

    A case-control study determined the association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Babol, Islamic Republic of Iran. A sample of 100 pregnant women with positive urine cultures (cases) were compared with 150 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status and parity (controls). Escherichia coli was the infecting organism in 83% of cases. Factors associated with UTI included sexual intercourse > or = 3 times per week (OR = 5.62), recent UTI (OR = 3.27), not washing genitals precoitus (OR = 2.16), not washing genitals postcoitus (OR = 2.89), not voiding urine postcoitus (OR = 8.62) and washing genitals from back to front (OR = 2.96).

  9. Diffuse reduction of white matter connectivity in cerebral palsy with specific vulnerability of long range fiber tracts.

    PubMed

    Englander, Zoë A; Pizoli, Carolyn E; Batrachenko, Anastasiya; Sun, Jessica; Worley, Gordon; Mikati, Mohamad A; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Song, Allen W

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous group of non-progressive motor disorders caused by injury to the developing fetal or infant brain. Although the defining feature of CP is motor impairment, numerous other neurodevelopmental disabilities are associated with CP and contribute greatly to its morbidity. The relationship between brain structure and neurodevelopmental outcomes in CP is complex, and current evidence suggests that motor and developmental outcomes are related to the spatial pattern and extent of brain injury. Given that multiple disabilities are frequently associated with CP, and that there is increasing burden of neurodevelopmental disability with increasing motor severity, global white matter (WM) connectivity was examined in a cohort of 17 children with bilateral CP to test the hypothesis that increased global WM damage will be seen in the group of severely affected (Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) level of IV) as compared to moderately affected (GMFCS of II or III) individuals. Diffusion tensor tractography was performed and the resulting fibers between anatomically defined brain regions were quantified and analyzed in relation to GMFCS levels. Overall, a reduction in total WM connectivity throughout the brain in severe versus moderate CP was observed, including but not limited to regions associated with the sensorimotor system. Our results also show a diffuse and significant reduction in global inter-regional connectivity between severity groups, represented by inter-regional fiber count, throughout the brain. Furthermore, it was also observed that there is a significant difference (p = 0.02) in long-range connectivity in patients with severe CP as compared to those with moderate CP, whereas short-range connectivity was similar between groups. This new finding, which has not been previously reported in the CP literature, demonstrates that CP may involve distributed, network-level structural disruptions.

  10. A hippocampal interneuron associated with the mossy fiber system.

    PubMed

    Vida, I; Frotscher, M

    2000-02-01

    Network properties of the hippocampus emerge from the interaction of principal cells and a heterogeneous population of interneurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To understand these interactions, the synaptic connections of different types of interneurons need to be elucidated. Here we describe a type of inhibitory interneuron of the hippocampal CA3 region that has an axon coaligned with the mossy fibers. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, in combination with intracellular biocytin filling, were made from nonpyramidal cells of the stratum lucidum under visual control. Mossy fiber-associated (MFA) interneurons generated brief action potentials followed by a prominent after-hyperpolarization. Subsequent visualization revealed an extensive axonal arbor which was preferentially located in the stratum lucidum of CA3 and often invaded the hilus. The dendrites of MFA interneurons were mainly located in the strata radiatum and oriens, suggesting that these cells are primarily activated by associational and commissural fibers. Electron microscopic analysis showed that axon terminals of MFA interneurons established symmetric synaptic contacts predominantly on proximal apical dendritic shafts, and to a lesser degree, on somata of pyramidal cells. Synaptic contacts were also found on GABAergic interneurons of the CA3 region and putative mossy cells of the hilus. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) elicited by MFA interneurons in simultaneously recorded pyramidal cells had fast kinetics (half duration, 3.6 ms) and were blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, MFA interneurons are GABAergic cells in a position to selectively suppress the mossy fiber input, an important requirement for the recall of memory traces from the CA3 network.

  11. Coffee and green tea consumption is associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oze, Isao; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kawakita, Daisuke; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Watanabe, Miki; Hatooka, Shunzo; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo

    2014-07-15

    The impact of coffee and green tea consumption on upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk has not been established. Evaluation of the possible anticarcinogenic properties of their ingredients is confounded by the potential increase in risk owing to the high temperatures at which these beverages are generally consumed. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the association between coffee and tea consumption and the risk of UADT cancer. The study enrolled 961 patients with UADT cancer and 2,883 noncancer outpatients who visited Aichi Cancer Center between 2001 and 2005. Information on coffee and green tea consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Consumption of three or more cups of coffee per day had a significant inverse association with UADT cancer [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.96]. In contrast, consumption of three or more cups of green tea per day had a significant positive association with UADT cancer (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.70). These associations were evident for head and neck cancer but not for esophageal cancer. The association of coffee consumption with head and neck cancer was observed only among never smokers and alcohol drinkers. Similarly, the association of green tea consumption was observed among never smokers and never alcohol drinkers. No change in these associations was seen on stratification by each confounding factors. These findings suggest that consumption of coffee might be associated with a decreased risk of UADT cancer, whereas that of green tea might be associated with an increased risk.

  12. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  13. White matter tract and glial-associated changes in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Tsenkina, Yanina; Ruzov, Alexey; Gliddon, Catherine; Horsburgh, Karen; De Sousa, Paul A

    2014-12-10

    White matter abnormalities due to age-related cerebrovascular alterations is a common pathological hallmark associated with functional impairment in the elderly which has been modeled in chronically hypoperfused mice. 5-Methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidized derivative 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are DNA modifications that have been recently linked with age-related neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular pathology. Here we conducted a pilot investigation of whether chronic cerebral hypoperfusion might affect genomic distribution of these modifications and/ or a Ten-Eleven Translocation protein 2 (TET2) which catalyses hydroxymethylation in white and grey matter regions of this animal model. Immunohistochemical evaluation of sham and chronically hypoperfused mice a month after surgery revealed significant (p<0.05) increases in the proportion of 5hmC positive cells, Iba1 positive inflammatory microglia, and NG2 positive oligodendroglial progenitors in the hypoperfused corpus callosum. In the same white matter tract there was an absence of hypoperfusion-induced alterations in the proportion of 5mC, TET2 positive cells and CC1 positive mature oligodrendrocytes. Correlation analysis across animals within both treatment groups demonstrated a significant association of the elevated 5hmC levels with increases in the proportion of inflammatory microglia only (p=0.01) in the corpus callosum. In vitro studies revealed that 5hmC is lost during oligodendroglial maturation but not microglial activation. Additionally, TET1, TET2, and TET3 protein levels showed dynamic alterations during oligodendroglial development and following oxidative stress in vitro. Our study suggests that 5hmC exhibits white matter tract and cell type specific dynamics following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in mice.

  14. European and Asian guidelines on management and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Tenke, Peter; Kovacs, Bela; Bjerklund Johansen, Truls E; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Tambyah, Paul A; Naber, Kurt G

    2008-02-01

    We surveyed the extensive literature regarding the development, therapy and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs). We systematically searched for meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials available in Medline giving preference to the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and also considered other relevant publications, rating them on the basis of their quality. The studies' recommendations, rated according to a modification of the US Department of Health and Human Services (1992), give a close-to-evidence-based guideline for all medical disciplines, with special emphasis on urology where catheter care is an important issue. The survey found that the urinary tract is the commonest source of nosocomial infection, particularly when the bladder is catheterised (IIa). Most catheter-associated UTIs are derived from the patient's own colonic flora (IIb) and the catheter predisposes to UTI in several ways. The most important risk factor for the development of catheter-associated bacteriuria is the duration of catheterisation (IIa). Most episodes of short-term catheter-associated bacteriuria are asymptomatic and are caused by a single organism (IIa). Further organisms tend to be acquired by patients catheterised for more than 30 days. The clinician should be aware of two priorities: the catheter system should remain closed and the duration of catheterisation should be minimal (A). While the catheter is in place, systemic antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic catheter-associated bacteriuria is not recommended (A), except for some special cases. Routine urine culture in an asymptomatic catheterised patient is also not recommended (C) because treatment is in general not necessary. Antibiotic treatment is recommended only for symptomatic infection (B). Long-term antibiotic suppressive therapy is not effective (A). Antibiotic irrigation of the catheter and bladder is of no advantage (A). Routine urine cultures are not recommended if the

  15. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  16. Epinephrine is associated with both erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Trussell, J. C.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Legro, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) have a higher incidence of insulin resistance (IR) when compared with controls. Design Prospective case–control study. Setting Academic medical center. Patient(s) Twenty-nine nondiabetic men aged 18–66 years were enrolled. Of these, 28 completed the study: 17 had ED, and 11 did not. Intervention(s) Validated ED questionnaires, examination, serum hormones evaluation, and oral glucose tolerance testing. Main Outcome Measure(s) Association of IR with ED. Result(s) The association between worsening degrees of both lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and ED was reaffirmed, as was a potential correlation between the two—epinephrine. There was a negative association between serum levels of epinephrine and scores on the 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction for ED (Spearman correlation coefficient = −0.38). On the other hand, men with ED were not more likely to have IR compared with controls. Conclusion(s) Epinephrine may be the common link between ED and LUTS. PMID:19062003

  17. Sexual dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C; Giuliano, Francois; Carson, Culley C

    2005-06-01

    Sexuality is an essential aspect of a couple's relationship and has a significant impact on life satisfaction. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition that commonly affects older men and is often associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sexual dysfunction. Men with moderate-to-severe LUTS are at increased risk for sexual dysfunction, including moderate-to-severe erectile dysfunction (ED), ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), and hypoactive desire (HD). The results of several recent large-scale studies have shown a consistent and strong relationship between LUTS and both ED and EjD. It appears that the pathophysiological mechanisms of LUTS and the related prostatic enlargement of BPH as well as certain treatments for this condition may have an impact on both the erection and ejaculation components of the sexual response. Validated questionnaires that assess sexual function provide clinicians with valuable information to help guide treatment selection decisions. Effective medical therapies for LUTS associated with BPH include alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists (i.e., alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin) and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (i.e., finasteride and dutasteride). The side effects of these medications, including sexual dysfunction, are important distinguishing features. The successful management of patients with LUTS associated with BPH should include assessments of sexual function and monitoring of medication-related sexual side effects. For men with LUTS and sexual dysfunction, an appropriate integrated management approach, based on each patient's symptoms and outcome objectives, is warranted.

  18. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can help with weight control. Fiber aids digestion and helps prevent constipation . It is sometimes used ... fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  19. [Angiosarcoma, Raynaud's disease and arteriovenous malformation of the digestive tract. A causal relationship or a chance association?].

    PubMed

    Vaz, F; de Castro, J T; Tomé, V; Marques, J M; de Carvalho, V

    1994-02-01

    A case of angiosarcoma, Raynaud's disease and arteriovenous malformation of the intestinal tract is presented. We propose the association of these three vascular diseases, which has not yet been described. The study of more cases is important in order to understand the physiopathological mechanisms involved.

  20. Incidence and clinical implication of nosocomial infections associated with implantable biomaterials - catheters, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Guggenbichler, Josef Peter; Assadian, Ojan; Boeswald, Michael; Kramer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Health care associated infections, the fourth leading cause of disease in industrialised countries, are a major health issue. One part of this condition is based on the increasing insertion and implantation of prosthetic medical devices, since presence of a foreign body significantly reduces the number of bacteria required to produce infection. The most significant hospital-acquired infections, based on frequency and potential severity, are those related to procedures e.g. surgical site infections and medical devices, including urinary tract infection in catheterized patients, pneumonia in patients intubated on a ventilator and bacteraemia related to intravascular catheter use. At least half of all cases of nosocomial infections are associated with medical devices.Modern medical and surgical practices have increasingly utilized implantable medical devices of various kinds. Such devices may be utilized only short-time or intermittently, for months, years or permanently. They improve the therapeutic outcome, save human lives and greatly enhance the quality of life of these patients. However, plastic devices are easily colonized with bacteria and fungi, able to be colonized by microorganisms at a rate of 0.5 cm per hour. A thick biofilm is formed within 24 hours on the entire surface of these plastic devices once inoculated even with a small initial number of bacteria.The aim of the present work is to review the current literature on causes, frequency and preventive measures against infections associated with intravascular devices, catheter-related urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated infection, and infections of other implantable medical devices. Raising awareness for infection associated with implanted medical devices, teaching and training skills of staff, and establishment of surveillance systems monitoring device-related infection seem to be the principal strategies used to achieve reduction and prevention of such infections. The intelligent use of

  1. Incidence and clinical implication of nosocomial infections associated with implantable biomaterials – catheters, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Guggenbichler, Josef Peter; Assadian, Ojan; Boeswald, Michael; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Health care associated infections, the fourth leading cause of disease in industrialised countries, are a major health issue. One part of this condition is based on the increasing insertion and implantation of prosthetic medical devices, since presence of a foreign body significantly reduces the number of bacteria required to produce infection. The most significant hospital-acquired infections, based on frequency and potential severity, are those related to procedures e.g. surgical site infections and medical devices, including urinary tract infection in catheterized patients, pneumonia in patients intubated on a ventilator and bacteraemia related to intravascular catheter use. At least half of all cases of nosocomial infections are associated with medical devices. Modern medical and surgical practices have increasingly utilized implantable medical devices of various kinds. Such devices may be utilized only short-time or intermittently, for months, years or permanently. They improve the therapeutic outcome, save human lives and greatly enhance the quality of life of these patients. However, plastic devices are easily colonized with bacteria and fungi, able to be colonized by microorganisms at a rate of up to 0.5 cm per hour. A thick biofilm is formed within 24 hours on the entire surface of these plastic devices once inoculated even with a small initial number of bacteria. The aim of the present work is to review the current literature on causes, frequency and preventive measures against infections associated with intravascular devices, catheter-related urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated infection, and infections of other implantable medical devices. Raising awareness for infection associated with implanted medical devices, teaching and training skills of staff, and establishment of surveillance systems monitoring device-related infection seem to be the principal strategies used to achieve reduction and prevention of such infections. The intelligent use

  2. Altered perineal microbiome is associated with vulvovaginitis and urinary tract infection in preadolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Sherertz, Robert; Russell, Gregory; Krane, L Spencer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginitis has a known association with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in girls. We hypothesize that vulvovaginitis is a major contributor to UTIs in prepubertal girls by increasing periurethral colonization with uropathogens. Methods: Periurethral swabs and urine specimens were obtained from a total of 101 girls (58 with vulvovaginitis and 43 without vulvovaginitis). Specimens were cultured for bacterial growth. The dominant organism in the periurethral swabs and urine cultures was recorded and antibiotic sensitivity profiles were compared. Results: Periurethral swabs from children with vulvovaginitis were associated with a statistically significant increase in uropathogenic bacteria (79% Enterococcus species or Escherichia coli) as the dominant culture compared with swabs from girls without vaginitis (18%) (p < 0.05). In children with vulvovaginitis, 52% of the urine cultures were positive for UTIs, and the dominant organism in the urine cultures matched the species and antibiotic sensitivity profile of the corresponding periurethral swab. Only 11% of the urine cultures from girls without vulvovaginitis were positive for UTIs. Conclusions: Vulvovaginitis may cause UTIs by altering the perineal biome such that there is increased colonization of uropathogens. PMID:25435916

  3. Impact of polymicrobial biofilms in catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Andreia S; Almeida, Carina; Melo, Luís F; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-12-30

    Recent reports have demonstrated that most biofilms involved in catheter-associated urinary tract infections are polymicrobial communities, with pathogenic microorganisms (e.g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and uncommon microorganisms (e.g. Delftia tsuruhatensis, Achromobacter xylosoxidans) frequently co-inhabiting the same urinary catheter. However, little is known about the interactions that occur between different microorganisms and how they impact biofilm formation and infection outcome. This lack of knowledge affects CAUTIs management as uncommon bacteria action can, for instance, influence the rate at which pathogens adhere and grow, as well as affect the overall biofilm resistance to antibiotics. Another relevant aspect is the understanding of factors that drive a single pathogenic bacterium to become prevalent in a polymicrobial community and subsequently cause infection. In this review, a general overview about the IMDs-associated biofilm infections is provided, with an emphasis on the pathophysiology and the microbiome composition of CAUTIs. Based on the available literature, it is clear that more research about the microbiome interaction, mechanisms of biofilm formation and of antimicrobial tolerance of the polymicrobial consortium are required to better understand and treat these infections.

  4. Novel diversity of bacterial communities associated with bottlenose dolphin upper respiratory tracts.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wesley R; Torralba, Manolito; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D; Nelson, Karen E; Morris, Pamela J

    2009-12-01

    Respiratory illness is thought to be most the common cause of death in both wild and captive populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The suspected pathogens that have been isolated from diseased animals have also been isolated from healthy individuals, suggesting they may be part of the normal flora. Our current understanding of the bacteria associated with the upper respiratory tract (URT) of bottlenose dolphins is based exclusively upon culture-based isolation and identification. Because < 1% of naturally occurring bacteria are culturable, a substantial fraction of the bacterial community associated with the dolphin URT remains to be described. The dolphin URT microbiota revealed by sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA exhibits almost no overlap with the taxa indicated in culture-based studies. The most abundant sequences in our libraries were similar among all of our study animals and shared the greatest homology to sequences of bacteria belonging to the genera Cardiobacterium, Suttonella, Psychrobacter, Tenacibaculum, Fluviicola and Flavobacterium; however, they were sufficiently different from database sequences from both cultured and uncultured organisms to suggest they represent novel genera and species. Our findings also demonstrate the dominance of three of the four bacterial phyla that dominate other mammalian microbiomes, including those of humans, and show tremendous diversity at the species/strain level, suggesting tight coevolution of the dolphin host and its URT bacterial community.

  5. Angiogenesis in upper tract urothelial carcinoma associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Velickovic, Ljubinka Jankovic; Petrovic, Ana Ristic; Stojnev, Slavica; Dolicanin, Zana; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Stojanovic, Mariola; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2012-01-01

    Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is characterized by a number of aberrations in cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to detect angiogenesis-related marker(s) specific for BEN UTUC, and to examine the influence of HIF 1α upon angiogenesis and apoptosis in UTUC. Present investigation included 110 patients with UTUC, 50 from BEN region and 60 control tumors. Altered expression of VEGFR1 was more often present in control UTUC than in BEN tumors (p<0.005). It was associated with high grade, low and high stage, solid growth, and metaplastic change of control UTUC. Microvessel density assessed by CD31 (MVD CD31) was significantly higher in UTUC with lymphovascular invasion (p<0.05), and in BEN tumors with papillary growth (p<0.05). Discriminant analysis indicated that BEN and control tumors do not differ significantly in expression of angiogenesis related markers. The most important discriminant variable that determined control UTUC was expression of VEGFR1 (p=0.002). HIF 1α in UTUC significantly correlated with the low stage, papillary growth and expression of Bcl-2, Caspase-3 index, and MVD CD34 (p<0.001; 0.0005; 0.01; 0.005; 0.01, respectively). HIF-1α may be helpful marker in evaluation of UTUC, especially when combined with angiogenesis and apoptosis. PMID:22977664

  6. Development of a Phage Cocktail to Control Proteus mirabilis Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Luís D. R.; Veiga, Patrícia; Cerca, Nuno; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Almeida, Carina; Azeredo, Joana; Sillankorva, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterium that causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) due to its ability to colonize and form crystalline biofilms on the catheters surface. CAUTIs are very difficult to treat, since biofilm structures are highly tolerant to antibiotics. Phages have been used widely to control a diversity of bacterial species, however, a limited number of phages for P. mirabilis have been isolated and studied. Here we report the isolation of two novel virulent phages, the podovirus vB_PmiP_5460 and the myovirus vB_PmiM_5461, which are able to target, respectively, 16 of the 26 and all the Proteus strains tested in this study. Both phages have been characterized thoroughly and sequencing data revealed no traces of genes associated with lysogeny. To further evaluate the phages’ ability to prevent catheter’s colonization by Proteus, the phages adherence to silicone surfaces was assessed. Further tests in phage-coated catheters using a dynamic biofilm model simulating CAUTIs, have shown a significant reduction of P. mirabilis biofilm formation up to 168 h of catheterization. These results highlight the potential usefulness of the two isolated phages for the prevention of surface colonization by this bacterium. PMID:27446059

  7. The efficacy of noble metal alloy urinary catheters in reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Aljohi, Alanood Ahmed; Hassan, Hanan Elkefafy; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common device-related healthcare-acquired infection. CAUTI can be severe and lead to bacteremia, significant morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, and high antibiotic consumption. Patients and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the CAUTI-reducing efficacy of noble metal alloy catheters in sixty patients (thirty per group) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at the King Fahad Hospital in Saudi Arabia. The study was a single-blinded, randomized, single-centered, prospective investigation that included patients using urinary catheters for 3 days. Results: A 90% relative risk reduction in the rate of CAUTI was observed with the noble metal alloy catheter compared to the standard catheter (10 vs. 1 cases, P = 0.006). When considering both catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria and CAUTI, the relative risk reduction was 83% (12 vs. 2 cases, P = 0.005). In addition to CAUTI, the risk of acquiring secondary bacteremia was lower (100%) for the patients using noble metal alloy catheters (3 cases in the standard group vs. 0 case in the noble metal alloy catheter group, P = 0.24). No adverse events related to any of the used catheters were recorded. Conclusion: Results from this study revealed that noble metal alloy catheters are safe to use and significantly reduce CAUTI rate in ICU patients after 3 days of use. PMID:28057985

  8. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  9. Ureteral Stents and Foley Catheters-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: The Role of Coatings and Materials in Infection Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Joey; Lange, Dirk; Chew, Ben H.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections affect many patients, especially those who are admitted to hospital and receive a bladder catheter for drainage. Catheter associated urinary tract infections are some of the most common hospital infections and cost the health care system billions of dollars. Early removal is one of the mainstays of prevention as 100% of catheters become colonized. Patients with ureteral stents are also affected by infection and antibiotic therapy alone may not be the answer. We will review the current evidence on how to prevent infections of urinary biomaterials by using different coatings, new materials, and drug eluting technologies to decrease infection rates of ureteral stents and catheters. PMID:27025736

  10. Translating Health Care–Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention Research into Practice via the Bladder Bundle

    PubMed Central

    Saint, Sanjay; Olmsted, Russell N.; Fakih, Mohamad G.; Kowalski, Christine P.; Watson, Sam R.; Sales, Anne E.; Krein, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Article-at-a-Glance Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a frequent health care–associated infection (HAI), is a costly and common condition resulting in patient discomfort, activity restriction, and hospital discharge delays. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) no longer reimburses hospitals for the extra cost of caring for patients who develop CAUTI. The Michigan Health and Hospital Association (MHA) Keystone Center for Patient Safety & Quality has initiated a statewide initiative, MHA Keystone HAI, to help ameliorate the burden of disease associated with indwelling catheterization. In addition, a long-term research project is being conducted to evaluate the current initiative and to identify practical strategies to ensure the effective use of proven infection prevention and patient safety practices. Overview of the Bladder Bundle Initiative in Michigan: The bladder bundle as conceived by MHA Keystone HAI focuses on preventing CAUTI by optimizing the use of urinary catheters with a specific emphasis on continual assessment and catheter removal as soon as possible, especially for patients without a clear indication. Collaboration Between Researchers and State wide Patient Safety Organizations: A synergistic collaboration between patient safety researchers and a statewide patient safety organization is aimed at identifying effective strategies to move evidence from peer-reviewed literature to the bedside. Practical strategies that facilitate implementation of the bundle will be developed and tested using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Discussion: Simply disseminating scientific evidence is often ineffective in changing clinical practice. Therefore, learning how to implement these findings is critically important to promoting high-quality care and a safe health care environment. PMID:19769204

  11. Computed tomography findings associated with bacteremia in adult patients with a urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Yu, T Y; Kim, H R; Hwang, K E; Lee, J-M; Cho, J H; Lee, J H

    2016-11-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) has rapidly increased recently at acute stage, but the CT findings associated with bacteremia in UTI patients are unknown. 189 UTI patients were enrolled who underwent a CT scan within 24 h after hospital admission. We classified CT findings into eight types: a focal or multifocal wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion, enlarged kidneys, perinephric fat stranding, ureteritis or pyelitis, complicated renal cyst, renal papillary necrosis, hydronephrosis, and renal and perirenal abscess. A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the CT findings associated with bacteremia. The mean age of these patients was 60 ± 17.2 years, and 93.1 % were women. Concurrent bacteremia was noted in 40.2 % of the patients. Abnormal CT findings were noted in 96.3 % of the patients and 62.4 % had two or more abnormal findings. The most frequent abnormal CT finding was a focal or multifocal wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion (77.2 %), followed by perinephric fat stranding (29.1 %). Perinephric fat stranding, hydronephrosis, and the presence of two or more abnormal CT findings were significantly associated with bacteremia in patients with community-acquired UTI. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 1.03; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.009-1.062], two or more abnormal CT findings (OR 3.163; 95 % CI 1.334-7.498), and hydronephrosis (OR 13.160; 95 % CI 1.048-165.282) were significantly associated with bacteremia. Physicians should be aware that appropriate early management is necessary to prevent fatality in patients with these CT findings.

  12. Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. associated with chronic and self-medicated urinary tract infections in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infections among women worldwide. E. coli often causes more than 75% of acute uncomplicated UTI, however, little is known about how recurrent UTIs and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials affect the aetiology of UTIs. This study aimed to establish the aetiology of UTI in a population of recurrent and self-medicated patients referred from pharmacies to a hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam and to describe genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of the associated bacterial pathogens. The aetiology of bacterial pathogens associated with UTI (defined as ≥ 104 CFU/ml urine) was established by phenotypic and molecular methods. Enterococcus faecalis isolates were typed by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Methods Urine samples from 276 patients suffering symptoms of urinary tract infection were collected and cultured on Flexicult agar® allowing for detection of the most common urine pathogens. Patients were interviewed about underlying diseases, duration of symptoms, earlier episodes of UTI, number of episodes diagnosed by doctors and treatment in relation to UTI. All tentative E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were identified to species level by PCR, 16S rRNA and partial sequencing of the groEL gene. E. faecalis isolates were further characterized by Multi Locus Sequence Typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results Mean age of 49 patients was 48 yrs (range was 11–86 yrs) and included 94% women. On average, patients reported to have suffered from UTI for 348 days (range 3 days-10 years, and experienced 2.7 UTIs during the previous year). Cephalosporins were reported the second drug of choice in treatment of UTI at the hospital. E. faecalis (55.1%), E. coli (12.2%) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (8.2%) were main bacterial pathogens. MIC testing of E. faecalis showed susceptibility to

  13. Presynaptic kainate receptors impart an associative property to hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Dietmar; Mellor, Jack; Breustedt, Joerg; Nicoll, Roger A

    2003-10-01

    Hippocampal mossy fiber synapses show an unusual form of long-term potentiation (LTP) that is independent of NMDA receptor activation and is expressed presynaptically. Using receptor antagonists, as well as receptor knockout mice, we found that presynaptic kainate receptors facilitate the induction of mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP), although they are not required for this form of LTP. Most importantly, these receptors impart an associativity to mossy fiber LTP such that activity in neighboring mossy fiber synapses, or even associational/commissural synapses, influences the threshold for inducing mossy fiber LTP. Such a mechanism greatly increases the computational power of this form of plasticity.

  14. Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii Biovar sobria and Hirudo medicinalis, the Medicinal Leech: a Novel Model for Digestive Tract Associations

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Joerg

    1999-01-01

    Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, is applied postoperatively in modern medicine. Infections by Aeromonas occur in up to 20% of patients unless a preemptive antibiotic treatment is administered. The associated infections demonstrate the need for a better understanding of the digestive tract flora of H. medicinalis. Early studies reported the presence of a single bacterial species in the digestive tract and suggested that these bacteria were endosymbionts contributing to the digestion of blood. In this study, we cultivated bacteria from the digestive tract and characterized them biochemically. The biochemical test results identified the isolates as Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria. This species identification was supported by sequence comparison of a variable region of the genes coding for 16S rRNA. In a colonization assay, a rifampin-resistant derivative of a symbiotic isolate was fed in a blood meal to H. medicinalis. The strain colonized the digestive tract rapidly and reached a concentration similar to that of the native bacterial flora. For the first 12 h, the in vivo doubling time was 1.2 h at 23°C. After 12 h, at a density of 5 × 107 CFU/ml, the increase in viable counts ceased, suggesting a dramatic reduction in the bacterial growth rate. Two human fecal isolates, identified as Aeromonas hydrophila and A. veronii biovar sobria, were also able to colonize the digestive tract. These data demonstrate that the main culturable bacterium in the crop of H. medicinalis is A. veronii biovar sobria and that the medicinal leech can be used as a model for digestive tract association of Aeromonas species. PMID:9864188

  15. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    PubMed

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  16. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    PubMed

    McKay, James D; Truong, Therese; Gaborieau, Valerie; Chabrier, Amelie; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Byrnes, Graham; Zaridze, David; Shangina, Oxana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bucur, Alexandru; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Janout, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Macfarlane, Gary J; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Lowry, Ray; Conway, David I; McKinney, Patricia A; Healy, Claire M; Toner, Mary E; Znaor, Ariana; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Neto, José Eluf; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Boccia, Stefania; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Olshan, Andrew F; Weissler, Mark C; Funkhouser, William K; Luo, Jingchun; Lubiński, Jan; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Oszutowska, Dorota; Schwartz, Stephen M; Chen, Chu; Fish, Sherianne; Doody, David R; Muscat, Joshua E; Lazarus, Philip; Gallagher, Carla J; Chang, Shen-Chih; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M; Wang, Li-E; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Kelsey, Karl T; McClean, Michael D; Marsit, Carmen J; Nelson, Heather H; Romkes, Marjorie; Buch, Shama; Nukui, Tomoko; Zhong, Shilong; Lacko, Martin; Manni, Johannes J; Peters, Wilbert H M; Hung, Rayjean J; McLaughlin, John; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Goodman, Gary E; Field, John K; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Vineis, Paolo; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; González, Carlos A; Quirós, J Ramón; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Göran; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kumle, Merethe; Riboli, Elio; Välk, Kristjan; Vooder, Tõnu; Voodern, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zelenika, Diana; Boland, Anne; Delepine, Marc; Foglio, Mario; Lechner, Doris; Blanché, Hélène; Gut, Ivo G; Galan, Pilar; Heath, Simon; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B; Boffetta, Paolo; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  17. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers Conducted within the INHANCE Consortium

    PubMed Central

    McKay, James D.; Truong, Therese; Gaborieau, Valerie; Chabrier, Amelie; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Byrnes, Graham; Zaridze, David; Shangina, Oxana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bucur, Alexandru; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Janout, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Lowry, Ray; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Healy, Claire M.; Toner, Mary E.; Znaor, Ariana; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Neto, José Eluf; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Boccia, Stefania; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Olshan, Andrew F.; Weissler, Mark C.; Funkhouser, William K.; Luo, Jingchun; Lubiński, Jan; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Oszutowska, Dorota; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Fish, Sherianne; Doody, David R.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lazarus, Philip; Gallagher, Carla J.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.; Wang, Li-E; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Kelsey, Karl T.; McClean, Michael D.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Nelson, Heather H.; Romkes, Marjorie; Buch, Shama; Nukui, Tomoko; Zhong, Shilong; Lacko, Martin; Manni, Johannes J.; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Hung, Rayjean J.; McLaughlin, John; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Goodman, Gary E.; Field, John K.; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Vineis, Paolo; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; González, Carlos A.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Göran; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kumle, Merethe; Riboli, Elio; Välk, Kristjan; Voodern, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zelenika, Diana; Boland, Anne; Delepine, Marc; Foglio, Mario; Lechner, Doris; Blanché, Hélène; Gut, Ivo G.; Galan, Pilar; Heath, Simon; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B.; Boffetta, Paolo; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p≤5×10−7). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10−8) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p = 2×10−8) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5×10−8; rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7×10−9; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility. PMID:21437268

  18. DNA copy number aberrations associated with lymphovascular invasion in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Taku; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Miyachika, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Satoshi; Chochi, Yasuyo; Nakao, Motonao; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Hara, Takahiko; Sakano, Shigeru; Furuya, Tomoko; Oga, Atsunori; Kawauchi, Shigeto; Sasaki, Kohsuke; Matsuyama, Hideyasu

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a predictor of patient prognosis in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). DNA copy number aberrations (DCNAs) identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) had not previously been examined in UUTUC. We therefore examined DCNAs in UUTUC and compared them with DCNAs in LVI. We applied aCGH technology using DNA chips spotted with 4,030 BAC clones to 32 UUTUC patients. Frequent copy number gains were detected on chromosomal regions 8p23.1 and 20q13.12, whereas frequent copy number losses were detected on chromosomal regions 13q21.1, 17p13.1, 6q16.3, and 17p11.2. DCNAs occurred more frequently in tumors with LVI than in those without it (P = 0.0002), and this parameter was more closely associated with LVI than with the tumor grade or pT stage. Disease-specific survival rate was higher in tumors without LVI than in those with it (P = 0.0120); however, tumor grade and stage were not significant prognostic factors of patient outcome. These data support our hypothesis that tumors with LVI have more genetic alterations in terms of total numbers of DCNAs than those without, and provide proof that aggressive adjuvant therapy should be considered for UUTUC patients with LVI.

  19. Interaction between atypical microorganisms and E. coli in catheter-associated urinary tract biofilms.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Andreia S; Almeida, Carina; Melo, Luís F; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2014-09-01

    Most biofilms involved in catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are polymicrobial, with disease causing (eg Escherichia coli) and atypical microorganisms (eg Delftia tsuruhatensis) frequently inhabiting the same catheter. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge about the role of atypical microorganisms. Here, single and dual-species biofilms consisting of E. coli and atypical bacteria (D. tsuruhatensis and Achromobacter xylosoxidans), were evaluated. All species were good biofilm producers (Log 5.84-7.25 CFU cm(-2) at 192 h) in artificial urine. The ability of atypical species to form a biofilm appeared to be hampered by the presence of E. coli. Additionally, when E. coli was added to a pre-formed biofilm of the atypical species, it seemed to take advantage of the first colonizers to accelerate adhesion, even when added at lower concentrations. The results suggest a greater ability of E. coli to form biofilms in conditions mimicking the CAUTIs, whatever the pre-existing microbiota and the inoculum concentration.

  20. [A NSAID-associated alimentary tract disease in patients with rheumatism in Russia].

    PubMed

    Karataev, A E; Konovalova, N N; Litovshenko, A A; Lomareva, N I; Nemtsov, B F; Raskina, T A; Peshekhonova, L K; Nasonov, E L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and character of non-steroid antiinflammatory drug (NSAID)-associated pathology in patients with rheumatic diseases (RD) in the Russian population. The study included questioning of 2537 RD patients (81% women and 19% men, mean age 55.8 +/- 14.2 years) who were taking NSAID, in 6 regions of Russia, between the October of 2003 and April of 2004. The results were analyzed using chi2 criterion, Fisher exact test, and Student t-criterion. 7.6% of the questioned and 14.7% of their relatives had ulcerous background [corrected] history (ulcers diagnosted prior to the beginning of treatment with NSAID). Most patients (70.1%) were taking non-selective NSAID (NSNSAID), chiefly diclophenac (50.9%). The most often used non-selective cyclooxygenasa-2 (COG-2) inhibitor was nimesulid, taken by 23.5% of the patients. 20.2% of patients were not aware of the influence of NSAID on the gastric and intestinal mucosa. 33.7% of the patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS) while taking NSAID. In 8.8% of the examined gastric or duodenal ulcers were found while they were taking NSAID; 1.5% of the examined developed gastro-duodenal hemorrhage or ulcer perforation. 53.1% of the questioned had gastroduodenal complaints; in most cases it was heartburn (37.3%), "heaviness" in the epigastral area (37.4%), and meteorism (37.4%). 51.3% of the patients associated gastroesopagial reflux and dyspepsia symptoms with intake of NSAID. 26.9% of the questioned associated stool disturbances and meteorism with NSAID intake. 32% of the patients took medications to eliminate gastrointestinal disorder symptoms. Patients taking selective COG-2 inhibitors had complaints less frequently than those who were taking NSNSAID (p = 0). Most frequently complaints were associated with intake of glucocorticoids (p = 0), low doses of aspirin (p = 0), smoking (p = 0), and elderly age (p = 0.007). Appearance of complaints was not associated with the dose of NSAID

  1. Associations between interventions for urolithiasis and urinary tract cancer among patients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Fan, Wen-Chou; Feng, Yin-Hsun; Lin, Chia-Ho; Lin, Chian-Shiung; Lu, Chih-Cheng; Cheng, Tse-Chou; Tsao, Chao-Jung; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk in patients with a history of urolithiasis and to determine whether intervention for calculi attenuated the risk of subsequent urinary tract cancer (UTC). Using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, we performed a nationwide cohort study enrolling participants (n = 42,732) aged > 30 years who were diagnosed with urinary tract calculi between 2000 and 2009. Age- and gender-matched insured individuals (n = 213,660) found in the health service records over the same period were recruited as the control group. The Cox proportional hazards model and competing risks regression model were used to examine the relationship between urolithiasis and UTC, as well as whether early intervention for urolithiasis decreased the subsequent cancer risk relative to late intervention. Participants with a previous diagnosis of urolithiasis (n = 695) had a 1.82-fold (95% CI: 1.66–1.99, P < 0.001) increased risk of developing UTC. Furthermore, the risk of UTC associated with urolithiasis was higher in women (adjusted HR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.94–3.05) than in men (adjusted HR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.55–1.90). When stratified by cancer site, the adjusted HR for bladder, renal pelvis/ureter, renal, and prostate cancers were 1.94 (95% CI: 1.62–2.33), 2.94 (95% CI: 2.24–3.87), 2.94 (95% CI: 2.29–3.77), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.27–1.65), respectively. Patients who received interventions for urolithiasis within 3 months of detection had a decreased risk of subsequent UTC (adjusted HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.40–0.71, P < 0.001). The present study demonstrated that urolithiasis increased the risk of subsequent UTC, especially upper UTC. Hence, it is recommended that physicians administer the appropriate interventions as early as possible upon diagnosis of urolithiasis. PMID:27930581

  2. A sex-specific association between a 15q25 variant and upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dan; Truong, Therese; Gaborieau, Valerie; Byrnes, Graham; Chabrier, Amelie; Chuang, Shu-chun; Olshan, Andrew F.; Weissler, Mark C.; Luo, Jingchun; Romkes, Marjorie; Buch, Shama; Nukui, Tomoko; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Talamini, Renato; Kelsey, Karl T; Christensen, Brock; McClean, Mike; Lacko, Martin; Manni, Johannes J; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Lubiński, Jan; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lazarus, Philip; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Chang, Shen-Chih; Wang, Renyi; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Benhamou, Simone; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bucur, Alexandru; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Neto, José Eluf; Fernandez, Leticia; Boccia, Stefania; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B.; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sequence variants located at 15q25 have been associated with lung cancer and propensity to smoke. We recently reported an association between rs16969968 and risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and esophagus) in women (odds ratio (OR) =1.24, P=0.003) with little effect in men (OR=1.04, P=0.35). Methods In a coordinated genotyping study within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, we have sought to replicate these findings in an additional 4,604 cases and 6,239 controls from 10 independent UADT cancer case-control studies. Results rs16969968 was again associated with UADT cancers in women (OR=1.21, 95% confidence interval(CI)=1.08–1.36, P=0.001) and a similar lack of observed effect in men (OR=1.02, 95%CI=0.95–1.09, P=0.66) (P-heterogeneity=0.01). In a pooled analysis of the original and current studies, totaling 8,572 UADT cancer cases and 11,558 controls, the association was observed among females (OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.12–1.34, P=7×10−6) but not males (OR=1.02, 95%CI=0.97–1.08, P=0.35) (P-heterogeneity=6×10−4). There was little evidence for a sex difference in the association between this variant and cigarettes smoked per day, with male and female rs16969968 variant carriers smoking approximately the same amount more in the 11,991 ever smokers in the pooled analysis of the 14 studies (P-heterogeneity=0.86). Conclusions This study has confirmed a sex difference in the association between the 15q25 variant rs16969968 and UADT cancers. Impact Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these observations. PMID:21335511

  3. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( < 0.001) if phytase was used and were greater ( < 0.05) in the diets based on corn and corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the effects of fiber and soybean oil on the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal. Fifty growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.36 ± 0.99 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 10 pigs per treatment. Two diets contained sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and either 0 or 8% of a synthetic source of fiber. Two additional diets contained fish meal, casein, corn, and either 1 or 7% soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was also used. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism crates and fecal samples were collected. Results indicated that fiber increased ( < 0.001) the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P, but the ATTD and STTD of Ca or the ATTD of P were not affected by soybean oil. In agreement with the results of Exp. 1, the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the corn-based diet were greater ( < 0.05) than those in the cornstarch

  4. Type II diabetes mellitus is associated with a reduced risk of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with biliary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lee, Po-Huang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Peng, Chiao-Ling; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-15

    It has not yet been reported whether Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased cholangiocarcinoma (CC) risk in patients with biliary tract diseases. We identified 123,050 patients concomitantly diagnosed with biliary tract diseases and DM between 1998 and 2010. The control cohort consisted of 122,721 individuals with biliary tract diseases but not DM. Both cohorts were followed-up until the end of 2010 to estimate the risk of CC. We also compared the risk of CC between DM and non-DM cohorts without biliary tract diseases. Overall, the incidence of CC was 21% lower among the DM patients than among the control patients (1.11 vs. 1.41 per 1,000 person-years). DM cohorts exhibited significantly reduced risks for both intrahepatic and extrahepatic CC. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used, and the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of CC was 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.82) for the DM cohort in comparison with the control cohort. The age-specific data indicated that compared with the control patients, the adjusted HRs for the DM patients were significantly lower among patients 50-64 (adjusted HR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.55-0.82) and 65-74 years old (adjusted HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59-0.84). Furthermore, DM was associated with a lower risk of CC among patients with biliary diseases, regardless of the presence of comorbidities and the status of cholecystectomy. In the patients without biliary tract diseases, DM is associated with significantly increased risk of CC (adjusted HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.37-1.82).

  5. Association Between Neonatal Urinary Tract Infection and Risk of Childhood Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Heng; Lin, Wei-Ching; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, I-Ching; Lin, I Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    The current population-based study investigated the onset of neonatal urinary tract infection (UTI) and the associated risks of allergic rhinitis. From 2000 to 2005, 3285 children with neonatal UTI and 13,128 randomly selected controls were enrolled from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan and frequency matched by gender, urbanization of residential area, parental occupation, and baseline year. We compared the risk of allergic rhinitis between the non-UTI and UTI cohorts by performing multivariable Cox regression analysis. We observed a significant relationship between UTI and allergic rhinitis. This study examined 16,413 patients, among whom 3285 had UTI and 13,128 did not have UTI. The overall incidence rate ratio of allergic rhinitis was 1.41-fold higher in the UTI cohort than in the non-UTI cohort (100.2 vs 70.93 per 1000 person-y). After potential risk factors were adjusted for, the adjusted hazard ratio of allergic rhinitis was 1.32 (95% confidence interval = 1.23-1.41). Regardless of gender, the UTI cohort had a higher risk of allergic rhinitis than that of the non-UTI cohort. The patients with UTI in different follow-up durations were equally susceptible to developing allergic rhinitis compared with those without UTI, especially in follow-up durations shorter than 5 years. Patients with UTI and particular comorbidities such as infections and neonatal jaundice had a significantly increased risk of allergic rhinitis. UTI in newborns is significantly associated with the development of allergic rhinitis in childhood and might be a risk factor for subsequent childhood allergic rhinitis.

  6. Association of Lewis blood group phenotypes with urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Jantausch, B A; Criss, V R; O'Donnell, R; Wiedermann, B L; Majd, M; Rushton, H G; Shirey, R S; Luban, N L

    1994-06-01

    Many blood group antigens, genetically controlled carbohydrate molecules, are found on the surface of uroepithelial cells and may affect bacterial adherence and increase the frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) in adults. Sixty-two children aged 2 weeks to 17 years (mean, 2.3 years) who were hospitalized with fever in association with UTIs caused by Escherichia coli had complete (n = 50) or partial (n = 12) erythrocyte antigen typing to determine the role of erythrocyte antigens and phenotypes in UTI in children; 62 healthy children undergoing nonurologic elective surgery, matched 1 to 1 for age, sex, and race to the patient group, formed the control group. In univariate tests, patients and control subjects did not differ in ABO, Rh, P, Kell, Duffy, MNSs, and Kidd systems by the McNemar test of symmetry (p > 0.05). The frequency of the Lewis (Le) (a-b-) phenotype was higher (16/50 vs 5/50; p = 0.0076) and the frequency of the Le(a + b +) phenotype was lower (8/50 vs 16/50; p = 0.0455) in the patient population than in the control subjects. A stepwise logistic regression model to predict UTI with the explanatory variables A, B, O, M, N, S, s, Pl, Lea, and Leb showed that only the Lea and Leb antigens entered the model with p < 0.1. The Le(a-b-) phenotype was associated with UTI in this pediatric population. The relative risk of UTI in children with the Le(a-b-) phenotype was 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 7.9). Specific blood group phenotypes in pediatric populations may provide a means to identify children at risk of having UTI.

  7. Consumption of total fiber and types of fiber are associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and abdominal adiposity in US adults. NHANES 1999-2006.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this cross-sectional study, an inverse association was found between intakes of total dietary fiber and five types of fiber with Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent obese, and with increased waist circumference. Intake of vegetable fiber was not associated with any of the weight mea...

  8. Enhanced heat shock protein 25 immunoreactivity in cranial nerve motoneurons and their related fiber tracts in rats prenatally-exposed to X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazuhiko; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Murase, Kenya

    2014-05-01

    Alterations in histoarchitecture of the brainstem were examined immunohistochemically in 4-week-old rats with a single whole body X-irradiation at a dose of 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 Gy on embryonic day (ED) 15 using anti-heat shock protein 25 (HSP25). HSP25 immunostaining was seen in the neuronal perikarya of cranial nerve motoneurons, that is, the motor and mesencephalic nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, facial nucleus, abducens nucleus and accessory facial nucleus in the pons, and the ambiguous nucleus, dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and hypoglossus nucleus in the medulla oblongata of intact controls. In 0.5 to 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats, HSP25 immunostaining in those neurons was more intense than in controls, while the most intense immunostaining was marked in 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats. HSP25 immunostaining was also apparent in the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve tracts in 0.5 to 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats, but was faint in controls. Interestingly, HSP25 immunostaining was aberrantly enhanced in dendritic arbors in the magnocellular region of medial vestibular nucleus of 0.5-1.5 Gy-irradiated rats. Those arbors were identified as excitatory secondary vestibulo-ocular neurons by double immunofluorescence for HSP25 and SMI-32. The results suggest an increase of HSP25 expression in cranial nerve motoneurons and their related fiber tracts from prenatal exposure to ionizing irradiation. This may be an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia due to malformed brain arteries caused by prenatal ionizing irradiation.

  9. Association between ambient temperature and lower urinary tract symptoms: a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Kim, Jae Heon; Won, Jong Ho; Song, Eun Seop; Song, Yun Seob

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the individual change of International prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) in each patient by temperature conditions. Materials and Methods The severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was explored using the IPSS and OABSS questionnaires that were completed by 2.486 subjects (923 males and 1.563 females) aged 60 years and older. Korea Meteorological Administration data was used to determine daily average temperature and daily temperature difference on the interview dates at each site. Results The mean IPSS and mean age for males was 13.45±8.24 and 75.03±6.20 years, respectively. The mean OABSS and mean age for females was 4.41±3.10 and 73.74±6.03years, respectively. Daily average temperature and daily temperature difference ranged from-3.4-28.3oC and 2.2-16.9oC, respectively. Age was a significantly risk factor for IPSS, OABSS, and QoL (P<0.001, <0.001, and 0.005, respectively). After multiple regression analysis, daily average temperatures did not show a statistically significant change in IPSS and OABSS. Only daily temperature differences were associated with male LUTS. Conclusions While LUTS could be worsened in low temperatures generally, IPSS and OABSS were not affected by daily average temperature conditions. Daily temperature differences may be more influential than daily average temperatures. PMID:27286116

  10. An Electronic Surveillance Tool for Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infection in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Heather E.; Shenoy, Erica S.; Kelbaugh, Douglas; Ware, Winston; Lee, Hang; Zakroysky, Pearl; Hooper, David C.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an electronic surveillance tool for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) and assess its performance. Methods The study was conducted at a 947-bed tertiary care center. Subjects included adults aged ≥18 years, admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) between January 10 and June 30, 2012 with an indwelling urinary catheter during their admission. We identified CAUTIs using four methods: (1) Traditional Surveillance (TS): manual chart review by Infection Control Practitioners, (2) an Electronic Surveillance (ES) tool, (3) Augmented Electronic Surveillance (AES): ES with chart review on a subset of cases, and (4) Reference Standard (RS): A subset of CAUTIs originally ascertained by TS or ES, confirmed by review. We assessed performance characteristics to RS for reviewed cases. Results We identified 417 candidate CAUTIs in 308 patients; 175 (42.0%) of these candidate CAUTIs were selected for review, yielding 32 confirmed CAUTI in 22 patients (RS). Compared with RS, the sensitivities of TS, ES, and AES were 43.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.4–62.3%), 100.0% (95% CI: 89.1–100.0%), and 100.0% (89.1–100.0%). Specificities were 82.5% (95% CI: 75.3–88.4%), 2.8% (95% CI: 0.8–7.0%), and 100.0% (95% CI: 97.5–100.0%). Discussion Traditional methods of CAUTI surveillance are error-prone and resource-intensive. We developed a highly sensitive electronic surveillance tool. Conclusion Electronic CAUTI surveillance offers a streamlined approach to improve reliability and resource burden of surveillance. PMID:25840717

  11. Association of lower urinary tract syndrome with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung; Wu, Hsi-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe atherosclerosis may lead to chronic bladder ischemia, eventually resulting in lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS), and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We investigated the association of LUTS with PAOD. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2010; follow-up lasted until the end of 2011. We identified patients with newly diagnosed LUTS by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Results In total, 36,042 and 36,042 patients were enrolled in LUTS and non-LUTS cohorts, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of subsequent PAOD was 1.36-fold higher [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.26–1.46] in the LUTS cohort than in the non-LUTS cohort. The adjusted risk of PAOD was the highest in patients with LUTS without any comorbidity [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.54–2.41]. The age-specific relative risk of PAOD was significantly higher in all age groups, particularly in those aged <49 years (aHR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.39–2.34], in the LUTS cohort than in the non-LUTS cohort. Conclusion LUTS is a risk factor for PAOD. Physicians should consider the possibility of underlying PAOD in patients with LUTS aged <49 years and without cardiovascular comorbidities. Additional studies developing strategies for decreasing the risk of PAOD are warranted. PMID:28301517

  12. Novel, host-restricted genotypes of Bordetella bronchiseptica associated with phocine respiratory tract isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Yury V.; Harvill, Eric T.; Davison, Nick; Foster, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    During a succession of phocine morbillivirus outbreaks spanning the past 25 years, Bordetella bronchiseptica was identified as a frequent secondary invader and cause of death. The goal of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity and the molecular basis for host specificity among seal isolates from these outbreaks. MLST and PvuII ribotyping of 54 isolates from Scottish, English or Danish coasts of the Atlantic or North Sea revealed a single, host-restricted genotype. A single, novel genotype, unique from that of the Atlantic and North Sea isolates, was found in isolates from an outbreak in the Caspian Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based either on MLST sequence, ribotype patterns or genome-wide SNPs consistently placed both seal-specific genotypes within the same major clade but indicates a distinct evolutionary history for each. An additional isolate from the intestinal tract of a seal on the south-west coast of England has a genotype otherwise found in rabbit, guinea pig and pig isolates. To investigate the molecular basis for host specificity, DNA and predicted protein sequences of virulence genes that mediate host interactions were used in comparisons between a North Sea isolate, a Caspian Sea isolate and each of their closest relatives as inferred from genome-wide SNP analysis. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, fewer nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were found in comparisons of the two seal isolates than in comparisons with closely related strains. These data indicate isolates of B. bronchiseptica associated with respiratory disease in seals comprise unique, host-adapted and highly clonal populations. PMID:25627438

  13. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  14. Fiber-type differences in masseter muscle associated with different facial morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Rowlerson, Anthea; Raoul, Gwénaël; Daniel, Yousif; Close, John; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Ferri, Joel; Sciote, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of muscle forces and associated physiologic behaviors on dental and skeletal development is well recognized but difficult to quantify because of the limited understanding of the interrelationships between physiologic and other mechanisms during growth. Methods The purpose of this study was to characterize fiber-type composition of masseter muscle in 44 subjects during surgical correction of malocclusion. Four fiber types were identified after immunostaining of biopsy sections with myosin heavy chain-specific antibodies, and the average fiber diameter and percentage of muscle occupancy of the fiber types were determined in each of 6 subject groups (Class II or Class III and open bite, normal bite, or deepbite). A 2 × 3 × 4 analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences between mean areas for fiber types, vertical relationships, and sagittal relationships. Results There were significant differences in percentage of occupancy of fiber types in masseter muscle in bite groups with different vertical dimensions. Type I fiber occupancy increased in open bites, and conversely, type II fiber occupancy increased in deepbites. The association between sagittal jaw relationships and mean fiber area was less strong, but, in the Class III group, the average fiber area was significantly different between the open bite, normal bite, and deepbite subjects. In the Class III subjects, type I and I/II hybrid fiber areas were greatly increased in subjects with deepbite. Conclusions Given the variation between subjects in fiber areas and fiber numbers, larger subject populations will be needed to demonstrate more significant associations between sagittal relationships and muscle composition. However, the robust influence of jaw-closing muscles on vertical dimension allowed us to conclude that vertical bite characteristics vary according to the fiber type composition of masseter muscle. PMID:15643413

  15. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract associated with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M J; Kemp, J D; Goeken, J A; Mitros, F A; Platz, C E; Dick, F R

    1990-09-01

    The authors report a case of common variable immunodeficiency associated with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract in which a clonal population of lymphoid cells was detected by immunophenotypic and genotypic studies on tissue obtained by colonoscopic biopsy. The patient has been followed up for more than 50 months without clinical, radiographic, or pathologic evidence of lymphoma. The significance of clonal rearrangement in the setting of immunodeficiency and the role of genotypic studies in defining lymphoid malignancy are discussed.

  16. Human coronavirus NL63 associated with lower respiratory tract symptoms in early life.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Laurent; Regamey, Nicolas; Roiha, Hanna; Deffernez, Christelle; Frey, Urs

    2005-11-01

    Coronavirus NL63 has been identified as a new member of the coronavirus genus, but its role as a cause of respiratory disease needs to be established. We studied the first episode of lower respiratory tract symptoms in a cohort of healthy neonates. NL63 was identified in 6 (7%) of 82 cases and was as frequent as other coronaviruses (9%). NL63 was recovered at the onset of symptoms and was cleared within 3 weeks in half of the cases. Our data suggests that coronavirus NL63 causes lower respiratory tract symptoms and is acquired in early life.

  17. Association between past urinary tract infections and current symptoms suggestive of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Nicholas A.; Link, Carol L.; Barry, Michael J.; McKinlay, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a major cause of illness, and its association with history of past urinary tract infections is unclear. We surveyed a racially, ethnically and socioeconomically diverse, community-based sample of adults aged 30-79 years in Boston, MA. This report gives estimates from the 2,301 men in the BACH survey: 700 black, 766 Hispanic and 835 white. Symptoms of chronic prostatitis--any perineal and/or ejaculatory pain and a pain score of > or =4--were derived from the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and were used to identify men with symptoms suggesting CP/CPPS. The overall prevalence of symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS is 6.3%. The number of urinary tract infections, particularly >3, was associated with symptoms suggestive of CP/CPPS (P < 0.01). There is a strong association between current symptoms of CP/CPPS and a history of urinary tract infections, particularly of multiple infections. The causality between chronic UTIs and CP/CPPS needs to be clarified by further study. PMID:17534008

  18. Comprehensive Metaproteomic Analyses of Urine in the Presence and Absence of Neutrophil-Associated Inflammation in the Urinary Tract.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanbao; Sikorski, Patricia; Smith, Madeline; Bowman-Gholston, Cynthia; Cacciabeve, Nicolas; Nelson, Karen E; Pieper, Rembert

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation in the urinary tract results in a urinary proteome characterized by a high dynamic range of protein concentrations and high variability in protein content. This proteome encompasses plasma proteins not resorbed by renal tubular uptake, renal secretion products, proteins of immune cells and erythrocytes derived from trans-urothelial migration and vascular leakage, respectively, and exfoliating urothelial and squamous epithelial cells. We examined how such proteins partition into soluble urine (SU) and urinary pellet (UP) fractions by analyzing 33 urine specimens 12 of which were associated with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Using mass spectrometry-based metaproteomic approaches, we identified 5,327 non-redundant human proteins, 2,638 and 4,379 of which were associated with SU and UP fractions, respectively, and 1,206 non-redundant protein orthology groups derived from pathogenic and commensal organisms of the urogenital tract. Differences between the SU and UP proteomes were influenced by local inflammation, supported by respective comparisons with 12 healthy control urine proteomes. Clustering analyses showed that SU and UP fractions had proteomic signatures discerning UTIs, vascular injury, and epithelial cell exfoliation from the control group to varying degrees. Cases of UTI revealed clusters of proteins produced by activated neutrophils. Network analysis supported the central role of neutrophil effector proteins in the defense against invading pathogens associated with subsequent coagulation and wound repair processes. Our study expands the existing knowledge of the urinary proteome under perturbed conditions, and should be useful as reference dataset in the search of biomarkers.

  19. Altered Cortical Thickness and Tract Integrity of the Mirror Neuron System and Associated Social Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Chien, Hsiang-Yun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies using neural activity recording and neuroimaging techniques have reported functional deficits in the mirror neuron system (MNS) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, a few studies focusing on gray and white matter structures of the MNS have yielded inconsistent results. The current study recruited adolescents and young adults with ASD (aged 15-26 years) and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 14-25 years). The cortical thickness (CT) and microstructural integrity of the tracts connecting the regions forming the classical MNS were investigated. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and diffusion spectrum imaging were performed to quantify the CT and tract integrity, respectively. The structural covariance of the CT of the MNS regions revealed a weaker coordination of the MNS network in ASD. A strong correlation was found between the integrity of the right frontoparietal tracts and the social communication subscores measured by the Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire. The results showed that there were no significant mean differences in the CTs and tract integrity between the ASD and TD groups, but revealed a moderate or even reverse age effect on the frontal MNS structures in ASD. In conclusion, aberrant structural coordination may be an underlying factor affecting the function of the MNS in ASD patients. The association between the right frontoparietal tracts and social communication performance implies a neural correlate of communication processing in the autistic brain. This study provides evidence of abnormal MNS structures and their influence on social communication in individuals with ASD.

  20. Associations among digestive tract lesions and abnormal serum chemistries in cull dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All animals accrue tissue damage with age, but types and prevalence of damage are not known. Tissue lesions could signal impaired organ function which could affect performance. The study objective was to assess prevalence of microscopic lesions in digestive tracts of cull dairy cows, and determine a...

  1. Pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis and drugs used in associated digestive tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Adriana; Aragão, Giselle Gonçalves; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) causes chronic infections in the respiratory tract and alters the digestive tract. This paper reviews the most important aspects of drug treatment and changes in the digestive tract of patients with CF. This is a review of the literature, emphasizing the discoveries made within the last 15 years by analyzing scientific papers published in journals indexed in the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Sciences Information, United States National Library of Medicine and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online databases, both in English and Portuguese, using the key words: cystic fibrosis, medication, therapeutic, absorption, digestion. Randomized, observational, experimental, and epidemiological clinical studies were selected, among others, with statistical significance of 5%. This review evaluates the changes found in the digestive tract of CF patients including pancreatic insufficiency, constipation and liver diseases. Changes in nutritional status are also described. Clinical treatment, nutritional supplementation and drug management were classified in this review as essential to the quality of life of CF patients, and became available through public policies for monitoring and treating CF. The information gathered on CF and a multi professional approach to the disease is essential in the treatment of these patients. PMID:24379572

  2. Composition and diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota along the entire length of the pig gastrointestinal tract; dietary influences.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jennifer; Daly, Kristian; Moran, Andrew W; Ryan, Sheila; Bravo, David; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2017-04-01

    Mucosa-associated microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract are in intimate contact with the outer mucus layer. This proximity offers these populations a higher potential, than lumenal microbiota, in exerting effects on the host. Functional characteristics of the microbiota and influences of host-physiology shape the composition and activity of the mucosa-associated bacterial community. We have shown previously that inclusion of an artificial sweetener, SUCRAM, included in the diet of weaning piglets modulates the composition of lumenal-residing gut microbiota and reduces weaning-related gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, using Illumina sequencing we characterised the mucosa-associated microbiota along the length of the intestine of piglets, and determined the effect of SUCRAM supplementation on mucosa-associated populations. There were clear distinctions in the composition of mucosa-associated microbiota, between small and large intestine, concordant with differences in regional oxygen distribution and nutrient provision by the host. There were significant differences in the composition of mucosa-associated compared with lumenal microbiota in pig caecum. Dietary supplementation with SUCRAM affected mucosa-associated bacterial community structure along the length of the intestinal tract. Most notably, there was a substantial reduction in predominant Campylobacter populations proposing that SUCRAM supplementation of swine diet has potential for reducing meat contamination and promoting food safety.

  3. Lung cancer in the lower lobe is associated with pulmonary asbestos fiber count and fiber size.

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, S; Karjalainen, A; Taikina-aho, O; Kyyrönen, P; Vainio, H

    1993-01-01

    We studied exposure to asbestos, pulmonary fibrosis, fiber count, and fiber size in relation to the lobar origin of lung cancer in 90 consecutive patients. Among the 32 patients with a history of occupational exposure to asbestos, 22 were construction workers. The proportion of lower-lobe tumors increased with the duration of exposure from 45% in those working less than 15 years to 82% in those working 15 years or more in the construction trade, as compared with 25% in patients who were probably not exposed. The location of the tumor in the lower lobe was explained by the high number of total fibers [odds ratio (OR) = 9.0, CI = 2.3-34.6), of fibers 3 microns and longer (OR = 22.1, CI = 3.9-125), and fibers of anthophyllite (OR = 14.6, CI = 2.4-83.4) and crocidolite (OR = 7.0, CI = 1.2-41.2) when the effect of smoking and fibrosis was adjusted in the logistic regression analysis. The location of the tumor did not correlate with fibrosis, pack-years smoked, or the number of short (< 3 microns) fibers. Our findings suggest that asbestos causes an excess of lower-lobe tumors at a relatively low exposure level, independently of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:8354203

  4. Whole-grain intake and cereal fiber are associated with lower abdominal adiposity in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods high in dietary fiber may play an important role in regulating body weight. Few observational studies have examined the relationship between dietary fiber from different sources and body fat in older adults. The objectives were to examine the associations between grain intake (whole and refi...

  5. Inflammatory Mechanisms Associated with Prostatic Inflammation and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation is a common finding in histologic prostate specimens obtained from aging men, and accumulating data suggest that inflammation may play an important role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and the development and progression of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Inflammatory processes may contribute to prostatic enlargement directly through stimulation of prostate growth, or, alternatively, through decreasing prostatic apoptosis. Additionally, inflammatory processes may impact other components of the urogenital tract, such as the bladder, and contribute to the LUTS that may be experienced both in the presence and in the absence of prostate enlargement. Current research therefore offers clues about converging inflammatory pathways which may be targeted to improve treatment of BPH and/or LUTS as well as identifying potential targets for prevention of these syndromes. PMID:19809538

  6. The effects of adding fat to diets of lactating dairy cows on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weld, K A; Armentano, L E

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supplemental fat on fiber digestibility in lactating dairy cattle. Published papers that evaluated the effects of adding fat to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (ttNDFd) and dry matter intake (DMI) were compiled. The final data set included 108 fat-supplemented treatment means, not including low-fat controls, from 38 publications. The fat-supplemented treatment means exhibited a wide range of ttNDFd (49.4% ± 9.3, mean ± standard deviation) and DMI (21.3 kg/d ± 3.5). Observations were summarized as the difference between the treatment means for fat-supplemented diets minus their respective low-fat control means. Additionally, those differences were divided by the difference in diet fatty acid (FA) concentration between the treatment and control diets. Treatment means were categorized by the type of fat supplement. Supplementing 3% FA in the diet as medium-chain fats (containing predominately 12- and 14-carbon saturated FA) or unsaturated vegetable oil decreased ttNDFd by 8.0 and 1.2 percentage units, respectively. Adding 3% calcium salts of long-chain FA or saturated fats increased ttNDFd by 3.2 and 1.3 percentage units, respectively. No other fat supplement type affected ttNDFd. Except for saturated fats and animal-vegetable fats, supplementing dietary fat decreased DMI. When the values for changes in ttNDFd are regressed on changes in DMI there was a positive relationship, though the coefficient of determination is only 0.20. When changes in ttNDFd were regressed on changes in DMI, within individual fat supplement types, there was no relationship within calcium salt supplements. There was a positive relationship between changes in ttNDFd and changes in DMI for saturated fats. Neither relationship suggested that the increased ttNDFd with calcium salts or saturated FA was due to decreased DMI for these fat sources. A subset of the means

  7. Questions and challenges associated with studying the microbiome of the urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yige; Al, Kait F.; Chanyi, Ryan M.; Whiteside, Samantha; Dewar, Malcom; Razvi, Hassan; Reid, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Urologists are typically faced with clinical situations for which the microbiome may have been a contributing factor. Clinicians have a good understanding regarding the role of bacteria related to issues such as antibiotic resistance; however, they generally have a limited grasp of how the microbiome may relate to urological issues. The largest part of the human microbiome is situated in the gastrointestinal tract, and though this is mostly separated from the urinary system, bacterial dissemination and metabolic output by this community is thought to have a significant influence on urological conditions. Sites within the urogenital system that were once considered “sterile” may regularly have bacterial populations present. The health implications potentially extend all the way to the kidneys. This could affect urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, urinary incontinence and related conditions including the formation of kidney stones. Given the sensitivity of the methodologies employed, and the large potential for contamination when working with low abundance microbiomes, meticulous care in the analyses of urological samples at various sites is required. This review highlights the opportunities for urinary microbiome investigations and our experience in working with these low abundance samples in the urinary tract. PMID:28217698

  8. Multiscale white matter fiber tract coregistration: a new feature-based approach to align diffusion tensor data.

    PubMed

    Leemans, A; Sijbers, J; De Backer, S; Vandervliet, E; Parizel, P

    2006-06-01

    In this paper an automatic multiscale feature-based rigid-body coregistration technique for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based on the local curvature kappa and torsion tau of the white matter (WM) fiber pathways is presented. As a similarity measure, the mean squared difference (MSD) of corresponding fiber pathways in (kappa, tau)-space is chosen. After the MSD is minimized along the arc length of the curve, principal component analysis is applied to calculate the transformation parameters. In addition, a scale-space representation of the space curves is incorporated, resulting in a multiscale robust coregistration technique. This fully automatic technique inherently allows one to apply region of interest (ROI) coregistration, and is adequate for performing both global and local transformations. Simulations were performed on synthetic DT data to evaluate the coregistration accuracy and precision. An in vivo coregistration example is presented and compared with a voxel-based coregistration approach, demonstrating the feasibility and advantages of the proposed technique to align DT data of the human brain.

  9. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission.

  10. Associations between autistic traits and fractional anisotropy values in white matter tracts in a nonclinical sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Bradstreet, Lauren E; Hecht, Erin E; King, Tricia Z; Turner, Jessica L; Robins, Diana L

    2017-01-01

    Whereas a number of studies have examined relationships among brain activity, social cognitive skills, and autistic traits, fewer studies have evaluated whether structural connections among brain regions relate to these traits and skills. Uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) are white matter tracts that may underpin the behavioral expression of these skills because they connect regions within or provide sensory information to brain areas implicated in social cognition, and structural differences in these tracts have been associated with autistic traits. We examined relationships among self-reported autistic traits, mentalizing, and water diffusivity in UF and ILF in a nonclinical sample of 24 young adults (mean age = 21.92 years, SD = 4.72 years; 15 women). We measured autistic traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, and we measured mentalizing using the Dynamic Interactive Shapes Clips task. We used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and randomize to examine relationships among fractional anisotropy (FA) values in bilateral ILF and UF, age, cognitive abilities, autistic traits, and mentalizing. Autistic traits were positively related to FA values in left ILF. No other relationships between FA values and other variables were significant. Results suggest that left ILF may be involved in the expression of autistic traits in individuals without clinical diagnoses.

  11. A metaproteomics approach to elucidate host and pathogen protein expression during catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs).

    PubMed

    Lassek, Christian; Burghartz, Melanie; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Otto, Andreas; Hentschker, Christian; Fuchs, Stephan; Bernhardt, Jörg; Jauregui, Ruy; Neubauer, Rüdiger; Becher, Dörte; Pieper, Dietmar H; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Riedel, Katharina

    2015-04-01

    Long-term catheterization inevitably leads to a catheter-associated bacteriuria caused by multispecies bacterial biofilms growing on and in the catheters. The overall goal of the presented study was (1) to unravel bacterial community structure and function of such a uropathogenic biofilm and (2) to elucidate the interplay between bacterial virulence and the human immune system within the urine. To this end, a metaproteomics approach combined with in vitro proteomics analyses was employed to investigate both, the pro- and eukaryotic protein inventory. Our proteome analyses demonstrated that the biofilm of the investigated catheter is dominated by three bacterial species, that is, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Bacteroides sp., and identified iron limitation as one of the major challenges in the bladder environment. In vitro proteome analysis of P. aeruginosa and M. morganii isolated from the biofilm revealed that these opportunistic pathogens are able to overcome iron restriction via the production of siderophores and high expression of corresponding receptors. Notably, a comparison of in vivo and in vitro protein profiles of P. aeruginosa and M. morganii also indicated that the bacteria employ different strategies to adapt to the urinary tract. Although P. aeruginosa seems to express secreted and surface-exposed proteases to escape the human innate immune system and metabolizes amino acids, M. morganii is able to take up sugars and to degrade urea. Most interestingly, a comparison of urine protein profiles of three long-term catheterized patients and three healthy control persons demonstrated the elevated level of proteins associated with neutrophils, macrophages, and the complement system in the patient's urine, which might point to a specific activation of the innate immune system in response to biofilm-associated urinary tract infections. We thus hypothesize that the often asymptomatic nature of catheter-associated urinary tract infections

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract disease: incidence and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Riccetto, Adriana Gut Lopes; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Silva, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da; Almeida, Renata Servan de; Arns, Clarice Weis; Baracat, Emílio Carlos Elias

    2006-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the main causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections worldwide. We examined the incidence and associated risks for RSV infection in infants hospitalized in two university hospitals in the state of São Paulo. We made a prospective cohort study involving 152 infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in two university hospitals in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between April and September 2004. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained at admission. RSV was detected by direct immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal secretions. Factors associated with RSV infection were assessed by calculating the relative risk (RR). The incidence of RSV infection was 17.5%. Risk factors associated with infection were: gestational age less than 35 weeks (RR: 4.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.21-7.87); birth weight less than or equal to 2,500 grams (RR: 2.69; 95% CI 1.34-5.37); mother's educational level less than five years of schooling (RR: 2.28; 95% CI 1.13-4.59) and pulse oximetry at admission to hospital lower than 90% (RR: 2.19; 95% CI 1.10-4.37). Low birth weight and prematurity are factors associated with respiratory disease due to RSV in infants. Low educational level of the mother and poor socioeconomic conditions also constitute risk factors. Hypoxemia in RSV infections at admission indicates potential severity and a need for early oxygen therapy.

  13. Differential involvement of corticospinal tract (CST) fibers in UMN-predominant ALS patients with or without CST hyperintensity: A diffusion tensor tractography study.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Venkateswaran; Pioro, Erik P

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) depends on clinical evidence of combined upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) degeneration, although ALS patients can present with features predominantly of one or the other. Some UMN-predominant patients show hyperintense signal along the intracranial corticospinal tract (CST) on T2- and proton density (PD)-weighted images (ALS-CST +), and appear to have faster disease progression when compared to those without CST hyperintensity (ALS-CST -). The reason for this is unknown. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) would reveal differences in DTI abnormalities along the intracranial CST between these two patient subgroups. Clinical DTI scans were obtained at 1.5T in 14 neurologic controls and 45 ALS patients categorized into two UMN phenotypes based on clinical measures and MRI. DTT was used to quantitatively assess the CST in control and ALS groups. DTT revealed subcortical loss ('truncation') of virtual motor CST fibers (presumably) projecting from the precentral gyrus (PrG) in ALS patients but not in controls; in contrast, virtual fibers (presumably) projecting to the adjacent postcentral gyrus (PoG) were spared. No significant differences in virtual CST fiber length were observed between controls and ALS patients. However, the frequency of CST truncation was significantly higher in the ALS-CST + subgroup (9 of 21) than in the ALS-CST - subgroup (4 of 24; p = 0.049), suggesting this finding could differentiate these ALS subgroups. Also, because virtual CST truncation occurred only in the ALS patient group and not in the control group (p = 0.018), this DTT finding could prove to be a diagnostic biomarker of ALS. Significantly shorter disease duration and faster disease progression rate were observed in ALS patients with CST fiber truncation than in those without (p < 0.05). DTI metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial

  14. Comprehensive Metaproteomic Analyses of Urine in the Presence and Absence of Neutrophil-Associated Inflammation in the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanbao; Sikorski, Patricia; Smith, Madeline; Bowman-Gholston, Cynthia; Cacciabeve, Nicolas; Nelson, Karen E.; Pieper, Rembert

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation in the urinary tract results in a urinary proteome characterized by a high dynamic range of protein concentrations and high variability in protein content. This proteome encompasses plasma proteins not resorbed by renal tubular uptake, renal secretion products, proteins of immune cells and erythrocytes derived from trans-urothelial migration and vascular leakage, respectively, and exfoliating urothelial and squamous epithelial cells. We examined how such proteins partition into soluble urine (SU) and urinary pellet (UP) fractions by analyzing 33 urine specimens 12 of which were associated with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Using mass spectrometry-based metaproteomic approaches, we identified 5,327 non-redundant human proteins, 2,638 and 4,379 of which were associated with SU and UP fractions, respectively, and 1,206 non-redundant protein orthology groups derived from pathogenic and commensal organisms of the urogenital tract. Differences between the SU and UP proteomes were influenced by local inflammation, supported by respective comparisons with 12 healthy control urine proteomes. Clustering analyses showed that SU and UP fractions had proteomic signatures discerning UTIs, vascular injury, and epithelial cell exfoliation from the control group to varying degrees. Cases of UTI revealed clusters of proteins produced by activated neutrophils. Network analysis supported the central role of neutrophil effector proteins in the defense against invading pathogens associated with subsequent coagulation and wound repair processes. Our study expands the existing knowledge of the urinary proteome under perturbed conditions, and should be useful as reference dataset in the search of biomarkers. PMID:28042331

  15. Factors Associated with Antibiotic Misuse in Outpatient Treatment for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Schroeck, Jennifer L.; Ruh, Christine A.; Sellick, John A.; Ott, Michael C.; Mattappallil, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has promoted the appropriate use of antibiotics since 1995 when it initiated the National Campaign for Appropriate Antibiotic Use in the Community. This study examined upper respiratory tract infections included in the campaign to determine the degree to which antibiotics were appropriately prescribed and subsequent admission rates in a veteran population. This study was a retrospective chart review conducted among outpatients with a diagnosis of a respiratory tract infection, including bronchitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, or nonspecific upper respiratory tract infection, between January 2009 and December 2011. The study found that 595 (35.8%) patients were treated appropriately, and 1,067 (64.2%) patients received therapy considered inappropriate based on the Get Smart Campaign criteria. Overall the subsequent readmission rate was 1.5%. The majority (77.5%) of patients were prescribed an antibiotic. The most common antibiotics prescribed were azithromycin (39.0%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (13.2%), and moxifloxacin (7.5%). A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated significant predictors of appropriate treatment, including the presence of tonsillar exudates (odds ratio [OR], 0.6; confidence interval [CI], 0.3 to 0.9), fever (OR, 0.6; CI, 0.4 to 0.9), and lymphadenopathy (OR, 0.4; CI, 0.3 to 0.6), while penicillin allergy (OR, 2.9; CI, 1.7 to 4.7) and cough (OR, 1.6; CI, 1.1 to 2.2) were significant predictors for inappropriate treatment. Poor compliance with the Get Smart Campaign was found in outpatients for respiratory infections. Results from this study demonstrate the overprescribing of antibiotics, while providing a focused view of improper prescribing. This article provides evidence that current efforts are insufficient for curtailing inappropriate antibiotic use. PMID:25870064

  16. Transposition of the great arteries associated with a double left ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed Central

    Kinsley, R H; Levin, S E; O'Donovan, T G

    1979-01-01

    A case is described in which, at semilunar valve level, the aorta and pulmonary artery arose from inappropriate ventricles. Despite this, the outflow tracts to both vessels originated from the left ventricle. Embryologically, it is speculated that this anomaly is the result of normal rotation of the proximal conus, without concomitant truncal inversion, and excessive leftward shift of the proximal conus and conal septum or anterior and rightward deviation of the anterior segment of the ventricular septum. Surgical repair using a double conduit between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery and left ventricle and aorta, respectively, was unsuccessful. Images PMID:508480

  17. Association between green tea/coffee consumption and biliary tract cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ishihara, Junko; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Green tea and coffee consumption may decrease the risk of some types of cancers. However, their effects on biliary tract cancer (BTC) have been poorly understood. In this population-based prospective cohort study in Japan, we investigated the association of green tea (total green tea, Sencha, and Bancha/Genmaicha) and coffee consumption with the risk for BTC and its subtypes, gallbladder cancer, and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 89 555 people aged 45-74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999 and followed up for 1 138 623 person-years until 2010, during which 284 cases of BTC were identified. Consumption of >720 mL/day green tea was significantly associated with decreased risk compared with consumption of ≤120 mL/day (hazard ratio = 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.97]), and a non-significant trend of decreased risk associated with increased consumption was observed (P-trend = 0.095). In the analysis according to the location of the primary tumor, consuming >120 mL green tea tended to be associated with decreased risk of gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. When Sencha and Bancha/Genmaicha were analyzed separately, we observed a non-significant trend of decreased risk of BTC associated with Sencha but no association with Bancha/Genmaicha. For coffee, there was no clear association with biliary tract, gallbladder, or extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Our findings suggest that high green tea consumption may lower the risk of BTC, and the effect may be attributable to Sencha consumption.

  18. Lactobacillus Proteins Are Associated with the Bactericidal Activity against E. coli of Female Genital Tract Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Kalyoussef, Sabah; Nieves, Edward; Dinerman, Ellen; Carpenter, Colleen; Shankar, Viswanathan; Oh, Jamie; Burd, Berta; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Buckheit, Karen W.; Fredricks, David N.; Madan, Rebecca P.; Keller, Marla J.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Female genital tract secretions are bactericidal for Escherichia (E.) coli ex vivo. However, the intersubject variability and molecules that contribute to this activity have not been defined. Methods The bactericidal activity and concentration of immune mediators in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) collected from 99 healthy women were determined. Results CVL reduced the number of E. coli colonies by 68% [−26, 100] (median [range]). CVL were active against laboratory and clinical isolates of E. coli, but were inactive against Lactobacillus species. Bactericidal activity correlated with the concentration of protein recovered (p<0.001), but not with cytokines, chemokines or antimicrobial peptides. Four CVL with>90% inhibitory activity (active) and two with<30% activity were subjected to MS/MS proteomic analysis. 215 proteins were identified and six were found exclusively in active samples. Four of these corresponded to Lactobacillus crispatus or jensenii proteins. Moreover, culture supernatants from Lactobacillus jensenii were bactericidal for E. coli. Conclusion Both host and commensal microbiota proteins contribute to mucosal defense. Identification of these proteins will facilitate the development of strategies to maintain a healthy vaginal microbiome and prevent colonization with pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli that increase the risk for urinary tract infections, preterm labor and perinatal infection. PMID:23185346

  19. Frequency-dependent associative long-term potentiation at the hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapse.

    PubMed

    Derrick, B E; Martinez, J L

    1994-10-25

    The mossy fiber-CA3 synapse displays an N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor-independent mu-opioid-receptor-dependent form of long-term potentiation (LTP) that is thought not to display cooperativity or associativity with coactive afferents. However, because mossy fiber LTP requires repetitive synaptic activity for its induction, we reevaluated cooperativity and associativity at this synapse by using trains of mossy fiber stimulation. Moderate-, but not low-, intensity trains induced mossy fiber LTP, indicating cooperativity. Low-intensity mossy fiber trains that were normally ineffective in inducing LTP could induce mossy fiber LTP when delivered in conjunction with trains delivered to commissural-CA3 afferents. Associative mossy fiber LTP also could be induced with single mossy fiber pulses when delivered with commissural trains in the presence of a mu-opioid-receptor agonist. Our findings suggest a frequency-dependent variation of Hebbian associative LTP induction that is regulated by the release of endogenous opioid peptides.

  20. Rare occurrence of Proteus vulgaris in faeces: a reason for its rare association with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Senior, B W; Leslie, D L

    1986-03-01

    The faecal carriage rates of different species of Proteeae were assessed in studies with 220 faecal isolates from 219 individuals of whom approximately one-third were well and the remainder had gastro-enteritis. As a result of the development of new media that allowed replacement of the phenylalanine deaminase test with the tryptophan deaminase test and made it possible to combine tests for indole and urease production and for hydrogen sulphide and ornithine decarboxylase formation in two single-tube tests, all strains were speciated with speed, economy and accuracy. Most (96%) isolates were either Proteus mirabilis (62%) or Morganella morgani (34%). The significance of these findings in relation to urinary tract infection is discussed. P. vulgaris was found in only one (0.45%) faecal specimen and this rarity of carriage in faeces is believed to be the main reason for its rare association with urinary tract infections. The frequent association of M. morgani, in the absence of other enteropathogenic bacteria, with severe gastroenteritis was noted with interest.

  1. Nurse-Driven Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Reduction Process and Protocol: Development Through an Academic-Practice Partnership.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pamela; Gilman, Anna; Lintner, Alicia; Buckner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Translating evidence-based practices to the bedside can be facilitated by an active academic-practice partnership between nursing faculty and frontline nursing staff. A collaborative effort between the university's academic nurses and the medical center's clinical nurses explored, created, implemented, and evaluated an evidence-based nurse-driven protocol for decreasing the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The nurse-driven protocol was piloted in 4 intensive care units and included nurse-driven orders for catheter discontinuation, utilization of smaller bore urinary catheters, addition of silver-based cleansing products for urinary catheter care, and education of staff on routine catheter care and maintenance. Data were collected for more than 8 months pre- and postimplementation of the nurse-driven protocol. Postimplementation data revealed a 28% reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the intensive care units as compared with preimplementation. Secondary benefits of this academic-practice partnership included strengthening the legitimacy of classroom content as lessons learned were integrated into courses in the nursing curriculum. The result of the partnership was a stronger sense of collaboration and collegiality between hospital staff and the university faculty. Transformative leadership engaged numerous stakeholders through collaborative efforts to realize best practices. An academic-practice partnership facilitates transformative change and provides structural stability and sustainability.

  2. Association of perceived neighborhood problems and census tract income with poor self-rated health in adults: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Höfelmann, Doroteia Aparecida; Diez Roux, Ana V; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    Neighborhood problems constitute sources of chronic stress that may increase the risk of poor self-rated health. The associations of census tract level income and perceived neighborhood problems with self-rated health were examined in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil (1,720 adults). Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of poor self-rated health were estimated through multilevel models. Residents in census tracts in the lower and intermediate tertiles of income reported poorer health than those in the highest tertile. OR of reporting poorer health was 2.44 (95%CI: 2.35- 2.54) in the higher tertile of social disorder (adjusting for mental health). The chances of reporting the poorer health with neighborhood problems ranged from 1.07 (95%CI: 1.03-1.11) to 2.02 (95%CI: 1.95-2.10) for the higher tertile of social disorder (physical health) and physical problem (health-related variables). Perceived neighborhood problems were independently associated with poor health. The perception of a neighborhood among its residents should be considered by health policymakers.

  3. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  4. A Case of Lower Respiratory Tract Infection with Canine-associated Pasteurella canis in a Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Preetam R.; Biranthabail, Dhanashree; Rangnekar, Aseem; Shiragavi, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    This is the report of lower respiratory tract infection with Pasteurella canis in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient with history of casual exposure to cats. Pasteurella species are part of the oral and gastrointestinal flora in the canine animals. These organisms are usually implicated in wound infection following animal bites, but can also be associated with a variety of infections including respiratory tract infections. PMID:26435948

  5. Surface properties of catheters, stents and bacteria associated with urinary tract infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Gregor; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Sunaina; Mittelman, Marc W.; McIntyre, Stewart

    Applications of surface and physico-chemical techniques to the clinical setting, in particular related to the urogenital tract, have been sporadic, often concentrating on aspects of biocompatibility and interactions of blood cells with materials. In an era where billions of such devices are implanted annually, it is important to utilize such techniques to improve our understanding of material-host interactions. In an effort to encourage further such interactive investigations, this review will illustrate some practical biomedical examples where utilization of sophisticated surface-science techniques has provided valuable insight into interfacial events between host components, micro-organisms and material surfaces. Techniques to reduce bacterial infection and encrustations will be discussed, and suggestions given for future lines of enquiry.

  6. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection: implementation strategies of international guidelines1

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Vera Lúcia Fonseca; Fernandes, Filipa Alexandra Veludo

    2016-01-01

    Objective to describe strategies used by health professionals on the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for the prevention of urinary infection related to catheterism. Method systematic review on literature based on data from CINAHL(r), Nursing & Allied Health Collection, Cochrane Plus Collection, MedicLatina, MEDLINE(r), Academic Search Complete, ACS - American Chemical Society, Health Reference Center Academic, Nursing Reference Center, ScienceDirect Journals and Wiley Online Library. A sample of 13 articles was selected. Results studies have highlighted the decrease of urinary tract infection related to catheterism through reminder systems to decrease of people submitted to urinary catheterism, audits about nursing professionals practice and bundles expansion. Conclusion the present review systemizes the knowledge of used strategies by health professionals on introduction to international recommendations, describing a rate decrease of such infection in clinical practice. PMID:27027676

  7. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Zaczeniuk, Magdalena; Majak, Paweł; Pawłowska-Iwanicka, Kamila; Kopka, Monika; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013) in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI), asthma and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%), 96 (34.3%), 39 (13.9%), respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87). In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62); sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75). We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions Sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis. PMID:27279819

  8. Noninvasive biophotonic imaging for monitoring of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and therapy in mice.

    PubMed

    Kadurugamuwa, Jagath L; Modi, Kshitij; Yu, Jun; Francis, Kevin P; Purchio, Tony; Contag, Pamela R

    2005-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections acquired by humans, particularly in catheterized patients. A major problem with catheterization is the formation of bacterial biofilms on catheter material and the risk of developing persistent UTIs that are difficult to monitor and eradicate. To better understand the course of UTIs and allow more accurate studies of in vivo antibiotic efficacy, we developed a catheter-based biofilm infection model with mice, using bioluminescently engineered bacteria. Two important urinary tract pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis, were made bioluminescent by stable insertion of a complete lux operon. Segments of catheter material (precolonized or postimplant infected) with either pathogen were placed transurethrally in the lumen of the bladder by using a metal stylet without surgical manipulation. The bioluminescent strains were sufficiently bright to be readily monitored from the outside of infected animals, using a low-light optical imaging system, including the ability to trace the ascending pattern of light-emitting bacteria through ureters to the kidneys. Placement of the catheter in the bladder not only resulted in the development of strong cystitis that persisted significantly longer than in mice challenged with bacterial suspensions alone but also required prolonged antibiotic treatment to reduce the level of infection. Treatment of infected mice for 4 days with ciprofloxacin at 30 mg/kg of body weight twice a day cured cystitis and renal infection in noncatheterized mice. Similarly, ciprofloxacin reduced the bacterial burden to undetectable levels in catheterized mice but did not inhibit rebound of the infection upon cessation of antibiotic therapy. This methodology easily allows spatial information to be monitored sequentially throughout the entire disease process, including ascending UTI, treatment efficacy, and relapse, all without exogenous sampling, which is not

  9. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data.

  10. Two genomic regions associated with fiber quality traits in Chinese upland cotton under apparent breeding selection

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junji; Li, Libei; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Caixiang; Song, Meizhen; Wang, Hantao; Zhao, Shuqi; Zhang, Chi; Mao, Guangzhi; Huang, Long; Wang, Chengshe; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    Fiber quality is one of the most important agronomic traits of cotton, and understanding the genetic basis of its target traits will accelerate improvements to cotton fiber quality. In this study, a panel comprising 355 upland cotton accessions was used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of five fiber quality traits in four environments. A total of 16, 10 and 7 SNPs were associated with fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber uniformity (FU), respectively, based on the mixed linear model (MLM). Most importantly, two major genomic regions (MGR1 and MGR2) on chromosome Dt7 and four potential candidate genes for FL were identified. Analyzing the geographical distribution of favorable haplotypes (FHs) among these lines revealed that two favorable haplotype frequencies (FHFs) were higher in accessions from low-latitude regions than in accessions from high-latitude regions. However, the genetic diversity of lines from the low-latitude regions was lower than the diversity of lines from the high-latitude regions in China. Furthermore, the FHFs differed among cultivars developed during different breeding periods. These results indicate that FHs have undergone artificial selection during upland cotton breeding in recent decades in China and provide a foundation for the further improvement of fiber quality traits. PMID:27924947

  11. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D

    2013-01-01

    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity.

  12. Effects of a catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention campaign on infection rate, catheter utilization, and health care workers' perspective at a community safety net hospital.

    PubMed

    Gray, Dorinne; Nussle, Richard; Cruz, Abner; Kane, Gail; Toomey, Michael; Bay, Curtis; Ostovar, Gholamabbas Amin

    2016-01-01

    Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections is in the forefront of health care quality. However, nurse and physician engagement is a common barrier in infection prevention efforts. After implementation of a multidisciplinary catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention campaign, we studied the impact of our campaign and showed its association with reducing the CAUTI rate and catheter utilization and the positive effect on health care workers' engagement and perspectives. CAUTI prevention campaigns can lead to lower infection rates and change health care workers' perspective.

  13. Left posteroseptal Mahaim fiber associated with marked longitudinal dissociation.

    PubMed

    Tada, H; Nogami, A; Naito, S; Oshima, S; Taniguchi, K; Kutsumi, Y

    1999-11-01

    We report a patient who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of a left posteroseptal atrioventricular (AV) Mahaim fiber with a marked longitudinal dissociation. During atrial pacing, Wenckebach-type atrioventricular block over the accessory pathway was observed with progressive preexcitation and no change in polarity of the delta waves. The AV conduction curve was discontinuous, with a distinct "jump-up" in local AV conduction time of 84 ms. The earliest ventricular activation was recorded from the posteroseptal portion of the mitral annulus, and the unipolar electrogram from a distal electrode had a high, steep deflection with uniphasic QS-like activity with 62 ms of local AV conduction time.

  14. IL-22 Levels are Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis infection in the Lower Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Moradeke, Makinde Hadijat; Reza, Zariffard; Paria, Mirmonsef; Richard, Novak; Olamide, Jarrett; Alan L, Landay; GregoryT, Spear

    2013-01-01

    Problem IL-22 has important functions at mucosal surfaces, including the induction of antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of epithelium. However IL-22 has not been investigated in the genital tract during TV infection. Methods of Study Women who visited an STD clinic and women from a cohort with frequent Trichomoniasis were studied. IL-22, IL-17 and antimicrobial peptides were measured in cervicovaginal lavage by ELISA. Results In women visiting the STD clinic, those without STDs (n=10) had a median IL-22 of 0 pg/ml while women with infections (n=30) had 27 pg/ml (p=0.04). In the cohort, women with Trichomoniasis (n=19) had significantly higher IL-22 than women with no infections (n=21, 74 versus 0 pg/ml, p=0.0001). IL-17 was also significantly increased in Trichomoniasis and there was a correlation between IL-22 and IL-17 (p=0.001). Conclusion IL-22 is increased in STDs generally and in Trichomoniasis specifically suggesting an antimicrobial response of the mucosa and an epithelial repair process induced by the STDs. PMID:23445169

  15. HNF1B alterations associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Makiko; Nozu, Kandai; Goto, Yuki; Kamei, Koichi; Ito, Shuichi; Sato, Hidenori; Emi, Mitsuru; Nakanishi, Koichi; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2010-06-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1beta (HNF1beta) abnormalities have been recognized to cause congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), predominantly affecting bilateral renal malformations. To further understand the spectrum of HNF1beta related phenotypes, we performed HNF1B gene mutation and deletion analyses in Japanese patients with renal hypodysplasia (n = 31), unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK; n = 14) and others (n = 5). We identified HNF1B alterations in 5 out of 50 patients (10%). De novo heterozygous complete deletions of HNF1B were found in 3 patients with unilateral MCDK. Two of the patients showed contralateral hypodysplasia, whereas the other patient showed a radiologically normal contralateral kidney with normal renal function. Copy number variation analyses showed 1.4 Mb microdeletions involving the whole HNF1B gene with breakpoints in flanking segmental duplications. We also identified 1 novel truncated mutation (1007insC) and another missense mutation (226G>T) in patients with bilateral hypodysplasia. HNF1B alterations leading to haploinsufficiency affect a diverse spectrum of CAKUT. The existence of a patient with unilateral MCDK with normal renal function might provide genetic insight into the etiology of these substantial populations of only unilateral MCDK. The recurrent microdeletions encompassing HNF1B could have a significant impact on the mechanism of HNF1B deletions.

  16. The upper respiratory tract is a natural reservoir of haemolytic Mannheimia species associated with ovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Markham, Philip F; Barber, Stuart R

    2015-12-31

    Lamb suckling has been suggested to be an important way of infecting a ewe's udder with different bacteria, including Mannheimia haemolytica. To test the potential role of lambs in transferring Mannheimia species to the ewe's udder, the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of isolates obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs were compared with those obtained from cases of mastitis. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect nasopharyngeal samples from 50 ewes and 36 lambs from three flocks. M. haemolytica and Mannheimia glucosida as well as haemolytic Mannheimia ruminalis-like organisms were detected in the upper respiratory tract of lambs and ewes. Comparison of the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the isolates suggested that the M. haemolytica isolates obtained from different milk samples from ewes with mastitis were more clonal than those obtained from the nasal swabs. However, some nasal isolates within both Mannheimia species had restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns identical to those obtained from milk samples from ewes with mastitis, indicating that lambs may have a role in transferring these organisms to the udder. More clonality was observed between the M. glucosida isolates than between M. haemolytica isolates.

  17. Association of dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus fibers in the deep parietal lobe with both reading and writing processes: a brain mapping study.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing.

  18. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection: a successful prevention effort employing a multipronged initiative at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Suzanne; Gion, Therese; Kennedy, Gregory; Rees, Susan; Safdar, Nasia; VanDenBergh, Shelly; Weber, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    An interdisciplinary clinical improvement workgroup was formed at this academic medical center with the goal of reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). In 2011, the CAUTI rate was noted to be 4.7 CAUTIs per 1000 catheter days. Rounding by 2 lead clinical nurse specialists revealed deficiencies in current practice, which were addressed with multifaceted strategies, including evidence-based indwelling urinary catheter and bladder management protocols, education of staff, reporting of data, and utilization of an icon in the electronic health record (EHR). After the implementation of these strategies, the CAUTI rate decreased and was noted to be 2.4 in February 2013. In addition to this, there was a downward trend line for catheter days.

  19. Interventions for the prevention of catheter associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units: An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Galiczewski, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) put an unnecessary burden on patients and health care systems. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine existing evidence on preventative interventions and protocols currently implemented in intensive care units (ICUs) and the impact they have on CAUTI rates and patient outcomes. This review analysed 14 research articles obtained from electronic databases and included adult patients with urinary catheters in an ICU setting. Evidence demonstrated interventions that included criteria for catheter use, daily review of catheter necessity and discontinuation of catheter prior to day seven were successful in decreasing CAUTI rates. This review provides a scientific basis for the effectiveness of these interventions and protocols. Identification and use of interventions with the greatest positive impact on CAUTI rates are an asset to healthcare professional caring for patients with indwelling catheters and nurse clinicians developing policies.

  20. Characterization of an Unusual Strain of Proteus rettgeri Associated with an Outbreak of Nosocomial Urinary-Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Traub, W. H.; Craddock, M. E.; Raymond, E. A.; Fox, M.; McCall, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    An outbreak of nosocomial urinary-tract infection was caused by a strain of Proteus rettgeri that fermented lactose overnight and was resistant to all antimicrobial drugs tested. The nonmotile isolates shared an O (somatic) antigen that differed from those of wild-type P. rettgeri. The organisms proved markedly serum-sensitive. In rats, the isolates elicited an acute interstitial nephritis with associated transient bacteriuria. Attempts to transfer the lac+ trait and drug-resistance markers to recipient strains of Escherichia coli K-12 failed; exposure of the isolates to acridine orange yielded small numbers of non-lactose-fermenting variants which, however, were still as drug-resistant as before. Epidemiological studies failed to uncover the source of this unique strain and appeared to indicate exogenous spread of infection. PMID:4940869

  1. [Amyloidosis associated with chronic granulomatous disease in a patient with a renal transplant and recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Ablanedo, P; Seco, M

    2002-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease is a group of syndromes which share a defect in a component of the phagocyte NADPH-oxidase complex. Without this enzyme activity, phagocytic cells cannot produce superoxide, peroxide, and other potent microbicidal radicals, and are less able to kill ingested pathogens. The clinical picture is characterised by recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and abnormal tissue granuloma formation. On the other hand, amyloidosis is a systemic disease with renal involvement occurring in the majority of cases. Recurrent amyloidosis is a rare but well documented event in renal transplant recipients. However, graft loss secondary to amyloidosis has been noted infrequently. In addition, de novo amyloidosis has not been previously associated with graft loss. We report here a renal transplant recipient with chronic granulomatous disease and history of recurrent urinary tract infections, who developed nephrotic syndrome and progressive renal insufficiency secondary to de novo AA amyloidosis leading to graft loss 66 months after transplantation.

  2. Cyclic Di-GMP Signaling Contributes to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Mediated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bis-(3′-5′) cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) controls the lifestyle transition between the sessile and motile states in many Gram-negative bacteria, including the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Under laboratory conditions, high concentrations of c-di-GMP decrease motility and promote biofilm formation, while low concentrations of c-di-GMP promote motility and decease biofilm formation. Here we sought to determine the contribution of c-di-GMP signaling to biofilm formation during P. aeruginosa-mediated catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Using a murine CAUTI model, a decrease in CFU was detected in the bladders and kidneys of mice infected with strains overexpressing the phosphodiesterases (PDEs) encoded by PA3947 and PA2133 compared to those infected with wild-type P. aeruginosa. Conversely, overexpression of the diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) encoded by PA3702 and PA1107 increased the number of bacteria in bladder and significantly increased dissemination of bacteria to the kidneys compared to wild-type infection. To determine which of the DGCs and PDEs contribute to c-di-GMP signaling during infection, a panel of PA14 in-frame deletion mutants lacking DGCs and PDEs were tested in the CAUTI model. Results from these infections revealed five mutants, three containing GGDEF domains (ΔPA14_26970, ΔPA14_72420, and ΔsiaD) and two containing dual GGDEF-EAL domains (ΔmorA and ΔPA14_07500), with decreased colonization of the bladder and dissemination to the kidneys. These results indicate that c-di-GMP signaling influences P. aeruginosa-mediated biofilms during CAUTI. IMPORTANCE Biofilm-based infections are an important cause of nosocomial infections, since they resist the immune response and traditional antibiotic treatment. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a second messenger that promotes biofilm formation in many Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we determined the contribution of c

  3. [Experimental induction of biliary tract carcinoma associated with proliferative cholangitis in Syrian hamster].

    PubMed

    Arisato, H

    1996-09-01

    The biliary tract carcinogenesis related to proliferative cholangitis was investigated using Hamster. Proliferative cholangitis was induced by inserting a nylon thread into the papilla followed by ad libitum oral intake of the water including 70 ppm N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine (BOP). The respective 12 animals were sacrificed 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the procedure to evaluate histologic features of the bile ducts and to determine the incidence of carcinoma. The treated specimens showed papillary proliferation of the epithelium, fibrous thickening of the wall and hypertrophy of the peribiliary gland at fourth week; and they appeared to resemble the features observed in the human proliferative cholangitis. This analogy was also confirmed by means of mucin-double staining with PAS-AB. In the extrahepatic bile ducts, the incidence of carcinoma was 41.7% twelve weeks after the treatment. The results of BrdU-staining indicated that the hyperplastic peribiliary glands could presumably be its preceding lesions. In the intrahepatic bile ducts, the minimal carcinoma arose even in 25.0% of the animals treated with BOP administration alone after 12 weeks. However, the incidence of the present model was at higher rate; it was 50.0% and 91.7% at 8 and 12 weeks postprocedure, respectively. The induced carcinomas were also relatively advanced and consisted of different histologic types. The results of BrdU Labeling Index suggested that hyperplasia and dysplasia might be precancerous lesion. In conclusion, this hamster model is easily established and would provide us valuable informations concerning the proliferative cholangitis related carcinogenesis of the bile ducts.

  4. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes.

  5. Outcomes in UK patients with hospital-acquired bacteraemia and the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Mark; Welch, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is lack of contemporary outcome data on patients with hospital-acquired infections that cause bacteraemia. We determined the risk factors for 7-day mortality and investigated the hypothesis that, compared with central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bacteraemic infections, catheter-associated bacteraemic urinary tract infections (UTIs) were significantly associated with 7-day mortality. Methods From October 2007 to September 2008, demographical, clinical and microbiological data were collected on patients with hospital-acquired bacteraemia. Patients were followed until death, hospital discharge or recovery from infection. Risk factors for 7-day mortality were determined and multivariate logistic regression was used to define the association between catheter-associated bacteraemic UTIs and likelihood of death. Results 559 bacteraemic episodes occurred in 437 patients. Overall, there were 90 deaths (20.6%) at 7 days and 153 deaths (35.0%) at 30 days. Among patients with catheter-associated bacteraemic UTIs, 7-day and 30-day mortalities associated with each bacteraemic episode were 25/83 (30.1%) and 33/83 (39.8%), respectively. Within this subgroup, the commonest isolates were Escherichia coli, 36 (43.4%), Proteus mirabilis, 11 (13.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 9 (10.8%). There were 22 (26.5%) multiple drug-resistant isolates and, of the E coli infections, 6 (16.7%) were extended spectrum β-lactamase producers. In univariate analysis, the variables found to have the strongest association with 7-day mortality were age, Pitt score, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), medical speciality and site of infection. Compared with CVC-associated bacteraemic infections, there was a significant association between catheter-associated bacteraemic UTIs and 7-day mortality (OR 4.16, 95% CI 1.86 to 9.33). After adjustment for age and CCI, this association remained significant (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.19 to 7.07). Conclusions Compared with CVC-associated bacteraemic

  6. Is acute idiopathic pericarditis associated with recent upper respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Florian; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cecile; Meyer, Philippe; Genne, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the association of a clinical diagnosis of acute idiopathic pericarditis (AIP), and a reported upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) or gastroenteritis (GE) in the preceding month. Design Patients who were hospitalised with a first diagnosis of AIP were retrospectively compared with a control group of patients admitted with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), matched by gender and age. Setting Primary and secondary care level; one hospital serving a population of about 170 000. Participants A total of 51 patients with AIP were included, of whom 46 could be matched with 46 patients with control DVT. Only patients with a complete review of systems on the admission note were included in the study. Main outcome measure Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the association of a clinical diagnosis of AIP and an infectious episode (URTI or GE) in the month preceding AIP diagnosis. Results Patients with AIP had more often experienced a recent episode of URTI or GE than patients with DVT (39.1% vs 10.9%, p=0.002). The multivariate conditional regression showed that AIP was independently associated with URTI or GE in the last month preceding diagnosis (OR=37.18, 95% CI=1.91 to 724.98, p=0.017). Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study demonstrating an association between a recent episode of URTI or GE and a clinical diagnosis of AIP. PMID:26603247

  7. Preparation of adult muscle fiber-associated stem/precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Michael J; Conboy, Irina M

    2010-01-01

    In our studies of muscle regeneration we have developed, modified, and optimized techniques to isolate and study the stem and precursor cells to muscle tissue. Our goals have been to obtain for study muscle fibers in bulk, or the fiber-associated cells, separately from the other cells found in muscle. Using these techniques, myofiber-associated cells may be isolated from neonatal through adult muscle, from resting or from regenerating muscle, thus allowing one to investigate the cellular populations participating during the time course of these events. The protocol is applicable to any age and condition of muscle and may be adapted for other tissues.

  8. Metagenomic Sequencing of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Upper Bronchial Tract Microbiome Reveals Functional Changes Associated with Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Simon J S; Lewis, Keir E; Huws, Sharon A; Lin, Wanchang; Hegarty, Matthew J; Lewis, Paul D; Mur, Luis A J; Pachebat, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The microbiome associated with this disease may be an important component of the disease, though studies to date have been based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and have revealed unequivocal results. Here, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the upper bronchial tract (UBT) microbiome to allow for greater elucidation of its taxonomic composition, and revealing functional changes associated with the disease. The bacterial metagenomes within sputum samples from eight COPD patients and ten 'healthy' smokers (Controls) were sequenced, and suggested significant changes in the abundance of bacterial species, particularly within the Streptococcus genus. The functional capacity of the COPD UBT microbiome indicated an increased capacity for bacterial growth, which could be an important feature in bacterial-associated acute exacerbations. Regression analyses correlated COPD severity (FEV1% of predicted) with differences in the abundance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and functional classifications related to a reduced capacity for bacterial sialic acid metabolism. This study suggests that the COPD UBT microbiome could be used in patient risk stratification and in identifying novel monitoring and treatment methods, but study of a longitudinal cohort will be required to unequivocally relate these features of the microbiome with COPD severity.

  9. A Phylogenomic View of Ecological Specialization in the Lachnospiraceae, a Family of Digestive Tract-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Conor J.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Several bacterial families are known to be highly abundant within the human microbiome, but their ecological roles and evolutionary histories have yet to be investigated in depth. One such family, Lachnospiraceae (phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia) is abundant in the digestive tracts of many mammals and relatively rare elsewhere. Members of this family have been linked to obesity and protection from colon cancer in humans, mainly due to the association of many species within the group with the production of butyric acid, a substance that is important for both microbial and host epithelial cell growth. We examined the genomes of 30 Lachnospiraceae isolates to better understand the origin of butyric acid capabilities and other ecological adaptations within this group. Butyric acid production-related genes were detected in fewer than half of the examined genomes with the distribution of this function likely arising in part from lateral gene transfer (LGT). An investigation of environment-specific functional signatures indicated that human gut-associated Lachnospiraceae possess genes for endospore formation, whereas other members of this family lack key sporulation-associated genes, an observation supported by analysis of metagenomes from the human gut, oral cavity, and bovine rumen. Our analysis demonstrates that adaptation to an ecological niche and acquisition of defining functional roles within a microbiome can arise through a combination of both habitat-specific gene loss and LGT. PMID:24625961

  10. New human coronavirus, HCoV-NL63, associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Arden, Katherine E; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P; Mackay, Ian M

    2005-03-01

    A new human coronavirus, HCoV-NL63, was associated recently with bronchiolitis. The current study aimed to examine retrospectively stored specimens for the presence of HCoV-NL63 using nested RT-PCR assays targeting the 1a and 1b genes. The study population was composed of patients with acute respiratory disease warranting presentation to Queensland hospitals. HCoV-NL63 was detected in the nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) of 16 of 840 specimens representing 766 patients (2%). HCoV-NL63 positive individuals were diagnosed most commonly with lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease (81%). The clinical diagnosis was commonly supported by an abnormal chest X-ray (56%) together with respiratory distress (50%), wheeze (44%), and rales (25%) on first presentation with HCoV-NL63 infection. All patients positive for HCoV-NL63 required admission to hospital. Among 38% of HCoV-NL63 positive specimens a second pathogen was detected. Sequencing of amplicon from gene 1b revealed more than 99% nucleotide homology with the viral type strains while sequencing amplicon from gene 1a permitted the grouping of viral strains. It was shown that HCoV-NL63 is associated with severe LRT disease in an Australian hospital setting during the cooler months of the year. We propose that HCoV-NL63 is a global and seasonal pathogen of both children and adults associated with severe LRT illness.

  11. Frontostriatal fiber bundle compromise in HIV infection without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Kemper, Carol A.; Deresinski, Stanley; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative fiber tracking derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to determine whether white matter association, projection, or commissural tracts are affected in nondemented individuals with HIV infection and to identify the regional distribution of sparing and impairment of fiber systems. Methods DTI measured fractional anisotropy and diffusivity, quantified separately for longitudinal (λL) diffusivity (index of axonal injury) and transverse (λT) diffusivity (index of myelin injury), in 11 association and projection white matter tracts and six commissural tracts in 29 men and 13 women with HIV infection and 88 healthy, age-matched controls (42 men and 46 women). Results The total group of HIV-infected individuals had higher diffusivity (principally longitudinal) than controls in the posterior sectors of the corpus callosum, internal and external capsules, and superior cingulate bundles. High longitudinal diffusivity, indicative of axonal compromise, was especially prominent in posterior callosal sectors, fornix, and superior cingulate bundle in HIV with AIDS. Unmedicated patients had notably high transverse diffusivity, indicative of myelin compromise, in the occipital forceps, inferior cingulate bundle, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Pontocerebellar projection fibers were resistant to HIV effects as were commissural fibers coursing through premotor and sensorimotor callosal sectors. Conclusion This quantitative survey of brain fiber tract integrity indicates that even nondemented HIV patients can have neuroradiological evidence for damage to association and commissural tracts. These abnormalities were vulnerable to exacerbation with AIDS and possibly mitigated by HAART. PMID:19730350

  12. Polio-Like Illness Associated With Outbreak of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Children.

    PubMed

    Crone, Megan; Tellier, Raymond; Wei, Xing-Chang; Kuhn, Susan; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Kim, Jong; Mah, Jean K; Mineyko, Aleksandra

    2016-03-01

    Poliomyelitis is a historically devastating neurological complication of poliovirus infection. Poliovirus vaccines have decreased the incidence of poliomyelitis to 209 global cases in 2014, with new cases of acute flaccid myelitis primarily associated with nonpolio enteroviruses. Recently, during outbreaks of enterovirus D68 throughout North America and Europe, cases of acute flaccid myelitis have been reported, suggesting another nonpolio enterovirus associated with acute flaccid myelitis. The authors describe 3 patients diagnosed with acute flaccid myelitis during a province-wide outbreak of enterovirus D68 with the virus detected in 2 of the patients. Given the significant morbidity associated with acute flaccid myelitis and potential for nonpolio enterovirus to cause outbreaks, prompt identification and notification of public health authorities are warranted.

  13. Whole-grain intake and cereal fiber are associated with lower abdominal adiposity in older adults.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Nicola M; Yoshida, Makiko; Shea, M Kyla; Jacques, Paul F; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rogers, Gail; Booth, Sarah L; Saltzman, Edward

    2009-10-01

    Foods high in dietary fiber may play an important role in regulating body weight. Few observational studies have examined the relationship between dietary fiber from different sources and body fat in older adults. Our objectives were to examine the associations among grain intake (whole and refined), dietary fiber and fiber sources, and body fat among older adults. We used data from 434 free-living adults (177 men and 257 women) aged between 60 and 80 y. Dietary intake was estimated from a 126-item semiquantitative FFQ. Percent body fat and percent trunk fat mass were measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After adjustment for covariates, whole-grain intake was inversely associated with BMI [26.8 kg/m(2) (25.7-28.1) vs. 25.8 kg/m(2) (24.6-27.1), (95% CI); P-trend = 0.08], percent body fat [34.5% (32.7-36.3) vs. 32.1% (30.1-34.1); P-trend = 0.02], and percent trunk fat mass [43.0% (40.4-45.5) vs. 39.4% (36.7-42.1); P-trend = 0.02] in the lowest compared with the highest quartile category of whole-grain intake. Refined grain intake was not associated with any measure of body fat distribution. Cereal fiber was inversely associated with BMI [27.3 kg/m(2) (26.1-28.6) vs. 25.4 kg/m(2) (24.3-26.7); P-trend = 0.012], percent body fat [34.7% (32.8-36.6) vs. 31.5% (29.4-33.5); P-trend = 0.004], and percent trunk fat mass [42.8% (40.2-45.4) vs. 37.8% (35.0-40.6); P-trend = 0.001]. No significant association was observed between intakes of total fiber, vegetable or fruit fiber, and body composition measurements. Higher intakes of cereal fiber, particularly from whole-grain sources, are associated with lower total percent body fat and percent trunk fat mass in older adults.

  14. Unexpectedly Higher Morbidity and Mortality of Hospitalized Elderly Patients Associated with Rhinovirus Compared with Influenza Virus Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ivan F. N.; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; To, Kelvin K. W.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Zhu, Shawn H. S.; Zhang, Ricky; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-01-01

    Rhinovirus is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in adults, especially among the elderly and immunocompromised. Nevertheless, its clinical characteristics and mortality risks have not been well described. A retrospective analysis on a prospective cohort was conducted in a single teaching hospital center over a one-year period. We compared adult patients hospitalized for pneumonia caused by rhinovirus infection with those hospitalized for influenza infection during the same period. All recruited patients were followed up for at least 3 months up to 15 months. Independent risk factors associated with mortality for rhinovirus infection were identified. Between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2015, a total of 1946 patients were consecutively included for analysis. Of these, 728 patients were hospitalized for rhinovirus infection and 1218 patients were hospitalized for influenza infection. Significantly more rhinovirus patients were elderly home residents and had chronic lung diseases (p < 0.001), whereas more influenza patients had previous stroke (p = 0.02); otherwise, there were no differences in the Charlson comorbidity indexes between the two groups. More patients in the rhinovirus group developed pneumonia complications (p = 0.03), required oxygen therapy, and had a longer hospitalization period (p < 0.001), whereas more patients in the influenza virus group presented with fever (p < 0.001) and upper respiratory tract symptoms of cough and sore throat (p < 0.001), and developed cardiovascular complications (p < 0.001). The 30-day (p < 0.05), 90-day (p < 0.01), and 1-year (p < 0.01) mortality rate was significantly higher in the rhinovirus group than the influenza virus group. Intensive care unit admission (odds ratio (OR): 9.56; 95% confidence interval (C.I.) 2.17–42.18), elderly home residents (OR: 2.60; 95% C.I. 1.56–4.33), requirement of oxygen therapy during hospitalization (OR: 2.62; 95% C.I. 1.62–4.24), and hemoglobin level <13

  15. Associations of red and processed meat with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and lung.

    PubMed

    Miles, Fayth L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The effect of red and processed meats on cancer survival is unclear. We sought to examine the role of total and processed red meat consumption on all-cause mortality among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and lung, in order to test our hypothesis that red or processed meat was associated with overall mortality in these patients. Using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County, we conducted a case-only analysis to examine the association of red or processed meat consumption on mortality after 12 years of follow-up, using a diet history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for potential confounders. Of 601 UADT cancer cases and 611 lung cancer cases, there were 248 and 406 deaths, respectively, yielding crude mortality rates of 0.07 and 0.12 deaths per year. Comparing the highest with lowest quartile of red meat consumption, the adjusted HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.04-2.57) among UADT cancer cases; for red or processed meat, the adjusted HR was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.10-2.82). A dose-response trend was observed. A weaker association was observed with red meat consumption and overall mortality among lung cancer cases. In conclusion, this case-only analysis demonstrated that increased consumption of red or processed meats was associated with mortality among UADT cancer cases and WAS weakly associated with mortality among lung cancer cases.

  16. Association of SSR markers with important fiber traits in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research are to: 1) report on the diversity in agronomic and fiber traits of the selected cotton germplasm released by the public breeders and private industries, 2) detect the genetic diversity among these lines using SSR markers, and 3) identify the SSR markers association w...

  17. Whole-grain intake and cereal fiber associated with lower abdominal adiposity in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In observational studies, higher whole-grain intakes have been associated with lower body mass index (BMI) and less weight gain, which is attributed to the concomitant increase in fiber intake. However, no data exist on the relationship between whole-grain intake and body fat distribution. The aim o...

  18. Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and upset and their association...

  19. White matter tracts of speech and language.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marion; Jiskoot, Lize C; Papma, Janne M

    2014-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to investigate the white matter (WM) tracts underlying the perisylvian cortical regions known to be associated with language function. The arcuate fasciculus is composed of 3 segments (1 long and 2 short) whose separate functions correlate with traditional models of conductive and transcortical motor or sensory aphasia, respectively. DTI mapping of language fibers is useful in presurgical planning for patients with dominant hemisphere tumors, particularly when combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. DTI has found damage to language networks in stroke patients and has the potential to influence poststroke rehabilitation and treatment. Assessment of the WM tracts involved in the default mode network has been found to correlate with mild cognitive impairment, potentially explaining language deficits in patients with apparently mild small vessel ischemic disease. Different patterns of involvement of language-related WM structures appear to correlate with different clinical subtypes of primary progressive aphasias.

  20. Genetic parameters of objectionable fibers and of their associations with fleece traits in Corriedale sheep.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A L; Urioste, J I; Peñagaricano, F; Neimaur, K; Sienra, I; Naya, H; Kremer, R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the variability and genetic relationships among binary traits denoting the presence or absence of objectionable fibers, namely pigmented (BINPPF), medullated (BINPMED), and kemp fibers (BINPK), and of fleece traits (fiber diameter [FD] and clean fleece weight [CFW]) in Corriedale sheep. Additionally, the total response to selection against objectionable fibers and indirect responses when selecting for fleece traits were evaluated. Fiber records from 679 animals and fleece records from 795 animals obtained from 2 experimental flocks (from 2005 to 2007) were used; the pedigree file included a total of 3,792 animals. Heritability and genetic correlations among the traits were estimated with a multivariate animal model under a Bayesian setting. Heritability estimates (posterior SD) for BINPPF, BINPMED, and BINPK were 0.35 (0.08), 0.37 (0.10), and 0.63 (0.09), respectively; for CFW and FD, estimates were 0.42 (0.09) and 0.43 (0.08), respectively. The genetic correlations between CFW and the 3 types of objectionable fibers were very low (i.e., <0.2). Thus selection for CFW is not expected to affect the number of such fibers in any direction. The same occurred for the genetic correlation between BINPK and FD. Genetic correlations between FD and BINPMED and FD and BINPPF were positive and favorable (0.50 and 0.56, respectively). Selecting for lower FD would decrease the numbers of objectionable fibers. The expected correlated responses in BINPPF, BINPMED, and BINPK when selecting for CFW were -0.03 (0.11), 0.03 (0.11), and -0.05 (0.18), respectively; when selecting for FD, the correlated responses were -0.26 (0.11), -0.26 (0.11), and -0.14 (0.16). Overall, this study reports novel information on genetic parameters for the presence of objectionable fibers and their associations with fleece traits in sheep. Our findings suggest that it could be possible to improve FD while at the same time reducing the content of BINPMED and BINPPF in

  1. Associations of menstrual cycle length with intake of soy, fat, and dietary fiber in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Oba, Shino; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A decreased risk of breast cancer has been reported among women who have longer menstrual cycles or anovulatory cycles. The present study examined the relationships between intake of fat, soy, and dietary fiber and length of menstrual cycle among 341 Japanese women aged 18 to 29 yr old at two colleges and three nursing schools. Intake of nutrients and foods including fats, dietary fiber, and soy products was estimated through the use of a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The mean cycle length was determined for each women based on a prospective record of menstruation. Polyunsaturated fat intake was significantly inversely associated with cycle length; the means of cycle length were 33.2 and 31.0 days for the lowest and the highest quintiles of intake, respectively, after controlling for covariates (trend = 0.03). The odds ratio of a long cycle (> 35 days) for the highest vs. lowest quintile of dietary fiber intake was 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.00-4.47), although the trend was not statistically significant. The data suggest that polyunsaturated fat and dietary fiber intake are associated with the parameters of menstrual cycle length, but further studies are required to better characterize these associations.

  2. Risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections in a tertiary care university hospital in north India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Anupurba, Shampa

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Fluoroquinolone resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has increased with the widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli has been widely studied, though staphylococci and enterococci are also notably resistant. Enterococci being the second most common cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice. This study was undertaken to assess the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal UTI in a tertiary level health facility in north India. Methods: A total of 365 patients with UTI caused by enterococci were studied over a period of two years. Patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and susceptible UTI were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Resistance profile of the isolates against common antibiotics was studied by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Mechanisms for fluoroquinolone resistance was studied by efflux pump inhibitor activity and multiplex PCR targeting the qnr genes. Results: A total of 204 (55.89%) cases and 161 (44.1%) controls were identified. The fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were significantly resistant to ampicillin, high strength aminoglycosides and vancomycin. The majority (78%) of the resistant isolates showed efflux pump activity. Treatment in indoor locations, presence of urinary catheters and pregnancy along with recent exposure to antibiotics especially fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam were identified as independent risk factors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal UTI was largely associated with indoor usage of antibiotics and use of indwelling devices. Knowledge of risk factors is important to curb this emergence of resistance. PMID:28256471

  3. Evidence-based prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections guidelines and burn-injured patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Christ-Libertin, Cheryl; Black, Sharon; Latacki, Theresa; Bair, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to describe effectiveness of an evidence-based guideline designed to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) in reducing CA-UTI in the burn-injured patient population. The study used a pre- and post-bundle implementation comparison design. Inclusion criteria included burn-injured patients of all ages with an indwelling urinary catheter. Patient demographic data were collected by medical record review when informed of a CA-UTI. The Rosswurm-Larrabee Model six-step process model guided implementation of practice change. The sample included eight burn-injured patients (7-88 years). Catheter day range was 1 to 27 days. Each patient had a clear indication for an indwelling urinary catheter; the need for accurate urinary output measurement in a critically injured patient. Four patients had a catheter placed twice during the stay. Nurses reported using a bladder scanner to assess bladder volume for post-operative patients with urinary retention avoiding use of an indwelling urinary catheter in some cases. Integration of evidence-based guidelines in practice resulted in a reduced CA-UTI rate, reduced catheter days, increased days between CA-UTI, and outperformance of the national benchmark statistic. In 2013, the burn unit reduced catheter days by about 75% and reduced infection incidence by >90% in three quarters after implementation of the practice changes. The unit was able to sustain a CA-UTI rate of zero for 248 days.

  4. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are Associated with Increased Risk of Dementia among the Elderly: A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Ping; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsieh, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Ping-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Studies show a strong association between dementia and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether LUTS are a risk factor for cognitive impairment. We enrolled 50-year-old and older subjects with LUTS (LUTS[+]) (n = 6801) and controls without LUTS (LUTS[−]) (n = 20,403) from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. LUTS, dementia, and other confounding factors are defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes. Participants were recruited from 2000 to 2004 and then followed up until death or the end of 2011. The outcome was the onset of dementia, which was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, Cox hazards models, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The incidence of dementia was significantly higher in the LUTS[+] group than in the LUTS[−] group (124.76 versus 77.59/1000 person-years). The increased risk of dementia related to LUTS remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–1.76, P < 0.0001) and higher than that related to cerebrovascular disease (AHR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.26–1.61, P < 0.0001). The outcome suggests the need for early screening and appropriate intervention to help prevent cognitive impairment of patients with LUTS. PMID:26290863

  5. An evaluation of daily bacteriologic monitoring to identify preventable episodes of catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, R A; Mooney, B R; Epstein, B J; Britt, M R

    1982-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of a daily bacteriologic monitoring program for preventing symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) in hospitalized patients with temporary indwelling urethral catheters. We identified 99 instances in which bacteriuria was present at the time of catheter insertion among 1,140 catheterizations. Of those, 62 patients were asymptomatic and 37 patients had fever or symptoms attributable to UTI. Of the 37 symptomatic episodes, only 14 developed symptoms 24 hours or more after the first culture and might be considered potentially preventable. We also identified 76 episodes of acquired bacteriuria among 608 catheterizations that were initially nonbacteriuric in which at least two cultures were available. Of these 76 patients, 51 (67%) remained asymptomatic throughout their period of hospitalization. Of the 25 patients who developed symptomatic infections, only ten were potentially preventable. In all, only 24 symptomatic episodes among 1,140 catheterizations (2%) occurred 24 hours or more after colonization was first detected and might be considered potentially preventable. Our data suggest that routine daily bacteriologic monitoring of urine from all catheterized patients is not an efficient way to decrease the incidence of symptomatic, catheter-associated UTI.

  6. Binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) to the hepatitis delta virus RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Greco-Stewart, Valerie S.; Thibault, Catherine St-Laurent; Pelchat, Martin . E-mail: mpelchat@uottawa.ca

    2006-12-20

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) has a very limited protein coding capacity and must rely on host proteins for its replication. A ribonucleoprotein complex was detected following UV cross-linking between HeLa nuclear proteins and an RNA corresponding to the right terminal stem-loop domain of HDV genomic RNA. Mass spectrometric analysis of the complex revealed the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) as a novel HDV RNA-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated the interaction between HDV RNA and PSF both in vitro in HeLa nuclear extract and in vivo within HeLa cells containing both polarities of the HDV genome. Analysis of the binding of various HDV-derived RNAs to purified, recombinant PSF further confirmed the specificity of the interaction and revealed that PSF directly binds to the terminal stem-loop domains of both polarities of HDV RNA. Our findings provide evidence of the involvement of a host mRNA processing protein in the HDV life cycle.

  7. Elevation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in non-azotemic dogs with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Daure, Evence; Belanger, Marie C; Beauchamp, Guy; Lapointe, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker in humans and dogs with kidney disease. This protein is expressed by many cells including renal tubular cells and neutrophils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of urinary tract infection (UTI) on urinary NGAL (uNGAL) concentration in dogs. Urine culture and measurement of uNGAL level were performed in 80 non-azotemic dogs suspected of UTI and 19 healthy dogs. Dogs were divided in three groups: 19 healthy dogs, 25 dogs with positive culture and 55 dogs suspected of UTI but with negative culture. uNGAL and uNGAL/Creatinine was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in dogs with UTI (14.22 ng/mL;19.74 μg/g) compared to Healthy (0.24 ng/mL;0.11 μg/g) and Negative (1.13 ng/mL;1.28 μg/g) dogs. A uNGAL value <3.38 ng/mL had a negative predictive value for UTI of 87%. Presence of UTI has to be considered when uNGAL is used to detect kidney disease.

  8. Associations between interventions for urolithiasis and urinary tract cancer among patients in Taiwan: The effect of early intervention.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Fan, Wen-Chou; Feng, Yin-Hsun; Lin, Chia-Ho; Lin, Chian-Shiung; Lu, Chih-Cheng; Cheng, Tse-Chou; Tsao, Chao-Jung; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk in patients with a history of urolithiasis and to determine whether intervention for calculi attenuated the risk of subsequent urinary tract cancer (UTC).Using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, we performed a nationwide cohort study enrolling participants (n = 42,732) aged > 30 years who were diagnosed with urinary tract calculi between 2000 and 2009. Age- and gender-matched insured individuals (n = 213,660) found in the health service records over the same period were recruited as the control group. The Cox proportional hazards model and competing risks regression model were used to examine the relationship between urolithiasis and UTC, as well as whether early intervention for urolithiasis decreased the subsequent cancer risk relative to late intervention.Participants with a previous diagnosis of urolithiasis (n = 695) had a 1.82-fold (95% CI: 1.66-1.99, P < 0.001) increased risk of developing UTC. Furthermore, the risk of UTC associated with urolithiasis was higher in women (adjusted HR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.94-3.05) than in men (adjusted HR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.55-1.90). When stratified by cancer site, the adjusted HR for bladder, renal pelvis/ureter, renal, and prostate cancers were 1.94 (95% CI: 1.62-2.33), 2.94 (95% CI: 2.24-3.87), 2.94 (95% CI: 2.29-3.77), and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.27-1.65), respectively. Patients who received interventions for urolithiasis within 3 months of detection had a decreased risk of subsequent UTC (adjusted HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.40-0.71, P < 0.001).The present study demonstrated that urolithiasis increased the risk of subsequent UTC, especially upper UTC. Hence, it is recommended that physicians administer the appropriate interventions as early as possible upon diagnosis of urolithiasis.

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Candidate Gene Association Studies of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men☆

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Rufus; Mangera, Altaf; Tikkinen, Kari A.O.; Rajan, Prabhakar; Pesonen, Jori; Kirby, Anna C.; Thiagamoorthy, Ganesh; Ambrose, Chris; Gonzalez-Maffe, Juan; Bennett, Phillip R.; Palmer, Tom; Walley, Andrew; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Khullar, Vik; Chapple, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Context Although family studies have shown that male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are highly heritable, no systematic review exists of genetic polymorphisms tested for association with LUTS. Objective To systematically review and meta-analyze studies assessing candidate polymorphisms/genes tested for an association with LUTS, and to assess the strength, consistency, and potential for bias among pooled associations. Evidence acquisition A systematic search of the PubMed and HuGE databases as well as abstracts of major urologic meetings was performed through to January 2013. Case-control studies reporting genetic associations in men with LUTS were included. Reviewers independently and in duplicate screened titles, abstracts, and full texts to determine eligibility, abstracted data, and assessed the credibility of pooled associations according to the interim Venice criteria. Authors were contacted for clarifications if needed. Meta-analyses were performed for variants assessed in more than two studies. Evidence synthesis We identified 74 eligible studies containing data on 70 different genes. A total of 35 meta-analyses were performed with statistical significance in five (ACE, ELAC2, GSTM1, TERT, and VDR). The heterogeneity was high in three of these meta-analyses. The rs731236 variant of the vitamin D receptor had a protective effect for LUTS (odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.49–0.83) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 27.2%). No evidence for publication bias was identified. Limitations include wide-ranging phenotype definitions for LUTS and limited power in most meta-analyses to detect smaller effect sizes. Conclusions Few putative genetic risk variants have been reliably replicated across populations. We found consistent evidence of a reduced risk of LUTS associated with the common rs731236 variant of the vitamin D receptor gene in our meta-analyses. Patient summary Combining the results from all previous studies of genetic variants that may

  10. Association of Urinary Tract Infection in Married Women Presenting with Urinary Incontinence in a Hospital based Population

    PubMed Central

    Eswara, Shilpalakshmiprasad; Yesudhason, Bineshlal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) is increasingly recognized as a significant health problem, which remains a hygienic as well as social problem. Women have higher risk of developing incontinence in their lifetime compared with men. Urinary tract infection can increase the incidence of incontinence. Present study was undertaken to assess the association of UTI in married women who presented with UI. Aim The present study was aimed to identify the patients (married women) with complaints of UI and determining its association with UTI; and to identify the causative organism for the UTI along with its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional, non-randomized study of 107 married women with UI, who attended outpatient department in our hospital. Mid-stream urine (MSU) samples were collected from these patients with positive history of incontinence. Screening of urine for significant bacteriuria and culture to identify the etiological agents were performed followed by evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results Overall 25.2% of patients with incontinence had a positive urine culture. History of UTI was elicited in around 38.3% of patients, among which 15% had positive urine culture and 10.3% of the patients who did not have a history had positive culture. Escherichia coli was the commonest causative organism (66.6) causing UTI, followed by Enterococcus spp. (22.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.4%) and Proteus mirabilis (3.7%). The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for Escherichia coli showed high sensitivity to Nitrofurantoin (94.4%) and high resistance to Ampicillin (94.4%). Conclusion Our study revealed one in every four incontinent patients had UTI and almost half of them suffered from previous episodes of UTI. Thus appropriate correction of the existing UTI can help in the treatment of UI. PMID:27134871

  11. Plasma and Mucosal HIV Viral Loads Are Associated with Genital Tract Inflammation In HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Betsy C.; Keller, Marla J.; Shi, Qiuhu; Hoover, Donald R.; Carpenter, Colleen A.; Huber, Ashley; Parikh, Urvi M.; Agnew, Kathy J.; Minkoff, Howard; Colie, Christine; Nowicki, Marek J.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Watts, D. Heather; Anastos, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Systemic and mucosal inflammation may play a role in HIV control. A cross-sectional comparison was conducted among women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) to explore the hypothesis that compared to HIV-uninfected participants, women with HIV and in particular, those with high plasma viral load (PVL) have increased levels of mucosal and systemic inflammatory mediators and impaired mucosal endogenous antimicrobial activity. Methods 19 HIV-uninfected, 40 HIV-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PVL ≤ 2600 copies/ml (low viral load) (HIV+-LVL), and 19 HIV-infected on or off ART with PVL >10,000 (high viral load) (HIV+-HVL) were evaluated. Immune mediators and viral RNA were quantified in plasma and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL). CVL antimicrobial activity was also determined. Results Compared to HIV-uninfected, HIV+-HVL women had higher levels of mucosal, but not systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, higher Nugent scores, and lower E. coli bactericidal activity. In contrast, there were no significant differences between HIV+-LVL and HIV-uninfected controls. After adjusting for PVL, HIV genital tract shedding was significantly associated with higher CVL concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-1α, and RANTES and higher plasma concentrations of MIP-1α. High PVL was associated with higher CVL levels of IL-1β and RANTES, as well as with higher Nugent scores, lower E. coli bactericidal activity, smoking and lower CD4 counts; smoking and CD4 count retained statistical significance in a multivariate model. Conclusion Further study is needed to determine if the relationship between mucosal inflammation and PVL is causal and to determine if reducing mucosal inflammation is beneficial. PMID:23591635

  12. Social, Economic, and Medical Factors Associated With Solifenacin Therapy Compliance Among Workers Who Suffer From Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of hyperactive-type lower urinary tract symptoms is 45.2%, with shares of overactive bladder (OAB) and urge incontinence (UI) symptoms of 10.7% and 8.2%, respectively. We investigated the possible impact of a wide range of social, economic, and medical factors on compliance with solifenacin treatment in the working population. Methods Social, economic, and medical factors as well as the Overactive Bladder questionnaire – the OAB-q Short Form (OAB-q SF), bladder diaries, and uroflowmetry of 1,038 people who were administered solifenacin for a year were gathered from employer documentation. Results Among the subjects, 32% maintained their compliance with solifenacin treatment throughout the year. Only 65% of the patients had compliance exceeding 80%, and 17% of patients had compliance of ≥50%, yet less than 80% were still taking solifenacin 12 months after the beginning of this experiment. Working people whose compliance level was, at least, 80% had reliably higher (P≤0.01) average age, annual salary, and treatment efficacy, and a greater treatment satisfaction level, as well as a lack of satisfaction with other antimuscarinic treatments and higher rate of urge UI diagnosis. The same cohort also featured a lower level (P≤0.01) of caffeine abuse and lower share of salary spent purchasing solifenacin. Conclusions This study has shown that compliance with solifenacin treatment is associated with a number of significant medical, social, and economic factors. The medical factors included the type of urination disorder, severity of incontinence symptoms, presence of side effects, treatment efficacy and patients’ satisfaction with it, and experience using other antimuscarinic treatments. Among the social and economic factors, those with the strongest correlation to compliance were patient age, employment in medicine and education, annual income level, percentage of solifenacin purchase expenditures, and caffeine abuse. Factors with a weaker

  13. Lifestyle and Health Factors Associated with Progressing and Remitting Trajectories of Untreated Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms among Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Lynn M.; Holton, Kathleen F.; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Lapidus, Jodi A.; Ramsey, Katrina; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of factors associated with the course of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) before treatment is needed to inform preventive interventions. In a prospective study of elderly men untreated for LUTS, we identified factors associated with symptom progression and remission. Methods In community dwelling U.S. men age ≥ 65 years, the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) was repeated four times, once at baseline (2000–2002) and then every two years thereafter. Analyses included 1740 men with all four AUA-SI assessments, who remained free from diagnosed prostate cancer, and who reported no treatment for LUTS or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) during follow-up that averaged 6.9 (±0.4) years. LUTS change was determined with group-based trajectory modeling of the repeated AUA-SI measures. Multivariable logistic regression was then used to determine the baseline factors associated with progressing compared to stable trajectories, and with remitting compared to progressing trajectories. Lifestyle, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), mobility, mental health (Short-Form 12), medical history, and prescription medications were considered for selection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for variables in each model. Results We identified 10 AUA-SI trajectories: four stable (1 277 men, 73%), three progressing (345 men, 20%), two remitting (98 men, 6%), and one mixed (20 men, 1%). Men in progressing compared to stable trajectories were more likely to have mobility limitations (OR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.0–3.8), poor mental health (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.4), BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.0–2.8), hypertension (OR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.0–2.4), and back pain (OR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Men in remitting compared to progressing trajectories more often used central nervous system medications (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.1–4.9) and less often had a history of problem drinking (OR=0.4. 95% CI: 0.2–0.9). Conclusions Several non

  14. Diamine oxidase as a marker of intestinal mucosal injury and the effect of soluble dietary fiber on gastrointestinal tract toxicity after intravenous 5-fluorouracil treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Fukudome, Ian; Kobayashi, Michiya; Dabanaka, Ken; Maeda, Hiromichi; Okamoto, Ken; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Baba, Ryoko; Kumagai, Nana; Oba, Koji; Fujita, Mamoru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    The level of plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) activity is associated with the maturation and integrity of small intestinal mucosa. This study in rats investigated whether a decreased level of plasma DAO could reflect the severity of mucosal injury due to intravenous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment. The beneficial effect of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) on preventing diarrhea after 5-FU treatment was also examined. To induce diarrhea, 5-FU (50 mg/kg/day for four days) was administered via the tail vein with or without SDF supplementation. After 5-FU treatment, the majority of rats developed moderate to severe diarrhea, and levels of plasma DAO activity significantly decreased compared to those of control group (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed disarrangement of the small intestinal villi. Contrarily, the rats supplemented with SDF had diarrhea less frequently (50.0 vs. 91.7 %, P = 0.025) on day five, and DAO activity levels were significantly higher than in those rats administered 5-FU alone (8.25 ± 5.34 vs. 5.50 ± 4.32, P = 0.023). In conclusion, plasma DAO activity decreases in response to severe intestinal mucosal injury after 5-FU treatment, and SDF supplementation might be a practical and useful treatment for reducing the intestinal toxicity of 5-FU.

  15. Dietary fiber intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Eshak, Ehab S; Iso, Hiroyasu; Date, Chigusa; Kikuchi, Shogo; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wada, Yasuhiko; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2010-08-01

    Dietary fiber protects against coronary heart disease (CHD), but evidence in Asia is limited. We examined the association between dietary fiber intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Japanese population in a prospective study of 58,730 Japanese men and women aged 40-79 y in which dietary fiber intake was determined by a self-administered FFQ. The participants were followed up from 1988-1990 to the end of 2003. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI of mortality were calculated per quintile of fiber intake. During the 14-y follow-up, a total of 2080 CVD deaths (983 strokes, 422 CHD, and 675 other CVD) were documented. Total, insoluble, and soluble dietary fiber intakes were inversely associated with risk of mortality from CHD and total CVD for both men and women. For men, the multivariable HR (95% CI) for CHD in the highest vs. the lowest quintiles were 0.81 [(95% CI, 0.61-1.09); P-trend = 0.02], 0.48 [(95% CI, 0.27-0.84); P-trend < 0.001], and 0.71 [(95% CI, 0.41-0.97); P-trend = 0.04] for total, insoluble, and soluble fiber, respectively. The respective HR (95% CI) for women were 0.80 [(95% CI, 0.57-0.97); P-trend = 0.01], 0.49 [(95% CI, 0.27-0.86); P-trend = 0.004], and 0.72 [(95% CI, 0.34-0.99); P-trend = 0.03], respectively. For fiber sources, intakes of fruit and cereal fibers but not vegetable fiber were inversely associated with risk of mortality from CHD. In conclusion, dietary intakes of fiber, both insoluble and soluble fibers, and especially fruit and cereal fibers, may reduce risk of mortality from CHD.

  16. Isolation of a cotton CAP gene: a homologue of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein highly expressed during fiber elongation.

    PubMed

    Kawai, M; Aotsuka, S; Uchimiya, H

    1998-12-01

    The cDNA encoding CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA (GhCAP) contained an open reading frame that encoded 471 amino acid residues. RNA blot analysis showed that the cotton CAP gene was expressed mainly in young fibers.

  17. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. Methods To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. Results 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, p<0.001) using a reminder or stop order, with five studies also including interventions to decrease initial UC placement. The pooled (nine studies) standardised mean difference (SMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was −1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD −0.37; p<0.001) but not in reminder studies (SMD, −1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. Conclusions UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits. PMID:24077850

  18. Enhancing Resident Safety by Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infection: A National Initiative to Reduce Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Meddings, Jennifer; Edson, Barbara S.; McNamara, Sara E.; Trautner, Barbara W.; Stone, Nimalie D.; Krein, Sarah L.; Saint, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Preventing healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a key contributor to enhancing resident safety in nursing homes. In 2013, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services approved a plan to enhance resident safety by reducing HAIs in nursing homes, with particular emphasis on reducing indwelling catheter use and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Lessons learned from a recent multimodal Targeted Infection Prevention program in a group of nursing homes as well as a national initiative to prevent CAUTI in over 950 acute care hospitals called “On the CUSP: STOP CAUTI” will now be implemented in nearly 500 nursing homes in all 50 states through a project funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). This “AHRQ Safety Program in Long-Term Care: HAIs/CAUTI” will emphasize professional development in catheter utilization, catheter care and maintenance, and antimicrobial stewardship as well as promoting patient safety culture, team building, and leadership engagement. We anticipate that an approach integrating technical and socio-adaptive principles will serve as a model for future initiatives to reduce other infections, multidrug resistant organisms, and noninfectious adverse events among nursing home residents. PMID:25814630

  19. Associations between intrauterine bacterial infection, reproductive tract inflammation, and reproductive performance in pasture-based dairy cows.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Melvin; Buddle, Bryce M; Heuer, Cord; Hussein, Hassan; Zheng, Tao; LeBlanc, Stephen J; McDougall, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive tract bacterial infections, particularly those caused by Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes, can have a negative impact on reproductive performance. It has been hypothesized that the presence of E coli early postpartum may increase the risk of isolation of T pyogenes later postpartum. The objective of the present study was to examine associations between intrauterine bacterial infections with E coli and T pyogenes and any bacterial growth (irrespective of bacterial species), purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), cytologic evidence of endometritis (an increased proportion of polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]), and reproductive performance. Dairy cows (n = 272) from six herds were examined at Days 0 (median, 2 days in milk), 21 and 42 postpartum. From each cow two intrauterine samples were collected via triple-guarded cytobrush at Days 0 and 21. The first cytobrush was used for bacteriologic culture. Escherichia coli and T pyogenes were isolated by culture, and E coli isolates were assigned to one of four phylogenetic groups using a two-step triplex polymerase chain reaction. In addition, T pyogenes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The second cytobrush was used to prepare a cytology slide. Nucleated cells (n = 200) were categorized as epithelial cells, PMNs, or macrophages. Cows were also assessed for body condition score, PVD score, the presence of a CL, and pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariable models. There was no association between the presence of E coli at Day 0 and probability of isolation of T pyogenes 3 weeks later; however, E coli positive cows at Day 0 were more likely to be diagnosed with E coli at Day 21 (relative risk [RR] = 2.0, P < 0.01). Escherichia coli at Day 0 or T pyogenes at Day 21 increased the risk of PVD diagnosis 3 weeks later (RR = 1.9; P = 0.04 and RR = 3.0; P = 0.05, respectively). Cows with any bacterial growth at Day 21, irrespective of species, were less likely to conceive within 3

  20. Banana (Musa sp. var. elakki bale) flower and pseudostem: dietary fiber and associated antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jamuna J; S, Mahadevamma; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-11

    Banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (PS) are byproducts of banana cultivation and are known to have health beneficial effects. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber composition and antioxidant effect of BF and PS. In the present study, BF and PS were found to be rich in dietary fiber (65.6 ± 1.32 and 28.8 ± 0.98%, respectively). Dietary fiber fractions were extracted and characterized in terms of sugar profile, and antioxidant activities were determined. BF and PS fractions were rich in sugars and showed wide diversity with respect to the nature of the sugars. Hemicellulose A fraction of BF showed high amounts of total polyphenols and total antioxidants, which were 121.8 ± 1.9 and 39.03 ± 0.118 μg/mg extract, respectively. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phenolic acids in hemicellulose A and B fractions of BF. These results indicate that BF and PS are rich sources of dietary fiber associated with polyphenols, which could promote health beneficial effects.

  1. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Hooton, Thomas M; Bradley, Suzanne F; Cardenas, Diana D; Colgan, Richard; Geerlings, Suzanne E; Rice, James C; Saint, Sanjay; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Tambayh, Paul A; Tenke, Peter; Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2010-03-01

    Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of persons with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI), both symptomatic and asymptomatic, were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The evidence-based guidelines encompass diagnostic criteria, strategies to reduce the risk of CA-UTIs, strategies that have not been found to reduce the incidence of urinary infections, and management strategies for patients with catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria or symptomatic urinary tract infection. These guidelines are intended for use by physicians in all medical specialties who perform direct patient care, with an emphasis on the care of patients in hospitals and long-term care facilities.

  2. "Lose the Tube": A Choosing Wisely initiative to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hospitalist-led inpatient units.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyung J; Khalil, Steve; Poeran, Jashvant; Mazumdar, Madhu; Bravo, Nathaniel; Wallach, Fran; Markoff, Brian; Lee, Nathan; Dunn, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    We developed a multidisciplinary initiative, "Lose the Tube," focused on a Choosing Wisely recommendation to decrease catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates and catheter days. Through an electronic health record catheter identification tool, daily interdisciplinary query, and clinician education, our multifaceted intervention reduced mean per-person catheter days from 3.3 to 2.9, decreased CAUTI rates from 2.85 to 0.32 per 1,000 catheter days, and reduced cost by $32,245.

  3. Conservative, Surgical, and Prosthetic Treatment of a Patient with a Periapical Lesion Associated with an Atypical Intraoral Sinus Tract

    PubMed Central

    Tschoppe, Peter; Kielbassa, Andrej M.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a clinical case with an atypical intraoral sinus tract formation from diagnosis and treatment to short-term outcome and definitive prosthetic rehabilitation. In detail, the patient underwent conservative nonsurgical root canal treatment followed by guided bone augmentation of the regions involved in periapical inflammation and sinus tract formation. The removal of the inflammatory source of the lesion as well as the affected tissue clearly led to a healing of the surrounding bone tissues. Subsequently, the tooth was reconstructed using a fibreglass post and a metal-ceramic crown; an implant was successfully placed in the previously inflamed bone region. PMID:26064699

  4. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended.

  5. Differential characteristics of healthcare-associated compared to community-acquired febrile urinary tract infections in males.

    PubMed

    Smithson, A; Ramos, J; Bastida, M T; Bernal, S; Jove, N; Niño, E; Msabri, N; Porrón, R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the characteristics of healthcare-associated febrile urinary tract infection (HCA-FUTI) compared to community-acquired FUTI (CA-FUTI) in men. An ambispective cross-sectional study in which we recorded clinical and microbiology data and outcomes from males with FUTI attended in the Emergency Department was carried out. A total of 479 males with FUTI, 162 (33.8%) HCA-FUTI and 317 (66.2%) CA-FUTI, were included. HCA-FUTI patients were older (p < 0.001), had higher Charlson scores (p < 0.001) and received previous antimicrobial treatment more frequently (p < 0.001) compared to CA-FUTI patients. HCA-FUTI was less likely caused by Escherichia coli (p < 0.001) and more frequently by Klebsiella spp. (p = 0.02), Enterobacter spp. (p < 0.001) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p < 0.001). Resistance to ceftriaxone (p = 0.006), gentamicin (p < 0.001), quinolones (p < 0.001), co-trimoxazole (p = 0.001) and fosfomycin (p = 0.009) was higher among E. coli strains isolated from males with HCA-FUTI and so was the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and AmpC E. coli and Klebsiella spp.-producing strains (p = 0.012). Inadequate antimicrobial treatment and all-cause in-hospital mortality was associated with HCA-FUTI (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Independent factors for mortality were severe sepsis or septic shock [odds ratio (OR) 29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.9-214] and cirrhosis (OR 23.7; 95% CI: 1.6-350.6). Male patients with HCA-FUTI have different clinical characteristics, outcomes and microbiological features compared to CA-FUTI patients. Previous contact with the healthcare system has to be taken into consideration when deciding the optimal antimicrobial treatment in males with FUTI.

  6. The association between indwelling urinary catheter use in the elderly and urinary tract infection in acute care

    PubMed Central

    Hazelett, Susan E; Tsai, Margaret; Gareri, Michele; Allen, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs) is thought to be the most significant risk factor for developing nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, it is unclear how many elderly patients have preexisting bacteriuria prior to IUC placement. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) the frequency and appropriateness of IUC use in the Emergency Department (ED) in elderly patients admitted to our acute care hospital, 2) the percentage of elderly patients with an IUC who were discharged from the hospital with a diagnosis of UTI, 3) the percentage of patients with IUCs who were diagnosed and treated for UTI in the ED or who had admission bacteriuria ≥105 organisms/ml indicating preexisting UTI, and 4) the percentage of patients with no indication of UTI on admission who had inappropriately placed IUCs and subsequently were diagnosed with a UTI. Methods Retrospective chart review. Chi square used to test significance of differences in proportions. Results Seventy three percent of patients who received an IUC in the ED were elderly (≥65 years old). During the study period, 277 elderly patients received an IUC prior to admission. Of these, 77 (28%) were diagnosed with UTI during their hospitalization. Fifty three (69%) of those diagnosed with a UTI by discharge either had the UTI diagnosed in the ED or had bacteriuria ≥105 organisms/ml prior to IUC placement. Of the 24 elderly patients who developed a catheter-associated UTI (i.e., 9% of the elderly population who received an IUC), 11 of the IUCs were placed inappropriately. Thus, 4% of elderly patients with no indication of UTI on admission who received an inappropriate IUC in the ED had a primary or secondary diagnosis of UTI by discharge. The overall rate of nosocomial UTI due to an inappropriately placed IUC was the same in males and females. Conclusion This study indicates that the strong association between IUC use and UTI may be partly explained by the high prevalence of

  7. Severe lower respiratory tract infections associated with human parainfluenza viruses 1-3 in children infected and noninfected with HIV type 1.

    PubMed

    Madhi, S A; Ramasamy, N; Petersen, K; Madhi, A; Klugman, K P

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical course of severe lower respiratory tract infections associated with human parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (HPIV 1-3) in hospitalised children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) versus that in hospitalised children not infected with HIV-1. Children were enrolled prospectively as part of a broader study that evaluated the aetiology of lower respiratory tract infections in HIV-1-infected and -noninfected children from March 1997 through March 1999. HPIV types 1-3 were isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirate samples that were analysed using immunofluorescein monoclonal antibody assays. Thirty percent (24 of 80) of the children from whom HPIV was isolated were infected with HIV-1. Sixty-six percent (47 of 62) and 22% (14 of 62) of the HPIV isolates that were typed were subtypes 3 and 1, respectively. The clinical presentation of severe lower respiratory tract infection was similar in both HIV-1-infected and -noninfected children, except that the former were less likely to have wheezing (4.2% vs. 28.6%, P=0.01). Furthermore, the duration of hospitalisation was longer in HIV-1-infected children than in HIV-1-noninfected children (median 11.5 days [range 1-15 days] vs. median 7.5 days [range 1-22 days]; P=0.02), and mortality was higher (5 of 24 [20.8%] infected children vs. 0 of 56 noninfected children; P=0.001). Importantly, four of five (80%) of the HIV-1-infected children who died had other concurrent illnesses or predisposing factors for severe HPIV-associated disease. HPIV-associated lower respiratory tract infection causes greater morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected children than in HIV-1-noninfected children; however, this may be due to other concurrent illnesses in HIV-1-infected children.

  8. Association of dietary fiber with temporal changes in serum cholesterol in Japanese-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Teresa Gontijo; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2006-06-01

    To examine dietary intakes in relation to long-term serum lipoprotein changes in a prospective cohort study with 7 y of follow-up, serum lipids were analyzed by enzymatic methods, while food intake was calculated from validated food frequency questionnaires. First- and second-generation Japanese-Brazilians (n = 316) living in Bauru, São Paulo/Brazil, of both genders, aged 40 to 79 y were assessed at baseline in 1993. Multiple linear regression models were used with changes in serum lipoproteins as the dependent variable and changes in dietary intakes as the independent variables, adjusted for confounding factors. In energy-adjusted analyses, changes in serum total cholesterol were inversely associated with changes in total dietary fiber, fruits/fruit juices and vegetables after adjustment for age and gender. Each increase of 10 g in the consumption of total dietary fiber was associated with a reduction of 12.5 mg/dL in the serum total cholesterol (p<0.05). Our results highlight the importance of increased intakes of total fiber, fruits and vegetables to prevent and control dyslipidemia in Japanese migrants.

  9. Are APOE ɛ genotype and TOMM40 poly-T repeat length associations with cognitive ageing mediated by brain white matter tract integrity?

    PubMed

    Lyall, D M; Harris, S E; Bastin, M E; Muñoz Maniega, S; Murray, C; Lutz, M W; Saunders, A M; Roses, A D; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Royle, N A; Starr, J M; Porteous, D J; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-09-23

    Genetic polymorphisms in the APOE ɛ and TOMM40 '523' poly-T repeat gene loci have been associated with significantly increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated the independent effects of these polymorphisms on human cognitive ageing, and the extent to which nominally significant associations with cognitive ageing were mediated by previously reported genetic associations with brain white matter tract integrity in this sample. Most participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed a reasoning-type intelligence test at age 11 years, and detailed cognitive/physical assessments and structural diffusion tensor brain magnetic resonance imaging at a mean age of 72.70 years (s.d.=0.74). Participants were genotyped for APOE ɛ2/ɛ3/ɛ4 status and TOMM40 523 poly-T repeat length. Data were available from 758-814 subjects for cognitive analysis, and 522-543 for mediation analysis with brain imaging data. APOE genotype was significantly associated with performance on several different tests of cognitive ability, including general factors of intelligence, information processing speed and memory (raw P-values all<0.05), independently of childhood IQ and vascular disease history. Formal tests of mediation showed that several significant APOE-cognitive ageing associations--particularly those related to tests of information processing speed--were partially mediated by white matter tract integrity. TOMM40 523 genotype was not associated with cognitive ageing. A range of brain phenotypes are likely to form the anatomical basis for significant associations between APOE genotype and cognitive ageing, including white matter tract microstructural integrity.

  10. Regularity properties of fiber derivatives associated with higher-order mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study fiber derivatives associated to Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing the dynamics of a higher-order autonomous dynamical system. More precisely, given a function in T∗T(k-1)Q, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for such a function to describe the dynamics of a kth-order autonomous dynamical system, thus being a kth-order Hamiltonian function. Then, we give a suitable definition of (hyper)regularity for these higher-order Hamiltonian functions in terms of their fiber derivative. In addition, we also study an alternative characterization of the dynamics in Lagrangian submanifolds in terms of the solutions of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations.

  11. High Fiber and Low Starch Intakes Are Associated with Circulating Intermediate Biomarkers of Type 2 Diabetes among Women123

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H; Malik, Vasanti S; Campos, Hannia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carbohydrate quality has been consistently related to the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, limited information is available about the effect of carbohydrate quality on biomarkers related to T2D. Objective: We examined the associations of carbohydrate quality measures (CQMs) including carbohydrate intake; starch intake; glycemic index; glycemic load; total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intakes; and different combinations of these nutrients with plasma concentrations of adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of 2458 diabetes-free women, ages 43–70 y, in the Nurses Health Study. CQMs were estimated from food-frequency questionnaires, and averages from 1984, 1986, and 1990 were used. Plasma biomarkers were collected in 1990. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations between CQMs and biomarkers. Results: After age, body mass index, lifestyle, and dietary variables were adjusted, 1) total fiber intake was positively associated with adiponectin (P-trend = 0.004); 2) cereal fiber intake was positively associated with adiponectin and inversely associated with CRP, and fruit fiber intake was negatively associated with HbA1c concentrations (all P-trend < 0.03); 3) starch intake was inversely associated with adiponectin (P-trend = 0.02); 4) a higher glycemic index was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HbA1c (both P-trend < 0.05); 5) a higher carbohydrate-to-total fiber intake ratio was associated with lower adiponectin (P-trend = 0.005); 6) a higher starch-to-total fiber intake ratio was associated with lower adiponectin and higher HbA1c (both P-trend < 0.05); and 7) a higher starch-to-cereal fiber intake ratio was associated with lower adiponectin (P-trend = 0.002). Conclusions: A greater fiber intake and a lower starch-to-fiber intake ratio are favorably associated with adiponectin and HbA1c, but only cereal fiber intake was

  12. Association between dietary fiber and lower risk of all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Long-Gang; Wu, Qi-Jun; Ma, Xiao; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-15

    Although in vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that dietary fiber might have beneficial effects on health, results on the association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality in epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess this association. Pertinent studies were identified by searching articles in PubMed and Web of Knowledge through May 2014 and reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effects models. Seventeen prospective studies (1997-2014) that had a total of 67,260 deaths and 982,411 cohort members were included. When comparing persons with dietary fiber intakes in the top tertile with persons whose intakes were in the bottom tertile, we found a statistically significant inverse association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality, with an overall relative risk of 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.87; I(2) = 41.2%). There was a 10% reduction in risk for per each 10-g/day increase in fiber intake (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.94; I(2) = 77.2%). The combined estimate was robust across subgroup and sensitivity analyses. No publication bias was detected. A higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk of death. These findings suggest that fiber intake may offer a potential public health benefit in reducing all-cause mortality.

  13. Is Remodelling of Corticospinal Tract Terminations Originating in the Intact Hemisphere Associated with Recovery following Transient Ischaemic Stroke in the Rat?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Emma J.; Dewar, Deborah; Maxwell, David J

    2016-01-01

    Following large strokes that encompass the cerebral cortex, it has been suggested that the corticospinal tract originating from the non-ischaemic hemisphere reorganises its pattern of terminal arborisation within the spinal cord to compensate for loss of function. However many strokes in humans predominantly affect subcortical structures with minimal involvement of the cerebral cortex. The aim of the present study was to determine whether remodelling of corticospinal terminals arising from the non-ischaemic hemisphere was associated with spontaneous recovery in rats with subcortical infarcts. Rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery and 28 days later, when animals exhibited functional recovery, cholera toxin b subunit was injected into the contralesional, intact forelimb motor cortex in order to anterogradely label terminals within cervical spinal cord segments. Infarcts were limited to subcortical structures and resulted in partial loss of corticospinal tract axons from the ischaemic hemisphere. Quantitative analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the numbers of terminals on the contralesional side of the spinal grey matter between ischaemic and sham rats. The results indicate that significant remodelling of the corticospinal tract from the non-ischaemic hemisphere is not associated with functional recovery in animals with subcortical infarcts. PMID:27014870

  14. Tract-Specific Correlates of Neuropsychological Deficits in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jung, Na-Yeon; Han, Cheol E; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoo, Sang Wook; Kim, Hee-Jong; Kim, Eun-Joo; Na, Duk L; Lockhart, Samuel N; Jagust, William J; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    The white matter tract-specific correlates of neuropsychological deficits are not fully established in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI), where white matter tract damage may be a critical factor in cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tract-specific correlates of neuropsychological deficits in SVCI patients using tract-specific statistical analysis (TSSA). We prospectively recruited 114 SVCI patients, and 55 age-, gender-, and education-matched individuals with normal cognition (NC). All participants underwent diffusion weighted imaging and neuropsychological testing. We classified tractography results into fourteen major fiber tracts and analyzed group comparison and correlation with cognitive impairments. Relative to NC subjects, SVCI patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy values in bilateral anterior-thalamic radiation, cingulum, superior-longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and left inferior-longitudinal fasciculus. Focal disruptions in specific tracts were associated with specific cognitive impairments. Our findings suggest that disconnection of specific white matter tracts, especially those neighboring and providing connections between gray matter regions important to certain cognitive functions, may contribute to specific cognitive impairments in SVCI.

  15. Association of O-Antigen Serotype with the Magnitude of Initial Systemic Cytokine Responses and Persistence in the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Dennis J.; Patel, Ashay S.; Mohamed, Ahmad; Storm, Douglas W.; Singh, Chandra; Li, Birong; Zhang, Jingwen; Koff, Stephen A.; Jayanthi, Venkata R.; Mason, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common ailments requiring both short-term and prophylactic antibiotic therapies. Progression of infection from the bladder to the kidney is associated with more severe clinical symptoms (e.g., fever and vomiting) as well as with dangerous disease sequelae (e.g., renal scaring and sepsis). Host-pathogen interactions that promote bacterial ascent to the kidney are not completely understood. Prior studies indicate that the magnitude of proinflammatory cytokine elicitation in vitro by clinical isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) inversely correlates with the severity of clinical disease. Therefore, we hypothesize that the magnitude of initial proinflammatory responses during infection defines the course and severity of disease. Clinical UPEC isolates obtained from patients with a nonfebrile UTI elicited high systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI in a murine model and were attenuated in bladder and kidney persistence. Conversely, UPEC isolates obtained from patients with febrile UTI elicited low systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI and exhibited prolonged persistence in the bladder and kidney. Soluble factors in the supernatant from saturated cultures as well as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serotype correlated with the magnitude of proinflammatory responses in vitro. Our data suggest that the structure of the O-antigen sugar moiety of the LPS may determine the strength of cytokine induction by epithelial cells. Moreover, the course and severity of disease appear to be the consequence of the magnitude of initial cytokines produced by the bladder epithelium during infection. IMPORTANCE The specific host-pathogen interactions that determine the extent and course of disease are not completely understood. Our studies demonstrate that modest changes in the magnitude of cytokine production observed using in vitro models of infection translate into

  16. hnRNP I, the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein: distinct nuclear localization and association with hnRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Ghetti, A; Piñol-Roma, S; Michael, W M; Morandi, C; Dreyfuss, G

    1992-01-01

    Many hnRNP proteins and snRNPs interact with hnRNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and affect the fate of hnRNA and its processing into mRNA. There are at least 20 abundant proteins in vertebrate cell hnRNP complexes and their structure and arrangement on specific hnRNAs is likely to be important for the processing of pre-mRNAs. hnRNP I, a basic protein of ca. 58,000 daltons by SDS-PAGE, is one of the abundant hnRNA-binding proteins. Monoclonal antibodies to hnRNP I were produced and full length cDNA clones for hnRNP I were isolated and sequenced. The sequence of hnRNP I (59,632 daltons and pI 9.86) demonstrates that it is identical to the previously described polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and shows that it is highly related to hnRNP L. The sequences of these two proteins, I and L, define a new family of hnRNP proteins within the large superfamily of the RNP consensus RNA-binding proteins. Here we describe experiments which reveal new and unique properties on the association of hnRNP I/PTB with hnRNP complexes and on its cellular localization. Micrococcal nuclease digestions show that hnRNP I, along with hnRNP S and P, is released from hnRNP complexes by nuclease digestion more readily than most other hnRNP proteins. This nuclease hypersensitivity suggests that hnRNP I is bound to hnRNA regions that are particularly exposed in the complexes. Immunofluorescence microscopy shows that hnRNP I is found in the nucleoplasm but in addition high concentrations are detected in a discrete perinucleolar structure. Thus, the PTB is one of the major proteins that bind pre-mRNAs; it is bound to nuclease-hypersensitive regions of the hnRNA-protein complexes and shows a novel pattern of nuclear localization. Images PMID:1641332

  17. Striatum-Centered Fiber Connectivity Is Associated with the Personality Trait of Cooperativeness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Moyzis, Robert K.; Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperativeness is an essential behavioral trait evolved to facilitate group living. Social and cognitive mechanisms involved in cooperation (e.g., motivation, reward encoding, action evaluation, and executive functions) are sub-served by the striatal-projected circuits, whose physical existence has been confirmed by animal studies, human postmortem studies, and in vivo human brain studies. The current study investigated the associations between Cooperativeness and fiber connectivities from the striatum to nine subcortical and cortical regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex, dorsal cingulate cortex, and rostral cingulate cortex. Results showed that Cooperativeness was negatively correlated with fiber connectivity for the cognitive control system (from the dorsal caudate to the rostral cingulate cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), but not with fiber connectivity for the social cognitive system (e.g., connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala). These results partially supported Declerck et al.’s (2013) cognitive neural model of the role of cognitive control and social cognition in cooperation. PMID:27755551

  18. High frequency stimulation of the mamillothalamic tract for the treatment of resistant seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartoma.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadaquate; Wright, Ingram; Javed, Shazia; Sharples, Peta; Jardine, Philip; Carter, Michael; Gill, Steven S

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the clinical outcome from stimulation of the mamillothalamic tract in two patients with intractable epilepsy secondary to hypothalamic hamartomas. One patient has a left-sided and the other a right-sided tumor. Both patients presented with a history of gelastic and complex partial seizures resistant to multiple antiepileptic drugs. Both patients underwent insertion of a single deep brain-stimulating electrode ipsilateral to the site of the tumor, lying adjacent to the mamillothalamic tract. Postoperatively they both had a significant reduction in seizure frequency, with one patient being seizure free for the last 10 months. An improvement in mood was reported by the patient's primary carers and demonstrated on quality of life questionnaires.

  19. Inclusion of fiber in diets for brown-egg laying pullets: Effects on growth performance and digestive tract traits from hatching to 17 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Kimiaeitalab, M V; García, J; Mateos, G G

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the effects of fiber inclusion in the diet on growth performance and digestive traits in pullets from hatching to 17 wk of age. The control diets of the 3 feeding periods (0 to 5 wk, 5 to 10 wk, and 10 to 17 wk) were based on corn and soybean meal and did not include any additional fiber source. The experimental diets included 2 or 4% of cereal straw or sugar beet pulp (SBP) at the expense (wt:wt) of the control diet. From 0 to 5 wk of age, fiber inclusion did not affect pullet performance. From hatch to 17 wk of age, the inclusion of straw had little effect on pullet performance but the inclusion of 4% SBP reduced (ADG) (P < 0.05) and reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR; P < 0.001). Pullets fed straw had greater ADG (P < 0.05) and better energy conversion ratio (P < 0.01) than pullets fed SBP. An increase in fiber from 2 to 4% reduced FCR (P < 0.05). Body weight uniformity was not affected by diet. Fiber inclusion increased the relative weight (% BW) of the gizzard at 5 wk (P = 0.056) and 10 wk (P < 0.01) of age, but no differences were detected between fiber sources. At same ages, the relative length (cm/kg BW) of the pullets (P = 0.058 and P < 0.01, respectively) and tarsus (P = 0.079 and P < 0.05, respectively) was higher in pullets fed SBP than in pullets fed straw. Fiber inclusion, however, did not affect any of these traits at 17 wk of age. In summary, the inclusion of 2% straw at the expense (wt:wt) of the whole diet did not affect pullet performance at 17 wk of age. An increase in the level of straw from 2 to 4% reduced FCR but did not affect ADG. The inclusion of SBP, however, reduced pullet growth, with effects being more pronounced at the higher level.

  20. Association of some virulence genes with antibiotic resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection patients in Alexandria, Egypt: A hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Alabsi, Mogeeb S; Ghazal, Abeer; Sabry, Soraya A; Alasaly, Monasr M

    2014-06-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the infecting agent most frequently involved in urinary tract infections (UTIs) worldwide. UPEC resistance to commonly used antibiotics represents a major health problem all over the world. Several factors have been associated with UPEC resistance to antibiotics. The present study deployed a molecular approach to explore the association between some UPEC virulence genes and antibiotic resistance among patients with UTI in Alexandria, Egypt. The study revealed a significant association between presence of the pap gene and resistance to gentamicin; however, it was not significantly associated with resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, quinolones, aminoglycosides, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The genes sfa, aer and cnf1 were not significantly associated with UPEC resistance to any of the tested antibiotics. In conclusion, resistance of UPEC isolates in the present study could be attributed to other virulence factors.

  1. Predictors of Toxicity Associated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Central Hepatobiliary Tract

    SciTech Connect

    Osmundson, Evan C.; Wu, Yufan; Luxton, Gary; Bazan, Jose G.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric predictors of hepatobiliary (HB) toxicity associated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 96 patients treated with SBRT for primary (53%) or metastatic (47%) liver tumors between March 2006 and November 2013. The central HB tract (cHBT) was defined by a 15-mm expansion of the portal vein from the splenic confluence to the first bifurcation of left and right portal veins. Patients were censored for toxicity upon local progression or additional liver-directed therapy. HB toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. To compare different SBRT fractionations, doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) by using the standard linear quadratic model α/β = 10 (BED10). Results: Median follow-up was 12.7 months after SBRT. Median BED10 was 85.5 Gy (range: 37.5-151.2). The median number of fractions was 5 (range: 1-5), with 51 patients (53.1%) receiving 5 fractions and 29 patients (30.2%) receiving 3 fractions. In total, there were 23 (24.0%) grade 2+ and 18 (18.8%) grade 3+ HB toxicities. Nondosimetric factors predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity included cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) histology (P<.0001), primary liver tumor (P=.0087), and biliary stent (P<.0001). Dosimetric parameters most predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity were volume receiving above BED10 of 72 Gy (V{sub BED10}72) ≥ 21 cm{sup 3} (relative risk [RR]: 11.6, P<.0001), V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3} (RR: 10.5, P<.0001), and mean BED10 (Dmean{sub BED10}) cHBT ≥14 Gy (RR: 9.2, P<.0001), with V{sub BED10}72 and V{sub BED10}66 corresponding to V40 and V37.7 for 5 fractions and V33.8 and V32.0 for 3 fractions, respectively. V{sub BED10}72 ≥ 21 cm{sup 3}, V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3}, and Dmean{sub BED10} cHBT ≥14 Gy were consistently predictive of grade 3+ toxicity on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: V

  2. Probabilistic maps of the white matter tracts with known associated functions on the neonatal brain atlas: Application to evaluate longitudinal developmental trajectories in term-born and preterm-born infants.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Kentaro; Chang, Linda; Yamakawa, Robyn; Hayama, Sara; Buchthal, Steven; Alicata, Daniel; Andres, Tamara; Castillo, Deborrah; Oishi, Kumiko; Skranes, Jon; Ernst, Thomas; Oishi, Kenichi

    2016-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to investigate the development of the neonatal and infant brain, and deviations related to various diseases or medical conditions like preterm birth. In this study, we created a probabilistic map of fiber pathways with known associated functions, on a published neonatal multimodal atlas. The pathways-of-interest include the superficial white matter (SWM) fibers just beneath the specific cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas, which were difficult to evaluate with existing DTI analysis methods. The Jülich cytoarchitectonic atlas was applied to define cortical areas related to specific brain functions, and the Dynamic Programming (DP) method was applied to delineate the white matter pathways traversing through the SWM. Probabilistic maps were created for pathways related to motor, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and limbic functions, as well as major white matter tracts, such as the corpus callosum, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the middle cerebellar peduncle, by delineating these structures in eleven healthy term-born neonates. In order to characterize maturation-related changes in diffusivity measures of these pathways, the probabilistic maps were then applied to DTIs of 49 healthy infants who were longitudinally scanned at three time-points, approximately five weeks apart. First, we investigated the normal developmental pattern based on 19 term-born infants. Next, we analyzed 30 preterm-born infants to identify developmental patterns related to preterm birth. Last, we investigated the difference in diffusion measures between these groups to evaluate the effects of preterm birth on the development of these functional pathways. Term-born and preterm-born infants both demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in diffusivity, indicating postnatal maturation in these pathways, with laterality seen in the corticospinal tract and the optic radiation. The comparison between term- and preterm

  3. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage.

  4. The effects of feeding rations that differ in neutral detergent fiber and starch concentration within a day on production, feeding behavior, total-tract digestibility, and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rottman, L W; Ying, Y; Zhou, K; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2015-07-01

    Dairy cows exhibit a daily pattern of feed intake and milk synthesis, and feeding a single total mixed ration over the day may not synchronize ruminal fermentation, nutrient absorption, and milk synthesis. Our hypothesis was that feeding a high-fiber diet during the high-intake period of the day and a low-fiber diet during the low-intake overnight period would stabilize rumen fermentation, nutrient absorption, and the availability of nutrients for milk synthesis. Nine ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 23-d periods. Diets were a control [CON; 33.3% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)], a low-fiber diet (LF; 29.6% NDF), and a high-fiber diet (HF; 34.8% NDF). The HF and LF diets were balanced to provide the same nutrient composition as the control diet when cows were fed a 7:3 ratio of HF:LF. Control cows were fed once daily at 0900h. Cows in the high/low treatment (H/L) were fed HF at 70% of daily offering at 0900h and LF at 30% of daily offering at 2200h; cows in the low/high (L/H) treatment were fed LF at 30% of daily offering at 0900h and HF at 70% of daily offering at 1300h. Dry matter intake was decreased 1.9kg/d by H/L compared with CON, but intake did not differ between H/L and L/H. The H/L and L/H treatments resulted in a large amount of feed consumed after each feeding, which shifted the daily patterns of starch and fiber intake. Treatments did not differ in total-tract digestibility. We detected no differences between CON and H/L for milk yield and composition. The H/L treatment unexpectedly tended to reduce milk and reduced milk fat yield compared with L/H, although L/H was expected to result in poorer rumen fermentation and decreased milk fat yield. Treatment did not affect milk fat concentrations of trans-10 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1, or de novo synthesized fatty acids, but H/L increased milk fat concentration of preformed fatty acids compared with CON (39.15 vs. 37.38% of FA, respectively). Treatment had no effect on plasma

  5. Clinical Significance of Cerebrovascular Biomarkers and White Matter Tract Integrity in Alzheimer Disease: Clinical correlations With Neurobehavioral Data in Cross-Sectional and After 18 Months Follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Kung; Lu, Yan-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Sz-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-07-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors and white matter (WM) damage lead to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer dementia (AD). This study investigated WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild to moderate AD and investigated specific fiber tract involvement with respect to predefined cerebrovascular risk factors and neurobehavioral data prediction cross-sectionally and after 18 months. To identify the primary pathoanatomic relationships of risk biomarkers to fiber tract integrity, we predefined 11 major association tracts and calculated tract specific fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Eighty-five patients with AD underwent neurobehavioral assessments including the minimental state examination (MMSE) and 12-item neuropsychiatric inventory twice with a 1.5-year interval to represent major outcome factors. In the cross-sectional data, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels correlated variably with WM FA values. After entering the biomarkers and WM FA into a regression model to predict neurobehavioral outcomes, only fiber tract FA or homocysteine level predicted the MMSE score, and fiber tract FA or age predicted the neuropsychiatric inventory total scores and subdomains of apathy, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior. In the follow-up neurobehavioral data, the mean global FA value predicted the MMSE and aberrant motor behavior subdomain, while age predicted the anxiety and elation subdomains. Cerebrovascular risk biomarkers may modify WM microstructural organization, while the association with fiber integrity showed greater clinical significance to the prediction of neurobehavioral outcomes both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.

  6. Development of rat tibia innervation: colocalization of autonomic nerve fiber markers with growth-associated protein 43.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Mariusz; Litwin, Jan A; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Zagólski, Olaf; Cichocki, Tadeusz; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Adriaensen, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Development of autonomic innervation of the tibia was investigated in rat fetuses on gestational days (GD) 17-21 and in juvenile animals on postnatal days (PD) 1-28. Double immunofluorescence combined with confocal microscopy was applied to study colocalization of neuronal growth- associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and panneuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP) with markers of the autonomic nervous system: neuropeptide Y (NPY) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) for adrenergic, as well as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) for cholinergic fibers. The first GAP-43-immunoreactive (GAP-IR) nerve fibers were seen on GD17 in the perichondrium of the proximal epiphysis. Further GAP- and PGP-IR innervation appeared in the perichondrium/periosteum of the diaphysis and in the distal epiphysis (GD19), then in the bone marrow and in the intercondylar eminence (GD21). On PD1, NPY-IR and DbetaH-IR fibers appeared within the diaphyseal periosteum and on PD4 within the bone marrow. From PD14, GAP-43 immunoreactivity of NPY-positive fibers decreased. From PD7 on, NPY-IR fibers were observed in cartilage canals of both epiphyses and in the intercondylar eminence. In secondary ossification centers, NPY-IR fibers were seen from PD10, and in the bone marrow of the epiphyses from PD14. First VIP-IR and VAChT-IR fibers were observed on PD4 within the periosteum, bone marrow and patellar ligament. From PD10 on, VIP-positive fibers were seen in the intercondylar eminence, and from PD14 in secondary ossification centers. GAP-43 proved to be superior to PGP 9.5 as marker of growing nerve fibers, mostly due to its earlier appearance. The presence of specific nerve fibers may suggest possible involvement of autonomic innervation in regulation of bone development.

  7. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs.

  8. Evidence for a recurrent microdeletion at chromosome 16p11.2 associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Matthew G; Coughlin, Curtis R; Kaplan, Paige; Conlin, Laura K; Meyers, Kevin E C; Zackai, Elaine H; Spinner, Nancy B; Copelovitch, Lawrence

    2010-10-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract can be associated with Hirschsprung disease. We report on three children with a similar 16p11.2 microdeletion with a spectrum of clinical anomalies consisting of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in two patients (Patients 1 and 2) and Hirschsprung disease in two patients (Patients 1 and 3), leading us to hypothesize that a gene in this region is associated with these phenotypes. Patient 1 presented with left renal agenesis, grade-IV vesicoureteral reflux, and Hirschsprung disease, Patient 2 with left renal agenesis, chronic kidney disease, chronic constipation, seizures, and developmental delay, and Patient 3 with Hirschsprung disease and normal kidneys. Genome-wide microarray analysis demonstrated overlapping microdeletions within 16p11.2. The shortest region of overlap in the three patients contained only eight genes, including the SH2 domain-containing binding protein 1 (SH2B1), an adaptor protein which has been implicated in enhancement of the tyrosine kinase activity of RET, whose role in developmental disease of the kidney and enteric enervation is well established. Our findings suggest that 16p11.2 deletions are associated with abnormalities of renal and enteric development and we hypothesize that deletion of SH2B1 may account for the observed phenotype.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between Mycoplasma spp and upper and lower respiratory tract disease in cats.

    PubMed

    Le Boedec, Kevin

    2017-02-15

    OBJECTIVE To critically assess available data from controlled observational studies on the pathogenic role of Mycoplasma spp in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and lower respiratory tract (LRT) of cats. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. SAMPLE 12 studies. PROCEDURES Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant publications. Risk of bias was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analyses, stratified by URT versus LRT disease, were performed to estimate pooled ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between Mycoplasma isolation and URT or LRT disease. Subanalyses by diagnostic method, sampling site, and environment (shelter vs nonshelter) were planned for studies on URT disease. RESULTS A significant association was found between isolation of mycoplasmal organisms and URT disease (pooled OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.40) but not LRT disease (pooled OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.51 to 4.76). The association with URT disease was only significant when conjunctival or pharyngeal samples from nonshelter cats were analyzed with a Mycoplasma felis-specific PCR assay. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that M felis may be a primary pathogen in cats with URT disease, warranting treatment in infected cats. The environment was important to consider when interpreting a mycoplasma-positive sample because of aclinical carriage, especially in shelter cats. Further investigations are needed to determine the role, if any, of mycoplasmal organisms in LRT disease of cats.

  10. Diffusion-tensor imaging of major white matter tracts and their role in language processing in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Maria V; Isaev, Dmitry Yu; Dragoy, Olga V; Akinina, Yulia S; Petrushevskiy, Alexey G; Fedina, Oksana N; Shklovsky, Victor M; Dronkers, Nina F

    2016-12-01

    A growing literature is pointing towards the importance of white matter tracts in understanding the neural mechanisms of language processing, and determining the nature of language deficits and recovery patterns in aphasia. Measurements extracted from diffusion-weighted (DW) images provide comprehensive in vivo measures of local microstructural properties of fiber pathways. In the current study, we compared microstructural properties of major white matter tracts implicated in language processing in each hemisphere (these included arcuate fasciculus (AF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), uncinate fasciculus (UF), and corpus callosum (CC), and corticospinal tract (CST) for control purposes) between individuals with aphasia and healthy controls and investigated the relationship between these neural indices and language deficits. Thirty-seven individuals with aphasia due to left hemisphere stroke and eleven age-matched controls were scanned using DW imaging sequences. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD) values for each major white matter tract were extracted from DW images using tract masks chosen from standardized atlases. Individuals with aphasia were also assessed with a standardized language test in Russian targeting comprehension and production at the word and sentence level. Individuals with aphasia had significantly lower FA values for left hemisphere tracts and significantly higher values of MD, RD and AD for both left and right hemisphere tracts compared to controls, all indicating profound impairment in tract integrity. Language comprehension was predominantly related to integrity of the left IFOF and left ILF, while language production was mainly related to integrity of the left AF. In addition, individual segments of these three tracts were differentially associated with language production and

  11. An advanced white matter tract analysis in frontotemporal dementia and early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Daianu, Madelaine; Mendez, Mario F; Baboyan, Vatche G; Jin, Yan; Melrose, Rebecca J; Jimenez, Elvira E; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-12-01

    Cortical and subcortical nuclei degenerate in the dementias, but less is known about changes in the white matter tracts that connect them. To better understand white matter changes in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), we used a novel approach to extract full 3D profiles of fiber bundles from diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and map white matter abnormalities onto detailed models of each pathway. The result is a spatially complex picture of tract-by-tract microstructural changes. Our atlas of tracts for each disease consists of 21 anatomically clustered and recognizable white matter tracts generated from whole-brain tractography in 20 patients with bvFTD, 23 with age-matched EOAD, and 33 healthy elderly controls. To analyze the landscape of white matter abnormalities, we used a point-wise tract correspondence method along the 3D profiles of the tracts and quantified the pathway disruptions using common diffusion metrics - fractional anisotropy, mean, radial, and axial diffusivity. We tested the hypothesis that bvFTD and EOAD are associated with preferential degeneration in specific neural networks. We mapped axonal tract damage that was best detected with mean and radial diffusivity metrics, supporting our network hypothesis, highly statistically significant and more sensitive than widely studied fractional anisotropy reductions. From white matter diffusivity, we identified abnormalities in bvFTD in all 21 tracts of interest but especially in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, frontal callosum, anterior thalamic radiations, cingulum bundles and left superior longitudinal fasciculus. This network of white matter alterations extends beyond the most commonly studied tracts, showing greater white matter abnormalities in bvFTD versus controls and EOAD patients. In EOAD, network alterations involved more posterior white matter - the parietal sector of the corpus callosum and parahipoccampal cingulum bilaterally

  12. Association analysis of fiber quality traits and exploration of elite alleles in Upland cotton cultivars/accessions (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Cai, Caiping; Ye, Wenxue; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the elite alleles and germplasm accessions related to fiber quality traits will accelerate the breeding of cotton for fiber quality improvement. In this study, 99 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions with diverse origins were used to perform association analysis of fiber quality traits using 97 polymorphic microsatellite marker primer pairs. A total of 107 significant marker-trait associations were detected for three fiber quality traits under three different environments, with 70 detected in two or three environments and 37 detected in only one environment. Among the 70 significant marker-trait associations, 52.86% were reported previously, implying that these are stable loci for target traits. Furthermore, we detected a large number of elite alleles associated simultaneously with two or three traits. These elite alleles were mainly from accessions collected in China, introduced to China from the United States, or rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%. No one cultivar contained more than half of the elite alleles, but 10 accessions were collected from China and the two introduced from the United States did contain more than half of these alleles. Therefore, there is great potential for mining elite alleles from germplasm accessions for use in fiber quality improvement in modern cotton breeding.

  13. Fiber from a regular diet is directly associated with fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Adriana; Salazar, Nuria; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; González, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    It has recently been suggested that fiber exerts a considerable effect on microbiota composition and on fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, the concentration of which in the colon is important for immune regulation and for maintaining gut and overall health. To test the hypothesis that the fiber consumed in a regular diet affects fecal SCFA concentrations in the elderly, the authors investigated the association between different types of fiber intake and fecal SCFA concentrations in 32 institutionalized elderly subjects aged between 76 and 95 years. Food intake was recorded by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Total, soluble (pectin and hemicellulose) and insoluble (pectin, hemicellulose, Klason lignin, and cellulose) fiber was determined using Marlett Food Composition Tables. Analysis of acetic, propionic, and butyric acid concentrations was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potato intake was directly associated with SCFA concentrations and apple intake with propionate concentration. Of the fibers, cellulose showed an independent association with acetate and butyrate concentrations, and insoluble pectin explained a part of the variation in propionate. In conclusion, our results provide further evidence regarding the relation between diet and SCFA concentration in the elderly. The identification of an association between the regular intake of foods such as potatoes and the production of SCFAs provides an opportunity to improve public health.

  14. Microcystin-LR and embryo-larval development of medaka fish, Oryzias latipes. I. Effects on the digestive tract and associated systems.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Edery, Marc; Huet, Hélène; Puiseux-Dao, Simone; Bernard, Cécile; Fontaine, Jean-Jacques; Crespeau, François; de Luze, Amaury

    2005-07-01

    The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a specific potent PP1 and PP2A protein phosphatase inhibitor. In view to obtain an integrated whole-body, understanding of the key target organs of MC-LR subsequent to embryonic exposure on the anatomy of medaka fish hatchlings, embryos at stage 19 were microinjected with a sublethal dose of MC-LR corresponding to 0.2 pg/vitellus. MC-LR-induced histo-pathological modifications of the alimentary system (i.e. digestive tract, pancreas, liver) were analysed in newly hatched embryos. Our data are indicative of an MC-LR-induced inhibition of both yolk sac resorption and gas concentrating swimbladder expansion. In contrast to control hatchlings, (i) no mucus-secreting cells in the oesophagus, (ii) a decreased folding of the stomach and intestine, (iii) a clear reduction in size of the exocrine pancreas associated with a destructuration of acinar units, and (iv) a strong decrease in the mass and size of the liver were observed in MC-LR treated embryos. Furthermore, as an indication of MC-LR-induced hepatic glycogen store depletion, unstained cytoplasmic areas present in control hatchling hepatocytes, were fully absent in all liver examined in treated embryos. Finally, as a general observation in MC-LR-treated embryos, our data clearly indicated terminal differentiation disorders in all organs associated with the digestive tract.

  15. Severe Bone Marrow Suppression Accompanying Pulmonary Infection and Hemorrhage of the Digestive Tract Associated with Leflunomide and Low-dose Methotrexate Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Caihong; Lu, Ying; Liu, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    A 60-year-old male patient developed hyperpyrexia, cough, expectoration with blood-stained sputum, mouth ulcers, and suppurative tonsillitis after receiving 35 days of combination treatment with leflunomide (LEF) and low-dose methotrexate (MTX) for active rheumatoid arthritis. On admission, routine blood tests showed severe thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and decreased hemoglobin concentration compared with the relatively normal results of 1 month previously during the first hospitalization. Chest radiography revealed inflammation in both lungs, and a fecal occult blood test was positive. Given this presentation, severe bone marrow suppression accompanying pulmonary infection and hemorrhage of the digestive tract associated with LEF and MTX combination therapy was diagnosed. After 28 days of symptomatic treatment, the patient's complications subsided gradually. This case highlighted that bone marrow suppression associated with MTX and LEF combination therapy could be very serious, even at a normal dose or especially at the beginning of treatment. MTX and LEF combination therapy should be used with caution or be limited in those with a history of pulmonary disease, hemorrhage of the digestive tract, or other relevant diseases.

  16. FMEM: functional mixed effects modeling for the analysis of longitudinal white matter Tract data.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Gilmore, John H; Geng, Xiujuan; Martin, Styner; Chen, Kehui; Wang, Jane-ling; Zhu, Hongtu

    2014-01-01

    Many longitudinal imaging studies have collected repeated diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data to understand white matter maturation and structural connectivity pattern in normal controls and diseased subjects. There is an urgent demand for the development of statistical methods for the analysis of diffusion properties along fiber tracts and clinical data obtained from longitudinal studies. Jointly analyzing repeated fiber-tract diffusion properties and covariates (e.g., age or gender) raises several major challenges including (i) infinite-dimensional functional response data, (ii) complex spatial-temporal correlation structure, and (iii) complex spatial smoothness. To address these challenges, this article is to develop a functional mixed effects modeling (FMEM) framework to delineate the dynamic changes of diffusion properties along major fiber tracts and their association with a set of covariates of interest and the structure of the variability of these white matter tract properties in various longitudinal studies. Our FMEM consists of a functional mixed effects model for addressing all three challenges, an efficient method for spatially smoothing varying coefficient functions, an estimation method for estimating the spatial-temporal correlation structure, a test procedure with local and global test statistics for testing hypotheses of interest associated with functional response, and a simultaneous confidence band for quantifying the uncertainty in the estimated coefficient functions. Simulated data are used to evaluate the finite sample performance of FMEM and to demonstrate that FMEM significantly outperforms the standard pointwise mixed effects modeling approach. We apply FMEM to study the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-matter fiber tracts in a clinical study of neurodevelopment.

  17. Expression of growth-associated protein 43 in the skin nerve fibers of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bursova, Sarka; Dubovy, Petr; Vlckova-Moravcova, Eva; Nemec, Martin; Klusakova, Ilona; Belobradkova, Jana; Bednarik, Josef

    2012-04-15

    The growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is known as a marker of regenerating nerve fibers and their continuous remodeling in the adult human skin. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate a possible role for GAP-43 in the detection of the early stages of small-fiber neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) as compared with a well- established and validated parameter - intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) immunoreactive intra-epidermal C fibers. In a group of 21 patients with DM2 within three years of diagnosis (13 men, 8 women; mean age 53.9±12.8; range 30-74) and a group of 17 healthy volunteers (8 men, 9 women; mean age 55.8±8.5; range 45-70 years), skin punch biopsies were taken from a distal calf and double immunostained with both PGP 9.5 and GAP-43. In healthy controls, 96.8% of 629 PGP 9.5 immunoreactive fibers were immunostained with GAP-43; the proportion of PGP 9.5 intra-epidermal nerve fibers immunoreactive for GAP-43 in control subjects ranged from 86.5 to 100%. In DM2 patients, IENFD was significantly lower compared to controls (median, 1.5 vs. 11.2/mm; p<0.001). The proportion of GAP-43 immunoreactive intraepidermal nerve fibers was significantly lower in DM2 patients compared to healthy controls (73.6% of 337 PGP 9.5 positive fibers; p<0.001); ranged from 0 to 98.1%. In conclusion, these results show that impaired regeneration of intra-epidermal C fibers in the early stages of type 2 diabetes mellitus, as indicated by GAP-43, might be a marker of incipient diabetic neuropathy.

  18. Single fiber analyses of glycogen-related proteins reveal their differential association with glycogen in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robyn M; Xu, Hongyang; Latchman, Heidy; Larkins, Noni T; Gooley, Paul R; Stapleton, David I

    2012-12-01

    To understand how glycogen affects skeletal muscle physiology, we examined enzymes essential for muscle glycogen synthesis and degradation using single fibers from quiescent and stimulated rat skeletal muscle. Presenting a shift in paradigm, we show these proteins are differentially associated with glycogen granules. Protein diffusibility and/or abundance of glycogenin, glycogen branching enzyme (GBE), debranching enzyme (GDE), phosphorylase (GP), and synthase (GS) were examined in fibers isolated from rat fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus (SOL) muscle. GDE and GP proteins were more abundant (~10- to 100-fold) in fibers from EDL compared with SOL muscle. GS and glycogenin proteins were similar between muscles while GBE had an approximately fourfold greater abundance in SOL muscle. Mechanically skinned fibers exposed to physiological buffer for 10 min showed ~70% total pools of GBE and GP were diffusible (nonbound), whereas GDE and GS were considerably less diffusible. Intense in vitro stimulation, sufficient to elicit a ~50% decrease in intracellular glycogen, increased diffusibility of GDE, GP, and GS (~15-60%) and decreased GBE diffusibility (~20%). Amylase treatment, which breaks α-1,4 linkages of glycogen, indicated differential diffusibilities and hence glycogen associations of GDE and GS. Membrane solubilization (1% Triton-X-100) allowed a small additional amount of GDE and GS to diffuse from fibers, suggesting the majority of nonglycogen-associated GDE/GS is associated with myofibrillar/contractile network of muscle rather than membranes. Given differences in enzymes required for glycogen metabolism, the current findings suggest glycogen particles have fiber-type-dependent structures. The greater catabolic potential of glycogen breakdown in fast-twitch fibers may account for different contraction induced rates of glycogen utilization.

  19. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case–control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease. We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease. We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03–25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6–204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3–500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002). The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome. PMID:27442665

  20. Percutaneous right ventricle outflow tract stenting in a patient with trisomy 18 associated with double outlet right ventricle.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Erkut; Odemiş, Ender; Kıplapınar, Neslihan

    2013-07-01

    Trisomy 18, or Edwards syndrome, is the second most common chromosome anomaly after trisomy 21. Various types of congenital heart diseases are seen in the majority of trisomy 18 patients. Palliative treatment of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) stenosis includes options like balloon dilatation, stenting and surgery. Herein, we present a case with trisomy 18 and double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis, and ventricular septal defect. During the follow-up, at the age of three months, his saturation dropped to 70% and an interventional procedure was planned. The patient was considered high risk, and after discussing treatment options with the family, RVOT stenting was chosen. The patient was lost on the 8th day of the follow-up.

  1. The Association between Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Level and Urine Cathelicidin in Children with a Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Övünç Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Altun, Demet; Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Çekmez, Ferhat; Aydemir, Gökhan; Kul, Mustafa; Müftüoğlu, Tuba; Süleymanoğlu, Selami; Karademir, Ferhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cathelicidin is an important antimicrobial peptide in the urinary tract. Cathelicidin expression is strongly stimulated by 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D in epithelial cells, macrophages/monocytes, and neutrophils. Vitamin D and cathelicidin status in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Escherichia coli is unknown. To establish the relationship between serum vitamin D and urine cathelicidin levels in children with a UTI caused by Escherichia coli. Methods: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and urine cathelicidin levels were measured in 36 patients with UTI (mean age 6.8±3.6 years, range: 0.25-12.6 years) and 38 controls (mean age 6.3±2.8 years, range: 0.42-13 years). Results: There were no significant differences in urine cathelicidin levels between the study and control groups (p>0.05). Eight (22.2%) patients in the study group and 21 (58.3%) children in the control group were found to have sufficient vitamin D (≥20 ng/mL). Patients with sufficient vitamin D had higher urine cathelicidin levels than the controls with sufficient vitamin D (respectively 262.5±41.1 vs. 168±31.6 ng/mL, p=0.001). There were no significant differences between the patients and controls with insufficient vitamin D (p>0.05). Conclusion: The children with vitamin D insufficiency may not be able to increase their urine cathelicidin level during UTI caused by Escherichia coli. There is a need of prospective studies in order to prove a beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation for the restoration of cathelicidin stimulation and consequently for prevention of UTI recurrence. PMID:27180947

  2. A cotton fiber associated cyclin-dependent kinase A gene: Characterization and chromosomal location

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton fiber cell normally originates and elongates as a single ovular epidermal cell. The cessation of fiber cell division and ensuing elongation imply that the cell cycle is differentially regulated in fiber cells. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play a central role in the regulation of cell cy...

  3. Men’s preferences for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mankowski, Colette; Ikenwilo, Divine; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Ryan, Mandy; Nazir, Jameel; Newman, Cathy; Watson, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore and quantify men’s preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for attributes of medications for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia using a discrete choice experiment. Subjects and methods Men in the UK aged ≥45 years with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia (based on self-reported International Prostate Symptom Score ≥8) were recruited. An online discrete choice experiment survey was administered. Eligible men were asked to consider different medication scenarios and select their preferred medication according to seven attributes: daytime and nighttime (nocturia) urinary frequency, urinary urgency, sexual and nonsexual side effects, number of tablets/day, and cost/month. A mixed-logit model was used to estimate preferences and WTP for medication attributes. Results In all, 247 men completed the survey. Men were willing to trade-off symptom improvements and treatment side effects. Men preferred medications that reduced urinary urgency and reduced day- and nighttime urinary frequency. Men preferred medications without side effects (base-case level), but did not care about the number of tablets per day. WTP for symptomatic improvement was £25.33/month for reduced urgency (urge incontinence to mild urgency), and £6.65/month and £1.39/month for each unit reduction in night- and daytime urination frequency, respectively. The sexual and nonsexual side effects reduced WTP by up to £30.07/month. There was significant heterogeneity in preferences for most attributes, except for reduced urinary urgency from urge incontinence to mild urgency and no fluid during ejaculation (dry orgasm). Conclusion To compensate for side effects, a medicine for lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia must provide a combination of benefits, such as reduced urgency of urination plus reduced nighttime and/or reduced daytime urination. PMID:27920507

  4. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  5. Local sustained-release delivery systems of the antibiofilm agent thiazolidinedione-8 for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Shenderovich, Julia; Feldman, Mark; Kirmayer, David; Al-Quntar, Abed; Steinberg, Doron; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael

    2015-05-15

    Thiazolidinedione-8 (TZD-8) is an anti-quorum-sensing molecule that has the potential to effectively prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections, a major healthcare challenge. Sustained-release drug-delivery systems can enhance drugs' therapeutic potential, by maintaining their therapeutic level and reducing their side effects. Varnishes for sustained release of TZD-8 based on ethylcellulose or ammonio methacrylate copolymer type A (Eudragit(®) RL) were developed. The main factors affecting release rate were found to be film thickness and presence of a hydrophilic or swellable polymer in the matrix. The release mechanism of ethylcellulose-based systems matched the Higuchi model. Selected varnishes were retained on catheters for at least 8 days. Sustained-release delivery systems of TZD-8 were active against Candida albicans biofilms. The present study demonstrates promising results en route to developing applications for the prevention of catheter-associated infections.

  6. Inverse associations of dietary fiber and menopausal hormone therapy with colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2016-09-15

    In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we previously reported that dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men only. In women, the inverse relationship was weaker and appeared to be confounded by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). We re-examined this observation with a greatly increased power. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed data from 187,674 participants with 4,692 cases identified during a mean follow-up period of 16 years. In multivariable-adjusted models, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in both sexes: HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.89 for highest vs. lowest quintile, ptrend  = 0.0020 in men and HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91, ptrend  = 0.0067 in women. Postmenopausal women who ever used MHT had a 19% lower risk of colorectal cancer (95% CI: 0.74-0.89) compared with MHT never users. In a joint analysis of dietary fiber and MHT, dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk in MHT never users (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.95, ptrend  = 0.045), but did not appear to further decrease the colorectal cancer risk of MHT ever users (ptrend  = 0.11). Our results support the overall protective roles of dietary fiber and MHT against colorectal cancer and suggest that dietary fiber may not lower risk further among women who ever used MHT. If confirmed, these results would suggest that MHT and dietary fiber may share overlapping mechanisms in protecting against colorectal cancer.

  7. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Martin I; Hammer, Anne S; Clausen, Tove; Jakobsen, Anabelle; Skov, Søren; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-16

    Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr. In this study, we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the resident gut microbiota of the mink in terms of intra-and interindividual diversity. We report, for the first time, that the mucosa-associated bacterial community within the colon is diverse and dissimilar from the community found in the feed. We found large interindividual differences in bacterial composition between individual animals being dominated generally by the phylum Firmicutes, but in some cases also Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria. The bacterial load and community structure within the mucus was not severely impacted by 3 days of fasting, which implies that a resident and stable microbiota is hosted by these animals.

  8. R-plasmic transfer from Serratia liquefaciens to Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human fecal flora.

    PubMed

    Duval-Iflah, Y; Raibaud, P; Tancrede, C; Rousseau, M

    1980-06-01

    It was shown that a strain of Serratia liquefaciens harbors a conjugative R-plasmid responsible for reistance to the following 14 antibiotics: ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, butirosin, neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and chloramphenicol, which belong to five families, the beta-lactamines, the aminoglycosides, the tetracyclines, the sulfonamides, and the phenicols. Resistance to th 14 antibiotics was cotransferred by in vitro conjugation between S. liquefaciens and strains of Escherichia coli. Mating between S. liquefaciens and E. coli also occurred in vivo, in the digestive tract of axenic mice and gnotobiotic mice associated with the whole human fecal flora. It was also shown that mating between these two strains occurred even when the donor S. liquefaciens strain was only transient in the digestive tract of the gnotobiotic host animals. A dense population of Bacteroides (10(10) viable cells per g of fresh feces) did not hinder this mating. All the matings occurred in the absence of an antibiotic selection pressure, and the resulting transferred strain of E. coli did not have the same colonizing capacity as the recipient parental strain. However, during antibiotic administration to mice, and even after the end of the drug intake, the transconjugant became established in the dominant population and replaced the parental recipient strain.

  9. R-plasmic transfer from Serratia liquefaciens to Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice associated with human fecal flora.

    PubMed Central

    Duval-Iflah, Y; Raibaud, P; Tancrede, C; Rousseau, M

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that a strain of Serratia liquefaciens harbors a conjugative R-plasmid responsible for reistance to the following 14 antibiotics: ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, butirosin, neomycin, paramomycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and chloramphenicol, which belong to five families, the beta-lactamines, the aminoglycosides, the tetracyclines, the sulfonamides, and the phenicols. Resistance to th 14 antibiotics was cotransferred by in vitro conjugation between S. liquefaciens and strains of Escherichia coli. Mating between S. liquefaciens and E. coli also occurred in vivo, in the digestive tract of axenic mice and gnotobiotic mice associated with the whole human fecal flora. It was also shown that mating between these two strains occurred even when the donor S. liquefaciens strain was only transient in the digestive tract of the gnotobiotic host animals. A dense population of Bacteroides (10(10) viable cells per g of fresh feces) did not hinder this mating. All the matings occurred in the absence of an antibiotic selection pressure, and the resulting transferred strain of E. coli did not have the same colonizing capacity as the recipient parental strain. However, during antibiotic administration to mice, and even after the end of the drug intake, the transconjugant became established in the dominant population and replaced the parental recipient strain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6995330

  10. Semiparametric Bayesian local functional models for diffusion tensor tract statistics☆

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Zhaowei; Dunson, David B.; Gilmore, John H.; Styner, Martin A.; Zhu, Hongtu

    2012-01-01

    We propose a semiparametric Bayesian local functional model (BFM) for the analysis of multiple diffusion properties (e.g., fractional anisotropy) along white matter fiber bundles with a set of covariates of interest, such as age and gender. BFM accounts for heterogeneity in the shape of the fiber bundle diffusion properties among subjects, while allowing the impact of the covariates to vary across subjects. A nonparametric Bayesian LPP2 prior facilitates global and local borrowings of information among subjects, while an infinite factor model flexibly represents low-dimensional structure. Local hypothesis testing and credible bands are developed to identify fiber segments, along which multiple diffusion properties are significantly associated with covariates of interest, while controlling for multiple comparisons. Moreover, BFM naturally group subjects into more homogeneous clusters. Posterior computation proceeds via an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. A simulation study is performed to evaluate the finite sample performance of BFM. We apply BFM to investigate the development of white matter diffusivities along the splenium of the corpus callosum tract and the right internal capsule tract in a clinical study of neurodevelopment in new born infants. PMID:22732565

  11. Effect of level of fiber of the rearing phase diets on egg production, digestive tract traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets differing in energy concentration.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Bouali, O; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-01

    This research studied the effects of additional fiber in the rearing phase diets on egg production, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets varying in energy concentration from 17 to 46 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 10 treatments arranged as a 5 × 2 factorial with 5 rearing phase diets and 2 laying phase diets. During the rearing phase, treatments consisted of a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal and 4 additional diets with a combination of 2 fiber sources (cereal straw and sugar beet pulp, SBP) at 2 levels (2 and 4%). During the laying phase, diets differed in energy content (2,650 vs. 2,750 kcal AMEn/kg) but had the same amino acid content per unit of energy. The rearing diet did not affect any production trait except egg production that was lower in birds fed SBP than in birds fed straw (91.6 and 94.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Laying hens fed the high energy diet had lower feed intake (P < 0.001), better feed conversion (P < 0.01), and greater BW gain (P < 0.05) than hens fed the low energy diet but egg production and egg weight were not affected. At 46 wk of age, none of the GIT traits was affected by previous dietary treatment. At this age, hen BW was positively related with body length (r = 0.500; P < 0.01), tarsus length (r = 0.758; P < 0.001), and body mass index (r = 0.762; P < 0.001) but no effects of type of diet on these traits were detected. In summary, the inclusion of up to 4% of a fiber source in the rearing diets did not affect GIT development of the hens but SBP reduced egg production. An increase in the energy content of the laying phase diet reduced ADFI and improved feed efficiency but did not affect any of the other traits studied.

  12. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kevin A.; Sherman, Recinda L.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Lin, Ge; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Boscoe, Francis P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N = 278,097) were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum), sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17) and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08). Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18) and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity. PMID:25165475

  13. Combined small cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract associated with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kayakabe, Mikiko; Takahashi, Katsumasa; Okamiya, Tomofumi; Segawa, Atsuki; Oyama, Tetsunari; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki

    2014-04-01

    Combined small cell carcinoma (SmCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is a rare malignant neoplasm in the head and neck. This study presents the first reported case of combined SmCC and SqCC originating from the sinonasal tract accompanied by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). An 80-year-old female presented with a four-week history of right nasal discharge, nasal obstruction and left neck swelling. Imaging studies revealed a tumorous lesion in the maxillary sinus encroaching upon the right nasal cavity and left cervical lymph node (LN) swelling. An incisional biopsy carried out from the right maxillary sinus and LNs resulted in a diagnosis of combined SmCC with SqCC, staged as T4aN2cM0. Clinical examination revealed a sustained increase of antidiuretic hormone, hyponatremia with urinary sodium increase, and serum hypo-osmosis, resulting in SIADH. Water restriction to <1,000 ml/day was effective in improving sodium and osmotic imbalance. Curative treatment for the tumor was not prescribed due to the poor condition of the patient. Palliative treatment was administered and the patient succumbed to cachexia five months after histological diagnosis. The presence of SIADH may have marked implications for the treatment and prognosis of this disease.

  14. Epidemiological factors associated with ESBL- and non ESBL-producing E. coli causing urinary tract infection in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Frederik Boëtius; Schønning, Kristian; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Littauer, Pia; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how use of antibiotics precedes the presence of ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice. The authors performed a triple-case-control study where three case groups were individually compared to a single control group of uninfected individuals. Urine samples were prospectively collected and retrospective statistical analyses were done. This study included 98 cases with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, 174 with antibiotic-resistant (non-ESBL) E. coli, 177 with susceptible E. coli and 200 with culture negative urine samples. Case groups had significantly higher use of antibiotics than the control group within 30 days before infection (p < 0.0001). The ESBL group had significantly more hospital admissions than the other case groups (p < 0.05). Hospital admission was an independent risk factor for community onset UTI by ESBL-producing E. coli. Exposure to antibiotics was a risk factor for UTI with E. coli, while prior antibiotic usage was not an indisputable predictor for infection with ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice.

  15. Combined small cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract associated with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone: A case report

    PubMed Central

    KAYAKABE, MIKIKO; TAKAHASHI, KATSUMASA; OKAMIYA, TOMOFUMI; SEGAWA, ATSUKI; OYAMA, TETSUNARI; CHIKAMATSU, KAZUAKI

    2014-01-01

    Combined small cell carcinoma (SmCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is a rare malignant neoplasm in the head and neck. This study presents the first reported case of combined SmCC and SqCC originating from the sinonasal tract accompanied by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). An 80-year-old female presented with a four-week history of right nasal discharge, nasal obstruction and left neck swelling. Imaging studies revealed a tumorous lesion in the maxillary sinus encroaching upon the right nasal cavity and left cervical lymph node (LN) swelling. An incisional biopsy carried out from the right maxillary sinus and LNs resulted in a diagnosis of combined SmCC with SqCC, staged as T4aN2cM0. Clinical examination revealed a sustained increase of antidiuretic hormone, hyponatremia with urinary sodium increase, and serum hypo-osmosis, resulting in SIADH. Water restriction to <1,000 ml/day was effective in improving sodium and osmotic imbalance. Curative treatment for the tumor was not prescribed due to the poor condition of the patient. Palliative treatment was administered and the patient succumbed to cachexia five months after histological diagnosis. The presence of SIADH may have marked implications for the treatment and prognosis of this disease. PMID:24944702

  16. Association of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Gene Polymorphism and Expression with Urinary Tract Infection Types in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaolin; Hou, Tianwen; Liu, Ying; Chen, Jing; Yao, Zhiyan; Ma, Cuiqing; Yang, Lijuan; Wei, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Background Innate immunity of which Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and CXCR1 are key elements plays a central role in the development of urinary tract infection (UTI). Although the relation between the genetics of TLR4 and CXCR1 and UTI is investigated partly, the polymorphisms and expression of TLR4 and CXCR1 in different types of UTI in adults are not extremely clear. Methodology/Principal Findings This study investigates the presence of TLR4 A (896) G and CXCR1 G (2608) C polymorphisms in 129 UTI patients using RFLP-PCR. Gene and allelic prevalence were compared with 248 healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to detect TLR4 and CXCR1 expression in the monocytes of UTI patients and healthy controls. TLR4 (896) AG genotype and TLR4 (896) G allele had higher prevalence in UTI (especially in acute cystitis and urethritis) patients, whereas CXCR1 (2608) GC genotype and CXCR1 (2608) C allele had lower prevalence in UTI patients than controls. TLR4 expression was significantly lower in chronic UTI patients than in acute pyelonephritis or healthy controls. CXCR1 expression was similar in both controls and patients. TLR4 expression in chronic UTI patients after astragalus treatment was higher than pre-treatment. Conclusions The results indicate the relationship between the carrier status of TLR4 (896) G alleles and the development of UTI, especially acute cystitis and urethritis, in adults. TLR4 expression levels are correlated with chronic UTI. PMID:21151974

  17. Anisotropic Smoothing Improves DT-MRI-Based Muscle Fiber Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Amanda K. W.; Ding, Zhaohua; Elder, Christopher P.; Towse, Theodore F.; Damon, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of anisotropic smoothing on fiber tracking measures, including pennation angle, fiber tract length, and fiber tract number in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in healthy subjects using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and Methods 3T DW-MRI data were used for muscle fiber tractography in the MG of healthy subjects. Anisotropic smoothing was applied at three levels (5%, 10%, 15%), and pennation angle, tract length, fiber tract number, fractional anisotropy, and principal eigenvector orientation were quantified for each smoothing level. Results Fiber tract length increased with pre-fiber tracking smoothing, and local heterogeneities in fiber direction were reduced. However, pennation angle was not affected by smoothing. Conclusion Modest anisotropic smoothing (10%) improved fiber-tracking results, while preserving structural features. PMID:26010830

  18. TU-CD-BRB-05: Radiation Damage Signature of White Matter Fiber Bundles Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, T; Chapman, C; Lawrence, T; Cao, Y; Tsien, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated and scalable approach and identify temporal, spatial and dosimetric patterns of radiation damage of white matter (WM) fibers following partial brain irradiation. Methods: An automated and scalable approach was developed to extract DTI features of 22 major WM fibers from 33 patients with low-grade/benign tumors treated by radiation therapy (RT). DTI scans of the patients were performed pre-RT, 3- and 6-week during RT, and 1, 6 and 18 months after RT. The automated tractography analysis was applied to 198 datasets as: (1) intra-subject registration of longitudinal DTI, (2) spatial normalization of individual-patient DTI to the Johns Hopkins WM Atlas, (3) automatic fiber tracking regulated by the WM Atlas, and (4) segmentation of WM into 22 major tract profiles. Longitudinal percentage changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD/AD/RD) of each tract from pre-RT were quantified and correlated to 95%, 90% and 80% percentiles of doses and mean doses received by the tract. Heatmaps were used to identify clusters of significant correlation and reveal temporal, spatial and dosimetric signatures of WM damage. A multivariate linear regression was further carried out to determine influence of clinical factors. Results: Of 22 tracts, AD/MD changes in 12 tracts had significant correlation with doses, especially at 6 and 18 months post-RT, indicating progressive radiation damage after RT. Most interestingly, the DTI-index changes in the elongated tracts were associated with received maximum doses, suggesting a serial-structure behavior; while short association fibers were affected by mean doses, indicating a parallel-structure response. Conclusion: Using an automated DTI-tractography analysis of whole brain WM fibers, we reveal complex radiation damage patterns of WM fibers. Damage in WM fibers that play an important role in the neural network could be associated with late neurocognitive function declines

  19. An assessment of the risk arising from electrical effects associated with carbon fibers released from commercial aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalelkar, A. S.; Fiksel, J.; Rosenfield, D.; Richardson, D. L.; Hagopian, J.

    1980-01-01

    The risks associated with electrical effects arising from carbon fibers released from commercial aviation aircraft fires were estimated for 1993. The expected annual losses were estimated to be about $470 (1977 dollars) in 1993. The chances of total losses from electrical effects exceeding $100,000 (1977 dollars) in 1993 were established to be about one in ten thousand.

  20. A new genome scan for primary nonsyndromic vesicoureteric reflux emphasizes high genetic heterogeneity and shows linkage and association with various genes already implicated in urinary tract development

    PubMed Central

    Darlow, J M; Dobson, M G; Darlay, R; Molony, C M; Hunziker, M; Green, A J; Cordell, H J; Puri, P; Barton, D E

    2014-01-01

    Primary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder toward the kidneys, results from a developmental anomaly of the vesicoureteric valve mechanism, and is often associated with other urinary tract anomalies. It is the most common urological problem in children, with an estimated prevalence of 1–2%, and is a major cause of hypertension in childhood and of renal failure in childhood or adult life. We present the results of a genetic linkage and association scan using 900,000 markers. Our linkage results show a large number of suggestive linkage peaks, with different results in two groups of families, suggesting that VUR is even more genetically heterogeneous than previously imagined. The only marker achieving P < 0.02 for linkage in both groups of families is 270 kb from EMX2. In three sibships, we found recessive linkage to KHDRBS3, previously reported in a Somali family. In another family we discovered sex-reversal associated with VUR, implicating PRKX, for which there was weak support for dominant linkage in the overall data set. Several other candidate genes are suggested by our linkage or association results, and four of our linkage peaks are within copy-number variants recently found to be associated with renal hypodysplasia. Undoubtedly there are many genes related to VUR. Our study gives support to some loci suggested by earlier studies as well as suggesting new ones, and provides numerous indications for further investigations. PMID:24498626

  1. Increased Risk of Urinary Tract Cancer in ESRD Patients Associated with Usage of Chinese Herbal Products Suspected of Containing Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Wei, Alan; Chen, Ya-Yin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and urothelial cancer (UC) are associated with the consumption of Chinese herbal products containing aristolochic acid (AA) by the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of UC associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products among ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Health Insurance reimbursement database to enroll all ESRD patients in Taiwan from 1998–2002. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, residence in region with endemic black foot disease, urinary tract infection, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Results A total of 38,995 ESRD patients were included in the final analysis, and 320 patients developed UC after ESRD. Having been prescribed Mu Tong that was adulterated with Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) before 2004, or an estimated consumption of more than 1–100 mg of aristolochic acid, were both associated with an increased risk of UC in the multivariable analyses. Analgesic consumption of more than 150 pills was also associated with an increased risk of UC, although there was little correlation between the two risk factors. Conclusion Consumption of aristolochic acid-related Chinese herbal products was associated with an increased risk of developing UC in ESRD patients. Regular follow-up screening for UC in ESRD patients who have consumed Chinese herbal products is thus necessary. PMID:25170766

  2. Luminescent Lanthanide Cyclen-Based Enzymatic Assay Capable of Diagnosing the Onset of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Both in Solution and within Polymeric Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Surender, Esther M; Bradberry, Samuel J; Bright, Sandra A; McCoy, Colin P; Williams, D Clive; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2017-01-11

    Herein we present a supramolecular (delayed luminescent) Eu(III)-based pH-responsive probe/sensor with the ability to detect the urease-mediated hydrolysis of urea in aqueous solution. A series of photophysical titrations show this Eu(III) chelate behaves as an "on-off" luminescent switching probe, with its luminescence being quenched upon urea being enzymatically converted into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Calculation of the rate constant (k) and activation energy (Ea) for this hydrolysis reaction are detailed; the results demonstrate a direct observation of enzymatic activity in solution by the sensor. The potential application of this probe in detecting the onset of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) is also demonstrated by incorporating 1.Eu into water-permeable hydrogels that can be utilized as an alternative coating for catheters.

  3. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION AT HOSPITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT, BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Savatmorigkorngul, Sorravit; Poowarattanawiwit, Pongsuree; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares

    2016-03-01

    Urinary tract infection or UTI is most commonly caused by Escherichia coli. This study investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) E. coli in community-acquired UTI presenting at the Emergency Department, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. A retrospective review was conducted over a one-year period (2014) of case histories of patients over 15 years of age diagnosed with (n = 159) and without culture-positive (n = 249) ESBL E. coli. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed four independent risk factors for UTI caused by ESBL E. coli, namely, urinary catheter use, previous UTI in which ESBL E. coli was present, and previous use of antibiotics cephalosporin and penicillin. This information should be useful in devising future public health prevention and control programs for ESBL E. coli-associated community-acquired UTI.

  4. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Arif, Muhammad; Simon, Leonardo C.; Pauls, K. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP) matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs) grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt) by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL) for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue. PMID:26167917

  5. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites.

    PubMed

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Arif, Muhammad; Simon, Leonardo C; Pauls, K Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP) matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs) grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt) by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL) for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue.

  6. Lower concentrations of chemotactic cytokines and soluble innate factors in the lower female genital tract associated with use of injectable hormonal contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Masson, Lindi; Sibeko, Sengeziwe; Werner, Lise; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Mlisana, Koleka; Shey, Muki; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone-based injectable hormonal contraceptives (HCs) potentially modulate genital barrier integrity and regulate the innate immune environment in the female genital tract, thereby enhancing risk for STIs or HIV infection. We investigated the effects of injectable HC use on concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and other soluble factors associated with genital epithelial repair and integrity. The concentrations of 42 inflammatory, regulatory, adaptive, growth factors and hematopoetic cytokines, five matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from 64 HIV negative women using injectable HCs and 64 control women not using any HCs, in a matched case-control study. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV; nugent score ≥7), or common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariate analyses adjusting for condom use, sex work status, marital status, BV and STIs, median concentrations of chemokines (eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC), adaptive cytokines (IL-15), growth factors (PDGF-AA) and a metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) were significantly lower in CVLs from women using injectable HCs than controls. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 and chemokine fractalkine were less likely to have detectable levels in women using injectable HCs compared to those not using HCs. We conclude that injectable HC use was associated with an immunosuppressive female genital tract innate immune profile. While the relationship between injectable HC use and STI or HIV risk is yet to be resolved, our data suggest that injectable HCs effects were similar between STI positive and STI negative participants. PMID:25956139

  7. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway enhances cancer cell invasion by upregulating the MMP expression and is associated with poor prognosis in upper urinary tract urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masaru; Mikami, Shuji; Kikuchi, Eiji; Kosaka, Takeo; Miyajima, Akira; Nakagawa, Ken; Mukai, Makio; Okada, Yasunori; Oya, Mototsugu

    2010-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the activation of the AhR pathway are involved in xenobiotic-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. Although xenobiotics, such as cigarette smoke, contribute to the development of urothelial carcinoma (UC), the relationship between AhR and UC is unclear. In the present study, we investigated AhR expression in 209 patients with upper urinary tract UC. The nuclear expression of AhR was significantly associated with histological grade, pathological T stage, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement. A multivariate Cox analysis revealed that nuclear AhR expression was a significant and independent predictor for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 2.469, P = 0.013). To determine whether the AhR pathway can be activated in the T24 UC cell line, we examined the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are target genes of the AhR pathway, following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ligand of AhR. TCDD treatment upregulated the expression levels of AhR, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. TCDD enhanced T24 cell invasion associated with the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, targeting AhR messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in T24 cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) downregulated the mRNA expression of AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9; furthermore, the cells transfected with siRNA for AhR showed decreased invasion activity in comparison with the cells transfected with a non-targeting siRNA. Our results therefore suggest that AhR plays a role in the invasiveness of UC cells and can serve as a marker for the prognosis of upper urinary tract UC.

  8. A subset of myofibroblastic cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate collagen fiber elongation, which is prognostic in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher J; Noble, Fergus; Ward, Matthew; Bullock, Marc; Drifka, Cole; Mellone, Massimiliano; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Johnston, Harvey E; Hayden, Annette; Thirdborough, Steve; Liu, Yuming; Smith, David M; Mellows, Toby; Kao, W John; Garbis, Spiros D; Mirnezami, Alex; Underwood, Tim J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Thomas, Gareth J

    2016-02-02

    Collagen structure has been shown to influence tumor cell invasion, metastasis and clinical outcome in breast cancer. However, it remains unclear how it affects other solid cancers. Here we utilized multi-photon laser scanning microscopy and Second Harmonic Generation to identify alterations to collagen fiber structure within the tumor stroma of head & neck, esophageal and colorectal cancers. Image segmentation algorithms were then applied to quantitatively characterize these morphological changes, showing that elongated collagen fibers significantly correlated with poor clinical outcome (Log Rank p < 0.05). We used TGF-β treatment to model fibroblast conversion to smooth muscle actin SMA-positive cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and found that these cells induce the formation of elongated collagen fibers in vivo. However, proteomic/transcriptomic analysis of SMA-positive CAFs cultured ex-vivo showed significant heterogeneity in the expression of genes with collagen fibril organizing gene ontology. Notably, stratifying patients according to stromal SMA-positivity and collagen fiber elongation was found to provide a highly significant correlation with poor survival in all 3 cancer types (Log Rank p ≤ 0.003). In summary, we show that increased collagen fiber length correlates with poor patient survival in multiple tumor types and that only a sub-set of SMA-positive CAFs can mediate the formation of this collagen structure.

  9. A subset of myofibroblastic cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate collagen fiber elongation, which is prognostic in multiple cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Christopher J.; Noble, Fergus; Ward, Matthew; Bullock, Marc; Drifka, Cole; Mellone, Massimiliano; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Johnston, Harvey E.; Hayden, Annette; Thirdborough, Steve; Liu, Yuming; Smith, David M.; Mellows, Toby; Kao, W. John; Garbis, Spiros D.; Mirnezami, Alex; Underwood, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Collagen structure has been shown to influence tumor cell invasion, metastasis and clinical outcome in breast cancer. However, it remains unclear how it affects other solid cancers. Here we utilized multi-photon laser scanning microscopy and Second Harmonic Generation to identify alterations to collagen fiber structure within the tumor stroma of head & neck, esophageal and colorectal cancers. Image segmentation algorithms were then applied to quantitatively characterize these morphological changes, showing that elongated collagen fibers significantly correlated with poor clinical outcome (Log Rank p < 0.05). We used TGF-β treatment to model fibroblast conversion to smooth muscle actin SMA-positive cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and found that these cells induce the formation of elongated collagen fibers in vivo. However, proteomic/transcriptomic analysis of SMA-positive CAFs cultured ex-vivo showed significant heterogeneity in the expression of genes with collagen fibril organizing gene ontology. Notably, stratifying patients according to stromal SMA-positivity and collagen fiber elongation was found to provide a highly significant correlation with poor survival in all 3 cancer types (Log Rank p ≤ 0.003). In summary, we show that increased collagen fiber length correlates with poor patient survival in multiple tumor types and that only a sub-set of SMA-positive CAFs can mediate the formation of this collagen structure. PMID:26716418

  10. Lung Function in Wheezing Infants after Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and Its Association with Respiratory Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Gao-Li; Wang, Li-Bo; Wan, Cheng-Zhou; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Li-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wheezing is common in early childhood and remains an important health concern. The aim of this study was to assess the lung function of wheezing infants and to investigate the relationship between lung function and respiratory outcome. Methods: Infants <2 years of age with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) who had undergone lung function tests were included in the study. They were assigned to wheeze or no wheeze group based on physical examination. Infants without any respiratory diseases were enrolled as controls. Lung function was measured during the acute phase and 3 months after ALRTI. One-year follow-up for infants with ALRTI was achieved. Results: A total of 252 infants with ALRTI who had acceptable data regarding tidal breathing were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control and the no wheeze groups, infants in the wheeze group had significantly decreased time to peak tidal expiratory flow as a percentage of total expiratory time (TPTEF/TE) (20.1 ± 6.4% vs. 34.4 ± 6.2% and 26.4 ± 8.3%, respectively, P < 0.0001) and significantly increased peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF) (90.7 ± 26.3 ml/s vs. 79.3 ± 18.4 ml/s and 86.1 ± 28.0 ml/s, respectively, P < 0.01), sReff and Reff. The infants in the wheeze group still had lower TPTEF/TE and volume to peak tidal expiratory flow as a percentage of total expiratory volume (VPTEF/VE) than the no wheeze infants 3 months after the ALRTI. Moreover, there was a significant inverse relationship between TPTEF/TE, VPTEF/VE, and the recurrence of wheezing and pneumonia. Conclusions: Impaired lung function was present in wheezing infants with ALRTI and the deficits persisted. In addition, the lower level of TPTEF/TE and VPTEF/VE was a risk factor for poor respiratory outcome. PMID:28051016

  11. Isolation, purification and identification of protein associated with corn fiber gum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG), an alkaline hydrogen peroxide extract of corn kernel milling by-product “corn fiber” is a proteinaceous arabinoxylan with a protein content ranging from ca. 2 to 9% by weight for the CFG samples isolated from different corn milling fiber sources. Several studies have suggested...

  12. Autotract: automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets.

  13. Autotract: Automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets. PMID:27065227

  14. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease across the range of the threatened Mojave Desert tortoise: associations with thermal regime and natural antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sandmeier, Franziska C; Tracy, C Richard; Hagerty, Bridgette E; DuPré, Sally; Mohammadpour, Hamid; Hunter, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    Most research of upper respiratory tract disease (mycoplasmal URTD) in the threatened Mojave Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) has worked under the hypothesis that the pathogen, Mycoplasma agassizii, has a relatively consistent and predictable effect on tortoise populations across their natural range. In contrast, we hypothesized that multiple factors influence the prevalence of disease and analyzed biological and environmental variables that vary significantly across the Mojave Desert. We used multiple regression models to analyze associations between mycoplasmal URTD and the genetic structure of 24 tortoise populations, levels of natural antibody (NAb) to M. agassizii in tortoises (one component of the innate immune system), precipitation, and colder thermal regimes. We detected a significant, positive association between mean levels of NAb and seroprevalence to M. agassizii. We hypothesized that NAbs may provide tolerance to mycoplasmal infections and that more tolerant populations may act as host reservoirs of disease. We also detected significant associations between colder winters and mycoplasmal URTD, suggesting that colder winters may depress tortoise immune resistance against M. agassizii or enhance conditions for the growth of M. agassizii.

  15. Ribosomal protein S6 is highly expressed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and associates with mRNA containing a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract.

    PubMed

    Hagner, P R; Mazan-Mamczarz, K; Dai, B; Balzer, E M; Corl, S; Martin, S S; Zhao, X F; Gartenhaus, R B

    2011-03-31

    The molecular mechanism(s) linking tumorigenesis and morphological alterations in the nucleolus are presently coming into focus. The nucleolus is the cellular organelle in which the formation of ribosomal subunits occurs. Ribosomal biogenesis occurs through the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), rRNA processing and production of ribosomal proteins. An error in any of these processes may lead to deregulated cellular translation, evident in multiple cancers and 'ribosomopathies'. Deregulated protein synthesis may be achieved through the overexpression of ribosomal proteins as seen in primary leukemic blasts with elevated levels of ribosomal proteins S11 and S14. In this study, we demonstrate that ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is highly expressed in primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) samples. Genetic modulation of RPS6 protein levels with specifically targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses led to a decrease in the actively proliferating population of cells compared with control shRNA. Low-dose rapamycin treatments have been shown to affect the translation of 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (5' TOP) tract mRNA, which encodes the translational machinery, implicating RPS6 in 5' TOP translation. Recently, it was shown that disruption of 40S ribosomal biogenesis through specific small inhibitory RNA knockdown of RPS6 defined RPS6 as a critical regulator of 5' TOP translation. For the first time, we show that RPS6 associates with multiple mRNAs containing a 5' TOP tract. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanism(s) involved in ribosomal biogenesis and deregulated protein synthesis in DLBCL.

  16. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  17. Association of Circulating 25(OH)D and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Four-Year Prospective Study among Elderly Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Chan, Dicken; Woo, Jean; Chen, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bailing; Tse, Lap-Ah; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The role of vitamin D in relation to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) remains inconclusive. This four-year longitudinal study aims to explore the association of circulating 25(OH)D and LUTS in elderly Chinese men. Two thousand Chinese men aged 65 and older were recruited from a local community, of which 1998 (99.9%) at baseline and 1564 (78.2%) at four-year follow-up reported data on LUTS, and 988 of the randomly chosen subpopulation were assayed for serum 25(OH)D by radioimmunoassay at baseline. LUTS were evaluated by a validated International Prostate Symptoms Scale (IPSS). Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health, and medications were collected. Serum parathyroid and sex steroid hormones and genotypes of vitamin D receptors were assayed. The association of serum 25(OH)D and LUTS was examined by using multivariable regression models. Serum 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with the changes of IPSS or the risk of LUTS in overall participants. However, among men with 25(OH)D ≤ 60 nmol/L, each 10 nmol/L increase of 25(OH)D over 0 nmol/L was significantly associated with 1.3 lower points of IPSS or a 51.6% decreased risk for moderate/severe LUTS four years later. Adjustment for serum androstenedione (p = 0.019) and dehydropiandrosterone (p = 0.037) attenuated the associations. Our study suggested that among individuals with low vitamin D status, the increase of the 25(OH)D level may be associated with a lowered risk of LUTS. PMID:27164139

  18. Anatomical Study of Intrahemispheric Association Fibers in the Brains of Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Kellen Christina Malheiros; Nishijo, Hisao; Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha; Caixeta, Leonardo Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the complexity of fiber connections in the brain plays a key role in the evolutionary process of the primate brain and behaviors. The patterns of brain fiber systems have been studied in detail in many nonhuman primates, but not in Sapajus sp. Behavioral studies indicated that Sapajus sp. (bearded capuchins) show highly cognitive behaviors such as tool use comparable to those in other nonhuman primates. To compare the brain fiber systems in capuchins with those in other nonhuman primates and humans, the intrahemispheric fibers systems in 24 cerebral hemispheres of Sapajus were dissected by a freezing-thawing procedure. Dissection of the hemispheres in lateral view indicated short arcuate fibers, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, while that in a medial view indicated short arcuate fibers, the cingulum united with the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The results showed that the fiber systems in Sapajus are comparable to those in rhesus and humans, except for a lack of independent superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum in Sapajus. PMID:26693488

  19. Differences in muscle fiber size and associated energetic costs in phylogenetically paired tropical and temperate birds.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    Tropical and temperate birds provide a unique system to examine mechanistic consequences of life-history trade-offs at opposing ends of the pace-of-life spectrum; tropical birds tend to have a slow pace of life whereas temperate birds the opposite. Birds in the tropics have a lower whole-animal basal metabolic rate and peak metabolic rate, lower rates of reproduction, and longer survival than birds in temperate regions. Although skeletal muscle has a relatively low tissue-specific metabolism at rest, it makes up the largest fraction of body mass and therefore contributes more to basal metabolism than any other tissue. A principal property of muscle cells that influences their rate of metabolism is fiber size. The optimal fiber size hypothesis attempts to link whole-animal basal metabolic rate to the cost of maintaining muscle mass by stating that larger fibers may be metabolically cheaper to maintain since the surface area∶volume ratio (SA∶V) is reduced compared with smaller fibers and thus the amount of area to transport ions is also reduced. Because tropical birds have a reduced whole-organism metabolism, we hypothesized that they would have larger muscle fibers than temperate birds, given that larger muscle fibers have reduced energy demand from membrane Na(+)-K(+) pumps. Alternatively, smaller muscle fibers could result in a lower capacity for shivering and exercise. To test this idea, we examined muscle fiber size and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in 16 phylogenetically paired species of tropical and temperate birds. We found that 3 of the 16 paired comparisons indicated that tropical birds had significantly larger fibers, contrary to our hypothesis. Our data show that SA∶V is proportional to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in muscles of birds.

  20. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols associated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics release of polyphenols in Mexican 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Benitez, Francisco J; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Quirós-Sauceda, Ana E; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G

    2015-03-01

    The biological properties of polyphenol (PP) depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PP released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PP associated with dietary fiber (DF) and the kinetics release of PP in mango (Mangifera indica L.) 'Ataulfo' by-products by an in vitro model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the pulp paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min(-1) in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased as digestion reached a value of 2.87 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min(-1)) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min(-1), and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and exert different potential health benefits.

  1. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment following laparoscopic robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections: did the AUA guidelines make a difference?

    PubMed

    Haifler, Miki; Mor, Yoram; Dotan, Zohar; Ramon, Jacob; Zilberman, Dorit E

    2016-12-16

    We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the American Urological Association (AUA) antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Our prospective registry database was reviewed for all RALP cases. The following variables were evaluated: age, associated comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), total operative time, length of stay (LOS), prostate weight, pathological grade and stage. Until 11/2011, RALP patients were treated with antibiotics administered in the operating room and continued until urethral catheter removal. Since 11/2011, all patients were treated with a single intravenous dose of Cephalosporin and Aminoglycoside given within 30 min of surgical incision. The rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) was evaluated in both groups. 229 RALP patients were identified. The first 60 patients (26.2%) were treated according to the old protocol (Group 1) while the remaining 169 (73.8%) were treated according to the new protocol (Group 2). Group match was identified in all categories but LOS. Moreover, LOS was found to be longer in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (5.8 vs. 4.5 days, p < 0.001). CAUTI rate was similar in both groups (8.3 vs. 8.9%, respectively, p = 0.89). Logistic regression analysis did not demonstrate any association between treatment protocol and potential risk for CAUTI. Therefore, a single preoperative dose of antibiotics does not increase the rate of CAUTI following RALP compared with prolonged antibiotic treatment. Moreover, it was found to be associated with shorter LOS. Complying with the AUA guidelines may reduce morbidity and medical costs.

  2. Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Microbiome of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Weaned Pigs and Dynamics Linked to Dietary Calcium-Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Zebeli, Qendrim; Wagner, Martin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary composition largely influences pig’s gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P) contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements) in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based) in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change) at the gastric Pars non-glandularis (P = 0.035). Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs. PMID:24466298

  3. Association of cellular localization of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in the digestive tract with cancer development.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Shibata, Kenichiro; Sekine, Ichiro

    2009-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase involved in several signaling pathways. Recently, we reported the polarized localization of GSK-3beta on the apical membrane of normal colon epithelium. To investigate the functions of this molecule, we studied stomach and colorectal cancer tissues. In normal simple columnar epithelium, GSK-3beta was localized with tight junction-associated protein ZO-1 in a single line at the apical cell border. GSK-3beta and ZO-1 were localized in the apical regions of tubular adenocarcinoma, similar to their localization in normal epithelium; however, their localization was different at the invasive front of the cancer and was found to be associated with lymphatic invasion. In signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach, the expression of these proteins was reduced and dot-like expression was observed in each cell of the signet-ring cell carcinoma. We speculated that GSK-3beta is involved in glandular structure formation and that the non-apical localization of membrane-localized GSK-3beta in tubular adenocarcinoma is associated with cancer development.

  4. S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) Impregnated Silicone Foley Catheters: A Potential Biomaterial/Device To Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Urinary Foley catheters are utilized for management of hospitalized patients and are associated with high rates of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Nitric oxide (NO) potently inhibits microbial biofilm formation, which is the primary cause of catheter associated UTIs (CAUTIs). Herein, commercial silicone Foley catheters are impregnated via a solvent swelling method with S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D-penicillamine (SNAP), a synthetic NO donor that exhibits long-term NO release and stability when incorporated into low water-uptake polymers. The proposed catheters generate NO surface-fluxes >0.7 × 10–10 mol min–1 cm–2 for over one month under physiological conditions, with minimal SNAP leaching. These biomedical devices are demonstrated to significantly decrease formation of biofilm on the surface of the catheter tubings over 3, 7, and 14 day periods by microbial species (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Proteus mirabilis) commonly causing CAUTIs. Toxicity assessment demonstrates that the SNAP-impregnated catheters are fully biocompatible, as extracts of the catheter tubings score 0 on a 3-point grading scale using an accepted mouse fibroblast cell-line toxicity model. Consequently, SNAP-impregnated silicone Foley catheters can likely provide an efficient strategy to greatly reduce the occurrence of nosocomial CAUTIs. PMID:26462294

  5. No association of ZNF804A rs1344706 with white matter integrity in schizophrenia: A tract-based spatial statistics study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qinling; Kang, Zhuang; Diao, Feici; Guidon, Arnaud; Wu, Xiaoli; Zheng, Liangrong; Li, Leijun; Guo, Xiaofeng; Hu, Maorong; Zhang, Jinbei; Liu, Chunlei; Zhao, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Altered brain connectivity has been widely considered as a genetic risk mechanism for schizophrenia. Of the many susceptibility genes identified so far, ZNF804A (rs1344706) is the first common genetic variant associated with schizophrenia on a genome-wide level. Previous fMRI studies have found that carriers of rs1344706 exhibit altered functional connectivity. However, the relationship between ZNF804A and white matter structural connectivity in patients of schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, 100 patients with schizophrenia and 69 healthy controls were genotyped at the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted and analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics. Systematic statistical analysis was conducted on multiple diffusion indices, including fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity. Unpaired two-sample t-test revealed significant differences in fractional anisotropy and diffusivity between schizophrenia and control groups. A two-way ANOVA analysis was conducted to assess the main effects of and the interaction between schizophrenia and ZNF804A. Although significant main effects of the diagnosis of schizophrenia were found on radial diffusivity, no association between the ZNF804A (rs1344706) and white matter connectivity was found in the entire group of subjects or in a selected subgroup of age-matched subjects (n = 72). PMID:23147122

  6. No association of ZNF804A rs1344706 with white matter integrity in schizophrenia: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qinling; Kang, Zhuang; Diao, Feici; Guidon, Arnaud; Wu, Xiaoli; Zheng, Liangrong; Li, Leijun; Guo, Xiaofeng; Hu, Maorong; Zhang, Jinbei; Liu, Chunlei; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-01-04

    Altered brain connectivity has been widely considered as a genetic risk mechanism for schizophrenia. Of the many susceptibility genes identified so far, ZNF804A (rs1344706) is the first common genetic variant associated with schizophrenia on a genome-wide level. Previous fMRI studies have found that carriers of rs1344706 exhibit altered functional connectivity. However, the relationship between ZNF804A and white matter structural connectivity in patients of schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, 100 patients with schizophrenia and 69 healthy controls were genotyped at the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted and analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics. Systematic statistical analysis was conducted on multiple diffusion indices, including fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity. Unpaired two-sample t-test revealed significant differences in fractional anisotropy and diffusivity between schizophrenia and control groups. A two-way ANOVA analysis was conducted to assess the main effects of and the interaction between schizophrenia and ZNF804A. Although significant main effects of the diagnosis of schizophrenia were found on radial diffusivity, no association between the ZNF804A (rs1344706) and white matter connectivity was found in the entire group of subjects or in a selected subgroup of age-matched subjects (n=72).

  7. Low Serum Levels of Vitamins A, D, and E Are Associated with Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections in Children Living in Northern China: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuguang; Ding, Fengshu; Li, Huaining; Zhao, Wenfeng; Jing, Hong; Yan, Yageng; Chen, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the association of serum concentrations of vitamin A, D, and E with recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs). Methods A total of 1200 children aged at 0.5–14 years were selected via a face-to-face survey in Harbin, China. Among the participants, 600 children with RRTIs comprised the symptomatic group (RRTI group), whereas 600 healthy children were used as controls (control group). Blood samples were collected to measure serum levels of vitamins A and E by HPLC; the serum level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D), was measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Results Serum levels of vitamins A and E, as well as 25(OH)D, were significantly lower in the RRTI group than the control group. The conditional logistic regression model and the receiver-operating characteristic curve showed that the insufficiency or deficiency of vitamins A, D, and E was positively correlated with RRTI occurrence (p < 0.05). Conclusions Low serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were associated with RRTIs in children from northern China. PMID:27936124

  8. The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in Cotton Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Preuss, Mary L.; Delmar, Deborah P.; Liu, Bo

    2003-05-01

    Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus the results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants.

  9. An assessment of local risk. [to area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L. S.

    1979-01-01

    A status report is presented on the assessment of the risk at Washington National Airport and the surrounding Washington, D.C. area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite in their structures. The presentation is outlined as follows: (1) overall strategy; (2) need for individual airport results; (3) airport-metro area model - submodels, method, assumptions and data; and (4) preliminary results for National Airport - D.C. area.

  10. Risk of cardiovascular events, arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin versus alternative antibiotics prescribed for respiratory tract infections: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Berni, Ellen; de Voogd, Hanka; Butler, Christopher C; Bannister, Christian A; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; Jones, Bethan; Ouwens, Mario; Currie, Craig J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatment with clarithromycin for respiratory tract infections was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, arrhythmias or all-cause mortality compared with other antibiotics. Design Retrospective cohort design comparing clarithromycin monotherapy for lower (LRTI) or upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) with other antibiotic monotherapies for the same indication. Setting Routine primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and inpatient data from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Participants Patients aged ≥35 years prescribed antibiotic monotherapy for LRTI or URTI 1998–2012 and eligible for data linkage to HES. Main outcome measures The main outcome measures were: adjusted risk of first-ever CV event, within 37 days of initiation, in commonly prescribed antibiotics compared with clarithromycin. Secondarily, adjusted 37-day risks of first-ever arrhythmia and all-cause mortality. Results Of 700 689 treatments for LRTI and eligible for the CV analysis, there were 2071 CV events (unadjusted event rate: 29.6 per 10 000 treatments). Of 691 998 eligible treatments for URTI, there were 688 CV events (9.9 per 10 000 treatments). In LRTI and URTI, there were no significant differences in CV risk between clarithromycin and all other antibiotics combined: OR=1.00 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.22) and 0.82 (0.54 to 1.25), respectively. Adjusted CV risk in LRTI versus clarithromycin ranged from OR=1.42 (cefalexin; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.86) to 0.92 (doxycycline; 0.64 to 1.32); in URTI, from 1.17 (co-amoxiclav; 0.68 to 2.01) to 0.67 (erythromycin; 0.40 to 1.11). Adjusted mortality risk versus clarithromycin in LRTI ranged from 0.42 to 1.32; in URTI, from 0.75 to 1.43. For arrhythmia, adjusted risks in LRTI ranged from 0.68 to 1.05; in URTI, from 0.70 to 1.22. Conclusions CV events were more likely after LRTI than after URTI. When analysed by specific indication, CV risk associated with

  11. [Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections: established and new aspects for the clinical routine : Revised recommendations on "prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections" of the commission for hospital hygiene and infection prevention at the Robert Koch Institute].

    PubMed

    Baier, C; Chaberny, Iris F

    2015-10-19

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in Germany and are of particular relevance for intensive and standard care units. The revised guidelines of the commission for hospital hygiene and infection prevention (KRINKO) provide an update on prevention of CAUTI. The guidelines consider and evaluate the new literature published after the initial publication in 1999. The KRINKO recommendations should be implemented to protect patients from such infections, especially as CAUTIs are one of the most preventable types of HAI. In this respect tailor-made infection prevention bundles seem to be most effective and continuous infection surveillance procedures are of particular importance. Thus, a comparison with the reference data provided by the (German) National Reference Center for surveillance of nosocomial infections is possible. This article explains the recommendations for prevention measures included in the new KRINKO guidelines.

  12. Incidence of severe reproductive tract complications associated with diagnosed genital chlamydial infection: the Uppsala Women's Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Low, N; Egger, M; Sterne, J A C; Harbord, R M; Ibrahim, F; Lindblom, B; Herrmann, B

    2006-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cumulative incidence of severe complications associated with genital chlamydia infection in the general female population. Methods The Uppsala Women's Cohort Study was a retrospective population based cohort study in Sweden, linking laboratory, hospital, and population registers. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hospital diagnosed pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and used multivariable regression models to estimate hazard ratios according to screening status. Results We analysed complete data from 43 715 women in Uppsala aged 15–24 years between January 1985 and December 1989. Follow up until the end of 1999 included 709 000 woman years and 3025 events. The cumulative incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease by age 35 years was 3.9% (95% CI 3.7% to 4.0%) overall: 5.6% (4.7% to 6.7%) in women who ever tested positive for chlamydia, 4.0% (3.7% to 4.4%) in those with negative tests, and 2.9% (2.7% to 3.2%) in those who were never screened. The corresponding figures were: for ectopic pregnancy, 2.3% (2.2% to 2.5%) overall, 2.7% (2.1% to 3.5%), 2.0% (1.8% to 2.3%), and 1.9% (1.7% to 2.1%); and for infertility, 4.1% (3.9% to 4.3%) overall, 6.7% (5.7% to 7.9%), 4.7% (4.4% to 5.1%), and 3.1% (2.8% to 3.3%). Low educational attainment was strongly associated with the development of all outcomes. Conclusions The incidence of severe chlamydia associated complications estimated from ours, and other population based studies, was lower than expected. Studies that incorporate data about pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed in primary care and behavioural risk factors would further improve our understanding of the natural history of chlamydia. Our results provide reassurance for patients, but mean that the benefits of chlamydia screening programmes might have been overestimated. PMID:16731670

  13. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant reveal that fiber cell wall development is associated with sensitivity to stress.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cotton fiber maturity refers the degree of fiber cell wall development and is an important factor for determining commercial value of cotton. The molecular mechanism regulating the fiber cell wall development has not been well characterized. Microscopic image analysis of the cross-sect...

  14. Sources of Dietary Fiber and the Association of Fiber Intake with Childhood Obesity Risk (in 2-18 Year Olds) and Diabetes Risk of Adolescents 12-18 Year Olds: NHANES 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Brauchla, Mary; Juan, Wenyen; Story, Jon; Kranz, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    Increased fiber intake has been linked with lower risk of overweight and obesity in adults, but data are sparse for children. To address this issue, NHANES 2003-2006 data was used to evaluate (1) the food sources of fiber in children, (2) the dietary fiber density levels and risk of being classified as overweight/obese, and (3) the association between fiber intake level and impaired glucose metabolism in children. Analyses were restricted to the subsample of children with biological plausible diet reports (N = 4,667) and stratified by 2-11 year olds (n = 2072) and 12-18 year olds (n = 2595). Results showed that the food sources are predominantly foods that are low in dietary fiber, but are consumed at high levels. In 2-18 year old plausible reporters, the risk for overweight/obesity decreased by 17% from children in the medium tertile of fiber density intake compared to the lowest tertile (OR = 0.83, P value = 0.043) and by 21% between the highest compared to the lowest tertile (OR = 0.79, P value = 0.031). There was a protective effect of being in the medium tertile of dietary fiber density (OR = 0.68, P value <0.001) on impaired glucose metabolism. These results indicate a beneficial effect of higher fiber density in children's diets.

  15. Serological screening for a mucine-like carcinoma-associated antigen (MCA) in patients with gastrointestinal tract malignancies.

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, W; Mairinger, D

    1989-01-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibody b-12 identifies a high-molecular-mass glycoprotein antigen strongly expressed by breast carcinoma cells. Since immunohistochemical studies have also demonstrated some reactivity with other epithelial neoplasms, and since "mucine-like carcinoma-associated antigen" (MCA) has gained considerable interest as a tumor marker in breast cancer, we have investigated 34 patients with histologically proven advanced gastrointestinal malignancies for the presence of elevated MCA serum levels. Our data suggest that screening for and/or monitoring of MCA in these tumors is unlikely to have any practical clinical relevance. The possible role of MCA as a marker in tissue specimens for abortive adenomatous differentiation in gastrointestinal (and other) neoplasms, however, remains to be determined.

  16. Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Are Associated With Severe Sepsis at Admission: Implication for Empirical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chien; Hsiao, Chih-Yen; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Hung, Sheng-Che; Wang, Hung-Ping; Huang, Yun-Jhong; Wang, Jann-Tay

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features and treatment outcomes among patients with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR Enterobacteriaceae and to identify whether MDR pathogens were independently associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation.The clinical data of adult patients visiting and being treated at Chia-Yi Christian Hospital due to bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae from January 2006 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.A total of 585 patients were enrolled. Among them, 220 (37.6%) were caused by the MDR Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 206 patients (35.2%) developed severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. Patients in the MDR group tend to be male and have a past history of gout, recurrent UTI, prior hospitalization, hydronephrosis, renal stone, ureteral stone, indwelling urinary catheter, newly development of renal dysfunction, severe sepsis or septic shock, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of ineffective empirical therapy, longer hospital stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (2.7% vs 1.9%, P = 0.569). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, it is revealed that independent predictors associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation were liver cirrhosis (OR 2.868; 95% CI 1.439-5.716; P = 0.003), indwelling urinary catheter (OR 1.936; 95% CI 1.238-3.027; P = 0.004), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae (OR 1.447; 95% CI 1.002-2.090; P = 0.049).Multidrug resistance was associated with the development of severe sepsis or septic shock upon presentation among patients with bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, empirical antibiotics therapy for patients with UTI presented with severe sepsis and/or septic shock should be more broad-spectrum to effectively cover MDR Enterobacteriaceae.

  17. Independent levels of cell-free and cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus-1 in genital-tract secretions of clinically asymptomatic, treatment-naive African women.

    PubMed

    Andréoletti, Laurent; Chomont, Nicolas; Grésenguet, Gérard; Matta, Mathieu; de Dieu Longo, Jean; Carreno, Marie-Paule; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Legoff, Jérôme; Kazatchkine, Michel D; Bélec, Laurent

    2003-08-15

    Using ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction-based techniques, we assessed levels of cell-free and cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in paired blood and genital samples of 30 clinically asymptomatic, treatment-naive women. Levels of HIV-1 RNA in cervicovaginal-lavage samples were positively correlated with those in plasma samples (r=.50; P=.008), whereas levels of HIV-1 DNA in genital samples were loosely correlated with those in blood samples (r=.31; P=.041). In plasma of peripheral blood, levels of HIV-1 DNA were positively correlated with those of HIV-1 RNA (r=.64; P<.001), whereas no correlation between HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA was evident in genital secretions. Our results indicate that levels of HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 DNA are unrelated in the genital tracts of treatment-naive women and suggest that the level of genital HIV-1 RNA is influenced by systemic viral replication-in contrast to genital HIV-1 provirus, which may be influenced as well by local cofactors triggering the migration of HIV-infected cells originating from the cervicovaginal submucosa. These features may be relevant for an understanding of HIV-1 transmission in heterosexual individuals.

  18. Prickle1 mutation causes planar cell polarity and directional cell migration defects associated with cardiac outflow tract anomalies and other structural birth defects

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Brian C.; Damerla, Rama Rao; Vladar, Eszter K.; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Wan, Yong; Liu, Xiaoqin; Cui, Cheng; Gabriel, George C.; Zahid, Maliha; Yagi, Hisato; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L.; Suyama, Kaye L.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Planar cell polarity (PCP) is controlled by a conserved pathway that regulates directional cell behavior. Here, we show that mutant mice harboring a newly described mutation termed Beetlejuice (Bj) in Prickle1 (Pk1), a PCP component, exhibit developmental phenotypes involving cell polarity defects, including skeletal, cochlear and congenital cardiac anomalies. Bj mutants die neonatally with cardiac outflow tract (OFT) malalignment. This is associated with OFT shortening due to loss of polarized cell orientation and failure of second heart field cell intercalation mediating OFT lengthening. OFT myocardialization was disrupted with cardiomyocytes failing to align with the direction of cell invasion into the outflow cushions. The expression of genes mediating Wnt signaling was altered. Also noted were shortened but widened bile ducts and disruption in canonical Wnt signaling. Using an in vitro wound closure assay, we showed Bj mutant fibroblasts cannot establish polarized cell morphology or engage in directional cell migration, and their actin cytoskeleton failed to align with the direction of wound closure. Unexpectedly, Pk1 mutants exhibited primary and motile cilia defects. Given Bj mutant phenotypes are reminiscent of ciliopathies, these findings suggest Pk1 may also regulate ciliogenesis. Together these findings show Pk1 plays an essential role in regulating cell polarity and directional cell migration during development. PMID:26883626

  19. Prickle1 mutation causes planar cell polarity and directional cell migration defects associated with cardiac outflow tract anomalies and other structural birth defects.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Brian C; Damerla, Rama Rao; Vladar, Eszter K; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Wan, Yong; Liu, Xiaoqin; Cui, Cheng; Gabriel, George C; Zahid, Maliha; Yagi, Hisato; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L; Suyama, Kaye L; Axelrod, Jeffrey D; Lo, Cecilia W

    2016-02-16

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is controlled by a conserved pathway that regulates directional cell behavior. Here, we show that mutant mice harboring a newly described mutation termed Beetlejuice (Bj) in Prickle1 (Pk1), a PCP component, exhibit developmental phenotypes involving cell polarity defects, including skeletal, cochlear and congenital cardiac anomalies. Bj mutants die neonatally with cardiac outflow tract (OFT) malalignment. This is associated with OFT shortening due to loss of polarized cell orientation and failure of second heart field cell intercalation mediating OFT lengthening. OFT myocardialization was disrupted with cardiomyocytes failing to align with the direction of cell invasion into the outflow cushions. The expression of genes mediating Wnt signaling was altered. Also noted were shortened but widened bile ducts and disruption in canonical Wnt signaling. Using an in vitro wound closure assay, we showed Bj mutant fibroblasts cannot establish polarized cell morphology or engage in directional cell migration, and their actin cytoskeleton failed to align with the direction of wound closure. Unexpectedly, Pk1 mutants exhibited primary and motile cilia defects. Given Bj mutant phenotypes are reminiscent of ciliopathies, these findings suggest Pk1 may also regulate ciliogenesis. Together these findings show Pk1 plays an essential role in regulating cell polarity and directional cell migration during development.

  20. Homozygous 16p13.11 duplication associated with mild intellectual disability and urinary tract malformations in two siblings born from consanguineous parents.

    PubMed

    Houcinat, N; Llanas, B; Moutton, S; Toutain, J; Cailley, D; Arveiler, B; Combe, C; Lacombe, D; Rooryck, C

    2015-11-01

    The use of array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) in routine clinical work has allowed the identification of many new copy number variations (CNV). The 16p13.11 duplication has been implicated in various congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders, but it has also been identified in healthy individuals. We report a clinical observation of two brothers from related parents each carrying a homozygous 16p13.11 duplication. The propositus had mild intellectual disability and posterior urethral valves with chronic renal disease. His brother was considered a healthy child with only learning disabilities and poor academic performances. However, a routine medical examination at 25-years-old revealed a mild chronic renal disease and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Furthermore, the father presented with a unilateral renal agenesis, thus it seemed that a "congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract" (CAKUT) phenotype segregated in this family. This may be related to the duplication, but we cannot exclude the involvement of additional genetic or non-genetic factors in the urological phenotype. Several cohort studies showed association between this chromosomal imbalance and different clinical manifestations, but rarely with CAKUT. The duplication reported here was similar to the larger one of 3.4 Mb previously described versus the more common of 1.6 Mb. It encompassed at least 11 known genes, including the five ohnologs previously identified. Our observation, in addition to expanding the clinical spectrum of the duplication provides further support to understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanism.

  1. Bacterial Community Associated with the Intestinal Tract of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Farmed in Lake Tai, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal >95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

  2. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidneys and ... be a sign of diabetes . continue What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys ...

  3. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  4. Healthcare-associated, community-acquired and hospital-acquired bacteraemic urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients: a prospective multicentre cohort study in the era of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Horcajada, J P; Shaw, E; Padilla, B; Pintado, V; Calbo, E; Benito, N; Gamallo, R; Gozalo, M; Rodríguez-Baño, J

    2013-10-01

    The clinical and microbiological characteristics of community-onset healthcare-associated (HCA) bacteraemia of urinary source are not well defined. We conducted a prospective cohort study at eight tertiary-care hospitals in Spain, from October 2010 to June 2011. All consecutive adult patients hospitalized with bacteraemic urinary tract infection (BUTI) were included. HCA-BUTI episodes were compared with community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) BUTI. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify 30-day mortality risk factors. We included 667 episodes of BUTI (246 HCA, 279 CA and 142 HA). Differences between HCA-BUTI and CA-BUTI were female gender (40% vs 69%, p <0.001), McCabe score II-III (48% vs 14%, p <0.001), Pitt score ≥2 (40% vs 31%, p 0.03), isolation of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaciae (13% vs 5%, p <0.001), median hospital stay (9 vs 7 days, p 0.03), inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy (21% vs 13%, p 0.02) and mortality (11.4% vs 3.9%, p 0.001). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more frequently isolated in HA-BUTI (16%) than in HCA-BUTI (4%, p <0.001). Independent factors for mortality were age (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07), McCabe score II-III (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.8-5.5), Pitt score ≥2 (OR 3.2 (1.8-5.5) and HA-BUTI OR 3.4 (1.2-9.0)). Patients with HCA-BUTI are a specific group with significant clinical and microbiological differences from patients with CA-BUTI, and some similarities with patients with HA-BUTI. Mortality was associated with patient condition, the severity of infection and hospital acquisition.

  5. Black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003-2010).

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Coull, Brent A

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25-64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003-2004; 2008-2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position.

  6. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Heudorf, Ursel; Gasteyer, Stefanie; Müller, Maria; Samoiski, Yvonne; Serra, Nicole; Westphal, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the “prevention of infections in nursing homes” (2005) as well as in the updated recommendations for the “prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” (2015), the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) has recommended adequate preventive measures. In 2015, the implementation of these KRINKO recommendations was investigated. Method: All of Frankfurt’s 40 nursing homes were evaluated using a checklist based on the KRINKO recommendations. The evaluation included assessing the availability of operating instructions, appropriate indications for the placement of catheters etc. Age, sex and duration of catheterization, as well as current and previous infections within the past 6 months were documented for every resident with a catheter. Results: In 35 (87.5%) of the nursing homes, operating instructions for the handling of urinary tract catheters were available. The decision as to whether a catheter is indicated is made by physicians, while its placement is often delegated to the nursing service. Typically, silicon catheters are used. In three-quarters of the nursing homes, regular intervals of 4–6 weeks for changing catheters were reported. On the respective survey day, 7.3% of the residents were catheterized. On the survey day, 3.6% (4.2%) and in the previous 6 months a total of 28% (28.9%) of the residents had a urinary tract infection (prevalence of antibiotic therapy in parentheses). Ciprofloxacin was used most often followed by cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole. Discussion: In the current evaluation, fewer nursing home residents were catheterized than in previous years and the rate of urinary tract infections was low. This

  7. Real-time association rate constant measurement using combination tapered fiber-optic biosensor (CTFOB) dip-probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, Boris; Wang, Chun-Wei; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2010-02-01

    This document reports a novel method of measuring association rate constant (ka) for antibody-antigen interaction using evanescent wave-based combination tapered fiber-optic biosensor (CTFOB) dip-probes. The method was demonstrated by measuring association rate constant for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA antibody interaction. "Direct method" was used for detection; goat anti-BSA "capture" antibodies were immobilized on the probe surfaces while the antigen (BSA) was directly labeled with Alexa 488 dye. The probes were subsequently submerged in 3nM Labeled BSA in egg albumin (1 mg/ml). The fluorescence signal recorded was proportional to BSA anti-BSA conjugates and continuous signal was acquired suing a fiber optic spectrometer (Ocean Optics, Inc.). A 476 nm diode laser was use as an excitation source. Association constant was estimated from a plot of signal as a function of time. Measured association rate constant ka for the binding of BSA with anti-BSA at room temperature is (8.33 +/- 0.01) x 104 M-1s-1.

  8. Implementation of the updated 2015 Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) recommendations “Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” in the hospitals in Frankfurt/Main, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Heudorf, Ursel; Grünewald, Miriam; Otto, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) updated the recommendations for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in 2015. This article will describe the implementation of these recommendations in Frankfurt’s hospitals in autumn, 2015. Material and methods: In two non-ICU wards of each of Frankfurt’s 17 hospitals, inspections were performed using a checklist based on the new KRINKO recommendations. In one large hospital, a total of 5 wards were inspected. The inspections covered the structure and process quality (operating instructions, training, indication, the placement and maintenance of catheters) and the demonstration of the preparation for insertion of a catheter using an empty bed and an imaginary patient, or insertion in a model. Results: Operating instructions were available in all hospital wards; approximately half of the wards regularly performed training sessions. The indications were largely in line with the recommendations of the KRINKO. Alternatives to urinary tract catheters were available and were used more often than the urinary tract catheters themselves (15.9% vs. 13.5%). In accordance with the recommendations, catheters were placed without antibiotic prophylaxis or the instillation of antiseptic or antimicrobial substances or catheter flushing solutions. The demonstration of catheter placement was conscientiously performed. Need for improvement was seen in the daily documentation and the regular verification of continuing indication for a urinary catheter, as well as the omission of regular catheter change. Conclusion: Overall, the recommendations of the KRINKO on the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections were adequately implemented. However, it cannot be ruled out that in situations with time pressure and staff shortage, the handling of urinary tract catheters may be of lower quality than that observed during the inspections, when catheter insertion was done by

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression is associated with a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer in a high-risk population exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.J.; Wei, W.Q.; Baer, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Wang, G.Q.; Sternberg, L.R.; Warner, A.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Lu, N.; Giffen, C.A.; Dawsey, S.M.; Qiao, Y.L.; Cherry, J.

    2009-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and PAHs are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study measured the expression of AhR and related genes in frozen esophageal cell samples from patients exposed to different levels of indoor air pollution, who did or did not have high-grade squamous dysplasia and who did or did not have a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) cancer. 147 samples were evaluated, including 23 (16%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 48 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who heated their homes with coal, without a chimney (a 'high' indoor air pollution group), and 27 (18%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 49 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who did not heat their homes at all (a 'low' indoor air pollution group). Sixty-four (44%) had a family history of UGI cancer. RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR analysis was done. AhR gene expression was detectable in 85 (58%) of the samples and was >9-fold higher in those with a family history of UGI cancer (median expression (interquartile range), -1,964 (-18,000, -610) versus -18,000 (-18,000, -1036); P = 0.02, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Heating status, dysplasia category, age, gender, and smoking were not associated with AhR expression (linear regression; all P values {ge} 0.1). AhR expression was higher in patients with a family history of UGI cancer. Such individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of PAH exposure, including PAH-induced cancer.

  10. A Multifaceted Approach to Reduction of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in the Intensive Care Unit With an Emphasis on "Stewardship of Culturing".

    PubMed

    Mullin, Katherine M; Kovacs, Christopher S; Fatica, Cynthia; Einloth, Colette; Neuner, Elizabeth A; Guzman, Jorge A; Kaiser, Eric; Menon, Venu; Castillo, Leticia; Popovich, Marc J; Manno, Edward M; Gordon, Steven M; Fraser, Thomas G

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to increasing public health concerns and reimbursement implications. OBJECTIVE To implement and describe a multifaceted intervention to decrease CAUTIs in our ICUs with an emphasis on indications for obtaining a urine culture. METHODS A project team composed of all critical care disciplines was assembled to address an institutional goal of decreasing CAUTIs. Interventions implemented between year 1 and year 2 included protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for placement, maintenance, and removal of catheters. Leaders from all critical care disciplines agreed to align routine culturing practice with American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for evaluating a fever in a critically ill patient. Surveillance data for CAUTI and hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) were recorded prospectively according to National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) protocols. Device utilization ratios (DURs), rates of CAUTI, HABSI, and urine cultures were calculated and compared. RESULTS The CAUTI rate decreased from 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days in 2013 to 1.9 in 2014. The DUR was 0.7 in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. The HABSI rates per 1,000 patient days decreased from 2.8 in 2013 to 2.4 in 2014. CONCLUSIONS Effectively reducing ICU CAUTI rates requires a multifaceted and collaborative approach; stewardship of culturing was a key and safe component of our successful reduction efforts. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:186-188.

  11. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-04

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region.

  12. Association between injectable progestin-only contraceptives and HIV acquisition and HIV target cell frequency in the female genital tract in South African women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Elizabeth H; Anahtar, Melis N; Cohen, Kathleen E; Moodley, Amber; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Bowman, Brittany A; Olson, Gregory S; Mabhula, Amanda; Leslie, Alasdair; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Dong, Krista L; Kwon, Douglas S

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The use of injectable progestin-only contraceptives has been associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition in observational studies, but the biological mechanisms of this risk remain poorly understood. We aimed to assess the effects of progestins on HIV acquisition risk and the immune environment in the female genital tract. Methods In this prospective cohort, we enrolled HIV-negative South African women aged 18–23 years who were not pregnant and were living in Umlazi, South Africa from the Females Rising through Education, Support, and Health (FRESH) study. We tested for HIV-1 twice per week to monitor incident infection. Every 3 months, we collected demographic and behavioural data in addition to blood and cervical samples. The study objective was to characterise host immune determinants of HIV acquisition risk, including those associated with injectable progestin-only contraceptive use. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards methods. Findings Between Nov 19, 2012, and May 31, 2015, we characterised 432 HIV-uninfected South African women from the FRESH study. In this cohort, 152 women used injectable progestin-only contraceptives, 43 used other forms of contraception, and 222 women used no method of long-term contraception. Women using injectable progestin-only contraceptives were at substantially higher risk of acquiring HIV (12·06 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 6·41–20·63) than women using no long-term contraception (3·71 per 100 person-years, 1·36–8·07; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2·93, 95% CI 1·09–7·868, p=0·0326). HIV-negative injectable progestin-only contraceptive users had 3·92 times the frequency of cervical HIV target cells (CCR5+ CD4 T cells) compared with women using no long-term contraceptive (p=0·0241). Women using no long-term contraceptive in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle also had a 3·25 times higher frequency of cervical target cells compared with those in the

  13. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  14. Microvessel basement membrane reduplication is not associated with repeated nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Baker, M K; Bourque, P; Dyck, P J

    1996-03-01

    To determine whether repeated nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration can induce reduplication of endoneurial microvessel basement membranes (BMs), typical of such conditions as diabetic polyneuropathy, electronmicrographs of endoneurial microvessels of rat peroneal and tibial nerves were studied in repeatedly crushed (10 x) sciatic nerves and compared to microvessels of sham-operated uncrushed nerves. On average, crushed nerves had 2.6, SE +/- 0.1 BMs, whereas control nerves had 2.7, SE +/- 0.1 (P > 0.05). Microvessel cellular components were significantly increased in both number and size in the crushed nerves. These nerves also demonstrated a trend to increased vessel numbers and density. These results are not in keeping with the hypothesis that BM reduplication of endoneurial microvessels is simply due to repeated fiber degeneration and regeneration.

  15. Manufacture of fiber-epoxy test specimens: Including associated jigs and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S. B.; Felbeck, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental work on the manufacture and strength of graphite-epoxy composites is considered. The correct data and thus a true assessment of the strength properties based on a proper and scientifically modeled test specimen with engineered design, construction, and manufacture has led to claims of a very broad spread in optimized values. Such behavior is in the main due to inadequate control during manufacture of test specimen, improper curing, and uneven scatter in the fiber orientation. The graphite fibers are strong but brittle. Even with various epoxy matrices and volume fraction, the fracture toughness is still relatively low. Graphite-epoxy prepreg tape was investigated as a sandwich construction with intermittent interlaminar bonding between the laminates in order to produce high strength, high fracture toughness composites. The quality and control of manufacture of the multilaminate test specimen blanks was emphasized. The dimensions, orientation and cure must be meticulous in order to produce the desired mix.

  16. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria.

  17. Genetic variability of human coronavirus OC43-, 229E-, and NL63-like strains and their association with lower respiratory tract infections of hospitalized infants and immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Gerna, Giuseppe; Campanini, Giulia; Rovida, Francesca; Percivalle, Elena; Sarasini, Antonella; Marchi, Antonietta; Baldanti, Fausto

    2006-07-01

    In the winter-spring seasons 2003-2004 and 2004-2005, 47 (5.7%) patients with acute respiratory infection associated with human coronavirus (hCoV) 229E-, NL63-, and OC43-like strains were identified among 823 (597 immunocompetent and 226 immunocompromised) patients admitted to hospital with acute respiratory syndromes. Viral infections were diagnosed by either immunological (monoclonal antibodies) or molecular (RT-PCR) methods. Each of two sets of primer pairs developed for detection of all CoVs (panCoV) failed to detect 15 of the 53 (28.3%) hCoV strains identified. On the other hand, all hCoV strains could be detected by using type-specific primers targeting genes 1ab and N. The HuH-7 cell line was found to be susceptible to isolation and identification of OC43- and 229E-like strains. Overall, hCoV infection was caused by OC43-like, 229E-like, and NL63-like strains in 25 (53.2%), 10 (21.3%), and 9 (19.1%) patients, respectively. In addition, three patients (6.4%) were infected by untypeable hCoV strains. NL63-like strains were not found to circulate in 2003-2004, and 229E-like strains did not circulate in 2004-2005, while OC43-like strains were detected in both seasons. The monthly distribution reached a peak during January through March. Lower predominated over upper respiratory tract infections in each age group. In addition, hCoV infections interested only immunocompetent infants and young children during the first year of life, while all adults were immunocompromised patients. Coinfections of hCoVs and other respiratory viruses (mostly interesting the first year of life) were observed in 14 of the 47 (29.8%) patients and were associated with severe respiratory syndromes more frequently than hCoV single infections (P = 0.002). In conclusion, the use of multiple primer sets targeting different genes is recommended for diagnosis of all types of hCoV infection. In addition, the detection of still untypeable hCoV strains suggests that the number of hCoVs involved

  18. Effect of age on the occurrence of muscle fiber degeneration associated with myopathies in broiler chickens submitted to feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, G; Piccirillo, A; Birolo, M; Bertotto, D; Gratta, F; Ballarin, C; Vascellari, M; Xiccato, G; Trocino, A

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate muscle fiber degeneration (MFD) associated with white striping and wooden breast, pectoralis major of 192 broilers differing for genotype (standard vs. high breast yield), gender, and feeding regime (ad libitum vs. restricted rate 80% from 13 to 21 d of age) were sampled at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d of age for histological analyses by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining to evaluate tissue morphology, Masson's trichrome to identify collagen presence, and Oil red and Nile blue for lipid presence. Microvessels (diameter ≤15 μm), nuclei positive to anti-cleaved lamin A and monoclonal proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antisera were counted to assess apoptotic and regenerative processes, respectively. Significant differences were found according to feeding system, age, and their interactions. The frequency of chickens with MFD was higher with ad libitum than restricted feeding (75.0% vs. 62.5%; P = 0.01) and increased with age (18.8%, 28.1%, 75.1%, 96.9%, and 96.9% at 14, 21, 28, 35, and 46 d). However, at 14 d a similar frequency (18.8%) was found in all broilers; at 21 d, MFD occurred more in broilers fed ad libitum than in those under restriction (50.0% vs. 6.3%; P < 0.01); at 28 d differences were reduced (87.5% vs. 62.5%; P  = 0.10) to disappear by 35 (100% and 93.8%) and 46 d (96.9% and 96.9%). The number of microvessels decreased with age (20.7 to 9.46; P < 0.001) and the number of nuclei positive to the anti-cleaved lamin A antibody increased. At histology, MFD at 46 d corresponded to loss of typical cross striations, massive necrotic process, degenerating fibers surrounded by inflammatory cells, scattered fibers in an abundant collagen-rich connective tissue, numerous adipose cells; necrotic fibers showed a high percentage of apoptotic nuclei, and regenerating fibers appeared positive to anti-PCNA antibody. In conclusion, MFD soon occurred after 2 wk of growth and increased dramatically within 28 d. Early feed restriction

  19. The 532-nm 180-W (GreenLight®) laser vaporization of the prostate for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms: how durable is the new side-fire fiber with integrated cooling system?

    PubMed

    Brunken, Claus; Munsch, Maximilian; Tauber, Stephan; Schmidt, Rainer; Seitz, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The 532-nm side-fire laser vaporization is established for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia. Meanwhile, the third generation of this system is offered by American Medical Systems, Inc. The laser power increased from 80 and 120 to 180 W from the first to the third generation. Despite good functional results, with the 80- and 120-W systems, the removal of prostate tissue is limited because of fiber degradation. To overcome this problem, the fiber was designed newly with an integrated cooling system and a sensor for decreasing the laser energy in case of overheating. We evaluate whether the new fiber still suffers from degradation with consecutive drop of power transmission during the procedure. The power output of the cooled fiber was measured in vitro and during prostate vaporization in ten patients. Laser beam power was measured at baseline and after the application each of 50 kJ during laser vaporization. Power emission of the fiber remains constant at 20, 80, and 180 W of power settings over the whole 40-kJ lifespan. During the transurethral procedure, a median total energy of 276 kJ (standard deviation 153 kJ) was applied for vaporization. Median power output from the fiber at the end of the procedure was 97% from the baseline value. There were no fiber malfunctions observed. In contrast to former generations, the third-generation laser fiber is durable without significant power loss during prostate vaporization.

  20. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We determined the number and identity of bacterial populations occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalc...

  1. A pointwise correspondence based DT-MRI fiber similarity measure.

    PubMed

    Berkiten, Sema; Acar, Burak

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DTI) fiber tractography is a way to reconstruct fiber tracts underlying data according to local anisotropic diffusion characteristics. Reliability of fiber tracts as a result of tractography decreases due to noise in the data, error accumulation during integration and stochastic nature of the underlying data. We proposed a new similarity measure based on point-wise correspondence between tracts. Laplacian Eigenmaps are used to embed the fiber tracts into ℜ(3) based on the new similarity measure. We compared our method with a previously proposed method, on real and phantom data, that uses a 9D feature space to measure fiber similarity and showed that the new similarity measure results in a low dimensional manifold representing the fiber bundles. We presented preliminary results demonstrating that the fibers that fall far from this manifold correspond to outliers.

  2. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults.

  3. [Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Adukauskiene, Dalia; Cicinskaite, Ilona; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Macas, Andrius; Tamosiūnas, Ramūnas; Kinderyte, Aida

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are responsible for 40-60% of all hospital-acquired infections. Increased age of patients and comorbid diseases render hospitalized patients more susceptible to infection. Almost 80% of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections are associated with urinary catheters, and only 5-10% of urinary infections are caused by invasive manipulations in the urogenital tract. Pathogens of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections are frequently multi-resistant, and antibiotic therapy can only be successful when the complicating factors are eliminated or urodynamic function is restored. For treatment of complicated hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, the antibiotics must exhibit adequate pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties: high renal clearance of unmetabolized form with good antimicrobial activity in both acidic and alkaline urine. For selection of empirical treatment of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, it is necessary to evaluate localization of infection, its severity, possible isolates, and the most frequent pathogens in the department where patient is treated. The best choice for the starting the antimicrobial therapy is the cheapest narrow-spectrum effective antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infection until microbiological evaluation of pathogens will be received. Adequate management of urinary tract infections lowers the rate of complications, requirements for antibacterial treatment, selection of multi-resistant isolates and is cost effective.

  4. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Saint, Sanjay

    2011-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) account for approximately 40% of all health care-associated infections. Despite studies showing benefit of interventions for prevention of CAUTI, adoption of these practices has not occurred in many healthcare facilities in the United States. As urinary catheters account for the majority of healthcare-associated UTIs, the most important interventions are directed at avoiding placement of urinary catheters and promoting early removal when appropriate. Alternatives to indwelling catheters such as intermittent catheterization and condom catheters should be considered. If indwelling catheterization is appropriate, proper aseptic practices for catheter insertion and maintenance and use of a closed catheter collection system are essential for preventing CAUTI. The use of antimicrobial catheters also may be considered when the rates of CAUTI remain persistently high despite adherence to other evidence-based practices, or in patients deemed to be at high risk for CAUTI or its complications. Attention toward prevention of CAUTI will likely increase as Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other third-party payers no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired UTI.

  5. A Multidisciplinary Intervention to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Using Education, Continuum of Care, and Systemwide Buy-In

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Marvin Moe; Alaestante, Greg; Finch, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the Scottsdale Osborn Medical Center intensive care unit (ICU) had a rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) among the highest in Arizona hospitals, with 54 infections reported. To address the high rate of CAUTI in the Osborn campus ICU, the project team participating in the Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers (AIAMC) National Initiative IV joined the CAUTI systemwide oversight team in the ambitious goal to eliminate CAUTI from Scottsdale Healthcare. Methods: The quality improvement project to eliminate CAUTI took place throughout calendar year 2014 at the Osborn campus and involved the AIAMC project team, the CAUTI systemwide oversight team, and support from the Scottsdale Healthcare information technology team. A CAUTI bundle based on current best-practice guidelines for prevention of CAUTI was finalized in January 2014. In addition, the AIAMC project team spearheaded and coordinated 6 initiatives based on current guidelines to attempt to reduce unnecessary urinary catheter use in the hospital system. The initiatives included education, mandatory prompts and reminders in the electronic medical record, daily patient tracking, a resident quality champion, and a urine retention protocol. Results: Catheter days in the ICU dropped by approximately one-third during the first 2 quarters of 2014 and then appeared to level off. The CAUTI numbers and rate fluctuated in the ICU without much change during 2013 and 2014 but then dropped in 2015. However, the national definition of CAUTI changed in the first quarter of 2015, and the change in definition was estimated to reduce the number of reported CAUTIs in our hospital by 25%-30%. Urinary catheter days in the non-ICU units declined relatively steadily from the last quarter of 2013 through midyear 2015. CAUTI rates were fairly low in this setting during the observed quarters. In the emergency department (ED), both urinary catheter insertions and the insertion rate dropped

  6. Analysis of GI Community Shifts in Response to Dietary Fiber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    omnivorous and similar to the human diet, pigs recover much more energy from microbial digestion of fiber/cellulose in the lower GI tract (ca. 17-30%). In...similar to the human tract ( omnivorous , non-ruminant but better cellulose utilization), 3) show gut community response to change in diet fiber, 4

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections in Asia: report from the Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infection Pathogen Surveillance (CARTIPS) study, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Xu, Yingchun; Sun, Hongli; Yang, Qiwen; Hu, Yunjian; Cao, Bin; Chu, Yunzhuo; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Rong; Yu, Yunsong; Sun, Ziyong; Zhuo, Chao; Ni, Yuxing; Hu, Bijie; Tan, Thean Yen; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wahjono, Hendro

    2011-11-01

    A multicentre resistance surveillance study [Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infection Pathogen Surveillance (CARTIPS)] investigating the susceptibilities of 2963 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Streptococcus spp. from Asia against 12 antimicrobial agents was undertaken from 2009 to 2010. Based on the breakpoints for oral penicillin V recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, the prevalence of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSSP) ranged from 46% to 100%. Azithromycin and clarithromycin exhibited variable resistance rates of 0-88% against S. pneumoniae, 0-57% against MSSA and 0-76.5% against Streptococcus spp. isolates. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae varied from 5.1% to 58.5%. β-Lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae isolates ranged from 15% to 46.6% and amongst M. catarrhalis isolates from 90% to 100%. Amongst M. catarrhalis isolates, macrolide resistance and cefaclor resistance rates of 5.8% and 1.2%, respectively, were found, mainly in Mainland China. Levofloxacin resistance rates of 0-3.9% with a MIC(90) (minimum inhibitory concentration causing inhibition of 90% of isolates) of 1-2mg/L and moxifloxacin resistance rates of 0-1.7% with a MIC(90) of 0.125-0.5mg/L were found amongst PNSSP isolates. Moxifloxacin was very active against Streptococcus spp., H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates, with MIC(90) values of 0.125-0.25, 0.032-0.5 and 0.064-0.125mg/L, respectively. These results from the CARTIPS study have confirmed some significant regional differences in the antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. pneumoniae, MSSA, K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and Streptococcus spp. and emphasise the importance of antimicrobial surveillance programmes for guiding empirical therapy and for focusing interventional control of antimicrobial

  8. Lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation is associated with a robust increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation in the developing mouse.

    PubMed

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Skiba, Nikolai; Vasantha Rao, Ponugoti

    2007-10-01

    Myosin II, a molecular motor, plays a critical role in cell migration, cell shape changes, cell adhesion, and cytokinesis. To understand the role of myosin II in lens fiber cell elongation and differentiation, we determined the distribution pattern of nonmuscle myosin IIA, IIB, and phosphorylated regulatory myosin light chain-2 (phospho-MLC) in frozen sections of the developing mouse lens by immunofluorescence analysis. While myosin IIA was distributed uniformly throughout the differentiating lens, including the epithelium and fibers, myosin IIB was localized predominantly to the epithelium and the posterior tips of the lens fibers. In contrast, immunostaining with a di-phospho-MLC antibody localized intensely and precisely to the elongating and differentiating primary and secondary lens fibers, co-localizing with actin filaments. An in situ analysis of Rho GTPase activation revealed that Rho-GTP was distributed uniformly throughout the embryonic lens, including epithelium and fibers. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity by ML-7 in organ cultured mouse lenses led to development of nuclear lens opacity in association with abnormal fiber cell organization. Taken together, these data reveal a distinct spatial distribution pattern of myosin II isoforms in the developing lens and a robust activation of MLC phosphorylation in the differentiating lens fibers. Moreover, the regulation of MLC phosphorylation by MLCK appears to be critical for crystallin organization and for maintenance of lens transparency and lens membrane function.

  9. A Case Report of NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disease With a Wide Involvement of Digestive Tract Develop Into Epstein–Barr Virus Associated NK/T Cell Lymphoma in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haotian; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Zhinong; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) plays an important role in various diseases. EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is a rare disease with a canceration tendency. It is difficult to differentiate LPD with involvement of digestive tract from Crohn disease due to similar clinical and endoscopic manifestations. We present a case report of multiple ulcers with esophagus, small bowel and the entire colon involved, proved to be NK-Cell LPD, developed into EBV-associated NK/T Cell lymphoma, in an immunocompetent man who was initially misdiagnosed as Crohn disease. This report underscores that intestinal ulcers should be cautiously diagnosed, for it sometimes could be a precancerous lesion. PMID:27015206

  10. Congenital optic tract hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Fujio, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Taylor, David

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of isolated unilateral optic tract hypoplasia, described only twice previously. Bilateral optic disk hypoplasia was seen ophthalmoscopically and visual field studies showed an incongruous right homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral hypoplasia of both optic nerves and the left optic tract. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography mapping correlated well with the visual field studies.

  11. [Anesthetic management of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy associated with congenital fiber-type disproportion].

    PubMed

    Kawaraguchi, Yoshitaka; Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fukumitsu, Kazuo; Kinouchi, Keiko; Miyamoto, Yoshikazu; Hirao, Osamu; Kitamura, Seiji

    2002-04-01

    A 3-year-old girl, who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy in conjunction with congenital fiber-type disproportion, underwent open reduction for congenital dislocation of the hip. Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated left ventricular dilatation with an ejection fraction (EF) of 0.33. Anesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine and fentanyl, and maintained with fentanyl administered incrementally to a total dose of 10 micrograms.kg-1 and 1-1.5% isoflurane. During operation, we continuously monitored left ventricular wall motion and measured left ventricular diastolic dimension (LVDd), systolic dimension (LVDs), cardiac output (CO), EF, and fractional shortening (FS) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). At the end of surgery, preload (LVDd) and LV contractility (CO, EF, FS) decreased, but LV wall motion remained almost stable throughout the procedure. In conclusion, TEE was useful for intraoperative management of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy.

  12. A systematic review of factors associated with the retention of glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors that can affect the retention of glass fiber posts to intra-radicular dentin based on in vitro studies that compared the bond strength (BS) of GFPs cemented with resin cements. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scopus until December 2013. Bond strength values and variables as type of tooth, presence of endodontic treatment, pretreatment of the post, type of bonding agent (if present), type of cement and mode of cement application were extracted from the 34 included studies. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the influence of these parameters on BS. The presence of endodontic treatment decreased the BS values in 22.7% considering the pooled data (p = 0.013). For regular cement, cleaning the post increased BS when compared to silane application without cleaning (p = 0.032), considering cleaning as ethanol, air abrasion, or phosphoric acid application. Applying the cement around the post and into root canal decreased the resistance compared to only around the post (p = 0.02) or only into root canal (p = 0.041), on the other hand, no difference was found for self-adhesive resin cement for the same comparisons (p = 0.858 and p = 0.067). Endodontic treatment, method of cement application, and post pretreatment are factors that might significantly affect the retention of glass-fiber posts into root canals mainly when cemented with regular resin cement. Self-adhesive resin cements were found to be less technique-sensitive to luting procedures as compared with regular resin cements.

  13. Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Laura; Jones, Deborah L.; Rodriguez, Violeta J.; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Bolivar, Hector; Podack, Eckhard R.; Fischl, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to

  14. Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Maria L; Strbo, Natasa; Romero, Laura; Jones, Deborah L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Bolivar, Hector; Podack, Eckhard R; Fischl, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to

  15. von Willebrand factor fibers promote cancer-associated platelet aggregation in malignant melanoma of mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Alexander T.; Suckau, Jan; Frank, Kathrin; Desch, Anna; Goertz, Lukas; Wagner, Andreas H.; Hecker, Markus; Goerge, Tobias; Umansky, Ludmila; Beckhove, Philipp; Utikal, Jochen; Gorzelanny, Christian; Diaz-Valdes, Nancy; Umansky, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-mediated procoagulatory activity leads to venous thromboembolism and supports metastasis in cancer patients. A prerequisite for metastasis formation is the interaction of cancer cells with endothelial cells (ECs) followed by their extravasation. Although it is known that activation of ECs and the release of the procoagulatory protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) is essential for malignancy, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that VWF fibers in tumor vessels promote tumor-associated thromboembolism and metastasis. Using in vitro settings, mouse models, and human tumor samples, we showed that melanoma cells activate ECs followed by the luminal release of VWF fibers and platelet aggregation in tumor microvessels. Analysis of human blood samples and tumor tissue revealed that a promoted VWF release combined with a local inhibition of proteolytic activity and protein expression of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I repeats 13) accounts for this procoagulatory milieu. Blocking endothelial cell activation by the low-molecular-weight heparin tinzaparin was accompanied by a lack of VWF networks and inhibited tumor progression in a transgenic mouse model. Our findings implicate a mechanism wherein tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) promotes tumor progression and angiogenesis. Thus, targeting EC activation envisions new therapeutic strategies attenuating tumor-related angiogenesis and coagulation. PMID:25977583

  16. Distribution of ghrelin peptide in the gastrointestinal tract of stomachless and stomach-containing teleosts.

    PubMed

    Arcamone, Nadia; Neglia, Simona; Gargiulo, Giuliana; Esposito, Vincenzo; Varricchio, Ettore; Battaglini, Pietro; De Girolamo, Paolo; Russo, Finizia

    2009-07-01

    The occurrence and localization of ghrelin peptide in the gastrointestinal tract of Carassius auratus and Dicentrarchus labrax, two fish species that exhibit different feeding behavior, different habitats, and different anatomical organizations of the gastroenteric tract, were examined by immunohistochemical methods and western blotting analysis. All of the gastrointestinal segments studied displayed immunohistochemical localizations of ghrelin peptide. Numerous single or clustered immunoreactive cells were found along the gastric folds, particularly in the pyloric region of Dicentrarcus labrax, whereas scattered ghrelin immunoreactive cells were observed in the intestinal epithelium of both fish species. Double immunolabeling PGP 9.5/ghrelin demonstrated the localization of ghrelin peptide also in nerve fibers and neuronal cells of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses, often in association with vascular structures. Western blotting analysis confirmed the presence of ghrelin peptide in the gatrointestinal tract of both species studied, whose molecular weight was similar to that of the corresponding mammalian prepro-ghrelin. The findings could support the hypothesis that this peptide is an important appetite regulator in fish and could confirm the presence of the ghrelin peptide, starting from its precursor proteins, in the gastrointestinal tract of the goldfish and the sea bass.

  17. Tract-based analysis of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-H; Coutu, J-P; Wilkens, P; Yendiki, A; Rosas, H D; Salat, D H

    2015-08-20

    Although much prior work has focused on the known cortical pathology that defines Alzheimer's disease (AD) histologically, recent work has additionally demonstrated substantial damage to the cerebral white matter in this condition. While there is large evidence of diffuse damage to the white matter in AD, it is unclear whether specific white matter tracts exhibit a more accelerated pattern of damage and whether the damage is associated with the classical neurodegenerative changes of AD. In this study, we investigated microstructural differences in the large fascicular bundles of the cerebral white matter of individuals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), using recently developed automated diffusion tractography procedures in the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Eighteen major fiber bundles in a total of 36 individuals with AD, 81 MCI and 60 control participants were examined with the TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA) procedure available as part of the FreeSurfer image processing software package. For each fiber bundle, the mean fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean, radial and axial diffusivities were calculated. Individuals with AD had increased diffusivities in both left and right cingulum-angular bundles compared to control participants (p<0.001). Individuals with MCI also had increased axial and mean diffusivities and increased FA in both cingulum-angular bundles compared to control participants (p<0.05) and decreased radial diffusivity compared to individuals with AD (p<0.05). We additionally examined how white matter deterioration relates to hippocampal volume, a traditional imaging measure of AD pathology, and found the strongest negative correlations in AD patients between hippocampal volume and the diffusivities of the cingulum-angular and cingulum-cingulate gyrus bundles and of the corticospinal tracts (p<0.05). However, statistically controlling for hippocampal volume did not remove all group

  18. [Recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (< 1 month), are caused by the same microorganism and are associated with underlying urological abnormalities, and reinfections, which usually occur later and are caused by a new distinct microorganism (or by the same microorganism usually located in the rectum or uroepithelial cells). The pathogenesis of RUTI is reviewed and the risk factors associated with RUTI in premenopausal women (usually related to sexual activity), postmenopausal women (in whom estrogen deficiency has a significant effect on the vaginal Lactobacillus flora), and in pregnant women are discussed. Likewise, an extensive review of the distinct therapeutic strategies to prevent RUTI is provided: self-treatment of cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI.

  19. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  20. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  1. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  2. Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease Associated with Dermatomyositis Treated with Combination of Immunosuppressive Therapy, Direct Hemoperfusion with a Polymyxin B Immobilized Fiber Column and Intravenous Immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Takai, Motohisa; Katsurada, Naoko; Nakashita, Tamao; Misawa, Masafumi; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Kaneko, Norihiro; Motojima, Shinji; Aoshima, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) is associated with dermatomyositis (DM) and has a high mortality rate even with immunosuppressive agents. For such cases, there is no evidence on the combined effect of direct hemoperfusion with a Polymyxin B immobilized fiber column and intravenous immunoglobulin. We herein report a case of 61-year-old woman who presented with respiratory failure. She showed ILD associated with DM which did not improve with immunosuppressive agents, but was improved with the addition of both direct hemoperfusion with a Polymyxin B immobilized fiber column and intravenous immunoglobulin.

  3. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M. A.; Braun, Kim V. E.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood. PMID:27589791

  4. Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilization is affected by the age of the pig and the pig breed. The use of potential prebiotic effects of dietary fiber is an attractive way to stimulate gut health and thereby minimize the use of anti-microbial growth promoters. Inclusion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet can stimulate the growth of commensal gut microbes. Inclusion of NSP from chicory results in changes in gut micro-environment and gut morphology of pigs, while growth performance remains unaffected and digestibility was only marginally reduced. The fermentation products and pH in digesta responded to diet type and were correlated with shifts in the microbiota. Interestingly, fiber intake will have an impact on the expression of intestinal epithelial heat-shock proteins in the pig. Heat-shock proteins have an important physiological role in the gut and carry out crucial housekeeping functions in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, there are increasing evidence showing that fiber can have prebiotic effects in pigs due to interactions with the gut micro-environment and the gut associated immune system. PMID:24580966

  5. [Classification and the composition of food fibers].

    PubMed

    Bezhanidze, I Z; Alasaniia, N Sh; Kontselidze, L A; Kharazi, N A; Bezhanidze, N V

    2009-06-01

    Fiber promotes the contractions that keep food moving through the intestine. Also, high-fiber foods expand the inside walls of the colon and eases the passage of waste. The food and fiber research was conducted. In the article, the classification and the composition of food fibers are presented. Multifunctional properties of food fiber in the process of digestion are discussed. The physiological value of food fibers for the human organism is stressed. Diets high in fiber during the entire life are recommended. If a person can't consume enough fiber in diet alone, certain stool softening and bulking agents are recommended. They can be very useful in preventing and treating digestive tract disorders. The analysis of high fiber food sources and world production and consumption of food fiber is also presented.

  6. Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, David; Morris, Rachel K; Kilby, Mark D

    2007-12-01

    Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction affects 2.2 per 10,000 births. It is a consequence of a range of pathological processes, most commonly posterior urethral valves (64%) or urethral atresia (39%). It is a condition of high mortality and morbidity associated with progressive renal dysfunction and oligohydramnios, and hence fetal pulmonary hypoplasia. Accurate detection is possible via ultrasound, but the underlying pathology is often unknown. In future, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be increasingly used alongside ultrasound in the diagnosis and assessment of fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. Fetal urine analysis may provide improvements in prenatal determination of renal prognosis, but the optimum criteria to be used remain unclear. It is now possible to decompress the obstruction in utero via percutaneous vesico-amniotic shunting or cystoscopic techniques. In appropriately selected fetuses intervention may improve perinatal survival, but long-term renal morbidity amongst survivors remains problematic.

  7. The ascending projection of the nucleus of the lateral descending trigeminal tract: a nucleus in the infrared system of the rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, L.R.; Schroeder, D.M.; Hartline, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    The efferent projections of the nucleus of the lateral descending trigeminal tract (LTTD) in the rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) were studied by anterograde tracing techniques. The LTTD, a brainstem trigeminal nucleus, is the sole projection site of the infrared-sensitive trigeminal fibers that innervate the pit organs in these snakes. The efferent fibers exit from the ventromedial edge of the LTTD and course medially and caudally toward the central grey area of the medulla. Upon reaching the central region of the medulla these fibers turn and move laterally and rostrally, eventually forming a tract on the ventrolateral surface of the brainstem. Embedded in this tract and slightly overlapping the LTTD in the rostrocaudal axis, is a population of large (20-45 micrometer) multipolar neurons that forms the nucleus reticularis caloris. Heavy terminal and preterminal degeneration in this area indicates that many of the efferent fibers of the LTTD terminate in this nucleus. A small bundle of degenerating fibers turn dorsally from the ventrolateral tract and ascend to terminate in a nucleus associated with the cerebellum, the lateral tegmental nucleus. No projection was found to any other nuclei or areas in the brain. This study demonstrates that the infrared-sensitive snakes, along with developing peripheral specializations (the pit organs), have developed specialized nuclei to handle this additional sensory information. The direct projection from the LTTD to the nucleus reticularis caloris provides a pathway linking the infrared-sensitive neurons of the LTTD with neurons of the same modality in the optic tectum. The second LTTD projection, to the lateral tegmental nucleus, suggests a connection between the infrared system and the cerebellum in these animals.

  8. Ectopic Lignification in the Flax lignified bast fiber1 Mutant Stem Is Associated with Tissue-Specific Modifications in Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Chantreau, Maxime; Portelette, Antoine; Dauwe, Rebecca; Kiyoto, Shingo; Crônier, David; Morreel, Kris; Arribat, Sandrine; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabi, Malika; Boerjan, Wout; Yoshinaga, Arata; Mesnard, François; Grec, Sebastien; Chabbert, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical screening of a flax ethyl methanesulfonate population led to the identification of 93 independent M2 mutant families showing ectopic lignification in the secondary cell wall of stem bast fibers. We named this core collection the Linum usitatissimum (flax) lbf mutants for lignified bast fibers and believe that this population represents a novel biological resource for investigating how bast fiber plants regulate lignin biosynthesis. As a proof of concept, we characterized the lbf1 mutant and showed that the lignin content increased by 350% in outer stem tissues containing bast fibers but was unchanged in inner stem tissues containing xylem. Chemical and NMR analyses indicated that bast fiber ectopic lignin was highly condensed and rich in G-units. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling showed large modifications in the oligolignol pool of lbf1 inner- and outer-stem tissues that could be related to ectopic lignification. Immunological and chemical analyses revealed that lbf1 mutants also showed changes to other cell wall polymers. Whole-genome transcriptomics suggested that ectopic lignification of flax bast fibers could be caused by increased transcript accumulation of (1) the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase monolignol biosynthesis genes, (2) several lignin-associated peroxidase genes, and (3) genes coding for respiratory burst oxidase homolog NADPH-oxidases necessary to increase H2O2 supply. PMID:25381351

  9. Ectopic lignification in the flax lignified bast fiber1 mutant stem is associated with tissue-specific modifications in gene expression and cell wall composition.

    PubMed

    Chantreau, Maxime; Portelette, Antoine; Dauwe, Rebecca; Kiyoto, Shingo; Crônier, David; Morreel, Kris; Arribat, Sandrine; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabi, Malika; Boerjan, Wout; Yoshinaga, Arata; Mesnard, François; Grec, Sebastien; Chabbert, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Histochemical screening of a flax ethyl methanesulfonate population led to the identification of 93 independent M2 mutant families showing ectopic lignification in the secondary cell wall of stem bast fibers. We named this core collection the Linum usitatissimum (flax) lbf mutants for lignified bast fibers and believe that this population represents a novel biological resource for investigating how bast fiber plants regulate lignin biosynthesis. As a proof of concept, we characterized the lbf1 mutant and showed that the lignin content increased by 350% in outer stem tissues containing bast fibers but was unchanged in inner stem tissues containing xylem. Chemical and NMR analyses indicated that bast fiber ectopic lignin was highly condensed and rich in G-units. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling showed large modifications in the oligolignol pool of lbf1 inner- and outer-stem tissues that could be related to ectopic lignification. Immunological and chemical analyses revealed that lbf1 mutants also showed changes to other cell wall polymers. Whole-genome transcriptomics suggested that ectopic lignification of flax bast fibers could be caused by increased transcript accumulation of (1) the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase monolignol biosynthesis genes, (2) several lignin-associated peroxidase genes, and (3) genes coding for respiratory burst oxidase homolog NADPH-oxidases necessary to increase H2O2 supply.

  10. Intron-mediated alternative splicing of WOOD-ASSOCIATED NAC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1B regulates cell wall thickening during fiber development in Populus species.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunjun; Sun, Jiayan; Xu, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-02-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism involved in regulating the development of multicellular organisms. Although many genes in plants undergo alternative splicing, little is understood of its significance in regulating plant growth and development. In this study, alternative splicing of black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) wood-associated NAC domain transcription factor (PtrWNDs), PtrWND1B, is shown to occur exclusively in secondary xylem fiber cells. PtrWND1B is expressed with a normal short-transcript PtrWND1B-s as well as its alternative long-transcript PtrWND1B-l. The intron 2 structure of the PtrWND1B gene was identified as a critical sequence that causes PtrWND1B alternative splicing. Suppression of PtrWND1B expression specifically inhibited fiber cell wall thickening. The two PtrWND1B isoforms play antagonistic roles in regulating cell wall thickening during fiber cell differentiation in Populus spp. PtrWND1B-s overexpression enhanced fiber cell wall thickening, while overexpression of PtrWND1B-l repressed fiber cell wall thickening. Alternative splicing may enable more specific regulation of processes such as fiber cell wall thickening during wood formation.

  11. Non-length-dependent and length-dependent small-fiber neuropathies associated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-inhibitor therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Expanding the spectrum of neurological disease associated with TNF-inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Julius; Bingham, Clifton O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Small-fiber neuropathy causes severe burning pain, requires diagnostic approaches such as skin biopsy, and encompasses two subtypes based on distribution of neuropathic pain. Such biopsy-proven subtypes of small-fiber neuropathies have not been previously described as complications of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-inhibitor therapy. Methods We therefore characterized clinical and skin biopsy findings in three rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who developed small-fiber neuropathies associated with TNF-inhibitors. We also conducted a systematic review of the literature to characterize subtypes of neuropathies previously reported in association with TNF-inhibitor therapy. Results Two patients presented with a “non-length-dependent” small-fiber neuropathy, experiencing unorthodox patterns of burning pain affecting the face, torso, and proximal extremities. Abnormal skin biopsy findings were limited to the proximal thigh, which is a marker of proximal-most dorsal root ganglia degeneration. In contrast, one patient presented with a “length-dependent” small-fiber neuropathy, experiencing burning pain only in the feet. Abnormal skin biopsy findings were limited to the distal feet, which is a marker of distal-most axonal degeneration. One patient developed a small-fiber neuropathy in the context of TNF-inhibitor-induced lupus. In all patients, neuropathies occurred during TNF-inhibitor-induced remission of RA disease activity and improved on withdrawal of TNF-inhibitors. Conclusions We describe a spectrum of small-fiber neuropathies not previously reported in association with TNF-inhibitor therapy, with clinical and skin biopsy findings suggestive of dorsal root ganglia as well as axonal degeneration. The development of small-fiber neuropathies during inactive joint disease and improvement of neuropathic pain upon withdrawal of TNF-inhibitor suggest a causative role of TNF-inhibitors. PMID:24439654

  12. Patient Characteristics Associated with Artifacts in Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingna; Simavli, Huseyin; Que, Christian; Rizzo, Jennifer L.; Tsikata, Edem; Maurer, Rie; Chen, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine patient factors and eye conditions associated with artifacts in Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scans. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods The prevalence of twelve artifact types were described in this review of 2313 eye scans from 1188 patients who underwent a complete eye exam with Spectralis OCT scanning during the period of September 2009 to July 2013. Generalized estimating equations model was utilized to analyze associations between increased artifact prevalence and 10 patient characteristics, which included age, sex, race, visual acuity, refractive error, astigmatism, cataract status, glaucoma staging, visual field reliability, and glaucoma diagnosis. Results A total of 1070 or 46.3% of the 2313 eye scans had at least one artifact. De-centration error was the most common artifact (27.8%), followed by posterior vitreous detachment artifacts (14.4%). Visual acuity of less than 20/40 (p<0.0001), presence of moderate to severe cataracts (p<0.0001), advanced stage of glaucoma (p<0.0001), and a diagnosis of open angle glaucoma (p=0.0003) were associated with increased prevalence of artifacts. Conclusions Clinicians should first assess scans for artifacts before making therapeutic decisions based on RNFL thickness measurements. PMID:25498118

  13. Carbon Fiber Risk Analysis. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The scope and status of the effort to assess the risks associated with the accidental release of carbon/graphite fibers from civil aircraft is presented. Vulnerability of electrical and electronic equipment to carbon fibers, dispersal of carbon fibers, effectiveness of filtering systems, impact of fiber induced failures, and risk methodology are among the topics covered.

  14. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  15. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  16. EcoTILLING revealed SNPs in GhSus genes that are associated with fiber- and seed-related traits in upland cotton

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan-Da; Sun, Jun-Ling; Bu, Su-Hong; Deng, Kang-Sheng; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Du, Xiong-Ming; Zhou, Bao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is the most important textile crop in the world due to its cellulose-enriched fibers. Sucrose synthase genes (Sus) play pivotal roles in cotton fiber and seed development. To mine and pyramid more favorable alleles for cotton molecular breeding, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GhSus family genes were investigated across 277 upland cotton accessions by EcoTILLING. As a result, a total of 24 SNPs in the amplified regions of eight GhSus genes were identified. These SNPs were significantly associated with at least one fiber- or seed-related trait measured in Nanjing, Anyang and Kuche in 2007–2009. Four main-effect quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) and five epistatic QTNs, with 0.76–3.56% of phenotypic variances explained by each QTN (PVE), were found to be associated with yield-related traits; six epistatic QTNs, with the 0.43–3.48% PVE, were found to be associated with fiber quality-related traits; and one main-effect QTN and one epistatic QTN, with the PVE of 1.96% and 2.53%, were found to be associated with seed oil content and protein content, respectively. Therefore, this study provides new information for molecular breeding in cotton. PMID:27385639

  17. Optic Disc, Macula, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements Obtained by OCT in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sayın, Osman; Arıtürk, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macula and optic disc parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) between the patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and healthy controls. Methods. One hundred and thirty-two eyes of 66 patients with TAO and 72 eyes of 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Proptosis level was determined by Hertel exophthalmometer. Optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and macula parameters were measured by OCT. All measurements of the patients were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. No statistically significant difference was found between the patients with TAO and control group in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). Exophthalmometer measurements and IOP were higher in TAO group (P < 0.05). Mean macula thicknesses in TAO and control groups were 239.3 ± 29.8 μm and 246.6 ± 31.8 μm, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000). TAO group had thinner inferior RNFL thickness and macular thicknesses (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) and higher disc area and C/D ratio when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. IOP, disc area, and C/D area ratio were higher in the patients with TAO and the thicknesses of macula and inferior RNFL were thinner when compared with healthy controls. This trial is registered with registration number at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766660. PMID:27493796

  18. MyD88 deficiency leads to decreased NK cell gamma interferon production and T cell recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but a predominant Th1 response and enhanced monocytic inflammation are associated with infection resolution.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Sikes, James; Prantner, Daniel; Andrews, Charles W; Frazer, Lauren; Goodwin, Anna; Snowden, Jessica N; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that MyD88 knockout (KO) mice exhibit delayed clearance of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection compared to wild-type (WT) mice. A blunted Th1 response and ineffective suppression of the Th2 response were also observed in MyD88 KO mice. The goal of the present study was to investigate specific mechanisms whereby absence of MyD88 leads to these effects and address the compensatory mechanisms in the genital tract that ultimately clear infection in the absence of MyD88. It was observed that NK cells recruited to the genital tract in MyD88 KO mice failed to produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA and protein. This defect was associated with decreased local production of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but normal levels of IL-12p70. Additionally, recruitment of CD4 T cells to the genital tract was reduced in MyD88 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. Although chronic infection in MyD88 KO mice resulted in oviduct pathology comparable to that of WT mice, increased histiocytic inflammation was observed in the uterine horns. This was associated with increased CCL2 levels and recruitment of macrophages as a potential compensatory mechanism. Further deletion of TLR4-TRIF signaling in MyD88 KO mice, using TLR4/MyD88 double-KO mice, did not further compromise host defense against chlamydiae, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms are Toll-like receptor (TLR) independent. Despite some polarization toward a Th2 response, a Th1 response remained predominant in the absence of MyD88, and it provided equivalent protection against a secondary infection as observed in WT mice.

  19. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, R; Wong, E S

    1999-03-01

    Urinary tract infections remain a significant cause of morbidity in all age groups. Recent studies have helped to better define the population groups at risk for these infections, as well as the most cost-effective management strategies. Initially, a urinary tract infection should be categorized as complicated or uncomplicated. Further categorization of the infection by clinical syndrome and by host (i.e., acute cystitis in young women, acute pyelonephritis, catheter-related infection, infection in men, asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly) helps the physician determine the appropriate diagnostic and management strategies. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections are caused by a predictable group of susceptible organisms. These infections can be empirically treated without the need for urine cultures. The most effective therapy for an uncomplicated infection is a three-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Complicated infections are diagnosed by quantitative urine cultures and require a more prolonged course of therapy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria rarely requires treatment and is not associated with increased morbidity in elderly patients.

  20. Haplotype diversity in the equine myostatin gene with focus on variants associated with race distance propensity and muscle fiber type proportions.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jessica L; Valberg, Stephanie J; Mickelson, James R; McCue, Molly E

    2014-12-01

    Two variants in the equine myostatin gene (MSTN), including a T/C SNP in the first intron and a 227-bp SINE insertion in the promoter, are associated with muscle fiber type proportions in the Quarter Horse (QH) and with the prediction of race distance propensity in the Thoroughbred (TB). Genotypes from these loci, along with 18 additional variants surrounding MSTN, were examined in 301 horses of 14 breeds to evaluate haplotype relationships and diversity. The C allele of intron 1 was found in 12 of 14 breeds at a frequency of 0.27; the SINE was observed in five breeds, but common in only the TB and QH (0.73 and 0.48 respectively). Haplotype data suggest the SINE insertion is contemporary to and arose upon a haplotype containing the intron 1 C allele. Gluteal muscle biopsies of TBs showed a significant association of the intron 1 C allele and SINE with a higher proportion of Type 2B and lower proportion of Type 1 fibers. However, in the Belgian horse, in which the SINE is not present, the intron 1 SNP was not associated with fiber type proportions, and evaluation of fiber type proportions across the Belgian, TB and QH breeds shows the significant effect of breed on fiber type proportions is negated when evaluating horses without the SINE variant. These data suggest the SINE, rather than the intron 1 SNP, is driving the observed muscle fiber type characteristics and is the variant targeted by selection for short-distance racing.

  1. Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping of fiber quality traits in G. hirsutum L. variety germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, but it lags behind other major crops for marker-assisted breeding due to limited polymorphisms and a genetic bottleneck through historic domestication. Linkage disequilibrium (LD)-mapping using nonrandom associations of loci in haplotypes is a powerful high-r...

  2. [Analysis of associations of polymorphic loci of a tumor suppressor gene TP53 with malignant neoplasms in glass fiber manufacturing workers].

    PubMed

    Mukhammadiyeva, G F; Bakirov, A B; Karimova, L K; Valeyeva, E T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the role of TP53 tumor suppressor gene polymorphisms in the occurrence of skin malignant neoplasms in glass fiber manufacturing workers. We carried out a comparative study of polymorphous loci Arg72Pro and dup16bp in TP53 gene in workers with skin cancer and hyperkeratosis (n = 68), occupied in continuous glass fiber manufacture, and in healthy workers (n = 52). The associations of both Pro and dup16 minor alleles of TP53 gene, and Arg/Pro-W/dup16 genotype combination with higher risks for skin oncologic diseases of occupational genesis have been revealed.

  3. Contactin‑associated protein‑like 2 expression in SH‑SY5Y cells is upregulated by a FOXP2 mutant with a shortened poly‑glutamine tract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunjing; Liu, Xiaoliang; Sun, Hongwei; Wang, Yueping; Yang, Wenzhu; Ma, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    The forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) gene encodes an important transcription factor that contains a polyglutamine (poly‑Q) tract and a forkhead DNA binding domain. It has been observed that FOXP2 is associated with speech sound disorder (SSD), and mutations that decrease the length of the poly‑Q tract were identified in the FOXP2 gene of SSD patients. However, the exact role of poly‑Q reduction is not well understood. In the present study, constructs expressing wild‑type and poly‑Q reduction mutants of FOXP2 were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using lentiviral vectors and transfected into the SH‑SY5Y neuronal cell line. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)‑PCR and western blotting indicated that infected cells stably expressed high levels of FOXP2. Using this cell model, the impact of FOXP2 on the expression of contactin‑associated protein‑like 2 (CNTNAP2) were investigated, and CNTNAP2 mRNA expression levels were observed to be significantly higher in cells expressing poly‑Q‑reduced FOXP2. In addition, the expression level of CASPR2, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Neurexin IV, was increased in cells expressing the FOXP2 mutant. Demonstration of regulation by FOXP2 indicates that CNTNAP2 may also be involved in SSD.

  4. Cardiometabolic risk factors are associated with high urinary enterolactone concentration, independent of urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L

    2014-09-01

    The study objective was to evaluate independent and interactive associations of dietary fiber intake and high urinary enterolignans with cardiometabolic risk factors. The analysis included 2260 adults (≥20 y of age) from the 2003-2010 NHANES. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate obesity and clinically defined cardiometabolic risk factors in relation to dietary fiber intake and urinary enterolignan concentrations. Three sets of models were created: 1) independent associations, 2) mutually adjusted associations, and 3) interactions. Models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and energy intake. High concentrations were considered to be above the 90th percentile of urinary enterolignan concentrations. Increasing dietary fiber intake was associated with high blood pressure (P = 0.02) and low serum HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.03). High urinary enterodiol concentration was not associated with obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors. High urinary enterolactone concentration was inversely associated with obesity (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.66), abdominal obesity (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.87), high serum C-reactive protein (CRP; OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.74), high serum triglycerides (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), low serum HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.74). In mutually adjusted models, enterolactone associations observed in independent models remained similar, but associations for dietary fiber intake were attenuated, with the exception of blood pressure. In interaction models, there were 2 significant interactions: between high urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake for high serum CRP (P = 0.04) and high plasma glucose (P = 0.04). Overall, being in the highest 10% of urinary enterolactone concentration was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, independent of dietary fiber intake and enterodiol concentration. Future studies are

  5. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm flagellar proteins, outer dense fiber protein-2 and tektin-2, is associated with impaired motility during capacitation of hamster spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Mariappa, Daniel; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H; Dasari, Santosh K; Sreekumar, Arun; Wolkowicz, Michael; van der Hoorn, Frans; Seshagiri, Polani B

    2010-02-01

    In mammals, acquisition of fertilization competence of spermatozoa is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the critical molecular events of sperm capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that a specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin-A47, inhibited hamster sperm capacitation, accompanied by a reduced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, a high percentage of tyrphostin-A47-treated spermatozoa exhibited circular motility, which was associated with a distinct hypo-tyrosine phosphorylation of flagellar proteins, predominantly of Mr 45,000-60,000. In this study, we provide evidence on the localization of capacitation-associated tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins to the nonmembranous, structural components of the sperm flagellum. Consistent with this, we show their ultrastructural localization in the outer dense fiber, axoneme, and fibrous sheath of spermatozoa. Among hypo-tyrosine phosphorylated major proteins of tyrphostin-A47-treated spermatozoa, we identified the 45 kDa protein as outer dense fiber protein-2 and the 51 kDa protein as tektin-2, components of the sperm outer dense fiber and axoneme, respectively. This study shows functional association of hypo-tyrosine-phosphorylation status of outer dense fiber protein-2 and tektin-2 with impaired flagellar bending of spermatozoa, following inhibition of EGFR-tyrosine kinase, thereby showing the critical importance of flagellar protein tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation and hyperactivation of hamster spermatozoa.

  6. The management of urinary tract infections in octogenarian women.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Urinary Tract Infections are common in women of all ages and the incidence increases with age. Whilst they are a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in all women they may be associated with increased morbidity in the elderly. Appropriate investigation and treatment in primary and secondary care are essential to effectively manage urinary tract infection and decrease morbidity and hospitalisation rates. Loss of endogenous oestrogen at the time of the menopause is associated with the urogenital atrophy and an increased incidence of urinary tract infection. Consequently vaginal oestrogen therapy may offer a rationale for treatment and prevent of urinary tract infection. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical management of elderly women presenting with primary and recurrent urinary tract infection.

  7. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirk E; Sheehan, Timothy H; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Snyder, Lucy; Schwan, Melissa R; Walton, Alexander; Jones, Beryl M; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or "beebread"). We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop), midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota, and the

  8. Microbial Ecology of the Hive and Pollination Landscape: Bacterial Associates from Floral Nectar, the Alimentary Tract and Stored Food of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Brendon M.; Maes, Patrick; Snyder, Lucy; Schwan, Melissa R.; Walton, Alexander; Jones, Beryl M.; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or “beebread”). We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop), midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota, and the

  9. Pathogenic mechanism of a human mitochondrial tRNAPhe mutation associated with myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiqiang; Roy, Hervé; Qin, Daoming; Rubio, Mary Anne T; Alfonzo, Juan D; Fredrick, Kurt; Ibba, Michael

    2007-09-25

    Human mitochondrial tRNA (hmt-tRNA) mutations are associated with a variety of diseases including mitochondrial myopathies, diabetes, encephalopathies, and deafness. Because the current understanding of the precise molecular mechanisms of these mutations is limited, there is no efficient method to treat their associated mitochondrial diseases. Here, we use a variety of known mutations in hmt-tRNA(Phe) to investigate the mechanisms that lead to malfunctions. We tested the impact of hmt-tRNA(Phe) mutations on aminoacylation, structure, and translation elongation-factor binding. The majority of the mutants were pleiotropic, exhibiting defects in aminoacylation, global structure, and elongation-factor binding. One notable exception was the G34A anticodon mutation of hmt-tRNA(Phe) (mitochondrial DNA mutation G611A), which is associated with MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers). In vitro, the G34A mutation decreases aminoacylation activity by 100-fold, but does not affect global folding or recognition by elongation factor. Furthermore, G34A hmt-tRNA(Phe) does not undergo adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing, ruling out miscoding as a possible mechanism for mitochondrial malfunction. To improve the aminoacylation state of the mutant tRNA, we modified the tRNA binding domain of the nucleus-encoded human mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, which aminoacylates hmt-tRNA(Phe) with cognate phenylalanine. This variant enzyme displayed significantly improved aminoacylation efficiency for the G34A mutant, suggesting a general strategy to treat certain classes of mitochondrial diseases by modification of the corresponding nuclear gene.

  10. [Mechanisms of urinary tract sterility maintenance].

    PubMed

    Okrągła, Emilia; Szychowska, Katarzyna; Wolska, Lidia

    2014-06-02

    Physiologically, urine and the urinary tract are maintained sterile because of physical and chemical properties of urine and the innate immune system's action. The urinary tract is constantly exposed to the invasion of microorganisms from the exterior environment, also because of the anatomical placement of the urethra, in the vicinity of the rectum. Particularly vulnerable to urinary tract infections (UTI) are women (an additional risk factor is pregnancy), but also the elderly and children. The main pathogens causing UTI are bacteria; in 70-95% of cases it is the bacterium Escherichia coli. Infections caused by viruses and fungi are less common and are associated with decreased immunity, pharmacotherapy, or some diseases. Bacteria have evolved a number of factors that facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract: the cover and cell membrane antigens O and K1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fimbriae, pile and cilia. On the other hand, the human organism has evolved mechanisms to hinder colonization of the urinary tract: mechanisms arising from the anatomical structure of the urinary tract, the physicochemical properties of the urine and the activity of the innate immune system, also known as non-specific, which isolates and destroys pathogens using immunological processes, and the mechanisms for release of antimicrobial substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, mucopolysaccharides, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, lactoferrin, lipocalin, neutrophils, cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. This review aims to analyze the state of knowledge on the mechanisms to maintain the sterility of the urinary tract used by the human organism and bacterial virulence factors to facilitate the colonization of the urinary tract.

  11. [Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome caused by association of atrio-hisian fibers and Mahaim's fibers. Comparison between the electrophysiology and histology].

    PubMed

    Brechenmacher, C; Courtadon, M; Jourde, M; Yermia, J C; Cheynel, J; Voegtlin, R

    1976-12-01

    A child of six who had had several losses of consciousness died suddenly during a spell of tachycardia. The EKG showed at times a type B Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, at times a Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome. Intracavitary electrophysiological explorations had been carried out. The interest of this case lies in the comparison between these electrophysiological explorations and the histological examination of the normal and accessory conduction pathways. The short PR interval, which did not lengthen under the effect of premature atrial stimulation, was accounted for by the presence of atrio-His bundle tracts. The intermittent delta wave was due to Hissio-ventricular Mahaim fibres. These two accessory conduction pathways are considered as abnormal.

  12. Structural abnormality of the corticospinal tract in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scientists are beginning to document abnormalities in white matter connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent developments in diffusion-weighted image analyses, including tractography clustering methods, may yield improved characterization of these white matter abnormalities in MDD. In this study, we acquired diffusion-weighted imaging data from MDD participants and matched healthy controls. We analyzed these data using two tractography clustering methods: automated fiber quantification (AFQ) and the maximum density path (MDP) procedure. We used AFQ to compare fractional anisotropy (FA; an index of water diffusion) in these two groups across major white matter tracts. Subsequently, we used the MDP procedure to compare FA differences in fiber paths related to the abnormalities in major fiber tracts that were identified using AFQ. Results FA was higher in the bilateral corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in MDD (p’s < 0.002). Secondary analyses using the MDP procedure detected primarily increases in FA in the CST-related fiber paths of the bilateral posterior limbs of the internal capsule, right superior corona radiata, and the left external capsule. Conclusions This is the first study to implicate the CST and several related fiber pathways in MDD. These findings suggest important new hypotheses regarding the role of CST abnormalities in MDD, including in relation to explicating CST-related abnormalities to depressive symptoms and RDoC domains and constructs. PMID:25295159

  13. A MAGIC population-based genome-wide association study reveals functional association of GhRBB1_A07 gene with superior fiber quality in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cotton supplies a great majority of natural fiber for the global textile industry. The negative correlation between yield and fiber quality has hindered breeders’ ability to improve these traits simultaneously. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population developed t...

  14. Decreased Peak Expiratory Flow Associated with Muscle Fiber-Type Switching in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shinichiro; Hashizume, Atsushi; Hijikata, Yasuhiro; Inagaki, Tomonori; Suzuki, Keisuke; Kondo, Naohide; Kawai, Kaori; Noda, Seiya; Nakanishi, Hirotaka; Banno, Haruhiko; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Koike, Haruki; Halievski, Katherine; Jordan, Cynthia L.; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the respiratory function profile of subjects with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and to explore the underlying pathological mechanism by comparing the clinical and biochemical indices of this disease with those of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We enrolled male subjects with SBMA (n = 40) and ALS (n = 25) along with 15 healthy control subjects, and assessed their respiratory function, motor function, and muscle strength. Predicted values of peak expiratory flow (%PEF) and forced vital capacity were decreased in subjects with SBMA compared with controls. In SBMA, both values were strongly correlated with the trunk subscores of the motor function tests and showed deterioration relative to disease duration. Compared with activities of daily living (ADL)-matched ALS subjects, %PEF, tongue pressure, and grip power were substantially decreased in subjects with SBMA. Both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR demonstrated a selective decrease in the expression levels of the genes encoding the myosin heavy chains specific to fast-twitch fibers in SBMA subjects. The mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta were up-regulated in SBMA compared with ALS and controls. In conclusion, %PEF is a disease-specific respiratory marker for the severity and progression of SBMA. Explosive muscle strength, including %PEF, was selectively affected in subjects with SBMA and was associated with activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis-related molecular pathway in skeletal muscles. PMID:28005993

  15. Decreased Peak Expiratory Flow Associated with Muscle Fiber-Type Switching in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinichiro; Hashizume, Atsushi; Hijikata, Yasuhiro; Inagaki, Tomonori; Suzuki, Keisuke; Kondo, Naohide; Kawai, Kaori; Noda, Seiya; Nakanishi, Hirotaka; Banno, Haruhiko; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Koike, Haruki; Halievski, Katherine; Jordan, Cynthia L; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the respiratory function profile of subjects with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and to explore the underlying pathological mechanism by comparing the clinical and biochemical indices of this disease with those of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We enrolled male subjects with SBMA (n = 40) and ALS (n = 25) along with 15 healthy control subjects, and assessed their respiratory function, motor function, and muscle strength. Predicted values of peak expiratory flow (%PEF) and forced vital capacity were decreased in subjects with SBMA compared with controls. In SBMA, both values were strongly correlated with the trunk subscores of the motor function tests and showed deterioration relative to disease duration. Compared with activities of daily living (ADL)-matched ALS subjects, %PEF, tongue pressure, and grip power were substantially decreased in subjects with SBMA. Both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR demonstrated a selective decrease in the expression levels of the genes encoding the myosin heavy chains specific to fast-twitch fibers in SBMA subjects. The mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta were up-regulated in SBMA compared with ALS and controls. In conclusion, %PEF is a disease-specific respiratory marker for the severity and progression of SBMA. Explosive muscle strength, including %PEF, was selectively affected in subjects with SBMA and was associated with activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis-related molecular pathway in skeletal muscles.

  16. Associations between the severity of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms and care-seeking behavior in rural Africa: A cross-sectional survey from Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Stothers, Lynn; Macnab, Andrew J.; Bajunirwe, Francis; Mutabazi, Sharif; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Study type A cross sectional survey. Background Global estimates indicate that by 2018 2.3 billion individuals worldwide will suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), with 1.1 billion having LUTS related to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Left untreated BOO in men causes irreversible changes to the urinary tract leading to urinary retention, the need for catheterization, renal failure and even death. Estimates suggest that Africa will be one of the continents with the greatest increase in (LUTS) by 2018 however direct measures in Africa are lacking. The objectives were to: (1) measure of prevalence of LUTS/BOO in a community-based sample of men in Africa, (2) compare community-based LUTS/BOO frequency to those seeking care for LUTS in a local clinic (3) quantify bother, interference with daily living, worry and quality of life related to LUTS/BOO between community and clinic settings and (4) examine relationships between socioeconomic and demographics related to LUTS/BOO. Methods and findings 473 men from a rural Ugandan community (238 residents living with their symptoms and 177 presenting at a clinic for care) completed the International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) and a 53-item validated LUTS symptom, bother and quality of life index. Severity of symptoms was categorized based on reference ranges for mild, moderate and severe levels of the IPSS, comparing those in the community versus those seeking care for symptoms. IPSS indicated that 55.9% of men in the community versus 17.5% of those at the clinic had mild symptoms, 31.5% in the community versus 52.5% of those at the clinic had moderate symptoms and 12.6% of those in the community versus 29.9% of those at the clinic had severe symptoms (p<0.001). Men seeking care for LUTS/BOO had a lower quality of life (p<0.05), were more bothered by their urinary symptoms (p<0.05), had more interference with daily activity and worry (p<0.05) but this did not have an impact on their general sense of wellbeing

  17. Curcumin impregnation improves the mechanical properties and reduces the inflammatory response associated with poly(L-lactic acid) fiber.

    PubMed

    Su, Shih-Horng; Nguyen, Kytai Truong; Satasiya, Pankaj; Greilich, Philip E; Tang, Liping; Eberhart, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    We investigated poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibers and coils, simulating stents and the influence of impregnation with curcumin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, intended to reduce the pro-inflammatory property of these implants. Fibers obtained by melt extrusion of 137 kDa PLLA resin containing 10% curcumin (C-PLLA) exhibited a stable curcumin release rate for periods up to 36 days. Curcumin increased the fiber tensile strength at break and decreased embrittlement vs. controls in 36 day 37 degrees C saline incubation. A mouse peritoneal phagocyte model was employed to test the anti-inflammatory properties of C-PLLA fibers in vitro. Myeloperoxidase and non-specific esterase activity assays were performed for adherent cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and macrophages (MPhi), respectively). PMN and MPhi adhesion to C-PLLA fibers were significantly reduced compared to control PLLA fibers (2.6 +/- 0.91) x 10(5) vs. (5.6 +/- 0.67) x 10(5) PMN/cm2 and (3.9 +/- 0.23) x 10(3) vs. (9.1 +/- 0.7) x 10(3) MPhi/cm2 (P < 0.05), respectively. In addition, superoxide release in the phagocyte pool contacting C-PLLA fibers was 97% less than that for PLLA controls. A fresh human whole blood recirculation system was employed to analyze cell adhesion under flow conditions, employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Reduced adhesion of cells on C-PLLA fiber coils vs. controls was observed. These in vitro studies demonstrate that bulk curcumin impregnation can reduce the inflammatory response to bioresorbable PLLA fibers, whilst improving mechanical properties, thereby suggesting curcumin loading may benefit PLLA-based implants.

  18. Glaucomatous Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Loss is associated with Slower Reaction Times under a Divided Attention Task

    PubMed Central

    Tatham, Andrew J.; Boer, Erwin R.; Rosen, Peter N.; Penna, Mauro Della; Meira-Freitas, Daniel; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between glaucomatous structural damage and ability to divide attention during simulated driving. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Setting Hamilton Glaucoma Center, University of California San Diego. Patient Population 158 subjects from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study, including 82 with glaucoma and 76 similarly aged controls. Observation Procedure Ability to divide attention was investigated by measuring reaction times to peripheral stimuli (at low, medium or high contrast) while concomitantly performing a central driving task (car following or curve negotiation). All subjects had standard automated perimetry (SAP) and optical coherence tomography was used to measured retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) thickness. Cognitive ability was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and subjects completed a driving history questionnaire. Main outcome measures Reaction times to the driving simulator divided attention task. Results The mean reaction times to the low contrast stimulus were 1.05 s and 0.64 s in glaucoma and controls respectively during curve negotiation (P <0.001), and 1.19 s and 0.77 s (P = 0.025) respectively during car following. There was a non-linear relationship between reaction times and RNFL thickness in the better eye. RNFL thickness remained significantly associated with reaction times even after adjusting for age, SAP mean deviation in the better eye, cognitive ability and central driving task performance. Conclusions Although worse SAP sensitivity was associated with worse ability to divide attention, RNFL thickness measurements provided additional information. Information from structural tests may improve our ability to determine which patients are likely to have problems performing daily activities, such as driving. PMID:25068641

  19. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-09-04

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (P<0.01) and significant decrease of theta power P<0.05). Corneal nerves were damaged in corneas of retinoblastoma patients. Corneal nerve injury was positively correlated with delta EEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands.

  20. Endoscopic management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Forster, James A; Palit, Victor; Browning, Anthony J; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar

    2010-04-01

    Upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) accounts for up to 10% of cases of neoplasm of the upper urinary tract. The "gold standard" management of upper tract TCC is nephroureterectomy. Technological innovations, miniaturisations and increased availability of energy sources such as Holmium laser fibers have improved the armamentarium of endoscopic management of upper tract TCC. Endoscopic management of upper tract TCC includes the percutaneous (antegrade) and retrograde approaches. Modern flexible ureterorenoscopy allows retrograde approach to small (<1.5cm), low grade and noninvasive tumors, which is inaccessible to standard rigid ureteroscopes without breaching the urothelial barrier. In patients with large tumors or in whom retrograde access is difficult, the percutaneous approach to the renal pelvis, although more invasive, provides an alternative access and control. Both retrograde and percutaneous approaches allow instillation of various chemotherapeutic agents. Careful selection of patients is the key point in the successful endoscopic management of upper tract TCC. Patient selection is based on tumor size, grade and multifocality and other patient factors such as comorbidities, single kidney, post kidney transplant and patient choice. Both motivation and compliance of patients are needed for long-term successes. However, until large randomized trials with long term follow-up are available, endoscopic management of upper tract TCC should be reserved for only selected group of patients. This review summarizes the current techniques, indications, contraindications and outcomes of endoscopic management of UTTCC and the key published data.

  1. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  2. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  3. Factors Associated with the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Loss after Acute Primary Angle Closure: A Prospective EDI-OCT Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Hyen; Kim, Hyunjoong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the factors associated with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) loss in eyes with acute primary angle-closure (APAC), particularly focusing on the influence of the change in the anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD). Methods After the initial presentation, 30 eyes with unilateral APAC were followed up at the following specific time points over a 12-month period: 1 week, 1~2 months, 2~3 months, 5~6 months, and 11~12 months. These follow-ups involved intraocular pressure measurements, enhanced depth-imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scanning of the optic disc, and measurements of the circumpapillary RNFL thickness. The prelaminar tissue thickness (PLT) and LCD were determined in the SD-OCT images obtained at each follow-up visit. Results Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a significant pattern of decrease in the global RNFL thickness, PLT, and LCD (all p<0.001). The global RNFL thickness decreased continuously throughout the follow-up period, while the PLT decreased until 5~6 months and did not change thereafter. The LCD reduced until 2~3 months and then also remained steady. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that symptoms with a longer duration before receiving laser peripheral iridotomy (LI) (p = 0.049) and a larger LCD reduction (p = 0.034) were significant factors associated with the conversion to an abnormal RNFL thickness defined using OCT normative data. Conclusion Early short-term decreases in the PLT and LCD and overall long-term decrease in the peripapillary RNFL were observed during a 12-month follow-up after an APAC episode. A longer duration of symptoms before receiving LI treatment and larger LCD reduction during follow-up were associated with the progressive RNFL loss. The LCD reduction may indicate a prior presence of significant pressure-induced stress that had been imposed on the optic nerve head at the time of APAC episode. Glaucomatous progression should be suspected in

  4. Global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in paediatric urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and association with routine use of antibiotics in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Alastair D; Lane, Isabel F; Thornton, Hannah V; Wootton, Mandy; Costelloe, Céire

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review studies investigating the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in children and, when appropriate, to meta-analyse the relation between previous antibiotics prescribed in primary care and resistance. Design and data analysis Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled percentage prevalence of resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics in children in primary care, stratified by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) status of the study country. Random effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the association between previous exposure to antibiotics in primary care and resistance. Data sources Observational and experimental studies identified through Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases, searched for articles published up to October 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported resistance in community acquired urinary tract infection in children and young people aged 0-17. Electronic searches with MeSH terms and text words identified 3115 papers. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality and performed data extraction. Results 58 observational studies investigated 77 783 E coli isolates in urine. In studies from OECD countries, the pooled prevalence of resistance was 53.4% (95% confidence interval 46.0% to 60.8%) for ampicillin, 23.6% (13.9% to 32.3%) for trimethoprim, 8.2% (7.9% to 9.6%) for co-amoxiclav, and 2.1% (0.8 to 4.4%) for ciprofloxacin; nitrofurantoin was the lowest at 1.3% (0.8% to 1.7%). Resistance in studies in countries outside the OECD was significantly higher: 79.8% (73.0% to 87.7%) for ampicillin, 60.3% (40.9% to 79.0%) for co-amoxiclav, 26.8% (11.1% to 43.0%) for ciprofloxacin, and 17.0% (9.8% to 24.2%) for nitrofurantoin. There was evidence that bacterial isolates from the urinary tract from individual children who had received

  5. [Urinary tract infections and chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Sobotová, D

    2011-01-01

    The paper briefly summarizes issues related to urinary tract infections in adults: predispositions and risk factors, classification, assessment of pathogenicity of bacterial agents, the role of bacteriuria and leucocyturia, interpretation of findings, treatment principles and an association with chronic renal failure. Urinary tract infections are the second most frequent infectious disease in the population. They most often affect women of childbearing potential and then seniors of both sexes who have multiple risk factors. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most pathogenic towards urinary tract; they are responsible for 85% and 10-15% of cases of acute uncomplicated urinary infections, respectively. Chronic pyelonephritis, a chronic interstitial nephritis, is the fourth most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure is a risk factor for the development of urinary infections due to metabolic disorders resulting in secondary immunodeficiencywith a disorder of all components of immunity. In patients with chronic renal failure, urinary tract infections occur most frequently after kidney transplantation when graft pyelonephritis is a life-threatening complication. Therefore, urinary tract infection prevention with co-trimoxazole once daily over at least 6 months is recommended in renal allograft recipients.

  6. Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans G; Belman, A Barry

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it. Instead, further radiographic imaging is required to delineate anatomy and function. Now, moreover, non-surgical management of CAKUT should be considered whenever possible. Despite the widespread use of prenatal screening sonography that usually identifies the majority of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, many children still present with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Regardless of the etiology for the presentation, the goal of management is preservation of renal function through mitigation of the risk for recurrent UTI and/or obstruction. In the past many children underwent surgical repair aimed at normalization of the appearance of the urinary tract. Today, management has evolved such that in most cases surgical reconstruction is performed only after a period of observation - with or without urinary prophylaxis. The opinions presented in this section are not espoused by all pediatric urologists but represent instead the practice that has evolved at Children's National Medical Center (Washington DC) based significantly on information obtained by nuclear renography, in addition to sonography and contrast cystography.

  7. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Becher, Klaus Friedrich; Klempien, Ingo; Wiedemann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Acute infection of the urinary tract is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial infections in the frail elderly population and is responsible for substantial morbidity and recurrent infections with antibiotic resistance. Although generally considered to be self-limiting without treatment or easily treated with a short antibiotic regime, urinary tract infections (UTIs) often have a dramatic history, associated with incomplete resolution and frequent recurrence. The biological complexity of the infections combined with a dramatic rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens highlight the need for an anticipating strategy for therapy necessary for a rapid recovery. The first crucial step is the classification in asymptomatic bacteriuria or complicated pyelonephritis, on which the decision for the intensity of treatment and diagnostic effort is based. For the selection of empiric antibiotic therapy, knowledge about the predominant uropathogens as well as local resistance patterns is important. In this manner, most urinary tract infections in the elderly can be treated without greater expense.

  8. Lower Blood Glucose and Variability Are Associated with Earlier Recovery from Renal Injury Caused by Episodic Urinary Tract Infection in Advanced Type 2 Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ping-Fang; Wu, Chia-Lin; Huang, Ching-Hui; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Chang, Chirn-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In our previous study, type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with glomerular filtration rates of <30 mL/min upon hospitalization for urinary tract infection (UTI) were at a risk for acute kidney injury. This study aimed to clarify the effect of glucose and its variability on renal outcomes during admission for the treatment of UTI. Materials and Methods Based on the date of renal recovery (RIFLE criteria: acute kidney injury occurred within 1–7 days and was sustained over 1 day), we divided these patients into early- (≤9 days, Group A) and late-recovery (>9 days, Group B) groups. The differences in the continuous and categorical variables of the two groups were assessed separately. The mean glucose levels and their variability (using the standard deviation and the coefficient of standard deviation) were compared at the fasting, midday pre-meal, evening pre-meal, and evening post-meal time points during hospitalization. We have organized the manuscript in a manner compliant with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement. Results Acute kidney injury occurred within the two groups (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively). The early-morning blood glucose levels (149.7±44.0 mg/dL) and average blood glucose levels (185.6±52.0 mg/dL) were better in Group A (p = 0.01, p = 0.02). Group A patients also had lower glucose variability than Group B at the different time points (p<0.05). Group A also had earlier renal recovery. More relevant pathogens were identified from blood in Group B (p = 0.038). Conclusions Early-morning fasting and mean blood glucose levels and their variability can be good indicators of severe infection and predictors of renal outcome in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD and UTI. PMID:25259806

  9. Urinary tract infections. An overview.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, O B

    1987-06-01

    Urinary tract infection remains the most prevalent infection acquired by hospitalized patients. The association with manipulations of the urinary tract is well known and the etiology of these infections is studied in detail. The excess cost of preventable UTI has not been established. It may be negligible for the single case but a high prevalence of nosocomial UTI could add substantially to hospital expenses. Differences in practices of bladder drainage between hospitals and countries have been identified, and educational efforts would seem effective in the management of incontinent patients when hospitalized. Though the infection is often self-limiting, when the catheter is removed, complications are seen. The lower survival with bacteriuria in old age is best explained by the presence of fatal disease in bacteriuric patients. Prevention of the infection with the catheter in situ is discouraging, and measures intended to interfere with the endogenous source of infection have largely failed or postponed infection. A radical approach to the use of indwelling catheters in hospitalized patients may seem the only way out, requiring highly skilled nursing care instead.

  10. [Nocosomial urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTI) are mainly related to urinary catheterisation. In this paper we review the pathogenic mechanisms, particularly the route by which the microorganisms colonise the urinary tract, their adhesion ability, and their capacity to form biofilms, and are related not only to the microorganism but also to the type of urinary catheter. The aetiology of catheter related UTI is variable, and multiresistant microorganisms are often isolated, making empirical antibiotic therapy complex. Clinical findings are frequently atypical, and its diagnosis is difficult. The therapeutic management of catheter-related UTI should be stratified according to the type of UTI: asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be habitually treated, but patients with septic shock should receive a broad spectrum antibiotic. In this review, the value of the different preventive measures are discussed.

  11. Hawaii Census 2000 Tracts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  12. Structure of a pentameric virion-associated fiber with a potential role in Orsay virus entry to host cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wang; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Tao; Demeler, Borries; Zhong, Weiwei; Tao, Yizhi J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the wide use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, the first virus naturally infecting this organism was not discovered until six years ago. The Orsay virus and its related nematode viruses have a positive-sense RNA genome, encoding three proteins: CP, RdRP, and a novel δ protein that shares no homology with any other proteins. δ can be expressed either as a free δ or a CP-δ fusion protein by ribosomal frameshift, but the structure and function of both δ and CP-δ remain unknown. Using a combination of electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, computational and biophysical analyses, here we show that the Orsay δ protein forms a ~420-Å long, pentameric fiber with an N-terminal α-helical bundle, a β-stranded filament in the middle, and a C-terminal head domain. The pentameric nature of the δ fiber has been independently confirmed by both mass spectrometry and analytical ultracentrifugation. Recombinant Orsay capsid containing CP-δ shows protruding long fibers with globular heads at the distal end. Mutant viruses with disrupted CP-δ fibers were generated by organism-based reverse genetics. These viruses were found to be either non-viable or with poor infectivity according to phenotypic and qRT-PCR analyses. Furthermore, addition of purified δ proteins to worm culture greatly reduced Orsay infectivity in a sequence-specific manner. Based on the structure resemblance between the Orsay CP-δ fiber and the fibers from reovirus and adenovirus, we propose that CP-δ functions as a cell attachment protein to mediate Orsay entry into worm intestine cells. PMID:28241071

  13. Urinary tract infections in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Duane, Therese M

    2014-12-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are common in surgical patients. CAUTI are associated with adverse patient outcomes, and negatively affects public safety reporting and reimbursement. Inappropriate catheter use and prolonged catheter duration are major risk factors for CAUTI. CAUTI pathogenesis and treatment are complicated by the presence of biofilms. Prevention strategies include accurate identification and tracking of CAUTIs, and the development of institutional guidelines for the appropriate use, duration, alternatives, and removal of indwelling urinary catheters.

  14. Childhood autism in India: A case-control study using tract-based spatial statistics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Zarina Abdul; Bagepally, Bhavani Shankara; Saini, Jitender; Srinath, Shoba; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Naidu, Purushotham R.; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Context: Autism is a serious behavioral disorder among young children that now occurs at epidemic rates in developing countries like India. We have used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures to investigate the microstructure of primary neurocircuitry involved in autistic spectral disorders as compared to the typically developed children. Objective: To evaluate the various white matter tracts in Indian autistic children as compared to the controls using TBSS. Materials and Methods: Prospective, case-control, voxel-based, whole-brain DTI analysis using TBSS was performed. The study included 19 autistic children (mean age 8.7 years ± 3.84, 16 males and 3 females) and 34 controls (mean age 12.38 ± 3.76, all males). Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) values were used as outcome variables. Results: Compared to the control group, TBSS demonstrated multiple areas of markedly reduced FA involving multiple long white matter tracts, entire corpus callosum, bilateral posterior thalami, and bilateral optic tracts (OTs). Notably, there were no voxels where FA was significantly increased in the autism group. Increased RD was also noted in these regions, suggesting underlying myelination defect. The MD was elevated in many of the projections and association fibers and notably in the OTs. There were no significant changes in the AD in these regions, indicating no significant axonal injury. There was no significant correlation between the FA values and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Conclusion: This is a first of a kind study evaluating DTI findings in autistic children in India. In our study, DTI has shown a significant fault with the underlying intricate brain wiring system in autism. OT abnormality is a novel finding and needs further research. PMID:26600581

  15. Beyond Crossing Fibers: Bootstrap Probabilistic Tractography Using Complex Subvoxel Fiber Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jennifer S. W.; MomayyezSiahkal, Parya; Savadjiev, Peter; Leppert, Ilana R.; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Pike, G. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging fiber tractography is a powerful tool for investigating human white matter connectivity in vivo. However, it is prone to false positive and false negative results, making interpretation of the tractography result difficult. Optimal tractography must begin with an accurate description of the subvoxel white matter fiber structure, includes quantification of the uncertainty in the fiber directions obtained, and quantifies the confidence in each reconstructed fiber tract. This paper presents a novel and comprehensive pipeline for fiber tractography that meets the above requirements. The subvoxel fiber geometry is described in detail using a technique that allows not only for straight crossing fibers but for fibers that curve and splay. This technique is repeatedly performed within a residual bootstrap statistical process in order to efficiently quantify the uncertainty in the subvoxel geometries obtained. A robust connectivity index is defined to quantify the confidence in the reconstructed connections. The tractography pipeline is demonstrated in the human brain. PMID:25389414

  16. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh; Tran, Thu Thuy; Rasch, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive tract infections and the difficulties they experience in establishing exact diagnoses. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed. The quantitative research involved 748 abortion-seeking women; the qualitative research was conducted with 10 doctors and 10 lab-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections included: inadequate training of health staff, lack of equipment, and cultural assumptions regarding the overwhelming prevalence of reproductive tract infections in Vietnamese women, especially among those who receive abortion services. Misconceptions of reproductive tract infections led to substantial over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of reproductive tract infections in this hospital. To enhance reproductive tract infection care, providers need to be sensitized to the social and medical consequences of their own cultural perceptions and to increase their awareness of the risks associated with overuse of antibiotics.

  17. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms at +191 and +292 of Galectin-3 Gene (LGALS3) Related to Lower GAL-3 Serum Levels Are Associated with Frequent Respiratory Tract Infection and Vaso-Occlusive Crisis in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça Belmont, Taciana Furtado; do Ó, Kleyton Palmeira; Soares da Silva, Andreia; de Melo Vilar, Kamila; Silva Medeiros, Fernanda; Silva Vasconcelos, Luydson Richardson; Mendonça dos Anjos, Ana Claudia; Domingues Hatzlhofer, Betânia Lucena; Pitta, Maíra Galdino da Rocha; Bezerra, Marcos André Cavalcanti; Araújo, Aderson da Silva; de Melo Rego, Moacyr Jesus Barreto; Moura, Patrícia; Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may present chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion and respiratory tract infection (RTI) episodes. Galectin-3 (GAL-3) is a multifunctional protein involved in inflammation, apoptosis, adhesion and resistance to reactive oxygen species. Studies point to a dual role for GAL-3 as both a circulation damage-associated molecular pattern and a cell membrane associated pattern recognition receptor. Objective To investigate associations between the SNPs of GAL-3 gene (LGALS3) and serum levels with RTI and vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in children with SCA. Materials and Methods SNPs +191 and +292 in LGALS3 were studied using the TaqMan real-time PCR system; GAL-3 serum levels were measured by ELISA. The study included 79 children with SCA ranging from 2 to 12 years old. Results GAL-3 serum levels were associated with LGALS3 +191 and +292 genotypes (p <0.0001; p = 0.0169, respectively). LGALS3 +191, AA genotype was associated with low and CC with higher levels of GAL-3. For LGALS3 +292, the CC genotype was associated with lower GAL-3 and AA with higher levels. Patients with Frequency of RTI (FRTI) ≥1 presented higher frequency of +191AA (p = 0.0263) and +292AC/CC genotypes (p = 0.0320). SNP +292 was associated with Frequency of VOC (FVOC) (p = 0.0347), whereas no association was shown with SNP +191 and FVOC. However, CA/AC and AA/CC genotypes with lower GAL-3 levels showed a higher frequency in patients with FRTI ≥1 (p = 0.0170; p = 0.0138, respectively). Also, patients with FVOC ≥1 presented association with CA/AC (p = 0.0228). LGALS3 +191 and +292 combined genotypes related to low (p = 0.0263) and intermediate expression (p = 0.0245) were associated with FRTI ≥1. Lower GAL-3 serum levels were associated with FRTI ≥1 (p = 0.0426) and FVOC ≥1 (p = 0.0012). Conclusion Variation of GAL-3 serum levels related to SNPs at +191 and +292 may constitute a susceptibility factor for RTI and VOC frequency. PMID:27603703

  18. Visualization of nerve fiber orientation in gross histological sections of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Axer, H; Berks, G; Keyserlingk, D G

    2000-12-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) allows visualization of the orientation of the nervous fibers in the living brain. For comparison, a method was developed to examine the orientation of fibers in histological sections of the human brain. Serial sections through the entire human brain were analyzed regarding fiber orientation using polarized light. Direction of fibers in the cutting plane was obtained by measuring the azimuth with the lowest intensity value at each point, and inclination of fibers in the section was evaluated using fuzzy logic approximations. Direction and inclination of fibers revealing their three-dimensional orientation were visualized by colored arrows mapped into the images. Using this procedure, various fiber tracts were identified (pyramidal tract, radiatio optica, radiatio acustica, arcuate fascicle, and 11 more). Intermingled fibers could be separated from each other. The orientation of the fiber tracts derived from polarized light microscopy was validated by confocal laser scanning microscopy in a defined volume of the internal capsule, where the fiber orientation was studied in four human brains. The polarization method visualizes the high degree of intermingled fiber bundles in the brain, so that distinct fiber pathways cannot be understood as solid, compact tracts: Neighbouring bundles of fibers can belong to different systems of fibers distinguishable by their orientation.

  19. The contributions to the human dorsal column tracts from the spinal cord laminae.

    PubMed

    Kirazlı, Özlem; Solmaz, Bilgehan; Çavdar, Safiye

    2016-09-01

    The dorsal column tracts (fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus) are concerned with discriminative qualities of sensation. There are controversial descriptions related to the relations of dorsal column tracts with the dorsal horn laminae in text-books. The present study aims to define the laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that contribute fibers to the dorsal column tracts in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal level. Series paraffin spinal cords sections of six formalin-embalmed adult human cadavers were evaluated. The present study shows that dorsal column tracts receive fiber contributions from laminae III and V and from Clarke's dorsal nucleus at varying spinal levels. At upper cervical levels (C1-C4) fiber contributions were from lamina V and few from lamina III, and at lower cervical levels (C5-C8) there were, in addition to these laminae, also contributions from the Clarke's dorsal nucleus. At upper thoracic levels (T1-T4) fiber contributions were from lamina V and few from Clarke's dorsal nucleus. At lower thoracic (T5-T12) and lumbar levels (L1-L5), in contrast, fiber contributions were only from Clarke's dorsal nucleus. The detailed knowledge of organization of the dorsal column tracts of the spinal cord may pave the way for future treatments of the spinal cord injuries.

  20. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: Bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen that are either vertically inherited or acquired from the environment. While the core bacteria of the honey bee gut is becoming evident, the influence of the pollination environment on honey bee-associated microbial p...

  1. Fiber biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  2. Associations of dietary fiber intake with long-term predicted cardiovascular disease risk and C-reactive protein levels (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data [2005-2010]).

    PubMed

    Ning, Hongyan; Van Horn, Linda; Shay, Christina M; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2014-01-15

    Dietary fiber intake might reduce cardiovascular risk factor levels and, in turn, might lower the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 11,113 subjects, aged 20 to 79 years with no history of CVD, from the 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the present study to examine associations of dietary fiber intake with predicted lifetime CVD risk and C-reactive protein levels. Dietary fiber intake showed a significant gradient association with the likelihood of having a low or an intermediate predicted lifetime CVD risk among young and middle-age adults. In fully adjusted multinomial logistic models, dietary fiber intake was related to a low lifetime CVD risk with an odds ratio of 2.71 (95% confidence interval 2.05 to 3.59) in the young adults and 2.13 (95% confidence interval 1.42 to 3.20) in the middle-age adults and was related to an intermediate lifetime risk of 2.65 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 3.92) in the young and 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 2.98) in the middle-age adults compared with a high lifetime risk. A significant inverse linear association was seen between dietary fiber intake and log-transformed C-reactive protein levels with a regression coefficient ± standard error of -0.18 ± 0.04 in the highest quartile of fiber intake compared with the lowest fiber intake. In conclusion, these data suggest that dietary fiber intake is independently associated with the predicted lifetime CVD risk, especially in young and middle-age adults. A greater amount of dietary fiber intake might be associated with lower C-reactive protein levels.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of the COBRA-Like (COBL) Gene Family in Gossypium Identifies Two COBLs Potentially Associated with Fiber Quality.

    PubMed

    Niu, Erli; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Bao, Jianghao; Zeng, Yanda; Cai, Caiping; Du, Xiongming; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    COBRA-Like (COBL) genes, which encode a plant-specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein, have been proven to be key regulators in the orientation of cell expansion and cellulose crystallinity status. Genome-wide analysis has been performed in A. thaliana, O. sativa, Z. mays and S. lycopersicum, but little in Gossypium. Here we identified 19, 18 and 33 candidate COBL genes from three sequenced cotton species, diploid cotton G. raimondii, G. arboreum and tetraploid cotton G. hirsutum acc. TM-1, respectively. These COBL members were anchored onto 10 chromosomes in G. raimondii and could be divided into two subgroups. Expression patterns of COBL genes showed highly developmental and spatial regulation in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. Of them, GhCOBL9 and GhCOBL13 were preferentially expressed at the secondary cell wall stage of fiber development and had significantly co-upregulated expression with cellulose synthase genes GhCESA4, GhCESA7 and GhCESA8. Besides, GhCOBL9 Dt and GhCOBL13 Dt were co-localized with previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the favorable allele types of GhCOBL9 Dt had significantly positive correlations with fiber quality traits, indicating that these two genes might play an important role in fiber development.

  4. Reconstitution of the hippocampal mossy fiber and associational-commissural pathways in a novel dissociated cell culture system.

    PubMed Central

    Baranes, D; López-García, J C; Chen, M; Bailey, C H; Kandel, E R

    1996-01-01

    Synapses of the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway exhibit several characteristic features, including a unique form of long-term potentiation that does not require activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor by glutamate, a complex postsynaptic architecture, and sprouting in response to seizures. However, these connections have proven difficult to study in hippocampal slices because of their relative paucity (<0.4%) compared to commissural-collateral synapses. To overcome this problem, we have developed a novel dissociated cell culture system in which we have enriched mossy fiber synapses by increasing the ratio of granule-to-pyramidal cells. As in vivo, mossy fiber connections are composed of large dynorphin A-positive varicosities contacting complex spines (but without a restricted localization). The elementary synaptic connections are glutamatergic, inhibited by dynorphin A, and exhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate-independent long-term potentiation. Thus, the simplicity and experimental accessibility of this enriched in vitro mossy fiber pathway provides a new perspective for studying nonassociative plasticity in the mammalian central nervous system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643467

  5. A High Fiber and Vegetable Protein Diet is Associated with Low Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Young Oligo-amenorrheic Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Elizabeth; Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Maffazioli, Giovana D. N.; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Woolley, Ryan; Holmes, Tara M.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations of bone mineral density (BMD) with specific food components, including dietary fiber and isoflavones (that have a negative association with serum estrogen), are unclear and need to be determined, particularly in a population more likely to consume large amounts of these nutrients (such as young athletes). Objective To determine dietary intake of specific food components in oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA) compared to eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA), and associations of the dietary intake of these nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Design and Subjects This cross-sectional study evaluated 68 OA, 24 EA, and 26 NA 14–23 years old. Measurements included four-day food records (assessed using Nutrient Data System for Research software), a DXA scan evaluating lumbar spine BMD and body composition, and hormone levels. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate associations of nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Results Compared with EA and NA, OA had higher intake of fiber, phytic acid, and vegetable protein (p<0.0001 for all). Intake of isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, was higher in OA than NA (p=0.003 and 0.0002 respectively). OA had lower consumption of energy from saturated fatty acids (%SFA) than NA (p=0.002). After controlling for confounders such as body weight, menstrual status (indicative of estrogen status), calcium intake, and serum vitamin D (known BMD determinants), lumbar spine BMD Z-scores were inversely associated with dietary fiber [β coefficient (β)= −0.30; p=0.01], vegetable protein (β = −0.28, p=0.02), phytic acid (β = −0.27, p=0.02), genistein (β = −0.25, p=0.01), and daidzein (β = −0.24, p=0.01), and positively with %SFA (β =0.32, p=0.0006)]. Conclusions Compared to EA and NA, OA had a higher dietary intake of fiber, vegetable protein and phytic acid, which were inversely associated with lumbar spine BMD Z-scores. Further studies are needed to assess dietary recommendations for OA to optimize

  6. Hot topic: apparent total-tract nutrient digestibilities measured commercially using 120-hour in vitro indigestible neutral detergent fiber as a marker are related to commercial dairy cattle performance.

    PubMed

    Schalla, A; Meyer, L; Meyer, Z; Onetti, S; Schultz, A; Goeser, J

    2012-09-01

    Measuring individual feed nutrient concentration is common practice for field dairy nutritionists. However, accurately measuring nutrient digestibility and using digestion values in total digestible nutrients models is more challenging. Our objective was to determine if in vivo apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility measured with a practical approach was related to commercial milk production parameters. Total mixed ration and fecal samples were collected from high-producing cows in pens on 39 commercial dairies and analyzed at a commercial feed and forage testing laboratory for nutrient concentration and 120-h indigestible NDF (iNDF) content using the Combs-Goeser in vitro digestion technique. The 120-h iNDF was used as an internal marker to calculate in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities. Two samples were taken from each dairy and were separated in time by at least 3 wk. Samples were targeted to be taken within 7d of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herd testing. Approved DHI testers measured individual cow milk weights as well as fat and protein concentrations. Individual cow records were averaged by pen corresponding to the total mixed ration and fecal samples. Formulated diet and dry matter intake (DMI) records for each respective pen were also collected. Mixed model regression analysis with dairy specified as a random effect was used to relate explanatory variables (diet nutrient concentrations, formulated DMI, in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities, and fecal nutrient concentrations) to milk production measures. Dry matter intake, organic matter (OM) digestibility, fecal crude protein (CP) concentration, and fecal ether extract concentration were related to milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat yields. Milk protein concentration was related to CP digestibility, and milk protein yield was related to DMI, OM digestibility, CP digestibility, and ether extract digestibility. Although many studies have related DMI and OM digestibility to milk production

  7. Assessing particle and fiber toxicology in the respiratory system: the stereology toolbox.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, Christina; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2015-10-31

    The inhalation of airborne particles can lead to pathological changes in the respiratory tract. For this reason, toxicology studies on effects of inhalable particles and fibers often include an assessment of histopathological alterations in the upper respiratory tract, the trachea and/or the lungs. Conventional pathological evaluations are usually performed by scoring histological lesions in order to obtain "quantitative" information and an estimation of the severity of the lesion. This approach not only comprises a potential subjective bias, depending on the examiner's judgment, but also conveys the risk that mild alterations escape the investigator's eye. The most accurate way of obtaining unbiased quantitative information about three-dimensional (3D) features of tissues, cells, or organelles from two-dimensional physical or optical sections is by means of stereology, the gold standard of image-based morphometry. Nevertheless, it can be challenging to express histopathological changes by morphometric parameters such as volume, surface, length or number only. In this review we therefore provide an overview on different histopathological lesions in the respiratory tract associated with particle and fiber toxicology and on how to apply stereological methods in order to correctly quantify and interpret histological lesions in the respiratory tract. The article further aims at pointing out common pitfalls in quantitative histopathology and at providing some suggestions on how respiratory toxicology can be improved by stereology. Thus, we hope that this article will stimulate scientists in particle and fiber toxicology research to implement stereological techniques in their studies, thereby promoting an unbiased 3D assessment of pathological lesions associated with particle exposure.

  8. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn's disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn's disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn's disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn's disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn's disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn's disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn's disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn's disease patients in remission.

  9. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn’s disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn’s disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn’s disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn’s disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn’s disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn’s disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn’s disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn’s disease patients in remission. PMID:26140540

  10. Micropatterned Surfaces for Reducing the Risk of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection: An In Vitro Study on the Effect of Sharklet Micropatterned Surfaces to Inhibit Bacterial Colonization and Migration of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kenneth K.; McDaniel, Clinton J.; Darouiche, Rabih O.; Landman, Jaime; Brennan, Anthony B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common device-associated infection and can result in serious medical consequences. We studied the efficacy of a novel microscopic physical surface modification (Sharklet) for preventing bacterial colonization and migration of uropathogenic Escherichia coli on silicone elastomer. Materials and Methods In vitro growth assays evaluated E coli colonization using three variations of micropatterned silicone surfaces vs a smooth silicone control. Enumeration techniques included quantification of colonies on surfaces and analysis of bacterial area coverage and colony size. In vitro migration assays involved placement of micropatterned and smooth silicone rod segments between two agar islands to measure incidence of migration. Results All three variations of the Sharklet micropattern outperformed the control surfaces in inhibiting E coli colonization. On average, 47% reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) and bacterial area coverage plus 77% reduction in colony size were achieved with the Sharklet surfaces in tryptic soy broth and artificial urine compared with the control nonpatterned surfaces. The incidence of E coli migration over the rod segments was reduced by more than 80% for the Sharklet transverse patterned rods compared with the unpatterned control rods. Conclusion The Sharklet micropattern is effective at inhibiting colonization and migration of a common uropathogen. This performance is achieved through a physical surface modification without the use of any antimicrobial agents. Because deterrence of bacterial colonization and migration is a critical step to prevent CAUTI, the Sharklet micropattern offers a novel concept in addressing this important problem. PMID:21819223

  11. Health Benefits of Fiber Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Agro, Nicole C; Eliasson, Åsa M; Mialki, Kaley L; Olivera, Joseph D; Rusch, Carley T; Young, Carly N

    2017-02-01

    Although fiber is well recognized for its effect on laxation, increasing evidence supports the role of fiber in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the health benefits of fiber and its fermentation, and describe how the products of fermentation may influence disease risk and treatment. Higher fiber intakes are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Fiber may also have a role in lowering blood pressure and in preventing obesity by limiting weight gain. Fiber is effective in managing blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, useful for weight loss, and may provide therapeutic adjunctive roles in kidney and liver disease. In addition, higher fiber diets are not contraindicated in inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome and may provide some benefit. Common to the associations with disease reduction is fermentation of fiber and its potential to modulate microbiota and its activities and inflammation, specifically the production of anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids, primarily from saccharolytic fermentation, versus the deleterious products of proteolytic activity. Because fiber intake is inversely associated with all-cause mortality, mechanisms by which fiber may reduce chronic disease risk and provide therapeutic benefit to those with chronic disease need further elucidation and large, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm causality.Teaching Points• Strong evidence supports the association between higher fiber diets and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer.• Higher fiber intakes are associated with lower body weight and body mass index, and some types of fiber may facilitate weight loss.• Fiber is recommended as an adjunctive medical nutritional therapy for type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and certain liver diseases.• Fermentation and the resulting shifts in

  12. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Litza, Janice A; Brill, John R

    2010-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common urologic disorder and one of the most common conditions for which physicians are consulted. Patients at increased risk for UTI include women; diabetics; the immunocompromised; and those with anatomic abnormalities, impaired mobility, incontinence, advanced age, and instrumentation. Antibiotic therapy aims to relieve symptoms and prevent complications such as pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Distinguishing asymptomatic bacteriuria from a UTI can be difficult, especially in those with comorbidities. Most experts do not recommend screening for UTI, except in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  13. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  14. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Defa; Liu, Ling; Zang, Jianjun; Duan, Qiwu; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased.

  15. Seborrheic Keratoses as the First Sign of Bladder Carcinoma: Case Report of Leser-Trélat Sign in a Rare Association with Urinary Tract Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Bernardo Augusto; Mayer, Bruna Loise; Frandoloso, Gibran Avelino; Magalhães, Francisco Luiz Gomide Mafra; Marques, Gustavo Lenci

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Skin disorders can be the first manifestation of occult diseases. The recognition of typical paraneoplastic dermatoses may anticipate the cancer diagnosis and improve its prognosis. Although rarely observed, the sudden appearance and/or rapid increase in number and size of seborrheic keratoses can be associated with malignant neoplasms, known as the sign of Leser-Trélat. The aim of this report is to unveil a case of a patient whose recently erupted seborrheic keratoses led to investigation and consequent diagnosis of bladder cancer. Case Presentation. A 67-year-old man was admitted to the intensive care unit due to an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). On physical examination, multiple seborrheic keratoses on the back of the hands, elbows, and trunk were observed; the patient had a 4-month history of these lesions yet was asymptomatic. The possibility of Leser-Trélat syndrome justified the investigation for neoplasia, and a bladder carcinoma was detected by CT-scan. The patient denied previous hematuria or any other related symptoms. Many of the lesions regressed during oncologic treatment. Conclusion. Despite the critics on the validity of the sign of Leser-Trélat, our patient fulfills the description of the disease, though urinary malignancy is a rare association. That corroborates the need of further investigation when there is a possibility of paraneoplastic manifestation. PMID:27999595

  16. Development of a sampler for total aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Kirsten A; Clark, Phillip; Volckens, John

    2009-10-01

    Studies that seek to associate reduced human health with exposure to occupational and environmental aerosols are often hampered by limitations in the exposure assessment process. One limitation involves the measured exposure metric itself. Current methods for personal exposure assessment are designed to estimate the aspiration of aerosol into the human body. Since a large proportion of inhaled aerosol is subsequently exhaled, a portion of the aspirated aerosol will not contribute to the dose. This leads to variable exposure misclassification (for heterogenous exposures) and increased uncertainty in health effect associations. Alternatively, a metric for respiratory deposition would provide a more physiologically relevant estimate of risk. To address this challenge, we have developed a method to estimate the deposition of aerosol in the human respiratory tract using a sampler engineered from polyurethane foam. Using a semi-empirical model based on inertial, gravitational, and diffusional particle deposition, a foam was engineered to mimic aerosol total deposition in the human respiratory tract. The sampler is comprised of commercially available foam with fiber diameter = 49.5 microm (equivalent to industry standard 100 PPI foam) of 8 cm thickness operating at a face velocity of 1.3 m s(-1). Additionally, the foam sampler yields a relatively low-pressure drop, independent of aerosol loading, providing uniform particle collection efficiency over time.