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Sample records for association fiber tracts

  1. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: I. Development of the lineage-associated fiber tracts

    PubMed Central

    Lovick, Jennifer K.; Ngo, Kathy T.; Omoto, Jaison J.; Wong, Darren C.; Nguyen, Joseph D.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Neurons of the Drosophila central brain fall into approximately 100 paired groups, termed lineages. Each lineage is derived from a single asymmetrically-dividing neuroblast. Embryonic neuroblasts produce 1,500 primary neurons (per hemisphere) that make up the larval CNS followed by a second mitotic period in the larva that generates approximately 10,000 secondary, adult-specific neurons. Clonal analyses based on previous works using lineage-specific Gal4 drivers have established that such lineages form highly invariant morphological units. All neurons of a lineage project as one or a few axon tracts (secondary axon tracts, SATs) with characteristic trajectories, thereby representing unique hallmarks. In the neuropil, SATs assemble into larger fiber bundles (fascicles) which interconnect different neuropil compartments. We have analyzed the SATs and fascicles formed by lineages during larval, pupal, and adult stages using antibodies against membrane molecules (Neurotactin/Neuroglian) and synaptic proteins (Bruchpilot/N-Cadherin). The use of these markers allows one to identify fiber bundles of the adult brain and associate them with SATs and fascicles of the larval brain. This work lays the foundation for assigning the lineage identity of GFP-labeled MARCM clones on the basis of their close association with specific SATs and neuropil fascicles, as described in the accompanying paper (Wong et al., 2013. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones. Submitted.). PMID:23880429

  2. Tract profiles of white matter properties: automating fiber-tract quantification.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F; Myall, Nathaniel J; Wandell, Brian A; Feldman, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    Tractography based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) data is a method for identifying the major white matter fascicles (tracts) in the living human brain. The health of these tracts is an important factor underlying many cognitive and neurological disorders. In vivo, tissue properties may vary systematically along each tract for several reasons: different populations of axons enter and exit the tract, and disease can strike at local positions within the tract. Hence quantifying and understanding diffusion measures along each fiber tract (Tract Profile) may reveal new insights into white matter development, function, and disease that are not obvious from mean measures of that tract. We demonstrate several novel findings related to Tract Profiles in the brains of typically developing children and children at risk for white matter injury secondary to preterm birth. First, fractional anisotropy (FA) values vary substantially within a tract but the Tract FA Profile is consistent across subjects. Thus, Tract Profiles contain far more information than mean diffusion measures. Second, developmental changes in FA occur at specific positions within the Tract Profile, rather than along the entire tract. Third, Tract Profiles can be used to compare white matter properties of individual patients to standardized Tract Profiles of a healthy population to elucidate unique features of that patient's clinical condition. Fourth, Tract Profiles can be used to evaluate the association between white matter properties and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, in the preterm group reading ability is positively correlated with FA measured at specific locations on the left arcuate and left superior longitudinal fasciculus and the magnitude of the correlation varies significantly along the Tract Profiles. We introduce open source software for automated fiber-tract quantification (AFQ) that measures Tract Profiles of MRI parameters for 18 white matter tracts. With further validation, AFQ Tract

  3. Active fibers: matching deformable tract templates to diffusion tensor images.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Ilya; Shattuck, David W; Stein, Jason L; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W

    2009-08-01

    Reliable quantitative analysis of white matter connectivity in the brain is an open problem in neuroimaging, with common solutions requiring tools for fiber tracking, tractography segmentation and estimation of intersubject correspondence. This paper proposes a novel, template matching approach to the problem. In the proposed method, a deformable fiber-bundle model is aligned directly with the subject tensor field, skipping the fiber tracking step. Furthermore, the use of a common template eliminates the need for tractography segmentation and defines intersubject shape correspondence. The method is validated using phantom DTI data and applications are presented, including automatic fiber-bundle reconstruction and tract-based morphometry.

  4. Fiber deposition pattern in two human respiratory tract replicas.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei-Chung; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2006-09-01

    This study consisted of a series of experiments to investigate the factors that might affect the fiber deposition pattern in the human respiratory tract. Carbon fibers with uniform diameter and polydispersed length were chosen as the test material. Two geometry-defined human respiratory tract replicas encompassing the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, and first few bifurcations of the tracheobronchial airways were used in this research. Deposition studies were conducted by delivering aerosolized carbon fibers into the replicas at constant inspiratory flow rates of 15, 43.5, and 60 L/min. The results showed that impaction is the dominant deposition mechanism for both replicas. Most of the fibers with high momentum deposited in the oral airway (oral cavity to larynx), and fibers with low momentum were found to pass through the entire replica easily. When comparing the results between the two replicas, fiber length, inspiratory flow rate, and the geometry of the oral airway were found to be factors that might affect the fiber deposition pattern in the human respiratory tract. PMID:16774864

  5. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila ventral nervous system: Neuroglian expression reveals the adult hemilineage associated fiber tracts in the adult thoracic neuromeres

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Robin; Williams, Darren W.; Truman, James W.

    2016-01-01

    During larval life most of the thoracic neuroblasts (NBs) in Drosophila undergo a second phase of neurogenesis to generate adult‐specific neurons that remain in an immature, developmentally stalled state until pupation. Using a combination of MARCM and immunostaining with a neurotactin antibody, Truman et al. (2004; Development 131:5167–5184) identified 24 adult‐specific NB lineages within each thoracic hemineuromere of the larval ventral nervous system (VNS), but because of the neurotactin labeling of lineage tracts disappearing early in metamorphosis, they were unable extend the identification of these lineages into the adult. Here we show that immunostaining with an antibody against the cell adhesion molecule neuroglian reveals the same larval secondary lineage projections through metamorphosis and bfy identifying each neuroglian‐positive tract at selected stages we have traced the larval hemilineage tracts for all three thoracic neuromeres through metamorphosis into the adult. To validate tract identifications we used the genetic toolkit developed by Harris et al. (2015; Elife 4) to preserve hemilineage‐specific GAL4 expression patterns from larval into the adult stage. The immortalized expression proved a powerful confirmation of the analysis of the neuroglian scaffold. This work has enabled us to directly link the secondary, larval NB lineages to their adult counterparts. The data provide an anatomical framework that 1) makes it possible to assign most neurons to their parent lineage and 2) allows more precise definitions of the neuronal organization of the adult VNS based in developmental units/rules. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2677–2695, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878258

  6. Automated atlas-based clustering of white matter fiber tracts from DTMRI.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Mahnaz; Mewes, Andrea U J; Haker, Steven; Grimson, W Eric L; Warfield, Simon K

    2005-01-01

    A new framework is presented for clustering fiber tracts into anatomically known bundles. This work is motivated by medical applications in which variation analysis of known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain is desired. To include the anatomical knowledge in the clustering, we invoke an atlas of fiber tracts, labeled by the number of bundles of interest. In this work, we construct such an atlas and use it to cluster all fiber tracts in the white matter. To build the atlas, we start with a set of labeled ROIs specified by an expert and extract the fiber tracts initiating from each ROI. Affine registration is used to project the extracted fiber tracts of each subject to the atlas, whereas their B-spline representation is used to efficiently compare them to the fiber tracts in the atlas and assign cluster labels. Expert visual inspection of the result confirms that the proposed method is very promising and efficient in clustering of the known bundles of fiber tracts. PMID:16685845

  7. Delay discounting and frontostriatal fiber tracts: a combined DTI and MTR study on impulsive choices in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Peper, Jiska S; Mandl, René C W; Braams, Barbara R; de Water, Erik; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Crone, Eveline A

    2013-07-01

    Delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, has been associated with decreased control of the prefrontal cortex over striatum responses. The anatomical connectivity between both brain regions in delaying gratification remains unknown. Here, we investigate whether the quality of frontostriatal (FS) white matter tracts can predict individual differences in delay-discounting behavior. We use tract-based diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging to measure the microstructural properties of FS fiber tracts in 40 healthy young adults (from 18 to 25 years). We additionally explored whether internal sex hormone levels affect the integrity of FS tracts, based on the hypothesis that sex hormones modulate axonal density within prefrontal dopaminergic circuits. We calculated fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity, radial diffusivity (RD), and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), a putative measure of myelination, for the FS tract. Results showed that lower integrity within the FS tract (higher MD and RD and lower FA), predicts faster discounting in both sexes. MTR was unrelated to delay-discounting performance. In addition, testosterone levels in males were associated with a lower integrity (higher RD) within the FS tract. Our study provides support for the hypothesis that enhanced structural integrity of white matter fiber bundles between prefrontal and striatal brain areas is associated with better impulse control.

  8. Delay Discounting and Frontostriatal Fiber Tracts: A Combined DTI and MTR Study on Impulsive Choices in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peper, Jiska S.; Mandl, René C.W.; Braams, Barbara R.; de Water, Erik; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Koolschijn, P. Cédric M.P.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2013-01-01

    Delay discounting, a measure of impulsive choice, has been associated with decreased control of the prefrontal cortex over striatum responses. The anatomical connectivity between both brain regions in delaying gratification remains unknown. Here, we investigate whether the quality of frontostriatal (FS) white matter tracts can predict individual differences in delay-discounting behavior. We use tract-based diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging to measure the microstructural properties of FS fiber tracts in 40 healthy young adults (from 18 to 25 years). We additionally explored whether internal sex hormone levels affect the integrity of FS tracts, based on the hypothesis that sex hormones modulate axonal density within prefrontal dopaminergic circuits. We calculated fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity, radial diffusivity (RD), and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), a putative measure of myelination, for the FS tract. Results showed that lower integrity within the FS tract (higher MD and RD and lower FA), predicts faster discounting in both sexes. MTR was unrelated to delay-discounting performance. In addition, testosterone levels in males were associated with a lower integrity (higher RD) within the FS tract. Our study provides support for the hypothesis that enhanced structural integrity of white matter fiber bundles between prefrontal and striatal brain areas is associated with better impulse control. PMID:22693341

  9. Pathways to language: fiber tracts in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D

    2009-04-01

    The human language function is not only based on the grey matter of circumscribed brain regions in the frontal and the temporal cortex but moreover on the white matter fiber tracts connecting these regions. Different pathways connecting frontal and temporal cortex have been identified. The dorsal pathway projecting from the posterior portion of Broca's area to the superior temporal region seems to be of particular importance for higher-order language functions. This pathway is particularly weak in non-human compared to human primates and in children compared to adults. It is therefore considered to be crucial for the evolution of human language, which is characterized by the ability to process syntactically complex sentences. PMID:19223226

  10. Channeling of developing rat corticospinal tract axons by myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M.E.; Schnell, L. )

    1991-03-01

    CNS myelin contains 2 membrane proteins that are potent inhibitors of neurite growth (NI-35 and NI-250). Because myelin formation starts at different times in different regions and tracts of the CNS, this inhibitory property of myelin could serve boundary and guidance functions for late-growing fiber tracts. In the rat, the corticospinal tract (CST) grows into and down the spinal cord during the first 10 postnatal days, in close proximity to the sensory tracts fasciculus cuneatus and gracilis. Immunofluorescence for myelin constituents showed that, in the rostral half of the spinal cord, the myelinating tissue of these ascending tracts surrounds the growing, myelin-free CST in a channellike fashion. Elimination of oligodendrocytes by x-irradiation of the newborn rats, or application of antibody IN-1, which neutralizes the inhibitory substrate property of CNS myelin, resulted in significant anatomical aberration of CST fibers. In particular, the tract was larger in cross-section, and aberrant CST fibers and fascicles intermixed with the neighboring sensory ascending tracts. These results assign an important channeling and guard-rail function to the oligodendrocyte-associated neurite growth inhibitors for the developing CST in the rat spinal cord.

  11. In vivo tractography of fetal association fibers.

    PubMed

    Mitter, Christian; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C; Weber, Michael; Kasprian, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Association fibers connect different cortical areas within the same hemisphere and constitute an essential anatomical substrate for a diverse range of higher cognitive functions. So far a comprehensive description of the prenatal in vivo morphology of these functionally important pathways is lacking. In the present study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to visualize major association fiber tracts and the fornix in utero in preselected non-motion degraded DTI datasets of 24 living unsedated fetuses between 20 and 34 gestational weeks (GW). The uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were depicted as early as 20 GW, while in vivo 3D visualization of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum and fornix was successful in older fetuses during the third trimester. Provided optimal scanning conditions, in utero DTI and tractography have the potential to provide a more accurate anatomical definition of developing neuronal networks in the human fetal brain. Knowledge about the normal prenatal 3D association tract morphology may serve as reference for their assessment in common developmental diseases. PMID:25742520

  12. Polynomial fitting of DT-MRI fiber tracts allows accurate estimation of muscle architectural parameters.

    PubMed

    Damon, Bruce M; Heemskerk, Anneriet M; Ding, Zhaohua

    2012-06-01

    Fiber curvature is a functionally significant muscle structural property, but its estimation from diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging fiber tracking data may be confounded by noise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of polynomial fitting of fiber tracts for improving the accuracy and precision of fiber curvature (κ) measurements. Simulated image data sets were created in order to provide data with known values for κ and pennation angle (θ). Simulations were designed to test the effects of increasing inherent fiber curvature (3.8, 7.9, 11.8 and 15.3 m(-1)), signal-to-noise ratio (50, 75, 100 and 150) and voxel geometry (13.8- and 27.0-mm(3) voxel volume with isotropic resolution; 13.5-mm(3) volume with an aspect ratio of 4.0) on κ and θ measurements. In the originally reconstructed tracts, θ was estimated accurately under most curvature and all imaging conditions studied; however, the estimates of κ were imprecise and inaccurate. Fitting the tracts to second-order polynomial functions provided accurate and precise estimates of κ for all conditions except very high curvature (κ=15.3 m(-1)), while preserving the accuracy of the θ estimates. Similarly, polynomial fitting of in vivo fiber tracking data reduced the κ values of fitted tracts from those of unfitted tracts and did not change the θ values. Polynomial fitting of fiber tracts allows accurate estimation of physiologically reasonable values of κ, while preserving the accuracy of θ estimation.

  13. Unsupervised white matter fiber clustering and tract probability map generation: applications of a Gaussian process framework for white matter fibers.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, D; Bloy, L; Kanterakis, E; Verma, R; Deriche, R

    2010-05-15

    With the increasing importance of fiber tracking in diffusion tensor images for clinical needs, there has been a growing demand for an objective mathematical framework to perform quantitative analysis of white matter fiber bundles incorporating their underlying physical significance. This article presents such a novel mathematical framework that facilitates mathematical operations between tracts using an inner product between fibres. Such inner product operation, based on Gaussian processes, spans a metric space. This metric facilitates combination of fiber tracts, rendering operations like tract membership to a bundle or bundle similarity simple. Based on this framework, we have designed an automated unsupervised atlas-based clustering method that does not require manual initialization nor an a priori knowledge of the number of clusters. Quantitative analysis can now be performed on the clustered tract volumes across subjects, thereby avoiding the need for point parameterization of these fibers, or the use of medial or envelope representations as in previous work. Experiments on synthetic data demonstrate the mathematical operations. Subsequently, the applicability of the unsupervised clustering framework has been demonstrated on a 21-subject dataset. PMID:20079439

  14. Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18) learned to perform three short melodies on a piano keyboard in a pure audio-motor training condition (vision of their own fingers was occluded). Initial learning times ranged from 17 to 120 min (mean ± SD: 62 ± 29 min). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter microstructural arrangement. A correlation analysis revealed that higher FA values were associated with faster learning of piano melodies. These effects were observed in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, bundles of axons relevant for the execution of voluntary movements, and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract important for audio-motor transformations. These results suggest that the speed with which novel complex audio-motor skills can be acquired may be determined by variability in structural properties of white matter fiber tracts connecting brain areas functionally relevant for audio-motor learning. PMID:23904213

  15. Inter-individual differences in audio-motor learning of piano melodies and white matter fiber tract architecture.

    PubMed

    Engel, Annerose; Hijmans, Brenda S; Cerliani, Leonardo; Bangert, Marc; Nanetti, Luca; Keller, Peter E; Keysers, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Humans vary substantially in their ability to learn new motor skills. Here, we examined inter-individual differences in learning to play the piano, with the goal of identifying relations to structural properties of white matter fiber tracts relevant to audio-motor learning. Non-musicians (n = 18) learned to perform three short melodies on a piano keyboard in a pure audio-motor training condition (vision of their own fingers was occluded). Initial learning times ranged from 17 to 120 min (mean ± SD: 62 ± 29 min). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was used to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of white matter microstructural arrangement. A correlation analysis revealed that higher FA values were associated with faster learning of piano melodies. These effects were observed in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, bundles of axons relevant for the execution of voluntary movements, and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract important for audio-motor transformations. These results suggest that the speed with which novel complex audio-motor skills can be acquired may be determined by variability in structural properties of white matter fiber tracts connecting brain areas functionally relevant for audio-motor learning.

  16. Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Viktorin, Gudrun

    2015-10-01

    Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted. Our L1 neuro-anatomical atlas of lineages constitutes an essential step towards following morphologically defined lineages to the neuroblasts of the early embryo, which will ultimately make it possible to link the structure and connectivity of a lineage to the expression of genes in the particular neuroblast that gives rise to that lineage. Furthermore, the L1 atlas will be important for a host of ongoing work that attempts to reconstruct neuronal connectivity at the level of resolution of single neurons and their synapses.

  17. A Unified Framework for Clustering and Quantitative Analysis of White Matter Fiber Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Maddah, Mahnaz; Grimson, W. Eric L.; Warfield, Simon K.; Wells, William M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel approach for joint clustering and point-by-point mapping of white matter fiber pathways. Knowledge of the point correspondence along the fiber pathways is not only necessary for accurate clustering of the trajectories into fiber bundles, but also crucial for any tract-oriented quantitative analysis. We employ an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to cluster the trajectories in a Gamma mixture model context. The result of clustering is the probabilistic assignment of the fiber trajectories to each cluster, an estimate of the cluster parameters, i.e. spatial mean and variance, and point correspondences. The fiber bundles are modeled by the mean trajectory and its spatial variation. Point-by-point correspondence of the trajectories within a bundle is obtained by constructing a distance map and a label map from each cluster center at every iteration of the EM algorithm. This offers a time-efficient alternative to pairwise curve matching of all trajectories with respect to each cluster center. The proposed method has the potential to benefit from an anatomical atlas of fiber tracts by incorporating it as prior information in the EM algorithm. The algorithm is also capable of handling outliers in a principled way. The presented results confirm the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed framework for quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor MRI. PMID:18180197

  18. [Reduction of plant fibers in the digestive tract of the moose and the red deer].

    PubMed

    Naumova, E I; Zharova, G K; Chistova, T Iu; Danilkin, A A

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of the reduction of plant fibers moving in the digestive tract of nine red deer (Cervus elaphus) and six moose (Alces alces) was made. In the winter season, the character of fiber reduction in the moose and the red deer was similar. In the deer obtained in the early autumn, the relative concentration of small-sized fractions was significantly higher. A sharp decrease in the share oflarge-sized fibers was observed in the omasum as compared to the rumen and the reticulum. It was especially pronounced in the deer obtained in September. Deceleration of fibers of large-sized fractions in the rumen and the reticulum and the structure of the reticulo-omasal opening and its functions were considered.

  19. Plasticity of left perisylvian white-matter tracts is associated with individual differences in math learning.

    PubMed

    Jolles, Dietsje; Wassermann, Demian; Chokhani, Ritika; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Bammer, Roland; Fuchs, Lynn; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2016-04-01

    Plasticity of white matter tracts is thought to be essential for cognitive development and academic skill acquisition in children. However, a dearth of high-quality diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data measuring longitudinal changes with learning, as well as methodological difficulties in multi-time point tract identification have limited our ability to investigate plasticity of specific white matter tracts. Here, we examine learning-related changes of white matter tracts innervating inferior parietal, prefrontal and temporal regions following an intense 2-month math tutoring program. DTI data were acquired from 18 third grade children, both before and after tutoring. A novel fiber tracking algorithm based on a White Matter Query Language (WMQL) was used to identify three sections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) linking frontal and parietal (SLF-FP), parietal and temporal (SLF-PT) and frontal and temporal (SLF-FT) cortices, from which we created child-specific probabilistic maps. The SLF-FP, SLF-FT, and SLF-PT tracts identified with the WMQL method were highly reliable across the two time points and showed close correspondence to tracts previously described in adults. Notably, individual differences in behavioral gains after 2 months of tutoring were specifically correlated with plasticity in the left SLF-FT tract. Our results extend previous findings of individual differences in white matter integrity, and provide important new insights into white matter plasticity related to math learning in childhood. More generally, our quantitative approach will be useful for future studies examining longitudinal changes in white matter integrity associated with cognitive skill development.

  20. [Association between chronic urinary tract infection and primary biliary cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Wang, J B; Wang, S

    2016-06-01

    The etiology of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains unclear, and at present, this disease is considered to be caused by the combined effect of genetic factors, infection, autoimmunity, and environmental factors. Since infection is the major cause for PBC, scholars have been focusing on the association between chronic microbial infection. Studies have shown that Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium for urinary tract infection (UTI), and recurrent UTI has been confirmed to be a risk factor for the development and progression of autoimmune liver diseases and is closely associated with PBC. This article investigates the association between UTI and PBC and possible mechanisms. PMID:27465958

  1. Exposure versus internal dose: Respiratory tract deposition modeling of inhaled asbestos fibers in rats and humans (Presentation Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to asbestos is associated with respiratory diseases, including asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Internal fiber dose depends on fiber inhalability and orientation, fiber density, length and width, and various deposition mechanisms (DM). Species-specific param...

  2. Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, Jinsoo; Merchant, Thomas E.; Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu; Gajjar, Amar; Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

  3. Glass fibers and vapor phase components of cigarette smoke as cofactors in experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Feron, V.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Spit, B.J.; Reuzel, P.G.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters were given intratracheal instillations of glass fibers with or without BP suspended in saline, once a fortnight for 52 weeks; the experiment was terminated at week 85. No tumors of the respiratory tract were observed in hamsters treated with glass fibers alone. There was no indication that glass fibers enhanced the development of respiratory tract tumors induced by BP. In another study Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to fresh air or to a mixture of 4 major vapor phase components of cigarette smoke, viz. isoprene (800----700 ppm), methyl chloride (1000----900 ppm), methyl nitrite (200----190 ppm) and acetaldehyde (1400----1200 ppm) for a period of at most 23 months. Some of the animals were also given repeated intratracheal instillations of BP or norharman in saline. Laryngeal tumors were found in 7/31 male and 6/32 female hamsters exposed only to the vapor mixture, whereas no laryngeal tumors occurred in controls. The tumor response of the larynx most probably has to be ascribed entirely to the action of acetaldehyde. Simultaneous treatment with norharman or BP did not affect the tumor response of the larynx. Acetaldehyde may occur in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke at levels up to 2000 ppm. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats to acetaldehyde at levels of 0 (controls), 750, 1500 or 3000----1000 ppm resulted in a high incidence of nasal carcinomas, both squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory epithelium and adenocarcinomas of the olfactory epithelium. It was discussed that acetaldehyde may significantly contribute to the induction of bronchogenic cancer by cigarette smoke in man.

  4. [Reduction of plant fibers in the digestive tract of two pika species (Ochotona pallasi and O. dauurica, Lagomorpha, Ochotonidae)].

    PubMed

    Naumova, E I; Zharova, G K; Chistova, T Yu; Varshavskii, A A; Formozov, N A

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of fibers of different sizes in the gastrointestinal tract in two species of pikas--Pallas' pika Ochotonapallasi and daurian pika O. dauurica--was studied. It was established that fibers of small-sized fractions dominated in all organs of the digestive tract of both pika species, the proportion of which in the stomach proved to be even higher than in fine-grinding voles. No distinct changes in the composition of the size fractions of fibers from organ to organ were observed in the studied individuals of both species, which may be due to frequent consumption of finely dispersed cecotrophs by pikas, which enrich the primary chewed food with small fibers. PMID:26021158

  5. Postoperative Morganella morganii endophthalmitis associated with subclinical urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Tsanaktsidis, Gina; Agarwal, Smita A; Maloof, Anthony J; Chandra, Jay; Mitchell, Paul

    2003-05-01

    We report a case of Morganella morganii acute endophthalmitis following clear corneal phacoemulsification cataract surgery in which a coincident asymptomatic chronic urinary tract infection was detected postoperatively. Morganella morganii is a gram-negative bacillus that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract and is part of the normal fecal flora. It is an opportunistic pathogen usually encountered in postoperative and nosocomial settings, causing urinary tract and wound infections. Chronic urinary tract infection may be a risk factor for postoperative endophthalmitis. A dipstick urinalysis before elective cataract surgery in elderly patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections may be considered.

  6. Role of Frontotemporal Fiber Tract Integrity in Task-Switching Performance of Healthy Controls and Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kucukboyaci, N. Erkut; Girard, H.M.; Hagler, D.J.; Kuperman, J.; Tecoma, E.S.; Iragui, V.J.; Halgren, E.; McDonald, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationships among frontotemporal fiber tract compromise and task-switching performance in healthy controls and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on 30 controls and 32 patients with TLE (15 left TLE). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated for four fiber tracts [uncinate fasciculus (UncF), arcuate fasciculus (ArcF), dorsal cingulum (CING), and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF)]. Participants completed the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B) and Verbal Fluency Category Switching (VFCS) test. Multivariate analyses of variances (MANOVAs) were performed to investigate group differences in fiber FA and set-shifting performances. Canonical correlations were used to examine the overall patterns of structural-cognitive relationships and were followed by within-group bivariate correlations. We found a significant canonical correlation between fiber FA and task-switching performance. In controls, TMT-B correlated with left IFOF, whereas VFCS correlated with FA of left ArcF and left UncF. These correlations were not significant in patients with TLE. We report significant correlations between frontotemporal fiber tract integrity and set-shifting performance in healthy controls that appear to be absent or attenuated in patients with TLE. These findings suggest a breakdown of typical structure-function relationships in TLE that may reflect aberrant developmental or degenerative processes. PMID:22014246

  7. Tract shape modeling detects changes associated with preterm birth and neuroprotective treatment effects

    PubMed Central

    Anblagan, Devasuda; Bastin, Mark E.; Sparrow, Sarah; Piyasena, Chinthika; Pataky, Rozalia; Moore, Emma J.; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair Graham; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Semple, Scott I.; Boardman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with altered connectivity of neural circuits. We developed a tract segmentation method that provides measures of tract shape and integrity (probabilistic neighborhood tractography, PNT) from diffusion MRI (dMRI) data to test the hypotheses: 1) preterm birth is associated with alterations in tract topology (R), and tract-averaged mean diffusivity (〈D〉) and fractional anisotropy (FA); 2) neural systems are separable based on tract-averaged dMRI parameters; and 3) PNT can detect neuroprotective treatment effects. dMRI data were collected from 87 preterm infants (mean gestational age 29+1 weeks, range 23+2 –34+6) at term equivalent age and 24 controls (mean gestational age 39+6 weeks). PNT was used to segment eight major fasciculi, characterize topology, and extract tract-averaged 〈D〉 and FA. Tract topology was altered by preterm birth in all tracts except the splenium (p < 0.05, false discovery rate [FDR] corrected). After adjustment for age at scan, tract-averaged 〈D〉 was increased in the genu and splenium, right corticospinal tract (CST) and the left and right inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF) in preterm infants compared with controls (p < 0.05, FDR), while tract-averaged FA was decreased in the splenium and left ILF (p < 0.05, FDR). Specific fasciculi were separable based on tract-averaged 〈D〉 and FA values. There was a modest decrease in tract-averaged 〈D〉 in the splenium of preterm infants who had been exposed to antenatal MgSO4 for neuroprotection (p = 0.002). Tract topology is a biomarker of preterm brain injury. The data provide proof of concept that tract-averaged dMRI parameters have utility for evaluating tissue effects of perinatal neuroprotective strategies. PMID:26106527

  8. A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Assessing White Matter Fiber Tracts after Sports-Related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Murugavel, Murali; Cubon, Valerie; Putukian, Margot; Echemendia, Ruben; Cabrera, Javier; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The extent of structural injury in sports-related concussion (SRC) is central to the course of recovery, long-term effects, and the decision to return to play. In the present longitudinal study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess white matter (WM) fiber tract integrity within 2 days, 2 weeks, and 2 months of concussive injury. Participants were right-handed male varsity contact-sport athletes (20.2±1.0 years of age) with a medically diagnosed SRC (no loss of consciousness). They were compared to right-handed male varsity non-contact-sport athletes serving as controls (19.9±1.7 years). We found significantly increased radial diffusivity (RD) in concussed athletes (n=12; paired t-test, tract-based spatial statistics; p<0.025) at 2 days, when compared to the 2-week postinjury time point. The increase was found in a cluster of right hemisphere voxels, spanning the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), the retrolenticular part of the IC, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (sagittal stratum), and the anterior thalamic radiation. Post-hoc, univariate, between-group (controls vs. concussed), mixed-effects analysis of the cluster showed significantly higher RD at 2 days (p=0.002), as compared to the controls, with a trend in the same direction at 2 months (p=0.11). Results for fractional anisotropy (FA) in the same cluster showed a similar, but inverted, pattern; FA was decreased at 2 days and at 2 months postinjury, when compared to healthy controls. At 2 weeks postinjury, no statistical differences between concussed and control athletes were found with regard to either RD or FA. These results support the hypothesis of increased RD and reduced FA within 72 h postinjury, followed by recovery that may extend beyond 2 weeks. RD appears to be a sensitive measure of concussive injury. PMID:24786666

  9. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Dina; Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  10. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated With Genital Tract Mucosal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mhatre, Mohak; McAndrew, Thomas; Carpenter, Colleen; Burk, Robert D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical studies demonstrate increased prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease in HIV-infected individuals and an increased risk of HIV acquisition in HPV-infected individuals. The mechanisms underlying this synergy are not defined. We hypothesize that women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will exhibit changes in soluble mucosal immunity that may promote HPV persistence and facilitate HIV infection. Methods The concentrations of immune mediators and endogenous anti-Escherichia coli activity in genital tract secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage were compared in HIV-negative women with high-risk HPV-positive (HRHPV+) CIN-3 (n = 37), HRHPV+ CIN-1 (n = 12), or PAP-negative control subjects (n = 57). Results Compared with control subjects, women with CIN-3 or CIN-1 displayed significantly higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-8 (P < 0.002) and significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides, including IL-1 receptor antagonist, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (P < 0.01), and human β defensins 2 and 3 (P < 0.02). There was no significant difference in endogenous anti-E. coli activity after controlling for age and sample storage time. Conclusion HRHPV+ CIN is characterized by changes in soluble mucosal immunity that could contribute to HPV persistence. The observed mucosal inflammation suggests a mechanism that may also contribute to the epidemiologic link between persistent HPV and HIV. PMID:22801340

  11. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  12. Changes of the different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in the diabetic rat's alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Erzsébet; Batbayar, Bayarchimeg; Vér, Agota; Zelles, Tivadar

    2006-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, where neuropeptides and immunocells might play important roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this article we have quantified the different neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat's alimentary tract (tongue, duodenum, colon) using immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical methods. The immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers were found in all layers of the alimentary tract and their distribution pattern was similar in both control and diabetic groups. Mast cell-nerve fiber contacts were rarely found in the controls. However, after 4 weeks duration of diabetes the number of IR nerve fibers and the immunocompetent cells increased significantly (P < 0.05), and the number of mast cell-nerve fiber contacts was even more significantly increased (P < 0.001). The distance between nerve fibers and immunocells was about 1 mum or even less. Some of the mast cells were degranulated in the vicinity of nerve fibers. No immunocompetent cells were IR for any antisera in the control. However, after the streptozotocin treatment, a large number of the immunocompetent cells showed immunoreactivity for SP and NPY. Counting all immunocompetent cells in whole sections showed that 12.3% of them were IR for SP and 25.4% were IR for NPY. Increased number of SP-containing nerve fibers and immunocells in diabetes mellitus might be the reason for painful neuropathy and might amplify the inflammatory reaction in an axon reflex manner; the released histamine and leukotrienes, cytokines, and chemokines might cause inflammations and lesions of the mucosa. PMID:17151308

  13. High-definition fiber tractography for the evaluation of perilesional white matter tracts in high-grade glioma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abhinav, Kumar; Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Mansouri, Alireza; Zadeh, Gelareh; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional white matter (WM) imaging approaches, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been used to preoperatively identify the location of affected WM tracts in patients with intracranial tumors in order to maximize the extent of resection and potentially reduce postoperative morbidity. DTI, however, has limitations that include its inability to resolve multiple crossing fibers and its susceptibility to partial volume effects. Therefore, recent focus has shifted to more advanced WM imaging techniques such as high-definition fiber tractography (HDFT). In this paper, we illustrate the application of HDFT, which in our preliminary experience has enabled accurate depiction of perilesional tracts in a 3-dimensional manner in multiple anatomical compartments including edematous zones around high-grade gliomas. This has facilitated accurate surgical planning. This is illustrated by using case examples of patients with glioblastoma multiforme. We also discuss future directions in the role of these techniques in surgery for gliomas. PMID:26117712

  14. Neuronal fiber tracts connecting the brain and ventral nerve cord of the early Drosophila larva

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Albert; Larsen, Camilla; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of dye injections, clonal labeling, and molecular markers we have reconstructed the axonal connections between brain and ventral nerve cord of the first instar Drosophila larva. Out of the approximately 1400 neurons that form the early larval brain hemisphere, less than 50 cells have axons descending into the ventral nerve cord. Descending neurons fall into four topologically defined clusters located in the antero-medial, antero-lateral, dorsal, and baso-posterior brain, respectively. The antero-lateral cluster represents a lineage derived from a single neuroblast. Terminations of descending neurons are almost exclusively found in the anterior part of the ventral nerve cord, represented by the gnathal and thoracic neuromeres. This region also contains small numbers of neurons with axons ascending into the brain. Terminals of the ascending axons are found in the same basal brain regions that also contain descending neurons. We have mapped ascending and descending axons to the previously described scaffold of longitudinal fiber tracts that interconnect different neuromeres of the ventral nerve cord and the brain. This work provides a structural framework for functional and genetic studies addressing the control of Drosophila larval behavior by brain circuits. PMID:19459219

  15. Expression of GFAP immunoreactivity during development of long fiber tracts in the rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Valentino, K L; Jones, E G; Kane, S A

    1983-09-01

    Astrocyte maturation in the developing corpus callosum and dorsal columns of the spinal cord was studied immunocytochemically in the rat, using antiserum to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with a view to determining the relationships of astrocytes to the advancing axons of the corpus callosum and corticospinal tract. Between the eighteenth and nineteenth days of gestation, when the corpus callosum commences forming, most of the GFAP staining in the cerebral hemispheres is contained in radial processes, but some staining of glial cell bodies is also seen in the ventricular zone. At the region of interhemispheric fusion, where the corpus callosum will form, an accumulation of astrocytic processes demonstrable electron microscopically shows light immunocytochemical staining for GFAP. These processes do not adopt a stereotyped orientation. Rather, the overall impression as one moves towards the midline, is of radially disposed processes being disrupted and disoriented by the growing callosal axons at the fusion of the hemispheres. At no time can any orderly arrangement of GFAP-containing processes be seen which might indicate that the processes are serving to guide the growing axons across the midline. There is no immunoreactive staining of cell bodies or processes ventral to the corpus callosum, except in postnatal animals. Prior to the arrival of corticospinal axons in the spinal cord on the first postnatal day (PO)21, GFAP immunoreactivity is greatest in radial processes of the lateral funiculi and in the dorsal median septum. Oblique or vertical processes increase in the cuneate fasciculus from P0 tot P4 but do not appear in the gracile fasciculus until P4. Virtually no stained processes appear in the region to be traversed by the principal corticospinal tract, nor later in the tract itself until late in postnatal development. Only by 3 weeks postnatal is the adult pattern of GFAP staining observed in the corticospinal tract. These results also indicate that

  16. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    PubMed

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  17. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    PubMed

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections. PMID:26778287

  18. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions.

  19. Secondary or Transient Pseudohypoaldosteronism Associated With Urinary Tract Anomaly and Urinary Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Krishnappa, Vinod; Ross, Jonathan H; Kenagy, David N; Raina, Rupesh

    2016-09-01

    Hyponatremia with hyperkalemia in infancy is a rare presentation, but may be due to aldosterone deficiency or end organ resistance to its action. There are few cases associating this condition with urinary tract infections or anatomic abnormalities that predispose to infection. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion in diagnosing secondary pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) due to its often atypical presentation. We describe ten month-old infant who presented with this condition and was found to have urinary tract infection complicating unilateral urinary tract anomaly, which may have strong association with renal tubular resistance to aldosterone. PMID:27516976

  20. Conservative treatment of patients with periapical lesions associated with extraoral sinus tracts.

    PubMed

    Soares, Janir Alves; de Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes; Araújo, Gustavo Sivieri; de Pontes Lima, Regina K; Rodrigues, Vivian M Tellaroli; de Toledo Leonardo, Renato

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the clinical courses of three cases with extra-oral sinus tract formation, from diagnosis and treatment to short-term follow-up and evaluation. All teeth involved had periradicular radiolucent areas noted on radiographic examination and extra-oral sinus tracts appearing on the chin with exudation and unpleasant aesthetic appearance. The adopted treatment protocol included treating the sinus tract surface simultaneously with the root canal therapy. After root canal shaping using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution, calcium hydroxide-based pastes associated with different vehicles were inserted into the root canal for 4 months, and were changed monthly. All the sinus tracts healed in 7 to 10 days. The apical lesions were completely repaired in a maximum period of 24 months. The treatment adopted provided a complete healing of the periapical lesions in a short follow-up period. Surgical repair of the cutaneous sinus tract was therefore unnecessary.

  1. Antibody-Based Therapy for Enterococcal Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Potretzke, Aaron; Schreiber, Henry L.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Bauman, Tyler M.; Park, Alyssa M.; Desai, Alana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gram-positive bacteria in the genus Enterococcus are a frequent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), a disease whose treatment is increasingly challenged by multiantibiotic-resistant strains. We have recently shown that E. faecalis uses the Ebp pilus, a heteropolymeric surface fiber, to bind the host protein fibrinogen as a critical step in CAUTI pathogenesis. Fibrinogen is deposited on catheters due to catheter-induced inflammation and is recognized by the N-terminal domain of EbpA (EbpANTD), the Ebp pilus’s adhesin. In a murine model, vaccination with EbpANTD confers significant protection against CAUTI. Here, we explored the mechanism of protection using passive transfer of immune sera to show that antisera blocking EbpANTD-fibrinogen interactions not only is prophylactic but also can act therapeutically to reduce bacterial titers of an existing infection. Analysis of 55 clinical CAUTI, bloodstream, and gastrointestinal isolates, including E. faecalis, E. faecium, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), revealed a diversity of levels of EbpA expression and fibrinogen-binding efficiency in vitro. Strikingly, analysis of 10 strains representative of fibrinogen-binding diversity demonstrated that, irrespective of EbpA levels, EbpANTD antibodies were universally protective. The results indicate that, despite diversity in levels of fibrinogen binding, strategies that target the disruption of EbpANTD-fibrinogen interactions have considerable promise for treatment of CAUTI. PMID:27795399

  2. Unbiased group-wise image registration: applications in brain fiber tract atlas construction and functional connectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiujuan; Gu, Hong; Shin, Wanyong; Ross, Thomas J; Yang, Yihong

    2011-10-01

    We propose an unbiased implicit-reference group-wise (IRG) image registration method and demonstrate its applications in the construction of a brain white matter fiber tract atlas and the analysis of resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity. Most image registration techniques pair-wise align images to a selected reference image and group analyses are performed in the reference space, which may produce bias. The proposed method jointly estimates transformations, with an elastic deformation model, registering all images to an implicit reference corresponding to the group average. The unbiased registration is applied to build a fiber tract atlas by registering a group of diffusion tensor images. Compared to reference-based registration, the IRG registration improves the fiber track overlap within the group. After applying the method in the fMRI connectivity analysis, results suggest a general improvement in functional connectivity maps at a group level in terms of larger cluster size and higher average t-scores.

  3. Cutaneous Sinus Tract in Association with Traumatic Injury to the Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rahul; Khan, Tayyeb Sultan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present case report is of trauma episode of the lower anterior teeth, causing pulpal necrosis with periradicular periodontitis, resulting in the occurrence of cutaneous sinus tracts (fistula). Previous misdiagnosis and inappropriate medical treatment were ineffective. Only when properly referred to dentists, the differential diagnosis was made. The guideline to diagnose cutaneous sinus tracts (fistula) is based mainly on accurate pulp sensitivity tests of the involved traumatized teeth. Intraoral and dental examinations are critical in making the diagnosis. The case presented here shows that cutaneous odontogenic sinus tracts associated in traumatized teeth, even in absence of caries or tooth fracture. How to cite this article: Mishra R, Khan TS. Cutaneous Sinus Tract in Association with Traumatic Injury to the Teeth . Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):205-207. PMID:25206224

  4. Towards a vaccine against Escherichia coli-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Serino, Laura; Moriel, Danilo Gomes; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia

    2010-03-01

    Evaluation of: Alteri CJ, Hagan EC, Sivick KE, Smith SN, Mobley HLT: Mucosal immunization with iron receptor antigens protects against urinary tract infections. PLoS Pathog. 5(9), E1000586 (2009). Urinary tract infection is one of the most common infections in humans. The eradication of uropathogenic Escherichia coli-mediated urinary tract infections has still not been achieved and no effective licensed vaccines are currently available. To overcome the limitations of previous approaches in developing an efficacious vaccine, Alteri et al., through a functional genomic approach, identified six novel vaccine candidates shown to be protective against urinary tract infection in a mouse model. The six proteins all belong to the class of outer membrane iron receptors, are upregulated in iron-restricted conditions and were demonstrated to induce, upon mucosal vaccination, antigen-specific antibodies and cytokine responses, which correlated with protection in a mouse model of urinary tract infection. Therefore, for the first time, antigens that were previously recognized as necessary for bacterial pathogenesis, being involved in iron acquisition in an iron-limited environment such as the urinary tract, are now proposed as potential candidates for the development of a vaccine against uropathogenic strain-associated urinary tract infections.

  5. Fiber tracking of the frontal aslant tract and subcomponents of the arcuate fasciculus in 5-8-year-olds: Relation to speech and language function.

    PubMed

    Broce, Iris; Bernal, Byron; Altman, Nolan; Tremblay, Pascale; Dick, Anthony Steven

    2015-10-01

    Long association cortical fiber pathways support developing networks for speech and language, but we do not have a clear understanding of how they develop in early childhood. Using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) we tracked the frontal aslant tract (FAT), arcuate fasciculus (AF), and AF segments (anterior, long, posterior) in 19 typical 5-8-year-olds, an age range in which significant improvement in speech and language function occurs. While the microstructural properties of the FAT and the right AF did not show age-related differences over the age range we investigated, the left AF evidenced increasing fractional anisotropy with age. Microstructural properties of the AF in both hemispheres, however, predicted receptive and expressive language. Length of the left FAT also predicted receptive language, which provides initial suggestion that this pathway is important for language development. These findings have implications for models of language development and for models of the neurobiology of language more broadly.

  6. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia associated with gastrointestinal tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Ulas D; Bayraktar, Soley

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common site of bleeding that may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Treatment of IDA depends on severity and acuity of patients’ signs and symptoms. While red blood cell transfusions may be required in hemodynamically unstable patients, transfusions should be avoided in chronically anemic patients due to their potential side effects and cost. Iron studies need to be performed after episodes of GI bleeding and stores need to be replenished before anemia develops. Oral iron preparations are efficacious but poorly tolerated due to non-absorbed iron-mediated GI side effects. However, oral iron dose may be reduced with no effect on its efficacy while decreasing side effects and patient discontinuation rates. Parenteral iron therapy replenishes iron stores quicker and is better tolerated than oral therapy. Serious hypersensitive reactions are very rare with new intravenous preparations. While data on worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity by oral iron therapy are not conclusive, parenteral iron therapy still seems to be advantageous in the treatment of IDA in patients with IBD, because oral iron may not be sufficient to overcome the chronic blood loss and GI side effects of oral iron which may mimic IBD exacerbation. Finally, we believe the choice of oral vs parenteral iron therapy in patients with IBD should primarily depend on acuity and severity of patients’ signs and symptoms. PMID:20533591

  7. Identifying preoperative language tracts and predicting postoperative functional recovery using HARDI q-ball fiber tractography in patients with gliomas.

    PubMed

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Jordan, Kesshi M; Lobach, Iryna V; Li, Jing; Panara, Valentina; Racine, Caroline A; Sankaranarayanan, Vanitha; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Papinutto, Nico; Berger, Mitchel S; Henry, Roland G

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Diffusion MRI has uniquely enabled in vivo delineation of white matter tracts, which has been applied to the segmentation of eloquent pathways for intraoperative mapping. The last decade has also seen the development from earlier diffusion tensor models to higher-order models, which take advantage of high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) techniques. However, these advanced methods have not been widely implemented for routine preoperative and intraoperative mapping. The authors report on the application of residual bootstrap q-ball fiber tracking for routine mapping of potentially functional language pathways, the development of a system for rating tract injury to evaluate the impact on clinically assessed language function, and initial results predicting long-term language deficits following glioma resection. METHODS The authors have developed methods for the segmentation of 8 putative language pathways including dorsal phonological pathways and ventral semantic streams using residual bootstrap q-ball fiber tracking. Furthermore, they have implemented clinically feasible preoperative acquisition and processing of HARDI data to delineate these pathways for neurosurgical application. They have also developed a rating scale based on the altered fiber tract density to estimate the degree of pathway injury, applying these ratings to a subset of 35 patients with pre- and postoperative fiber tracking. The relationships between specific pathways and clinical language deficits were assessed to determine which pathways are predictive of long-term language deficits following surgery. RESULTS This tracking methodology has been routinely implemented for preoperative mapping in patients with brain gliomas who have undergone awake brain tumor resection at the University of California, San Francisco (more than 300 patients to date). In this particular study the authors investigated the white matter structure status and language correlation in a

  8. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  9. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2–25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions. PMID:27076697

  10. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described i...

  11. Altered water diffusivity in cortical association tracts in children with early deprivation identified with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS).

    PubMed

    Govindan, Rajkumar Munian; Behen, Michael E; Helder, Emily; Makki, Malek I; Chugani, Harry T

    2010-03-01

    Institutional rearing is associated with neurocognitive and behavioral difficulties. Although such difficulties are thought to reflect abnormal neurologic development resulting from early social deprivation (ED) and there is evidence for functional abnormality in children with histories of ED, the impact of early deprivation on brain anatomy has received little study in humans. The present study utilized an objective and sensitive neuroimaging analysis technique (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics) to evaluate white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity in a group of right-handed children with histories of ED (n = 17; mean age = 10.9 + 2.6 years) as compared with age-matched healthy controls (n = 15; mean age = 11.7 + or - 2.8 years). Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tensor imaging sequences and comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Results revealed reduced FA in frontal, temporal, and parietal white matter including components of uncinate and superior longitudinal fasciculi, in children with histories of ED, providing further support for limbic and paralimbic abnormalities in children with such histories. Furthermore, white matter abnormalities were associated with duration of time in the orphanage and with inattention and hyperactivity scores. It is suspected that the observed white matter abnormalities are associated with multiple depriving factors (e.g., poor prenatal care, postnatal stress) associated with institutional caregiving.

  12. Reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in a neuro-spine intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Schelling, Kimberly; Palamone, Janet; Thomas, Kathryn; Naidech, Andrew; Silkaitis, Christina; Henry, Jennifer; Bolon, Maureen; Zembower, Teresa R

    2015-08-01

    A collaborative effort reduced catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the neuro-spine intensive care unit where the majority of infections occurred at our institution. Our stepwise approach included retrospective data review, daily rounding with clinicians, developing and implementing an action plan, conducting practice audits, and sharing of real-time data outcomes. The catheter-associated urinary tract infection rate was reduced from 8.18 to 0.93 per 1,000 catheter-days and standardized infection ratio decreased from 2.16 to 0.37.

  13. Comparative in vitro fermentation activity in the canine distal gastrointestinal tract and fermentation kinetics of fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Bosch, G; Pellikaan, W F; Rutten, P G P; van der Poel, A F B; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2008-11-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the variation in fermentation activity along the distal canine gastrointestinal tract (GIT, Exp. 1). It also aimed to assess fermentation kinetics and end product profiles of 16 dietary fibers for dog foods using canine fecal inoculum (Exp. 2). For Exp. 1, digesta were collected from the distal ileum, proximal colon, transverse colon, and rectum of 3 adult dogs. Digesta per part of the GIT were pooled for 3 dogs, diluted (1:25, wt/vol), mixed, and filtered for the preparation of inoculum. A fructan, ground soy hulls, and native potato starch were used as substrates and incubated for cumulative gas production measurement as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. In addition, fermentation bottles with similar contents were incubated but were allowed to release their gas throughout incubation. Fermentation fluid was sampled at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after initiation of incubation, and short-chain fatty acids and ammonia were measured. Results showed comparable maximal fermentation rates for rectal and proximal colonic inocula (P > 0.05). Production of short-chain fatty acids was least for the ileal and greatest for the rectal inoculum (P < 0.05). Therefore, for in vitro studies, fecal microbiota can be used as an inoculum source but may slightly overestimate in vivo fermentation. Experiment 2 evaluated the gas production, fermentation kinetics, and end product profiles at 8 and 72 h of incubation for citrus pectin, 3 fructans, gum arabic, 3 guar gums, pea fiber, peanut hulls, soy fiber, sugar beet fiber, sugar beet pectin, sugar beet pulp, wheat fiber, and wheat middlings. Feces of 4 adult dogs were used as an inoculum source. Similar techniques were used as in Exp. 1 except for the dilution factor used (1:10, wt/vol). Among substrates, large variations in fermentation kinetics and end product profiles were noted. Sugar beet pectin, the fructans, and the gums were rapidly fermentable, indicated by a greater maximal rate

  14. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  15. Predominant association of Raoultella bacteremia with diseases of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Eefje; Erkens-Hulshof, Sandra; van der Velden, Lieven B J; Voss, Andreas; Bosboom, Ron; Hodiamont, Caspar J; Wever, Peter C; Rentenaar, Rob J; Sturm, Patrick D

    2014-02-01

    A case series of 14 patients with Raoultella bacteremia was compared with 28 Klebsiella oxytoca and 28 Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia cases. Forty-three percent of Raoultella bacteremia cases were associated with biliary tract disease, compared to 32% and 22% of patients with K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae bacteremia, respectively.

  16. Brodmann’s Area Template Based Region of Interest Setting and Probabilistic Pathway Map Generation in Diffusion Tensor Tractography: Application to the Arcuate Fasciculus Fiber Tract in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Han, Bong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to acquire accurate diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) results for arcuate fasciculus (AF) fiber tract using Brodmann’s area (BA) template for region of interest (ROI) setting. Thirteen healthy subjects were participated in this study. Fractional anisotropy (FA) map of each subject was calculated using diffusion tensor data, and T1w template was co-registered to FA map. The BA template was also co-registered using the transformation matrix. The ROIs were drawn in the co-registered BA template, and AF fiber tract was extracted. To generate the probabilistic pathway map, a binary mask image was generated based on the fiber tract image and co-registered to T1w template image. We also measured relative location of the AF fiber tract. The location of the probabilistic pathway map of each subject’s AF fiber tract was well defined in the brain. By using this probabilistic map, the mediolateral position ratio of AF was measured 18%, and the anteroposterior position ratio of AF was measured 35%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the AF fiber tract can be extracted using BA template for ROI setting and probabilistic pathway of fiber tract. Our results and analytical approaches can helpful for accurate fiber tracking and application of perspective clinical researches. PMID:26834574

  17. Biomaterial bridges enable regeneration and re-entry of corticospinal tract axons into the caudal spinal cord after SCI: Association with recovery of forelimb function.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Kiran; Cummings, Brian J; Thomas, Aline; Shea, Lonnie D; Levine, Ariel; Pfaff, Sam; Anderson, Aileen J

    2015-10-01

    Severed axon tracts fail to exhibit robust or spontaneous regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Regeneration failure reflects a combination of factors, including the growth state of neuronal cell bodies and the regeneration-inhibitory environment of the central nervous system. However, while spared circuitry can be retrained, target reinnervation depends on longitudinally directed regeneration of transected axons. This study describes a biodegradable implant using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) bridges as a carrier scaffold to support regeneration after injury. In order to detect regeneration of descending neuronal tracts into the bridge, and beyond into intact caudal parenchyma, we developed a mouse cervical implantation model and employed Crym:GFP transgenic mice. Characterization of Crym:GFP mice revealed that descending tracts, including the corticospinal tract, were labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP), while ascending sensory neurons and fibers were not. Robust co-localization between GFP and neurofilament-200 (NF-200) as well as GFP and GAP-43 was observed at both the rostral and caudal bridge/tissue interface. No evidence of similar regeneration was observed in mice that received gelfoam at the lesion site as controls. Minimal co-localization between GFP reporter labeling and macrophage markers was observed. Taken together, these data suggest that axons originating from descending fiber tracts regenerated, entered into the PLG bridge at the rostral margin, continued through the bridge site, and exited to re-enter host tissue at the caudal edge of the intact bridge. Finally, regeneration through implanted bridges was associated with a reduction in ipsilateral forelimb errors on a horizontal ladder task. PMID:26134079

  18. Anterior limb of the internal capsule in schizotypal personality disorder: fiber-tract counting, volume, and anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, Erin A; Collazo, Tyson; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Entis, Jonathan J; Chu, King-Wai; Goldstein, Kim E; Roussos, Panos; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Hershowitz, Julian P; Siever, Larry J; Byne, William

    2012-11-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that white matter abnormalities and altered subcortical-cortical connectivity may be central to the pathology of schizophrenia (SZ). The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is an important thalamo-frontal white-matter tract shown to have volume reductions in SZ and to a lesser degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). While fractional anisotropy (FA) and connectivity abnormalities in the ALIC have been reported in SZ, they have not been examined in SPD. In the current study, magnetic resonance (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained in age- and sex-matched individuals with SPD (n=33) and healthy controls (HCs; n=38). The ALIC was traced bilaterally on five equally spaced dorsal-to-ventral axial slices from each participant's MRI scan and co-registered to DTI for the calculation of FA. Tractography was used to examine tracts between the ALIC and two key Brodmann areas (BAs; BA10, BA45) within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Compared with HCs, the SPD participants exhibited (a) smaller relative volume at the mid-ventral ALIC slice level but not the other levels; (b) normal FA within the ALIC; (c) fewer relative number of tracts between the most-dorsal ALIC levels and BA10 but not BA45 and (d) fewer dorsal ALIC-DLPFC tracts were associated with greater symptom severity in SPD. In contrast to prior SZ studies that report lower FA, individuals with SPD show sparing. Our findings are consistent with a pattern of milder thalamo-frontal dysconnectivity in SPD than schizophrenia.

  19. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed.

  20. Genotypic adaptations associated with prolonged persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in the murine digestive tract.

    PubMed

    van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; Smelt, Maaike J; Wels, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; de Vos, Paul; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Bron, Peter A

    2013-08-01

    Probiotic bacteria harbor effector molecules that confer health benefits, but also adaptation factors that enable them to persist in the gastrointestinal tract of the consumer. To study these adaptation factors, an antibiotic-resistant derivative of the probiotic model organism Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 was repeatedly exposed to the mouse digestive tract by three consecutive rounds of (re)feeding of the longest persisting colonies. This exposure to the murine intestine allowed the isolation of intestine-adapted derivatives of the original strain that displayed prolonged digestive tract residence time. Re-sequencing of the genomes of these adapted derivatives revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as a single nucleotide insertion in comparison with the genome of the original WCFS1 strain. Detailed in silico analysis of the identified genomic modifications pinpointed that alterations in the coding regions of genes encoding cell envelope associated functions and energy metabolism appeared to be beneficial for the gastrointestinal tract survival of L. plantarum WCFS1. This work demonstrates the feasibility of experimental evolution for the enhancement of the gastrointestinal residence time of probiotic strains, while full-genome resequencing of the adapted isolates provided clues towards the bacterial functions involved. Enhanced gastrointestinal residence is industrially relevant because it enhances the efficacy of the delivery of viable probiotics in situ.

  1. [Improvement of health care for patients with upper respiratory tract diseases associated with chlamydia infection].

    PubMed

    Kapustina, T A; Markina, A N; Parilova, O V

    2012-01-01

    At present the issues in regard to Chlamydia infection are not only limited by urogenital system. By the way optimal organization and non-urogenital chlamydiosis treatment strategy (with respiratory tract involvement in particular) have not been worked out yet and require immediate solutions. Due to new knowledge on respiratory chlamidiosis the authors discuss scientific background for future development of complex measures and main directions of health care support strategy for patients with upper respiratory associated with Chlamydia infection.

  2. Validation of an approach to predict total-tract fiber digestibility using a standardized in vitro technique for different diets fed to high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Ruh, K; Combs, D K

    2015-04-01

    The experimental objective was to validate an in vitro model to predict total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility in dairy cattle. Twenty-one diets from 7 studies conducted at University of Wisconsin-Madison were analyzed for in vitro fiber digestibility. Forages varied among diets (corn, alfalfa, tall and meadow fescue, and wheat straw silages) and nutrient composition (ranges: NDF = 22.5 to 33.8%; crude protein = 15.8 to 18.9%; nonfiber carbohydrates = 38.0 to 51.0%). Total-tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD) observed in in vivo trials was determined using different markers as described in the individual studies. The in vitro TTNDFD model predicted total-tract fiber digestibility from the proportion of total NDF potentially digestible (pdNDF), rate of pdNDF degradation, and rate of passage of pdNDF. The model predicted TTNDFD similar to in vivo measurements. The relationship between TTNDFD measured in vivo and TTNDFD predicted by the in vitro assay was significant (R(2) = 0.68). The relationship between in vitro 30-h NDF digestibility values and in vivo total-tract NDF digestibility values was not significant, whereas in vitro 48-h NDF digestibility values were correlated (R(2) = 0.30) with in vivo TTNDFD measurements. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) showed a negative relationship (R(2) = 0.40) with TTNDFD in vivo. Each 1-percentage-unit increase of iNDF resulted in a decrease of 0.96 percentage units of total-tract NDF digestibility; however, iNDF by itself was not a good predictor of TTNDFD because of the difference among the means. This study showed that an in vitro TTNDFD model that uses iNDF, pdNDF, and rates of pdNDF digestion and passage can predict (R(2) = 0.68) total-tract NDF digestibility. Most importantly, we demonstrated the ability to predict total-tract fiber digestibility from a model based on in vitro NDF degradation, which could improve our ability to optimize forage utilization and milk production.

  3. Structural Fluctuations of the Chromatin Fiber within Topologically Associating Domains.

    PubMed

    Tiana, Guido; Amitai, Assaf; Pollex, Tim; Piolot, Tristan; Holcman, David; Heard, Edith; Giorgetti, Luca

    2016-03-29

    Experiments based on chromosome conformation capture have shown that mammalian genomes are partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs), within which the chromatin fiber preferentially interacts. TADs may provide three-dimensional scaffolds allowing genes to contact their appropriate distal regulatory DNA sequences (e.g., enhancers) and thus to be properly regulated. Understanding the cell-to-cell and temporal variability of the chromatin fiber within TADs, and what determines them, is thus of great importance to better understand transcriptional regulation. We recently described an equilibrium polymer model that can accurately predict cell-to-cell variation of chromosome conformation within single TADs, from chromosome conformation capture-based data. Here we further analyze the conformational and energetic properties of our model. We show that the chromatin fiber within TADs can easily fluctuate between several conformational states, which are hierarchically organized and are not separated by important free energy barriers, and that this is facilitated by the fact that the chromatin fiber within TADs is close to the onset of the coil-globule transition. We further show that in this dynamic state the properties of the chromatin fiber, and its contact probabilities in particular, are determined in a nontrivial manner not only by site-specific interactions between strongly interacting loci along the fiber, but also by nonlocal correlations between pairs of contacts. Finally, we use live-cell experiments to measure the dynamics of the chromatin fiber in mouse embryonic stem cells, in combination with dynamical simulations, and predict that conformational changes within one TAD are likely to occur on timescales that are much shorter than the duration of one cell cycle. This suggests that genes and their regulatory elements may come together and disassociate several times during a cell cycle. These results have important implications for transcriptional

  4. Human Coronaviruses Associated with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Three Rural Areas of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Owusu, Michael; Annan, Augustina; Corman, Victor Max; Larbi, Richard; Anti, Priscilla; Drexler, Jan Felix; Agbenyega, Olivia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, especially in Africa. This study sought to determine whether human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with upper respiratory tract infections among older children and adults in Ghana. Methods We conducted a case control study among older children and adults in three rural areas of Ghana using asymptomatic subjects as controls. Nasal/Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), HCoV-22E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Results Out of 1,213 subjects recruited, 150 (12.4%) were positive for one or more viruses. Of these, single virus detections occurred in 146 subjects (12.0%) and multiple detections occurred in 4 (0.3%). Compared with control subjects, infections with HCoV-229E (OR = 5.15, 95%CI = 2.24–11.78), HCoV-OC43 (OR = 6.16, 95%CI = 1.77–21.65) and combine HCoVs (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.5 = 3.72) were associated with upper respiratory tract infections. HCoVs were found to be seasonally dependent with significant detections in the harmattan season (mainly HCoV-229E) and wet season (mainly HCoV-NL63). A comparison of the obtained sequences resulted in no differences to sequences already published in GenBank. Conclusion HCoVs could play significant role in causing upper respiratory tract infections among adults and older children in rural areas of Ghana. PMID:25080241

  5. Modeling transcranial magnetic stimulation from the induced electric fields to the membrane potentials along tractography-based white matter fiber tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geeter, Nele; Dupré, Luc; Crevecoeur, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising non-invasive tool for modulating the brain activity. Despite the widespread therapeutic and diagnostic use of TMS in neurology and psychiatry, its observed response remains hard to predict, limiting its further development and applications. Although the stimulation intensity is always maximum at the cortical surface near the coil, experiments reveal that TMS can affect deeper brain regions as well. Approach. The explanation of this spread might be found in the white matter fiber tracts, connecting cortical and subcortical structures. When applying an electric field on neurons, their membrane potential is altered. If this change is significant, more likely near the TMS coil, action potentials might be initiated and propagated along the fiber tracts towards deeper regions. In order to understand and apply TMS more effectively, it is important to capture and account for this interaction as accurately as possible. Therefore, we compute, next to the induced electric fields in the brain, the spatial distribution of the membrane potentials along the fiber tracts and its temporal dynamics. Main results. This paper introduces a computational TMS model in which electromagnetism and neurophysiology are combined. Realistic geometry and tissue anisotropy are included using magnetic resonance imaging and targeted white matter fiber tracts are traced using tractography based on diffusion tensor imaging. The position and orientation of the coil can directly be retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Incorporating these features warrants both patient- and case-specific results. Significance. The presented model gives insight in the activity propagation through the brain and can therefore explain the observed clinical responses to TMS and their inter- and/or intra-subject variability. We aspire to advance towards an accurate, flexible and personalized TMS model that helps to understand stimulation in the connected

  6. Symmetrical Location Characteristics of Corticospinal Tract Associated With Hand Movement in the Human Brain: A Probabilistic Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Han, Bong-Soo

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the symmetrical characteristics of corticospinal tract (CST) related with hand movement in bilateral hemispheres using probabilistic fiber tracking method. Seventeen subjects were participated in this study. Fiber tracking was performed with 2 regions of interest, hand activated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results and pontomedullary junction in each cerebral hemisphere. Each subject's extracted fiber tract was normalized with a brain template. To measure the symmetrical distributions of the CST related with hand movement, the laterality and anteriority indices were defined in upper corona radiata (CR), lower CR, and posterior limb of internal capsule. The measured laterality and anteriority indices between the hemispheres in each different brain location showed no significant differences with P < 0.05. There were significant differences in the measured indices among 3 different brain locations in each cerebral hemisphere with P < 0.001. Our results clearly showed that the hand CST had symmetric structures in bilateral hemispheres. The probabilistic fiber tracking with fMRI approach demonstrated that the hand CST can be successfully extracted regardless of crossing fiber problem. Our analytical approaches and results seem to be helpful for providing the database of CST somatotopy to neurologists and clinical researches.

  7. Immunoanatomic distribution of cytostructural and tissue-associated antigens in the human urinary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Cordon-Cardo, C.; Finstad, C. L.; Bander, N. H.; Melamed, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to define the expression and/or modulation of antigenic phenotypes in cells of the normal human kidney and urothelium according to cell type. Fourteen antibodies detecting differentiation and structural antigens expressed in the human urinary tract have been used to define the immunoanatomic distribution of these antigenic systems. They include urinary tract antigens (Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein and prostate-specific antigen), tissue-associated antigens (epithelial membrane antigen, Factor VIII antigen, and Protein S-100), and cytoskeletal antigens of the intermediate filament classes (cytokeratins, vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and neurofilaments. Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase analyses performed on normal human fetal and adult tissue sections have demonstrated that these antigens are expressed by different cell types and domains of the nephron. Studies correlating normal fetal and adult tissues reveal that some of the antigens appear at distinct stages of maturation, representing early and late antigenic expression events. These antibodies offer a wide range of potential applications that include studies of embryogenesis of the human urinary tract and immunopathologic analyses of neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases of the human kidney and urothelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3548401

  8. Association of lower genital tract inflammation with objective evidence of endometritis.

    PubMed Central

    Peipert, J F; Ness, R B; Soper, D E; Bass, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the association between lower genital tract inflammation and objectively diagnosed endometritis. We analyzed the first 157 patients enrolled in the PEACH study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial designed to compare the effectiveness of outpatient and inpatient therapy for PID. Women less than 38 years of age, who presented with a history of pelvic discomfort for 30 days or less and who were found to have pelvic organ tenderness (uterine or adnexal tenderness) on bimanual examination, were initially invited to participate. After recruitment of the first 58 patients (group 1) we added the presence of leukorrhea, mucopurulent cervicitis, or untreated positive test for N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis to the inclusion criteria (group 2, N = 99). We compared rates of endometritis in the two groups and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and predicted values of the presence of white blood cells in the vaginal wet preparation. The rate of upper genital tract infection in group 1 was 46.5% (27/58) compared to 49.5% (49/99) in group 2. Microbiologic evidence of either N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis increased from 22.4% in group 1 to 38.3% in group 2. The presence of vaginal white blood cells or mucopus has a high sensitivity (88.9%), but a low specificity (19.4%) for the diagnosis of upper genital-tract infection. Assessment of the lower genital tract for evidence of infection or inflammation is a valuable component of the diagnostic evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease. The presence of either mucopus or vaginal white blood cells is a highly sensitive test for endometritis in patients with pelvic pain and tenderness. PMID:10805362

  9. The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Andrea L.; Huber, Victor C.; Chaussee, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses. PMID:27047460

  10. The Association between Invasive Group A Streptococcal Diseases and Viral Respiratory Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Andrea L; Huber, Victor C; Chaussee, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections of the upper respiratory tract are associated with a variety of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the group A streptococcus, including pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia. While these polymicrobial infections, or superinfections, are complex, progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of disease. Areas of investigation have included the characterization of virus-induced changes in innate immunity, differences in bacterial adherence and internalization following viral infection, and the efficacy of vaccines in mitigating the morbidity and mortality of superinfections. Here, we briefly summarize viral-S. pyogenes superinfections with an emphasis on those affiliated with influenza viruses. PMID:27047460

  11. Unilateral renal agenesis associated with additional congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract in a Pekingese bitch.

    PubMed

    Agut, A; Fernandez del Palacio, M J; Laredo, F G; Murciano, J; Bayon, A; Soler, M

    2002-01-01

    An eight-month-old Pekingese bitch with urinary incontinence was found to have three congenital anomalies of the urinary tract: left renal agenesis, bilateral ectopic ureters with a left cranial blind-ending ureter, and urinary bladder hypoplasia. The diagnoses were made by retrograde vaginourethrography, excretory urography, ultrasonography and duplex Doppler ultrasonography. Although urological anomalies associated with renal agenesis have been frequently observed, a cranial blind-end ectopic ureter has not, to the authors' knowledge, been described in the bitch. The dog was managed medically with a restricted protein diet because of a compromised unilateral kidney with hydronephrosis and hydroureter.

  12. Association between secondary thrombocytosis and viral respiratory tract infections in children

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shou-Yan; Xiao, Qiu-Yan; Xie, Xiao-Hong; Deng, Yu; Ren, Luo; Tian, Dai-Yin; Luo, Zheng-Xiu; Luo, Jian; Fu, Zhou; Huang, Ai-Long; Liu, En-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Secondary thrombocytosis (ST) is frequently observed in children with a variety of clinical conditions. The leading cause of ST is respiratory tract infection (RTI) in children. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected and assessed for common respiratory viruses. The relationships between virus infections and secondary thrombocytosis were analyzed retrospectively. The blood platelet count and the presence of respiratory viruses were determined for 3156 RTI patients, and 817 (25.9%) cases with platelet ≥500 × 109/L were considered as the thrombocytosis group. Compared with the normal group, the detection rates of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) were significantly higher in the thrombocytosis group (P = 0.017 and 0.042, respectively). HRV single infection was a risk factor associated with thrombocytosis [odds ratio (OR) = 1.560, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.108–2.197]. Furthermore, ST was more likely to occur in younger patients who had clinical manifestations of wheezing and dyspnea and who had been diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Furthermore, the course of disease lasted longer in these patients. ST is associated with viral respiratory tract infections, especially RSV and HRV infections. HRV single infection is a risk factor associated with thrombocytosis. PMID:26965460

  13. Vesico-amniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction in a fetus with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Kanasugi, Tomonobu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Haba, Gen; Sasaki, Yuri; Isurugi, Chizuko; Oyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-09-01

    Newborn cases of VACTERL association with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) are rare and there have been no reports on those patients undergoing fetal therapy in English literature. We successfully performed vesico-amniotic shunting in a fetus having LUTO caused by abnormality of the external genitalia at 16 weeks' gestation. Although fetal karyotype was normal 46XY, follow-up fetal ultrasound examinations revealed ventriculomegaly in the brain, a small stomach and a right multicystic dysplastic kidney. MRI at 31 weeks' gestation suggested lobar type holoprosencephaly. Diagnosis of VACTERL association was confirmed postnatally. We consider that vesico-amniotic shunting is indicated for a fetus of VACTERL association with LUTO if the parents wish the procedure after genetic counseling and explanations about the fetal conditions.

  14. Vesico-amniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction in a fetus with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Kanasugi, Tomonobu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Haba, Gen; Sasaki, Yuri; Isurugi, Chizuko; Oyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-09-01

    Newborn cases of VACTERL association with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) are rare and there have been no reports on those patients undergoing fetal therapy in English literature. We successfully performed vesico-amniotic shunting in a fetus having LUTO caused by abnormality of the external genitalia at 16 weeks' gestation. Although fetal karyotype was normal 46XY, follow-up fetal ultrasound examinations revealed ventriculomegaly in the brain, a small stomach and a right multicystic dysplastic kidney. MRI at 31 weeks' gestation suggested lobar type holoprosencephaly. Diagnosis of VACTERL association was confirmed postnatally. We consider that vesico-amniotic shunting is indicated for a fetus of VACTERL association with LUTO if the parents wish the procedure after genetic counseling and explanations about the fetal conditions. PMID:27061706

  15. Complicated Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, S. M.; Stickler, D. J.; Mobley, H. L. T.; Shirtliff, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options. PMID:18202436

  16. Naturally occurring and melengestrol acetate-associated reproductive tract lesions in zoo canids.

    PubMed

    Moresco, A; Munson, L; Gardner, I A

    2009-11-01

    As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions in zoo felids, but effects in zoo canids have not been evaluated. This retrospective study documented spontaneously occurring lesions and investigated the impact of MGA on the reproductive health of zoo canids. Reproductive tracts from adult females were submitted by US zoos to the Association of Zoos & Aquariums' Wildlife Contraception Center Health Surveillance Program. Reproductive tracts were sampled and processed for histopathologic examination following standard protocols. Microscopic evaluations were performed without prior knowledge of MGA treatment status. Prevalence of uterine lesions was evaluated and compared between MGA-treated animals (n = 20) and control (untreated) animals (n = 61). Common lesions within the study population as a whole included endometrial hyperplasia (predominantly cystic) (53%), hydrometra (33%), and adenomyosis (25%). Treatment with MGA was a risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia, hydrometra, fibrosis, and adenomyosis. Uterine mineralization occurred exclusively in MGA-treated animals. Results indicate that MGA contraception can lead to lesions that may permanently impair the fertility of females. Therefore, if long-term contraception of zoo canids is necessary, the use of alternate methods of reproductive control such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs or GnRH vaccines that reduce gonadal hormone exposure should be pursued.

  17. Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infections: a study of 12 consecutive cases and review.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Caroline; Fevre, Cindy; Travier, Laetitia; Cazenave, Benoît; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Podevin, Juliette; Assomany, Daher; Guilbert, Lydie; Bossard, Céline; Carpentier, Françoise; Cales, Valérie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-10-01

    At present, little is known regarding Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infection, a rare form of listeriosis.In this article, we will study 12 culture-proven cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1996 to 2013 and review the 8 previously published cases.Twenty cases were studied: 17 cholecystitis, 2 cholangitis, and 1 biliary cyst infection. Half were men with a median age of 69 years (32-85). Comorbidities were present in 80%, including cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. Five patients received immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor biotherapies. Half were afebrile. Blood cultures were positive in 60% (3/5). Gallbladder histological lesions were analyzed in 3 patients and evidenced acute, chronic, or necrotic exacerbation of chronic infection. Genoserogroup of the 12 available strains were IVb (n=6), IIb (n=5), and IIa (n=1). Their survival in the bile was not enhanced when compared with isolates from other listeriosis cases. Adverse outcome was reported in 33% (5/15): 3 deaths, 1 recurrence; 75% of the patients with adverse outcome received inadequate antimicrobial therapy (P=0.033).Biliary tract listeriosis is a severe infection associated with high mortality in patients not treated with appropriate therapy. This study provides medical relevance to in vitro and animal studies that had shown Listeria monocytogenes ability to survive in bile and induce overt biliary infections. PMID:25319439

  18. Rare variants in BRCA2 and CHEK2 are associated with the risk of urinary tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yuqiu; Wang, Yunyan; Shao, Wei; Jin, Jing; Du, Mulong; Ma, Gaoxiang; Chu, Haiyan; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that two rare variants, rs11571833 in BRCA2 and rs17879961 in CHEK2 were associated with lung cancer. However, the associations between these two variants and urinary tract cancers risk remain largely unexplored. We applied imputation of three genome-wide association studies published in the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Unconditional logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were performed to assess the association between these two variants and the risk of urinary tract cancers. Our results showed that rs11571833[T] had an effect on urinary tract cancers predisposition (ORmeta = 1.45, Pmeta = 0.013), especially associated with increased the risk of bladder cancer (ORmeta = 1.60, Pmeta = 0.010). Moreover, rs17879961[C] had a protective effect on the urinary tract cancers (ORmeta = 0.67, Pmeta = 1.0 × 10−3) and was mostly associated with a lower incidence of renal cell carcinoma (ORmeta = 0.51, Pmeta = 2.0 × 10−3). Together, our study indicates that BRCA2 and CHEK2 play an important role in the genetic susceptibility to urinary tract cancers. PMID:27632928

  19. Rare variants in BRCA2 and CHEK2 are associated with the risk of urinary tract cancers.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yuqiu; Wang, Yunyan; Shao, Wei; Jin, Jing; Du, Mulong; Ma, Gaoxiang; Chu, Haiyan; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that two rare variants, rs11571833 in BRCA2 and rs17879961 in CHEK2 were associated with lung cancer. However, the associations between these two variants and urinary tract cancers risk remain largely unexplored. We applied imputation of three genome-wide association studies published in the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Unconditional logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were performed to assess the association between these two variants and the risk of urinary tract cancers. Our results showed that rs11571833[T] had an effect on urinary tract cancers predisposition (ORmeta = 1.45, Pmeta = 0.013), especially associated with increased the risk of bladder cancer (ORmeta = 1.60, Pmeta = 0.010). Moreover, rs17879961[C] had a protective effect on the urinary tract cancers (ORmeta = 0.67, Pmeta = 1.0 × 10(-3)) and was mostly associated with a lower incidence of renal cell carcinoma (ORmeta = 0.51, Pmeta = 2.0 × 10(-3)). Together, our study indicates that BRCA2 and CHEK2 play an important role in the genetic susceptibility to urinary tract cancers. PMID:27632928

  20. The association between biliary tract inflammation and risk of digestive system cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Che-Chen; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Su, Wen-Pang; Lai, Shih-Wei; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lai, Hsueh-Chou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between biliary tract inflammation (BTI) and digestive system cancers is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between BTI and the risks of digestive system cancers. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, information on a cohort of patients diagnosed with BTI (n = 4398) between 2000 and 2009 was collected. A comparison cohort of sex-, age-, and index year-matched persons without BTI (n = 17,592) was selected from the same database. The disease was defined by the ICD-9-CM. Both cohorts were followed until the end of 2010 and incidences of digestive system cancers were calculated. The results revealed an increase in adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of biliary tract cancer (24.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.20–65.02), primary liver cancer (1.53; 95% CI: 1.07–2.18), and pancreatic cancer (3.10; 95% CI: 1.20–8.03) in patients with both gallbladder and BTI. The aHR of stomach cancer was also found to be increased (2.73; 95% CI: 1.28–5.81) in patients with gallbladder inflammation only. There were no differences in esophageal cancer (aHR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.23–2.87) and colorectal cancer (aHR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.59–1.45). The aHR for digestive system cancers increased by 3.66 times (95% CI: 2.50–5.35) and 12.20 times (95% CI: 8.66–17.17) in BTI visits frequency averaged 2 to 4 visits per year and frequency averaged ≥5 visits per year, respectively. Patients with BTI have significantly higher risk of digestive system cancers, particularly biliary tract, pancreatic, and primary liver cancers, compared with those who are without it. PMID:27495065

  1. Engaging health care workers to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection and avert patient harm.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Mohamad G; Krein, Sarah L; Edson, Barbara; Watson, Sam R; Battles, James B; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) remains a significant challenge for US hospitals. The "On the CUSP: Stop CAUTI" initiative represents the single largest national effort (involving >950 hospitals) to mitigate urinary catheter risk. The program brings together key organizations to assist state hospital associations and hospitals by providing education and coaching support, addressing both the technical aspects of preventing CAUTI and CAUTI-specific socio-adaptive challenges. At the local level, engaging health care workers, from physicians and nurses to other ancillary services, is critical. This includes (1) making the importance of addressing CAUTI stakeholder specific, (2) ensuring support from leaders of essential disciplines, (3) underscoring the importance of the collaborative nature of CAUTI prevention, and (4) identifying champions within the organization to lead and be accountable for the work. Sustainability is ensured by integrating the process into the health care worker's daily routine activities.

  2. Isolation and characterization of atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Palerme, Jean-Sébastien; Pan, Po Ching; Parsons, Cameron T; Kathariou, Sophia; Ward, Todd J; Jacob, Megan E

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described in a diabetic dog. The serotype of the L. monocytogenes isolate was determined to be 1/2a (3a), with the multilocus genotyping pattern 2.72_1/2a. A nucleotide substitution (Gly145Asp) was detected at residue 145 in the promoter prfA region. This residue is within the critical helix-turn-helix motif of PrfA. The source of the L. monocytogenes strain remains unknown, and the dog recovered after a 4-week course of cephalexin (30 mg/kg orally twice daily). PMID:27493137

  3. The Epidemiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prevalence and Incident Rates.

    PubMed

    Egan, Kathryn Brigham

    2016-08-01

    This article assesses the reported prevalence and incidence rates for benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) by age, symptom severity, and race/ethnicity. BPH/LUTS prevalence and incidence rates increase with increasing age and vary by symptom severity. The BPH/LUTS relationship is complex due to several factors. This contributes to the range of reported estimates and difficulties in drawing epidemiologic comparisons. Cultural, psychosocial, economic, and/or disease awareness and diagnosis factors may influence medical care access, symptom reporting and help-seeking behaviors among men with BPH/LUTS. However, these factors and their epidemiologic association with BPH/LUTS have not been thoroughly investigated. PMID:27476122

  4. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  5. White matter tract and glial-associated changes in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Tsenkina, Yanina; Ruzov, Alexey; Gliddon, Catherine; Horsburgh, Karen; De Sousa, Paul A

    2014-12-10

    White matter abnormalities due to age-related cerebrovascular alterations is a common pathological hallmark associated with functional impairment in the elderly which has been modeled in chronically hypoperfused mice. 5-Methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidized derivative 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are DNA modifications that have been recently linked with age-related neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular pathology. Here we conducted a pilot investigation of whether chronic cerebral hypoperfusion might affect genomic distribution of these modifications and/ or a Ten-Eleven Translocation protein 2 (TET2) which catalyses hydroxymethylation in white and grey matter regions of this animal model. Immunohistochemical evaluation of sham and chronically hypoperfused mice a month after surgery revealed significant (p<0.05) increases in the proportion of 5hmC positive cells, Iba1 positive inflammatory microglia, and NG2 positive oligodendroglial progenitors in the hypoperfused corpus callosum. In the same white matter tract there was an absence of hypoperfusion-induced alterations in the proportion of 5mC, TET2 positive cells and CC1 positive mature oligodrendrocytes. Correlation analysis across animals within both treatment groups demonstrated a significant association of the elevated 5hmC levels with increases in the proportion of inflammatory microglia only (p=0.01) in the corpus callosum. In vitro studies revealed that 5hmC is lost during oligodendroglial maturation but not microglial activation. Additionally, TET1, TET2, and TET3 protein levels showed dynamic alterations during oligodendroglial development and following oxidative stress in vitro. Our study suggests that 5hmC exhibits white matter tract and cell type specific dynamics following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in mice.

  6. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    PubMed Central

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  7. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    Dampness and mold have been shown in qualitative reviews to be associated with a variety of adverse respiratory health effects, including respiratory tract infections. Several published meta-analyses have provided quantitative summaries for some of these associations, but not for respiratory infections. Demonstrating a causal relationship between dampness-related agents, which are preventable exposures, and respiratory tract infections would suggest important new public health strategies. We report the results of quantitative meta-analyses of published studies that examined the association of dampness or mold in homes with respiratory infections and bronchitis. For primary studies meeting eligibility criteria, we transformed reported odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) to the log scale. Both fixed and random effects models were applied to the log ORs and their variances. Most studies contained multiple estimated ORs. Models accounted for the correlation between multiple results within the studies analyzed. One set of analyses was performed with all eligible studies, and another set restricted to studies that controlled for age, gender, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Subgroups of studies were assessed to explore heterogeneity. Funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. The resulting summary estimates of ORs from random effects models based on all studies ranged from 1.38 to 1.50, with 95% CIs excluding the null in all cases. Use of different analysis models and restricting analyses based on control of multiple confounding variables changed findings only slightly. ORs (95% CIs) from random effects models using studies adjusting for major confounding variables were, for bronchitis, 1.45 (1.32-1.59); for respiratory infections, 1.44 (1.31-1.59); for respiratory infections excluding nonspecific upper respiratory infections, 1.50 (1.32-1.70), and for respiratory infections in children or infants, 1.48 (1.33-1.65). Little effect of publication

  8. A non-surgical rat model of foreign body-associated urinary tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kurosaka, Y; Ishida, Y; Yamamura, E; Takase, H; Otani, T; Kumon, H

    2001-01-01

    This study established a rat model of foreign body-associated urinary tract infection. A spiral polyethylene tube (PT) was placed transurethrally into the bladder without surgical manipulation, followed by transurethral inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The persistence of P. aeruginosa in the kidneys and bladder was significantly enhanced by placement of the PT, whereas the bacteria were eliminated rapidly from the urinary tract in the animals without the PT. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a thick biofilm on the surface of the PT from the early stage of infection. Histopathologically, acute pyelonephritis was followed by chronic renal inflammation as well as continuous and sporadic polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation and hemorrhage in the pelvis and adjacent tissues, suggesting continuous ascending introduction of the bacteria from the biofilm adhering to the PT. We believe our model simulates the pathophysiology of foreign body-associated urinary tract infection characterized by biofilm formation on the surface of a foreign body.

  9. Candiduria in Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection with Special Reference to Biofilm Production

    PubMed Central

    Rishpana, Mythreyi Shekar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infections as a result of Candida species are becoming increasingly common in hospital settings. The association is higher in patients with prolonged urinary catheterization and also various pre-disposing factors. Aim This study was done to look into the significance of candiduria in the catheterized patients and to perform microbial catheterization of yeast and biofilm detection by tube method to guide treatment protocol. Materials and Methods This is a prospective study. One hundred urine samples were collected over a period of 3 months. Specimens included were those of patients presenting with nosocomial Urinary tract infection (UTI) after 72 hours of hospitalization. The urine samples obtained were immediately processed in microbiology laboratory by semi-quantitative method as per standard protocol. All yeast isolates were stored for further microbial characterization. Biofilm production was detected by tube method. Results In the present study we observed that out of 100 samples obtained from catheterized patients presenting with nosocomial UTI 26% were caused by Candida species. Among the 26 Candida isolates 16 (61.53%) were non albicans Candida and 10(38.47%) were Candida albicans. Out 26 Candida isolates, 14(53.84%) of the candida isolates were found to produce biofilm. Biofilm production was found to occur more frequently among non albicans Candida 10(62.5%) than Candida albicans 4(40.0%). Conclusion The present study reiterates the presence of candiduria in catheterized patients. Non-albicans candida speices are replacing candida albicans as the predominant pathogen for nosocomial UTI. It was also observed that Biofilm formation is seen more frequently with non albicans candida species than with Candida albicans. PMID:26557518

  10. NFIA Haploinsufficiency Is Associated with a CNS Malformation Syndrome and Urinary Tract Defects

    PubMed Central

    Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Donovan, Diana J; Xi, Qiongchao; Turbe-Doan, Annick; Li, Qing-Gang; Campbell, Craig G; Shanske, Alan L; Sherr, Elliott H; Ahmad, Ayesha; Peters, Roxana; Rilliet, Benedict; Parvex, Paloma; Bassuk, Alexander G; Harris, David J; Ferguson, Heather; Kelly, Chantal; Walsh, Christopher A; Gronostajski, Richard M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Higgins, Anne; Ligon, Azra H; Quade, Bradley J; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Maas, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Complex central nervous system (CNS) malformations frequently coexist with other developmental abnormalities, but whether the associated defects share a common genetic basis is often unclear. We describe five individuals who share phenotypically related CNS malformations and in some cases urinary tract defects, and also haploinsufficiency for the NFIA transcription factor gene due to chromosomal translocation or deletion. Two individuals have balanced translocations that disrupt NFIA. A third individual and two half-siblings in an unrelated family have interstitial microdeletions that include NFIA. All five individuals exhibit similar CNS malformations consisting of a thin, hypoplastic, or absent corpus callosum, and hydrocephalus or ventriculomegaly. The majority of these individuals also exhibit Chiari type I malformation, tethered spinal cord, and urinary tract defects that include vesicoureteral reflux. Other genes are also broken or deleted in all five individuals, and may contribute to the phenotype. However, the only common genetic defect is NFIA haploinsufficiency. In addition, previous analyses of Nfia−/− knockout mice indicate that Nfia deficiency also results in hydrocephalus and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Further investigation of the mouse Nfia+/− and Nfia−/− phenotypes now reveals that, at reduced penetrance, Nfia is also required in a dosage-sensitive manner for ureteral and renal development. Nfia is expressed in the developing ureter and metanephric mesenchyme, and Nfia+/− and Nfia−/− mice exhibit abnormalities of the ureteropelvic and ureterovesical junctions, as well as bifid and megaureter. Collectively, the mouse Nfia mutant phenotype and the common features among these five human cases indicate that NFIA haploinsufficiency contributes to a novel human CNS malformation syndrome that can also include ureteral and renal defects. PMID:17530927

  11. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can help with weight control. Fiber aids digestion and helps prevent constipation . It is sometimes used ... fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  12. Decreased microbiota diversity associated with urinary tract infection in a trial of bacterial interference

    PubMed Central

    Mapes, Abigail C; Ajami, Nadim J; Petrosino, Joseph F; Ramig, Robert F; Trautner, Barbara W

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with long-term indwelling catheters are at high risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). We hypothesized that colonizing the bladder with a benign E. coli strain (E. coli HU2117, a derivative of E. coli 83972 would prevent CAUTI in older, catheterized adults. Materials and Methods Adults with chronic, indwelling urinary catheters received study catheters that had been pre-coated with E. coli HU2117. We monitored the cultivatable organisms in the bladder for 28 days or until loss of E. coli HU2117. Urine from 4 subjects was collected longitudinally for 16S rRNA gene profiling. Results Eight of the ten subjects (average age 70.9 years) became colonized with E. coli HU2117, with a mean duration of 57.7 days (median: 28.5, range 0-266). All subjects also remained colonized by uropathogens. Five subjects suffered invasive UTI, 3 febrile UTI and 2 urosepsis/bacteremia, all associated with overgrowth of a urinary pathogen. Colonization with E. coli HU2117 did not impact bacterial bladder diversity, but subjects who developed infections had less diverse bladder microbiota. Conclusions Colonization with E. coli HU2117 did not prevent bladder colonization or subsequent invasive disease by uropathogens. Microbial diversity may play a protective role against invasive infection of the catheterized bladder. PMID:26048203

  13. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  14. Development of a Phage Cocktail to Control Proteus mirabilis Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Melo, Luís D R; Veiga, Patrícia; Cerca, Nuno; Kropinski, Andrew M; Almeida, Carina; Azeredo, Joana; Sillankorva, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterium that causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) due to its ability to colonize and form crystalline biofilms on the catheters surface. CAUTIs are very difficult to treat, since biofilm structures are highly tolerant to antibiotics. Phages have been used widely to control a diversity of bacterial species, however, a limited number of phages for P. mirabilis have been isolated and studied. Here we report the isolation of two novel virulent phages, the podovirus vB_PmiP_5460 and the myovirus vB_PmiM_5461, which are able to target, respectively, 16 of the 26 and all the Proteus strains tested in this study. Both phages have been characterized thoroughly and sequencing data revealed no traces of genes associated with lysogeny. To further evaluate the phages' ability to prevent catheter's colonization by Proteus, the phages adherence to silicone surfaces was assessed. Further tests in phage-coated catheters using a dynamic biofilm model simulating CAUTIs, have shown a significant reduction of P. mirabilis biofilm formation up to 168 h of catheterization. These results highlight the potential usefulness of the two isolated phages for the prevention of surface colonization by this bacterium. PMID:27446059

  15. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  16. Development of a Phage Cocktail to Control Proteus mirabilis Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Luís D. R.; Veiga, Patrícia; Cerca, Nuno; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Almeida, Carina; Azeredo, Joana; Sillankorva, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterium that causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) due to its ability to colonize and form crystalline biofilms on the catheters surface. CAUTIs are very difficult to treat, since biofilm structures are highly tolerant to antibiotics. Phages have been used widely to control a diversity of bacterial species, however, a limited number of phages for P. mirabilis have been isolated and studied. Here we report the isolation of two novel virulent phages, the podovirus vB_PmiP_5460 and the myovirus vB_PmiM_5461, which are able to target, respectively, 16 of the 26 and all the Proteus strains tested in this study. Both phages have been characterized thoroughly and sequencing data revealed no traces of genes associated with lysogeny. To further evaluate the phages’ ability to prevent catheter’s colonization by Proteus, the phages adherence to silicone surfaces was assessed. Further tests in phage-coated catheters using a dynamic biofilm model simulating CAUTIs, have shown a significant reduction of P. mirabilis biofilm formation up to 168 h of catheterization. These results highlight the potential usefulness of the two isolated phages for the prevention of surface colonization by this bacterium. PMID:27446059

  17. Incidence and clinical implication of nosocomial infections associated with implantable biomaterials – catheters, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Guggenbichler, Josef Peter; Assadian, Ojan; Boeswald, Michael; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Health care associated infections, the fourth leading cause of disease in industrialised countries, are a major health issue. One part of this condition is based on the increasing insertion and implantation of prosthetic medical devices, since presence of a foreign body significantly reduces the number of bacteria required to produce infection. The most significant hospital-acquired infections, based on frequency and potential severity, are those related to procedures e.g. surgical site infections and medical devices, including urinary tract infection in catheterized patients, pneumonia in patients intubated on a ventilator and bacteraemia related to intravascular catheter use. At least half of all cases of nosocomial infections are associated with medical devices. Modern medical and surgical practices have increasingly utilized implantable medical devices of various kinds. Such devices may be utilized only short-time or intermittently, for months, years or permanently. They improve the therapeutic outcome, save human lives and greatly enhance the quality of life of these patients. However, plastic devices are easily colonized with bacteria and fungi, able to be colonized by microorganisms at a rate of up to 0.5 cm per hour. A thick biofilm is formed within 24 hours on the entire surface of these plastic devices once inoculated even with a small initial number of bacteria. The aim of the present work is to review the current literature on causes, frequency and preventive measures against infections associated with intravascular devices, catheter-related urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated infection, and infections of other implantable medical devices. Raising awareness for infection associated with implanted medical devices, teaching and training skills of staff, and establishment of surveillance systems monitoring device-related infection seem to be the principal strategies used to achieve reduction and prevention of such infections. The intelligent use

  18. Sjögren Syndrome-Associated Small Fiber Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sène, Damien; Cacoub, Patrice; Authier, François-Jérôme; Haroche, Julien; Créange, Alain; Saadoun, David; Amoura, Zahir; Guillausseau, Pierre-Jean; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We conducted the current study to analyze the clinical, immunologic, and neurophysiologic features of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS)-associated sensory small fiber neuropathies (SFNs). Forty consecutive pSS patients with SFN were included. SFN was defined by the presence of suggestive sensory painful symptoms with normal nerve conduction studies and abnormal neurophysiologic tests for small nerve fibers or a low intraepidermal nerve fiber density at skin biopsy. Included patients were compared to 100 pSS patients without peripheral neuropathy. SFN patients were mainly female (92.5%). Age at pSS diagnosis was 55.3 ± 13.1 years, and at SFN diagnosis, 58.9 ± 11.8 years, with a median time to SFN diagnosis after symptom onset of 3.4 years. Clinical symptoms included burning pains (90%), numbness (87.5%), tingling (82.5%), pins and needles (72.5%), electric discharges (70%), and allodynia (55%). Dysautonomia included vasomotor symptoms (66%) and hyperhidrosis (47%). Abnormal neurophysiologic tests included laser evoked potentials (97.5%), thermal quantitative sensory testing (67.5%), and sympathetic skin reflex (40%). A skin biopsy revealed low intraepidermal nerve fiber density in 76% of the 17 tested patients. Compared to the 100 pSS patients without peripheral neuropathy, the 40 pSS-SFN patients were older at pSS diagnosis (55.3 ± 13.1 vs. 49.5 ± 14.9 yr; p = 0.03), and more often had xerostomia (97.5% vs. 81%; p = 0.01) and arthralgia (82.5% vs. 65.0%; p = 0.04). Immunologically, they were characterized by a lower prevalence of serum B-cell activation markers, that is, antinuclear antibodies (65% vs. 85%; p = 0.01), anti-SSA (42.5% vs. 71%; p = 0.002), and anti-SSB (17.5% vs. 39%; p = 0.017); rheumatoid factor (32.5% vs. 66%; p = 0.0005); and hypergammaglobulinemia (35% vs. 62%; p = 0.005). In conclusion, we report the main features of SFN in patients with pSS, the first such study to our knowledge. Our results show that patients with pSS-associated

  19. Association between Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms and Risk for Upper Respiratory Tract Infection and Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Revai, Krystal; Patel, Janak A; Grady, James J; Nair, Sangeeta; Matalon, Reuben; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2009-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)−308 and interleukin 6 (IL-6)−174 polymorphisms and otitis susceptibility by history. Acute otitis media (AOM) occurs most commonly as a complication of upper respiratory tract infection (URI); it is not clear why some children develop AOM after URI and others do not. Our objective was to prospectively evaluate the association of TNFα−308 and IL-6−174 polymorphisms with URI and AOM development after URI. Design/Methods Children 6–35 mos. were prospectively followed for occurrences of URI and AOM. Blood or buccal mucosa samples were collected for DNA extraction to determine cytokine genotypes. Active and passive surveillance was used to capture all URI episodes during the one-year follow-up period in order to study the rate of AOM following URI. Data were analyzed using SAS and general estimating equations modeling. Results 242 children were followed over 2689 patient months and had DNA genotyped; 1235 URI episodes occurred, 392 (32%) were complicated by AOM. Children who had IL-6−174 polymorphism had a higher susceptibility to URI during the study period (IDR:1.24) and were more likely to meet established otitis susceptibility criteria (p<0.01). Presence of TNFα−308 polymorphism was associated with increased risk for AOM following an episode of URI (OR:1.43). Conclusions TNFα−308 and IL-6−174 genotypes are associated with increased risk for symptomatic URI and AOM following URI. Future studies may be designed to carefully look at the interaction of these genetic polymorphisms with modifiable environmental risk factors. PMID:19522649

  20. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    PubMed

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  1. Interaction between atypical microorganisms and E. coli in catheter-associated urinary tract biofilms.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Andreia S; Almeida, Carina; Melo, Luís F; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2014-09-01

    Most biofilms involved in catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are polymicrobial, with disease causing (eg Escherichia coli) and atypical microorganisms (eg Delftia tsuruhatensis) frequently inhabiting the same catheter. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge about the role of atypical microorganisms. Here, single and dual-species biofilms consisting of E. coli and atypical bacteria (D. tsuruhatensis and Achromobacter xylosoxidans), were evaluated. All species were good biofilm producers (Log 5.84-7.25 CFU cm(-2) at 192 h) in artificial urine. The ability of atypical species to form a biofilm appeared to be hampered by the presence of E. coli. Additionally, when E. coli was added to a pre-formed biofilm of the atypical species, it seemed to take advantage of the first colonizers to accelerate adhesion, even when added at lower concentrations. The results suggest a greater ability of E. coli to form biofilms in conditions mimicking the CAUTIs, whatever the pre-existing microbiota and the inoculum concentration. PMID:25184430

  2. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( < 0.001) if phytase was used and were greater ( < 0.05) in the diets based on corn and corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the effects of fiber and soybean oil on the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal. Fifty growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.36 ± 0.99 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 10 pigs per treatment. Two diets contained sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and either 0 or 8% of a synthetic source of fiber. Two additional diets contained fish meal, casein, corn, and either 1 or 7% soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was also used. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism crates and fecal samples were collected. Results indicated that fiber increased ( < 0.001) the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P, but the ATTD and STTD of Ca or the ATTD of P were not affected by soybean oil. In agreement with the results of Exp. 1, the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the corn-based diet were greater ( < 0.05) than those in the cornstarch

  3. Unnecessary Antibiotics for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections: Association With Care Setting and Patient Demographics

    PubMed Central

    Barlam, Tamar F.; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Cabral, Howard J.; Kazis, Lewis E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Up to 40% of antibiotics are prescribed unnecessarily for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). We sought to define factors associated with antibiotic overprescribing of ARTIs to inform efforts to improve practice. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of ARTI visits between 2006 and 2010 from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Those surveys provide a representative sample of US visits to community-based physicians and to hospital-based emergency departments (EDs) and outpatient practices. Patient factors (age, sex, race, underlying lung disease, tobacco use, insurance), physician specialty, practice demographics (percentage poverty, median household income, percentage with a Bachelor's Degree, urban-rural status, geographic region), and care setting (ED, hospital, or community-based practice) were evaluated as predictors of antibiotic overprescribing for ARTIs. Results. Hospital and community-practice visits had more antibiotic overprescribing than ED visits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64 and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–2.12 and OR = 1.59 and 95% CI, 1.26–2.01, respectively). Care setting had significant interactions with geographic region and urban and rural location. The quartile with the lowest percentage of college-educated residents had significantly greater overprescribing (adjusted OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07–1.86) than the highest quartile. Current tobacco users were overprescribed more often than nonsmokers (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.38–2.12). Patient age, insurance, and provider specialty were other significant predictors. Conclusions. Tobacco use and a lower grouped rate of college education were associated with overprescribing and may reflect poor health literacy. A focus on educating the patient may be an effective approach to stewardship. PMID:27006968

  4. Association Between Neonatal Urinary Tract Infection and Risk of Childhood Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Heng; Lin, Wei-Ching; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, I. Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current population-based study investigated the onset of neonatal urinary tract infection (UTI) and the associated risks of allergic rhinitis. From 2000 to 2005, 3285 children with neonatal UTI and 13,128 randomly selected controls were enrolled from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan and frequency matched by gender, urbanization of residential area, parental occupation, and baseline year. We compared the risk of allergic rhinitis between the non-UTI and UTI cohorts by performing multivariable Cox regression analysis. We observed a significant relationship between UTI and allergic rhinitis. This study examined 16,413 patients, among whom 3285 had UTI and 13,128 did not have UTI. The overall incidence rate ratio of allergic rhinitis was 1.41-fold higher in the UTI cohort than in the non-UTI cohort (100.2 vs 70.93 per 1000 person-y). After potential risk factors were adjusted for, the adjusted hazard ratio of allergic rhinitis was 1.32 (95% confidence interval = 1.23–1.41). Regardless of gender, the UTI cohort had a higher risk of allergic rhinitis than that of the non-UTI cohort. The patients with UTI in different follow-up durations were equally susceptible to developing allergic rhinitis compared with those without UTI, especially in follow-up durations shorter than 5 years. Patients with UTI and particular comorbidities such as infections and neonatal jaundice had a significantly increased risk of allergic rhinitis. UTI in newborns is significantly associated with the development of allergic rhinitis in childhood and might be a risk factor for subsequent childhood allergic rhinitis. PMID:26402832

  5. Association Between Neonatal Urinary Tract Infection and Risk of Childhood Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Heng; Lin, Wei-Ching; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, I-Ching; Lin, I Ching; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    The current population-based study investigated the onset of neonatal urinary tract infection (UTI) and the associated risks of allergic rhinitis. From 2000 to 2005, 3285 children with neonatal UTI and 13,128 randomly selected controls were enrolled from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan and frequency matched by gender, urbanization of residential area, parental occupation, and baseline year. We compared the risk of allergic rhinitis between the non-UTI and UTI cohorts by performing multivariable Cox regression analysis. We observed a significant relationship between UTI and allergic rhinitis. This study examined 16,413 patients, among whom 3285 had UTI and 13,128 did not have UTI. The overall incidence rate ratio of allergic rhinitis was 1.41-fold higher in the UTI cohort than in the non-UTI cohort (100.2 vs 70.93 per 1000 person-y). After potential risk factors were adjusted for, the adjusted hazard ratio of allergic rhinitis was 1.32 (95% confidence interval = 1.23-1.41). Regardless of gender, the UTI cohort had a higher risk of allergic rhinitis than that of the non-UTI cohort. The patients with UTI in different follow-up durations were equally susceptible to developing allergic rhinitis compared with those without UTI, especially in follow-up durations shorter than 5 years. Patients with UTI and particular comorbidities such as infections and neonatal jaundice had a significantly increased risk of allergic rhinitis. UTI in newborns is significantly associated with the development of allergic rhinitis in childhood and might be a risk factor for subsequent childhood allergic rhinitis.

  6. Breath analysis for noninvasively differentiating Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia from its respiratory tract colonization of ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianping; Zou, Yingchang; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Feng; Lang, Lang; Wang, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Ying, Kejing

    2016-06-01

    A number of multiresistant pathogens including Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) place a heavy burden on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients in intensive care units (ICU). It is critically important to differentiate between bacterial infection and colonization to avoid prescribing unnecessary antibiotics. Quantitative culture of lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens, however, requires invasive procedures. Nowadays, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been studied in vitro and in vivo to identify pathogen-derived biomarkers. Therefore, an exploratory pilot study was conceived for a proof of concept that the appearance and level of A. baumannii-derived metabolites might be correlated with the presence of the pathogen and its ecological niche (i.e. the infection and colonization states) in ICU ventilated patients. Twenty patients with A. baumannii VAP (infection group), 20 ventilated patients with LRT A. baumannii colonization (colonization group) and 20 ventilated patients with neurological disorders, but without pneumonia or A. baumannii colonization (control group) were enrolled in the in vivo pilot study. A clinical isolate of A. baumannii strains was used for the in vitro culture experiment. The adsorptive preconcentration (solid-phase microextraction fiber and Tenax(®) TA) and analysis technique of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were applied in the studies. Breath profiles could be visually differentiated between A. baumannii cultivation in vitro and culture medium, and among in vivo groups. In the in vitro experiment, nine compounds of interest (2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine, 1-undecene, isopentyl 3-methylbutanoate, decanal, 1,3-naphthalenediol, longifolene, tetradecane, iminodibenzyl and 3-methyl-indene) in the headspace were found to be possible A. baumannii derivations. While there were eight target VOCs (1-undecene, nonanal, decanal, 2,6,10-trimethyl-dodecane, 5-methyl-5-propyl-nonane, longifolene, tetradecane and 2-butyl-1-octanol

  7. Consumption of total fiber and types of fiber are associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and abdominal adiposity in US adults. NHANES 1999-2006.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this cross-sectional study, an inverse association was found between intakes of total dietary fiber and five types of fiber with Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and percent obese, and with increased waist circumference. Intake of vegetable fiber was not associated with any of the weight mea...

  8. Association between ambient temperature and lower urinary tract symptoms: a community-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Kim, Jae Heon; Won, Jong Ho; Song, Eun Seop; Song, Yun Seob

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the individual change of International prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) in each patient by temperature conditions. Materials and Methods The severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) was explored using the IPSS and OABSS questionnaires that were completed by 2.486 subjects (923 males and 1.563 females) aged 60 years and older. Korea Meteorological Administration data was used to determine daily average temperature and daily temperature difference on the interview dates at each site. Results The mean IPSS and mean age for males was 13.45±8.24 and 75.03±6.20 years, respectively. The mean OABSS and mean age for females was 4.41±3.10 and 73.74±6.03years, respectively. Daily average temperature and daily temperature difference ranged from-3.4-28.3oC and 2.2-16.9oC, respectively. Age was a significantly risk factor for IPSS, OABSS, and QoL (P<0.001, <0.001, and 0.005, respectively). After multiple regression analysis, daily average temperatures did not show a statistically significant change in IPSS and OABSS. Only daily temperature differences were associated with male LUTS. Conclusions While LUTS could be worsened in low temperatures generally, IPSS and OABSS were not affected by daily average temperature conditions. Daily temperature differences may be more influential than daily average temperatures. PMID:27286116

  9. A Systematic Review of Antibiotic Prescription Associated With Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Song, Xingyue; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Yawen; Gong, Yanhong; Yin, Xiaoxv; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Overuse of antibiotics among patients with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is a worldwide problem, and the problem is especially serious in developing countries, such as China. This systematic review is aimed at summarizing previous findings on outpatient prescriptions of antibiotics associated with URTI in China in order to help policymakers and the public understand and tackle the problem. We systematically searched and reviewed studies of antibiotic prescribing patterns for outpatients with URTI in China that were published in Chinese or English before December 31, 2014. The study quality was assessed, and the overall rates of URTI cases prescribed antibiotics were calculated by using random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity among studies. We included 45 eligible studies with a total of 52,072 URTI outpatients. The overall percentage of URTI outpatients prescribed antibiotics was 83.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80.6%–86.4%). Of the URTI outpatients prescribed antibiotics, 79.7% (95% CI: 72.8%–85.2%) were prescribed 1 antibiotic, 18.4% (95% CI: 13.6%–24.5%) prescribed 2 antibiotics, and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.7%–1.6%) prescribed 3 or more antibiotics. The rates of antibiotic prescription varied greatly across hospitals and showed a downward trend over time. An extremely high percentage of URTI patients in China were prescribed antibiotics and, the overuse is especially problematic in lower-level hospitals. Although there appears a downward trend, likely attributable to China's recent efforts in curbing antibiotic abuse, greater efforts are needed to promote the rational use of antibiotics. PMID:27175658

  10. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in intensive care units at a university hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Keten, Derya; Aktas, Firdevs; Guzel Tunccan, Ozlem; Dizbay, Murat; Kalkanci, Ayse; Biter, Gülsah; Keten, Hamit Sirri

    2014-01-01

    In this study, urinary catheter utilization rates, the causative agents for catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and their antimicrobial susceptibilities in intensive care units (ICUs) in 2009 were investigated at Gazi university hospital. We aimed to determine the causative agents and risk factors for CAUTIs, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of the pathogens; and also sensitivities of Candida spp. to antifungal agents with Microdilution and E-test. The most common etiological agents of CAUTIs were Candida spp. (34.7%). The most frequently isolated Candida spp. was C.albicans (52.4%). All C. albicans spp. were sensitive to fluconazole. Microdilution, used as a reference method to determine the sensitivity to antifungal agents, was compared with E test. E test was found to be sufficient to analyze sensitivity to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole, but inappropriate for itraconazole. E.coli and Klebsiella spp. were found to be causative agents for CAUTI in 20.6% and 9.9% of cases respectively. Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were isolated in 14% and 8.2% of the cases, respectively. All E.coli and Klebsiella strains were found sensitive to carbapenems. Carbapenem sensitivity was found in 47.1% and 30% of the cases infected with Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter strains, respectively. According to our results, fluconazole therapy seems to be an appropriate choice for the treatment of CAUTIs caused by C.albicans. Third and fourth generation cephalosporins should not be used for empirical treatment because of the high prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production among E.coli and Klebsiella isolates.

  11. A Systematic Review of Antibiotic Prescription Associated With Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Xingyue; Yang, Tingting; Chen, Yawen; Gong, Yanhong; Yin, Xiaoxv; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-05-01

    Overuse of antibiotics among patients with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is a worldwide problem, and the problem is especially serious in developing countries, such as China. This systematic review is aimed at summarizing previous findings on outpatient prescriptions of antibiotics associated with URTI in China in order to help policymakers and the public understand and tackle the problem.We systematically searched and reviewed studies of antibiotic prescribing patterns for outpatients with URTI in China that were published in Chinese or English before December 31, 2014. The study quality was assessed, and the overall rates of URTI cases prescribed antibiotics were calculated by using random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity among studies.We included 45 eligible studies with a total of 52,072 URTI outpatients. The overall percentage of URTI outpatients prescribed antibiotics was 83.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80.6%-86.4%). Of the URTI outpatients prescribed antibiotics, 79.7% (95% CI: 72.8%-85.2%) were prescribed 1 antibiotic, 18.4% (95% CI: 13.6%-24.5%) prescribed 2 antibiotics, and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.7%-1.6%) prescribed 3 or more antibiotics. The rates of antibiotic prescription varied greatly across hospitals and showed a downward trend over time.An extremely high percentage of URTI patients in China were prescribed antibiotics and, the overuse is especially problematic in lower-level hospitals. Although there appears a downward trend, likely attributable to China's recent efforts in curbing antibiotic abuse, greater efforts are needed to promote the rational use of antibiotics. PMID:27175658

  12. Novel, host-restricted genotypes of Bordetella bronchiseptica associated with phocine respiratory tract isolates.

    PubMed

    Register, Karen B; Ivanov, Yury V; Harvill, Eric T; Davison, Nick; Foster, Geoffrey

    2015-03-01

    During a succession of phocine morbillivirus outbreaks spanning the past 25 years, Bordetella bronchiseptica was identified as a frequent secondary invader and cause of death. The goal of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity and the molecular basis for host specificity among seal isolates from these outbreaks. MLST and PvuII ribotyping of 54 isolates from Scottish, English or Danish coasts of the Atlantic or North Sea revealed a single, host-restricted genotype. A single, novel genotype, unique from that of the Atlantic and North Sea isolates, was found in isolates from an outbreak in the Caspian Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based either on MLST sequence, ribotype patterns or genome-wide SNPs consistently placed both seal-specific genotypes within the same major clade but indicates a distinct evolutionary history for each. An additional isolate from the intestinal tract of a seal on the south-west coast of England has a genotype otherwise found in rabbit, guinea pig and pig isolates. To investigate the molecular basis for host specificity, DNA and predicted protein sequences of virulence genes that mediate host interactions were used in comparisons between a North Sea isolate, a Caspian Sea isolate and each of their closest relatives as inferred from genome-wide SNP analysis. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, fewer nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were found in comparisons of the two seal isolates than in comparisons with closely related strains. These data indicate isolates of B. bronchiseptica associated with respiratory disease in seals comprise unique, host-adapted and highly clonal populations. PMID:25627438

  13. Type 1 Fimbriae Contribute to Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Maierl, Mario; Jörger, Michael; Krause, Robert; Berger, Daniela; Haid, Andrea; Tesic, Dijana; Zechner, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation on catheters is thought to contribute to persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), which represent the most frequent nosocomial infections. Knowledge of genetic factors for catheter colonization is limited, since their role has not been assessed using physicochemical conditions prevailing in a catheterized human bladder. The current study aimed to combine data from a dynamic catheterized bladder model in vitro with in vivo expression analysis for understanding molecular factors relevant for CAUTI caused by Escherichia coli. By application of the in vitro model that mirrors the physicochemical environment during human infection, we found that an E. coli K-12 mutant defective in type 1 fimbriae, but not isogenic mutants lacking flagella or antigen 43, was outcompeted by the wild-type strain during prolonged catheter colonization. The importance of type 1 fimbriae for catheter colonization was verified using a fimA mutant of uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073 with human and artificial urine. Orientation of the invertible element (IE) controlling type 1 fimbrial expression in bacterial populations harvested from the colonized catheterized bladder in vitro suggested that the vast majority of catheter-colonizing cells (up to 88%) express type 1 fimbriae. Analysis of IE orientation in E. coli populations harvested from patient catheters revealed that a median level of ∼73% of cells from nine samples have switched on type 1 fimbrial expression. This study supports the utility of the dynamic catheterized bladder model for analyzing catheter colonization factors and highlights a role for type 1 fimbriae during CAUTI. PMID:24336940

  14. Azithromycin and ciprofloxacin: a possible synergistic combination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Saini, Hina; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation is becoming a predominant feature in nosocomial infections. Since biofilms are increasingly resistant to antibiotics, making monotherapy ineffective, combination therapy appears to be relevant for their eradication. This study assessed the potential of azithromycin (AZM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) alone and in combination in vitro and in a mouse model of urinary tract infection (UTI) induced with biofilm cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of antibiotics alone and in combination were assessed using the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), time-kill analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In vivo efficacy was evaluated in a UTI model by quantitation of bacterial burden in kidney and bladder tissue, renal histopathology, pathology index factors (MDA and NO), and pro-inflammatory (MIP-2 and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines. MICs of AZM and CIP for strain PAO1 were 256 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively; MBECs were 4096 and 1024 μg/mL. Synergistic interaction was observed between AZM and CIP both against planktonic and biofilm bacteria (FICI<0.5). The combination was also able to inhibit biofilm formation (at MIC levels) as observed with CLSM. Oral therapy with AZM (500 mg/kg) and CIP (30 mg/kg) combination in mice for 4 days showed accelerated clearance of bacteria from kidney and bladder tissue, improved renal histopathology, decreased levels of MDA and NO, significant decline in MIP-2 and IL-6, and increased IL-10 in the kidney (P<0.0001). We conclude that AZM+CIP therapy holds promise against biofilm-associated UTIs as it confers antibacterial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25604277

  15. Type 1 fimbriae contribute to catheter-associated urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Andreas; Maierl, Mario; Jörger, Michael; Krause, Robert; Berger, Daniela; Haid, Andrea; Tesic, Dijana; Zechner, Ellen L

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm formation on catheters is thought to contribute to persistence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), which represent the most frequent nosocomial infections. Knowledge of genetic factors for catheter colonization is limited, since their role has not been assessed using physicochemical conditions prevailing in a catheterized human bladder. The current study aimed to combine data from a dynamic catheterized bladder model in vitro with in vivo expression analysis for understanding molecular factors relevant for CAUTI caused by Escherichia coli. By application of the in vitro model that mirrors the physicochemical environment during human infection, we found that an E. coli K-12 mutant defective in type 1 fimbriae, but not isogenic mutants lacking flagella or antigen 43, was outcompeted by the wild-type strain during prolonged catheter colonization. The importance of type 1 fimbriae for catheter colonization was verified using a fimA mutant of uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073 with human and artificial urine. Orientation of the invertible element (IE) controlling type 1 fimbrial expression in bacterial populations harvested from the colonized catheterized bladder in vitro suggested that the vast majority of catheter-colonizing cells (up to 88%) express type 1 fimbriae. Analysis of IE orientation in E. coli populations harvested from patient catheters revealed that a median level of ∼73% of cells from nine samples have switched on type 1 fimbrial expression. This study supports the utility of the dynamic catheterized bladder model for analyzing catheter colonization factors and highlights a role for type 1 fimbriae during CAUTI.

  16. Novel, host-restricted genotypes of Bordetella bronchiseptica associated with phocine respiratory tract isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Yury V.; Harvill, Eric T.; Davison, Nick; Foster, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    During a succession of phocine morbillivirus outbreaks spanning the past 25 years, Bordetella bronchiseptica was identified as a frequent secondary invader and cause of death. The goal of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity and the molecular basis for host specificity among seal isolates from these outbreaks. MLST and PvuII ribotyping of 54 isolates from Scottish, English or Danish coasts of the Atlantic or North Sea revealed a single, host-restricted genotype. A single, novel genotype, unique from that of the Atlantic and North Sea isolates, was found in isolates from an outbreak in the Caspian Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based either on MLST sequence, ribotype patterns or genome-wide SNPs consistently placed both seal-specific genotypes within the same major clade but indicates a distinct evolutionary history for each. An additional isolate from the intestinal tract of a seal on the south-west coast of England has a genotype otherwise found in rabbit, guinea pig and pig isolates. To investigate the molecular basis for host specificity, DNA and predicted protein sequences of virulence genes that mediate host interactions were used in comparisons between a North Sea isolate, a Caspian Sea isolate and each of their closest relatives as inferred from genome-wide SNP analysis. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, fewer nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were found in comparisons of the two seal isolates than in comparisons with closely related strains. These data indicate isolates of B. bronchiseptica associated with respiratory disease in seals comprise unique, host-adapted and highly clonal populations. PMID:25627438

  17. Novel, host-restricted genotypes of Bordetella bronchiseptica associated with phocine respiratory tract isolates.

    PubMed

    Register, Karen B; Ivanov, Yury V; Harvill, Eric T; Davison, Nick; Foster, Geoffrey

    2015-03-01

    During a succession of phocine morbillivirus outbreaks spanning the past 25 years, Bordetella bronchiseptica was identified as a frequent secondary invader and cause of death. The goal of this study was to evaluate genetic diversity and the molecular basis for host specificity among seal isolates from these outbreaks. MLST and PvuII ribotyping of 54 isolates from Scottish, English or Danish coasts of the Atlantic or North Sea revealed a single, host-restricted genotype. A single, novel genotype, unique from that of the Atlantic and North Sea isolates, was found in isolates from an outbreak in the Caspian Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based either on MLST sequence, ribotype patterns or genome-wide SNPs consistently placed both seal-specific genotypes within the same major clade but indicates a distinct evolutionary history for each. An additional isolate from the intestinal tract of a seal on the south-west coast of England has a genotype otherwise found in rabbit, guinea pig and pig isolates. To investigate the molecular basis for host specificity, DNA and predicted protein sequences of virulence genes that mediate host interactions were used in comparisons between a North Sea isolate, a Caspian Sea isolate and each of their closest relatives as inferred from genome-wide SNP analysis. Despite their phylogenetic divergence, fewer nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were found in comparisons of the two seal isolates than in comparisons with closely related strains. These data indicate isolates of B. bronchiseptica associated with respiratory disease in seals comprise unique, host-adapted and highly clonal populations.

  18. The Gastrointestinal Tract as a Potential Infection Reservoir of Digital Dermatitis-Associated Treponemes in Beef Cattle and Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S. D.; Duncan, J. S.; Grove-White, D. H.; Angell, J. W.; Evans, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an important cause of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. It has now been reported in beef cattle and also sheep (contagious ovine digital dermatitis [CODD]). Three Treponema phylogroups are consistently isolated from lesions, Treponema medium-like, Treponema phagedenis-like, and Treponema pedis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract and feces are suggested sites of treponemal infection in dairy cattle; however, isolation of DD-associated treponemes from these areas has previously failed. This study surveyed gingival tissues, rectal tissues, and feces of beef cattle and sheep for the molecular presence (PCR) and isolation of the three cultivable DD-treponeme phylogroups. Of the sheep gingival (n = 40) and rectal (n = 40) tissues, 1/40 gingival tissues was positive for DD-associated treponemes (T. pedis), as were 3/40 rectal tissues (one containing T. medium-like and two containing T. pedis). No DD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef cattle rectal tissues (n = 40); however, 4/40 beef gingival tissues were positive for DD-associated treponemes (all containing T. phagedenis-like). A T. phagedenis-like DD-associated treponeme was isolated from the rectal tissue of a CODD symptomatic sheep. Beef cattle (n = 41) and sheep (n = 79) feces failed to amplify DD-associated Treponema DNA. Twenty-two treponemes were isolated from sheep feces; however, upon phylogenetic analysis, these clustered with the considered nonpathogenic treponemes. This study detected DD-associated treponemes in the GI tract tissues of sheep and beef cattle and successfully isolated a DD-associated treponeme from ruminant rectal tissue. This gives evidence that the GI tract is an important infection reservoir of DD-associated treponemes in multiple DD-infected species. PMID:26276110

  19. Changes in perceptual speed and white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract are associated in very old age.

    PubMed

    Lövdén, Martin; Köhncke, Ylva; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Salami, Alireza; Li, Tie-Qiang; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2014-11-15

    The integrity of the brain's white matter is important for neural processing and displays age-related differences, but the contribution of changes in white matter to cognitive aging is unclear. We used latent change modeling to investigate this issue in a sample of very old adults (aged 81-103 years) assessed twice with a retest interval of 2.3 years. Using diffusion-tensor imaging, we probed white matter microstructure by quantifying mean fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of six major white matter tracts. Measures of perceptual speed, episodic memory, letter fluency, category fluency, and semantic memory were collected. Across time, alterations of white matter microstructure in the corticospinal tract were associated with decreases of perceptual speed. This association remained significant after statistically controlling for changes in white matter microstructure in the entire brain, in the other demarcated tracts, and in the other cognitive abilities. Changes in brain volume also did not account for the association. We conclude that white matter microstructure is a potent correlate of changes in sensorimotor aspects of behavior in very old age, but that it is unclear whether its impact extends to higher-order cognition.

  20. Altered Cortical Thickness and Tract Integrity of the Mirror Neuron System and Associated Social Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Chien, Hsiang-Yun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies using neural activity recording and neuroimaging techniques have reported functional deficits in the mirror neuron system (MNS) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, a few studies focusing on gray and white matter structures of the MNS have yielded inconsistent results. The current study recruited adolescents and young adults with ASD (aged 15-26 years) and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 14-25 years). The cortical thickness (CT) and microstructural integrity of the tracts connecting the regions forming the classical MNS were investigated. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and diffusion spectrum imaging were performed to quantify the CT and tract integrity, respectively. The structural covariance of the CT of the MNS regions revealed a weaker coordination of the MNS network in ASD. A strong correlation was found between the integrity of the right frontoparietal tracts and the social communication subscores measured by the Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire. The results showed that there were no significant mean differences in the CTs and tract integrity between the ASD and TD groups, but revealed a moderate or even reverse age effect on the frontal MNS structures in ASD. In conclusion, aberrant structural coordination may be an underlying factor affecting the function of the MNS in ASD patients. The association between the right frontoparietal tracts and social communication performance implies a neural correlate of communication processing in the autistic brain. This study provides evidence of abnormal MNS structures and their influence on social communication in individuals with ASD.

  1. Associations among digestive tract lesions and abnormal serum chemistries in cull dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All animals accrue tissue damage with age, but types and prevalence of damage are not known. Tissue lesions could signal impaired organ function which could affect performance. The study objective was to assess prevalence of microscopic lesions in digestive tracts of cull dairy cows, and determine a...

  2. Pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis and drugs used in associated digestive tract diseases

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Adriana; Aragão, Giselle Gonçalves; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) causes chronic infections in the respiratory tract and alters the digestive tract. This paper reviews the most important aspects of drug treatment and changes in the digestive tract of patients with CF. This is a review of the literature, emphasizing the discoveries made within the last 15 years by analyzing scientific papers published in journals indexed in the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Sciences Information, United States National Library of Medicine and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online databases, both in English and Portuguese, using the key words: cystic fibrosis, medication, therapeutic, absorption, digestion. Randomized, observational, experimental, and epidemiological clinical studies were selected, among others, with statistical significance of 5%. This review evaluates the changes found in the digestive tract of CF patients including pancreatic insufficiency, constipation and liver diseases. Changes in nutritional status are also described. Clinical treatment, nutritional supplementation and drug management were classified in this review as essential to the quality of life of CF patients, and became available through public policies for monitoring and treating CF. The information gathered on CF and a multi professional approach to the disease is essential in the treatment of these patients. PMID:24379572

  3. Functional modifications associated with gastrointestinal tract organogenesis during metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flatfish metamorphosis is a hormone regulated post-embryonic developmental event that transforms a symmetric larva into an asymmetric juvenile. In altricial-gastric teleost fish, differentiation of the stomach takes place after the onset of first feeding, and during metamorphosis dramatic molecular and morphological modifications of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract occur. Here we present the functional ontogeny of the developing GI-tract from an integrative perspective in the pleuronectiforme Atlantic halibut, and test the hypothesis that the multiple functions of the teleost stomach develop synchronously during metamorphosis. Results Onset of gastric function was determined with several approaches (anatomical, biochemical, molecular and in vivo observations). In vivo pH analysis in the GI-tract lumen combined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) of α and β subunits of the gastric proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) and pepsinogen A2 indicated that gastric proteolytic capacity is established during the climax of metamorphosis. Transcript abundance of ghrelin, a putative orexigenic signalling molecule produced in the developing stomach, correlated (p < 0.05) with the emergence of gastric proteolytic activity, suggesting that the stomach’s role in appetite regulation occurs simultaneously with the establishment of proteolytic function. A 3D models series of the GI-tract development indicated a functional pyloric sphincter prior to first feeding. Observations of fed larvae in vivo confirmed that stomach reservoir function was established before metamorphosis, and was thus independent of this event. Mechanical breakdown of food and transportation of chyme through the GI-tract was observed in vivo and resulted from phasic and propagating contractions established well before metamorphosis. The number of contractions in the midgut decreased at metamorphic climax synchronously with establishment of the stomach’s proteolytic capacity and its increased peristaltic

  4. Imported Case of Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Associated with a Member of Species Nelson Bay Orthoreovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kouji; Singh, Harpal; Himeji, Daisuke; Kikuchi, Ikuo; Ueda, Akira; Yamamoto, Seigo; Miura, Miho; Shioyama, Yoko; Kawano, Kimiko; Nagaishi, Tokiko; Saito, Minako; Minomo, Masumi; Iwamoto, Naoyasu; Hidaka, Yoshio; Sohma, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kanai, Yuta; Kawagishi, Takehiro; Nagata, Noriyo; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Tani, Hideki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuma, Aiko; Shimojima, Masayuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Odagiri, Takato; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    A Japanese man suffered from acute respiratory tract infection after returning to Japan from Bali, Indonesia in 2007. Miyazaki-Bali/2007, a strain of the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus, was isolated from the patient's throat swab using Vero cells, in which syncytium formation was observed. This is the sixth report describing a patient with respiratory tract infection caused by an orthoreovirus classified to the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus. Given the possibility that all of the patients were infected in Malaysia and Indonesia, prospective surveillance on orthoreovirus infections should be carried out in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, contact surveillance study suggests that the risk of human-to-human infection of the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus would seem to be low. PMID:24667794

  5. Sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract and its association with lupus pernio.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, E; Mills, R G; Jash, D K; Mackinnon, D M; Carstairs, L S; James, D G

    1976-01-01

    In a series of 34 patients with sarcoidosis affecting the upper respiratory tract and nose, 26 had lupus pernio (LP) and 17 had sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract (SURT). In nine patients these features coexisted. A patient presenting with SURT carried a 50% risk of developing LP although one feature could be present without the other. Both were disorders of women of the child-bearing years of life. SURT, like LP, was an indicator of chronic fibrotic sarcoidosis, developing insidiously and progressing indolently over the years. It was complicated by ulceration, septal perforation, and LP. Three patients had nasal septal perforations, in two instances following submucous resection. This operation is contraindicated in patients with active sarcoidosis, particularly when granulomas are found on nasal biopsy. The Kveim-Siltzbach skin test was positive in all patients with SURT, making it invaluable in the differential diagnosis of granuloma of the nasal cavity. PMID:1013937

  6. FRATS: Functional Regression Analysis of DTI Tract Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongtu; Styner, Martin; Tang, Niansheng; Liu, Zhexing; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides important information on the structure of white matter fiber bundles as well as detailed tissue properties along these fiber bundles in vivo. This paper presents a functional regression framework, called FRATS, for the analysis of multiple diffusion properties along fiber bundle as functions in an infinite dimensional space and their association with a set of covariates of interest, such as age, diagnostic status and gender, in real applications. The functional regression framework consists of four integrated components: the local polynomial kernel method for smoothing multiple diffusion properties along individual fiber bundles, a functional linear model for characterizing the association between fiber bundle diffusion properties and a set of covariates, a global test statistic for testing hypotheses of interest, and a resampling method for approximating the p-value of the global test statistic. The proposed methodology is applied to characterizing the development of five diffusion properties including fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and the three eigenvalues of diffusion tensor along the splenium of the corpus callosum tract and the right internal capsule tract in a clinical study of neurodevelopment. Significant age and gestational age effects on the five diffusion properties were found in both tracts. The resulting analysis pipeline can be used for understanding normal brain development, the neural bases of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the joint effects of environmental and genetic factors on white matter fiber bundles. PMID:20335089

  7. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission. PMID:26979730

  8. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission.

  9. A Metaproteomics Approach to Elucidate Host and Pathogen Protein Expression during Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTIs)

    PubMed Central

    Lassek, Christian; Burghartz, Melanie; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Otto, Andreas; Hentschker, Christian; Fuchs, Stephan; Bernhardt, Jörg; Jauregui, Ruy; Neubauer, Rüdiger; Becher, Dörte; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Riedel, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Long-term catheterization inevitably leads to a catheter-associated bacteriuria caused by multispecies bacterial biofilms growing on and in the catheters. The overall goal of the presented study was (1) to unravel bacterial community structure and function of such a uropathogenic biofilm and (2) to elucidate the interplay between bacterial virulence and the human immune system within the urine. To this end, a metaproteomics approach combined with in vitro proteomics analyses was employed to investigate both, the pro- and eukaryotic protein inventory. Our proteome analyses demonstrated that the biofilm of the investigated catheter is dominated by three bacterial species, that is, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, and Bacteroides sp., and identified iron limitation as one of the major challenges in the bladder environment. In vitro proteome analysis of P. aeruginosa and M. morganii isolated from the biofilm revealed that these opportunistic pathogens are able to overcome iron restriction via the production of siderophores and high expression of corresponding receptors. Notably, a comparison of in vivo and in vitro protein profiles of P. aeruginosa and M. morganii also indicated that the bacteria employ different strategies to adapt to the urinary tract. Although P. aeruginosa seems to express secreted and surface-exposed proteases to escape the human innate immune system and metabolizes amino acids, M. morganii is able to take up sugars and to degrade urea. Most interestingly, a comparison of urine protein profiles of three long-term catheterized patients and three healthy control persons demonstrated the elevated level of proteins associated with neutrophils, macrophages, and the complement system in the patient's urine, which might point to a specific activation of the innate immune system in response to biofilm-associated urinary tract infections. We thus hypothesize that the often asymptomatic nature of catheter-associated urinary tract infections

  10. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant infer that fiber cell wall development is associated with stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton fiber maturity is an important factor for determining the commercial value of cotton. How fiber cell wall development affects fiber maturity is not well understood. A comparison of fiber cross-sections showed that an immature fiber (im) mutant had lower fiber maturity than its near isogenic wild type, Texas marker-1 (TM-1). The availability of the im mutant and TM-1 provides a unique way to determine molecular mechanisms regulating cotton fiber maturity. Results Transcriptome analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the im mutant fibers grown under normal stress conditions were similar to those in wild type cotton fibers grown under severe stress conditions. The majority of these DEGs in the im mutant were related to stress responses and cellular respiration. Stress is known to reduce the activity of a classical respiration pathway responsible for energy production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Both energy productions and ROS levels in the im mutant fibers are expected to be reduced if the im mutant is associated with stress responses. In accord with the prediction, the transcriptome profiles of the im mutant showed the same alteration of transcriptional regulation that happened in energy deprived plants in which expressions of genes associated with cell growth processes were reduced whereas expressions of genes associated with recycling and transporting processes were elevated. We confirmed that ROS production in developing fibers from the im mutant was lower than that from the wild type. The lower production of ROS in the im mutant fibers might result from the elevated levels of alternative respiration induced by stress. Conclusion The low degree of fiber cell wall thickness of the im mutant fibers is associated with deregulation of the genes involved in stress responses and cellular respiration. The reduction of ROS levels and up-regulation of the genes involved in alternative respirations suggest that

  11. Neuronal Nogo-A in New-born Retinal Ganglion Cells: Implication for the Formation of the Age-related Fiber Order in the Optic Tract.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongqiang; Liu, Huaicun; Chan, Sun-On; Wang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Nogo-A is highly expressed in oligodendrocytes in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Recently it was found that Nogo-A is also expressed in some neuronal types during development. Here, we examined the expression pattern of Nogo-A in both the retina and optic tract (OT) of mouse embryos from E12 to E15. After perturbation of its function in the OT for 5 hr in the brain slice culture system using a Nogo-A specific antibody or antagonist of its receptor (NEP1-40), the optic nerve fibers and growth cones were traced with DiI. We showed that most Tuj-1 positive new-born neurons at E12 were Nogo-A positive. At E15, retinal neurons reduced the Nogo-A expression. It was worth noting that some projecting axons expressed Nogo-A along the retinofugal pathway. On the basis of their specific locations within the superficial half of the OT and the colocalization with GAP-43 (a marker for the newly born growth cones and axons), we concluded that those Nogo-A positive axons were the newly arrived retinal fibers. Blocking the function of Nogo-A with Nogo-A antibody or NEP1-40 resulted in the shift of DiI labeled axons and growth cones from the superficial half to the whole depth of the OT. These results indicate that Nogo-A in the newly born retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons are involved in sorting out the newly arrived axons to the subpial region of the OT. Anat Rec, 299:1027-1036, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27273864

  12. Polyglucosan bodies in intramuscular nerves: Association with muscle fiber denervation atrophy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Qiang; Phan, Cecile; Zochodne, Douglas; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-01-15

    Polyglucosan bodies (PB) in the intramuscular nerves have been rarely studied, and their presence particularly in subjects without neurologic disorders has been thought to be age-related. We examined, by using light and electron microscopy, 204 consecutive muscle biopsies. PB was found in 5 quadriceps intramuscular nerves (2.45% of all biopsies). All 5 quadriceps containing PB exhibited varying degrees of muscle fiber denervation atrophy with or without fiber type grouping. These quadriceps with PB, compared with the other 119 quadriceps without PB, showed a significantly greater association with muscle fiber denervation atrophy (5/5 versus 55/119; p=0.02, by two-tailed Fisher's exact test), for which aging is not confounding. Electron microscopy identified PB in intramuscular nerve myelinated fibers along with ongoing degenerative changes. Our observation suggests that PB in intramuscular nerves may be pathologic and associated with muscle fiber denervation atrophy.

  13. Mutations in SOX17 are Associated with Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Gimelli, Stefania; Caridi, Gianluca; Beri, Silvana; McCracken, Kyle; Bocciardi, Renata; Zordan, Paola; Dagnino, Monica; Fiorio, Patrizia; Murer, Luisa; Benetti, Elisa; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Giorda, Roberto; Wells, James M; Gimelli, Giorgio; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2010-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT) represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in children. Several factors (PAX, SOX,WNT, RET, GDFN, and others) play critical roles during the differentiation process that leads to the formation of nephron epithelia. We have identified mutations in SOX17, an HMG-box transcription factor and Wnt signaling antagonist, in eight patients with CAKUT (seven vesico-ureteric reflux, one pelvic obstruction). One mutation, c.775T>A (p.Y259N), recurred in six patients. Four cases derived from two small families; renal scars with urinary infection represented the main symptom at presentation in all but two patients. Transfection studies indicated a 5–10-fold increase in the levels of the mutant protein relative to wild-type SOX17 in transfected kidney cells. Moreover we observed a corresponding increase in the ability of SOX17 p.Y259N to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin transcriptional activity, which is known to regulate multiple stages of kidney and urinary tract development. In conclusion, SOX17 p.Y259N mutation is recurrent in patients with CAKUT. Our data shows that this mutation correlates with an inappropriate accumulation of SOX17-p.Y259N protein and inhibition of the β-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway. These data indicate a role of SOX17 in human kidney and urinary tract development and implicate the SOX17–p.Y259N mutation as a causative factor in CAKUT. Hum Mutat 31:1352–1359, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20960469

  14. Age-associated and tissue-specific expression of osteopontin in male Hu sheep reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Min; Lan, Shan; Jia, Ruo-Xin; Yan, Guang-Yao; Wang, Li-Zhong; Nie, Hai-Ttao; Lei, Zhi-Hai; Wang, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is indispensable in mammalian reproduction, but the role of OPN in male reproductive tract and fertility remains unclear. The objective of this study is to elucidate the function of OPN by unveiling the localization and expression of OPN in the reproductive tract (testis, epididymis, and ductus deferens) of male Hu sheep in different ages (10-days, 4-months, and 8-months). To accomplish this, the localization, mRNA and protein expression patterns of OPN in all samples were investigated. Immune staining showed that OPN was present in the testicular interstitium of prepubertal Hu sheep testis (10-days and 4-months group), while it was immunostained in acrosomes of spermatids nearby adluminal compartment of seminiferous tubules in sexual maturity Hu sheep testis (8-months group). The localization of OPN in epididymis gradually changed from the loose connective tissue to the apical region of principal cells (pseudostratified columnar epithelium) with growing (10-days to 8-months). In addition, increase trend was observed in the mRNA expression levels of OPN with growing in the same reproductive tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, two different OPN isoforms of 30kDa and 34kDa were detected in the reproductive tract of male Hu sheep by western blot. Immunofluorescence detection showed that OPN was localized in the cauda epididymal spermatozoa. These results suggested that the expression of OPN might be closely related to spermatogenesis and spermatozoa function in Hu sheep. This will be helpful for us to understand how OPN regulate the high reproductive capacity in Hu sheep. PMID:27514848

  15. Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... broccoli, spinach, and artichokes legumes (split peas, soy, lentils, etc.) almonds Look for the fiber content of ... salsa, taco sauce, and cheese for dinner. Add lentils or whole-grain barley to your favorite soups. ...

  16. Association between green tea/coffee consumption and biliary tract cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ishihara, Junko; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Green tea and coffee consumption may decrease the risk of some types of cancers. However, their effects on biliary tract cancer (BTC) have been poorly understood. In this population-based prospective cohort study in Japan, we investigated the association of green tea (total green tea, Sencha, and Bancha/Genmaicha) and coffee consumption with the risk for BTC and its subtypes, gallbladder cancer, and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 89 555 people aged 45-74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999 and followed up for 1 138 623 person-years until 2010, during which 284 cases of BTC were identified. Consumption of >720 mL/day green tea was significantly associated with decreased risk compared with consumption of ≤120 mL/day (hazard ratio = 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.97]), and a non-significant trend of decreased risk associated with increased consumption was observed (P-trend = 0.095). In the analysis according to the location of the primary tumor, consuming >120 mL green tea tended to be associated with decreased risk of gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. When Sencha and Bancha/Genmaicha were analyzed separately, we observed a non-significant trend of decreased risk of BTC associated with Sencha but no association with Bancha/Genmaicha. For coffee, there was no clear association with biliary tract, gallbladder, or extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Our findings suggest that high green tea consumption may lower the risk of BTC, and the effect may be attributable to Sencha consumption.

  17. Association between green tea/coffee consumption and biliary tract cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ishihara, Junko; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Green tea and coffee consumption may decrease the risk of some types of cancers. However, their effects on biliary tract cancer (BTC) have been poorly understood. In this population-based prospective cohort study in Japan, we investigated the association of green tea (total green tea, Sencha, and Bancha/Genmaicha) and coffee consumption with the risk for BTC and its subtypes, gallbladder cancer, and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 89 555 people aged 45-74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999 and followed up for 1 138 623 person-years until 2010, during which 284 cases of BTC were identified. Consumption of >720 mL/day green tea was significantly associated with decreased risk compared with consumption of ≤120 mL/day (hazard ratio = 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.97]), and a non-significant trend of decreased risk associated with increased consumption was observed (P-trend = 0.095). In the analysis according to the location of the primary tumor, consuming >120 mL green tea tended to be associated with decreased risk of gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. When Sencha and Bancha/Genmaicha were analyzed separately, we observed a non-significant trend of decreased risk of BTC associated with Sencha but no association with Bancha/Genmaicha. For coffee, there was no clear association with biliary tract, gallbladder, or extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Our findings suggest that high green tea consumption may lower the risk of BTC, and the effect may be attributable to Sencha consumption. PMID:26530716

  18. Synapsin I-like immunoreactivity in nerve fibers associated with lingual taste buds of the rat.

    PubMed

    Finger, T E; Womble, M; Kinnamon, J C; Ueda, T

    1990-02-01

    Immunoreactivity to synapsin I, a neuronal phosphoprotein, was localized in free-floating tissue sections prepared from lingual tissue of rats. Many nerve fibers within the tissue exhibited clear immunoreactivity including motor endplates on striated muscle, autonomic fibers innervating blood vessels or glands, and sensory fibers innervating muscles or the lingual epithelium including taste buds. Numerous immunoreactive fibers occurred within each taste bud, with fewer, fine fibers being dispersed in the epithelium between taste buds. The majority of the intragemmal immunoreactive fibers extended throughout the taste buds most of the distance outward from the basal lamina toward the surface of the epithelium. Fine, perigemmal fibers reached nearly to the epithelial surface. Ultrastructural analysis of the immunoreactive sensory fibers revealed that synapsin I-immunoreactivity occurred diffusely throughout the cytoplasm, and heavily in association with microvesicles. The synaptic vesicles at the taste receptor cell-to-afferent fiber synapse were, however, not immunoreactive for synapsin I, although these vesicles fall into the size class shown to be immunoreactive in other systems. This absence of synapsin I may be a common property of vesicles in axonless short receptor cells. PMID:2108194

  19. Lignocellulolytic enzymes and bacteria associated with the digestive tracts of Stenochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Koroiva, R; Souza, C W O; Toyama, D; Henrique-Silva, F; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the digestive activity of the enzymes that digest cellulose and hemicellulose and the bacterial community that is capable of hydrolyzing wood compounds in the digestive tracts of Stenochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae, which are miners of decomposing submerged tree and bush branches. Based on quantification of reducing sugars, these larvae have a limited capacity for cellulose degradation but a good capacity for xylan hydrolysis. We isolated 31 types of colonies from two larval morphotypes, of which 19 tested positive for the capacity to hydrolyze at least one of the four substrates that were used as the main carbon source in the culture media. Their woody compound degradation capacity was assessed using colorimetric tests. The bacteria were identified by the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. None of the bacteria were capable of degrading lignin. The genus Pseudomonas had the greatest species richness; Bacillus spp exhibited the greatest capacity for degrading the different substrates, and Sphingobium was found in both morphotypes. Microorganisms participate in the degradation of wood consumed by Stenochironomus larvae. This is the first report of lignocellulolytic bacteria and enzymes in the digestive tracts of mining chironomids.

  20. Multivariate varying coefficient models for DTI tract statistics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongtu; Styner, Martin; Li, Yimei; Kong, Linglong; Shi, Yundi; Lin, Weili; Coe, Christopher; Gilmore, John H

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is important for characterizing the structure of white matter fiber bundles as well as detailed tissue properties along these fiber bundles in vivo. There has been extensive interest in the analysis of diffusion properties measured along fiber tracts as a function of age, diagnostic status, and gender, while controlling for other clinical variables. However, the existing methods have several limitations including the independent analysis of diffusion properties, a lack of method for accounting for multiple covariates, and a lack of formal statistical inference, such as estimation theory and hypothesis testing. This paper presents a statistical framework, called VCMTS, to specifically address these limitations. The VCMTS framework consists of four integrated components: a varying coefficient model for characterizing the association between fiber bundle diffusion properties and a set of covariates, the local polynomial kernel method for estimating smoothed multiple diffusion properties along individual fiber bundles, global and local test statistics for testing hypotheses of interest along fiber tracts, and a resampling method for approximating the p-value of the global test statistic. The proposed methodology is applied to characterizing the development of four diffusion properties along the splenium and genu of the corpus callosum tract in a study of neurodevelopment in healthy rhesus monkeys. Significant time effects on the four diffusion properties were found. PMID:20879291

  1. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liman; Zhu, Youmin; Hu, Wenjing; Zhang, Xueying; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that AOCs were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the AOCs was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of AOCs expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of AOCs might disrupt normal fiber development. PMID:26079621

  2. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments. PMID:25546281

  3. Nurse-Driven Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Reduction Process and Protocol: Development Through an Academic-Practice Partnership.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pamela; Gilman, Anna; Lintner, Alicia; Buckner, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Translating evidence-based practices to the bedside can be facilitated by an active academic-practice partnership between nursing faculty and frontline nursing staff. A collaborative effort between the university's academic nurses and the medical center's clinical nurses explored, created, implemented, and evaluated an evidence-based nurse-driven protocol for decreasing the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The nurse-driven protocol was piloted in 4 intensive care units and included nurse-driven orders for catheter discontinuation, utilization of smaller bore urinary catheters, addition of silver-based cleansing products for urinary catheter care, and education of staff on routine catheter care and maintenance. Data were collected for more than 8 months pre- and postimplementation of the nurse-driven protocol. Postimplementation data revealed a 28% reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the intensive care units as compared with preimplementation. Secondary benefits of this academic-practice partnership included strengthening the legitimacy of classroom content as lessons learned were integrated into courses in the nursing curriculum. The result of the partnership was a stronger sense of collaboration and collegiality between hospital staff and the university faculty. Transformative leadership engaged numerous stakeholders through collaborative efforts to realize best practices. An academic-practice partnership facilitates transformative change and provides structural stability and sustainability. PMID:27575798

  4. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  5. Autosomal Dominant Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 1 in an Infant with Salt Wasting Crisis Associated with Urinary Tract Infection and Obstructive Uropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Sasigarn A.; Cozzi, Corin; Hickey, Scott E.; Thrush, Devon Lamb; Astbury, Caroline; Nuthakki, Sushma

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1) is a salt wasting syndrome caused by renal resistance to aldosterone. Primary renal PHA1 or autosomal dominant PHA1 is caused by mutations in mineralocorticoids receptor gene (NR3C2), while secondary PHA1 is frequently associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) and/or urinary tract malformations (UTM). We report a 14-day-old male infant presenting with severe hyperkalemia, hyponatremic dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and markedly elevated serum aldosterone level, initially thought to have secondary PHA1 due to the associated UTI and posterior urethral valves. His serum aldosterone remained elevated at 5 months of age, despite resolution of salt wasting symptoms. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a deletion of exons 3–5 in NR3C2 in the patient and his asymptomatic mother who also had elevated serum aldosterone level, confirming that he had primary or autosomal dominant PHA1. Our case raises the possibility that some patients with secondary PHA1 attributed to UTI and/or UTM may instead have primary autosomal dominant PHA1, for which genetic testing should be considered to identify the cause, determine future recurrence risk, and possibly prevent the life-threatening salt wasting in a subsequent family member. Future clinical research is needed to investigate the potential overlapping between secondary PHA1 and primary autosomal dominant PHA1. PMID:24455331

  6. Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection: implementation strategies of international guidelines1

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Vera Lúcia Fonseca; Fernandes, Filipa Alexandra Veludo

    2016-01-01

    Objective to describe strategies used by health professionals on the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for the prevention of urinary infection related to catheterism. Method systematic review on literature based on data from CINAHL(r), Nursing & Allied Health Collection, Cochrane Plus Collection, MedicLatina, MEDLINE(r), Academic Search Complete, ACS - American Chemical Society, Health Reference Center Academic, Nursing Reference Center, ScienceDirect Journals and Wiley Online Library. A sample of 13 articles was selected. Results studies have highlighted the decrease of urinary tract infection related to catheterism through reminder systems to decrease of people submitted to urinary catheterism, audits about nursing professionals practice and bundles expansion. Conclusion the present review systemizes the knowledge of used strategies by health professionals on introduction to international recommendations, describing a rate decrease of such infection in clinical practice. PMID:27027676

  7. Association of bactericidal activity of genital tract secretions with Escherichia coli colonization in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    GHARTEY, Jeny P.; CARPENTER, Colleen; GIALANELLA, Philip; RISING, Charlotte; McANDREW, Thomas C.; MHATRE, Mohak; TUGETMAN, Jessica; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; CHAZOTTE, Cynthia; HEROLD, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Genital tract secretions exhibit bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli. We hypothesized that this defense may be modulated during pregnancy. Study Design Secretions were collected by vaginal swab from 70 pregnant women (35–37 weeks gestation) and 35 non-pregnant controls. Escherichia coli were mixed with swab eluants or control buffer and colonies enumerated to measure bactericidal activity. Cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides were quantified by Luminex or ELISA. Results Pregnant women had significantly greater bactericidal activity, higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower levels of beta defensins compared to controls. Seven (10%) pregnant and 8 (23%) non-pregnant women were vaginally colonized with Escherichia coli; colonization was inversely associat ed with bactericidal activity. Conclusion The soluble mucosal immune environment is altered in pregnancy. We speculate that the observed changes may protect against colonization and ascending infection and could provide a biomarker to identify pregnant women at risk for infectious complications including preterm birth. PMID:22867687

  8. The clinical presentation and diagnosis of ketamine-associated urinary tract dysfunction in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yek, Jacklyn; Sundaram, Palaniappan; Aydin, Hakan; Kuo, Tricia; Ng, Lay Guat

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine is a short-acting anaesthetic agent that has gained popularity as a ‘club drug’ due to its hallucinogenic effects. Substance abuse should be considered in young adult patients who present with severe debilitating symptoms such as lower urinary tract symptoms, even though the use of controlled substances is rare in Singapore. Although the natural history of disease varies from person to person, a relationship between symptom severity and frequency/dosage of abuse has been established. It is important to be aware of this condition and have a high degree of clinical suspicion to enable early diagnosis and immediate initiation of multidisciplinary and holistic treatment. A delayed diagnosis can lead to irreversible pathological changes and increased morbidity among ketamine abusers. PMID:26702160

  9. The clinical presentation and diagnosis of ketamine-associated urinary tract dysfunction in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yek, Jacklyn; Sundaram, Palaniappan; Aydin, Hakan; Kuo, Tricia; Ng, Lay Guat

    2015-12-01

    Ketamine is a short-acting anaesthetic agent that has gained popularity as a 'club drug' due to its hallucinogenic effects. Substance abuse should be considered in young adult patients who present with severe debilitating symptoms such as lower urinary tract symptoms, even though the use of controlled substances is rare in Singapore. Although the natural history of disease varies from person to person, a relationship between symptom severity and frequency/dosage of abuse has been established. It is important to be aware of this condition and have a high degree of clinical suspicion to enable early diagnosis and immediate initiation of multidisciplinary and holistic treatment. A delayed diagnosis can lead to irreversible pathological changes and increased morbidity among ketamine abusers.

  10. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Zaczeniuk, Magdalena; Majak, Paweł; Pawłowska-Iwanicka, Kamila; Kopka, Monika; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013) in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI), asthma and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%), 96 (34.3%), 39 (13.9%), respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87). In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62); sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75). We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions Sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis. PMID:27279819

  11. Robust fiber clustering of cerebral fiber bundles in white matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Yongxiong; Zhuang, Songlin

    2014-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI-FT) has been widely accepted in the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. During the rendering pipeline of specific fiber tracts, the image noise and low resolution of DTI would lead to false propagations. In this paper, we propose a robust fiber clustering (FC) approach to diminish false fibers from one fiber tract. Our algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, the optimized fiber assignment continuous tracking (FACT) is implemented to reconstruct one fiber tract; and then each curved fiber in the fiber tract is mapped to a point by kernel principal component analysis (KPCA); finally, the point clouds of fiber tract are clustered by hierarchical clustering which could distinguish false fibers from true fibers in one tract. In our experiment, the corticospinal tract (CST) in one case of human data in vivo was used to validate our method. Our method showed reliable capability in decreasing the false fibers in one tract. In conclusion, our method could effectively optimize the visualization of fiber bundles and would help a lot in the field of fiber evaluation.

  12. Does Nonpayment for Hospital-Acquired Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Lead to Overtesting and Increased Antimicrobial Prescribing?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Daniel J.; Meddings, Jennifer; Saint, Sanjay; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Shardell, Michelle; Anderson, Deverick; Milstone, Aaron M.; Drees, Marci; Pineles, Lisa; Safdar, Nasia; Bowling, Jason; Henderson, David; Yokoe, Deborah; Harris, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. On 1 October 2008, in an effort to stimulate efforts to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a policy of not reimbursing hospitals for hospital-acquired CAUTI. Since any urinary tract infection present on admission would not fall under this initiative, concerns have been raised that the policy may encourage more testing for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Methods. We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study with time series analysis of all adults admitted to the hospital 16 months before and 16 months after policy implementation among participating Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network hospitals. Our outcomes were frequency of urine culture on admission and antimicrobial use. Results. A total of 39 hospitals from 22 states submitted data on 2 362 742 admissions. In 35 hospitals affected by the CMS policy, the median frequency of urine culture performance did not change after CMS policy implementation (19.2% during the prepolicy period vs 19.3% during the postpolicy period). The rate of change in urine culture performance increased minimally during the prepolicy period (0.5% per month) and decreased slightly during the postpolicy period (–0.25% per month; P < .001). In the subset of 10 hospitals providing antimicrobial use data, the median frequency of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial use did not change substantially (14.6% during the prepolicy period vs 14.0% during the postpolicy period). The rate of change in fluoroquinolone use increased during the prepolicy period (1.26% per month) and decreased during the postpolicy period (–0.60% per month; P < .001). Conclusions. We found no evidence that CMS nonpayment policy resulted in overtesting to screen for and document a diagnosis of urinary tract infection as present on admission. PMID:22700826

  13. Dietary total and insoluble fiber intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-04-01

    Although experimental data suggest a potentially protective involvement of dietary fiber in prostate carcinogenesis, very few prospective studies have investigated the relation between dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk, and those have had inconsistent results. Our objective was to study the association between dietary fiber intake (overall, insoluble, soluble, and from different sources, such as cereals, vegetables, fruits, and legumes) and prostate cancer risk. Stratifications by excess weight status, insulin-like growth factors, and amount of alcohol intake were also considered. This prospective analysis included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records. One hundred thirty-nine incident prostate cancers were diagnosed between 1994 and 2007 (median follow-up of 12.6 y). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary fiber intake and prostate cancer risk were characterized by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes. In conclusion, dietary fiber intake (total, insoluble, and from legumes but not soluble or from cereals, vegetables, and fruits) was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, consistent with mechanistic data. PMID:24553693

  14. Bacteria Associated with the Gut Tract of Larval Stages of the Aquatic Cranefly Tipula abdominalis (Diptera; Tipulidae) †

    PubMed Central

    Klug, M. J.; Kotarski, S.

    1980-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and direct isolations were used to examine the distribution and diversity of bacteria in the gut tracts of larval stages of Tipula abdominalis. The animal had an enlarged hindgut which housed a diverse bacterial community in the lumen and directly attached to the gut wall. Distinct localization was noted, with the most dense and most diverse community anterior to the rectum. A distinct architecture of bacteria occurred in this region, characterized by a layering or a “weblike” array of filamentous bacteria overlying mats of bacteria closely associated with the gut wall. Although morphological diversity was high in the hindgut, filamentous bacteria were the dominant morphology observed. The attached microbiota, sloughed during ecdysis, recolonized to the same density and diversity observed before the molt. The majority of the isolatable bacterial types were facultatively anaerobic. The distinct localization and attached nature of the hindgut bacteria and the recolonization after each molt suggest they are indigenous to this region of the gut tract. Images PMID:16345618

  15. Upper tract juvenile polyps in juvenile polyposis patients: dysplasia and malignancy are associated with foveolar, intestinal, and pyloric differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changqing; Giardiello, Francis M; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS), a hereditary autosomal dominant hamartomatous polyposis syndrome, are at increased risk for colorectal adenocarcinoma. The upper gastrointestinal tract is less often involved by JPS than the colorectum, and, consequently, upper tract juvenile polyps (JPs) are not well studied. We reviewed upper endoscopies and corresponding biopsies in JPS patients documented in our Polyposis Registry. A total of 199 upper gastrointestinal biopsies from 69 endoscopies were available in 22 of 41 (54%) JPS patients. Thirteen of the 22 patients (59%) had ≥1 gastric JP; 5 also had 6 small bowel JPs. Gastric JP was identified as early as age 7 in a patient with an SMAD4 gene mutation. Two patients (9%) had high-grade dysplasia in gastric JP. Invasive adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in the gastrectomy specimen of 1 patient. Five patients had a huge gastric polyp burden; 3 underwent total gastrectomy. Three patients died of complications associated with extensive upper JP. Histologically, 8 of the 56 (14%) gastric JPs identified had dysplasia. All of the 8 polyps demonstrated intestinalized and pyloric gland differentiation intermixed with foveolar epithelium. Dysplasia was seen arising in all 3 types of epithelium. The flat gastric mucosa in 11 patients was unremarkable without inflammation or intestinal metaplasia. The 6 small bowel JPs had no dysplasia. Our findings suggest that JPS patients are at increased risk for gastric adenocarcinoma. Detection of malignancy in syndromic gastric JP indicates that the current screening procedures are insufficient in removal of precursor lesions to prevent progression to carcinoma. PMID:25390638

  16. IL-22 Levels are Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis infection in the Lower Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Moradeke, Makinde Hadijat; Reza, Zariffard; Paria, Mirmonsef; Richard, Novak; Olamide, Jarrett; Alan L, Landay; GregoryT, Spear

    2013-01-01

    Problem IL-22 has important functions at mucosal surfaces, including the induction of antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of epithelium. However IL-22 has not been investigated in the genital tract during TV infection. Methods of Study Women who visited an STD clinic and women from a cohort with frequent Trichomoniasis were studied. IL-22, IL-17 and antimicrobial peptides were measured in cervicovaginal lavage by ELISA. Results In women visiting the STD clinic, those without STDs (n=10) had a median IL-22 of 0 pg/ml while women with infections (n=30) had 27 pg/ml (p=0.04). In the cohort, women with Trichomoniasis (n=19) had significantly higher IL-22 than women with no infections (n=21, 74 versus 0 pg/ml, p=0.0001). IL-17 was also significantly increased in Trichomoniasis and there was a correlation between IL-22 and IL-17 (p=0.001). Conclusion IL-22 is increased in STDs generally and in Trichomoniasis specifically suggesting an antimicrobial response of the mucosa and an epithelial repair process induced by the STDs. PMID:23445169

  17. Fimbriation, capsulation, and iron-scavenging systems of Klebsiella strains associated with human urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Tarkkanen, A M; Allen, B L; Williams, P H; Kauppi, M; Haahtela, K; Siitonen, A; Orskov, I; Orskov, F; Clegg, S; Korhonen, T K

    1992-03-01

    Thirty-two strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and seven strains of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated from urinary tract infections in elderly adults were analyzed for capsular antigens, iron-scavenging systems, and fimbriation. All strains were capsulated. Twenty-seven different K antigens were identified among the strains, with no particular antigen dominating. All strains produced the iron-scavenging system enterochelin as analyzed by bioassay and DNA hybridization. In contrast, the aerobactin iron-sequestering system was not detected in any of the strains. All strains caused hemagglutination of tannin-treated human erythrocytes and reacted with an anti-type 3 fimbriae antiserum as well as in DNA hybridization with a type 3 fimbria-specific probe, indicating that the Klebsiella strains possessed this fimbrial type. Possession of type 1 fimbriae was analyzed by agglutination tests and by hybridization with DNA probes from two distinct Klebsiella type 1 fimbria gene clusters. Phenotypic expression of the type 1 fimbriae was found in 29 of 32 K. pneumoniae strains, whereas 30 strains reacted with either of the two type 1 fimbrial cluster DNA probes. In K. oxytoca, however, only three of seven strains expressed type 1 fimbriae and reacted with the DNA probes. The type 3 fimbriae were found to bind to a fraction of epithelial cells exfoliated in normal human urine, whereas the type 1 fimbriae bound strongly to urinary slime. No inhibitors of type 3 fimbrial binding were detected in human urine.

  18. Lactobacillus casei Low-Temperature, Dairy-Associated Proteome Promotes Persistence in the Mammalian Digestive Tract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bokyung; Tachon, Sybille; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S; Marco, Maria L

    2015-08-01

    We found that incubation of probiotic Lactobacillus casei BL23 in milk at 4 °C prior to ingestion increased its survival in the mammalian digestive tract. To investigate the specific molecular adaptations of L. casei to milk, we used tandem mass spectrometry to compare proteins produced by L. casei BL23 at 4 °C in milk to those in exponential and stationary phase cells in laboratory culture medium at either 37 or 4 °C. These comparisons revealed a core of expressed L. casei proteins as well as proteins produced in either a growth-phase or temperature-specific manner. In total, 205 L. casei proteins were uniquely expressed or detected in higher abundance specifically as a result of incubation in milk and included an over-representation of proteins for cell surface modification, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, and inorganic ion transport. Genes for DltD (d-alanine transfer protein), FabH (3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase), RecA (recombinase A), and Sod (superoxide dismutase) were targeted for inactivation. The competitive fitness of the mutants was altered in the mouse intestine compared with wild-type cells. These results show that the food matrix can have a profound influence on dietary (probiotic) bacteria and their functional significance in the mammalian gut. PMID:26148687

  19. Quantitative Tract-Based White Matter Development from Birth to Age Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiujuan; Gouttard, Sylvain; Sharma, Anuja; Gu, Hongbin; Styner, Martin; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Gilmore, John H

    2012-01-01

    Few large-scale studies have been done to characterize the normal human brain white matter growth in the first years of life. We investigated white matter maturation patterns in major fiber pathways in a large cohort of healthy young children from birth to age two using diffusion parameters fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (RD). Ten fiber pathways, including commissural, association and projection tracts, were examined with tract-based analysis, providing more detailed and continuous spatial developmental patterns compared to conventional ROI based methods. All DTI data sets were transformed to a population specific atlas with a group-wise longitudinal large deformation diffeomorphic registration approach. Diffusion measurements were analyzed along the major fiber tracts obtained in the atlas space. All fiber bundles show increasing FA values and decreasing radial and axial diffusivities during the development in the first two years of life. The changing rates of the diffusion indices are faster in the first year than the second year for all tracts. RD and FA show larger percentage changes in the first and second years than AD. The gender effects on the diffusion measures are small. Along different spatial locations of fiber tracts, maturation does not always follow the same speed. Temporal and spatial diffusion changes near cortical regions are in general smaller than changes in central regions. Overall developmental patterns revealed in our study confirm the general rules of white matter maturation. This work shows a promising framework to study and analyze white matter maturation in a tract-based fashion. Compared to most previous studies that are ROI-based, our approach has the potential to discover localized development patterns associated with fiber tracts of interest. PMID:22510254

  20. Assessment of degradation of the selected projectile, commissural and association brain fibers in patients with Alzheimer’s disease on diffusion tensor MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Paweł; Zimny, Anna; Trypka, Elżbieta; Wojtyńska, Renata; Leszek, Jerzy; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Pathological examinations and the increasingly popular diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) show that in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the pathology involves not only the cortical and hippocampal structures, but also the white matter of the brain. DTI is a well recognized technique for evaluation of the integrity of white matter fibers. The aim of this study was to assess with the use of DTI some selected brain tracts in patients with AD, as well as to analyze the severity and distribution of the identified changes. Material/Methods: Thirty-five patients with AD (mean age of 71.6 years, MMSE 17.6), and a control group of 15 healthy volunteers (mean age of 69.1 years, MMSE 29.8) were enrolled in the study. All patients were subjected to a thorough psychiatric examination and psychological tests. DTI examinations (TE 8500, TR 100) were performed using a 1.5T MR scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in the selected areas of interest (ROI) of the white matter fibers were performed under the control of color FA maps. The following fibers were evaluated – the middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP), the inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF), inferior frontooccipital fasciculi (IFO), genu (GCC) and splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), posterior limbs of internal capsules (PLIC), superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLF) and posterior cingula (CG). Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in FA in patients with AD, comparing to the control group. It was particularly strongly expressed in both CG (P<0.0001), followed by both ILF, right IFO, and left SLF. Less pronounced changes were found in GCC, SCC, and left IFO. In both PLICs and MCPs and in the right SLF, there was no significant change of FA. Conclusions: In Alzheimer’s disease, there is a significant decrease in FA, which suggests degradation of the majority of the assessed white matter tracts. Distribution of these changes is not uniform. They involve the selected association fibers

  1. Chasing Zero: A Nurse-Driven Process for Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Reduction In a Community Hospital.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Due to treatment costs and lack of reimbursement, community hospitals are charged with implementing innovative strategies that will reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). A nurse-driven system for decreasing the number of hospital-acquired CAUTI is effective and useful for a community hospital. One nurse with accountability for implementing a simple evidence-based protocol can dramatically decrease the total incidence of hospital-acquired CAUTI. The basis for the success of this initiative relied heavily on the ease of using the eight-point Question the Foley criteria, the availability of the electronic medical record, interdisciplinary collaboration, and support from nursing and physician administration. With collaboration and support from nursing leadership, the goals for patient safety by reducing hospital-acquired CAUTI can become a reality in a short period of time. PMID:27281867

  2. Chasing Zero: A Nurse-Driven Process For Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Reduction in a Community Hospital.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Due to treatment costs and lack of reimbursement, community hospitals are charged with implementing innovative strategies that will reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). A nurse-driven system for decreasing the number of hospital-acquired CAUTI is effective and useful for a community hospital. One nurse with accountability for implementing a simple evidence-based protocol can dramatically decrease the total incidence of hospital-acquired CAUTI. The basis for the success of this initiative relied heavily on the ease of using the eight-point Question the Foley criteria, the availability of the electronic medical record, interdisciplinary collaboration, and support from nursing and physician administration. With collaboration and support from nursing leadership, the goals for patient safety by reducing hospital-acquired CAUTI can become a reality in a short period of time. PMID:26845820

  3. Intra-aortic balloon pump associated with dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction after valve replacement for aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Morewood, G H; Weiss, S J

    2000-03-01

    An unstable patient with critical aortic stenosis had an intra-aortic balloon pump placed preoperatively for hemodynamic support and alleviation of symptoms. After separation from cardiopulmonary bypass following aortic valve replacement, the patient was hypotensive with increased pulmonary artery pressures. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed left ventricular outflow tract obstruction associated with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and severe mitral regurgitation. This pathophysiology was present when ventricular systole was preceded by balloon counterpulsation, but was absent during unassisted systole. This case report demonstrates a potentially significant untoward effect of intra-aortic balloon pump augmentation after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. The timely diagnosis of this iatrogenic condition in the operating room permitted the prompt implementation of appropriate management strategies and avoided unnecessary surgical intervention.

  4. Association of dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus fibers in the deep parietal lobe with both reading and writing processes: a brain mapping study.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing.

  5. Association of dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus fibers in the deep parietal lobe with both reading and writing processes: a brain mapping study.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing. PMID:24655122

  6. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes. PMID:27142715

  7. The association between white-matter tract abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in retired professional football players with multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-07-01

    Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes.

  8. The partition and fate of soluble and digesta particulate associated oxfendazole and its metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract of sheep.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, D R; Ali, D N; Tremain, S A

    1994-05-01

    The disposition of oxfendazole (OFZ) containing a trace of [14C]OFZ was examined in the gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream of sheep fitted with rumen and abomasal cannulae. Within 2 h of intraruminal (IR) administration, OFZ and its metabolites were almost completely associated with rumen particulate digesta. The proportion of metabolites in digesta fluid increased with their passage from the rumen into the abomasum. To determine the fate of 14C-labelled metabolites after distribution throughout rumen digesta, the rumen particulate and fluid digesta phases from a donor sheep were separated and each transferred to the rumen of an untreated recipient sheep. The 14C-labelled metabolites which derived from the donor rumen fluid quickly associated with recipient rumen particulate material. The metabolites were then progressively desorbed, as were metabolites which were transferred already associated with rumen particulate digesta. Desorption occurred faster in the abomasum than in the rumen. There was no difference in uptake kinetics between administration routes, indicating rapid equilibrium. Consequently the disposition of [14C] OFZ and its metabolites in the bloodstream was similar in each group. It is suggested that the progressive desorption of particulate associated metabolites is a principal determinant of the duration of OFZ availability.

  9. Pilot study of diet and microbiota: interactive associations of fibers and polyphenols with human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Adriana; Valdés, Lorena; Salazar, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; González, Sonia

    2014-06-11

    Several studies have addressed the use of dietary fibers in the modulation of intestinal microbiota; however, information about other highly correlated components in foods, such as polyphenols, is scarce. The aim of this work was to explore the association between the intake of fibers and polyphenols from a regular diet and fecal microbiota composition in 38 healthy adults. Food intake was recorded using an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Quantification of microbial populations in feces was performed by quantitative PCR. A negative association was found between the intake of pectins and flavanones from oranges and the levels of Blautia coccoides and Clostridium leptum. By contrast, white bread, providing hemicellulose and resistant starch, was directly associated with Lactobacillus. Because some effects on intestinal microbiota attributed to isolated fibers or polyphenols might be modified by other components present in the same food, future research should be focused on diet rather than individual compounds.

  10. Human papillomavirus-associated neoplasms of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Thavaraj, Selvam

    2016-03-01

    It is now well established that human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important causative factor in a subgroup of head and neck cancer. In the head and neck, while HPV is strongly associated with squamous cell carcinoma arising in the oropharynx, there is a growing interest in HPV-associated neoplasms of non-oropharyngeal origin including those which arise within sinonasal and nasopharyngeal mucosa. This article reviews current literature on the association of HPV with Scheiderian papillomas, sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Several clinical implications of HPV detection in sinonasal and nasopharyngeal carcinomas are briefly discussed.

  11. Low-Dose Aspirin-Associated Upper and Mid Gastrointestinal Tract Damage and Gene Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    The risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is increased in association with the use of low-dose aspirin (LDA). There are few studies of the association between genetic polymorphisms and the risks of aspirin-induced ulcer or its complications. Individuals with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), A-842G and C50T, exhibit increased sensitivity to aspirin and lower prostaglandin synthesis capacity but the polymorphism lacked statistical significance in relation to an association with bleeding peptic ulcer. In our previous Japanese study, SLCO1B1 521TT genotype and the SLCO1B1 *1b haplotype were significantly associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding in patients taking LDA, especially in the patients with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), or statin co-treatment. Protonpump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended for patients who require antiplatelet therapy and have a history of upper GI bleeding. The interaction between PPIs and consequent impaired effectiveness of clopidogrel has caused concern regarding the effect of genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 which mediates conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The later recent genome-wide analysis of SNPs indicated the association of several SNPs with small bowel bleeding in Japanese patients taking LDA. The data are still lacking and further prospective studies are needed to identify the specific gene polymorphisms as risk or protective factors for GI bleeding associated with LDA. PMID:26369686

  12. Metagenomic Sequencing of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Upper Bronchial Tract Microbiome Reveals Functional Changes Associated with Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Simon J S; Lewis, Keir E; Huws, Sharon A; Lin, Wanchang; Hegarty, Matthew J; Lewis, Paul D; Mur, Luis A J; Pachebat, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The microbiome associated with this disease may be an important component of the disease, though studies to date have been based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and have revealed unequivocal results. Here, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the upper bronchial tract (UBT) microbiome to allow for greater elucidation of its taxonomic composition, and revealing functional changes associated with the disease. The bacterial metagenomes within sputum samples from eight COPD patients and ten 'healthy' smokers (Controls) were sequenced, and suggested significant changes in the abundance of bacterial species, particularly within the Streptococcus genus. The functional capacity of the COPD UBT microbiome indicated an increased capacity for bacterial growth, which could be an important feature in bacterial-associated acute exacerbations. Regression analyses correlated COPD severity (FEV1% of predicted) with differences in the abundance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and functional classifications related to a reduced capacity for bacterial sialic acid metabolism. This study suggests that the COPD UBT microbiome could be used in patient risk stratification and in identifying novel monitoring and treatment methods, but study of a longitudinal cohort will be required to unequivocally relate these features of the microbiome with COPD severity. PMID:26872143

  13. A Phylogenomic View of Ecological Specialization in the Lachnospiraceae, a Family of Digestive Tract-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Conor J.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Several bacterial families are known to be highly abundant within the human microbiome, but their ecological roles and evolutionary histories have yet to be investigated in depth. One such family, Lachnospiraceae (phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia) is abundant in the digestive tracts of many mammals and relatively rare elsewhere. Members of this family have been linked to obesity and protection from colon cancer in humans, mainly due to the association of many species within the group with the production of butyric acid, a substance that is important for both microbial and host epithelial cell growth. We examined the genomes of 30 Lachnospiraceae isolates to better understand the origin of butyric acid capabilities and other ecological adaptations within this group. Butyric acid production-related genes were detected in fewer than half of the examined genomes with the distribution of this function likely arising in part from lateral gene transfer (LGT). An investigation of environment-specific functional signatures indicated that human gut-associated Lachnospiraceae possess genes for endospore formation, whereas other members of this family lack key sporulation-associated genes, an observation supported by analysis of metagenomes from the human gut, oral cavity, and bovine rumen. Our analysis demonstrates that adaptation to an ecological niche and acquisition of defining functional roles within a microbiome can arise through a combination of both habitat-specific gene loss and LGT. PMID:24625961

  14. A phylogenomic view of ecological specialization in the Lachnospiraceae, a family of digestive tract-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Conor J; Beiko, Robert G

    2014-03-01

    Several bacterial families are known to be highly abundant within the human microbiome, but their ecological roles and evolutionary histories have yet to be investigated in depth. One such family, Lachnospiraceae (phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia) is abundant in the digestive tracts of many mammals and relatively rare elsewhere. Members of this family have been linked to obesity and protection from colon cancer in humans, mainly due to the association of many species within the group with the production of butyric acid, a substance that is important for both microbial and host epithelial cell growth. We examined the genomes of 30 Lachnospiraceae isolates to better understand the origin of butyric acid capabilities and other ecological adaptations within this group. Butyric acid production-related genes were detected in fewer than half of the examined genomes with the distribution of this function likely arising in part from lateral gene transfer (LGT). An investigation of environment-specific functional signatures indicated that human gut-associated Lachnospiraceae possess genes for endospore formation, whereas other members of this family lack key sporulation-associated genes, an observation supported by analysis of metagenomes from the human gut, oral cavity, and bovine rumen. Our analysis demonstrates that adaptation to an ecological niche and acquisition of defining functional roles within a microbiome can arise through a combination of both habitat-specific gene loss and LGT. PMID:24625961

  15. Metagenomic Sequencing of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Upper Bronchial Tract Microbiome Reveals Functional Changes Associated with Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Simon J. S.; Lewis, Keir E.; Huws, Sharon A.; Lin, Wanchang; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Lewis, Paul D.; Mur, Luis A. J.; Pachebat, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The microbiome associated with this disease may be an important component of the disease, though studies to date have been based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and have revealed unequivocal results. Here, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the upper bronchial tract (UBT) microbiome to allow for greater elucidation of its taxonomic composition, and revealing functional changes associated with the disease. The bacterial metagenomes within sputum samples from eight COPD patients and ten ‘healthy’ smokers (Controls) were sequenced, and suggested significant changes in the abundance of bacterial species, particularly within the Streptococcus genus. The functional capacity of the COPD UBT microbiome indicated an increased capacity for bacterial growth, which could be an important feature in bacterial-associated acute exacerbations. Regression analyses correlated COPD severity (FEV1% of predicted) with differences in the abundance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and functional classifications related to a reduced capacity for bacterial sialic acid metabolism. This study suggests that the COPD UBT microbiome could be used in patient risk stratification and in identifying novel monitoring and treatment methods, but study of a longitudinal cohort will be required to unequivocally relate these features of the microbiome with COPD severity. PMID:26872143

  16. Metagenomic Sequencing of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Upper Bronchial Tract Microbiome Reveals Functional Changes Associated with Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Simon J S; Lewis, Keir E; Huws, Sharon A; Lin, Wanchang; Hegarty, Matthew J; Lewis, Paul D; Mur, Luis A J; Pachebat, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The microbiome associated with this disease may be an important component of the disease, though studies to date have been based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and have revealed unequivocal results. Here, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the upper bronchial tract (UBT) microbiome to allow for greater elucidation of its taxonomic composition, and revealing functional changes associated with the disease. The bacterial metagenomes within sputum samples from eight COPD patients and ten 'healthy' smokers (Controls) were sequenced, and suggested significant changes in the abundance of bacterial species, particularly within the Streptococcus genus. The functional capacity of the COPD UBT microbiome indicated an increased capacity for bacterial growth, which could be an important feature in bacterial-associated acute exacerbations. Regression analyses correlated COPD severity (FEV1% of predicted) with differences in the abundance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and functional classifications related to a reduced capacity for bacterial sialic acid metabolism. This study suggests that the COPD UBT microbiome could be used in patient risk stratification and in identifying novel monitoring and treatment methods, but study of a longitudinal cohort will be required to unequivocally relate these features of the microbiome with COPD severity.

  17. Associations of red and processed meat with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and lung.

    PubMed

    Miles, Fayth L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The effect of red and processed meats on cancer survival is unclear. We sought to examine the role of total and processed red meat consumption on all-cause mortality among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and lung, in order to test our hypothesis that red or processed meat was associated with overall mortality in these patients. Using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County, we conducted a case-only analysis to examine the association of red or processed meat consumption on mortality after 12 years of follow-up, using a diet history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for potential confounders. Of 601 UADT cancer cases and 611 lung cancer cases, there were 248 and 406 deaths, respectively, yielding crude mortality rates of 0.07 and 0.12 deaths per year. Comparing the highest with lowest quartile of red meat consumption, the adjusted HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.04-2.57) among UADT cancer cases; for red or processed meat, the adjusted HR was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.10-2.82). A dose-response trend was observed. A weaker association was observed with red meat consumption and overall mortality among lung cancer cases. In conclusion, this case-only analysis demonstrated that increased consumption of red or processed meats was associated with mortality among UADT cancer cases and WAS weakly associated with mortality among lung cancer cases.

  18. Depression and Its Severity Are Strongly Associated with Both Storage and Voiding Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Independently of Prostate Volume.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su-Min; Suh, Beomseok; Jang, Soo Hyun; Jin, Ho Seong; Kim, Nakhyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Cho, Belong; Park, Jin-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Depression is related to various functional medical conditions. Its association with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is also expected. We evaluated whether depression and its severity are associated with LUTS when LUTS risk factors including prostate volume (PV) are taken into account in a large population of Korean men. Study subjects included 10,275 men who underwent routine health check-ups at the Healthcare System Gangnam Center of Seoul National University Hospital. Depression was assessed using Beck Depression Inventory-II and LUTS using international prostate symptom score. PV was measured using transrectal ultrasonography by a radiologist. Effect sizes of depression severity on total, storage, and voiding symptoms were assessed. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, mild, moderate and severe depression were associated with total (adjusted odds ratio: aOR = 2.99, 3.86 and 8.99; all P < 0.001), voiding (aOR = 3.04, 3.28 and 5.58; all P < 0.001) and storage symptoms (aOR = 2.43, 3.43 and 2.89; all P < 0.05) showing dose response relationships (all P trend < 0.001). In a subgroup analysis for participants with PV data (n = 1,925), mild and moderate-severe depression were also associated with LUTS (aOR = 3.29, 2.84; P < 0.001 and 0.018, respectively). In conclusion, depression and its severity are strongly associated with total, voiding, and storage symptoms independently of PV state. PMID:26539010

  19. Whole-grain intake and cereal fiber are associated with lower abdominal adiposity in older adults.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Nicola M; Yoshida, Makiko; Shea, M Kyla; Jacques, Paul F; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rogers, Gail; Booth, Sarah L; Saltzman, Edward

    2009-10-01

    Foods high in dietary fiber may play an important role in regulating body weight. Few observational studies have examined the relationship between dietary fiber from different sources and body fat in older adults. Our objectives were to examine the associations among grain intake (whole and refined), dietary fiber and fiber sources, and body fat among older adults. We used data from 434 free-living adults (177 men and 257 women) aged between 60 and 80 y. Dietary intake was estimated from a 126-item semiquantitative FFQ. Percent body fat and percent trunk fat mass were measured by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After adjustment for covariates, whole-grain intake was inversely associated with BMI [26.8 kg/m(2) (25.7-28.1) vs. 25.8 kg/m(2) (24.6-27.1), (95% CI); P-trend = 0.08], percent body fat [34.5% (32.7-36.3) vs. 32.1% (30.1-34.1); P-trend = 0.02], and percent trunk fat mass [43.0% (40.4-45.5) vs. 39.4% (36.7-42.1); P-trend = 0.02] in the lowest compared with the highest quartile category of whole-grain intake. Refined grain intake was not associated with any measure of body fat distribution. Cereal fiber was inversely associated with BMI [27.3 kg/m(2) (26.1-28.6) vs. 25.4 kg/m(2) (24.3-26.7); P-trend = 0.012], percent body fat [34.7% (32.8-36.6) vs. 31.5% (29.4-33.5); P-trend = 0.004], and percent trunk fat mass [42.8% (40.2-45.4) vs. 37.8% (35.0-40.6); P-trend = 0.001]. No significant association was observed between intakes of total fiber, vegetable or fruit fiber, and body composition measurements. Higher intakes of cereal fiber, particularly from whole-grain sources, are associated with lower total percent body fat and percent trunk fat mass in older adults.

  20. [HPV-associated carcinomas of the female genital tract. Molecular mechanisms of development].

    PubMed

    Reuschenbach, M; Vinokurova, S; von Knebel Doeberitz, M

    2011-11-01

    Infections with human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a common occurrence in both men and women. In contrast HPV-associated neoplasias are relatively rare and occur only in certain areas of the body. The virus has obviously developed efficient mechanisms for its persistence without inducing too much damage to the host. The formation of neoplasia seems to be more an exception. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of viral gene expression. Investigations have indicated that exactly the transition from the permissive infection stage to a transformation stage, where neoplastic alterations can occur due to expression of the viral oncogenes, is associated with certain methylation patterns of the viral genome which promote the expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7. The transforming stage is seen as the actual carcinogenic event and can be immunohistochemically detected by the biomarker p16(INK4a).

  1. Fungal contamination of the respiratory tract and associated respiratory impairment among sawmill workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Asit; Sahu, Subhashis; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Blanc, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Wood processing workers are exposed to wood-associated microbiological contaminants, including fungi. Our aim was to study the potential association between sputum fungus and adverse respiratory effects in such workers. In a group of sawmill workers, we administered a respiratory questionnaire, performed lung function testing and quantified the proportions of leukocytes in spontaneously expectorated sputum samples. We identified fungal species by DNA sequencing. Of 54 sawmill workers, 19 yielded fungal positive sputum samples (mean age 42.5±10.4 years) and 35 were negative for fungus (mean age 36.9±5.2 years). The fungus was identified as Candida sp. in all samples. Those with fungal-positive sputum, compared to others, reported more cough (26% versus 63%) and haemoptysis (6% versus 37%) (both p<0.05), manifested reduced forced midexpiratory flow rates (FEF25–75%) (82.3±4.5 versus 69.2±9.9% predicted, p<0.001), and had higher sputum eosinophil counts (median 9.25 versus 3.25%, p<0.01). Reduction of FEF25–75% was associated both with fungus detection in sputum (−12.7%, 95% CI−8.5– −16.9%) and sputum eosinophils (−2.1% per 1% increase in eosinophils, 95% CI −1.5– −2.8%) (both p<0.001). In sawmill workers, Candida sp. detectable in sputum was associated with respiratory symptoms, sputum eosinophilia and reduced FEF25–75%. PMID:27730148

  2. Association between common variable immunodeficiency and collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: A series of four patients.

    PubMed

    Mandaliya, Rohan; Burkart, Ashlie L; DiMarino, Anthony J; Rattan, Satish; Cohen, Sidney

    2016-03-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia/common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) may lead to disruption of the gut mucosal immune barrier. Collagenous infiltrative disorders of the intestinal tract (colitis, gastritis, sprue) constitute a relatively new spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders. Our aims were (1) to determine the association between immunoglobulin deficiency state like CVID and collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gut and (2) to study the clinic-pathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes in these patients. A retrospective search was conducted to identify cases with concurrence of these two conditions at an academic center from 2007 to 2013. Four such patients were identified from our database: three with collagenous colitis and one with collagenous gastritis. All patients with collagenous colitis had normal colonic mucosa while the patient with collagenous gastritis had nodular gastric mucosa. Only one patient out of four had decreased plasma cells in the submucosa as expected in low immunoglobulin states. All patients had improvement in their symptoms on immunoglobulin therapy with considerable remission on budesonide. Literature search revealed reporting of four similar patients. In conclusion, (1) the association between collagenous infiltrative disorders of the gut and CVID and its prompt response to immunoglobulins with effective maintenance with budesonide are novel findings. Our study also shows that the presence of plasma cells should not rule out the possibility of CVID. (2) In patients with chronic diarrhea, hypogammaglobulinemia and collagenous colitis/sprue should be considered for the available effective treatments such as immunoglobulins and budesonide. PMID:27053352

  3. White matter tracts of speech and language.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marion; Jiskoot, Lize C; Papma, Janne M

    2014-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to investigate the white matter (WM) tracts underlying the perisylvian cortical regions known to be associated with language function. The arcuate fasciculus is composed of 3 segments (1 long and 2 short) whose separate functions correlate with traditional models of conductive and transcortical motor or sensory aphasia, respectively. DTI mapping of language fibers is useful in presurgical planning for patients with dominant hemisphere tumors, particularly when combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging. DTI has found damage to language networks in stroke patients and has the potential to influence poststroke rehabilitation and treatment. Assessment of the WM tracts involved in the default mode network has been found to correlate with mild cognitive impairment, potentially explaining language deficits in patients with apparently mild small vessel ischemic disease. Different patterns of involvement of language-related WM structures appear to correlate with different clinical subtypes of primary progressive aphasias.

  4. A point prevalence cross-sectional study of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in six Australian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Anne; Mitchell, Brett; Beckingham, Wendy; Fasugba, Oyebola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for over 30% of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine healthcare-associated UTI (HAUTI) and catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) point prevalence in six Australian hospitals to inform a national point prevalence process and compare two internationally accepted HAUTI definitions. We also described the level and comprehensiveness of clinical record documentation, microbiology laboratory and coding data at identifying HAUTIs and CAUTIs. Setting Data were collected from three public and three private Australian hospitals over the first 6 months of 2013. Participants A total of 1109 patients were surveyed. Records of patients of all ages, hospitalised on the day of the point prevalence at the study sites, were eligible for inclusion. Outpatients, patients in adult mental health units, patients categorised as maintenance care type (ie, patients waiting to be transferred to a long-term care facility) and those in the emergency department during the duration of the survey were excluded. Outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the HAUTI and CAUTI point prevalence. Results Overall HAUTI and CAUTI prevalence was 1.4% (15/1109) and 0.9% (10/1109), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species were the most common pathogens. One-quarter (26.3%) of patients had a urinary catheter and fewer than half had appropriate documentation. Eight of the 15 patients ascertained to have a HAUTI based on clinical records (6 being CAUTI) were coded by the medical records department with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for UTI diagnosis. The Health Protection Agency Surveillance definition had a positive predictive value of 91.67% (CI 64.61 to 98.51) compared against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Conclusions These study results provide a foundation for a national Australian point prevalence study and inform the development and

  5. Association of SSR markers with important fiber traits in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research are to: 1) report on the diversity in agronomic and fiber traits of the selected cotton germplasm released by the public breeders and private industries, 2) detect the genetic diversity among these lines using SSR markers, and 3) identify the SSR markers association w...

  6. Quantitative evaluation of changes in the selected white matter tracts using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Zimny, A; Szewczyk, P; Bladowska, J; Trypka, E; Wojtynska, R; Leszek, J; Sasiadek, M

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the damage to the extensive range of white matter tracts in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty-four patients with AD (mean age 71.5 yrs, MMSE 17.6), 23 patients with MCI (mean age 66 yrs, MMSE 27.4) and 15 normal controls (mean age 69 yrs, MMSE 29.8) were enrolled. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 25 directions on 1.5 T MR scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained with a small ROI method in several association tracts including posterior cingulum fibers, in commissural tracts (genu and splenium of corpus callosum) and projection tracts (middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior limbs of internal capsules). In MCI significant reductions of FA were found in the inferior longitudinal fascicles, left superior longitudinal fascicle and posterior cingulum fibers compared to normal controls. In AD significantly decreased FA values were detected in the same fascicles as in MCI and additionally in inferior fronto-occipital tracts and commissural tracts. In both AD and MCI the most severe changes were found within posterior cingulum fibers. No abnormalities were detected in projection tracts in both groups. Accuracy of DTI in detecting AD and MCI reached 0.95 and 0.79, respectively. FA measurements strongly correlated with neuropsychological tests. DTI is capable of depicting microstructural changes within white matter fiber tracts in dementia and may aid the differential diagnosis of AD and MCI. PMID:24028982

  7. Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Are Associated With Severe Sepsis at Admission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Chien; Hsiao, Chih-Yen; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Hung, Sheng-Che; Wang, Hung-Ping; Huang, Yun-Jhong; Wang, Jann-Tay

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features and treatment outcomes among patients with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR Enterobacteriaceae and to identify whether MDR pathogens were independently associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. The clinical data of adult patients visiting and being treated at Chia-Yi Christian Hospital due to bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae from January 2006 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 585 patients were enrolled. Among them, 220 (37.6%) were caused by the MDR Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 206 patients (35.2%) developed severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. Patients in the MDR group tend to be male and have a past history of gout, recurrent UTI, prior hospitalization, hydronephrosis, renal stone, ureteral stone, indwelling urinary catheter, newly development of renal dysfunction, severe sepsis or septic shock, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of ineffective empirical therapy, longer hospital stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (2.7% vs 1.9%, P = 0.569). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, it is revealed that independent predictors associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation were liver cirrhosis (OR 2.868; 95% CI 1.439–5.716; P = 0.003), indwelling urinary catheter (OR 1.936; 95% CI 1.238–3.027; P = 0.004), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae (OR 1.447; 95% CI 1.002–2.090; P = 0.049). Multidrug resistance was associated with the development of severe sepsis or septic shock upon presentation among patients with bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, empirical antibiotics therapy for patients with UTI presented with severe sepsis and/or septic shock should be more broad-spectrum to effectively cover MDR Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27196480

  8. The role of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors in treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Umul, Mehmet; Serel, Tekin Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    Phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors are approved as the first line of therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, different studies have been performed to study the use of these agents in other areas of urology. There are many studies related to the use of PDE-5 inhibitors as a monotherapy or combination therapy with alpha-blockers for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It has been shown that contractions induced by various agents or electrical field stimulation in organ bath models of prostatic tissue can be reversed by PDE-5 inhibitors. Age, body mass index and the severity of LUTS are important factors for the selection of patients suitable for this treatment. It has also been reported that the use of PDE-5 inhibitors can relieve the chronic pelvic ischemia and endothelial dysfunction associated with metabolic syndrome. Most of the side effects observed with PDE-5 inhibitors are minimal and tolerable. The use of PDE-5 inhibitors is absolutely contraindicated in patients taking nitrate preparations. A significant interaction has not been observed even when a patient is taking several antihypertensive agents concurrently. Co-administration of alpha-blockers and PDE-5 inhibitors may result in orthostatic hypotension; therefore, patients should be stable on α-blocker therapy before the initiation of the combination therapy, and the initial PDE-5 inhibitor dose should be the lowest possible. In this review, our aim was to evaluate the role of PDE-5 inhibitors in the treatment of LUTS associated with BPH by analyzing the current literature. PMID:26328121

  9. Association between Air Pollution and General Outpatient Clinic Consultations for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Wilson W. S.; Wong, Tze Wai; Ng, Lorna; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Kung, Kenny K. L.; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Many studies have shown the adverse effects of air pollution on respiratory health, but few have examined the effects of air pollution on service utilisation in the primary care setting. The aim of this study was to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations due to upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in general outpatient clinics (GOPCs) in Hong Kong. Methods Daily data on the numbers of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs, the concentrations of major air pollutants, and the mean values of metrological variables were retrospectively collected over a 3-year period (2008–2010, inclusive). Generalised additive models were constructed to examine the association between air pollution and the daily number of consultations, and to derive the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of GOPC consultations for a unit increase in the concentrations of air pollutants. Results The mean daily consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs ranged from 68.4 to 253.0 over the study period. The summary relative risks (and 95% CI) of daily consultations in all GOPCs for the air pollutants PM10, NO2, O3, and SO2 were 1.005 (1.002, 1.009), 1.010 (1.006, 1.013), 1.009 (1.006, 1.012), and 1.004 (1.000, 1.008) respectively, per 10 µg/m3 increase in the concentration of each pollutant. Conclusion Significant associations were found between the daily number of consultations due to URTIs in GOPCs and the concentrations of air pollutants, implying that air pollution incurs a substantial morbidity and increases the burden of primary health care services. PMID:24466288

  10. The elongation of yeast prion fibers involves separable steps of association and conversion

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Thomas; Bloom, Jesse; Lindquist, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    A self-perpetuating change in the conformation of the translation termination factor Sup35p is the basis for the prion [PSI+], a protein-based genetic element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a process closely allied to in vivo conversion, the purified soluble, prion-determining region of Sup35p (NM) converts to amyloid fibers by means of nucleated conformational conversion. First, oligomeric species convert to nuclei, and these nuclei then promote polymerization of soluble protein into amyloid fibers. To elucidate the nature of the polymerization step, we created single-cysteine substitution mutants at different positions in NM to provide unique attachment sites for various probes. In vivo, the mutants behaved like wild-type protein in both the [psi–] and [PSI+] states. In vitro, they assembled with wild-type kinetics and formed fibers with the same morphologies. When labeled with fluorescent probes, two mutants, NMT158C and NME167C, exhibited a change in fluorescence coincident with amyloid assembly. These mutants provided a sensitive measure for the kinetics of fiber elongation, and the lag phase in conversion. The cysteine in the mutant NMK184C remained exposed after assembly. When labeled with biotin and bound to streptavidin beads, it was used to capture radiolabeled soluble NM in the process of conversion. This process established the existence of a detergent-susceptible intermediate in fiber elongation. Thus, the second stage of nucleated conformational conversion, fiber elongation, itself contains at least two steps: the association of soluble protein with preformed fibers to form an assembly intermediate, followed by conformational conversion into amyloid. PMID:14983002

  11. When should MERRF (myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers) be the diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Kay, Cláudia Suemi Kamoi; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo S; Werneck, Lineu Cesar

    2014-10-01

    Myoclonic epilepsy associated with ragged red fibers (MERRF) is a rare mitochondrial disorder. Diagnostic criteria for MERRF include typical manifestations of the disease: myoclonus, generalized epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia and ragged red fibers (RRF) on muscle biopsy. Clinical features of MERRF are not necessarily uniform in the early stages of the disease, and correlations between clinical manifestations and physiopathology have not been fully elucidated. It is estimated that point mutations in the tRNALys gene of the DNAmt, mainly A8344G, are responsible for almost 90% of MERRF cases. Morphological changes seen upon muscle biopsy in MERRF include a substantive proportion of RRF, muscle fibers showing a deficient activity of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and the presence of vessels with a strong reaction for succinate dehydrogenase and COX deficiency. In this review, we discuss mainly clinical and laboratory manifestations, brain images, electrophysiological patterns, histology and molecular findings as well as some differential diagnoses and treatments.

  12. A TOOL TO ASSESS THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF CATHETER-ASSOCIATED URINARY TRACT INFECTION: DEVELOPMENT AND RELIABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Blodgett, Tom J.; Gardner, Sue E.; Blodgett, Nicole P.; Peterson, Lisa V.; Pietraszak, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the inter-rater reliability of four clinical manifestations of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) among hospitalized adults with short-term indwelling urinary catheters using a tool developed for this purpose: the CAUTI Assessment Profile (CAP). Study participants included 30 non-pregnant English-speaking adults, recruited from 2 community hospitals. Three nurses assessed each participant for fever, suprapubic tenderness, flank tenderness, and delirium using standardized techniques. Based on the generalized kappa statistic and 95% confidence intervals, there was evidence of strong inter-rater reliability for fever (K = 1.00, 0.793 – 1.207), suprapubic tenderness (K = 0.39, 0.185 – 0.598), and delirium (K = 0.58, 0.379 – 0.792), but not for flank tenderness (K = 0.29, −0.036 – 0.617). This study provides preliminary evidence that the CAUTI Assessment Profile (CAP) can be used to consistently identify these clinical signs and symptoms of CAUTI in hospitalized adults. PMID:25246536

  13. Questionable validity of the catheter-associated urinary tract infection metric used for value-based purchasing.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Lindsay E; Kavanagh, Kevin T; Rice, Mara K

    2015-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) occur in 290,000 US hospital patients annually, with an estimated cost of $290 million. Two different measurement systems are being used to track the US health care system's performance in lowering the rate of CAUTIs. Since 2010, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) metric has shown a 28.2% decrease in CAUTI, whereas the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention metric has shown a 3%-6% increase in CAUTI since 2009. Differences in data acquisition and the definition of the denominator may explain this discrepancy. The AHRQ metric analyzes chart-audited data and reflects both catheter use and care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention metric analyzes self-reported data and primarily reflects catheter care. Because analysis of the AHRQ metric showed a progressive change in performance over time and the scientific literature supports the importance of catheter use in the prevention of CAUTI, it is suggested that risk-adjusted catheter-use data be incorporated into metrics that are used for determining facility performance and for value-based purchasing initiatives.

  14. A Tool to Assess the Signs and Symptoms of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection: Development and Reliability.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, Tom J; Gardner, Sue E; Blodgett, Nicole P; Peterson, Lisa V; Pietraszak, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the inter-rater reliability of four clinical manifestations of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) among hospitalized adults with short-term indwelling urinary catheters using a tool developed for this purpose: the CAUTI Assessment Profile (CAP). Study participants included 30 non-pregnant English-speaking adults, recruited from two community hospitals. Three nurses assessed each participant for fever, suprapubic tenderness, flank tenderness, and delirium using standardized techniques. Based on the generalized Kappa statistic and 95% confidence intervals, there was evidence of strong inter-rater reliability for fever (K = 1.00, 0.793-1.207), suprapubic tenderness (K = 0.39, 0.185-0.598), and delirium (K = 0.58, 0.379-0.792), but not for flank tenderness (K = 0.29, -0.036 to 0.617). This study provides preliminary evidence that the CAP can be used to consistently identify these clinical signs and symptoms of CAUTI in hospitalized adults. PMID:25246536

  15. Binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) to the hepatitis delta virus RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Greco-Stewart, Valerie S.; Thibault, Catherine St-Laurent; Pelchat, Martin . E-mail: mpelchat@uottawa.ca

    2006-12-20

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) has a very limited protein coding capacity and must rely on host proteins for its replication. A ribonucleoprotein complex was detected following UV cross-linking between HeLa nuclear proteins and an RNA corresponding to the right terminal stem-loop domain of HDV genomic RNA. Mass spectrometric analysis of the complex revealed the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) as a novel HDV RNA-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated the interaction between HDV RNA and PSF both in vitro in HeLa nuclear extract and in vivo within HeLa cells containing both polarities of the HDV genome. Analysis of the binding of various HDV-derived RNAs to purified, recombinant PSF further confirmed the specificity of the interaction and revealed that PSF directly binds to the terminal stem-loop domains of both polarities of HDV RNA. Our findings provide evidence of the involvement of a host mRNA processing protein in the HDV life cycle.

  16. Elevation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in non-azotemic dogs with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Daure, Evence; Belanger, Marie C; Beauchamp, Guy; Lapointe, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker in humans and dogs with kidney disease. This protein is expressed by many cells including renal tubular cells and neutrophils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of urinary tract infection (UTI) on urinary NGAL (uNGAL) concentration in dogs. Urine culture and measurement of uNGAL level were performed in 80 non-azotemic dogs suspected of UTI and 19 healthy dogs. Dogs were divided in three groups: 19 healthy dogs, 25 dogs with positive culture and 55 dogs suspected of UTI but with negative culture. uNGAL and uNGAL/Creatinine was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in dogs with UTI (14.22 ng/mL;19.74 μg/g) compared to Healthy (0.24 ng/mL;0.11 μg/g) and Negative (1.13 ng/mL;1.28 μg/g) dogs. A uNGAL value <3.38 ng/mL had a negative predictive value for UTI of 87%. Presence of UTI has to be considered when uNGAL is used to detect kidney disease.

  17. Social, Economic, and Medical Factors Associated With Solifenacin Therapy Compliance Among Workers Who Suffer From Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of hyperactive-type lower urinary tract symptoms is 45.2%, with shares of overactive bladder (OAB) and urge incontinence (UI) symptoms of 10.7% and 8.2%, respectively. We investigated the possible impact of a wide range of social, economic, and medical factors on compliance with solifenacin treatment in the working population. Methods Social, economic, and medical factors as well as the Overactive Bladder questionnaire – the OAB-q Short Form (OAB-q SF), bladder diaries, and uroflowmetry of 1,038 people who were administered solifenacin for a year were gathered from employer documentation. Results Among the subjects, 32% maintained their compliance with solifenacin treatment throughout the year. Only 65% of the patients had compliance exceeding 80%, and 17% of patients had compliance of ≥50%, yet less than 80% were still taking solifenacin 12 months after the beginning of this experiment. Working people whose compliance level was, at least, 80% had reliably higher (P≤0.01) average age, annual salary, and treatment efficacy, and a greater treatment satisfaction level, as well as a lack of satisfaction with other antimuscarinic treatments and higher rate of urge UI diagnosis. The same cohort also featured a lower level (P≤0.01) of caffeine abuse and lower share of salary spent purchasing solifenacin. Conclusions This study has shown that compliance with solifenacin treatment is associated with a number of significant medical, social, and economic factors. The medical factors included the type of urination disorder, severity of incontinence symptoms, presence of side effects, treatment efficacy and patients’ satisfaction with it, and experience using other antimuscarinic treatments. Among the social and economic factors, those with the strongest correlation to compliance were patient age, employment in medicine and education, annual income level, percentage of solifenacin purchase expenditures, and caffeine abuse. Factors with a weaker

  18. Enterococcal biofilm formation and virulence in an optimized murine model of foreign body-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Guiton, Pascale S; Hung, Chia S; Hancock, Lynn E; Caparon, Michael G; Hultgren, Scott J

    2010-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) constitute the majority of nosocomial UTIs and pose significant clinical challenges. Enterococcal species are among the predominant causative agents of CAUTIs. However, very little is known about the pathophysiology of Enterococcus-mediated UTIs. We optimized a murine model of foreign body-associated UTI in order to mimic conditions of indwelling catheters in patients. In this model, the presence of a foreign body elicits major histological changes and induces the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines in the bladder. In addition, in contrast to naïve mice, infection of catheter-implanted mice with Enterococcus faecalis induced the specific expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) in the bladder. These responses resulted in a favorable niche for the development of persistent E. faecalis infections in the murine bladders and kidneys. Furthermore, biofilm formation on the catheter implant in vivo correlated with persistent infections. However, the enterococcal autolytic factors GelE and Atn (also known as AtlA), which are important in biofilm formation in vitro, are dispensable in vivo. In contrast, the housekeeping sortase A (SrtA) is critical for biofilm formation and virulence in CAUTIs. Overall, this murine model represents a significant advance in the understanding of CAUTIs and underscores the importance of urinary catheterization during E. faecalis uropathogenesis. This model is also a valuable tool for the identification of virulence determinants that can serve as potential antimicrobial targets for the treatment of enterococcal infections.

  19. Implementing a national program to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection: a quality improvement collaboration of state hospital associations, academic medical centers, professional societies, and governmental agencies.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Mohamad G; George, Christine; Edson, Barbara S; Goeschel, Christine A; Saint, Sanjay

    2013-10-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) represents a significant proportion of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The US Department of Health and Human Services issued a plan to reduce HAIs with a target 25% reduction of CAUTI by 2013. Michigan's successful collaborative to reduce unnecessary use of urinary catheters and CAUTI was based on a partnership between diverse hospitals, the state hospital association (SHA), and academic medical centers. Taking the lessons learned from Michigan, we are now spreading this work throughout the 50 states. This national spread leverages the expertise of different groups and organizations for the unified goal of reducing catheter-related harm. The key components of the project are (1) centralized coordination of the effort and dissemination of information to SHAs and hospitals, (2) data collection based on established definitions and approaches, (3) focused guidance on the technical practices that will prevent CAUTI, (4) emphasis on understanding the socioadaptive aspects (both the general, unit-wide issues and CAUTI-specific challenges), and (5) partnering with specialty organizations and governmental agencies who have expertise in the relevant subject area. The work may serve in the future as a model for other large improvement efforts to address other hospital-acquired conditions, such as venous thromboembolism and falls.

  20. Digestion of kiwifruit fiber.

    PubMed

    Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, it is generally believed that fiber largely escapes digestion in the human small intestine and is therefore mainly a substrate for microbial fermentation in the hindgut. Kiwifruit is a food naturally high in dietary fiber, yet the impact of dietary kiwifruit on nutrient availability has not been reported. The digestion of kiwifruit has been investigated but only in in vitro digestion studies. With its naturally high nonstarch polysaccharide content, it would be expected that kiwifruit would possess the characteristics of a good source of fiber for nutrition and health. Kiwifruit contains soluble and nonsoluble fiber components, both of which would be expected to affect the physical attributes of digesta as it transits the gastrointestinal tract. This chapter summarizes fiber digestion in general and current knowledge of kiwifruit fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Association between OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and risk of upper aero-digestive tract and gastrointestinal cancers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Das, Sambuddha; Nath, Sayantan; Bhowmik, Aditi; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Choudhury, Yashmin

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract are one of the major causes of mortality around the world. DNA repair genes play a vital role in preventing carcinogenesis by maintaining genomic integrity. Polymorphisms in the nucleotide sequence of DNA repair genes are often reported to be associated with an increased risk for different cancers. The OGG1 gene encodes the enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase which removes oxidatively damaged bases of DNA. Several studies report that the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism increases the risk for cancers of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract. However, other studies provide evidence that such an association does not exist. A meta-analysis to assess the role of OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in the cancers of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract was therefore undertaken in order to resolve this ambiguity. Seventeen studies were recruited for this meta-analysis after screening 58 articles with a total of 5533 cases and 6834 controls for which the odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval was calculated. Begg's funnel test and Egger's test were performed for calculating publication bias. Our study reveals an association between OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and cancer susceptibility of the upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract (CG + GG vs CC; odds ratio, OR 1.22; 95 % CI 1.05-1.41; GG vs CG + CC; OR 1.36; 95 % CI 1.09-1.70; GG vs CC; OR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.12-1.92). Subgroup analysis based on cancer types and ethnicity also revealed the association of OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism to the risk for upper aero-digestive and gastrointestinal tract cancers among both the Asian and the Caucasian populations. No risk was however observed for smoking habits and OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism. In conclusion, OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism may be associated with the increased risk for aero-digestive tract and gastro-intestinal cancers in both Asian and Caucasian populations. PMID:27026921

  2. Association Mapping for Fiber-Related Traits and Digestibility in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zan; Qiang, Haiping; Zhao, Haiming; Xu, Ruixuan; Zhang, Zhengli; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin; Liu, Guibo; Zhang, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach for exploring the molecular genetic basis of complex quantitative traits. An alfalfa (Medicago sativa) association panel comprised of 336 genotypes from 75 alfalfa accessions represented by four to eight genotypes for each accession. Each genotype was genotyped using 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotyped for five fiber-related traits in four different environments. A model-based structure analysis was used to group all genotypes into two groups. Most of the genotypes have a low relative kinship (<0.3), suggesting population stratification not be an issue for association analysis. Generally, the Q + K model exhibited the best performance to eliminate the false associated positives. In total, 124 marker-trait associations were predicted (p < 0.005). Among these, eight associations were predicted in two environments repeatedly and 20 markers were predicted to be associated with multiple traits. These trait-associated markers will greatly help marker-assisted breeding programs to improve fiber-related quality traits in alfalfa. PMID:27047512

  3. Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Monodrug Therapies for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Mao, Chen; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Yang, Zu-Yao; Fu, Xiao-Hong; Dai, Xiao-Yu; Tang, Jin-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A wide array of drugs are available for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but the evidence for the comparative effectiveness is controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of monodrug therapies for BPH. Data sources are MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. We included randomized controlled trials that compared α-blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), muscarinic receptor antagonists (MRAs), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5-Is), or placebo for the treatment of BPH. Comparative effectiveness and safety were pooled by both traditional meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. Summary effect size was calculated as mean difference (MD) and relative risk (RR), together with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This study included 58,548 participants from 124 trials in total. When compared with placebo, α-blockers, 5ARIs, and PDE5-Is reduced International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) by −1.35 to −3.67 points and increased peak urinary flow rate (PUF) by −0.02 to 1.95 mL/s, with doxazosin (IPSS: MD, −3.67[−4.33 to −3.02]; PUF: MD, 1.95[1.61 to 2.30]) and terazosin (IPSS: MD, −3.37 [−4.24 to −2.50]; PUF: MD, 1.21[0.74 to 1.66]) showing the greatest improvement. The improvement in the IPSS was comparable among tamsulosin, alfuzosin, naftopidil, silodosin, dutasteride, sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil. The incidence of total adverse events and withdraws due to adverse events were generally comparable among various agents. In conclusion, α-blockers, 5ARIs, and PDE5-Is are effective for BPH, with doxazosin and terazosin appearing to be the most effective agents. Drug therapies for BPH are generally safe and well-tolerated, with no major difference regarding the overall safety profile. PMID:26166130

  4. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. Methods To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. Results 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, p<0.001) using a reminder or stop order, with five studies also including interventions to decrease initial UC placement. The pooled (nine studies) standardised mean difference (SMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was −1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD −0.37; p<0.001) but not in reminder studies (SMD, −1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. Conclusions UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits. PMID:24077850

  5. Enhancing Resident Safety by Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infection: A National Initiative to Reduce Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Mody, Lona; Meddings, Jennifer; Edson, Barbara S; McNamara, Sara E; Trautner, Barbara W; Stone, Nimalie D; Krein, Sarah L; Saint, Sanjay

    2015-07-01

    Preventing healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a key contributor to enhancing resident safety in nursing homes. In 2013, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services approved a plan to enhance resident safety by reducing HAIs in nursing homes, with particular emphasis on reducing indwelling catheter use and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Lessons learned from a recent multimodal Targeted Infection Prevention program in a group of nursing homes as well as a national initiative to prevent CAUTI in over 950 acute care hospitals called "On the CUSP: STOP CAUTI" will now be implemented in nearly 500 nursing homes in all 50 states through a project funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). This "AHRQ Safety Program in Long-Term Care: HAIs/CAUTI" will emphasize professional development in catheter utilization, catheter care and maintenance, and antimicrobial stewardship as well as promoting patient safety culture, team building, and leadership engagement. We anticipate that an approach integrating technical and socio-adaptive principles will serve as a model for future initiatives to reduce other infections, multidrug resistant organisms, and noninfectious adverse events among nursing home residents. PMID:25814630

  6. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, P.; Hema, M.; Kaur, Gurmeet; Sridharan, V.; Prabu, P. C.; Sumana, M. N.; Princy, S. Adline

    2015-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA) is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent development, the study aims to develop a potential drug molecule targeting the SarA of S. aureus to combat biofilm associated infections in which it is involved. In our previous studies, we have reported the antibiofilm activity of SarA based biofilm inhibitor, (SarABI) with a 50% minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50) value of 200 μg/mL against S. aureus associated with vascular graft infections and also the antibiofilm activity of the root ethanolic extracts of Melia dubia against uropathogenic E. coli. In the present study, in silico design of a hybrid molecule composed of a molecule screened from M. dubia root ethanolic extracts and a modified SarA based inhibitor (SarABIM) was undertaken. SarABIM is a modified form of SarABI where the fluorine groups are absent in SarABIM. Chemical synthesis of the hybrid molecule, 4-(Benzylamino)cyclohexyl 2-hydroxycinnamate (henceforth referred to as UTI Quorum-Quencher, UTIQQ) was then performed, followed by in vitro and in vivo validation. The MBIC50 and MBIC90 of UTIQQ were found to be 15 and 65 μg/mL, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images witnessed biofilm reduction and bacterial killing in either UTIQQ or in combined use of antibiotic gentamicin and UTIQQ. Similar results were observed with in vivo studies of experimental UTI in rat model. So, we propose that the drug UTIQQ would be a promising candidate when used alone or, in combination with an antibiotic for staphylococcal associated UTI. PMID

  7. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, P; Hema, M; Kaur, Gurmeet; Sridharan, V; Prabu, P C; Sumana, M N; Princy, S Adline

    2015-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA) is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent development, the study aims to develop a potential drug molecule targeting the SarA of S. aureus to combat biofilm associated infections in which it is involved. In our previous studies, we have reported the antibiofilm activity of SarA based biofilm inhibitor, (SarABI) with a 50% minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50) value of 200 μg/mL against S. aureus associated with vascular graft infections and also the antibiofilm activity of the root ethanolic extracts of Melia dubia against uropathogenic E. coli. In the present study, in silico design of a hybrid molecule composed of a molecule screened from M. dubia root ethanolic extracts and a modified SarA based inhibitor (SarABI(M)) was undertaken. SarABI(M) is a modified form of SarABI where the fluorine groups are absent in SarABI(M). Chemical synthesis of the hybrid molecule, 4-(Benzylamino)cyclohexyl 2-hydroxycinnamate (henceforth referred to as UTI Quorum-Quencher, UTI(QQ)) was then performed, followed by in vitro and in vivo validation. The MBIC50 and MBIC90 of UTI(QQ) were found to be 15 and 65 μg/mL, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images witnessed biofilm reduction and bacterial killing in either UTI(QQ) or in combined use of antibiotic gentamicin and UTI (QQ) . Similar results were observed with in vivo studies of experimental UTI in rat model. So, we propose that the drug UTI(QQ) would be a promising candidate when used alone or, in combination with an antibiotic for staphylococcal

  8. Microtubule-associated protein tau epitopes are present in fiber lesions in diverse muscle disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Lübke, U.; Six, J.; Villanova, M.; Boons, J.; Vandermeeren, M.; Ceuterick, C.; Cras, P.; Martin, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau is a major cytoskeletal protein involved in the neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Although tau is predominantly a neuronal protein, it has been demonstrated in glia and other nonneuronal cells. We describe the presence of microtubule-associated protein tau epitopes in various muscle fiber lesions in oculopharyngeal and Becker muscular dystrophy, dermatomyositis, central core disease, neurogenic atrophy, and in the recovery phase of an attack of malignant hyperthermia. Western blot demonstrated a 100- to 110-kd tau-immunoreactive protein probably corresponding to 'big tau' as described in peripheral nerves. Tau immunoreactivity in muscle fiber lesions usually co-localized with tubulin, although electron microscopy failed to show an increase in microtubules. Tau and tubulin reactivity also correlated with the presence of desmin and vimentin epitopes. Possible explanations for the presence of tau are briefly discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7518193

  9. Dietary Fiber Is Positively Associated with Cognitive Control among Prepubertal Children12

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Converging evidence now indicates that aerobic fitness and adiposity are key correlates of childhood cognitive function and brain health. However, the evidence relating dietary intake to executive function/cognitive control remains limited. Objective: The current study assessed cross-sectional associations between performance on an attentional inhibition task and dietary fatty acids (FAs), fiber, and overall diet quality among children aged 7–9 y (n = 65). Methods: Attentional inhibition was assessed by using a modified flanker task. Three-day food records were used to conduct nutrient-level analyses and to calculate diet quality (Healthy Eating Index–2005) scores. Results: Bivariate correlations revealed that socioeconomic status and sex were not related to task performance or diet measures. However, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), pubertal staging, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and percentage of fat mass (%fat mass) correlated with task accuracy. Hierarchical regression models were used to determine the relation between diet variables and task accuracy and reaction time across both congruent and incongruent trials of the flanker task. After adjustment of confounding variables (age, IQ, pubertal staging, V̇O2max, and %fat mass), congruent accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.26, P = 0.03) and total dietary fiber (β = 0.23, P = 0.05). Incongruent response accuracy was positively associated with insoluble fiber (β = 0.35, P < 0.01), pectins (β = 0.25, P = 0.04), and total dietary fiber (β = 0.32, P < 0.01). Higher diet quality was related to lower accuracy interference (β = −0.26, P = 0.03), whereas higher total FA intake was related to greater accuracy interference (β = 0.24, P = 0.04). No statistically significant associations were observed between diet variables and reaction time measures. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that children’s diet quality, specifically dietary fiber, is an important

  10. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

  11. Conservative, Surgical, and Prosthetic Treatment of a Patient with a Periapical Lesion Associated with an Atypical Intraoral Sinus Tract

    PubMed Central

    Tschoppe, Peter; Kielbassa, Andrej M.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a clinical case with an atypical intraoral sinus tract formation from diagnosis and treatment to short-term outcome and definitive prosthetic rehabilitation. In detail, the patient underwent conservative nonsurgical root canal treatment followed by guided bone augmentation of the regions involved in periapical inflammation and sinus tract formation. The removal of the inflammatory source of the lesion as well as the affected tissue clearly led to a healing of the surrounding bone tissues. Subsequently, the tooth was reconstructed using a fibreglass post and a metal-ceramic crown; an implant was successfully placed in the previously inflamed bone region. PMID:26064699

  12. The Association between Serum Cytokines and Damage to Large and Small Nerve Fibers in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Magrinelli, Francesca; Briani, Chiara; Romano, Marcello; Ruggero, Susanna; Toffanin, Elisabetta; Triolo, Giuseppa; Peter, George Chummar; Praitano, Marialuigia; Lauriola, Matteo Francesco; Zanette, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a frequent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and may involve small and large peripheral nerve fibers. Recent evidence suggests a role of cytokines in DPN. The paper is aimed at exploring whether the serum concentration of cytokines is associated with small and large nerve fiber function and with neuropathic pain (NP). We recruited a group of 32 type 2 DM patients who underwent serum cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) dosage as well as electrodiagnostic and quantitative sensory testing (QST) assessment to explore damage to large and small nerve fibers. Raised serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 correlated with markers of large nerve fiber sensory and motor axonal damage. Raised IL-10 serum level was associated with signs of motor nerve demyelination. No differences were found in pain characteristics and electrodiagnostic and QST markers of small nerve fiber function in relation to cytokines serum levels. IL-6 and IL-10 serum levels were associated with large nerve fiber damage but not to small fibers function or NP. IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines might play a role in the pathogenesis of nerve fiber damage or represent a compensatory or neuroprotective mechanism. PMID:25961054

  13. Are APOE ɛ genotype and TOMM40 poly-T repeat length associations with cognitive ageing mediated by brain white matter tract integrity?

    PubMed

    Lyall, D M; Harris, S E; Bastin, M E; Muñoz Maniega, S; Murray, C; Lutz, M W; Saunders, A M; Roses, A D; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Royle, N A; Starr, J M; Porteous, D J; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in the APOE ɛ and TOMM40 '523' poly-T repeat gene loci have been associated with significantly increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated the independent effects of these polymorphisms on human cognitive ageing, and the extent to which nominally significant associations with cognitive ageing were mediated by previously reported genetic associations with brain white matter tract integrity in this sample. Most participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed a reasoning-type intelligence test at age 11 years, and detailed cognitive/physical assessments and structural diffusion tensor brain magnetic resonance imaging at a mean age of 72.70 years (s.d.=0.74). Participants were genotyped for APOE ɛ2/ɛ3/ɛ4 status and TOMM40 523 poly-T repeat length. Data were available from 758-814 subjects for cognitive analysis, and 522-543 for mediation analysis with brain imaging data. APOE genotype was significantly associated with performance on several different tests of cognitive ability, including general factors of intelligence, information processing speed and memory (raw P-values all<0.05), independently of childhood IQ and vascular disease history. Formal tests of mediation showed that several significant APOE-cognitive ageing associations--particularly those related to tests of information processing speed--were partially mediated by white matter tract integrity. TOMM40 523 genotype was not associated with cognitive ageing. A range of brain phenotypes are likely to form the anatomical basis for significant associations between APOE genotype and cognitive ageing, including white matter tract microstructural integrity. PMID:25247594

  14. Is Remodelling of Corticospinal Tract Terminations Originating in the Intact Hemisphere Associated with Recovery following Transient Ischaemic Stroke in the Rat?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Emma J.; Dewar, Deborah; Maxwell, David J

    2016-01-01

    Following large strokes that encompass the cerebral cortex, it has been suggested that the corticospinal tract originating from the non-ischaemic hemisphere reorganises its pattern of terminal arborisation within the spinal cord to compensate for loss of function. However many strokes in humans predominantly affect subcortical structures with minimal involvement of the cerebral cortex. The aim of the present study was to determine whether remodelling of corticospinal terminals arising from the non-ischaemic hemisphere was associated with spontaneous recovery in rats with subcortical infarcts. Rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery and 28 days later, when animals exhibited functional recovery, cholera toxin b subunit was injected into the contralesional, intact forelimb motor cortex in order to anterogradely label terminals within cervical spinal cord segments. Infarcts were limited to subcortical structures and resulted in partial loss of corticospinal tract axons from the ischaemic hemisphere. Quantitative analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the numbers of terminals on the contralesional side of the spinal grey matter between ischaemic and sham rats. The results indicate that significant remodelling of the corticospinal tract from the non-ischaemic hemisphere is not associated with functional recovery in animals with subcortical infarcts. PMID:27014870

  15. Regularity properties of fiber derivatives associated with higher-order mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study fiber derivatives associated to Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing the dynamics of a higher-order autonomous dynamical system. More precisely, given a function in T∗T(k-1)Q, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for such a function to describe the dynamics of a kth-order autonomous dynamical system, thus being a kth-order Hamiltonian function. Then, we give a suitable definition of (hyper)regularity for these higher-order Hamiltonian functions in terms of their fiber derivative. In addition, we also study an alternative characterization of the dynamics in Lagrangian submanifolds in terms of the solutions of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations.

  16. Tract-Specific Correlates of Neuropsychological Deficits in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jung, Na-Yeon; Han, Cheol E; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoo, Sang Wook; Kim, Hee-Jong; Kim, Eun-Joo; Na, Duk L; Lockhart, Samuel N; Jagust, William J; Seong, Joon-Kyung; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    The white matter tract-specific correlates of neuropsychological deficits are not fully established in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI), where white matter tract damage may be a critical factor in cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tract-specific correlates of neuropsychological deficits in SVCI patients using tract-specific statistical analysis (TSSA). We prospectively recruited 114 SVCI patients, and 55 age-, gender-, and education-matched individuals with normal cognition (NC). All participants underwent diffusion weighted imaging and neuropsychological testing. We classified tractography results into fourteen major fiber tracts and analyzed group comparison and correlation with cognitive impairments. Relative to NC subjects, SVCI patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy values in bilateral anterior-thalamic radiation, cingulum, superior-longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and left inferior-longitudinal fasciculus. Focal disruptions in specific tracts were associated with specific cognitive impairments. Our findings suggest that disconnection of specific white matter tracts, especially those neighboring and providing connections between gray matter regions important to certain cognitive functions, may contribute to specific cognitive impairments in SVCI. PMID:26836179

  17. Association of O-Antigen Serotype with the Magnitude of Initial Systemic Cytokine Responses and Persistence in the Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Dennis J.; Patel, Ashay S.; Mohamed, Ahmad; Storm, Douglas W.; Singh, Chandra; Li, Birong; Zhang, Jingwen; Koff, Stephen A.; Jayanthi, Venkata R.; Mason, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common ailments requiring both short-term and prophylactic antibiotic therapies. Progression of infection from the bladder to the kidney is associated with more severe clinical symptoms (e.g., fever and vomiting) as well as with dangerous disease sequelae (e.g., renal scaring and sepsis). Host-pathogen interactions that promote bacterial ascent to the kidney are not completely understood. Prior studies indicate that the magnitude of proinflammatory cytokine elicitation in vitro by clinical isolates of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) inversely correlates with the severity of clinical disease. Therefore, we hypothesize that the magnitude of initial proinflammatory responses during infection defines the course and severity of disease. Clinical UPEC isolates obtained from patients with a nonfebrile UTI elicited high systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI in a murine model and were attenuated in bladder and kidney persistence. Conversely, UPEC isolates obtained from patients with febrile UTI elicited low systemic proinflammatory responses early during experimental UTI and exhibited prolonged persistence in the bladder and kidney. Soluble factors in the supernatant from saturated cultures as well as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serotype correlated with the magnitude of proinflammatory responses in vitro. Our data suggest that the structure of the O-antigen sugar moiety of the LPS may determine the strength of cytokine induction by epithelial cells. Moreover, the course and severity of disease appear to be the consequence of the magnitude of initial cytokines produced by the bladder epithelium during infection. IMPORTANCE The specific host-pathogen interactions that determine the extent and course of disease are not completely understood. Our studies demonstrate that modest changes in the magnitude of cytokine production observed using in vitro models of infection translate into

  18. The association among ferruginous body, uncoated fibers, asbestos and non-asbestos fibers in lung tissue in terms of length

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Takayoshi; SAKAKIBARA, Yoko; HISANAGA, Naomi; SAKAI, Kiyoshi; YU, Il-Je; LIM, Hyun-Sul; MIKAMO, Hiroshige; SENO, Hiroshi; KOBAYASHI, Fumio; SHIBATA, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the correlations between the concentrations of ferruginous body as well as uncoated fiber both of which can be observed with phase-contrast microscope and the concentration of various inorganic fibers including asbestos which requires the observation with TEM or SEM, we measured those indices among Japanese and Korean cases. Though the concentration of ferruginous body in lung tissue is an important index of asbestos exposure, uncoated fibers observed with phase-contrast microscope might be another index especially in such cases with relatively low exposure due to their history of living in a general environment. However, to establish the reliability of uncoated fibers as an index of asbestos exposure, analysis with more cases and from various backgrounds must be carried out. PMID:27021059

  19. The association among ferruginous body, uncoated fibers, asbestos and non-asbestos fibers in lung tissue in terms of length.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takayoshi; Sakakibara, Yoko; Hisanaga, Naomi; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Yu, Il-Je; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Seno, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fumio; Shibata, Eiji

    2016-08-01

    To demonstrate the correlations between the concentrations of ferruginous body as well as uncoated fiber both of which can be observed with phase-contrast microscope and the concentration of various inorganic fibers including asbestos which requires the observation with TEM or SEM, we measured those indices among Japanese and Korean cases. Though the concentration of ferruginous body in lung tissue is an important index of asbestos exposure, uncoated fibers observed with phase-contrast microscope might be another index especially in such cases with relatively low exposure due to their history of living in a general environment. However, to establish the reliability of uncoated fibers as an index of asbestos exposure, analysis with more cases and from various backgrounds must be carried out. PMID:27021059

  20. Linkage disequilibrium based association mapping of fiber quality traits in G. hirsutum L. variety germplasm.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Saha, Sukumar; Jenkins, Jonnie N; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Scheffler, Brain E; Pepper, Alan E; Yu, John Z; Kohel, Russell J; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor

    2009-07-01

    Cotton is the world's leading cash crop, but it lags behind other major crops for marker-assisted breeding due to limited polymorphisms and a genetic bottleneck through historic domestication. This underlies a need for characterization, tagging, and utilization of existing natural polymorphisms in cotton germplasm collections. Here we report genetic diversity, population characteristics, the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and association mapping of fiber quality traits using 202 microsatellite marker primer pairs in 335 G. hirsutum germplasm grown in two diverse environments, Uzbekistan and Mexico. At the significance threshold (r (2) >or= 0.1), a genome-wide average of LD extended up to genetic distance of 25 cM in assayed cotton variety accessions. Genome wide LD at r (2) >or= 0.2 was reduced to approximately 5-6 cM, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. Results suggest linkage, selection, inbreeding, population stratification, and genetic drift as the potential LD-generating factors in cotton. In two environments, an average of ~20 SSR markers was associated with each main fiber quality traits using a unified mixed liner model (MLM) incorporating population structure and kinship. These MLM-derived significant associations were confirmed in general linear model and structured association test, accounting for population structure and permutation-based multiple testing. Several common markers, showing the significant associations in both Uzbekistan and Mexican environments, were determined. Between 7 and 43% of the MLM-derived significant associations were supported by a minimum Bayes factor at 'moderate to strong' and 'strong to very strong' evidence levels, suggesting their usefulness for marker-assisted breeding programs and overall effectiveness of association mapping using cotton germplasm resources. PMID:19067183

  1. Inclusion of fiber in diets for brown-egg laying pullets: Effects on growth performance and digestive tract traits from hatching to 17 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Kimiaeitalab, M V; García, J; Mateos, G G

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the effects of fiber inclusion in the diet on growth performance and digestive traits in pullets from hatching to 17 wk of age. The control diets of the 3 feeding periods (0 to 5 wk, 5 to 10 wk, and 10 to 17 wk) were based on corn and soybean meal and did not include any additional fiber source. The experimental diets included 2 or 4% of cereal straw or sugar beet pulp (SBP) at the expense (wt:wt) of the control diet. From 0 to 5 wk of age, fiber inclusion did not affect pullet performance. From hatch to 17 wk of age, the inclusion of straw had little effect on pullet performance but the inclusion of 4% SBP reduced (ADG) (P < 0.05) and reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR; P < 0.001). Pullets fed straw had greater ADG (P < 0.05) and better energy conversion ratio (P < 0.01) than pullets fed SBP. An increase in fiber from 2 to 4% reduced FCR (P < 0.05). Body weight uniformity was not affected by diet. Fiber inclusion increased the relative weight (% BW) of the gizzard at 5 wk (P = 0.056) and 10 wk (P < 0.01) of age, but no differences were detected between fiber sources. At same ages, the relative length (cm/kg BW) of the pullets (P = 0.058 and P < 0.01, respectively) and tarsus (P = 0.079 and P < 0.05, respectively) was higher in pullets fed SBP than in pullets fed straw. Fiber inclusion, however, did not affect any of these traits at 17 wk of age. In summary, the inclusion of 2% straw at the expense (wt:wt) of the whole diet did not affect pullet performance at 17 wk of age. An increase in the level of straw from 2 to 4% reduced FCR but did not affect ADG. The inclusion of SBP, however, reduced pullet growth, with effects being more pronounced at the higher level. PMID:26500272

  2. Inclusion of fiber in diets for brown-egg laying pullets: Effects on growth performance and digestive tract traits from hatching to 17 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Kimiaeitalab, M V; García, J; Mateos, G G

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the effects of fiber inclusion in the diet on growth performance and digestive traits in pullets from hatching to 17 wk of age. The control diets of the 3 feeding periods (0 to 5 wk, 5 to 10 wk, and 10 to 17 wk) were based on corn and soybean meal and did not include any additional fiber source. The experimental diets included 2 or 4% of cereal straw or sugar beet pulp (SBP) at the expense (wt:wt) of the control diet. From 0 to 5 wk of age, fiber inclusion did not affect pullet performance. From hatch to 17 wk of age, the inclusion of straw had little effect on pullet performance but the inclusion of 4% SBP reduced (ADG) (P < 0.05) and reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR; P < 0.001). Pullets fed straw had greater ADG (P < 0.05) and better energy conversion ratio (P < 0.01) than pullets fed SBP. An increase in fiber from 2 to 4% reduced FCR (P < 0.05). Body weight uniformity was not affected by diet. Fiber inclusion increased the relative weight (% BW) of the gizzard at 5 wk (P = 0.056) and 10 wk (P < 0.01) of age, but no differences were detected between fiber sources. At same ages, the relative length (cm/kg BW) of the pullets (P = 0.058 and P < 0.01, respectively) and tarsus (P = 0.079 and P < 0.05, respectively) was higher in pullets fed SBP than in pullets fed straw. Fiber inclusion, however, did not affect any of these traits at 17 wk of age. In summary, the inclusion of 2% straw at the expense (wt:wt) of the whole diet did not affect pullet performance at 17 wk of age. An increase in the level of straw from 2 to 4% reduced FCR but did not affect ADG. The inclusion of SBP, however, reduced pullet growth, with effects being more pronounced at the higher level.

  3. Genetic variants in DNA repair pathways and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers: combined analysis of data from two genome-wide association studies in European populations.

    PubMed

    Babron, Marie-Claude; Kazma, Rémi; Gaborieau, Valérie; McKay, James; Brennan, Paul; Sarasin, Alain; Benhamou, Simone

    2014-07-01

    DNA repair pathways are good candidates for upper aerodigestive tract cancer susceptibility because of their critical role in maintaining genome integrity. We have selected 13 pathways involved in DNA repair representing 212 autosomal genes. To assess the role of these pathways and their associated genes, two European data sets from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium were pooled, totaling 1954 cases and 3121 controls, with documented demographic, lifetime alcohol and tobacco consumption information. We applied an innovative approach that tests single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-sets within DNA repair pathways and then within genes belonging to the significant pathways. We showed an association between the polymerase pathway and oral cavity/pharynx cancers (P-corrected = 4.45 × 10(-) (2)), explained entirely by the association with one SNP, rs1494961 (P = 2.65 × 10(-) (4)), a missense mutation V306I in the second exon of HELQ gene. We also found an association between the cell cycle regulation pathway and esophagus cancer (P-corrected = 1.48 × 10(-) (2)), explained by three SNPs located within or near CSNK1E gene: rs1534891 (P = 1.27 × 10(-) (4)), rs7289981 (P = 3.37 × 10(-) (3)) and rs13054361 (P = 4.09 × 10(-) (3)). As a first attempt to investigate pathway-level associations, our results suggest a role of specific DNA repair genes/pathways in specific upper aerodigestive tract cancer sites. PMID:24658182

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Bruker Biotyper and BD Phoenix Systems for Identification of Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Urinary Tract Infections ▿

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yingjun; Meng, Shufang; Bian, Dongmo; Quinn, Criziel; Li, Haijing; Stratton, Charles W.; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The Bruker Biotyper and BD Phoenix systems were evaluated for identification of 1,024 bacterial urinary tract isolates. The Biotyper and Phoenix systems correctly identified 99.9% and 99.5% to the genus level and 99.1% and 98.5% to the species level, respectively. Both systems provide reliable results, and the Biotyper system offers a rapid tool for urine bacterial isolate identification. PMID:21918029

  5. Predictors of Toxicity Associated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Central Hepatobiliary Tract

    SciTech Connect

    Osmundson, Evan C.; Wu, Yufan; Luxton, Gary; Bazan, Jose G.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric predictors of hepatobiliary (HB) toxicity associated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 96 patients treated with SBRT for primary (53%) or metastatic (47%) liver tumors between March 2006 and November 2013. The central HB tract (cHBT) was defined by a 15-mm expansion of the portal vein from the splenic confluence to the first bifurcation of left and right portal veins. Patients were censored for toxicity upon local progression or additional liver-directed therapy. HB toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. To compare different SBRT fractionations, doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) by using the standard linear quadratic model α/β = 10 (BED10). Results: Median follow-up was 12.7 months after SBRT. Median BED10 was 85.5 Gy (range: 37.5-151.2). The median number of fractions was 5 (range: 1-5), with 51 patients (53.1%) receiving 5 fractions and 29 patients (30.2%) receiving 3 fractions. In total, there were 23 (24.0%) grade 2+ and 18 (18.8%) grade 3+ HB toxicities. Nondosimetric factors predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity included cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) histology (P<.0001), primary liver tumor (P=.0087), and biliary stent (P<.0001). Dosimetric parameters most predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity were volume receiving above BED10 of 72 Gy (V{sub BED10}72) ≥ 21 cm{sup 3} (relative risk [RR]: 11.6, P<.0001), V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3} (RR: 10.5, P<.0001), and mean BED10 (Dmean{sub BED10}) cHBT ≥14 Gy (RR: 9.2, P<.0001), with V{sub BED10}72 and V{sub BED10}66 corresponding to V40 and V37.7 for 5 fractions and V33.8 and V32.0 for 3 fractions, respectively. V{sub BED10}72 ≥ 21 cm{sup 3}, V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3}, and Dmean{sub BED10} cHBT ≥14 Gy were consistently predictive of grade 3+ toxicity on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: V

  6. Striatum-Centered Fiber Connectivity Is Associated with the Personality Trait of Cooperativeness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Moyzis, Robert K.; Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Cooperativeness is an essential behavioral trait evolved to facilitate group living. Social and cognitive mechanisms involved in cooperation (e.g., motivation, reward encoding, action evaluation, and executive functions) are sub-served by the striatal-projected circuits, whose physical existence has been confirmed by animal studies, human postmortem studies, and in vivo human brain studies. The current study investigated the associations between Cooperativeness and fiber connectivities from the striatum to nine subcortical and cortical regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex, dorsal cingulate cortex, and rostral cingulate cortex. Results showed that Cooperativeness was negatively correlated with fiber connectivity for the cognitive control system (from the dorsal caudate to the rostral cingulate cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), but not with fiber connectivity for the social cognitive system (e.g., connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala). These results partially supported Declerck et al.’s (2013) cognitive neural model of the role of cognitive control and social cognition in cooperation. PMID:27755551

  7. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage.

  8. Probabilistic maps of the white matter tracts with known associated functions on the neonatal brain atlas: Application to evaluate longitudinal developmental trajectories in term-born and preterm-born infants.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Kentaro; Chang, Linda; Yamakawa, Robyn; Hayama, Sara; Buchthal, Steven; Alicata, Daniel; Andres, Tamara; Castillo, Deborrah; Oishi, Kumiko; Skranes, Jon; Ernst, Thomas; Oishi, Kenichi

    2016-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to investigate the development of the neonatal and infant brain, and deviations related to various diseases or medical conditions like preterm birth. In this study, we created a probabilistic map of fiber pathways with known associated functions, on a published neonatal multimodal atlas. The pathways-of-interest include the superficial white matter (SWM) fibers just beneath the specific cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas, which were difficult to evaluate with existing DTI analysis methods. The Jülich cytoarchitectonic atlas was applied to define cortical areas related to specific brain functions, and the Dynamic Programming (DP) method was applied to delineate the white matter pathways traversing through the SWM. Probabilistic maps were created for pathways related to motor, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and limbic functions, as well as major white matter tracts, such as the corpus callosum, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the middle cerebellar peduncle, by delineating these structures in eleven healthy term-born neonates. In order to characterize maturation-related changes in diffusivity measures of these pathways, the probabilistic maps were then applied to DTIs of 49 healthy infants who were longitudinally scanned at three time-points, approximately five weeks apart. First, we investigated the normal developmental pattern based on 19 term-born infants. Next, we analyzed 30 preterm-born infants to identify developmental patterns related to preterm birth. Last, we investigated the difference in diffusion measures between these groups to evaluate the effects of preterm birth on the development of these functional pathways. Term-born and preterm-born infants both demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in diffusivity, indicating postnatal maturation in these pathways, with laterality seen in the corticospinal tract and the optic radiation. The comparison between term- and preterm

  9. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  10. Molecular diversity and association mapping of fiber quality traits in exotic G. hirsutum L. germplasm.

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, I Y; Kohel, R J; Yu, J Z; Pepper, A E; Abdullaev, A A; Kushanov, F N; Salakhutdinov, I B; Buriev, Z T; Saha, S; Scheffler, B E; Jenkins, J N; Abdukarimov, A

    2008-12-01

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated cotton germplasm is hindering the cotton productivity worldwide. Although potential genetic diversity exists in Gossypium genus, it is largely 'underutilized' due to photoperiodism and the lack of innovative tools to overcome such challenges. The application of linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping is an alternative powerful molecular tool to dissect and exploit the natural genetic diversity conserved within cotton germplasm collections, greatly accelerating still 'lagging' cotton marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. However, the extent of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) has not been determined in cotton. We report the extent of genome-wide LD and association mapping of fiber quality traits by using a 95 core set of microsatellite markers in a total of 285 exotic Gossypium hirsutum accessions, comprising of 208 landrace stocks and 77 photoperiodic variety accessions. We demonstrated the existence of useful genetic diversity within exotic cotton germplasm. In this germplasm set, 11-12% of SSR loci pairs revealed a significant LD. At the significance threshold (r(2)>/=0.1), a genome-wide average of LD declines within the genetic distance at <10 cM in the landrace stocks germplasm and >30 cM in variety germplasm. Genome wide LD at r(2)>/=0.2 was reduced on average to approximately 1-2 cM in the landrace stock germplasm and 6-8 cM in variety germplasm, providing evidence of the potential for association mapping of agronomically important traits in cotton. We observed significant population structure and relatedness in assayed germplasm. Consequently, the application of the mixed liner model (MLM), considering both kinship (K) and population structure (Q) detected between 6% and 13% of SSR markers associated with the main fiber quality traits in cotton. Our results highlight for the first time the feasibility and potential of association mapping, with consideration of the population structure and

  11. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training. PMID:23847506

  12. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

  13. Identification of associated SSR markers for yield component and fiber quality traits based on frame map and Upland cotton collections.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongde; Chen, Min; Yi, Xianda; Bie, Shu; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Youchang; Lan, Jiayang; Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Youlu; Jiao, Chunhai

    2015-01-01

    Detecting QTLs (quantitative trait loci) that enhance cotton yield and fiber quality traits and accelerate breeding has been the focus of many cotton breeders. In the present study, 359 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers were used for the association mapping of 241 Upland cotton collections. A total of 333 markers, representing 733 polymorphic loci, were detected. The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay distances were 8.58 cM (r2 > 0.1) and 5.76 cM (r2 > 0.2). 241 collections were arranged into two subgroups using STRUCTURE software. Mixed linear modeling (MLM) methods (with population structure (Q) and relative kinship matrix (K)) were applied to analyze four phenotypic datasets obtained from four environments (two different locations and two years). Forty-six markers associated with the number of bolls per plant (NB), boll weight (BW), lint percentage (LP), fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber micornaire value (FM) were repeatedly detected in at least two environments. Of 46 associated markers, 32 were identified as new association markers, and 14 had been previously reported in the literature. Nine association markers were near QTLs (at a distance of less than 1-2 LD decay on the reference map) that had been previously described. These results provide new useful markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs and new insights for understanding the genetic basis of Upland cotton yields and fiber quality traits at the whole-genome level.

  14. Chlamydia muridarum Infection Associated Host MicroRNAs in the Murine Genital Tract and Contribution to Generation of Host Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rishein; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Haskins, William E.; Chambers, James P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Bakar, Sazaly Abu; Guentzel, M. Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Problem Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the leading sexually transmitted bacterial infection in humans and is associated with reproductive tract damage. However, little is known about the involvement and regulation of microRNAs (miRs) in genital CT. Methods We analyzed miRs in the genital tract (GT) following C. muridarum (murine strain of CT) challenge of wild type (WT), and CD4+ T cell deficient (CD4−/−) C57BL/6 mice at days 6 and 12 post challenge. Results At day 6, miRs significantly downregulated in the lower GT were miR-125b-5p, −16, −214, −23b, −135a, −182, −183, −30c, and −30e while −146 and −451 were significantly upregulated, profiles not exhibited at day 12 post bacterial challenge. Significant differences in miR-125b-5p (+5.06 fold change), −135a (+4.9), −183 (+7.9), and −182 (+3.2) were observed in C. muridarum infected CD4−/− compared to WT mice. In silico prediction and mass spectrometry revealed regulation of miR-135a and −182 and associated proteins i.e, Heat Shock Protein B1 and Alpha-2HS-Glycoprotein. Conclusion This study provides evidence on regulation of miRs following genital chlamydial infection suggesting a role in pathogenesis and host immunity. PMID:24976530

  15. Vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma: a rare mesenchymal tumor of the lower female genital tract and a study of its association with viral infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Shen, Ko-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2012-06-01

    Superficial myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the lower female genital tract. The exact etiology of superficial myofibroblastoma remains unclear. The association of viral infection and mesenchymal tumors has been well established in some particular types of soft tissue tumors. In the lower female genital tract, the intimate correlation of viral infection and tumor pathogenesis has been also proposed. We present a 59-year-old woman with postcoital bleeding for 1 month. The pelvic examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid mass mimicking leiomyoma at the vaginal fornix. Local excision was performed, and the pathological examination revealed a superficial myofibroblastoma. No tumor recurrence was noted during the 12-month follow-up. Pathological differential diagnosis of this tumor from other mesenchymal tumors is essential because of its distinct clinicopathological features. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization of human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as immunohistochemical staining of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), was negative in tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first group to study the possible relationship of viral infection and the occurrence of this mesenchymal tumor. Our results suggested no association of vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma and infection with HPV, EBV, or HHV8.

  16. A longitudinal functional analysis framework for analysis of white matter tract statistics.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Gilmore, John H; Geng, Xiujuan; Styner, Martin A; Chen, Kehui; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zhu, Hongtu

    2013-01-01

    Many longitudinal imaging studies have been/are being widely conducted to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to better understand white matter maturation in normal controls and diseased subjects. There is an urgent demand for the development of statistical methods for analyzing diffusion properties along major fiber tracts obtained from longitudinal DTI studies. Jointly analyzing fiber-tract diffusion properties and covariates from longitudinal studies raises several major challenges including (i) infinite-dimensional functional response data, (ii) complex spatial-temporal correlation structure, and (iii) complex spatial smoothness. To address these challenges, this article is to develop a longitudinal functional analysis framework (LFAF) to delineate the dynamic changes of diffusion properties along major fiber tracts and their association with a set of covariates of interest (e.g., age and group status) and the structure of the variability of these white matter tract properties in various longitudinal studies. Our LFAF consists of a functional mixed effects model for addressing all three challenges, an efficient method for spatially smoothing varying coefficient functions, an estimation method for estimating the spatial-temporal correlation structure, a test procedure with a global test statistic for testing hypotheses of interest associated with functional response, and a simultaneous confidence band for quantifying the uncertainty in the estimated coefficient functions. Simulated data are used to evaluate the finite sample performance of LFAF and to demonstrate that LFAF significantly outperforms a voxel-wise mixed model method. We apply LFAF to study the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-matter fiber tracts in a clinical study of neurodevelopment.

  17. FMEM: functional mixed effects modeling for the analysis of longitudinal white matter Tract data.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Gilmore, John H; Geng, Xiujuan; Martin, Styner; Chen, Kehui; Wang, Jane-ling; Zhu, Hongtu

    2014-01-01

    Many longitudinal imaging studies have collected repeated diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data to understand white matter maturation and structural connectivity pattern in normal controls and diseased subjects. There is an urgent demand for the development of statistical methods for the analysis of diffusion properties along fiber tracts and clinical data obtained from longitudinal studies. Jointly analyzing repeated fiber-tract diffusion properties and covariates (e.g., age or gender) raises several major challenges including (i) infinite-dimensional functional response data, (ii) complex spatial-temporal correlation structure, and (iii) complex spatial smoothness. To address these challenges, this article is to develop a functional mixed effects modeling (FMEM) framework to delineate the dynamic changes of diffusion properties along major fiber tracts and their association with a set of covariates of interest and the structure of the variability of these white matter tract properties in various longitudinal studies. Our FMEM consists of a functional mixed effects model for addressing all three challenges, an efficient method for spatially smoothing varying coefficient functions, an estimation method for estimating the spatial-temporal correlation structure, a test procedure with local and global test statistics for testing hypotheses of interest associated with functional response, and a simultaneous confidence band for quantifying the uncertainty in the estimated coefficient functions. Simulated data are used to evaluate the finite sample performance of FMEM and to demonstrate that FMEM significantly outperforms the standard pointwise mixed effects modeling approach. We apply FMEM to study the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-matter fiber tracts in a clinical study of neurodevelopment.

  18. Fibulin-2 and fibulin-5 alterations in tsk mice associated with disorganized hypodermal elastic fibers and skin tethering.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Raphael; Korn, Joseph H; Schiemann, William P; Lafyatis, Robert

    2004-12-01

    The Tight skin (Tsk) mouse is an important model of skin fibrosis that occurs in systemic sclerosis. These mice develop skin tethering and thickening associated with expression of a mutant fibrillin-1 gene. We show that Tsk fibrillin-1 leads to marked alterations in elastic fibers of the hypodermis of Tsk animals. In Tsk mice, a prominent elastic fiber layer found normally at the interface between hypodermal muscle and connective tissue was absent from an early age. The lack of elastic fibers at the hypodermal muscle-connective tissue (M-CT) interface was associated with a loss of staining for fibulin-5 in the same region. These mice also formed disorganized elastic fibers throughout hypodermal connective tissue as they aged. The increased elastic fibers in Tsk hypodermal connective tissue was associated with increased fibrillin-1 and fibulin-2 matrices. These results suggest that Tsk fibrillin-1 causes skin tethering by altering matrix protein composition in Tsk hypodermal connective tissues. The closely parallel alterations in elastogenesis associated with increased fibulin-2 in hypodermal connective tissues and decreased fibulin-5 at the hypodermal M-CT interface suggest that these proteins mediate the effect of Tsk-fibrillin-1 on elastogenesis.

  19. Fiber from a regular diet is directly associated with fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Adriana; Salazar, Nuria; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; González, Sonia

    2013-10-01

    It has recently been suggested that fiber exerts a considerable effect on microbiota composition and on fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, the concentration of which in the colon is important for immune regulation and for maintaining gut and overall health. To test the hypothesis that the fiber consumed in a regular diet affects fecal SCFA concentrations in the elderly, the authors investigated the association between different types of fiber intake and fecal SCFA concentrations in 32 institutionalized elderly subjects aged between 76 and 95 years. Food intake was recorded by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Total, soluble (pectin and hemicellulose) and insoluble (pectin, hemicellulose, Klason lignin, and cellulose) fiber was determined using Marlett Food Composition Tables. Analysis of acetic, propionic, and butyric acid concentrations was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potato intake was directly associated with SCFA concentrations and apple intake with propionate concentration. Of the fibers, cellulose showed an independent association with acetate and butyrate concentrations, and insoluble pectin explained a part of the variation in propionate. In conclusion, our results provide further evidence regarding the relation between diet and SCFA concentration in the elderly. The identification of an association between the regular intake of foods such as potatoes and the production of SCFAs provides an opportunity to improve public health.

  20. Composite split cord malformation associated with a dermal sinus tract, dermoid cyst, and epidural abscess: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saad; Azeem, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Zubair

    2016-01-01

    Background: Split cord malformation (SCM) is typically present at a single level but rarely, may be present at multiple levels in the spinal cord and can be associated with a wide array of lesions such as myelomeningoceles, lipomas, teratomas, and dermal sinus tracts (DSTs). Case Description: We describe a case of a 15-month-old female child who presented with high-grade fever and progressive motor weakness in the lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of SCM along with an epidural abscess, DST, and dermoid cyst. The child underwent surgery for excision of DST along with removal of the dermoid cyst and drainage of epidural abscess. The postoperative course was uneventful. Elective repair of the SCM was performed 4 weeks later. The postoperative course was uneventful again. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, the combination of a composite SCM with a DST and dermoid cyst with associated epidural abscess has rarely been reported in literature. PMID:27168946

  1. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control.

  2. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  3. Fiber in Diet Is Associated with Improvement of Glycated Hemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-López, Lubia; Muñoz-Torres, Abril Violeta; García-Peña, Carmen; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the association of dietary fiber on current everyday diet and other dietary components with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), glucose, lipids profile, and body weight body weight, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes was performed. HbA1c, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and lipids profile were measured. Weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition were measured. Everyday diet with a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was evaluated. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Results. Higher fiber intake was associated with a low HbA1c, high HDL-c levels, low weight, and waist circumference. The highest tertile of calories consumption was associated with a higher fasting glucose level and weight. The highest tertile of carbohydrate consumption was associated with a lower weight. The lowest tertile of total fat and saturated fat was associated with the highest tertile of HDL-c levels, and lower saturated fat intake was associated with lower weight (p < 0.05). Conclusions. A higher content of fiber in the diet reduces HbA1c and triglycerides, while improving HDL-c levels. Increasing fiber consumption while lowering calorie consumption seems to be an appropriate strategy to reduce body weight and promote blood glucose control. PMID:27144178

  4. Effect of level of fiber of the rearing phase diets on egg production, digestive tract traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets differing in energy concentration.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Bouali, O; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-01

    This research studied the effects of additional fiber in the rearing phase diets on egg production, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets varying in energy concentration from 17 to 46 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 10 treatments arranged as a 5 × 2 factorial with 5 rearing phase diets and 2 laying phase diets. During the rearing phase, treatments consisted of a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal and 4 additional diets with a combination of 2 fiber sources (cereal straw and sugar beet pulp, SBP) at 2 levels (2 and 4%). During the laying phase, diets differed in energy content (2,650 vs. 2,750 kcal AMEn/kg) but had the same amino acid content per unit of energy. The rearing diet did not affect any production trait except egg production that was lower in birds fed SBP than in birds fed straw (91.6 and 94.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Laying hens fed the high energy diet had lower feed intake (P < 0.001), better feed conversion (P < 0.01), and greater BW gain (P < 0.05) than hens fed the low energy diet but egg production and egg weight were not affected. At 46 wk of age, none of the GIT traits was affected by previous dietary treatment. At this age, hen BW was positively related with body length (r = 0.500; P < 0.01), tarsus length (r = 0.758; P < 0.001), and body mass index (r = 0.762; P < 0.001) but no effects of type of diet on these traits were detected. In summary, the inclusion of up to 4% of a fiber source in the rearing diets did not affect GIT development of the hens but SBP reduced egg production. An increase in the energy content of the laying phase diet reduced ADFI and improved feed efficiency but did not affect any of the other traits studied.

  5. Effect of level of fiber of the rearing phase diets on egg production, digestive tract traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets differing in energy concentration.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Bouali, O; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2016-08-01

    This research studied the effects of additional fiber in the rearing phase diets on egg production, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits, and body measurements of brown egg-laying hens fed diets varying in energy concentration from 17 to 46 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 10 treatments arranged as a 5 × 2 factorial with 5 rearing phase diets and 2 laying phase diets. During the rearing phase, treatments consisted of a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal and 4 additional diets with a combination of 2 fiber sources (cereal straw and sugar beet pulp, SBP) at 2 levels (2 and 4%). During the laying phase, diets differed in energy content (2,650 vs. 2,750 kcal AMEn/kg) but had the same amino acid content per unit of energy. The rearing diet did not affect any production trait except egg production that was lower in birds fed SBP than in birds fed straw (91.6 and 94.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Laying hens fed the high energy diet had lower feed intake (P < 0.001), better feed conversion (P < 0.01), and greater BW gain (P < 0.05) than hens fed the low energy diet but egg production and egg weight were not affected. At 46 wk of age, none of the GIT traits was affected by previous dietary treatment. At this age, hen BW was positively related with body length (r = 0.500; P < 0.01), tarsus length (r = 0.758; P < 0.001), and body mass index (r = 0.762; P < 0.001) but no effects of type of diet on these traits were detected. In summary, the inclusion of up to 4% of a fiber source in the rearing diets did not affect GIT development of the hens but SBP reduced egg production. An increase in the energy content of the laying phase diet reduced ADFI and improved feed efficiency but did not affect any of the other traits studied. PMID:26976899

  6. Boilermakers' bronchitis. Respiratory tract irritation associated with vanadium pentoxide exposure during oil-to-coal conversion of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Levy, B S; Hoffman, L; Gottsegen, S

    1984-08-01

    Severe respiratory tract irritation occurred in at least 74 of 100 boilermakers who were exposed to high levels of vanadium pentoxide fume during oil-to-coal conversion of a utility company power plant in a rural area of western Massachusetts. Many were welders working in confined areas with inadequate ventilation. Most frequent symptoms were productive cough, sore throat, dyspnea on exertion, and chest pain or discomfort. The illness was severe enough to cause 70 workers to consult physicians and most of them to lose time from work (median, five days). Wheezing (in 39%) was the most frequent finding on physical examination. Mild hypoxemia was noted in several workers; most (72%) had normal chest x-ray films. Expiratory flow rate over the middle 50% of the forced vital capacity was the pulmonary function test most remarkably affected (median, 57% of predicted for 24 workers tested). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration documented levels of vanadium pentoxide fume at or above the permissible exposure limit in all eight air samples taken from inside the boiler; it cited the company for inadequate mechanical ventilation and an inadequate respiratory protection program for workers. The report of this outbreak may help prevent future problems by drawing attention of physicians, workers, and managers to the potential pulmonary hazards in power plant conversion.

  7. Epidemiological factors associated with ESBL- and non ESBL-producing E. coli causing urinary tract infection in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Frederik Boëtius; Schønning, Kristian; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Littauer, Pia; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how use of antibiotics precedes the presence of ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice. The authors performed a triple-case-control study where three case groups were individually compared to a single control group of uninfected individuals. Urine samples were prospectively collected and retrospective statistical analyses were done. This study included 98 cases with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, 174 with antibiotic-resistant (non-ESBL) E. coli, 177 with susceptible E. coli and 200 with culture negative urine samples. Case groups had significantly higher use of antibiotics than the control group within 30 days before infection (p < 0.0001). The ESBL group had significantly more hospital admissions than the other case groups (p < 0.05). Hospital admission was an independent risk factor for community onset UTI by ESBL-producing E. coli. Exposure to antibiotics was a risk factor for UTI with E. coli, while prior antibiotic usage was not an indisputable predictor for infection with ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice. PMID:26523346

  8. Epidemiological factors associated with ESBL- and non ESBL-producing E. coli causing urinary tract infection in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Frederik Boëtius; Schønning, Kristian; Rasmussen, Steen Christian; Littauer, Pia; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how use of antibiotics precedes the presence of ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice. The authors performed a triple-case-control study where three case groups were individually compared to a single control group of uninfected individuals. Urine samples were prospectively collected and retrospective statistical analyses were done. This study included 98 cases with urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL-producing E. coli, 174 with antibiotic-resistant (non-ESBL) E. coli, 177 with susceptible E. coli and 200 with culture negative urine samples. Case groups had significantly higher use of antibiotics than the control group within 30 days before infection (p < 0.0001). The ESBL group had significantly more hospital admissions than the other case groups (p < 0.05). Hospital admission was an independent risk factor for community onset UTI by ESBL-producing E. coli. Exposure to antibiotics was a risk factor for UTI with E. coli, while prior antibiotic usage was not an indisputable predictor for infection with ESBL-producing E.coli in general practice.

  9. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePlus

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  10. No association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation or arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Liese, Angela D.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Marcovina, Santica; Reynolds, Kristi; Shah, Amy S.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Wadwa, R. Paul; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation and arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US. Methods Data are from youth ≥ 10 years old with clinically diagnosed T1D for ≥ 3 months and ≥ 1 positive diabetes autoantibody in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Fiber intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with measurement error (ME) accounted for by structural sub-models derived using additional 24-hour dietary recall data in a calibration sample and the respective exposure-disease model covariates. Markers of inflammation, measured at baseline, included IL-6 (n=1405), CRP (n=1387), and fibrinogen (n=1340); markers of arterial stiffness, measured approximately 19 months post-baseline, were available in a subset of participants and included augmentation index (n=180), pulse wave velocity (n=184), and brachial distensibility (n=177). Results Mean (SD) T1D duration was 47.9 (43.2) months; 12.5% of participants were obese. Mean (SD) ME-adjusted fiber intake was 15 (2.8) g/day. In multivariable analyses, fiber intake was not associated with inflammation or arterial stiffness. Conclusion Among youth with T1D, fiber intake does not meet recommendations and is not associated with measures of systemic inflammation or vascular stiffness. Further research is needed to evaluate whether fiber is associated with these outcomes in older individuals with T1D or among individuals with higher intakes than those observed in the present study. PMID:24613131

  11. Dietary sodium chloride deprivation throughout development selectively influences the terminal field organization of gustatory afferent fibers projecting to the rat nucleus of the solitary tract.

    PubMed

    King, C T; Hill, D L

    1991-01-01

    In order to determine whether the developing central gustatory system responds to altered sensory experience, terminal fields of the chorda tympani nerve (CT) within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in control, NaCl deprived, and rats in which CT taste responses "recovered" from NaCl deprivation were investigated via anterograde transport of HRP. Rats fed a low sodium diet (0.03% NaCl) from the third day of gestation to at least 35 days postnatal exhibited both abnormally distributed and irregularly shaped CT terminal fields. Specifically, the dorsal zone of the field was the smallest in controls whereas it was the largest in deprived rats, occupying more medial and caudal territory within the nucleus. The portion of the field immediately ventral to the dorsalmost zone was characterized by a compact, oval shape in control rats and an irregular, broad configuration in deprived rats. Although it has been observed that deprivation-induced changes in the neurophysiology of the CT are reversible, the central morphological alterations reported here remain abnormal. Restoration of 1.0% NaCl in the diet at 28 days postnatally, for at least 60 days, did not result in normal CT terminal fields. The pattern of the field in rats "recovered" from NaCl deprivation was comparable to that found in deprived rats, and the size of the field was three times that found in control and deprived rats. The terminal fields of another nerve containing gustatory afferents, the lingual-tonsilar branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (LT-IX), were studied for comparison. Interestingly, the pattern of the LT-IX field was not altered by sodium deprivation. The relative size and topography of the LT-IX fields in deprived rats were similar to controls. Thus, sodium deprivation appears to alter selectively the anatomical organization of the CT. Differences in vulnerability between the CT and LT-IX terminal fields may derive from differences in the responsiveness of these nerves to NaCl, and

  12. Anisotropic Smoothing Improves DT-MRI-Based Muscle Fiber Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Amanda K. W.; Ding, Zhaohua; Elder, Christopher P.; Towse, Theodore F.; Damon, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of anisotropic smoothing on fiber tracking measures, including pennation angle, fiber tract length, and fiber tract number in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in healthy subjects using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Materials and Methods 3T DW-MRI data were used for muscle fiber tractography in the MG of healthy subjects. Anisotropic smoothing was applied at three levels (5%, 10%, 15%), and pennation angle, tract length, fiber tract number, fractional anisotropy, and principal eigenvector orientation were quantified for each smoothing level. Results Fiber tract length increased with pre-fiber tracking smoothing, and local heterogeneities in fiber direction were reduced. However, pennation angle was not affected by smoothing. Conclusion Modest anisotropic smoothing (10%) improved fiber-tracking results, while preserving structural features. PMID:26010830

  13. IL-2 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with respiratory tract infection and may modulate the effect of vitamin E on lower respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents1234

    PubMed Central

    Belisle, Sarah E; Hamer, Davidson H; Leka, Lynette S; Dallal, Gerard E; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Fine, Basil C; Jacques, Paul F; Ordovas, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vitamin E supplementation may be a potential strategy to prevent respiratory tract infections (RIs) in the elderly. The efficacy of vitamin E supplementation may depend on individual factors including specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at immunoregulatory genes. Objective: We examined whether the effect of vitamin E on RIs in the elderly was dependent on genetic backgrounds as indicated by SNPs at cytokine genes. Design: We used data and DNA from a previous vitamin E intervention study (200 IU vitamin E or a placebo daily for 1 y) in elderly nursing home residents to examine vitamin E–gene interactions for incidence of RI. We determined the genotypes of common SNPs at IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in 500 participants. We used negative binomial regression to analyze the association between genotype and incidence of infection. Results: The effect of vitamin E on lower RI depended on sex and the SNP at IL-10 −819G→A (P = 0.03 for interaction for lower RI). Furthermore, we observed that subjects with the least prevalent genotypes at IL-2 −330A→C (P = 0.02 for upper RI), IL-10 −819G→A (P = 0.08 for upper RI), and IL-10 −1082C→T (P < 0.001 for lower RI in men) had a lower incidence of RI independent of vitamin E supplementation. Conclusions: Studies that evaluate the effect of vitamin E on RIs should consider both genetic factors and sex because our results suggest that both may have a significant bearing on the efficacy of vitamin E. Furthermore, common SNPs at cytokine genes may contribute to the individual risk of RIs in the elderly. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00758914. PMID:20484443

  14. A new genome scan for primary nonsyndromic vesicoureteric reflux emphasizes high genetic heterogeneity and shows linkage and association with various genes already implicated in urinary tract development

    PubMed Central

    Darlow, J M; Dobson, M G; Darlay, R; Molony, C M; Hunziker, M; Green, A J; Cordell, H J; Puri, P; Barton, D E

    2014-01-01

    Primary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder toward the kidneys, results from a developmental anomaly of the vesicoureteric valve mechanism, and is often associated with other urinary tract anomalies. It is the most common urological problem in children, with an estimated prevalence of 1–2%, and is a major cause of hypertension in childhood and of renal failure in childhood or adult life. We present the results of a genetic linkage and association scan using 900,000 markers. Our linkage results show a large number of suggestive linkage peaks, with different results in two groups of families, suggesting that VUR is even more genetically heterogeneous than previously imagined. The only marker achieving P < 0.02 for linkage in both groups of families is 270 kb from EMX2. In three sibships, we found recessive linkage to KHDRBS3, previously reported in a Somali family. In another family we discovered sex-reversal associated with VUR, implicating PRKX, for which there was weak support for dominant linkage in the overall data set. Several other candidate genes are suggested by our linkage or association results, and four of our linkage peaks are within copy-number variants recently found to be associated with renal hypodysplasia. Undoubtedly there are many genes related to VUR. Our study gives support to some loci suggested by earlier studies as well as suggesting new ones, and provides numerous indications for further investigations. PMID:24498626

  15. Increased Risk of Urinary Tract Cancer in ESRD Patients Associated with Usage of Chinese Herbal Products Suspected of Containing Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Wei, Alan; Chen, Ya-Yin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and urothelial cancer (UC) are associated with the consumption of Chinese herbal products containing aristolochic acid (AA) by the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of UC associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products among ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Health Insurance reimbursement database to enroll all ESRD patients in Taiwan from 1998–2002. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, residence in region with endemic black foot disease, urinary tract infection, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Results A total of 38,995 ESRD patients were included in the final analysis, and 320 patients developed UC after ESRD. Having been prescribed Mu Tong that was adulterated with Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) before 2004, or an estimated consumption of more than 1–100 mg of aristolochic acid, were both associated with an increased risk of UC in the multivariable analyses. Analgesic consumption of more than 150 pills was also associated with an increased risk of UC, although there was little correlation between the two risk factors. Conclusion Consumption of aristolochic acid-related Chinese herbal products was associated with an increased risk of developing UC in ESRD patients. Regular follow-up screening for UC in ESRD patients who have consumed Chinese herbal products is thus necessary. PMID:25170766

  16. Postcircumcision urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H A; Drucker, M M; Vainer, S; Ashkenasi, A; Amir, J; Frydman, M; Varsano, I

    1992-06-01

    The possible association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ritual circumcision on the eighth day of life was studied by analyzing the epidemiology of urinary tract infections during the first year of life in 169 children with UTI (56 males and 113 females) born in Israel from 1979 to 1984. Forty-eight percent of the episodes of UTI occurring in males appeared during the 12 days following circumcision, and the increased incidence during that period was highly significant. The median age of the males at the time of the UTI was 16 days, compared with seven months in females. Ritual Jewish circumcision as practiced in Israel may be a predisposing factor for UTI during the 12-day period following that procedure.

  17. An assessment of the risk arising from electrical effects associated with carbon fibers released from commercial aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalelkar, A. S.; Fiksel, J.; Rosenfield, D.; Richardson, D. L.; Hagopian, J.

    1980-01-01

    The risks associated with electrical effects arising from carbon fibers released from commercial aviation aircraft fires were estimated for 1993. The expected annual losses were estimated to be about $470 (1977 dollars) in 1993. The chances of total losses from electrical effects exceeding $100,000 (1977 dollars) in 1993 were established to be about one in ten thousand.

  18. Fate and effect of ingested Bacillus cereus spores and vegetative cells in the intestinal tract of human-flora-associated rats.

    PubMed

    Wilcks, Andrea; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Licht, Tine Rask

    2006-02-01

    The fate and effect of Bacillus cereus F4433/73R in the intestine of human-flora-associated rats was studied using bacteriological culturing techniques and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in combination with cell assays and immunoassays for detection of enterotoxins. In faecal samples from animals receiving vegetative cells, only few B. cereus cells were detected. Spores survived the gastric barrier well, and were in some cases detected up to 2 weeks after ingestion. Selective growing revealed no major changes in the intestinal flora during passage of B. cereus. However, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis with universal 16S rRNA gene primers revealed significant changes in the intestinal microbiota of animals dosed with spores. Vero cell assays and a commercial kit (BCET-RPLA) did not reveal any enterotoxin production from B. cereus F4433/73R in the intestinal tract.

  19. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASE PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION AT HOSPITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT, BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Savatmorigkorngul, Sorravit; Poowarattanawiwit, Pongsuree; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares

    2016-03-01

    Urinary tract infection or UTI is most commonly caused by Escherichia coli. This study investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) E. coli in community-acquired UTI presenting at the Emergency Department, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. A retrospective review was conducted over a one-year period (2014) of case histories of patients over 15 years of age diagnosed with (n = 159) and without culture-positive (n = 249) ESBL E. coli. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed four independent risk factors for UTI caused by ESBL E. coli, namely, urinary catheter use, previous UTI in which ESBL E. coli was present, and previous use of antibiotics cephalosporin and penicillin. This information should be useful in devising future public health prevention and control programs for ESBL E. coli-associated community-acquired UTI.

  20. Association of RSV-A ON1 genotype with Increased Pediatric Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Keisuke; Le, Minh Nhat; Okamoto, Michiko; Wadagni, Anita Carolle Akpeedje; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Toizumi, Michiko; Pham, Enga; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Ai Thi Thuy; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Ariyoshi, Koya; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, Masahiro; Dang, Duc Anh; Yoshida, Lay-Myint

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial discovery of RSV-A ON1 in Canada in 2010, ON1 has been reported worldwide, yet information regarding its clinical impact and severity has been controversial. To investigate the clinical relevance of RSV-A ON1,acute respiratory infection (ARI) cases enrolled to our population-based prospective pediatric ARI surveillance at Khanh Hoa General Hospital, Central Vietnam from January 2010 through December 2012 were studied. Clinical-epidemiological information and nasopharyngeal samples were collected. Multiplex PCR assays were performed for screening 13 respiratory viruses. RSV-positive samples were further tested for subgroups (A/B) and genotypes information by sequencing the G-glycoprotein 2nd hypervariable region. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of RSV-A ON1. A total of 1854 ARI cases were enrolled and 426 (23.0%) of them were RSV-positive. During the study period, RSV-A and B had been co-circulating. NA1 was the predominant RSV-A genotype until the appearance of ON1 in 2012. RSV-related ARI hospitalization incidence significantly increased after the emergence of ON1. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that risk of lower respiratory tract infection was 2.26 (95% CI: 1.37–3.72) times, and radiologically-confirmed pneumonia was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.01–3.87) times greater in ON1 compared to NA1 cases. Our result suggested that ON1 ARI cases were clinically more severe than NA1. PMID:27306333

  1. Association of RSV-A ON1 genotype with Increased Pediatric Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Keisuke; Le, Minh Nhat; Okamoto, Michiko; Wadagni, Anita Carolle Akpeedje; Nguyen, Hien Anh; Toizumi, Michiko; Pham, Enga; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Ai Thi Thuy; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Ariyoshi, Koya; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, Masahiro; Dang, Duc Anh; Yoshida, Lay-Myint

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial discovery of RSV-A ON1 in Canada in 2010, ON1 has been reported worldwide, yet information regarding its clinical impact and severity has been controversial. To investigate the clinical relevance of RSV-A ON1,acute respiratory infection (ARI) cases enrolled to our population-based prospective pediatric ARI surveillance at Khanh Hoa General Hospital, Central Vietnam from January 2010 through December 2012 were studied. Clinical-epidemiological information and nasopharyngeal samples were collected. Multiplex PCR assays were performed for screening 13 respiratory viruses. RSV-positive samples were further tested for subgroups (A/B) and genotypes information by sequencing the G-glycoprotein 2nd hypervariable region. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of RSV-A ON1. A total of 1854 ARI cases were enrolled and 426 (23.0%) of them were RSV-positive. During the study period, RSV-A and B had been co-circulating. NA1 was the predominant RSV-A genotype until the appearance of ON1 in 2012. RSV-related ARI hospitalization incidence significantly increased after the emergence of ON1. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that risk of lower respiratory tract infection was 2.26 (95% CI: 1.37-3.72) times, and radiologically-confirmed pneumonia was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.01-3.87) times greater in ON1 compared to NA1 cases. Our result suggested that ON1 ARI cases were clinically more severe than NA1. PMID:27306333

  2. Multicenter Cohort Study to Assess the Impact of a Silver-Alloy and Hydrogel-Coated Urinary Catheter on Symptomatic Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, James W.; Jarvis, William R.; Thomas, Lendon

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a silver-alloy hydrogel catheter on symptomatic catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). DESIGN: Multicenter before-after non-randomized cohort study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Seven acute care hospitals ranging in size from 124 to 607 beds participated in this study. The study population included adult patients with a positive urine culture 2 or more days after admission, who underwent Foley catheterization. METHODS: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection surveillance was conducted at each hospital for at least 3 months during the use of a standard catheter and 3 months during the use of the silver-alloy hydrogel catheter. Both the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance and a clinical definition of CAUTI were used for rate calculation. RESULTS: A 47% relative reduction in the CAUTI rate was observed with the silver-alloy hydrogel catheter compared to the standard catheter when both infection definitions were used (0.945/1000 patient days vs 0.498/1000 patient days) (odds ratio = 0.53; P < .0001; 95% CI: 0.45–0.62). When only NHSN-defined CAUTIs were considered, a 58% relative reduction occurred in the silver-alloy hydrogel period (0.60/1000 patient days vs 0.25/1000 patient days) (odds ratio = 0.42; P < .0001; 95% CI: 0.34–0.53). Antimicrobial days for CAUTIs decreased from 1165 (standard catheter period) to 406 (silver-alloy hydrogel period). CONCLUSIONS: Use of a silver-alloy hydrogel urinary catheter reduced symptomatic CAUTI occurrences as defined by both NHSN and clinical criteria. PMID:24922561

  3. Lower concentrations of chemotactic cytokines and soluble innate factors in the lower female genital tract associated with use of injectable hormonal contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Masson, Lindi; Sibeko, Sengeziwe; Werner, Lise; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Mlisana, Koleka; Shey, Muki; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone-based injectable hormonal contraceptives (HCs) potentially modulate genital barrier integrity and regulate the innate immune environment in the female genital tract, thereby enhancing risk for STIs or HIV infection. We investigated the effects of injectable HC use on concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and other soluble factors associated with genital epithelial repair and integrity. The concentrations of 42 inflammatory, regulatory, adaptive, growth factors and hematopoetic cytokines, five matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from 64 HIV negative women using injectable HCs and 64 control women not using any HCs, in a matched case-control study. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV; nugent score ≥7), or common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariate analyses adjusting for condom use, sex work status, marital status, BV and STIs, median concentrations of chemokines (eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC), adaptive cytokines (IL-15), growth factors (PDGF-AA) and a metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) were significantly lower in CVLs from women using injectable HCs than controls. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 and chemokine fractalkine were less likely to have detectable levels in women using injectable HCs compared to those not using HCs. We conclude that injectable HC use was associated with an immunosuppressive female genital tract innate immune profile. While the relationship between injectable HC use and STI or HIV risk is yet to be resolved, our data suggest that injectable HCs effects were similar between STI positive and STI negative participants. PMID:25956139

  4. Lower concentrations of chemotactic cytokines and soluble innate factors in the lower female genital tract associated with the use of injectable hormonal contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Masson, Lindi; Sibeko, Sengeziwe; Werner, Lise; McKinnon, Lyle R; Mlisana, Koleka; Shey, Muki; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-08-01

    Progesterone-based injectable hormonal contraceptives (HCs) potentially modulate genital barrier integrity and regulate the innate immune environment in the female genital tract, thereby enhancing the risk of STIs or HIV infection. We investigated the effects of injectable HC use on concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and other soluble factors associated with genital epithelial repair and integrity. The concentrations of 42 inflammatory, regulatory, adaptive growth factors and hematopoietic cytokines, five matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from 64 HIV-negative women using injectable HCs and 64 control women not using any HCs, in a matched case-control study. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV; Nugent score ≥7), or common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariate analyses adjusting for condom use, sex work status, marital status, BV and STIs, median concentrations of chemokines (eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC), adaptive cytokines (IL-15), growth factors (PDGF-AA) and a metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) were significantly lower in CVLs from women using injectable HCs than controls. In addition, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 and the chemokine fractalkine were less likely to have detectable levels in women using injectable HCs compared with those not using HCs. We conclude that injectable HC use was broadly associated with an immunosuppressive female genital tract innate immune profile. While the relationship between injectable HC use and STI or HIV risk is yet to be resolved, our data suggest that the effects of injectable HCs were similar in STI-positive and STI-negative participants.

  5. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites.

    PubMed

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Arif, Muhammad; Simon, Leonardo C; Pauls, K Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP) matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs) grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt) by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL) for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue. PMID:26167917

  6. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites

    PubMed Central

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Arif, Muhammad; Simon, Leonardo C.; Pauls, K. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP) matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs) grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt) by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL) for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue. PMID:26167917

  7. Association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of a group of female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Houghton, L A; Green, T J; Donovan, U M; Gibson, R S; Stephen, A M; O'Connor, D L

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and the folate status of Canadian female adolescents. We also assessed dietary folate intakes and evaluated the prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in these subjects. Female adolescents aged 14-19 y (n = 224) were recruited and fasting blood samples were collected. Dietary intakes (3-d food record) were recorded and participants were classified as lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, or omnivores on the basis of food-consumption patterns assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Fourteen percent, 17%, and 26% of lactoovovegetarians, semivegetarians, and omnivores, respectively, had dietary folate intakes below their predicted requirements; 1%, 4%, and 23%, respectively, had serum folate concentrations indicative of deficiency. Despite low dietary folate intakes and serum folate concentrations, few subjects had homocysteine concentrations indicative of deficiency, suggesting that the degree of folate depletion had not yet produced functional consequences. Most important, results suggest that the consumption of nonstarch polysaccharide is significantly associated with serum folate concentrations (P < 0.001). For each 1-g increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake, a 1.8% increase in serum folate concentration is expected. In summary, we propose that an increase in nonstarch polysaccharide intake may promote the intestinal biosynthesis of folate, providing a complementary strategy to enhance the folate nutriture of humans.

  8. A subset of myofibroblastic cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate collagen fiber elongation, which is prognostic in multiple cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Christopher J.; Noble, Fergus; Ward, Matthew; Bullock, Marc; Drifka, Cole; Mellone, Massimiliano; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Johnston, Harvey E.; Hayden, Annette; Thirdborough, Steve; Liu, Yuming; Smith, David M.; Mellows, Toby; Kao, W. John; Garbis, Spiros D.; Mirnezami, Alex; Underwood, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Collagen structure has been shown to influence tumor cell invasion, metastasis and clinical outcome in breast cancer. However, it remains unclear how it affects other solid cancers. Here we utilized multi-photon laser scanning microscopy and Second Harmonic Generation to identify alterations to collagen fiber structure within the tumor stroma of head & neck, esophageal and colorectal cancers. Image segmentation algorithms were then applied to quantitatively characterize these morphological changes, showing that elongated collagen fibers significantly correlated with poor clinical outcome (Log Rank p < 0.05). We used TGF-β treatment to model fibroblast conversion to smooth muscle actin SMA-positive cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and found that these cells induce the formation of elongated collagen fibers in vivo. However, proteomic/transcriptomic analysis of SMA-positive CAFs cultured ex-vivo showed significant heterogeneity in the expression of genes with collagen fibril organizing gene ontology. Notably, stratifying patients according to stromal SMA-positivity and collagen fiber elongation was found to provide a highly significant correlation with poor survival in all 3 cancer types (Log Rank p ≤ 0.003). In summary, we show that increased collagen fiber length correlates with poor patient survival in multiple tumor types and that only a sub-set of SMA-positive CAFs can mediate the formation of this collagen structure. PMID:26716418

  9. Henle Fiber Layer Phase Retardation Changes Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    VanNasdale, Dean A.; Elsner, Ann E.; Peabody, Todd D.; Kohne, Kimberly D.; Malinovsky, Victor E.; Haggerty, Bryan P.; Weber, Anke; Clark, Christopher A.; Burns, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify and compare phase retardation amplitude and regularity associated with the Henle fiber layer (HFL) between nonexudative AMD patients and age-matched controls using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) imaging. Methods. A scanning laser polarimeter was used to collect 15 × 15° macular-centered images in 25 patients with nonexudative AMD and 25 age-matched controls. Raw image data were used to compute macular phase retardation maps associated with the HFL. Consecutive, annular regions of interest from 0.5 to 3.0° eccentricity, centered on the fovea, were used to generate intensity profiles from phase retardation data and analyzed with two complementary techniques: a normalized second harmonic frequency (2f) of the fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis and a curve fitting analysis using a 2f sine function. Paired t-tests were used to compare the normalized 2f FFT magnitude at each eccentricity between the two groups, the eccentricity that yielded the maximum normalized 2f FFT between paired individuals across the two groups, and curve fitting RMS error at each eccentricity between the two groups. Results. Normalized 2f FFT components were lower in the AMD group at each eccentricity, with no difference between the two groups in the maximum normalized 2f FFT component eccentricity. The root-mean-square (RMS) error from curve fitting was significantly higher in the AMD group. Conclusions. Phase retardation changes in the central macula indicate loss and/or structural alterations to central cone photoreceptors in nonexudative AMD patients. Scanning laser polarimetry imaging is a noninvasive method for quantifying cone photoreceptor changes associated with central macular disease. PMID:25525166

  10. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease across the range of the threatened Mojave Desert tortoise: associations with thermal regime and natural antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sandmeier, Franziska C; Tracy, C Richard; Hagerty, Bridgette E; DuPré, Sally; Mohammadpour, Hamid; Hunter, Kenneth

    2013-03-01

    Most research of upper respiratory tract disease (mycoplasmal URTD) in the threatened Mojave Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) has worked under the hypothesis that the pathogen, Mycoplasma agassizii, has a relatively consistent and predictable effect on tortoise populations across their natural range. In contrast, we hypothesized that multiple factors influence the prevalence of disease and analyzed biological and environmental variables that vary significantly across the Mojave Desert. We used multiple regression models to analyze associations between mycoplasmal URTD and the genetic structure of 24 tortoise populations, levels of natural antibody (NAb) to M. agassizii in tortoises (one component of the innate immune system), precipitation, and colder thermal regimes. We detected a significant, positive association between mean levels of NAb and seroprevalence to M. agassizii. We hypothesized that NAbs may provide tolerance to mycoplasmal infections and that more tolerant populations may act as host reservoirs of disease. We also detected significant associations between colder winters and mycoplasmal URTD, suggesting that colder winters may depress tortoise immune resistance against M. agassizii or enhance conditions for the growth of M. agassizii.

  11. Major outer membrane protein variants of Chlamydia trachomatis are associated with severe upper genital tract infections and histopathology in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Dean, D; Oudens, E; Bolan, G; Padian, N; Schachter, J

    1995-10-01

    Cervical and endometrial samples from 33 women with lower genital tract infection (LGTI) or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were evaluated for Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein gene (omp1) polymorphism. Polymorphism was correlated with symptoms, clinical findings, and histopathology. F, E, I, D, H, K, and G genotypes were represented. Thirty-seven genotyped samples (66%) displayed omp1 mutations compared with prototype sequences. Significantly, 7 of 7 women with variant F infections had PID compared with 6 non-variant F infections in women with LGTI (P = .003). PID was defined by clinical findings or plasma cells on endometrial biopsy. Of interest, F variants were associated with histopathology. Eleven women (92%) with E genotypes were asymptomatic. Our data suggest that F variants are associated with symptomatic, severe endometrial disease, whereas E genotypes are associated with asymptomatic, milder infections. Detection of virulent genotypes may provide a prognostic indicator for serious sequelae. Larger studies are required to evaluate the molecular, immunologic, and epidemiologic basis for these findings. PMID:7561174

  12. Ribosomal protein S6 is highly expressed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and associates with mRNA containing a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine tract.

    PubMed

    Hagner, P R; Mazan-Mamczarz, K; Dai, B; Balzer, E M; Corl, S; Martin, S S; Zhao, X F; Gartenhaus, R B

    2011-03-31

    The molecular mechanism(s) linking tumorigenesis and morphological alterations in the nucleolus are presently coming into focus. The nucleolus is the cellular organelle in which the formation of ribosomal subunits occurs. Ribosomal biogenesis occurs through the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), rRNA processing and production of ribosomal proteins. An error in any of these processes may lead to deregulated cellular translation, evident in multiple cancers and 'ribosomopathies'. Deregulated protein synthesis may be achieved through the overexpression of ribosomal proteins as seen in primary leukemic blasts with elevated levels of ribosomal proteins S11 and S14. In this study, we demonstrate that ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is highly expressed in primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) samples. Genetic modulation of RPS6 protein levels with specifically targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses led to a decrease in the actively proliferating population of cells compared with control shRNA. Low-dose rapamycin treatments have been shown to affect the translation of 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (5' TOP) tract mRNA, which encodes the translational machinery, implicating RPS6 in 5' TOP translation. Recently, it was shown that disruption of 40S ribosomal biogenesis through specific small inhibitory RNA knockdown of RPS6 defined RPS6 as a critical regulator of 5' TOP translation. For the first time, we show that RPS6 associates with multiple mRNAs containing a 5' TOP tract. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanism(s) involved in ribosomal biogenesis and deregulated protein synthesis in DLBCL. PMID:21102526

  13. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection. PMID:26411309

  14. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  15. Autotract: automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets.

  16. Autotract: Automatic cleaning and tracking of fibers

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Juan C.; Yang, Jean Y.; Budin, François; Styner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new tool named Autotract to automate fiber tracking in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Autotract uses prior knowledge from a source DTI and a set of corresponding fiber bundles to extract new fibers for a target DTI. Autotract starts by aligning both DTIs and uses the source fibers as seed points to initialize a tractography algorithm. We enforce similarity between the propagated source fibers and automatically traced fibers by computing metrics such as fiber length and fiber distance between the bundles. By analyzing these metrics, individual fiber tracts can be pruned. As a result, we show that both bundles have similar characteristics. Additionally, we compare the automatically traced fibers against bundles previously generated and validated in the target DTI by an expert. This work is motivated by medical applications in which known bundles of fiber tracts in the human brain need to be analyzed for multiple datasets. PMID:27065227

  17. Association of Circulating 25(OH)D and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Four-Year Prospective Study among Elderly Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Chan, Dicken; Woo, Jean; Chen, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bailing; Tse, Lap-Ah; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The role of vitamin D in relation to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) remains inconclusive. This four-year longitudinal study aims to explore the association of circulating 25(OH)D and LUTS in elderly Chinese men. Two thousand Chinese men aged 65 and older were recruited from a local community, of which 1998 (99.9%) at baseline and 1564 (78.2%) at four-year follow-up reported data on LUTS, and 988 of the randomly chosen subpopulation were assayed for serum 25(OH)D by radioimmunoassay at baseline. LUTS were evaluated by a validated International Prostate Symptoms Scale (IPSS). Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health, and medications were collected. Serum parathyroid and sex steroid hormones and genotypes of vitamin D receptors were assayed. The association of serum 25(OH)D and LUTS was examined by using multivariable regression models. Serum 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with the changes of IPSS or the risk of LUTS in overall participants. However, among men with 25(OH)D ≤ 60 nmol/L, each 10 nmol/L increase of 25(OH)D over 0 nmol/L was significantly associated with 1.3 lower points of IPSS or a 51.6% decreased risk for moderate/severe LUTS four years later. Adjustment for serum androstenedione (p = 0.019) and dehydropiandrosterone (p = 0.037) attenuated the associations. Our study suggested that among individuals with low vitamin D status, the increase of the 25(OH)D level may be associated with a lowered risk of LUTS. PMID:27164139

  18. Association of Circulating 25(OH)D and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Four-Year Prospective Study among Elderly Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Chan, Dicken; Woo, Jean; Chen, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bailing; Tse, Lap-Ah; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The role of vitamin D in relation to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) remains inconclusive. This four-year longitudinal study aims to explore the association of circulating 25(OH)D and LUTS in elderly Chinese men. Two thousand Chinese men aged 65 and older were recruited from a local community, of which 1998 (99.9%) at baseline and 1564 (78.2%) at four-year follow-up reported data on LUTS, and 988 of the randomly chosen subpopulation were assayed for serum 25(OH)D by radioimmunoassay at baseline. LUTS were evaluated by a validated International Prostate Symptoms Scale (IPSS). Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, health, and medications were collected. Serum parathyroid and sex steroid hormones and genotypes of vitamin D receptors were assayed. The association of serum 25(OH)D and LUTS was examined by using multivariable regression models. Serum 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with the changes of IPSS or the risk of LUTS in overall participants. However, among men with 25(OH)D ≤ 60 nmol/L, each 10 nmol/L increase of 25(OH)D over 0 nmol/L was significantly associated with 1.3 lower points of IPSS or a 51.6% decreased risk for moderate/severe LUTS four years later. Adjustment for serum androstenedione (p = 0.019) and dehydropiandrosterone (p = 0.037) attenuated the associations. Our study suggested that among individuals with low vitamin D status, the increase of the 25(OH)D level may be associated with a lowered risk of LUTS. PMID:27164139

  19. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles associated with ocular laterality and dominance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin A; Kim, Jung-Sub; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Hana; Park, Chan Kee

    2014-01-13

    Although human anatomy is arranged symmetrically based on a central vertical axis, the majority of persons will use one side of their body more readily than the other. Interestingly, these lateral body dominances including ocular dominance are all rightward. The asymmetry in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness between the right and left eyes in healthy subjects has been reported in several studies, and the reason for this structural difference between right and left eyes is unclear. In the manuscript, we hypothesized that the characteristics of ocular dominance are reflected in the RNFL profile and may be related to inter-ocular structural differences between right and left eyes. In this study, ocular dominance occurred mostly in right eyes (right vs. left: 78.77% vs. 21.22%; P<0.001). According to ocular dominance and laterality, different relationships between the inferior and superior RNFLs were observed. The right eyes had a thicker RNFL, except in the superior quadrant, than the left eyes. Regardless of laterality, inferior RNFL was thicker than superior RNFL in the dominant eyes. To our knowledge, this paper is the first report demonstrating the RNFL characteristics associated with ocular dominance.

  20. Anatomical Study of Intrahemispheric Association Fibers in the Brains of Capuchin Monkeys (Sapajus sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Kellen Christina Malheiros; Nishijo, Hisao; Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Ferreira, Jussara Rocha; Caixeta, Leonardo Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the complexity of fiber connections in the brain plays a key role in the evolutionary process of the primate brain and behaviors. The patterns of brain fiber systems have been studied in detail in many nonhuman primates, but not in Sapajus sp. Behavioral studies indicated that Sapajus sp. (bearded capuchins) show highly cognitive behaviors such as tool use comparable to those in other nonhuman primates. To compare the brain fiber systems in capuchins with those in other nonhuman primates and humans, the intrahemispheric fibers systems in 24 cerebral hemispheres of Sapajus were dissected by a freezing-thawing procedure. Dissection of the hemispheres in lateral view indicated short arcuate fibers, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, while that in a medial view indicated short arcuate fibers, the cingulum united with the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The results showed that the fiber systems in Sapajus are comparable to those in rhesus and humans, except for a lack of independent superior longitudinal fasciculus and cingulum in Sapajus. PMID:26693488

  1. Differences in muscle fiber size and associated energetic costs in phylogenetically paired tropical and temperate birds.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    Tropical and temperate birds provide a unique system to examine mechanistic consequences of life-history trade-offs at opposing ends of the pace-of-life spectrum; tropical birds tend to have a slow pace of life whereas temperate birds the opposite. Birds in the tropics have a lower whole-animal basal metabolic rate and peak metabolic rate, lower rates of reproduction, and longer survival than birds in temperate regions. Although skeletal muscle has a relatively low tissue-specific metabolism at rest, it makes up the largest fraction of body mass and therefore contributes more to basal metabolism than any other tissue. A principal property of muscle cells that influences their rate of metabolism is fiber size. The optimal fiber size hypothesis attempts to link whole-animal basal metabolic rate to the cost of maintaining muscle mass by stating that larger fibers may be metabolically cheaper to maintain since the surface area∶volume ratio (SA∶V) is reduced compared with smaller fibers and thus the amount of area to transport ions is also reduced. Because tropical birds have a reduced whole-organism metabolism, we hypothesized that they would have larger muscle fibers than temperate birds, given that larger muscle fibers have reduced energy demand from membrane Na(+)-K(+) pumps. Alternatively, smaller muscle fibers could result in a lower capacity for shivering and exercise. To test this idea, we examined muscle fiber size and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in 16 phylogenetically paired species of tropical and temperate birds. We found that 3 of the 16 paired comparisons indicated that tropical birds had significantly larger fibers, contrary to our hypothesis. Our data show that SA∶V is proportional to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in muscles of birds.

  2. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols associated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics release of polyphenols in Mexican 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Benitez, Francisco J; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Quirós-Sauceda, Ana E; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G

    2015-03-01

    The biological properties of polyphenol (PP) depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PP released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PP associated with dietary fiber (DF) and the kinetics release of PP in mango (Mangifera indica L.) 'Ataulfo' by-products by an in vitro model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the pulp paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min(-1) in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased as digestion reached a value of 2.87 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min(-1)) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min(-1), and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and exert different potential health benefits.

  3. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Alina; Nizran, Parminder; Malone, Michael A; Riley, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Clinical presentation helps differentiate between upper and lower urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs are classified as either complicated or uncomplicated. A complicated UTI is associated with an underlying condition that increases the risk of failing therapy. Primary laboratory tests for UTIs consist of urinalysis and urine culture. The most common pathogen for uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are first-line therapies for acute uncomplicated cystitis. Decisions regarding antibiotic agents should be individualized based on patients' allergies, tolerability, community resistance rates, cost, and availability.

  4. No association of ZNF804A rs1344706 with white matter integrity in schizophrenia: A tract-based spatial statistics study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qinling; Kang, Zhuang; Diao, Feici; Guidon, Arnaud; Wu, Xiaoli; Zheng, Liangrong; Li, Leijun; Guo, Xiaofeng; Hu, Maorong; Zhang, Jinbei; Liu, Chunlei; Zhao, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Altered brain connectivity has been widely considered as a genetic risk mechanism for schizophrenia. Of the many susceptibility genes identified so far, ZNF804A (rs1344706) is the first common genetic variant associated with schizophrenia on a genome-wide level. Previous fMRI studies have found that carriers of rs1344706 exhibit altered functional connectivity. However, the relationship between ZNF804A and white matter structural connectivity in patients of schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, 100 patients with schizophrenia and 69 healthy controls were genotyped at the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted and analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics. Systematic statistical analysis was conducted on multiple diffusion indices, including fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity. Unpaired two-sample t-test revealed significant differences in fractional anisotropy and diffusivity between schizophrenia and control groups. A two-way ANOVA analysis was conducted to assess the main effects of and the interaction between schizophrenia and ZNF804A. Although significant main effects of the diagnosis of schizophrenia were found on radial diffusivity, no association between the ZNF804A (rs1344706) and white matter connectivity was found in the entire group of subjects or in a selected subgroup of age-matched subjects (n = 72). PMID:23147122

  5. Association of overexpression of efflux pump genes with antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains clinically isolated from urinary tract infection patients.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Osawa, Kayo; Kato, Ayaka; Tokimatsu, Issei; Arakawa, Soichi; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Fujisawa, Masato

    2015-09-01

    There are several mechanisms for antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between the expression of efflux pump-coding genes and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa causing urinary tract infections (UTIs). We extracted the RNA from 105 clinical strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from UTI patients with full data on antibiotic MICs and assayed real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. We investigated the gene expressions of four resistance nodulation cell division-type multi-drug efflux pump systems (MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN and MexXY(-OprA)) and the correlation of the MICs of nine antibiotics, risk factors and antibiotic resistance-related genes with expressions of mexB, mexC, mexE and mexY. Multivariate statistical data demonstrated a significant relationship between increased expression of mexB or mexC and complicated UTI (Odds ratio=8.03, P<0.001 and Odds ratio=8.86, P=0.032, respectively). We also found a significant association between the increased expression of mexC and resistance to levofloxacin (LVFX) (Odds ratio=4.48, P=0.035). In conclusion, increased expression of mexC leads to LVFX resistance in P. aeruginosa causing UTI. These results contribute to our knowledge of the efflux pump system and antibiotic resistance.

  6. Improvements in hand function after intensive bimanual training are not associated with corticospinal tract dysgenesis in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Friel, Kathleen M; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Carmel, Jason B; Rowny, Stefan B; Gordon, Andrew M

    2014-06-01

    Unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) results from damage to the developing brain that occurs within the first 2 years of life. Previous studies found associations between asymmetry in the size of the corticospinal tract (CST) from the two hemispheres and severity of hand impairments in children with unilateral CP. The extent to which CST damage affects the capacity for hand function improvement is unknown. This study examines the association between an estimate of CST dysgenesis and (1) hand function and (2) the efficacy of intensive bimanual training in improving hand function. Children with unilateral CP, age 3.6-14.9 years, n = 35, received intensive bimanual training. Children engaged in bimanual functional/play activities (6 h/day, 15 days). Peduncle asymmetry, an estimate of CST dysgenesis, was measured on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Hand function was measured pre- and post-treatment using the assisting hand assessment (AHA) and Jebsen-Taylor test of hand function (JTTHF). AHA and JTTHF improved post-treatment (p < 0.001). Peduncle asymmetry was correlated with baseline AHA and JTTHF (p < 0.001) but not with AHA or JTTHF improvement post-training (R(2) < 0.1, p > 0.2). An estimate of CST dysgenesis is correlated with baseline hand function but is a poor predictor of training efficacy, possibly indicating a flexibility of developing motor systems to mediate recovery.

  7. S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) Impregnated Silicone Foley Catheters: A Potential Biomaterial/Device To Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Urinary Foley catheters are utilized for management of hospitalized patients and are associated with high rates of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Nitric oxide (NO) potently inhibits microbial biofilm formation, which is the primary cause of catheter associated UTIs (CAUTIs). Herein, commercial silicone Foley catheters are impregnated via a solvent swelling method with S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D-penicillamine (SNAP), a synthetic NO donor that exhibits long-term NO release and stability when incorporated into low water-uptake polymers. The proposed catheters generate NO surface-fluxes >0.7 × 10–10 mol min–1 cm–2 for over one month under physiological conditions, with minimal SNAP leaching. These biomedical devices are demonstrated to significantly decrease formation of biofilm on the surface of the catheter tubings over 3, 7, and 14 day periods by microbial species (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Proteus mirabilis) commonly causing CAUTIs. Toxicity assessment demonstrates that the SNAP-impregnated catheters are fully biocompatible, as extracts of the catheter tubings score 0 on a 3-point grading scale using an accepted mouse fibroblast cell-line toxicity model. Consequently, SNAP-impregnated silicone Foley catheters can likely provide an efficient strategy to greatly reduce the occurrence of nosocomial CAUTIs. PMID:26462294

  8. Separate parts of occipito-temporal white matter fibers are associated with recognition of faces and places.

    PubMed

    Tavor, Ido; Yablonski, Maya; Mezer, Aviv; Rom, Shirley; Assaf, Yaniv; Yovel, Galit

    2014-02-01

    A central finding of functional MRI studies is the highly selective response of distinct brain areas in the occipital temporal cortex to faces and places. However, little is known about the association of white matter fibers with the processing of these object categories. In the current study we used DTI-based tractography to reconstruct two main fibers that connect the occipital lobe with the anterior temporal lobe (inferior longitudinal fasciculus-ILF) and with the frontal lobe (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus-IFOF) in normal individuals. In addition to MRI scans subjects performed face, scene and body recognition tasks outside the scanner. Results show that recognition of faces and scenes were selectively associated with separate parts of the ILF. In particular, face recognition was highly associated with the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the anterior part of the ILF in the right hemisphere. In contrast, scene recognition was strongly correlated with the FA of the posterior and middle but not the anterior part of the ILF bilaterally. Our findings provide the first demonstration that faces and places are not only associated with distinct brain areas but also with separate parts of white matter fibers. PMID:23933304

  9. Separate parts of occipito-temporal white matter fibers are associated with recognition of faces and places.

    PubMed

    Tavor, Ido; Yablonski, Maya; Mezer, Aviv; Rom, Shirley; Assaf, Yaniv; Yovel, Galit

    2014-02-01

    A central finding of functional MRI studies is the highly selective response of distinct brain areas in the occipital temporal cortex to faces and places. However, little is known about the association of white matter fibers with the processing of these object categories. In the current study we used DTI-based tractography to reconstruct two main fibers that connect the occipital lobe with the anterior temporal lobe (inferior longitudinal fasciculus-ILF) and with the frontal lobe (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus-IFOF) in normal individuals. In addition to MRI scans subjects performed face, scene and body recognition tasks outside the scanner. Results show that recognition of faces and scenes were selectively associated with separate parts of the ILF. In particular, face recognition was highly associated with the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the anterior part of the ILF in the right hemisphere. In contrast, scene recognition was strongly correlated with the FA of the posterior and middle but not the anterior part of the ILF bilaterally. Our findings provide the first demonstration that faces and places are not only associated with distinct brain areas but also with separate parts of white matter fibers.

  10. Automated Tract Extraction via Atlas Based Adaptive Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Tunç, Birkan; Parker, William A.; Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    Advancements in imaging protocols such as the high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) and in tractography techniques are expected to cause an increase in the tract-based analyses. Statistical analyses over white matter tracts can contribute greatly towards understanding structural mechanisms of the brain since tracts are representative of the connectivity pathways. The main challenge with tract-based studies is the extraction of the tracts of interest in a consistent and comparable manner over a large group of individuals without drawing the inclusion and exclusion regions of interest. In this work, we design a framework for automated extraction of white matter tracts. The framework introduces three main components, namely a connectivity based fiber representation, a fiber clustering atlas, and a clustering approach called Adaptive Clustering. The fiber representation relies on the connectivity signatures of fibers to establish an easy correspondence between different subjects. A group-wise clustering of these fibers that are represented by the connectivity signatures is then used to generate a fiber bundle atlas. Finally, Adaptive Clustering incorporates the previously generated clustering atlas as a prior, to cluster the fibers of a new subject automatically. Experiments on the HARDI scans of healthy individuals acquired repeatedly, demonstrate the applicability, the reliability and the repeatability of our approach in extracting white matter tracts. By alleviating the seed region selection or the inclusion/exclusion ROI drawing requirements that are usually handled by trained radiologists, the proposed framework expands the range of possible clinical applications and establishes the ability to perform tract-based analyses with large samples. PMID:25134977

  11. The Cotton Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein Associates with Cortical Microtubles in Cotton Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Preuss, Mary L.; Delmar, Deborah P.; Liu, Bo

    2003-05-01

    Microtubules in interphase plant cells form a cortical array, which is critical for plant cell morphogenesis. Genetic studies imply that the minus end-directed microtubule motor kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP) plays a role in trichome morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. However, it was not clear whether this motor interacted with interphase microtubules. In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fibers, cortical microtubules undergo dramatic reorganization during fiber development. In this study, cDNA clones of the cotton KCBP homolog GhKCBP were isolated from a cotton fiber-specific cDNA library. During cotton fiber development from 10 to 21 DPA, the GhKCBP protein level gradually decreases. By immunofluorescence, GhKCBP was detected as puncta along cortical microtubules in fiber cells of different developmental stages. Thus the results provide evidence that GhKCBP plays a role in interphase cell growth likely by interacting with cortical microtubules. In contrast to fibers, in dividing cells of cotton, GhKCBP localized to the nucleus, the microtubule preprophase band, mitotic spindle, and the phragmoplast. Therefore KCBP likely exerts multiple roles in cell division and cell growth in flowering plants.

  12. An assessment of local risk. [to area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L. S.

    1979-01-01

    A status report is presented on the assessment of the risk at Washington National Airport and the surrounding Washington, D.C. area associated with commercial operations of aircraft with graphite fiber composite in their structures. The presentation is outlined as follows: (1) overall strategy; (2) need for individual airport results; (3) airport-metro area model - submodels, method, assumptions and data; and (4) preliminary results for National Airport - D.C. area.

  13. Functional analyses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) immature fiber (im) mutant reveal that fiber cell wall development is associated with sensitivity to stress.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cotton fiber maturity refers the degree of fiber cell wall development and is an important factor for determining commercial value of cotton. The molecular mechanism regulating the fiber cell wall development has not been well characterized. Microscopic image analysis of the cross-sect...

  14. Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Are Associated With Severe Sepsis at Admission: Implication for Empirical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chien; Hsiao, Chih-Yen; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Hung, Sheng-Che; Wang, Hung-Ping; Huang, Yun-Jhong; Wang, Jann-Tay

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical features and treatment outcomes among patients with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and non-MDR Enterobacteriaceae and to identify whether MDR pathogens were independently associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation.The clinical data of adult patients visiting and being treated at Chia-Yi Christian Hospital due to bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae from January 2006 to August 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.A total of 585 patients were enrolled. Among them, 220 (37.6%) were caused by the MDR Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 206 patients (35.2%) developed severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation. Patients in the MDR group tend to be male and have a past history of gout, recurrent UTI, prior hospitalization, hydronephrosis, renal stone, ureteral stone, indwelling urinary catheter, newly development of renal dysfunction, severe sepsis or septic shock, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, receipt of ineffective empirical therapy, longer hospital stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (2.7% vs 1.9%, P = 0.569). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, it is revealed that independent predictors associated with severe sepsis or septic shock at presentation were liver cirrhosis (OR 2.868; 95% CI 1.439-5.716; P = 0.003), indwelling urinary catheter (OR 1.936; 95% CI 1.238-3.027; P = 0.004), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae (OR 1.447; 95% CI 1.002-2.090; P = 0.049).Multidrug resistance was associated with the development of severe sepsis or septic shock upon presentation among patients with bacteremic UTI caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, empirical antibiotics therapy for patients with UTI presented with severe sepsis and/or septic shock should be more broad-spectrum to effectively cover MDR Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27196480

  15. Sickle cell disease in mice is associated with sensitization of sensory nerve fibers

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Nicholas; Wang, Li; Spornick, Nicholas; Khaibullina, Alfia; Almeida, Luis EF; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Jichuan; Guptill, Virginia; Finkel, Julia C

    2015-01-01

    The pain phenotype in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients is highly variable. A small percentage of SCD patients experience many vaso-occlusive crises/year, 5% of patients account for over 30% of pain episodes, while 39% report few episodes of severe pain. Clearly, a better understanding of the pathobiology of SCD is needed to improve its therapy. Humanized sickle cell mice recapitulate several phenotypes of SCD patients and provide a model for the study of SCD pain. Researchers have shown that one strain of humanized SCD mice, the BERK strain, has abnormal pain phenotype. However, the nociception phenotype of another humanized SCD mouse strain, the Townes strain, has not been described. In a large cross-sectional study of BERK and Townes SCD mice, we examined thermosensory response and sensory nerve fiber function using sine-wave electrical stimulation at 2000, 250, and 5 Hz to stimulate preferentially Aβ, Aδ, and C sensory nerve fibers, respectively. We found that BERK and Townes mice, compared to respective controls, had decreases in 2000, 250, and 5 Hz current vocalization thresholds in patterns that suggest sensitization of a broad spectrum of sensory nerve fibers. In addition, the pattern of sensitization of sensory fibers varied according to strain, sex, age, and mouse genotype. In a similarly variable pattern, Townes and BERKs also had significantly altered sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli in agreement with what has been shown by others. In summary, the analysis of somatosensory function using sine-wave electrical stimulation in humanized sickle cell mice suggests that in SCD, both myelinated and unmyelinated, fibers are sensitized. The pattern of sensory fiber sensitization is distinct from that observed in pain models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. These findings raise the possibility that sensitization of a broad spectrum of sensory fibers might contribute to the altered and variable nociception phenotype in SCD. PMID:25070860

  16. Improving DTI tractography by including diagonal tract propagation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul A; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Ching-Po; Biswal, Bharat B

    2012-01-01

    Tractography algorithms have been developed to reconstruct likely WM pathways in the brain from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. In this study, an elegant and simple means for improving existing tractography algorithms is proposed by allowing tracts to propagate through diagonal trajectories between voxels, instead of only rectilinearly to their facewise neighbors. A series of tests (using both real and simulated data sets) are utilized to show several benefits of this new approach. First, the inclusion of diagonal tract propagation decreases the dependence of an algorithm on the arbitrary orientation of coordinate axes and therefore reduces numerical errors associated with that bias (which are also demonstrated here). Moreover, both quantitatively and qualitatively, including diagonals decreases overall noise sensitivity of results and leads to significantly greater efficiency in scanning protocols; that is, the obtained tracts converge much more quickly (i.e., in a smaller amount of scanning time) to those of data sets with high SNR and spatial resolution. Importantly, the inclusion of diagonal propagation adds essentially no appreciable time of calculation or computational costs to standard methods. This study focuses on the widely-used streamline tracking method, FACT (fiber assessment by continuous tracking), and the modified method is termed "FACTID" (FACT including diagonals). PMID:22970125

  17. TFE3 Translocation Associated Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasm (PEComa) of the Gynecologic Tract: Morphology, Immunophenotype, Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Schoolmeester, J. Kenneth; Dao, Linda N.; Sukov, William R.; Park, Kay J.; Murali, Rajmohan; Hameed, Meera R.; Soslow, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    TFE3 translocation associated PEComa is a distinct form of perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm, the features of which are poorly defined owing to their general infrequency and limited prior reports with confirmed rearrangement or fusion totaling nine cases. Recent investigation has found a lack of TSC gene mutation in these tumors compared to their nonrearranged counterparts which underscores the importance of recognizing the translocated variant due to hypothetical ineffectiveness of targeted mTOR inhibitor therapy. Six cases were identified and TFE3 rearrangement was confirmed by FISH. Patient age ranged 46 to 66 years (median 50) and none had a history of tuberous sclerosis complex. Three cases arose in the uterine corpus, one in the vagina, and one pelvic tumor and one pulmonary tumor were likely a recurrence/metastasis from a probable uterine primary. Five cases had purely clear cell epithelioid morphology that showed a spectrum of atypia while one case had a mixture of clear cell epithelioid and spindle cells. A mostly consistent immunophenotype was observed in the purely clear cell epithelioid cases: each demonstrated diffuse TFE3, HMB45, CathepsinK labeling, either focal or no melanA staining and variably weak reactivity to smooth muscle markers. The mixed clear cell epithelioid and spindle cell case had a similar pattern in its epithelioid component, but strong muscle marker positivity in its spindle cell component. Follow up ranged 1 to 57 months. Three cases demonstrated aggressive behavior and three cases had no evidence of recurrence. Both GYN-specific and traditional sets of criteria for malignancy were evaluated. The GYN model showed improved inclusion and specificity in comparison to the traditional model. PMID:25517951

  18. Bacterial Community Associated with the Intestinal Tract of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Farmed in Lake Tai, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobing; Di, Panpan; Wang, Hongming; Li, Bailin; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (CMC, Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically valuable species in South-East Asia that has been widely farmed in China. Characterization of the intestinal bacterial diversity of CMC will provide insights into the aquaculturing of CMCs. Based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA genes from culture-independent CMC gut bacteria, 124 out of 128 different clones reveal >95% nucleotide similarity to the species belonging to the four phyla of Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; one clone shows 91% sequence similarity to the member of TM7 (a candidate phylum without cultured representatives). Fluorescent in situ hybridization also reveals the abundance of Bacteroidetes in crab intestine. Electron micrographs show that spherical and filamentous bacteria are closely associated with the microvillus brush border of the midgut epithelium and are often inserted into the space between the microvilli using a stalk-like cell appendage. In contrast, the predominant rod-shaped bacteria in the hindgut are tightly attached to the epithelium surface by an unusual pili-like structure. Both 16S rRNA gene denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and metagenome library indicate that the CMC Mollicutes group 2 appears to be present in both the midgut and hindgut with no significant difference in abundance. The CMC Mollicutes group 1, however, was found mostly in the midgut of CMCs. The CMC gut Mollicutes phylotypes appear to be most closely related to Mollicutes symbionts detected in the gut of isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Overall, the results suggest that CMCs harbor diverse, novel and specific gut bacteria, which are likely to live in close relationships with the CMC host. PMID:25875449

  19. Homozygous 16p13.11 duplication associated with mild intellectual disability and urinary tract malformations in two siblings born from consanguineous parents.

    PubMed

    Houcinat, N; Llanas, B; Moutton, S; Toutain, J; Cailley, D; Arveiler, B; Combe, C; Lacombe, D; Rooryck, C

    2015-11-01

    The use of array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) in routine clinical work has allowed the identification of many new copy number variations (CNV). The 16p13.11 duplication has been implicated in various congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders, but it has also been identified in healthy individuals. We report a clinical observation of two brothers from related parents each carrying a homozygous 16p13.11 duplication. The propositus had mild intellectual disability and posterior urethral valves with chronic renal disease. His brother was considered a healthy child with only learning disabilities and poor academic performances. However, a routine medical examination at 25-years-old revealed a mild chronic renal disease and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Furthermore, the father presented with a unilateral renal agenesis, thus it seemed that a "congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract" (CAKUT) phenotype segregated in this family. This may be related to the duplication, but we cannot exclude the involvement of additional genetic or non-genetic factors in the urological phenotype. Several cohort studies showed association between this chromosomal imbalance and different clinical manifestations, but rarely with CAKUT. The duplication reported here was similar to the larger one of 3.4 Mb previously described versus the more common of 1.6 Mb. It encompassed at least 11 known genes, including the five ohnologs previously identified. Our observation, in addition to expanding the clinical spectrum of the duplication provides further support to understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanism.

  20. TERT promoter mutations are associated with distant metastases in upper tract urothelial carcinomas and serve as urinary biomarkers detected by a sensitive castPCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Liu, Tiantian; Ge, Nan; Liu, Li; Yuan, Xiaotian; Liu, Jikai; Kong, Feng; Wang, Chang; Ren, Hongbo; Yan, Keqiang; Hu, Sanyuan; Xu, Zhonghua; Björkholm, Magnus; Fan, Yidong; Zhao, Shengtian; Liu, Cheng; Xu, Dawei

    2014-12-15

    TERT promoter C228T and C250T mutations occur in various malignancies including bladder cancer (BC) and may serve as urinary tumor markers. However, the mutation association with clinical variables in upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs) is unclear. There is also a lack of sensitive tools to detect the minor mutant TERT promoter in bulk urinary DNA. Here we analyzed 220 UTUC patients [98 with renal pelvic carcinoma (RPC) and 122 with ureter carcinoma (UC)] and developed a Competitive Allele-Specific TaqMan PCR (castPCR) for urinary assay. We identified C228T or C250T mutations in 42 of 98 (43%) RPC and 23 of 122 (19%) UC tumors. Distant metastases were significantly correlated with UTUC patients harboring TERT promoter mutations (P = 0.001). C228T were detected in 6/10 and 9/10 of urine samples from patients with mutation-carrying tumors using Sanger sequencing and castPCR, respectively. When urine samples from 70 BC patients were analyzed together, the sensitivity of urinary C228T assay was 89% and 50% for castPCR and Sanger sequencing, respectively (P < 0.001). Collectively, TERT promoter mutations occur in UTUCs with a high frequency in RPCs and predict distant metastasis. castPCR assays of the mutation are a useful tool for urine-based diagnostics of urological malignancies. PMID:25474136

  1. Using NSQIP to investigate SCIP deficiencies in surgical patients with a high risk of developing hospital-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Trickey, Amber W; Crosby, Moira E; Vasaly, Fran; Donovan, Jean; Moynihan, John; Reines, H David

    2014-01-01

    The study objectives were to identify risk factors for surgical patients who develop postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to characterize urethral catheter practices at the study hospital. Patients from the 2006-2010 institutional National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database were evaluated. Patients with UTIs within 30 postoperative days (n = 116) were compared to patients without UTIs (n = 8685) using multivariable logistic regression. A nested case-control study evaluated the effects of catheter practices on postoperative UTI using conditional logistic regression. Independent predictors of UTI were sex, age, inpatient stay, functional status, renal failure, preoperative transfusion, and preoperative hospital stay. Compared with controls, patients with UTI more often maintained catheters for >2 postoperative days (66% vs 43%, P < .001) and had longer mean catheter duration (11.6 vs 5.1 days, P < .001). Study findings led to institutional recommendations to reduce catheter-associated UTIs. Quality improvement initiatives can increase awareness of performance enhancement opportunities and encourage collaborative, interdisciplinary improvement through shared objectives.

  2. Prickle1 mutation causes planar cell polarity and directional cell migration defects associated with cardiac outflow tract anomalies and other structural birth defects

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Brian C.; Damerla, Rama Rao; Vladar, Eszter K.; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Wan, Yong; Liu, Xiaoqin; Cui, Cheng; Gabriel, George C.; Zahid, Maliha; Yagi, Hisato; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L.; Suyama, Kaye L.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Planar cell polarity (PCP) is controlled by a conserved pathway that regulates directional cell behavior. Here, we show that mutant mice harboring a newly described mutation termed Beetlejuice (Bj) in Prickle1 (Pk1), a PCP component, exhibit developmental phenotypes involving cell polarity defects, including skeletal, cochlear and congenital cardiac anomalies. Bj mutants die neonatally with cardiac outflow tract (OFT) malalignment. This is associated with OFT shortening due to loss of polarized cell orientation and failure of second heart field cell intercalation mediating OFT lengthening. OFT myocardialization was disrupted with cardiomyocytes failing to align with the direction of cell invasion into the outflow cushions. The expression of genes mediating Wnt signaling was altered. Also noted were shortened but widened bile ducts and disruption in canonical Wnt signaling. Using an in vitro wound closure assay, we showed Bj mutant fibroblasts cannot establish polarized cell morphology or engage in directional cell migration, and their actin cytoskeleton failed to align with the direction of wound closure. Unexpectedly, Pk1 mutants exhibited primary and motile cilia defects. Given Bj mutant phenotypes are reminiscent of ciliopathies, these findings suggest Pk1 may also regulate ciliogenesis. Together these findings show Pk1 plays an essential role in regulating cell polarity and directional cell migration during development. PMID:26883626

  3. A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract showing extensive plasma cell differentiation with prominent Russell bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Keita; Miyahara, Masaharu; Tokuda, Yasunori; Kido, Shinich; Masuda, Masanori; Takase, Yukari; Tokunaga, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A 73-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized for detailed examination of nausea, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Atypical erosion in the ileum was found on endoscopy. Biopsy of this erosion showed proliferation of cells containing numerous Russell bodies. Differential diagnoses considered were Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis, Mott cell tumor, immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The cells containing prominent Russell bodies showed diffuse positivity for CD79a and CD138, but negative results for CD20, CD3, UCHL-1, CD38 and CD68. Russell bodies were diffusely positive for lambda light chain, but negative for kappa light chain, and immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA and IgM. Based on these findings, Russell body enteritis, crystal-storing histiocytosis and IPSID were ruled out. As the tumor formed no mass lesions and was restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, MALT lymphoma with extensive plasma cell differentiation was finally diagnosed. The patient showed an unexpectedly aggressive clinical course. The number of atypical lymphocytes in peripheral blood gradually increased and T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) emerged. The patient died of T-PLL 7 mo after admission. Autopsy was not permitted. PMID:24303496

  4. Macroscopic amyloid fiber formation by staphylococcal biofilm associated SuhB protein.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirudha; Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Kundu, Anirban; Dutta, Debabrata; Das, Amit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and opportunistic pathogen that causes lethal infections. Biofilm forming ability of S. aureus enhances its virulence since biofilm provides the bacteria protective shield against antibiotics and host immunity. Polysaccharide independent biofilm formation by several virulent S. aureus strains have been identified recently, where protein components substitute polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) involved in bacterial cell attachment. The suhB gene has been reported to be essential in staphylococcal PIA-independent biofilm formation. Overexpression of staphylococcal SuhB (SasuhB) in E. coli produces extracellular macroscopic fibers made of recombinant SaSuhB protein. The amyloidic nature of the fiber is evaluated by high resolution electron microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction and amyloid specific dyes, such as Congo red and thioflavin-T binding assay. The fibers appear to be sticky in nature and bind a large number of bacterial cells. The results suggest the possible role of SaSuhB-fibers as a structural component as well as an adhesin in biofilm matrix. PMID:27497060

  5. Role of Klebsiella pneumoniae type 1 and type 3 fimbriae in colonizing silicone tubes implanted into the bladders of mice as a model of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caitlin N; Mortensen, Martin S; Krogfelt, Karen A; Clegg, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are biofilm-mediated infections that cause a significant economic and health burden in nosocomial environments. Using a newly developed murine model of this type of infection, we investigated the role of fimbriae in implant-associated urinary tract infections by the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which is a proficient biofilm former and a commonly isolated nosocomial pathogen. Studies have shown that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae are involved in attachment and biofilm formation in vitro, and these fimbrial types are suspected to be important virulence factors during infection. To test this hypothesis, the virulence of fimbrial mutants was assessed in independent challenges in which mouse bladders were inoculated with the wild type or a fimbrial mutant and in coinfection studies in which the wild type and fimbrial mutants were inoculated together to assess the results of a direct competition in the urinary tract. Using these experiments, we were able to show that both fimbrial types serve to enhance colonization and persistence. Additionally, a double mutant had an additive colonization defect under some conditions, indicating that both fimbrial types have unique roles in the attachment and persistence in the bladder and on the implant itself. All of these mutants were outcompeted by the wild type in coinfection experiments. Using these methods, we are able to show that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae are important colonization factors in the murine urinary tract when an implanted silicone tube is present.

  6. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  7. Healthcare-associated, community-acquired and hospital-acquired bacteraemic urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients: a prospective multicentre cohort study in the era of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Horcajada, J P; Shaw, E; Padilla, B; Pintado, V; Calbo, E; Benito, N; Gamallo, R; Gozalo, M; Rodríguez-Baño, J

    2013-10-01

    The clinical and microbiological characteristics of community-onset healthcare-associated (HCA) bacteraemia of urinary source are not well defined. We conducted a prospective cohort study at eight tertiary-care hospitals in Spain, from October 2010 to June 2011. All consecutive adult patients hospitalized with bacteraemic urinary tract infection (BUTI) were included. HCA-BUTI episodes were compared with community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired (HA) BUTI. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify 30-day mortality risk factors. We included 667 episodes of BUTI (246 HCA, 279 CA and 142 HA). Differences between HCA-BUTI and CA-BUTI were female gender (40% vs 69%, p <0.001), McCabe score II-III (48% vs 14%, p <0.001), Pitt score ≥2 (40% vs 31%, p 0.03), isolation of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaciae (13% vs 5%, p <0.001), median hospital stay (9 vs 7 days, p 0.03), inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy (21% vs 13%, p 0.02) and mortality (11.4% vs 3.9%, p 0.001). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more frequently isolated in HA-BUTI (16%) than in HCA-BUTI (4%, p <0.001). Independent factors for mortality were age (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07), McCabe score II-III (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.8-5.5), Pitt score ≥2 (OR 3.2 (1.8-5.5) and HA-BUTI OR 3.4 (1.2-9.0)). Patients with HCA-BUTI are a specific group with significant clinical and microbiological differences from patients with CA-BUTI, and some similarities with patients with HA-BUTI. Mortality was associated with patient condition, the severity of infection and hospital acquisition.

  8. Poor Preoperative Glycemic Control Is Associated with Dismal Prognosis after Radical Nephroureterectomy for Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Korean Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Gu; Hwang, Eu Chang; Jung, Seung Il; Yu, Ho Song; Chung, Ho Seok; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Hwang, Jun Eul; Kim, Jun Seok; Noh, Joon Hwa; You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Myung Ki; Oh, Tae Hoon; Seo, Ill Young; Baik, Seung; Kim, Chul-Sung; Kang, Seok Ho; Cheon, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) and preoperative glycemic control on prognosis in Korean patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) who underwent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Materials and Methods A total of 566 patients who underwent RNU at six institutions between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the association between DM, preoperative glycemic control, and recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival. Results The median follow-up period was 33.8 months (interquartile range, 41.4 months). A total of 135 patients (23.8%) had DM and 67 patients (11.8%) had poor preoperative glycemic control. Patients with poor preoperative glycemic control had significantly shorter median recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival than patients with good preoperative glycemic control and non-diabetics (all, p=0.001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, DM with poor preoperative glycemic control showed association with worse recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 3.90; p=0.003), cancer-specific survival (HR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.80 to 4.87; p=0.001), and overall survival (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.40 to 3.22; p=0.001). Conclusion Diabetic UTUC patients with poor preoperative glycemic control had significantly worse oncologic outcomes than diabetic UTUC patients with good preoperative glycemic control and non-diabetics. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism underlying the impact of glycemic control on UTUC treatment outcome. PMID:27034146

  9. Black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003-2010).

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Coull, Brent A

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25-64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003-2004; 2008-2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position.

  10. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections – implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Heudorf, Ursel; Gasteyer, Stefanie; Müller, Maria; Samoiski, Yvonne; Serra, Nicole; Westphal, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections range among the most frequent infections not only in hospital patients but also in residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly. Urinary catheters are the greatest risk factor for urinary tract infections. In the guidance paper on the “prevention of infections in nursing homes” (2005) as well as in the updated recommendations for the “prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” (2015), the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) has recommended adequate preventive measures. In 2015, the implementation of these KRINKO recommendations was investigated. Method: All of Frankfurt’s 40 nursing homes were evaluated using a checklist based on the KRINKO recommendations. The evaluation included assessing the availability of operating instructions, appropriate indications for the placement of catheters etc. Age, sex and duration of catheterization, as well as current and previous infections within the past 6 months were documented for every resident with a catheter. Results: In 35 (87.5%) of the nursing homes, operating instructions for the handling of urinary tract catheters were available. The decision as to whether a catheter is indicated is made by physicians, while its placement is often delegated to the nursing service. Typically, silicon catheters are used. In three-quarters of the nursing homes, regular intervals of 4–6 weeks for changing catheters were reported. On the respective survey day, 7.3% of the residents were catheterized. On the survey day, 3.6% (4.2%) and in the previous 6 months a total of 28% (28.9%) of the residents had a urinary tract infection (prevalence of antibiotic therapy in parentheses). Ciprofloxacin was used most often followed by cefuroxime and cotrimoxazole. Discussion: In the current evaluation, fewer nursing home residents were catheterized than in previous years and the rate of urinary tract infections was low. This

  11. Boron fiber reinforced plastics. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Research Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications, molding processes, properties, design concepts, and market trends of polyester and epoxy resins reinforced with boron fibers. Performance evaluations from nondestructive test results are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. In Inclusion-Body Myositis Muscle Fibers Parkinson-Associated DJ-1 is Increased and Oxidized

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Chiara; Nogalska, Anna; Engel, W. King; Wojcik, Slawomir; Askanas, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Sporadic inclusion-body myositis (s-IBM) is the most common muscle disease of older persons. The muscle-fiber molecular phenotype exhibits similarities to both Alzheimer-disease (AD) and Parkinson-disease (PD) brains, including accumulations of amyloid-β, phosphorylated tau, α-synuclein and parkin, as well as evidence of oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities. Early-onset autosomal-recessive PD can be caused by mutations in the DJ-1 gene, leading to its inactivation. DJ-1 has anti-oxidative and mitochondrial-protective properties. In AD and PD brains, DJ-1 is increased and oxidized. We studied DJ-1 in 17 s-IBM and 18 disease-control and normal muscle biopsies by: 1) immunoblots of muscle homogenates and mitochondrial fractions; 2) real-time PCR; 3) oxyblots evaluating DJ-1 oxidation; 4) light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry. Compared to controls, in s-IBM muscle fibers DJ-1 was: a) increased in the soluble fraction, monomer 2-fold (p=0.01), and dimer 2.8-fold (p=0.004); b) increased in the mitochondrial fraction; c) highly oxidized; and d) aggregated in about 15% of the abnormal muscle fibers. DJ-1 mRNA was increased 3.5-fold (p=0.034). Accordingly, DJ-1 might play a role in human muscle disease, and thus not be limited to human CNS degenerations. In s-IBM muscle fibers, DJ-1 could be protecting these fibers against oxidative stress, including protection of mitochondria. PMID:18601999

  13. Implementation of the updated 2015 Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) recommendations “Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections” in the hospitals in Frankfurt/Main, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Heudorf, Ursel; Grünewald, Miriam; Otto, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) updated the recommendations for the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in 2015. This article will describe the implementation of these recommendations in Frankfurt’s hospitals in autumn, 2015. Material and methods: In two non-ICU wards of each of Frankfurt’s 17 hospitals, inspections were performed using a checklist based on the new KRINKO recommendations. In one large hospital, a total of 5 wards were inspected. The inspections covered the structure and process quality (operating instructions, training, indication, the placement and maintenance of catheters) and the demonstration of the preparation for insertion of a catheter using an empty bed and an imaginary patient, or insertion in a model. Results: Operating instructions were available in all hospital wards; approximately half of the wards regularly performed training sessions. The indications were largely in line with the recommendations of the KRINKO. Alternatives to urinary tract catheters were available and were used more often than the urinary tract catheters themselves (15.9% vs. 13.5%). In accordance with the recommendations, catheters were placed without antibiotic prophylaxis or the instillation of antiseptic or antimicrobial substances or catheter flushing solutions. The demonstration of catheter placement was conscientiously performed. Need for improvement was seen in the daily documentation and the regular verification of continuing indication for a urinary catheter, as well as the omission of regular catheter change. Conclusion: Overall, the recommendations of the KRINKO on the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections were adequately implemented. However, it cannot be ruled out that in situations with time pressure and staff shortage, the handling of urinary tract catheters may be of lower quality than that observed during the inspections, when catheter insertion was done by

  14. Real-time association rate constant measurement using combination tapered fiber-optic biosensor (CTFOB) dip-probes

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Boris; Wang, Chun-Wei; Kapoor, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    This document reports a novel method of measuring association rate constant (ka) for antibody-antigen interaction using evanescent wave-based combination tapered fiber-optic biosensor (CTFOB) dip-probes. The method was demonstrated by measuring association rate constant for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA antibody interaction. “Direct method” was used for detection; goat anti-BSA “capture” antibodies were immobilized on the probe surfaces while the antigen (BSA) was directly labeled with Alexa 488 dye. The probes were subsequently submerged in 3 nM Labeled BSA in egg albumin (1 mg/ml). The fluorescence signal recorded was proportional to BSA anti-BSA conjugates and continuous signal was acquired suing a fiber optic spectrometer (Ocean Optics, Inc.). A 476 nm diode laser was use as an excitation source. Association constant was estimated from a plot of signal as a function of time. Measured association rate constant ka for the binding of BSA with anti-BSA at room temperature is (8.33 ± 0.01) ×104 M−1 s−1. PMID:21643496

  15. Diversity and Evolutionary Histories of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E Associated with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Khannaq, Maryam Nabiel; Ng, Kim Tien; Oong, Xiang Yong; Pang, Yong Kek; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-05-01

    The human alphacoronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E are commonly associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Information on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical region of southeast Asia however is limited. Here, we analyzed the phylogenetic, temporal distribution, population history, and clinical manifestations among patients infected with HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 2,060 consenting adults presented with acute URTI symptoms in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2012 and 2013. The presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid, and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference. A total of 68/2,060 (3.3%) subjects were positive for human alphacoronavirus; HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-229E were detected in 45 (2.2%) and 23 (1.1%) patients, respectively. A peak in the number of HCoV-NL63 infections was recorded between June and October 2012. Phylogenetic inference revealed that 62.8% of HCoV-NL63 infections belonged to genotype B, 37.2% was genotype C, while all HCoV-229E sequences were clustered within group 4. Molecular dating analysis indicated that the origin of HCoV-NL63 was dated to 1921, before it diverged into genotype A (1975), genotype B (1996), and genotype C (2003). The root of the HCoV-229E tree was dated to 1955, before it diverged into groups 1-4 between the 1970s and 1990s. The study described the seasonality, molecular diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of human alphacoronavirus infections in a tropical region.

  16. Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Monodrug Therapies for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Associated With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jin-Qiu; Mao, Chen; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Yang, Zu-Yao; Fu, Xiao-Hong; Dai, Xiao-Yu; Tang, Jin-Ling

    2015-07-01

    A wide array of drugs are available for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but the evidence for the comparative effectiveness is controversial.The objective of this study is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of monodrug therapies for BPH.Data sources are MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library.We included randomized controlled trials that compared α-blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), muscarinic receptor antagonists (MRAs), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5-Is), or placebo for the treatment of BPH.Comparative effectiveness and safety were pooled by both traditional meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. Summary effect size was calculated as mean difference (MD) and relative risk (RR), together with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs).This study included 58,548 participants from 124 trials in total. When compared with placebo, α-blockers, 5ARIs, and PDE5-Is reduced International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) by -1.35 to -3.67 points and increased peak urinary flow rate (PUF) by -0.02 to 1.95 mL/s, with doxazosin (IPSS: MD, -3.67[-4.33 to -3.02]; PUF: MD, 1.95[1.61 to 2.30]) and terazosin (IPSS: MD, -3.37 [-4.24 to -2.50]; PUF: MD, 1.21[0.74 to 1.66]) showing the greatest improvement. The improvement in the IPSS was comparable among tamsulosin, alfuzosin, naftopidil, silodosin, dutasteride, sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil. The incidence of total adverse events and withdraws due to adverse events were generally comparable among various agents.In conclusion, α-blockers, 5ARIs, and PDE5-Is are effective for BPH, with doxazosin and terazosin appearing to be the most effective agents. Drug therapies for BPH are generally safe and well-tolerated, with no major difference regarding the overall safety profile. PMID:26166130

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression is associated with a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer in a high-risk population exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, M.J.; Wei, W.Q.; Baer, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Wang, G.Q.; Sternberg, L.R.; Warner, A.C.; Johnson, L.L.; Lu, N.; Giffen, C.A.; Dawsey, S.M.; Qiao, Y.L.; Cherry, J.

    2009-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and PAHs are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This study measured the expression of AhR and related genes in frozen esophageal cell samples from patients exposed to different levels of indoor air pollution, who did or did not have high-grade squamous dysplasia and who did or did not have a family history of upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) cancer. 147 samples were evaluated, including 23 (16%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 48 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who heated their homes with coal, without a chimney (a 'high' indoor air pollution group), and 27 (18%) from patients with high-grade dysplasia and 49 (33%) from patients without dysplasia who did not heat their homes at all (a 'low' indoor air pollution group). Sixty-four (44%) had a family history of UGI cancer. RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR analysis was done. AhR gene expression was detectable in 85 (58%) of the samples and was >9-fold higher in those with a family history of UGI cancer (median expression (interquartile range), -1,964 (-18,000, -610) versus -18,000 (-18,000, -1036); P = 0.02, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Heating status, dysplasia category, age, gender, and smoking were not associated with AhR expression (linear regression; all P values {ge} 0.1). AhR expression was higher in patients with a family history of UGI cancer. Such individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of PAH exposure, including PAH-induced cancer.

  18. Homozygous 16p13.11 duplication associated with mild intellectual disability and urinary tract malformations in two siblings born from consanguineous parents.

    PubMed

    Houcinat, N; Llanas, B; Moutton, S; Toutain, J; Cailley, D; Arveiler, B; Combe, C; Lacombe, D; Rooryck, C

    2015-11-01

    The use of array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) in routine clinical work has allowed the identification of many new copy number variations (CNV). The 16p13.11 duplication has been implicated in various congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders, but it has also been identified in healthy individuals. We report a clinical observation of two brothers from related parents each carrying a homozygous 16p13.11 duplication. The propositus had mild intellectual disability and posterior urethral valves with chronic renal disease. His brother was considered a healthy child with only learning disabilities and poor academic performances. However, a routine medical examination at 25-years-old revealed a mild chronic renal disease and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Furthermore, the father presented with a unilateral renal agenesis, thus it seemed that a "congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract" (CAKUT) phenotype segregated in this family. This may be related to the duplication, but we cannot exclude the involvement of additional genetic or non-genetic factors in the urological phenotype. Several cohort studies showed association between this chromosomal imbalance and different clinical manifestations, but rarely with CAKUT. The duplication reported here was similar to the larger one of 3.4 Mb previously described versus the more common of 1.6 Mb. It encompassed at least 11 known genes, including the five ohnologs previously identified. Our observation, in addition to expanding the clinical spectrum of the duplication provides further support to understanding the underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:26114937

  19. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  20. Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    Fruit, vegetables, and certain components of plant foods, such as fiber, have long been thought to protect against cancer. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort that includes >500,000 participants from 10 European countries and has made a substantial contribution to knowledge in this research area. The purpose of this article is to summarize the findings published thus far from the EPIC study on the associations between fruit, vegetable, or fiber consumption and the risk of cancer at 14 different sites. The risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake. The risk of colorectal cancer was inversely associated with intakes of total fruit and vegetables and total fiber, and the risk of liver cancer was also inversely associated with the intake of total fiber. The risk of cancer of the lung was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake; this association with fruit intake was restricted to smokers and might be influenced by residual confounding due to smoking. There was a borderline inverse association of fiber intake with breast cancer risk. For the other 9 cancer sites studied (stomach, biliary tract, pancreas, cervix, endometrium, prostate, kidney, bladder, and lymphoma) there were no reported significant associations of risk with intakes of total fruit, vegetables, or fiber.

  1. Manufacture of fiber-epoxy test specimens: Including associated jigs and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S. B.; Felbeck, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental work on the manufacture and strength of graphite-epoxy composites is considered. The correct data and thus a true assessment of the strength properties based on a proper and scientifically modeled test specimen with engineered design, construction, and manufacture has led to claims of a very broad spread in optimized values. Such behavior is in the main due to inadequate control during manufacture of test specimen, improper curing, and uneven scatter in the fiber orientation. The graphite fibers are strong but brittle. Even with various epoxy matrices and volume fraction, the fracture toughness is still relatively low. Graphite-epoxy prepreg tape was investigated as a sandwich construction with intermittent interlaminar bonding between the laminates in order to produce high strength, high fracture toughness composites. The quality and control of manufacture of the multilaminate test specimen blanks was emphasized. The dimensions, orientation and cure must be meticulous in order to produce the desired mix.

  2. Automatic clustering and population analysis of white matter tracts using maximum density paths.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-08-15

    We introduce a framework for population analysis of white matter tracts based on diffusion-weighted images of the brain. The framework enables extraction of fibers from high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI); clustering of the fibers based partly on prior knowledge from an atlas; representation of the fiber bundles compactly using a path following points of highest density (maximum density path; MDP); and registration of these paths together using geodesic curve matching to find local correspondences across a population. We demonstrate our method on 4-Tesla HARDI scans from 565 young adults to compute localized statistics across 50 white matter tracts based on fractional anisotropy (FA). Experimental results show increased sensitivity in the determination of genetic influences on principal fiber tracts compared to the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Our results show that the MDP representation reveals important parts of the white matter structure and considerably reduces the dimensionality over comparable fiber matching approaches. PMID:24747738

  3. Automatic Clustering and Population Analysis of White Matter Tracts using Maximum Density Paths

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a framework for population analysis of white matter tracts based on diffusion-weighted images of the brain. The framework enables extraction of fibers from high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI); clustering of the fibers based partly on prior knowledge from an atlas; representation of the fiber bundles compactly using a path following points of highest density (maximum density path; MDP); and registration of these paths together using geodesic curve matching to find local correspondences across a population. We demonstrate our method on 4-Tesla HARDI scans from 565 young adults to compute localized statistics across 50 white matter tracts based on fractional anisotropy (FA). Experimental results show increased sensitivity in the determination of genetic influences on principal fiber tracts compared to the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Our results show that the MDP representation reveals important parts of the white matter structure and considerably reduces the dimensionality over comparable fiber matching approaches. PMID:24747738

  4. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  5. The Duration of Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection and Associated Chronic Pathological Changes Are Reduced in IL-17 Knockout Mice but Protection Is Not Increased Further by Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Dean W.; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Dando, Samantha J.; O’Meara, Connor P.; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  6. Sjögren Syndrome-Associated Small Fiber Neuropathy: Characterization From a Prospective Series of 40 Cases.

    PubMed

    Sène, Damien; Cacoub, Patrice; Authier, François-Jérôme; Haroche, Julien; Créange, Alain; Saadoun, David; Amoura, Zahir; Guillausseau, Pierre-Jean; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2013-08-26

    We conducted the current study to analyze the clinical, immunologic, and neurophysiologic features of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS)-associated sensory small fiber neuropathies (SFNs). Forty consecutive pSS patients with SFN were included. SFN was defined by the presence of suggestive sensory painful symptoms with normal nerve conduction studies and abnormal neurophysiologic tests for small nerve fibers or a low intraepidermal nerve fiber density at skin biopsy. Included patients were compared to 100 pSS patients without peripheral neuropathy.SFN patients were mainly female (92.5%). Age at pSS diagnosis was 55.3 ± 13.1 years, and at SFN diagnosis, 58.9 ± 11.8 years, with a median time to SFN diagnosis after symptom onset of 3.4 years. Clinical symptoms included burning pains (90%), numbness (87.5%), tingling (82.5%), pins and needles (72.5%), electric discharges (70%), and allodynia (55%). Dysautonomia included vasomotor symptoms (66%) and hyperhidrosis (47%). Abnormal neurophysiologic tests included laser evoked potentials (97.5%), thermal quantitative sensory testing (67.5%), and sympathetic skin reflex (40%). A skin biopsy revealed low intraepidermal nerve fiber density in 76% of the 17 tested patients.Compared to the 100 pSS patients without peripheral neuropathy, the 40 pSS-SFN patients were older at pSS diagnosis (55.3 ± 13.1 vs. 49.5 ± 14.9 yr; p = 0.03), and more often had xerostomia (97.5% vs. 81%; p = 0.01) and arthralgia (82.5% vs. 65.0%; p = 0.04). Immunologically, they were characterized by a lower prevalence of serum B-cell activation markers, that is, antinuclear antibodies (65% vs. 85%; p = 0.01), anti-SSA (42.5% vs. 71%; p = 0.002), and anti-SSB (17.5% vs. 39%; p = 0.017); rheumatoid factor (32.5% vs. 66%; p = 0.0005); and hypergammaglobulinemia (35% vs. 62%; p = 0.005).In conclusion, we report the main features of SFN in patients with pSS, the first such study to our knowledge. Our results show that patients with pSS-associated SFN are

  7. Congenital optic tract hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Fujio, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Taylor, David

    2015-08-01

    We report a case of isolated unilateral optic tract hypoplasia, described only twice previously. Bilateral optic disk hypoplasia was seen ophthalmoscopically and visual field studies showed an incongruous right homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral hypoplasia of both optic nerves and the left optic tract. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography mapping correlated well with the visual field studies. PMID:26228965

  8. Genetically-increased taste cell population with Gα-gustducin-coupled sweet receptors is associated with increase of gurmarin-sensitive taste nerve fibers in mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The peptide gurmarin is a selective sweet response inhibitor for rodents. In mice, gurmarin sensitivity differs among strains with gurmarin-sensitive C57BL and gurmarin-poorly-sensitive BALB strains. In C57BL mice, sweet-responsive fibers of the chorda tympani (CT) nerve can be divided into two distinct populations, gurmarin-sensitive (GS) and gurmarin-insensitive (GI) types, suggesting the existence of two distinct reception pathways for sweet taste responses. By using the dpa congenic strain (dpa CG) whose genetic background is identical to BALB except that the gene(s) controlling gurmarin sensitivity are derived from C57BL, we previously found that genetically-elevated gurmarin sensitivity in dpa CG mice, confirmed by using behavioral response and whole CT nerve response analyses, was linked to a greater taste cell population co-expressing sweet taste receptors and a Gα protein, Gα-gustducin. However, the formation of neural pathways from the increased taste cell population to nerve fibers has not yet been examined. Results Here, we investigated whether the increased taste cell population with Gα-gustducin-coupled sweet receptors would be associated with selective increment of GS fiber population or nonselective shift of gurmarin sensitivities of overall sweet-responsive fibers by examining the classification of GS and GI fiber types in dpa CG and BALB mice. The results indicated that dpa CG, like C57BL, possess two distinct populations of GS and GI types of sweet-responsive fibers with almost identical sizes (dpa CG: 13 GS and 16 GI fibers; C57BL: 16 GS and 14 GI fibers). In contrast, BALB has only 3 GS fibers but 18 GI fibers. These data indicate a marked increase of the GS population in dpa CG. Conclusion These results suggest that the increased cell population expressing T1r2/T1r3/Gα-gustducin in dpa CG mice may be associated with an increase of their matched GS type fibers, and may form the distinct GS sweet reception pathway in mice. G

  9. [Metagenomics in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Yang, Yunjuan; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Mu, Yuelin; Huang, Zunxi

    2013-12-01

    Animal gastrointestinal tract contains a complex community of microbes, whose composition ultimately reflects the co-evolution of microorganisms with their animal host. The gut microbial community of humans and animals has received significant attention from researchers because of its association with health and disease. The application of metagenomics technology enables researchers to study not only the microbial composition but also the function of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, combined with our own findings, we summarized advances in studying gastrointestinal tract microorganism with metagenomics and the bioinformatics technology.

  10. Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Maria L; Strbo, Natasa; Romero, Laura; Jones, Deborah L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Bolivar, Hector; Podack, Eckhard R; Fischl, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to

  11. Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Laura; Jones, Deborah L.; Rodriguez, Violeta J.; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Bolivar, Hector; Podack, Eckhard R.; Fischl, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to

  12. Bacterial Vaginosis Is Associated with Loss of Gamma Delta T Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract in Women in the Miami Women Interagency HIV Study (WIHS): A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Maria L; Strbo, Natasa; Romero, Laura; Jones, Deborah L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Arheart, Kristopher; Martinez, Octavio; Bolivar, Hector; Podack, Eckhard R; Fischl, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common female reproductive tract infection and is associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV by a mechanism that is not well understood. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are essential components of the adaptive and innate immune system, are present in the female reproductive tract, and play an important role in epithelial barrier protection. GD1 cells predominate in the mucosal tissue and are important in maintaining mucosal integrity. GD2 cells predominate in peripheral blood and play a role in humoral immunity and in the immune response to pathogens. HIV infection is associated with changes in GD T cells frequencies in the periphery and in the female reproductive tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if changes in vaginal flora occurring with BV are associated with changes in endocervical GD T cell responses, which could account for increased susceptibility to HIV. Seventeen HIV-infected (HIV+) and 17 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) pre-menopausal women underwent collection of vaginal swabs and endocervical cytobrushes. Vaginal flora was assessed using the Nugent score. GD T cells were assessed in cytobrush samples by flow cytometry. Median Nugent score was 5.0 and 41% of women had abnormal vaginal flora. In HIV uninfected women there was a negative correlation between Nugent score and cervical GD1 T cells (b for interaction = - 0.176, p<0.01); cervical GD1 T cells were higher in women with normal vaginal flora than in those with abnormal flora (45.00% vs 9.95%, p = 0.005); and cervical GD2 T cells were higher in women with abnormal flora than in those with normal flora (1.70% vs 0.35%, p = 0.023). GD T cells in the genital tract are protective (GD1) and are targets for HIV entry (GD2). The decrease in cervical GD1 and increase in GD2 T cells among women with abnormal vaginal flora predisposes women with BV to HIV acquisition. We propose to use GD T cell as markers of female genital tract vulnerability to

  13. Strategic white matter tracts for processing speed deficits in age-related small vessel disease

    PubMed Central

    Duering, Marco; Gesierich, Benno; Seiler, Stephan; Pirpamer, Lukas; Gonik, Mariya; Hofer, Edith; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Chabriat, Hugues; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cerebral small vessel disease is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment and typically manifests with slowed processing speed. We investigated the impact of lesion location on processing speed in age-related small vessel disease. Methods: A total of 584 community-dwelling elderly underwent brain MRI followed by segmentation of white matter hyperintensities. Processing speed was determined by the timed measure of the Trail Making Test part B. The impact of the location of white matter hyperintensities was assessed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and graph-based statistical models on regional lesion volumes in major white matter tracts. Results: Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping identified multiple voxel clusters where the presence of white matter hyperintensities was associated with slower performance on the Trail Making Test part B. Clusters were located bilaterally in the forceps minor and anterior thalamic radiation. Region of interest–based Bayesian network analyses on lesion volumes within major white matter tracts depicted the same tracts as direct predictors for an impaired Trail Making Test part B performance. Conclusions: Our findings highlight damage to frontal interhemispheric and thalamic projection fiber tracts harboring frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits as a predictor for processing speed performance in age-related small vessel disease. PMID:24793184

  14. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  15. Tract-based analysis of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-H; Coutu, J-P; Wilkens, P; Yendiki, A; Rosas, H D; Salat, D H

    2015-08-20

    Although much prior work has focused on the known cortical pathology that defines Alzheimer's disease (AD) histologically, recent work has additionally demonstrated substantial damage to the cerebral white matter in this condition. While there is large evidence of diffuse damage to the white matter in AD, it is unclear whether specific white matter tracts exhibit a more accelerated pattern of damage and whether the damage is associated with the classical neurodegenerative changes of AD. In this study, we investigated microstructural differences in the large fascicular bundles of the cerebral white matter of individuals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), using recently developed automated diffusion tractography procedures in the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Eighteen major fiber bundles in a total of 36 individuals with AD, 81 MCI and 60 control participants were examined with the TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy (TRACULA) procedure available as part of the FreeSurfer image processing software package. For each fiber bundle, the mean fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean, radial and axial diffusivities were calculated. Individuals with AD had increased diffusivities in both left and right cingulum-angular bundles compared to control participants (p<0.001). Individuals with MCI also had increased axial and mean diffusivities and increased FA in both cingulum-angular bundles compared to control participants (p<0.05) and decreased radial diffusivity compared to individuals with AD (p<0.05). We additionally examined how white matter deterioration relates to hippocampal volume, a traditional imaging measure of AD pathology, and found the strongest negative correlations in AD patients between hippocampal volume and the diffusivities of the cingulum-angular and cingulum-cingulate gyrus bundles and of the corticospinal tracts (p<0.05). However, statistically controlling for hippocampal volume did not remove all group

  16. Fiber-reinforced piston for internal combustion engines and associated method of construction

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, K.; Daimaru, A.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a fiber reinforced piston for an internal combustion engine comprising a top land and a ring region provided with an uppermost ring groove. The top land and the ring region are defined by a reinforced part of the piston formed by a matrix metal reinforced with inorganic fibers. The reinforced part of the piston is circularly symmetrical around an axis of the piston and forms an annulus around a top portion of the piston. The reinforced part has a cross-section, in a plane containing the axis of the piston, of substantially rectangular shape except for the uppermost ring groove. The piston has an upper crown surface, the reinforced part being formed as a cylindrical shell having an upper radial surface which is continuously formed in the upper crown surface. A lower radial surface and an inner cylindrical surface join the upper and lower radial surfaces and an outer cylindrical surface has a radius equal to that of the outer cylindrical surface of the piston. The uppermost ring groove has an upper annular side wall surface, a lower annular side wall surface and an annular bottom surface connecting the upper and lower annular side wall surfaces, the inner cylindrical surface of the reinforced part having a smaller radius than that of the annular bottom surface of the uppermost ring groove. The reinforced part extends in the axial direction of the piston from the upper crown surface to a position below the lower annular side surface of the uppermost ring groove. The uppermost ring groove is totally defined within the reinforced part.

  17. A afferent fibers are involved in the pathology of central changes in the spinal dorsal horn associated with myofascial trigger spots in rats.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fei; Ge, Hong-You; Wang, Yong-Hui; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2015-11-01

    A afferent fibers have been reported to participate in the development of the central sensitization induced by inflammation and injuries. Current evidence suggests that myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) induce central sensitization in the related spinal dorsal horn, and clinical studies indicate that A fibers are associated with pain behavior. Because most of these clinical studies applied behavioral indexes, objective evidence is needed. Additionally, MTrP-related neurons in dorsal root ganglia and the spinal ventral horn have been reported to be smaller than normal, and these neurons were considered to be related to A fibers. To confirm the role of A fibers in MTrP-related central changes in the spinal dorsal horn, we studied central sensitization as well as the size of neurons associated with myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs, equivalent to MTrPs in humans) in the biceps femoris muscle of rats and provided some objective morphological evidence. Cholera toxin B subunit-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was applied to label the MTrS-related neurons, and tetrodotoxin was used to block A fibers specifically. The results showed that in the spinal dorsal horn associated with MTrS, the expression of glutamate receptor (mGluR1α/mGluR5/NMDAR1) increased, while the mean size of MTrS-related neurons was smaller than normal. After blocking A fibers, these changes reversed to some extent. Therefore, we concluded that A fibers participated in the development and maintenance of the central sensitization induced by MTrPs and were related to the mean size of neurons associated with MTrPs in the spinal dorsal horn.

  18. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  19. Mineral Fiber Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and physical properties of different forms of mineral fibers impact biopersistence and pathology in the lung. Fiber chemistry, length, aspect ratio, surface area and dose are critical factors determining mineral fiber-associated health effects including cancer and as...

  20. Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilization is affected by the age of the pig and the pig breed. The use of potential prebiotic effects of dietary fiber is an attractive way to stimulate gut health and thereby minimize the use of anti-microbial growth promoters. Inclusion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet can stimulate the growth of commensal gut microbes. Inclusion of NSP from chicory results in changes in gut micro-environment and gut morphology of pigs, while growth performance remains unaffected and digestibility was only marginally reduced. The fermentation products and pH in digesta responded to diet type and were correlated with shifts in the microbiota. Interestingly, fiber intake will have an impact on the expression of intestinal epithelial heat-shock proteins in the pig. Heat-shock proteins have an important physiological role in the gut and carry out crucial housekeeping functions in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, there are increasing evidence showing that fiber can have prebiotic effects in pigs due to interactions with the gut micro-environment and the gut associated immune system. PMID:24580966

  1. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M A; Braun, Kim V E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI -0.037, -0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood. PMID:27589791

  2. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M. A.; Braun, Kim V. E.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood. PMID:27589791

  3. [Classification and the composition of food fibers].

    PubMed

    Bezhanidze, I Z; Alasaniia, N Sh; Kontselidze, L A; Kharazi, N A; Bezhanidze, N V

    2009-06-01

    Fiber promotes the contractions that keep food moving through the intestine. Also, high-fiber foods expand the inside walls of the colon and eases the passage of waste. The food and fiber research was conducted. In the article, the classification and the composition of food fibers are presented. Multifunctional properties of food fiber in the process of digestion are discussed. The physiological value of food fibers for the human organism is stressed. Diets high in fiber during the entire life are recommended. If a person can't consume enough fiber in diet alone, certain stool softening and bulking agents are recommended. They can be very useful in preventing and treating digestive tract disorders. The analysis of high fiber food sources and world production and consumption of food fiber is also presented. PMID:19578217

  4. Perineural granulomas in cutaneous sarcoidosis may be associated with sarcoidosis small-fiber neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Munday, William R; McNiff, Jennifer; Watsky, Kalman; DiCapua, Daniel; Galan, Anjela

    2015-07-01

    Perineural granulomas in cutaneous sarcoidosis have been rarely reported and their clinical significance has yet to be evaluated. Recently, a 27-year-old male presented with multiple pink papules on the flank and lower back, accompanied by a painful, burning sensation. Biopsies revealed well-defined granulomas, consistent with sarcoidosis, in the dermis and involving small cutaneous nerves. We hypothesized that perineural granulomas may be an under-recognized feature of cutaneous sarcoidosis and may be responsible for sensory disturbances. We reviewed cases from 29 consecutive patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis. Perineural granulomas were identified in 18/29 (62%) patients and in 22/40 (55%) biopsies. Perineural granulomas were identified in 7/9 biopsies from the proximal upper extremity, 1/3 from the distal upper extremity, 7/12 from the head and the neck, including 4/4 from the nose, 5/9 from the back, 1/2 from the flank and 1/1 from the proximal lower extremity and 0/4 from the distal lower extremity. The anatomical distribution is similar to sarcoidosis small-fiber neuropathy (SSFN), in which sarcoidosis patients without evident skin lesions experience sensory disturbances of unknown etiology involving the face, the proximal extremities and the trunk. Our results indicate perineural granulomas in cutaneous sarcoidosis are more common than previously appreciated, primarily involve the head, the proximal upper extremities and the back, and may be responsible for neurological manifestations.

  5. Ectopic Lignification in the Flax lignified bast fiber1 Mutant Stem Is Associated with Tissue-Specific Modifications in Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Chantreau, Maxime; Portelette, Antoine; Dauwe, Rebecca; Kiyoto, Shingo; Crônier, David; Morreel, Kris; Arribat, Sandrine; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabi, Malika; Boerjan, Wout; Yoshinaga, Arata; Mesnard, François; Grec, Sebastien; Chabbert, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical screening of a flax ethyl methanesulfonate population led to the identification of 93 independent M2 mutant families showing ectopic lignification in the secondary cell wall of stem bast fibers. We named this core collection the Linum usitatissimum (flax) lbf mutants for lignified bast fibers and believe that this population represents a novel biological resource for investigating how bast fiber plants regulate lignin biosynthesis. As a proof of concept, we characterized the lbf1 mutant and showed that the lignin content increased by 350% in outer stem tissues containing bast fibers but was unchanged in inner stem tissues containing xylem. Chemical and NMR analyses indicated that bast fiber ectopic lignin was highly condensed and rich in G-units. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling showed large modifications in the oligolignol pool of lbf1 inner- and outer-stem tissues that could be related to ectopic lignification. Immunological and chemical analyses revealed that lbf1 mutants also showed changes to other cell wall polymers. Whole-genome transcriptomics suggested that ectopic lignification of flax bast fibers could be caused by increased transcript accumulation of (1) the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase monolignol biosynthesis genes, (2) several lignin-associated peroxidase genes, and (3) genes coding for respiratory burst oxidase homolog NADPH-oxidases necessary to increase H2O2 supply. PMID:25381351

  6. Ectopic lignification in the flax lignified bast fiber1 mutant stem is associated with tissue-specific modifications in gene expression and cell wall composition.

    PubMed

    Chantreau, Maxime; Portelette, Antoine; Dauwe, Rebecca; Kiyoto, Shingo; Crônier, David; Morreel, Kris; Arribat, Sandrine; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabi, Malika; Boerjan, Wout; Yoshinaga, Arata; Mesnard, François; Grec, Sebastien; Chabbert, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Histochemical screening of a flax ethyl methanesulfonate population led to the identification of 93 independent M2 mutant families showing ectopic lignification in the secondary cell wall of stem bast fibers. We named this core collection the Linum usitatissimum (flax) lbf mutants for lignified bast fibers and believe that this population represents a novel biological resource for investigating how bast fiber plants regulate lignin biosynthesis. As a proof of concept, we characterized the lbf1 mutant and showed that the lignin content increased by 350% in outer stem tissues containing bast fibers but was unchanged in inner stem tissues containing xylem. Chemical and NMR analyses indicated that bast fiber ectopic lignin was highly condensed and rich in G-units. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling showed large modifications in the oligolignol pool of lbf1 inner- and outer-stem tissues that could be related to ectopic lignification. Immunological and chemical analyses revealed that lbf1 mutants also showed changes to other cell wall polymers. Whole-genome transcriptomics suggested that ectopic lignification of flax bast fibers could be caused by increased transcript accumulation of (1) the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase monolignol biosynthesis genes, (2) several lignin-associated peroxidase genes, and (3) genes coding for respiratory burst oxidase homolog NADPH-oxidases necessary to increase H2O2 supply.

  7. Directional volume growing for the extraction of white matter tracts from diffusion tensor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merhof, D.; Hastreiter, P.; Nimsky, C.; Fahlbusch, R.; Greiner, G.

    2005-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging measures diffusion of water in tissue. Within structured tissue, such as neural fiber tracts of the human brain, anisotropic diffusion is observed since the cell membranes of the long cylindric nerves restrict diffusion. Diffusion tensor imaging thus provides information about neural fiber tracts within the human brain which is of major interest for neurosurgery. However, the visualization is a challenging task due to noise and limited resolution of the data. A common visualization strategy of white matter is fiber tracking which utilizes techniques known from flow visualization. The resulting streamlines provide a good impression of the spatial relation of fibers and anatomy. Therefore, they are a valuable supplement for neurosurgical planning. As a drawback, fibers may diverge from the exact path due to numerical inaccuracies during streamline propagation even if higher order integration is used. To overcome this problem, a novel strategy for directional volume growing is presented which enables the extraction of separate tract systems and thus allows to compare and estimate the quality of fiber tracking algorithms. Furthermore, the presented approach is suited to get a more precise representation of the volume encompassing white matter tracts. Thereby, the entire volume potentially containing fibers is provided in contrast to fiber tracking which only shows a more restricted representation of the actual volume of interest. This is of major importance in brain tumor cases where white matter tracts are in the close vicinity of brain tumors. Overall, the presented strategy contributes to make surgical planning safer and more reliable.

  8. Carbon Fiber Risk Analysis. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The scope and status of the effort to assess the risks associated with the accidental release of carbon/graphite fibers from civil aircraft is presented. Vulnerability of electrical and electronic equipment to carbon fibers, dispersal of carbon fibers, effectiveness of filtering systems, impact of fiber induced failures, and risk methodology are among the topics covered.

  9. Coincidence of different structures of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the respiratory tract of children: no indications for enhanced mucosal immunostimulation in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    PubMed Central

    Debertin, A S; Tschernig, T; Schürmann, A; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B; Pabst, R

    2006-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is the principal inductive site for mucosal immune responses that are capable of T and B cell responses and antigen-specific responses. In previous independent studies different structures of MALT, e.g. bronchus-, larynx- and nose-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT, LALT, NALT) have been described separately in various frequencies in the human respiratory tract over life spans. Because upper respiratory tract infections are common in infants, dysregulations of mucosal immune responses might be seriously involved in the aetiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In the present study the coincidental occurrence of the three different MALT structures in the respiratory tract within the same patients were studied, and cases of SIDS and children who had died from different traumatic and natural causes of death (non-SIDS) were compared. First, the frequency of BALT and LALT in 46 children (35 SIDS, 11 non-SIDS) with or without NALT were examined. A tendency was found of a coincidence of respiratory MALT structures. In 50 additional cases of infant death (30 SIDS, 20 non-SIDS) from the multi-centric German Study on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (GeSID) where death had occurred in the first year of life, the coincidence was evaluated. A coincidental occurrence of BALT, LALT and NALT or BALT and LALT (each about 30%) was found in both groups, whereby the coincidence in SIDS and the control patients did not differ. Interestingly, the children with coincidental MALT were strikingly older, supporting the hypothesis of respiratory MALT formation via environmental stimulation over time. PMID:16968398

  10. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  11. EcoTILLING revealed SNPs in GhSus genes that are associated with fiber- and seed-related traits in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Da; Sun, Jun-Ling; Bu, Su-Hong; Deng, Kang-Sheng; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Du, Xiong-Ming; Zhou, Bao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is the most important textile crop in the world due to its cellulose-enriched fibers. Sucrose synthase genes (Sus) play pivotal roles in cotton fiber and seed development. To mine and pyramid more favorable alleles for cotton molecular breeding, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GhSus family genes were investigated across 277 upland cotton accessions by EcoTILLING. As a result, a total of 24 SNPs in the amplified regions of eight GhSus genes were identified. These SNPs were significantly associated with at least one fiber- or seed-related trait measured in Nanjing, Anyang and Kuche in 2007-2009. Four main-effect quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) and five epistatic QTNs, with 0.76-3.56% of phenotypic variances explained by each QTN (PVE), were found to be associated with yield-related traits; six epistatic QTNs, with the 0.43-3.48% PVE, were found to be associated with fiber quality-related traits; and one main-effect QTN and one epistatic QTN, with the PVE of 1.96% and 2.53%, were found to be associated with seed oil content and protein content, respectively. Therefore, this study provides new information for molecular breeding in cotton. PMID:27385639

  12. EcoTILLING revealed SNPs in GhSus genes that are associated with fiber- and seed-related traits in upland cotton

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan-Da; Sun, Jun-Ling; Bu, Su-Hong; Deng, Kang-Sheng; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Du, Xiong-Ming; Zhou, Bao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is the most important textile crop in the world due to its cellulose-enriched fibers. Sucrose synthase genes (Sus) play pivotal roles in cotton fiber and seed development. To mine and pyramid more favorable alleles for cotton molecular breeding, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GhSus family genes were investigated across 277 upland cotton accessions by EcoTILLING. As a result, a total of 24 SNPs in the amplified regions of eight GhSus genes were identified. These SNPs were significantly associated with at least one fiber- or seed-related trait measured in Nanjing, Anyang and Kuche in 2007–2009. Four main-effect quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) and five epistatic QTNs, with 0.76–3.56% of phenotypic variances explained by each QTN (PVE), were found to be associated with yield-related traits; six epistatic QTNs, with the 0.43–3.48% PVE, were found to be associated with fiber quality-related traits; and one main-effect QTN and one epistatic QTN, with the PVE of 1.96% and 2.53%, were found to be associated with seed oil content and protein content, respectively. Therefore, this study provides new information for molecular breeding in cotton. PMID:27385639

  13. Optic Disc, Macula, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements Obtained by OCT in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Sayın, Osman; Yeter, Volkan; Arıtürk, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macula and optic disc parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) between the patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and healthy controls. Methods. One hundred and thirty-two eyes of 66 patients with TAO and 72 eyes of 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Proptosis level was determined by Hertel exophthalmometer. Optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and macula parameters were measured by OCT. All measurements of the patients were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. No statistically significant difference was found between the patients with TAO and control group in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). Exophthalmometer measurements and IOP were higher in TAO group (P < 0.05). Mean macula thicknesses in TAO and control groups were 239.3 ± 29.8 μm and 246.6 ± 31.8 μm, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000). TAO group had thinner inferior RNFL thickness and macular thicknesses (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) and higher disc area and C/D ratio when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. IOP, disc area, and C/D area ratio were higher in the patients with TAO and the thicknesses of macula and inferior RNFL were thinner when compared with healthy controls. This trial is registered with registration number at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766660. PMID:27493796

  14. Optic Disc, Macula, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements Obtained by OCT in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sayın, Osman; Arıtürk, Nurşen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To compare the measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), macula and optic disc parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) between the patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and healthy controls. Methods. One hundred and thirty-two eyes of 66 patients with TAO and 72 eyes of 36 healthy controls were included in the study. Proptosis level was determined by Hertel exophthalmometer. Optic disc, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, and macula parameters were measured by OCT. All measurements of the patients were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. No statistically significant difference was found between the patients with TAO and control group in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0.05). Exophthalmometer measurements and IOP were higher in TAO group (P < 0.05). Mean macula thicknesses in TAO and control groups were 239.3 ± 29.8 μm and 246.6 ± 31.8 μm, respectively, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000). TAO group had thinner inferior RNFL thickness and macular thicknesses (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) and higher disc area and C/D ratio when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. IOP, disc area, and C/D area ratio were higher in the patients with TAO and the thicknesses of macula and inferior RNFL were thinner when compared with healthy controls. This trial is registered with registration number at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766660. PMID:27493796

  15. Greater Insula White Matter Fiber Connectivity in Women Recovered from Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Shott, Megan E; Pryor, Tamara L; Yang, Tony T; Frank, Guido K W

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with reduced drive to eat. Altered taste-reward circuit white matter fiber organization in anorexia nervosa after recovery could indicate a biological marker that alters the normal motivation to eat. Women recovered from restricting-type anorexia (Recovered AN, n = 24, age = 30.3 ± 8.1 years) and healthy controls (n = 24, age = 27.4 ± 6.3 years) underwent diffusion weighted imaging of the brain. Probabilistic tractography analyses calculated brain white matter connectivity (streamlines) as an estimate of fiber connections in taste-reward-related white matter tracts, and microstructural integrity (fractional anisotropy, FA) was assessed using tract-based spatial statistics. Recovered AN showed significantly (range P<0.05-0.001, Bonferroni corrected) greater white matter connectivity between bilateral insula regions and ventral striatum, left insula and middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and right insula projecting to gyrus rectus and medial OFC. Duration of illness predicted connectivity of tracts projecting from the insula to ventral striatum and OFC. Microstructural integrity was lower in Recovered AN in most insula white matter tracts, as was whole-brain FA in parts of the anterior corona radiata, external capsule, and cerebellum (P<0.05, family-wise error-corrected). This study indicates higher structural white matter connectivity, an estimate of fibers connections, in anorexia after recovery in tracts that connect taste-reward processing regions. Greater connectivity together with less-fiber integrity could indicate altered neural activity between those regions, which could interfere with normal food-reward circuit function. Correlations between connectivity and illness duration suggest that connectivity could be a marker for illness severity. Whether greater connectivity can predict prognosis of the disorder requires further study.

  16. Contactin‑associated protein‑like 2 expression in SH‑SY5Y cells is upregulated by a FOXP2 mutant with a shortened poly‑glutamine tract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunjing; Liu, Xiaoliang; Sun, Hongwei; Wang, Yueping; Yang, Wenzhu; Ma, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    The forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) gene encodes an important transcription factor that contains a polyglutamine (poly‑Q) tract and a forkhead DNA binding domain. It has been observed that FOXP2 is associated with speech sound disorder (SSD), and mutations that decrease the length of the poly‑Q tract were identified in the FOXP2 gene of SSD patients. However, the exact role of poly‑Q reduction is not well understood. In the present study, constructs expressing wild‑type and poly‑Q reduction mutants of FOXP2 were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using lentiviral vectors and transfected into the SH‑SY5Y neuronal cell line. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)‑PCR and western blotting indicated that infected cells stably expressed high levels of FOXP2. Using this cell model, the impact of FOXP2 on the expression of contactin‑associated protein‑like 2 (CNTNAP2) were investigated, and CNTNAP2 mRNA expression levels were observed to be significantly higher in cells expressing poly‑Q‑reduced FOXP2. In addition, the expression level of CASPR2, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Neurexin IV, was increased in cells expressing the FOXP2 mutant. Demonstration of regulation by FOXP2 indicates that CNTNAP2 may also be involved in SSD.

  17. Radiofrequency ablation of metastatic chondrosarcoma-associated refractory ventricular tachycardia originating from the right ventricular outflow tract: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiangmin; Liang, Zhuo; Li, Jian; Guo, Jianping; Shan, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yutang

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) and premature contraction originating from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) usually appear in healthy individuals. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is highly effective at resolving this type of arrhythmia. Refractory VT of RVOT is uncommon and occasionally results from cardiac metastasis of extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (ESMC). ESMC is a rare malignant tumor arising from soft tissues. The current study presents the case of a 25-year-old male with severe VT arising from RVOT due to metastasis of an ESMC that originally occurred in the retroperitoneum. The diagnosis was confirmed following echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. VT was eventually eliminated by RFA, and during the 8-month follow-up period the patient did not complain of any palpitations. Holter monitoring confirmed the absence of recurrence. PMID:27588097

  18. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirk E; Sheehan, Timothy H; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Snyder, Lucy; Schwan, Melissa R; Walton, Alexander; Jones, Beryl M; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or "beebread"). We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop), midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota, and the

  19. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm flagellar proteins, outer dense fiber protein-2 and tektin-2, is associated with impaired motility during capacitation of hamster spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Mariappa, Daniel; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H; Dasari, Santosh K; Sreekumar, Arun; Wolkowicz, Michael; van der Hoorn, Frans; Seshagiri, Polani B

    2010-02-01

    In mammals, acquisition of fertilization competence of spermatozoa is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the critical molecular events of sperm capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that a specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin-A47, inhibited hamster sperm capacitation, accompanied by a reduced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, a high percentage of tyrphostin-A47-treated spermatozoa exhibited circular motility, which was associated with a distinct hypo-tyrosine phosphorylation of flagellar proteins, predominantly of Mr 45,000-60,000. In this study, we provide evidence on the localization of capacitation-associated tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins to the nonmembranous, structural components of the sperm flagellum. Consistent with this, we show their ultrastructural localization in the outer dense fiber, axoneme, and fibrous sheath of spermatozoa. Among hypo-tyrosine phosphorylated major proteins of tyrphostin-A47-treated spermatozoa, we identified the 45 kDa protein as outer dense fiber protein-2 and the 51 kDa protein as tektin-2, components of the sperm outer dense fiber and axoneme, respectively. This study shows functional association of hypo-tyrosine-phosphorylation status of outer dense fiber protein-2 and tektin-2 with impaired flagellar bending of spermatozoa, following inhibition of EGFR-tyrosine kinase, thereby showing the critical importance of flagellar protein tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation and hyperactivation of hamster spermatozoa.

  20. Association of Common SIX6 Polymorphisms With Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness: The Singapore Chinese Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Allingham, R. Rand; Aung, Tin; Tham, Yih-Chung; Hauser, Michael A.; Vithana, Eranga N.; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Wong, Tien Yin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Recently the common SIX6 missense variant rs33912345 was found to be highly associated with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between this SIX6 variant and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a population setting. Methods. Study subjects were enrolled from the Singapore Chinese Eye Study (SCES), a population-based survey of Singaporean Chinese aged 40 years or older. Subjects underwent a comprehensive ocular examination. Spectral-domain OCT was used to measure RNFL thicknesses. Genotyping of SIX6 rs33912345 (Asn141His) was performed using HumanExome BeadChip. Results. A total of 2129 eyes from 1243 SCES subjects (mean age: 55.0 ± 7.4 years) with rs33912345 genotype data and SD-OCT images were included for the analysis. Of these, 26 eyes of 21 subjects had glaucoma. The frequency of rs33912345 risk variant C (His141) was 80% in the study subjects. Each rs33912345 C allele was associated with a decrease of 1.44 μm in RNFL thickness after adjusting for age, sex, genetic principal components, and axial length (P = 0.001). These associations remained similar in 2096 nonglaucoma eyes in which each C allele was associated with a decrease of 1.39 μm in RNFL thickness (P = 0.001). The strongest association was observed in the superior RNFL sector (a decrease of 2.83 μm per risk allele, P < 0.001) followed by the inferior RNFL sector (a decrease of 2.24 μm per risk allele, P = 0.003), while the association did not reach significance in the nasal and temporal sectors. Conclusions. Nonglaucomatous individuals with the SIX6 missense variant have reduced RNFL thickness in regions known to be particularly affected in those with glaucoma. This may be the primary mechanism for increased risk of POAG in individuals who carry the SIX6 His141 risk variant. PMID:25537207

  1. Advances in Urinary Tract Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Berent, Allyson C

    2016-01-01

    The use of endoscopy in veterinary medicine has become the mainstay of diagnosis and treatment in the subspecialty of small animal urology over the past decade. This subspecialty is termed endourology. With the common incidence of urinary tract obstructions, stones disease, renal disease, and urothelial malignancies, combined with the recognized invasiveness and morbidity associated with traditional surgical techniques, the use of endoscopic-assisted alternatives using interventional endoscopic techniques has become appealing to both owners and clinicians. This article provides a brief overview of some of the most common urologic procedures being performed in veterinary medicine. PMID:26440205

  2. Association Between Microglia, Inflammatory Factors, and Complement with Loss of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses Induced by Trimethyltin.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Andrew D; McPherson, Christopher A; Harry, G Jean

    2016-07-01

    Complement-associated factors are implicated in pathogen presentation, neurodegeneration, and microglia resolution of tissue injury. To characterize complement activation with microglial clearance of degenerating mossy fiber boutons, hippocampal dentate granule neurons were ablated in CD-1 mice with trimethyltin (TMT; 2.2 mg/kg, i.p.). Neuronal apoptosis was accompanied by amoeboid microglia and elevations in tumor necrosis factor [Tnfa], interleukin 1β [Il1b], and Il6 mRNA and C1q protein. Inos mRNA levels were unaltered. Silver degeneration and synaptophysin staining indicated loss of synaptic innervation to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Reactive microglia with thickened bushy morphology showed co-localization of synaptophysin+ fragments. The initial response at 2 days post-TMT included transient elevations in Tnfa, Il1b, Il6, and Inos mRNA levels. A concurrent increase at 2 days was observed in arginase-1 [Arg1], Il10, transforming growth factor β1 [Tgfb1], and chitinase 3 like-3 [Ym1] mRNA levels. At 2 days, C1q protein was evident in the CA3 with elevated C1qa, C1qb, C3, Cr3a, and Cr3b mRNA levels. mRNA levels remained elevated at 5 days, returning to control by 14 days, corresponding to silver degeneration. mRNA levels for pentraxin3 (Ptx3) were elevated on day 2 and Ptx1 was not altered. Our data suggest an association between microglia reactivity, the induction of anti-inflammatory genes concurrent with pro-inflammatory genes and the expression of complement-associated factors with the degeneration of synapses following apoptotic neuronal loss.

  3. Lower urinary tract development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rasouly, Hila Milo; Lu, Weining

    2013-01-01

    Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Urinary Tract (CALUT) are a family of birth defects of the ureter, the bladder and the urethra. CALUT includes ureteral anomalies such as congenital abnormalities of the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ), and birth defects of the bladder and the urethra such as bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), prune belly syndrome (PBS), and posterior urethral valves (PUV). CALUT is one of the most common birth defects and is often associated with antenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infections (UTI), chronic kidney disease and renal failure in children. Here, we discuss the current genetic and molecular knowledge about lower urinary tract development and genetic basis of CALUT in both human and mouse models. We provide an overview of the developmental processes leading to the formation of the ureter, bladder, and urethra, and different genes and signaling pathways controlling these developmental processes. Human genetic disorders that affect the ureter, bladder and urethra and associated gene mutations are also presented. As we are entering the post-genomic era of personalized medicine, information in this article may provide useful interpretation for the genetic and genomic test results collected from patients with lower urinary tract birth defects. With evidence-based interpretations, clinicians may provide more effective personalized therapies to patients and genetic counseling for their families. PMID:23408557

  4. Effects of source and level of dietary neutral detergent fiber on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, ruminal digestion in situ, and total tract digestion in beef cattle fed pelleted concentrates with or without supplemental roughage.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S A; Campbell, C P; Mandell, I B; Wilton, J W

    1992-03-01

    The effects of source and level of dietary NDF on intake, ruminal digestion in situ, ruminal fermentation, and total tract digestion were evaluated in Hereford steers using a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design. Diets contained 62 to 64% TDN and included 1) 80% control concentrate (contained pelleted ground grains) and 20% timothy hay (traditional diet), 2) 80% control concentrate and 20% alfalfa cubes, 3) 90% control concentrate and 10% cubes, 4) a completely pelleted diet using corn cobs as the primary NDF source, and 5) 80% textured (rolled instead of ground grains) concentrate and 20% hay. Dry matter intake differed (P less than .05) between the traditional and cube diets due to limited acceptance of alfalfa cubes. Increased (P less than .05) ruminal osmolality, total VFA, and NH3 N and lower (P less than .01) ruminal pH in steers fed corn cob and cube diets relative to steers fed the traditional diet were due to preferential consumption of concentrate over supplemental roughage and the resultant rapid fermentation of concentrates. Potentially degradable DM in the traditional diet exceeded (P less than .06) all other diets, resulting in the increased (P less than .10) extent of DM disappearance despite a slower (P less than .05) rate of DM disappearance. Rate of NDF disappearance and all in situ starch disappearance parameters were similar between the traditional, corn cob, and cube diets. All ruminal digestion parameters involving NDF disappearance were similar between hay diets and between cube diets, whereas rate and extent of starch disappearance differed (P less than .05) between hay diets. Although formulation of diets with different sources of dietary NDF did not affect total tract digestion of nutrients, nutrient availability and ruminal fermentation were altered due to dietary differences in sources of dietary NDF and preferential selection of feedstuffs by steers. PMID:1314254

  5. Fiber connectivity between the striatum and cortical and subcortical regions is associated with temperaments in Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Feng; He, Qinghua; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Qi; Moyzis, Robert K; Xue, Gui; Cao, Zhongyu; Li, Jin; Li, He; Zhu, Bi; Liu, Yuyun; Hsu, Anna Shan Chun; Li, Jun; Dong, Qi

    2014-04-01

    The seven-factor biopsychosocial model of personality distinguished four biologically based temperaments and three psychosocially based characters. Previous studies have suggested that the four temperaments-novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD), harm avoidance (HA), and persistence (P)-have their respective neurobiological correlates, especially in the striatum-connected subcortical and cortical networks. However, few studies have investigated their neurobiological basis in the form of fiber connectivity between brain regions. This study correlated temperaments with fiber connectivity between the striatum and subcortical and cortical hub regions in a sample of 50 Chinese adult males. Generally consistent with our hypotheses, results showed that: (1) NS was positively correlated with fiber connectivity from the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, lOFC) and amygdala to the striatum; (2) RD was positively correlated with fiber connectivity from the mOFC, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex (PCC), hippocampus, and amygdala to the striatum; (3) HA was positively linked to fiber connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and PCC to the striatum; and (4) P was positively linked to fiber connectivity from the mOFC to the striatum. These results extended the research on the neurobiological basis of temperaments by identifying their anatomical fiber connectivity correlates within the subcortical-cortical neural networks.

  6. Outbreak of nosocomial urinary tract infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a paediatric surgical unit associated with tap-water contamination.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, A; Nguyen, L; Pron, B; Quesne, G; Brusset, M C; Berche, P

    1998-08-01

    An outbreak of 14 cases of urinary tract infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including six symptomatic infections, occurred from September to November 1994 in a paediatric surgical unit. During the outbreak, urine samples from patients and multiple samples from the environment of patients were tested for the presence of P. aeruginosa. Bacterial isolates were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotypic analysis showed that most of the isolates from children were different. Multiple P. aeruginosa isolates were also found in the tap water, as the only putative source of contamination. Two of these isolates were identified in two infected patients, indicating possible direct contamination of patients via tap water and this was related to the distal colonization of faucets. Bacteria were eradicated from tap water by replacement of taps. The cluster of cases of P. aeruginosa urinary infection was, therefore, related to multiple contaminations through tap water. These results illustrate an unexpected risk of nosocomial infection and emphasizes the importance of checking tap water to prevent bacterial contamination through handwashing in contaminated water. PMID:9749401

  7. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (P<0.01) and significant decrease of theta power P<0.05). Corneal nerves were damaged in corneas of retinoblastoma patients. Corneal nerve injury was positively correlated with delta EEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands. PMID:27592207

  8. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-09-04

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (P<0.01) and significant decrease of theta power P<0.05). Corneal nerves were damaged in corneas of retinoblastoma patients. Corneal nerve injury was positively correlated with delta EEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands.

  9. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    Background In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. Material/Methods Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. Results The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (P<0.01) and significant decrease of theta power P<0.05). Corneal nerves were damaged in corneas of retinoblastoma patients. Corneal nerve injury was positively correlated with delta EEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. Conclusions Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands. PMID:27592207

  10. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... body's drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice ...

  11. Impact of selective digestive decontamination on respiratory tract Candida among patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia. A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hurley, J C

    2016-07-01

    The purpose here is to establish the incidence of respiratory tract colonization with Candida (RT Candida) among ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilation within studies in the literature. Also of interest is its relationship with candidemia and the relative importance of topical antibiotic (TA) use as within studies of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) versus other candidate risk factors towards it. The incidence of RT Candida was extracted from component (control and intervention) groups decanted from studies of various TA and non-TA ICU infection prevention methods with summary estimates derived using random effects. A benchmark RT Candida incidence to provide overarching calibration was derived using (observational) groups from studies without any prevention method under study. A multi-level regression model of group level data was undertaken using generalized estimating equation (GEE) methods. RT Candida data were sourced from 113 studies. The benchmark RT Candida incidence is 1.3; 0.9-1.8 % (mean and 95 % confidence intervals). Membership of a concurrent control group of a study of SDD (p = 0.02), the group-wide presence of candidemia risk factors (p < 0.001), and proportion of trauma admissions (p = 0.004), but neither the year of study publication, nor membership of any other component group, nor the mode of respiratory sampling are predictive of the RT Candida incidence. RT Candida and candidemia incidences are correlated. RT Candida incidence can serve as a basis for benchmarking. Several relationships have been identified. The increased incidence among concurrent control groups of SDD studies cannot be appreciated in any single study examined in isolation.

  12. Maturation Along White Matter Tracts in Human Brain Using a Diffusion Tensor Surface Model Tract-Specific Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang; Zhang, Hui; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Liu, Min; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography studies have demonstrated exponential patterns of developmental changes for diffusion parameters such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) averaged over all voxels in major white matter (WM) tracts of the human brain. However, this assumes that the entire tract is changing in unison, which may not be the case. In this study, a surface model based tract-specific analysis was applied to a cross-sectional cohort of 178 healthy subjects (83 males/95 females) aged from 6 to 30 years to spatially characterize the age-related changes of FA and MD along the trajectory of seven major WM tracts – corpus callosum (CC) and six bilateral tracts. There were unique patterns of regions that showed different exponential and linear rates of increasing FA or decreasing MD and age at which FA or MD levels off along each tract. Faster change rate of FA was observed in genu of CC and frontal-parietal part of superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Inferior corticospinal tract (CST), posterior regions of association tracts such as inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior frontal occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus also displayed earlier changing patterns for FA. MD decreases with age also exhibited this posterior-to-anterior WM maturation pattern for most tracts in females. Both males and females displayed similar FA/MD patterns of change with age along most large tracts; however, males had overall reached the FA maxima or MD minima later compared with females in most tracts with the greater differences occurring in the CST and frontal-parietal part of SLF for MD. Therefore, brain WM development has spatially varying trajectories along tracts that depend on sex and the tract. PMID:26909027

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  14. Multimaterial Acoustic Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chocat, Noemie

    The emergence of multimaterial fibers that combine a multiplicity of solid materials with disparate electrical, optical, and mechanical properties into a single fiber presents new opportunities for extending fiber applications well beyond optical transmission. Fiber reflectors, thermal detectors, photodetectors, chemical sensors, surface-emitting fiber lasers, fiber diodes, and other functional fiber devices have been demonstrated with this approach. Yet, throughout this development and indeed the development of fibers in general, a key premise has remained unchanged : that fibers are essentially static devices incapable of controllably changing their properties at high frequencies. Unique opportunities would arise if a rapid, electrically-driven mechanism for changing fiber properties existed. A wide spectrum of hitherto passive fiber devices could at once become active with applications spanning electronics, mechanics, acoustics, and optics, with the benefits of large surface-area, structural robustness, and mechanical flexibility. This thesis addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with the realization of electromechanical transduction in fibers through the integration of internal piezoelectric and electrostrictive domains. The fundamental challenges related to the fabrication of piezoelectric devices in fiber form are analyzed from a materials perspective, and candidate materials and geometries are selected that are compatible with the thermal drawing process. The first realization of a thermally drawn piezoelectric fiber device is reported and its piezoelectric response is established over a wide range of frequencies. The acoustic properties of piezoelectric fiber devices are characterized and related to their mechanical and geometric properties. Collective effects in multi-fiber constructs are discussed and demonstrated by the realization of a linear phased array of piezoelectric fibers capable of acoustic beam steering. High strain actuation

  15. Global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in paediatric urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and association with routine use of antibiotics in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Alastair D; Lane, Isabel F; Thornton, Hannah V; Wootton, Mandy; Costelloe, Céire

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review studies investigating the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in children and, when appropriate, to meta-analyse the relation between previous antibiotics prescribed in primary care and resistance. Design and data analysis Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled percentage prevalence of resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics in children in primary care, stratified by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) status of the study country. Random effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the association between previous exposure to antibiotics in primary care and resistance. Data sources Observational and experimental studies identified through Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases, searched for articles published up to October 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported resistance in community acquired urinary tract infection in children and young people aged 0-17. Electronic searches with MeSH terms and text words identified 3115 papers. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality and performed data extraction. Results 58 observational studies investigated 77 783 E coli isolates in urine. In studies from OECD countries, the pooled prevalence of resistance was 53.4% (95% confidence interval 46.0% to 60.8%) for ampicillin, 23.6% (13.9% to 32.3%) for trimethoprim, 8.2% (7.9% to 9.6%) for co-amoxiclav, and 2.1% (0.8 to 4.4%) for ciprofloxacin; nitrofurantoin was the lowest at 1.3% (0.8% to 1.7%). Resistance in studies in countries outside the OECD was significantly higher: 79.8% (73.0% to 87.7%) for ampicillin, 60.3% (40.9% to 79.0%) for co-amoxiclav, 26.8% (11.1% to 43.0%) for ciprofloxacin, and 17.0% (9.8% to 24.2%) for nitrofurantoin. There was evidence that bacterial isolates from the urinary tract from individual children who had received

  16. Characterization of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixin; Huang, Houbin; Wei, Shihui; Qiu, Huaiyu; Gong, Yan; Li, Hongyang; Dai, Yanli; Jiang, Zhaocai; Liu, Zihao

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, the changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were examined by Cirrus high definition-optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the correlation between the RNFL thickness and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was evaluated. A cross-sectional study was performed. Sixty-eight eyes from patients with LHON and 30 eyes from healthy individuals were scanned. Affected eyes were divided into 5 groups according to disease duration: Group 1, ≤3 months; group 2, 4-6 months; group 3, 7-9 months; group 4, 10-12 months; and group 5, >12 months. The RNFL thickness of the temporal, superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and the 360° average were compared between the LHON groups and the control group. The eyes in groups 1 and 2 were observed to have a thicker RNFL in the superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and a higher 360°-average RNFL thickness compared with those of the control group (P<0.05), the RNFL was observed to be thinner in the temporal quadrant in groups 1 and 2. The eyes in groups 3 and 4 showed a thinner RNFL in the temporal (P=0.001), superior and inferior (both P<0.05) quadrants, and a lower 360°-average RNFL thickness as compared with controls (P=0.001). No significant correlation was identified between BCVA and RNFL thickness. RNFL thickness was observed to undergo a unique process from thickening to thinning in the patients with LHON. Changes in different quadrants occurred at different time periods and the BCVA was not found to be correlated with RNFL thickness.

  17. [Ultrasound diagnostics of upper urinary tract calculi].

    PubMed

    Belyĭ, L E

    2006-01-01

    The review is dedicated to ultrasonography of the upper urinary tract in patients with nephrolithiasis. Ultrasonographic semiotics of urolithiasis, the ability of unlrasonography to detect nephrolithiasis, and methods of the optimization of these diagnostic techniques in patients with upper urinary tract calculi are covered. The author discusses difficulties that may be faced while differentiating between nephrolithiasis and such conditions as spongious kidney, nephrocalcinosis, calcification of renal papillae, cysts, tumors, and vascular walls, as well as other kinds of renal calcification, associated with ultrasonographic acoustic path phenomenon. The advantages and disadvantages of ultrasonography in cases of X-ray urolithiasis are evaluated in the paper. The article describes hardships in ultrasound visualization of ureteral calculi causing acute upper urinary tract obstruction, and the ways of getting over them.

  18. The cruciated microtubule-associated fibers of the green alga Dunaliella bioculata consist of a 31 kDa SF-assemblin.

    PubMed

    Lechtreck, K F; Frins, S; Bilski, J; Teltenkötter, A; Weber, K; Melkonian, M

    1996-04-01

    Cytoskeletons of Dunaliella bioculata, the biflagellate wallless green alga, were isolated and analyzed using a monoclonal and a polyclonal antibody raised against SF-assemblin, the major protein of the two striated microtubule-associated fibers of the alga Spermatozopsis similis. Indirect immunofluorescence showed antigenic structures associated with the four microtubular flagellar roots. SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblot analysis revealed a cross-reacting polypeptide of 31 kDa. This protein of D. bioculata was isolated using gel filtration chromatography in 8 M urea and in vitro reassembly of striated fibers. Microsequencing of the purified protein yielded various peptides, which could be aligned along the sequence of SF-assemblin from S. similis. A complete sequence of the Dunaliella protein was obtained by cDNA cloning. It documents the non helical head domain followed by a helical rod domain with a 29 residue repeat pattern based on four heptads followed by a skip residue. Compared to SF-assemblin of S. similis the SF-assemblin of Dunaliella has a shorter head and a slightly longer rod domain. The two algal SF-assemblins share only 57% sequence identity. We conclude that SF-assemblin and related proteins in various protists are representatives of a new class of alpha-helical proteins characterized by the ability to form a special segmented coiled coil and to assemble into striated fibers of 2 nm protofilaments in vivo and in vitro.

  19. Childhood autism in India: A case-control study using tract-based spatial statistics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Zarina Abdul; Bagepally, Bhavani Shankara; Saini, Jitender; Srinath, Shoba; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Naidu, Purushotham R.; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Context: Autism is a serious behavioral disorder among young children that now occurs at epidemic rates in developing countries like India. We have used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures to investigate the microstructure of primary neurocircuitry involved in autistic spectral disorders as compared to the typically developed children. Objective: To evaluate the various white matter tracts in Indian autistic children as compared to the controls using TBSS. Materials and Methods: Prospective, case-control, voxel-based, whole-brain DTI analysis using TBSS was performed. The study included 19 autistic children (mean age 8.7 years ± 3.84, 16 males and 3 females) and 34 controls (mean age 12.38 ± 3.76, all males). Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) values were used as outcome variables. Results: Compared to the control group, TBSS demonstrated multiple areas of markedly reduced FA involving multiple long white matter tracts, entire corpus callosum, bilateral posterior thalami, and bilateral optic tracts (OTs). Notably, there were no voxels where FA was significantly increased in the autism group. Increased RD was also noted in these regions, suggesting underlying myelination defect. The MD was elevated in many of the projections and association fibers and notably in the OTs. There were no significant changes in the AD in these regions, indicating no significant axonal injury. There was no significant correlation between the FA values and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Conclusion: This is a first of a kind study evaluating DTI findings in autistic children in India. In our study, DTI has shown a significant fault with the underlying intricate brain wiring system in autism. OT abnormality is a novel finding and needs further research. PMID:26600581

  20. Reproductive tract infections in northern Vietnam: health providers' diagnostic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, My Hu'o'ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Christoffersen, Sarah Vigh; Tran, Thu Thuy; Rasch, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted on reproductive tract infections among women obtaining induced abortions at Ph[image omitted]-[image omitted] hospital in Haiphong City, a major maternity hospital in northern Vietnam. The research aimed to explore how clinicians and lab-technicians diagnose reproductive tract infections and the difficulties they experience in establishing exact diagnoses. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies was employed. The quantitative research involved 748 abortion-seeking women; the qualitative research was conducted with 10 doctors and 10 lab-technicians providing reproductive health services. A marked tendency was observed among both clinicians and lab-technicians to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections and to prescribe antibiotics routinely. Social, cultural, and clinical factors associated with the tendency to overdiagnose reproductive tract infections included: inadequate training of health staff, lack of equipment, and cultural assumptions regarding the overwhelming prevalence of reproductive tract infections in Vietnamese women, especially among those who receive abortion services. Misconceptions of reproductive tract infections led to substantial over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment of reproductive tract infections in this hospital. To enhance reproductive tract infection care, providers need to be sensitized to the social and medical consequences of their own cultural perceptions and to increase their awareness of the risks associated with overuse of antibiotics. PMID:19533512

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms at +191 and +292 of Galectin-3 Gene (LGALS3) Related to Lower GAL-3 Serum Levels Are Associated with Frequent Respiratory Tract Infection and Vaso-Occlusive Crisis in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça Belmont, Taciana Furtado; do Ó, Kleyton Palmeira; Soares da Silva, Andreia; de Melo Vilar, Kamila; Silva Medeiros, Fernanda; Silva Vasconcelos, Luydson Richardson; Mendonça dos Anjos, Ana Claudia; Domingues Hatzlhofer, Betânia Lucena; Pitta, Maíra Galdino da Rocha; Bezerra, Marcos André Cavalcanti; Araújo, Aderson da Silva; de Melo Rego, Moacyr Jesus Barreto; Moura, Patrícia; Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may present chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion and respiratory tract infection (RTI) episodes. Galectin-3 (GAL-3) is a multifunctional protein involved in inflammation, apoptosis, adhesion and resistance to reactive oxygen species. Studies point to a dual role for GAL-3 as both a circulation damage-associated molecular pattern and a cell membrane associated pattern recognition receptor. Objective To investigate associations between the SNPs of GAL-3 gene (LGALS3) and serum levels with RTI and vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in children with SCA. Materials and Methods SNPs +191 and +292 in LGALS3 were studied using the TaqMan real-time PCR system; GAL-3 serum levels were measured by ELISA. The study included 79 children with SCA ranging from 2 to 12 years old. Results GAL-3 serum levels were associated with LGALS3 +191 and +292 genotypes (p <0.0001; p = 0.0169, respectively). LGALS3 +191, AA genotype was associated with low and CC with higher levels of GAL-3. For LGALS3 +292, the CC genotype was associated with lower GAL-3 and AA with higher levels. Patients with Frequency of RTI (FRTI) ≥1 presented higher frequency of +191AA (p = 0.0263) and +292AC/CC genotypes (p = 0.0320). SNP +292 was associated with Frequency of VOC (FVOC) (p = 0.0347), whereas no association was shown with SNP +191 and FVOC. However, CA/AC and AA/CC genotypes with lower GAL-3 levels showed a higher frequency in patients with FRTI ≥1 (p = 0.0170; p = 0.0138, respectively). Also, patients with FVOC ≥1 presented association with CA/AC (p = 0.0228). LGALS3 +191 and +292 combined genotypes related to low (p = 0.0263) and intermediate expression (p = 0.0245) were associated with FRTI ≥1. Lower GAL-3 serum levels were associated with FRTI ≥1 (p = 0.0426) and FVOC ≥1 (p = 0.0012). Conclusion Variation of GAL-3 serum levels related to SNPs at +191 and +292 may constitute a susceptibility factor for RTI and VOC frequency. PMID:27603703

  2. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: Bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen that are either vertically inherited or acquired from the environment. While the core bacteria of the honey bee gut is becoming evident, the influence of the pollination environment on honey bee-associated microbial p...

  3. Fiber biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of the COBRA-Like (COBL) Gene Family in Gossypium Identifies Two COBLs Potentially Associated with Fiber Quality

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Erli; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Bao, Jianghao; Zeng, Yanda; Cai, Caiping; Du, Xiongming; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    COBRA-Like (COBL) genes, which encode a plant-specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein, have been proven to be key regulators in the orientation of cell expansion and cellulose crystallinity status. Genome-wide analysis has been performed in A. thaliana, O. sativa, Z. mays and S. lycopersicum, but little in Gossypium. Here we identified 19, 18 and 33 candidate COBL genes from three sequenced cotton species, diploid cotton G. raimondii, G. arboreum and tetraploid cotton G. hirsutum acc. TM-1, respectively. These COBL members were anchored onto 10 chromosomes in G. raimondii and could be divided into two subgroups. Expression patterns of COBL genes showed highly developmental and spatial regulation in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. Of them, GhCOBL9 and GhCOBL13 were preferentially expressed at the secondary cell wall stage of fiber development and had significantly co-upregulated expression with cellulose synthase genes GhCESA4, GhCESA7 and GhCESA8. Besides, GhCOBL9 Dt and GhCOBL13 Dt were co-localized with previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the favorable allele types of GhCOBL9 Dt had significantly positive correlations with fiber quality traits, indicating that these two genes might play an important role in fiber development. PMID:26710066

  5. Assessing particle and fiber toxicology in the respiratory system: the stereology toolbox.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, Christina; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2015-10-31

    The inhalation of airborne particles can lead to pathological changes in the respiratory tract. For this reason, toxicology studies on effects of inhalable particles and fibers often include an assessment of histopathological alterations in the upper respiratory tract, the trachea and/or the lungs. Conventional pathological evaluations are usually performed by scoring histological lesions in order to obtain "quantitative" information and an estimation of the severity of the lesion. This approach not only comprises a potential subjective bias, depending on the examiner's judgment, but also conveys the risk that mild alterations escape the investigator's eye. The most accurate way of obtaining unbiased quantitative information about three-dimensional (3D) features of tissues, cells, or organelles from two-dimensional physical or optical sections is by means of stereology, the gold standard of image-based morphometry. Nevertheless, it can be challenging to express histopathological changes by morphometric parameters such as volume, surface, length or number only. In this review we therefore provide an overview on different histopathological lesions in the respiratory tract associated with particle and fiber toxicology and on how to apply stereological methods in order to correctly quantify and interpret histological lesions in the respiratory tract. The article further aims at pointing out common pitfalls in quantitative histopathology and at providing some suggestions on how respiratory toxicology can be improved by stereology. Thus, we hope that this article will stimulate scientists in particle and fiber toxicology research to implement stereological techniques in their studies, thereby promoting an unbiased 3D assessment of pathological lesions associated with particle exposure.

  6. Urinary tract endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Koszczuk, J C; Foglietti, M; Perez, J F; Dono, F V; Thomas, R J

    1989-01-01

    Although endometriosis is a common gynecologic pathologic phenomenon, involvement of the urinary tract is relatively rare. The clinical presentation and course of urinary system disease is extremely variable, as illustrated by the seven cases presented in this report. Therapy primarily is surgical, but a thorough understanding of the disease process and a complete knowledge of the patient's history and desires for fertility conservation are necessary to plot the most appropriate treatment course. Bladder involvement is more common, and usually less devastating, than either ureteral or kidney involvement. No signs, symptoms, or physical findings are pathognomonic, and the clinician must maintain a high index of suspicion in all cases of advanced pelvic endometriosis.

  7. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn's disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn's disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn's disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn's disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn's disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn's disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn's disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn's disease patients in remission.

  8. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  9. Arabidopsis Kinetochore Fiber-Associated MAP65-4 Cross-Links Microtubules and Promotes Microtubule Bundle Elongation[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fache, Vincent; Gaillard, Jérémie; Van Damme, Daniel; Geelen, Danny; Neumann, Emmanuelle; Stoppin-Mellet, Virginie; Vantard, Marylin

    2010-01-01

    The acentrosomal plant mitotic spindle is uniquely structured in that it lacks opposing centrosomes at its poles and is equipped with a connective preprophase band that regulates the spatial framework for spindle orientation and mobility. These features are supported by specialized microtubule-associated proteins and motors. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana MAP65-4, a non-motor microtubule associated protein (MAP) that belongs to the evolutionarily conserved MAP65 family, specifically associates with the forming mitotic spindle during prophase and with the kinetochore fibers from prometaphase to the end of anaphase. In vitro, MAP65-4 induces microtubule (MT) bundling through the formation of cross-bridges between adjacent MTs both in polar and antipolar orientations. The association of MAP65-4 with an MT bundle is concomitant with its elongation. Furthermore, MAP65-4 modulates the MT dynamic instability parameters of individual MTs within a bundle, mainly by decreasing the frequency of catastrophes and increasing the frequency of rescue events, and thereby supports the progressive lengthening of MT bundles over time. These properties are in line with its role of initiating kinetochore fibers during prospindle formation. PMID:21119057

  10. Labeling of the cerebellar peduncles using a supervised Gaussian classifier with volumetric tract segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Chuyang; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Bogovic, John A.; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2012-02-01

    The cerebellar peduncles are white matter tracts that play an important role in the communication of the cerebellum with other regions of the brain. They can be grouped into three fiber bundles: inferior cerebellar peduncle middle cerebellar peduncle, and superior cerebellar peduncle. Their automatic segmentation on diffusion tensor images would enable a better understanding of the cerebellum and would be less time-consuming and more reproducible than manual delineation. This paper presents a method that automatically labels the three fiber bundles based on the segmentatin results from the diffusion oriented tract segmentation (DOTS) algorithm, which achieves volume segmentation of white matter tracts using a Markov random field (MRF) framework. We use the DOTS labeling result as a guide to determine the classification of fibers produced by wild bootstrap probabilistic tractography. Mean distances from each fiber to each DOTS volume label are defined and then used as features that contribute to classification. A supervised Gaussian classifier is employed to label the fibers. Manually delineated cerebellar peduncles serve as training data to determine the parameters of class probabilities for each label. Fibers are labeled ad the class that has the highest posterior probability. An outlier detection ste[ re,pves fober tracts that belong to noise of that are not modeled by DOTS. Experiments show a successful classification of the cerebellar peduncles. We have also compared results between successive scans to demonstrate the reproducibility of the proposed method.

  11. Lipoleiomyoma of the left broad ligament with dermoid cyst in ipsilateral ovary and synchronous multiple benign lesions of female genital tract: An unusual association.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sweta Singh; Saha, Arpita; Mishra, Pritinanda; Jena, Saubhagya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus is a rare variant of leiomyoma, and lipoleiomyoma of the broad ligament is still rarer, with only a handful of cases being reported. The present case was a perimenopausal woman who presented with a huge lower abdominal mass. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a heterogeneous solid mass in the left adnexa. The histopathological findings confirmed the nature of the lesions as a benign lipoleiomyoma with dermoid cyst of the left ovary and its other associated benign lesions, were the interesting features seen in this case which were not suspected clinically and radiologically. PMID:27510676

  12. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Defa; Liu, Ling; Zang, Jianjun; Duan, Qiwu; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased.

  13. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  14. Proteomic profiling of cellulase-aid-extracted membrane proteins for functional identification of cellulose synthase complexes and their potential associated- components in cotton fibers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ao; Wang, Ruyi; Li, Xianliang; Liu, Mingyong; Fan, Jian; Guo, Kai; Luo, Bing; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Shengqiu; Wang, Yanting; Wang, Bingrui; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are an excellent model for understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants. In this study, we determined a high cellulose biosynthesis activity in vitro by optimizing biochemical reaction conditions in cotton fibers. By adding a commercial cellulase enzyme into fibers extraction process, we extracted markedly higher levels of GhCESA1 and GhCESA8 proteins and observed an increase in β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-glucan products in vitro. LC-MS/MS analysis of anti-GhCESA8-immunoprecipitated proteins showed that 19 proteins could be found in three independent experiments including four CESAs (GhCESA1,2,7,8), five well-known non-CESA proteins, one callose synthase (CALS) and nine novel proteins. Notably, upon the cellulase treatment, four CESAs, one CALS and four novel proteins were measured at relatively higher levels by calculating total peptide counts and distinct peptide numbers, indicating that the cellulase-aid-extracted proteins most likely contribute to the increase in β-glucan products in vitro. These results suggest that the cellulase treatment may aid to release active cellulose synthases complexes from growing glucan chains and make them more amenable to extraction. To our knowledge, it is the first time report about the functional identification of the potential proteins that were associated with plant cellulose and callose synthases complexes by using the cellulase-aided protein extraction. PMID:27192945

  15. Syndrome-Associated Tumors by Organ System.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Riddle, Nicole D

    2016-06-01

    Certain tumors suggest the possibility of a patient harboring a genetic syndrome, particularly in children. Syndrome-associated tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, gynecologic tract, heart, lungs, brain, eye, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic system will be briefly discussed.

  16. Biliary tract infections caused by Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Chao, C M; Lai, C C; Tang, H J; Ko, W C; Hsueh, P-R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract. Patients with bile cultures positive for Aeromonas species during the period July 2004 to December 2011 were identified from a computerized database of a hospital in Taiwan. Patients with Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract were further identified. During the study period, a total of 1,142 isolates of Aeromonas species were obtained from 750 patients. Of those patients, 91 (12.1 %) had Aeromonas infections of the biliary tract. The annual incidence (episodes per 10,000 patient-days) of biliary tract infections caused by all Aeromonas species was 0.31 in 2007, 0.12 in 2010, and 0.27 in 2011. A. hydrophila was the most common species isolated (n = 41, 45.1 %), followed by A. caviae (n = 30, 33.0 %), A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 15, 16.5 %), and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 5, 5.5 %). The majority of patients (n = 77, 84.6 %) had polymicrobial infections. Hepatobiliary stones (n = 50, 54.9 %) and hepatobiliary cancer (n = 38, 41.8 %) were the most common underlying diseases, followed by diabetes mellitus (n = 29, 31.9 %) and liver cirrhosis (n = 7, 7.7 %). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8 %. Infection-related mortality was associated with underlying immunocompromised condition (p = 0.044) and use of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.004), but was not associated with inappropriate antibiotic usage or concomitant bacteremia (n = 8, 8.8 %). In conclusion, biliary tract infections caused by Aeromonas species are not uncommon and can develop in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients; however, patients with underlying hepatobiliary diseases are particularly susceptible to these infections.

  17. Endotoxin adsorption therapy using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber as a treatment for septic shock-associated severe acute cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Onodera, Makoto; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Gaku; Kojika, Masahiro; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2013-10-01

    The application of endotoxin adsorption therapy for severe acute cholangitis is controversial. We present a survival case of septic shock and multiple organ failure due to severe acute cholangitis. The patient was treated by endotoxin adsorption therapy using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber because he continued to remain in shock even after successful endoscopic nasobiliary drainage. The patient was an 84-year-old male diagnosed with acute cholangitis and acute pancreatitis who was transferred to our department because of shock and severe dyspnea. The patient had already developed acute respiratory failure, acute renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We performed endoscopic nasobiliary drainage immediately, but the patient continued to remain in shock and plasma endotoxin level was markedly elevated at 133.6 pg/mL. Therefore, we performed direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber. On starting the hemoperfusion, blood pressure and urine volume increased, and the plasma endotoxin level reduced considerably. On the basis of our experience in this case, we think that direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber may be a useful modality in the management of severe acute cholangitis.

  18. An Outbreak of Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 Associated with Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit and Use of Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    van Beurden, Yvette H.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Bomers, Marije K.; Kaiser, Annie M.; van Houdt, Robin; Knetsch, Cornelis W.; Girbes, Armand R. J.; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An outbreak of Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 infection (CDI) occurred at an university hospital, involving 19 departments. To determine what hospital-associated factors drove the outbreak of this particular strain we performed a case-control study. Methods Cases (n = 79), diagnosed with CDI due to C. difficile ribotype 027 were matched for age and treating medical specialty to four control patients (n = 316). Patients diagnosed with CDI due to other ribotypes were included as a second control group. A random selection of C. difficile ribotype 027 strains (n = 10) was genotyped by Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). Findings WGS showed the outbreak was likely caused by a single strain of C. difficile (two or less single-nucleotide variants between isolates). Ninety-five percent of cases had used antibiotics, compared to 56% of controls. Previous admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (OR: 2.4, 95% CI 1.0–5.6), longer length of stay (LOS), and recent hospital admission were associated with CDI ribotype 027. Cases were less likely to have been admitted to a ward with a known isolated CDI patient (OR: 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.6). Analysis of patients who stayed at the ICU (35 cases; 51 controls), indicated that the use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) and a longer LOS in the ICU were associated with CDI risk. Interpretation In this large outbreak, any antibiotic use, including SDD use, appeared as a prerequisite for acquisition of the outbreak strain. The role of use of SDD and prolonged stay on the ICU could not be disentangled, but both factors can play a biologically plausible role in C. difficile acquisition and infection. PMID:27533048

  19. Bacteriophage-Mediated Control of a Two-Species Biofilm Formed by Microorganisms Causing Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in an In Vitro Urinary Catheter Model

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms from a patient or their environment may colonize indwelling urinary catheters, forming biofilm communities on catheter surfaces and increasing patient morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the effect of pretreating hydrogel-coated silicone catheters with mixtures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis bacteriophages on the development of single- and two-species biofilms in a multiday continuous-flow in vitro model using artificial urine. Novel phages were purified from sewage, characterized, and screened for their abilities to reduce biofilm development by clinical isolates of their respective hosts. Our screening data showed that artificial urine medium (AUM) is a valid substitute for human urine for the purpose of evaluating uropathogen biofilm control by these bacteriophages. Defined phage cocktails targeting P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis were designed based on the biofilm inhibition screens. Hydrogel-coated catheters were pretreated with one or both cocktails and challenged with approximately 1 × 103 CFU/ml of the corresponding pathogen(s). The biofilm growth on the catheter surfaces in AUM was monitored over 72 to 96 h. Phage pretreatment reduced P. aeruginosa biofilm counts by 4 log10 CFU/cm2 (P ≤ 0.01) and P. mirabilis biofilm counts by >2 log10 CFU/cm2 (P ≤ 0.01) over 48 h. The presence of P. mirabilis was always associated with an increase in lumen pH from 7.5 to 9.5 and with eventual blockage of the reactor lines. The results of this study suggest that pretreatment of a hydrogel urinary catheter with a phage cocktail can significantly reduce mixed-species biofilm formation by clinically relevant bacteria. PMID:25487795

  20. Bacteriophage-mediated control of a two-species biofilm formed by microorganisms causing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in an in vitro urinary catheter model.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Susan M; Donlan, Rodney M

    2015-02-01

    Microorganisms from a patient or their environment may colonize indwelling urinary catheters, forming biofilm communities on catheter surfaces and increasing patient morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the effect of pretreating hydrogel-coated silicone catheters with mixtures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis bacteriophages on the development of single- and two-species biofilms in a multiday continuous-flow in vitro model using artificial urine. Novel phages were purified from sewage, characterized, and screened for their abilities to reduce biofilm development by clinical isolates of their respective hosts. Our screening data showed that artificial urine medium (AUM) is a valid substitute for human urine for the purpose of evaluating uropathogen biofilm control by these bacteriophages. Defined phage cocktails targeting P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis were designed based on the biofilm inhibition screens. Hydrogel-coated catheters were pretreated with one or both cocktails and challenged with approximately 1×10(3) CFU/ml of the corresponding pathogen(s). The biofilm growth on the catheter surfaces in AUM was monitored over 72 to 96 h. Phage pretreatment reduced P. aeruginosa biofilm counts by 4 log10 CFU/cm2 (P≤0.01) and P. mirabilis biofilm counts by >2 log10 CFU/cm2 (P≤0.01) over 48 h. The presence of P. mirabilis was always associated with an increase in lumen pH from 7.5 to 9.5 and with eventual blockage of the reactor lines. The results of this study suggest that pretreatment of a hydrogel urinary catheter with a phage cocktail can significantly reduce mixed-species biofilm formation by clinically relevant bacteria. PMID:25487795

  1. Reduction of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Through the Use of an Evidence-Based Nursing Algorithm and the Implementation of Shift Nursing Rounds: A Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kamishia L

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to successfully implement a nurse-led evidence-based practice change designed to reduce CAUTIs in a cardiac intensive care and step-down unit. The QI project was implemented using a convenience sample of patients admitted to the cardiac intensive care and step-down unit.Evaluation data were collected 3 months preimplementation and 9 months postimplementation. We used Wick's Check-Plan-Do-Check-Act model of continuous QI to guide the project. A statistically significant change in the number of CAUTIs (P = .009) and CAUTI occurrences (P = .005) was observed following the intervention. The number of indwelling catheter days and indwelling catheter utilization did not significantly differ following implementation of the intervention. Nurse compliance with the intervention was computed for each month; the average compliance rate was 91%. Findings from this project indicate that a nurse-led evidence-based practice project exerted a positive influence on CAUTI occurrences.

  2. Computed tomography of the genitourinary tract.

    PubMed

    Stanley, R J; Sagel, S S; Fair, W R

    1978-06-01

    Eighteen months of experience with computed body tomography have revealed that this radiologic modality is useful in the diagnostic evaluation and management of urologic patients. Renal masses, perirenal lesions, poorly functioning kidneys, pelvic tumors and associated retroperitoneal nodal spread and other diagnostic problems related to the urinary tract have been imaged successfully with computed body tomography. Accuracy is high in the differentiation of benign renal cysts from renal neoplasms. Tumor staging and computed body tomography is being explored currently.

  3. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  4. Urinary Tract Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Anna; Krajewski, Wojciech; Dołowy, Łukasz; Hirnle, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, occurrence of urinary tract endometriosis (UTE) is more frequently diagnosed. According to literature, it refers to approximately 0.3 to even 12% of all women with endometriosis. The pathogenesis of UTE has not been clearly explained so far. The actually proposed hypotheses include embryonic, migration, transplantation, and iatrogenic theory. Most frequently UTE affects bladder, less often ureters and kidneys. One-third of patients remains asymptomatic or exhibits only minor manifestations. In symptomatic patients main complaints include dysuria, urinary urgency, and/or frequency, painful micturition, and burning sensation in the urethra and discomfort in the retropubic area. Treatment of UTE is challenging and can be pharmacological, surgical or can be a combination of both methods. In this paper we present a review of the literature concerning the UTE, its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26341760

  5. Genetic characterization of a core collection of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) suitable for association mapping studies and evidence of divergent selection between fiber and linseed types

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flax is valued for its fiber, seed oil and nutraceuticals. Recently, the fiber industry has invested in the development of products made from linseed stems, making it a dual purpose crop. Simultaneous targeting of genomic regions controlling stem fiber and seed quality traits could enable the development of dual purpose cultivars. However, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns necessary for association mapping (AM) have not yet been assessed in flax because genomic resources have only recently been developed. We characterized 407 globally distributed flax accessions using 448 microsatellite markers. The data was analyzed to assess the suitability of this core collection for AM. Genomic scans to identify candidate genes selected during the divergent breeding process of fiber flax and linseed were conducted using the whole genome shotgun sequence of flax. Results Combined genetic structure analysis assigned all accessions to two major groups with six sub-groups. Population differentiation was weak between the major groups (FST = 0.094) and for most of the pairwise comparisons among sub-groups. The molecular coancestry analysis indicated weak relatedness (mean = 0.287) for most individual pairs. Abundant genetic diversity was observed in the total panel (5.32 alleles per locus), and some sub-groups showed a high proportion of private alleles. The average genome-wide LD (r2) was 0.036, with a relatively fast decay of 1.5 cM. Genomic scans between fiber flax and linseed identified candidate genes involved in cell-wall biogenesis/modification, xylem identity and fatty acid biosynthesis congruent with genes previously identified in flax and other plant species. Conclusions Based on the abundant genetic diversity, weak population structure and relatedness and relatively fast LD decay, we concluded that this core collection is suitable for AM studies targeting multiple agronomic and quality traits aiming at

  6. Utrophin is a regeneration-associated protein transiently present at the sarcolemma of regenerating skeletal muscle fibers in dystrophin-deficient hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Gaschen, F; Burgunder, J M

    1998-08-01

    Utrophin, an autosomal homologue of dystrophin, has been suggested as a possible therapeutic replacement of dystrophin in Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD). We have undertaken this study to examine the expression of utrophin in the skeletal muscle of dystrophin-deficient cats, a spontaneous animal model for dystrophinopathy. Dystrophin was normal in size, but very low in quantity by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Utrophin was heterogeneously overexpressed at extrajunctional sarcolemma of regenerating muscle fibers, as defined by overexpression of the myogenic markers: vimentin, desmin, and developmental isoform of myosin heavy chain (MHCd). Muscle regeneration occurred in 6 stages as assessed by fiber size, and immunolabeling of desmin, vimentin, and MHCd. Differential developmental patterns of utrophin, alpha-sarcoglycan, and beta-dystroglycan expression were seen with an increase followed by a decrease and with changes in their respective location. These results suggest that utrophin is a regeneration-associated protein. It can functionally replace dystrophin in anchoring dystrophin-associated proteins (DAPs). However, the expression of utrophin and its anchored DAPs is restricted to the period of muscle regeneration and tends to decrease in late stages. This study therefore suggests a novel role of utrophin during skeletal muscle regeneration.

  7. Behavior of parasite-specific effector CD8+ T cells in the brain and visualization of a kinesis-associated system of reticular fibers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emma H; Harris, Tajie H; Mrass, Paulus; John, Beena; Tait, Elia D; Wu, Gregory F; Pepper, Marion; Wherry, E John; Dzierzinski, Florence; Roos, David; Haydon, Philip G; Laufer, Terri M; Weninger, Wolfgang; Hunter, Christopher A

    2009-02-20

    To understand lymphocyte behavior in the brain, we used two-photon microscopy to visualize effector CD8(+) T cells during toxoplasmic encephalitis. These cells displayed multiple behaviors with two distinct populations of cells apparent: one with a constrained pattern of migration and one with a highly migratory subset. The proportion of these populations varied over time associated with changes in antigen availability as well as T cell expression of the inhibitory receptor PD1. Unexpectedly, the movement of infiltrating cells was closely associated with an infection-induced reticular system of fibers. This observation suggests that, whereas in other tissues pre-existing scaffolds exist that guide lymphocyte migration, in the brain specialized structures are induced by inflammation that guide migration of T cells in this immune-privileged environment.

  8. Assessment of Carbon Fiber Electrical Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The risks associated with the use of carbon fiber composites in civil aircraft are discussed along with the need for protection of civil aircraft equipment from fire-released carbon fibers. The size and number of carbon fibers released in civil aircraft crash fires, the downwind dissemination of the fibers, their penetration into buildings and equipment, and the vulnerability of electrical/electronic equipment to damage by the fibers are assessed.

  9. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Lilian M.; Hooton, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:27025743

  10. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient FAQ General Information Clinicians Clinician FAQ CRE Definition Facilities/Settings State Health Departments CRE Toolkit Gram- ... of Pulsed Field Types based on MLST clonal complex Outbreak and Patient Notifications CDC Statement LA CRE ...

  11. Cardiac outflow tract anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Neeb, Zachary; Lajiness, Jacquelyn D.; Bolanis, Esther; Conway, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    The mature outflow tract (OFT) is, in basic terms, a short conduit. It is a simple, although vital, connection situated between contracting muscular heart chambers and a vast embryonic vascular network. Unfortunately, it is also a focal point underlying many multifactorial congenital heart defects (CHDs). Through the use of various animal models combined with human genetic investigations, we are beginning to comprehend the molecular and cellular framework that controls OFT morphogenesis. Clear roles of neural crest cells (NCC) and second heart field (SHF) derivatives have been established during OFT formation and remodeling. The challenge now is to determine how the SHF and cardiac NCC interact, the complex reciprocal signaling that appears to be occurring at various stages of OFT morphogenesis, and finally how endocardial progenitors and primary heart field (PHF) communicate with both these colonizing extra-cardiac lineages. Although we are beginning to understand that this dance of progenitor populations is wonderfully intricate, the underlying pathogenesis and the spatiotemporal cell lineage interactions remain to be fully elucidated. What is now clear is that OFT alignment and septation are independent processes, invested via separate SHF and cardiac neural crest (CNC) lineages. This review will focus on our current understanding of the respective contributions of the SHF and CNC lineage during OFT development and pathogenesis. PMID:24014420

  12. Emergence of spatial behavioral function and associated mossy fiber connectivity and c-Fos labeling patterns in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Comba, Rachel; Gervais, Nicole; Mumby, Dave; Holahan, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (PND18 - PND24).  The purpose of the current work was 1) to determine whether the emergence of spatial-behavioral function was based on the ability to generate appropriate behavioral output; 2) to assess whether mossy fiber connectivity patterns preceded the emergence of spatial-behavioral function; 3) to explore functional changes in the hippocampus to determine whether activity in hippocampal networks occurred in a training-dependent or developmentally-dependent fashion.  To these ends, male, Long Evans rats were trained on a spatial water or dry maze task for one day (PND16, PND18 or PND20) then euthanized.  Training on these 2 tasks with opposing behavioral demands (swimming versus exploration) was hypothesized to control for behavioral topology.  Only at PND20 was there evidence of spatial-behavioral function for both tasks.  Examination of synaptophysin staining in the CA3 region (i.e., mossy fiber projections) revealed enhanced connectivity patterns that preceded the emergence of spatial behavior.  Analysis of c-Fos labeling (functional changes) revealed developmentally-dependent increases in c-Fos positive cells in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 regions whereas training-dependent increases were noted in the CA3 and CA1 regions for the water-maze trained groups.  Results suggest that changes in mossy fiber connectivity in association with enhanced hippocampal functioning precede the emergence of spatial behavior observed at PND20.  The combination of neuroanatomical and behavioural results confirms the hypothesis that this time represents a sensitive period for hippocampal development and modification and the emergence of spatial/ cognitive function. PMID:26925223

  13. Emergence of spatial behavioral function and associated mossy fiber connectivity and c-Fos labeling patterns in the hippocampus of rats

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Rachel; Gervais, Nicole; Mumby, Dave; Holahan, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (PND18 – PND24).  The purpose of the current work was 1) to determine whether the emergence of spatial-behavioral function was based on the ability to generate appropriate behavioral output; 2) to assess whether mossy fiber connectivity patterns preceded the emergence of spatial-behavioral function; 3) to explore functional changes in the hippocampus to determine whether activity in hippocampal networks occurred in a training-dependent or developmentally-dependent fashion.  To these ends, male, Long Evans rats were trained on a spatial water or dry maze task for one day (PND16, PND18 or PND20) then euthanized.  Training on these 2 tasks with opposing behavioral demands (swimming versus exploration) was hypothesized to control for behavioral topology.  Only at PND20 was there evidence of spatial-behavioral function for both tasks.  Examination of synaptophysin staining in the CA3 region (i.e., mossy fiber projections) revealed enhanced connectivity patterns that preceded the emergence of spatial behavior.  Analysis of c-Fos labeling (functional changes) revealed developmentally-dependent increases in c-Fos positive cells in the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA1 regions whereas training-dependent increases were noted in the CA3 and CA1 regions for the water-maze trained groups.  Results suggest that changes in mossy fiber connectivity in association with enhanced hippocampal functioning precede the emergence of spatial behavior observed at PND20.  The combination of neuroanatomical and behavioural results confirms the hypothesis that this time represents a sensitive period for hippocampal development and modification and the emergence of spatial/ cognitive function. PMID:26925223

  14. Dietary and hormonal evaluation of men at different risks for prostate cancer: fiber intake, excretion, and composition, with in vitro evidence for an association between steroid hormones and specific fiber components.

    PubMed

    Ross, J K; Pusateri, D J; Shultz, T D

    1990-03-01

    Dietary fiber intake and fecal fiber excretion were investigated in 53 Seventh-day Adventist men: 18 nonvegetarians (NVs), 20 lactoovovegetarians (LOVs), and 15 vegans (Vs). Three-day composite diets and stools were analyzed for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and pectin. In vitro binding of estrone (E1), estradiol-17 beta (E2), and testosterone (T) to a water-insoluble fiber fraction obtained from these diets was correlated with the intake of specific dietary fiber components. Vs consumed and excreted significantly more of all fiber components than did LOVs or NVs. LOVs consumed more of all fiber components (except cellulose) than did omnivores and excreted more NDF, hemicellulose, and cellulose. Dietary lignin was positively correlated with T binding in the V group. There were significant relationships for all groups combined between lignin and water-insoluble fiber binding of E1, E2, and T. Further study is needed to clarify relationships between fiber components, steroid-hormone metabolism, and risk of prostate cancer.

  15. Urinary Tract Stones and Osteoporosis: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura D; Hovey, Kathleen M; Andrews, Christopher A; Thomas, Fridtjof; Sorensen, Mathew D; Crandall, Carolyn J; Watts, Nelson B; Bethel, Monique; Johnson, Karen C

    2015-11-01

    Kidney and bladder stones (urinary tract stones) and osteoporosis are prevalent, serious conditions for postmenopausal women. Men with kidney stones are at increased risk of osteoporosis; however, the relationship of urinary tract stones to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urinary tract stones are an independent risk factor for changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Data were obtained from 150,689 women in the Observational Study and Clinical Trials of the WHI with information on urinary tract stones status: 9856 of these women reported urinary tract stones at baseline and/or incident urinary tract stones during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to determine the association of urinary tract stones with incident fractures and linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship of urinary tract stones with changes in BMD that occurred during WHI. Follow-up was over an average of 8 years. Models were adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, medication use, and dietary histories. In unadjusted models there was a significant association of urinary tract stones with incident total fractures (HR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.17). However, in covariate adjusted analyses, urinary tract stones were not significantly related to changes in BMD at any skeletal site or to incident fractures. In conclusion, urinary tract stones in postmenopausal women are not an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:25990099

  16. Urinary Tract Stones and Osteoporosis: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura D; Hovey, Kathleen M; Andrews, Christopher A; Thomas, Fridtjof; Sorensen, Mathew D; Crandall, Carolyn J; Watts, Nelson B; Bethel, Monique; Johnson, Karen C

    2015-11-01

    Kidney and bladder stones (urinary tract stones) and osteoporosis are prevalent, serious conditions for postmenopausal women. Men with kidney stones are at increased risk of osteoporosis; however, the relationship of urinary tract stones to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urinary tract stones are an independent risk factor for changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Data were obtained from 150,689 women in the Observational Study and Clinical Trials of the WHI with information on urinary tract stones status: 9856 of these women reported urinary tract stones at baseline and/or incident urinary tract stones during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to determine the association of urinary tract stones with incident fractures and linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship of urinary tract stones with changes in BMD that occurred during WHI. Follow-up was over an average of 8 years. Models were adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, medication use, and dietary histories. In unadjusted models there was a significant association of urinary tract stones with incident total fractures (HR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.17). However, in covariate adjusted analyses, urinary tract stones were not significantly related to changes in BMD at any skeletal site or to incident fractures. In conclusion, urinary tract stones in postmenopausal women are not an independent risk factor for osteoporosis.

  17. Microbial Translocation Across the GI Tract*

    PubMed Central

    Brenchley, Jason M.; Douek, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    The lumen of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to an enormous quantity of different bacterial species, our microbiota, that thrive in an often symbiotic relationship with the host. Given that the healthy host must regulate contact between the microbiota and its immune system to avoid overwhelming systemic immune activation, humans have evolved several mechanisms to attenuate systemic microbial translocation (MT) and its consequences. However, several diseases are associated with the failure of one or more of these mechanisms, with consequent immune activation and deleterious effects on health. Here, we discuss the mechanisms underlying MT, diseases associated with MT, and therapeutic interventions that aim to decrease it. PMID:22224779

  18. Microbial translocation across the GI tract.

    PubMed

    Brenchley, Jason M; Douek, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    The lumen of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to an enormous quantity of different bacterial species, our microbiota, that thrive in an often symbiotic relationship with the host. Given that the healthy host must regulate contact between the microbiota and its immune system to avoid overwhelming systemic immune activation, humans have evolved several mechanisms to attenuate systemic microbial translocation (MT) and its consequences. However, several diseases are associated with the failure of one or more of these mechanisms, with consequent immune activation and deleterious effects on health. Here, we discuss the mechanisms underlying MT, diseases associated with MT, and therapeutic interventions that aim to decrease it. PMID:22224779

  19. DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children.

    PubMed

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Mondt, Katrien; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-30

    The impact of bilingualism on the microstructure of the white matter pathways related to language processing is assessed in elementary school children by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI). Forty children, 8-11 years old, subdivided into 3 different groups (15 simultaneous bilinguals, 15 sequential bilinguals and 10 monolinguals), were scanned. The hypothesis was that the starting age and the manner of second language acquisition would affect the characteristics of language circuitry. In each subject the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was obtained for four major white matter pathways: 1 - the left arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (lAF/lSLF) that connects Broca's area in the opercular and triangular regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus to the posterior language zone, 2 - the left inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (lIFOF), connecting anterior regions in the frontal lobe with posterior regions in the temporal occipital lobes, 3 - the bundle arising from the anterior part of the corpus callosum projecting to the orbital lobe (AC-OL) and 4 - the fibers emerging from the anterior midbody (AMB) of the corpus callosum that associate with the premotor and supplementary motor cortices (AMB-PMC). The three groups did not show significant differences in mean FA over the lAF/lSLF or AMB-PMC tracts. In simultaneous bilingual subjects the lIFOF tracts had higher mean FA value compared to monolinguals and also sequential bilinguals, whereas the comparison for the AC-OL fibers yielded a significantly lower mean FA value in simultaneous bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals. In both cases the FA value for sequential bilinguals was intermediate to that of the other two groups. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of bilingualism related adaptation of white matter microstructure in the human brain.

  20. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF COMPOSITE LAMINATES WITH EMBEDDED PIEZOELECTRIC FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Puthillath, Padma K.; Blackshire, James L.

    2009-03-03

    The actuation of ultrasonic guided waves in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer plate from embedded metal core piezoelectric fibers is studied for structural health monitoring applications. A linear array of fibers embedded at the midplane can generate guided waves transverse to the fiber direction. Finite element simulations show that a significant source influence is associated with the small diameter piezoelectric fibers.

  1. Reverse Genetics for Fusogenic Bat-Borne Orthoreovirus Associated with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Humans: Role of Outer Capsid Protein σC in Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawagishi, Takahiro; Kanai, Yuta; Tani, Hideki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Saijo, Masayuki; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    Nelson Bay orthoreoviruses (NBVs) are members of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses and possess 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. NBV was first isolated from a fruit bat in Australia more than 40 years ago, but it was not associated with any disease. However, several NBV strains have been recently identified as causative agents for respiratory tract infections in humans. Isolation of these pathogenic bat reoviruses from patients suggests that NBVs have evolved to propagate in humans in the form of zoonosis. To date, no strategy has been developed to rescue infectious viruses from cloned cDNA for any member of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses. In this study, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system free of helper viruses and independent of any selection for NBV isolated from humans with acute respiratory infection. cDNAs corresponding to each of the 10 full-length RNA gene segments of NBV were cotransfected into culture cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and viable NBV was isolated using a plaque assay. The growth kinetics and cell-to-cell fusion activity of recombinant strains, rescued using the reverse genetics system, were indistinguishable from those of native strains. We used the reverse genetics system to generate viruses deficient in the cell attachment protein σC to define the biological function of this protein in the viral life cycle. Our results with σC-deficient viruses demonstrated that σC is dispensable for cell attachment in several cell lines, including murine fibroblast L929 cells but not in human lung epithelial A549 cells, and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. We also used the system to rescue a virus that expresses a yellow fluorescent protein. The reverse genetics system developed in this study can be applied to study the propagation and pathogenesis of pathogenic NBVs and in the generation of recombinant NBVs for future vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:26901882

  2. Increased constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. and a decrease in microflora diversity may be indicators of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a prospective study in the respiratory tracts of neonates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Yu, Jialin; Ai, Qing; Liu, Dong; Song, Chao; Li, Luquan

    2014-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common complication and cause of death in neonates on mechanical ventilation. However, it is difficult to define the causes of VAP. To understand the causes of VAP, we undertook a prospective study based on the diversity of the microflora in VAP. The experimental group consisted of newborns who suffered from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and VAP, while the control group suffered from RDS without VAP. Sputa were collected within 1, 3, and 5 days of ventilation and were divided into six groups. DNA was extracted from the samples, and the 16S rDNA was PCR amplified, separated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were compared using BLAST. The DGGE pictures were measured, and the richness, Shannon-Wiener index, and cluster maps were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the constituent ratio of any genus between the Non-VAP and VAP group within 1 day after intubation. After 1 to 3 days, the constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the VAP group were higher than those in the Non-VAP group, and the ratios of Serratia sp. and Achromobacter sp. were lower. After 3 to 5 days, the ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., Serratia sp., and Achromobacter sp. were lower than those in the Non-VAP group. The richness and Shannon-Wiener index of the Non-VAP group were higher than those of the VAP group from 1 to 3 days after intubation, while no differences were found within 1 day and from 3 to 5 days. We conclude that during the first three days of intubation, the microflora diversity in the lower respiratory tract was reduced due to VAP, and the greater constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the sputum may be indicators of VAP.

  3. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp.

  4. Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitizing Castor fiber (Rodentia), and other parasitic arthropods associated with Castor spp.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2016-02-11

    A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp. PMID:26865230

  5. A study of the effect of dietary fiber fractions obtained from artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) on the growth of intestinal bacteria associated with health.

    PubMed

    Fissore, Eliana N; Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Gerschenson, Lía N; Giannuzzi, Leda

    2015-05-01

    The effect of different fractions enriched in soluble fiber obtained from artichoke using citric acid or citric acid/hemicellulase on the selective growth of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 was evaluated. Gompertz modeling of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 growth showed a higher specific growth rate (μ: 0.16 h(-1)) in the presence of fractions isolated from stems using hemicellulase (fraction A) than in the presence of glucose (μ: 0.09 h(-1)). In the case of Bifidobacterium bifidum 11863, the highest μ was obtained for the microorganism grown in the presence of fraction A and for the fraction isolated from stems without hemicellulase, their rate being twice that observed for glucose (0.04 h(-1)). The positive prebiotic activity scores observed with respect to Escherichia coli 25922 indicated that fibers assayed are metabolized as well as glucose by Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 and that they are selectively metabolized by these microorganisms. The potential capacity to selectively stimulate the growth of intestinal bacteria associated with health shown by fraction A can be ascribed to its high inulin and low methylation degree pectin contents. PMID:25904284

  6. A study of the effect of dietary fiber fractions obtained from artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) on the growth of intestinal bacteria associated with health.

    PubMed

    Fissore, Eliana N; Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Gerschenson, Lía N; Giannuzzi, Leda

    2015-05-01

    The effect of different fractions enriched in soluble fiber obtained from artichoke using citric acid or citric acid/hemicellulase on the selective growth of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 was evaluated. Gompertz modeling of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 growth showed a higher specific growth rate (μ: 0.16 h(-1)) in the presence of fractions isolated from stems using hemicellulase (fraction A) than in the presence of glucose (μ: 0.09 h(-1)). In the case of Bifidobacterium bifidum 11863, the highest μ was obtained for the microorganism grown in the presence of fraction A and for the fraction isolated from stems without hemicellulase, their rate being twice that observed for glucose (0.04 h(-1)). The positive prebiotic activity scores observed with respect to Escherichia coli 25922 indicated that fibers assayed are metabolized as well as glucose by Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 and that they are selectively metabolized by these microorganisms. The potential capacity to selectively stimulate the growth of intestinal bacteria associated with health shown by fraction A can be ascribed to its high inulin and low methylation degree pectin contents.

  7. Improved delineation of short cortical association fibers and gray/white matter boundary using whole-brain three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Song, Allen W; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Petty, Christopher; Guidon, Arnaud; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2014-11-01

    Recent emergence of human connectome imaging has led to a high demand on angular and spatial resolutions for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While there have been significant growths in high angular resolution diffusion imaging, the improvement in spatial resolution is still limited due to a number of technical challenges, such as the low signal-to-noise ratio and high motion artifacts. As a result, the benefit of a high spatial resolution in the whole-brain connectome imaging has not been fully evaluated in vivo. In this brief report, the impact of spatial resolution was assessed in a newly acquired whole-brain three-dimensional diffusion tensor imaging data set with an isotropic spatial resolution of 0.85 mm. It was found that the delineation of short cortical association fibers is drastically improved as well as the definition of fiber pathway endings into the gray/white matter boundary-both of which will help construct a more accurate structural map of the human brain connectome.

  8. Estrogen/ERR-α signaling axis is associated with fiber-type conversion of upper airway muscles in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H. H.; Lu, J.; Guan, Y. F.; Li, S. J.; Hu, T. T.; Xie, Z. S.; Wang, F.; Peng, X. H.; Liu, X.; Xu, X.; Zhao, F. P.; Yu, B. L.; Li, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen is related with the low morbidity associated with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) in women, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between OSAS and estrogen related receptor-α (ERR-α). We found that the expression levels of ERR-α and Myh7 were both downregulated in palatopharyngeal tissues from OSAS patients. In addition, we report that ERR-α is dynamically expressed during differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Knockdown of ERR-α via instant siRNA resulted in reduced expression of Myh7, but not Myh4. Furthermore, differentiation of C2C12 cells under 3% chronic intermittent hypoxia, a model resembling human OSAS, was impaired and accompanied by a obvious reduction in Myh7 expression levels. Moreover, activation of ERR-α with 17β-estradiol (E2) increased the expression of Myh7, whereas pretreatment with the ERR-α antagonist XCT790 reversed the E2-induced slow fiber-type switch. A rat ovariectomy model also demonstrated the switch to fast fiber type. Collectively, our findings suggest that ERR-α is involved in estrogen-mediated OSAS by regulating Myhc-slow expression. The present study illustrates an important role of the estrogen/ERR-α axis in the pathogenesis of OSAS, and may represent an attractive therapeutic target, especially in postmenopausal women. PMID:27250523

  9. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  10. Liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers: localization of collagen types I, III, and IV, α-smooth muscle actin, and elastic fibers.

    PubMed

    Mak, Ki M; Chu, Edward; Lau, K H Vincent; Kwong, Allison J

    2012-07-01

    We have shown a high prevalence of liver fibrosis in elderly cadavers with diverse causes of death by Sirius red stain; however, the various collagen types in these samples have yet to be evaluated. To further characterize the histopathology of the fibrotic lesions in the livers of these elderly cadavers, this study used immunohistochemistry and histochemistry to identify the principal collagens produced in liver fibrosis, fibrogenic cells and elastic fibers. Collagen I and III immunoreactions were found to colocalize in collagen fibers of fibrotic central veins, perisinusoidal fibrotic foci, portal tract stroma, and fibrous septa. α-Smooth muscle actin-expressing perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as well as perivenular, portal, and septal myofibroblasts, were closely associated with collagen fibers, reflecting their fibrogenic functions. HSCs and myofibroblasts were also noted to express collagen IV, which may contribute to production of basal lamina-like structures. In fibrotic livers, the sinusoidal lining showed variable immunostaining for collagen IV. Collagen IV immunostaining revealed vascular proliferation and atypical ductular reaction at the portal-septal parenchymal borders, as well as capillary-like vessels in the lobular parenchyma. While elastic fibers were absent in the space of Disse, they were found to codistribute with collagens in portal tracts, fibrous septa and central veins. Our combined assessment of collagen types, HSCs, myofibroblasts, and elastic fibers is significant in understanding the histopathology of fibrosis in the aging liver.

  11. Multi-Tensor Investigation of Orbitofrontal Cortex Tracts Affected in Subcaudate Tractotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jimmy C.; Papadimitriou, George; Eckbo, Ryan; Yeterian, Edward H.; Liang, Lichen; Dougherty, Darin D.; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Eskandar, Emad N.; Makris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Subcaudate tractotomy (SCT) is a neurosurgical lesioning procedure that can reduce symptoms in medically intractable obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Due to the putative importance the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in symptomatology, fibers that connect the OFC, SCT lesion, and either the thalamus or brainstem were investigated with two-tensor tractography using an unscented Kalman filter approach. From this dataset, fibers were warped to Montreal Neurological Institute space, and probability maps with center-of-mass analysis were subsequently generated. In comparing fibers from the same OFC region, including medial OFC (mOFC), central OFC (cOFC), and lateral OFC (lOFC), the area of divergence for fibers connected with the thalamus versus the brainstem is posterior to the anterior commissure. At the anterior commissure, fibers connected with the thalamus run dorsal to those connected with the brainstem. As OFC fibers travel through the ventral aspect of the internal capsule, lOFC fibers are dorsal to cOFC and mOFC fibers. Using neuroanatomical comparison, tracts coursing between the OFC and thalamus are likely part of the anterior thalamic radiations, while those between the OFC and brainstem likely belong to the medial forebrain bundle. These data support the involvement of the OFC in OCD and may be relevant to creating differential lesional procedures of specific tracts or to developing deep brain stimulation programming paradigms. PMID:25103312

  12. Multi-tensor investigation of orbitofrontal cortex tracts affected in subcaudate tractotomy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jimmy C; Papadimitriou, George; Eckbo, Ryan; Yeterian, Edward H; Liang, Lichen; Dougherty, Darin D; Bouix, Sylvain; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Eskandar, Emad N; Makris, Nikos

    2015-06-01

    Subcaudate tractotomy (SCT) is a neurosurgical lesioning procedure that can reduce symptoms in medically intractable obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Due to the putative importance of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in symptomatology, fibers that connect the OFC, SCT lesion, and either the thalamus or brainstem were investigated with two-tensor tractography using an unscented Kalman filter approach. From this dataset, fibers were warped to Montreal Neurological Institute space, and probability maps with center-of-mass analysis were subsequently generated. In comparing fibers from the same OFC region, including medial OFC (mOFC), central OFC (cOFC), and lateral OFC (lOFC), the area of divergence for fibers connected with the thalamus versus the brainstem is posterior to the anterior commissure. At the anterior commissure, fibers connected with the thalamus run dorsal to those connected with the brainstem. As OFC fibers travel through the ventral aspect of the internal capsule, lOFC fibers are dorsal to cOFC and mOFC fibers. Using neuroanatomical comparison, tracts coursing between the OFC and thalamus are likely part of the anterior thalamic radiations, while those between the OFC and brainstem likely belong to the medial forebrain bundle. These data support the involvement of the OFC in OCD and may be relevant to creating differential lesional procedures of specific tracts or to developing deep brain stimulation programming paradigms.

  13. Atrio-His bundle tracts.

    PubMed Central

    Brechenmacher, C

    1975-01-01

    The atrio-His bundle tracts are very rare; only two have been found in 687 hearts studied histologically. These tracts have a similar appearance to those of the atrioventricular bundle and form a complete bypass of the atrioventricular node. In their presence the electrocardiogram may show a short or normal PR interval. They may be responsible for some cases of very rapid ventricular response to supraventricular arrhythmias. Images PMID:1191446

  14. Particle size and pathogenicity in the respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Richard James

    2013-01-01

    Particle size dictates where aerosolized pathogens deposit in the respiratory tract, thereafter the pathogens potential to cause disease is influenced by tissue tropism, clearance kinetics and the host immunological response. This interplay brings pathogens into contact with a range of tissues spanning the respiratory tract and associated anatomical structures. In animal models, differential deposition within the respiratory tract influences infection kinetics for numerous select agents. Greater numbers of pathogens are required to infect the upper (URT) compared with the lower respiratory tract (LRT), and in comparison the URT infections are protracted with reduced mortality. Pathogenesis in the URT is characterized by infection of the URT lymphoid tissues, cervical lymphadenopathy and septicemia, closely resembling reported human infections of the URT. The olfactory, gastrointestinal, and ophthalmic systems are also infected in a pathogen-dependent manner. The relevant literature is reviewed with respect to particle size and infection of the URT in animal models and humans. PMID:24225380

  15. Quantitative study of prostate cancer using three dimensional fiber tractography

    PubMed Central

    Hedgire, Sandeep; Tonyushkin, Alexey; Kilcoyne, Aoife; Efstathiou, Jason A; Hahn, Peter F; Harisinghani, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate feasibility of a quantitative study of prostate cancer using three dimensional (3D) fiber tractography. METHODS: In this institutional review board approved retrospective study, 24 men with biopsy proven prostate cancer underwent prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an endorectal coil on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Single shot echo-planar diffusion weighted images were acquired with b = 0.600 s/mm2, six gradient directions. Open-source available software TrackVis and its Diffusion Toolkit were used to generate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) map and 3D fiber tracts. Multiple 3D spherical regions of interest were drawn over the areas of tumor and healthy prostatic parenchyma to measure tract density, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), which were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: DTI tractography showed rich fiber tract anatomy with tract heterogeneity. Mean tumor region and normal parenchymal tract densities were 2.53 and 3.37 respectively (P < 0.001). In the tumor, mean ADC was 0.0011 × 10-3 mm2/s vs 0.0014 × 10-3 mm2/s in the normal parenchyma (P < 0.001). The FA values for tumor and normal parenchyma were 0.2047 and 0.2259 respectively (P = 0.3819). CONCLUSION: DTI tractography of the prostate is feasible and depicts congregate fibers within the gland. Tract density may offer new biomarker to distinguish tumor from normal tissue. PMID:27158426

  16. Unfolded-protein response-associated stabilization of p27(Cdkn1b) interferes with lens fiber cell denucleation, leading to cataract.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Lei; Whitcomb, Elizabeth A; Jiang, Shuhong; Chang, Min-Lee; Gu, Yumei; Duncan, Melinda K; Cvekl, Ales; Wang, Wei-Lin; Limi, Saima; Reneker, Lixing W; Shang, Fu; Du, Linfang; Taylor, Allen

    2016-03-01

    Failure of lens fiber cell denucleation (LFCD) is associated with congenital cataracts, but the pathobiology awaits elucidation. Recent work has suggested that mechanisms that direct the unidirectional process of LFCD are analogous to the cyclic processes associated with mitosis. We found that lens-specific mutations that elicit an unfolded-protein response (UPR) in vivo accumulate p27(Cdkn1b), show cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-1 inhibition, retain their LFC nuclei, and are cataractous. Although a UPR was not detected in lenses expressing K6W-Ub, they also accumulated p27 and showed failed LFCD. Induction of a UPR in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) also induced accumulation of p27 associated with decreased levels of S-phase kinase-associated protein (Skp)-2, a ubiquitin ligase that regulates mitosis. These cells also showed decreased lamin A/C phosphorylation and metaphase arrest. The suppression of lamin A/C phosphorylation and metaphase transition induced by the UPR was rescued by knockdown of p27. Taken together, these data indicate that accumulation of p27, whether related to the UPR or not, prevents the phosphorylation of lamin A/C and LFCD in maturing LFCs in vivo, as well as in dividing HLECs. The former leads to cataract and the latter to metaphase arrest. These results suggest that accumulation of p27 is a common mechanism underlying retention of LFC nuclei. PMID:26590164

  17. Recurrent respiratory tract infections in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bellanti, J A

    1997-01-01

    Paediatric respiratory tract infections are one of the most common reasons for physician visits and hospitalisation, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The role of physicians and other healthcare professionals has expanded from merely treating disease to implementing measures aimed at health maintenance and disease prevention. Therefore, children with recurrent respiratory tract infections represent a great challenge for the paediatrician, from both therapeutic and preventive standpoints. The paediatrician must first determine whether these recurrent infections are because of host-derived factors or are the result of increased environmental exposure. Host-derived factors may be nonimmunological or related to host immunodeficiency. The leading cause of recurrent respiratory tract infections throughout the world is increased environmental exposure in children attending nursery school or daycare centres. Acute otitis media in children is of particular concern because of its high incidence, frequent recurrence, and serious long term sequelae, e.g. hearing loss. The socioeconomic impact of these recurrent infections is staggering, and there remains much scope for devising methods for their treatment and prevention. Recent approaches have included the encouragement of breastfeeding, the use of intravenous immunoglobulin and respiratory syncytical virus immune globulin, as well as methods of stimulating immunity, such as ribosomal immunotherapy. PMID:9378072

  18. [Tumor of the urinary tract and renal lithiasis. Apropos of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, S; el Mrini, M; Aboutaied, R; el Moussaoui, A

    1992-01-01

    The authors present four observation of renal lithiasis associated with a tumor of the upper urinary tract. The rarity of this association and the facility to only consider lithiasis often conceal the tumor. They define the "high risk lithiasis" for which CT-scan is mandatory. Tumor of the urinary tract has to be treated and the prognosis becomes less favorable. PMID:1297670

  19. Multimodal Supervision Programme to Reduce Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections and Its Analysis to Enable Focus on Labour and Cost Effective Infection Control Measures in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

    PubMed Central

    Jaggi, Namita; Sissodia, Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    Background Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) contribute 30%-40% of all the nosocomial infections and they are associated with substantially increased institutional death rates. A multimodal supervision program which incorporates training of the staff with respect to infection control measures can be effective in reducing the CAUTIs in hospitals. Aim To assess the impact of a multimodal UTI supervision program on the CAUTI rates over a year, from January 2009 to December 2009, in a tertiary care hospital in India. Setting A 215 bedded tertiary care private hospital. Materials and Methods The CAUTI rates were analyzed for the first 6 months (January 2009-June 2009). A UTI supervision program was instituted in the month of July 2009, which included training with respect to the standard protocols for the sample collection and diagnosis, the bundle components of the urinary catheter checklist and hand hygiene practices. The impact was assessed as per the CAUTI rates in the subsequent months. Results The average CAUTI rate was reduced by 47.1% (from 10.6 to 5.6) after the introduction of the supervision program. This study presented the mean age of the patients with CAUTIs as 54.5 years and it showed an approximately equal contribution of both the sexes (52.94% in males and 47.05% in females). The impact analysis of the supervision program showed a reduction of 8.7% (from 23 days to 21 days) during the average duration of the catheterization. The adherence to the components of the urinary catheter check list was increased by 44.4% (p=0.069) and the hand hygiene compliance was increased by 56.4% (p=0.004) respectively after the interventions. Components like bladder irrigation and practising perineal cleaning were found to show no effect on the CAUTI rates. Conclusion The most common labour and cost effective infection control measures as revealed by the supervision programme were adherence to the urinary catheter checklist components (indication for

  20. Associations Between White Matter Microstructure and Infants’ Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Short, Sarah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Styner, Martin; Gu, Hongbin; Connelly, Mark; Maltbie, Eric; Woolson, Sandra; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Reznick, J. Steven; Gilmore, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Working memory emerges in infancy and plays a privileged role in subsequent adaptive cognitive development. The neural networks important for the development of working memory during infancy remain unknown. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic fiber tracking to characterize the microstructure of white matter fiber bundles hypothesized to support working memory in 12-month-old infants (n=73). Here we show robust associations between infants’ visuospatial working memory performance and microstructural characteristics of widespread white matter. Significant associations were found for white matter tracts that connect brain regions known to support working memory in older children and adults (genu, anterior and superior thalamic radiations, anterior cingulum, arcuate fasciculus, and the temporal-parietal segment). Better working memory scores were associated with higher FA and lower RD values in these selected white matter tracts. These tract-specific brain-behavior relationships accounted for a significant amount of individual variation above and beyond infants’ gestational age and developmental level, as measured with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Working memory was not associated with global measures of brain volume, as expected, and few associations were found between working memory and control white matter tracts. To our knowledge, this study is among the first demonstrations of brain-behavior associations in infants using quantitative tractography. The ability to characterize subtle individual differences in infant brain development associated with complex cognitive functions holds promise for improving our understanding of normative development, biomarkers of risk, experience-dependent learning and neuro-cognitive periods of developmental plasticity. PMID:22989623

  1. Automated fiber pigtailing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, O. T.; Lowry, M. E.; Lu, S. Y.; Nelson, D. C.; Nikkel, D. J.; Pocha, M. D.; Young, K. D.

    1994-02-01

    The high cost of optoelectronic (OE) devices is due mainly to the labor-intensive packaging process. Manually pigtailing such devices as single-mode laser diodes and modulators is very time consuming with poor quality control. The Photonics Program and the Engineering Research Division at LLNL are addressing several issues associated with automatically packaging OE devices. A furry automated system must include high-precision fiber alignment, fiber attachment techniques, in-situ quality control, and parts handling and feeding. This paper will present on-going work at LLNL in the areas of automated fiber alignment and fiber attachment. For the fiber alignment, we are building an automated fiber pigtailing machine (AFPM) which combines computer vision and object recognition algorithms with active feedback to perform sub-micron alignments of single-mode fibers to modulators and laser diodes. We expect to perform sub-micron alignments in less than five minutes with this technology. For fiber attachment, we are building various geometries of silicon microbenches which include on-board heaters to solder metal-coated fibers and other components in place; these designs are completely compatible with an automated process of OE packaging. We have manually attached a laser diode, a thermistor, and a thermo-electric heater to one of our microbenches in less than 15 minutes using the on-board heaters for solder reflow; an automated process could perform this same exercise in only a few minutes. Automated packaging techniques such as these will help lower the costs of OE devices.

  2. Changes in the axonal conduction velocity of pyramidal tract neurons in the aged cat.

    PubMed

    Xi, M C; Liu, R H; Engelhardt, J K; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1999-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether age-dependent changes in axonal conduction velocity occur in pyramidal tract neurons. A total of 260 and 254 pyramidal tract neurons were recorded extracellularly in the motor cortex of adult control and aged cats, respectively. These cells were activated antidromically by electrical stimulation of the medullary pyramidal tract. Fast- and slow-conducting neurons were identified according to their axonal conduction velocity in both control and aged cats. While 51% of pyramidal tract neurons recorded in the control cats were fast conducting (conduction velocity greater than 20 m/s), only 26% of pyramidal tract neurons in the aged cats were fast conducting. There was a 43% decrease in the median conduction velocity for the entire population of pyramidal tract neurons in aged cats when compared with that of pyramidal tract neurons in the control cats (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). A linear relationship between the spike duration of pyramidal tract neurons and their antidromic latency was present in both control and aged cats. However, the regression slope was significantly reduced in aged cats. This reduction was due to the appearance of a group of pyramidal tract neurons with relatively shorter spike durations but slower axonal conduction velocities in the aged cat. Sample intracellular data confirmed the above results. These observations form the basis for the following conclusions: (i) there is a decrease in median conduction velocity of pyramidal tract neurons in aged cats; (ii) the reduction in the axonal conduction velocity of pyramidal tract neurons in aged cats is due, in part, to fibers that previously belonged to the fast-conducting group and now conduct at slower velocity. PMID:10392844

  3. Structural features of soluble cereal arabinoxylan fibers associated with a slow rate of in vitro fermentation by human fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Reuhs, Brad L; Kaur, Amandeep; Patterson, John A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-10-01

    Most soluble dietary fibers ferment rapidly in the proximal colon, potentially causing discomfort and poor tolerability. Alkali-extracted arabinoxylan isolates from corn, wheat, rice and sorghum brans were prepared, through hydrolysis (except sorghum) and ethanol fractionation, to have a broad range of initial fermentation rates, and their linkage patterns were determined to understand structural aspects related to slow fermentation rate. They were all highly branched polymers with degree of substitution greater than 64%. There was no relationship of molecular mass, arabinose:xylose ratio, or degree of substitution to fermentation rate patterns. Slow fermenting wheat and corn arabinoxylans had much higher amount of terminal xylose in branches than fast fermenting rice and sorghum arabinoxylans. The slowest fermenting wheat arabinoxylan additionally contained a complex trisaccharide side chain with two arabinoses linked at the O-2 and O-3 positions of an arabinose that is O-2 linked to the xylan backbone. Structural features were proposed for tolerable slowly fermentable arabinoxylan with possible beneficial fermentation function into the distal colon.

  4. Structural features of soluble cereal arabinoxylan fibers associated with a slow rate of in vitro fermentation by human fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Reuhs, Brad L; Kaur, Amandeep; Patterson, John A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-10-01

    Most soluble dietary fibers ferment rapidly in the proximal colon, potentially causing discomfort and poor tolerability. Alkali-extracted arabinoxylan isolates from corn, wheat, rice and sorghum brans were prepared, through hydrolysis (except sorghum) and ethanol fractionation, to have a broad range of initial fermentation rates, and their linkage patterns were determined to understand structural aspects related to slow fermentation rate. They were all highly branched polymers with degree of substitution greater than 64%. There was no relationship of molecular mass, arabinose:xylose ratio, or degree of substitution to fermentation rate patterns. Slow fermenting wheat and corn arabinoxylans had much higher amount of terminal xylose in branches than fast fermenting rice and sorghum arabinoxylans. The slowest fermenting wheat arabinoxylan additionally contained a complex trisaccharide side chain with two arabinoses linked at the O-2 and O-3 positions of an arabinose that is O-2 linked to the xylan backbone. Structural features were proposed for tolerable slowly fermentable arabinoxylan with possible beneficial fermentation function into the distal colon. PMID:26076616

  5. Estrogens and Male Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, Jalissa L.; Nicholson, Tristan M.; DeFranco, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common clinical problems in urology and affect the majority of men at some time during their lives. The development of BPH/LUTS is associated with an increased ratio of estrogen to androgen levels, and this ratio, when mimicked in a variety of animals, induces BPH and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). While the precise molecular etiology remains unclear, estrogens have been implicated in the development and maintenance of BPH. Numerous endogenous and exogenous estrogens exist in humans. These estrogens act via multiple estrogen receptors to promote or inhibit prostatic hyperplasia and other BPH-associated processes. The prostate is an estrogen target tissue, and estrogens directly and indirectly affect growth and differentiation of prostate. The precise role of estrogen action directly affecting prostate growth and differentiation in the context of BPH is an understudied area and remains to be elucidated. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been shown to promote or inhibit prostate proliferation illustrating their potential roles in the development of BPH as therapy. More work will be required to identify estrogen signaling pathways associated with LUTD in order to develop more efficacious drugs for BPH treatment and prevention. PMID:26156791

  6. Mesoscopic structure of neuronal tracts from time-dependent diffusion.

    PubMed

    Burcaw, Lauren M; Fieremans, Els; Novikov, Dmitry S

    2015-07-01

    Interpreting brain diffusion MRI measurements in terms of neuronal structure at a micrometer level is an exciting unresolved problem. Here we consider diffusion transverse to a bundle of fibers, and show theoretically, as well as using Monte Carlo simulations and measurements in a phantom made of parallel fibers mimicking axons, that the time dependent diffusion coefficient approaches its macroscopic limit slowly, in a (ln t)/t fashion. The logarithmic singularity arises due to short range disorder in the fiber packing. We identify short range disorder in axonal fibers based on histological data from the splenium, and argue that the time dependent contribution to the overall diffusion coefficient from the extra-axonal water dominates that of the intra-axonal water. This dominance may explain the bias in measuring axon diameters in clinical settings. The short range disorder is also reflected in the asymptotically linear frequency dependence of the diffusion coefficient measured with oscillating gradients, in agreement with recent experiments. Our results relate the measured diffusion to the mesoscopic structure of neuronal tissue, uncovering the sensitivity of diffusion metrics to axonal arrangement within a fiber tract, and providing an alternative interpretation of axonal diameter mapping techniques.

  7. Mesoscopic structure of neuronal tracts from time-dependent diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Burcaw, Lauren M.; Fieremans, Els; Novikov, Dmitry S.

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting brain diffusion MRI measurements in terms of neuronal structure at a micrometer level is an exciting unresolved problem. Here we consider diffusion transverse to a bundle of fibers, and show theoretically, as well as using Monte Carlo simulations and measurements in a phantom made of parallel fibers mimicking axons, that the time dependent diffusion coefficient approaches its macroscopic limit slowly, in a (lnt)/t fashion. The logarithmic singularity arises due to short range disorder in the fiber packing. We identify short range disorder in axonal fibers based on histological data from the splenium, and argue that the time dependent contribution to the overall diffusion coefficient from the extra-axonal water dominates that of the intra-axonal water. This dominance may explain the bias in measuring axon diameters in clinical settings. The short range disorder is also reflected in the linear frequency dependence of the diffusion coefficient measured with oscillating gradients, in agreement with recent experiments. Our results relate the measured diffusion to the mesoscopic structure of neuronal tissue, uncovering the sensitivity of diffusion metrics to axonal arrangement within a fiber tract, and providing an alternative interpretation of axonal diameter mapping techniques. PMID:25837598

  8. Urinary tract infection in individuals with spinal cord lesion.

    PubMed

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2002-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most frequently reported secondary impairment in individuals with spinal cord lesion. The most prevalent risk indicator is an indwelling catheter. Hydrophilic catheters for clean intermittent catheterization may induce lower rates of bacteriuria and long-term urethral complications. Due to chronic bacterial infection within biofilms, an antibacterial treatment based on a urinary culture of bacteria in the urine and its antimicrobial susceptibility may fail to eradicate catheter-associated urinary tract infection. No commercially available drugs are sufficiently active against the bacteria in a mature biofilm. Biomaterials may be modified to decrease the formation of a biofilm. Silver alloy catheters are effective in preventing urinary tract infection when indwelling urinary catheterization is necessary. The risk of systemic argyria in long-term use needs to be evaluated. Suprapubic cystostomy drainage in patients with neurogenic bladder is preferred to an indwelling urethral catheter. In cases of recurring urinary tract infection in patients with a permanent urinary catheter, it may be beneficial to change the catheter every 1 or 2 weeks. There is some evidence that cranberry products may prevent urinary tract infection. In the future, bacterial interference and vaccination may be a possibility for prevention of urinary tract infection.

  9. Reducing urinary tract infections in catheterised patients.

    PubMed

    Howe, Pam; Adams, John

    2015-01-20

    Urinary tract infections in catheterised patients continue to present a challenge in reducing healthcare-associated infection. In this article, an infection prevention and control team in one NHS trust reports on using audit results to focus attention on measures to reduce bacterial infections. Educational initiatives have an important role in reducing infection, but there is no single solution to the problem. Practice can be improved using a multi-targeted approach, peer review and clinical audit to allow for shared learning and experiences. These, along with informal education in the clinical area and more formal classroom lectures, can ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes.

  10. [Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. A vision for the paediatrician].

    PubMed

    Palacios Loro, M L; Segura Ramírez, D K; Ordoñez Álvarez, F A; Santos Rodríguez, F

    2015-12-01

    The congenital abnormalities of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are disorders with a high prevalence in the general population, with urinary tract dilations being the most frequent. CAKUT also account for the most important cause of chronic kidney disease in childhood. This paper focuses on the role of the primary care paediatrician in the diagnosis, assessment, and follow-up of children with CAKUT, with special emphasis on the associated urinary tract infections, the progression toward chronic renal failure, and the genetic basis.

  11. Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2014-07-08

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

  12. Distal leg epidermal nerve fiber density as a surrogate marker of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy risk: risk factors and change following initial antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Shikuma, Cecilia M; Bennett, Kara; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Gerschenson, Mariana; Teeratakulpisarn, Nipat; Jadwattanakul, Tanate; DeGruttola, Victor; McArthur, Justin C; Ebenezer, Gigi; Chomchey, Nitiya; Praihirunkit, Pairoa; Hongchookiat, Piranun; Mathajittiphun, Pornpen; Nakamoto, Beau; Hauer, Peter; Phanuphak, Praphan; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2015-10-01

    Distal leg epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) is a validated predictor of HIV sensory neuropathy (SN) risk. We assessed how ENFD is impacted by initiation of first-time antiretroviral therapy (ART) in subjects free of neuropathy and how it is altered when mitochondrial toxic nucleoside medications are used as part of ART. Serial changes in proximal thigh and distal leg ENFD were examined over 72 weeks in 150 Thai subjects randomized to a regimen of stavudine (d4T) switching to zidovudine (ZDV) at 24 weeks vs ZDV vs tenofovir (TDF) for the entire duration of study, all given in combination with nevirapine. We found individual variations in ENFD change, with almost equal number of subjects who decreased or increased their distal leg ENFD over 72 weeks and no relationship to nucleoside backbone or to development of neuropathic signs or symptoms. Lower baseline distal leg ENFD and greater increases in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex I (CI) activity were associated with larger increases in distal leg ENFD over 72 weeks. Distal leg ENFD correlated with body composition parameters (body surface area, body mass index, height) as well as with blood pressure measurements. Assessed together with a companion cross-sectional study, we found that mean distal leg ENFD in all HIV+ subjects was lower than in HIV- subjects but similar among HIV+ groups whether ART-naïve or on d4T with/without neuropathy/neuropathic symptoms. The utility of ENFD as a useful predictor of small unmyelinated nerve fiber damage and neuropathy risk in HIV may be limited in certain populations.

  13. Potential misinterpretation of the nutritional value of dietary fiber: correcting fiber digestibility values for nondietary gut-interfering material.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Henare, Sharon J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review is to identify the origin and implications of a nondietary material present in digesta and feces that interferes with the determination of dietary fiber in gastrointestinal contents. Negative values for ileal and fecal digestibility of dietary fiber are commonly reported in the literature for monogastric animal species, including humans. As negative values are not possible physiologically, this suggests the existence of a nondietary material in the gastrointestinal contents and feces that interferes with the accurate determination of dietary fiber digestibility when conventional methods of fiber determination are applied. To date, little attention has been given to this nondietary interfering material, which appears to be influenced by the type and concentration of fiber in the diet. Interestingly, estimates of dietary fiber digestibility increase substantially when corrected for the nondietary interfering material, which suggests that currently reported values underestimate the digestibility of dietary fiber and may misrepresent where, in the digestive tract, fermentation of fiber occurs. A new perspective of dietary fiber digestion in the gastrointestinal tract is developing, leading to a better understanding of the contribution of dietary fiber to health.

  14. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  15. Crystal Structure of Enteric Adenovirus Serotype 41 Short Fiber Head

    PubMed Central

    Seiradake, Elena; Cusack, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Human enteric adenoviruses of species F contain two fibers in the same virion, a long fiber which binds to coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and a short fiber of unknown function. We have determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the short fiber head of human adenovirus serotype 41 (Ad41). The short fiber head has the characteristic fold of other known fiber heads but has three unusual features. First, it has much shorter loops between the beta-strands. Second, one of the usually well-ordered beta-strands on the distal face of the fiber head is highly disordered and this same region is sensitive to digestion with pepsin, an enzyme occurring naturally in the intestinal tract, the physiological environment of Ad41. Third, the AB loop has a deletion giving it a distinct conformation incompatible with CAR binding. PMID:16254343

  16. Optical Fibers