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  1. Situational Awareness Geospatial Application (iSAGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, Benjamin

    2014-03-31

    Situational Awareness Geospatial Application (iSAGA) is a geospatial situational awareness software tool that uses an algorithm to extract location data from nearly any internet-based, or custom data source and display it geospatially; allows user-friendly conduct of spatial analysis using custom-developed tools; searches complex Geographic Information System (GIS) databases and accesses high resolution imagery. iSAGA has application at the federal, state and local levels of emergency response, consequence management, law enforcement, emergency operations and other decision makers as a tool to provide complete, visual, situational awareness using data feeds and tools selected by the individual agency or organization. Feeds may be layered and custom tools developed to uniquely suit each subscribing agency or organization. iSAGA may similarly be applied to international agencies and organizations.

  2. Report on the 2008 ISAGA Summer School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Westelaken, Marleen

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the 2008 ISAGA Summer School held in New Delhi (Gurgaon), India. This Summer School was hosted by the Institute for Integrated Learning in Management. Participants came from all over the world. This year's theme was "The Art and Science of Simulation and Gaming Design and Facilitation for Business and Management."

  3. Report on the 2008 ISAGA Summer School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Westelaken, Marleen

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the 2008 ISAGA Summer School held in New Delhi (Gurgaon), India. This Summer School was hosted by the Institute for Integrated Learning in Management. Participants came from all over the world. This year's theme was "The Art and Science of Simulation and Gaming Design and Facilitation for Business and Management."

  4. Gastroparesis and lipid metabolism-associated dysbiosis in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, J E; Fraser, Karl; Young, Wayne; McKenzie, Catherine M; Bassett, Shalome A; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-07-01

    Altered gastric accommodation and intestinal morphology suggest impaired gastrointestinal (GI) transit may occur in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, as common in stress-associated functional GI disorders. Because changes in GI transit can alter microbiota composition, we investigated whether these are altered in WKY rats compared with the resilient Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under basal conditions and characterized plasma lipid and metabolite differences. Bead transit was tracked by X-ray imaging to monitor gastric emptying (4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine transit (12 h). Plasma extracts were analyzed by lipid and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cecal microbial composition was determined by Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis using the QIIME pipeline. Stomach retention of beads was 77% for WKY compared with 35% for SD rats. GI transit was decreased by 34% (9 h) and 21% (12 h) in WKY compared with SD rats. Excluding stomach retention, transiting beads moved 29% further along the SI over 4-9 h for WKY compared with SD rats. Cecal Ruminococcus, Roseburia, and unclassified Lachnospiraceae genera were less abundant in WKY rats, whereas the minor taxa Dorea, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus were higher. Diglycerides, triglycerides, phosphatidyl-ethanolamines, and phosphatidylserine were lower in WKY rats, whereas cholesterol esters and taurocholic acids were higher. The unexpected WKY rat phenotype of delayed gastric emptying, yet rapid SI transit, was associated with altered lipid and metabolite profiles. The delayed gastric emptying of the WKY phenotype suggests this rat strain may be useful as a model for gastroparesis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study reveals that the stress-prone Wistar-Kyoto rat strain has a baseline physiology of gastroparesis and rapid small intestine transit, together with metabolic changes consistent with lipid metabolism-associated

  5. Gastroparesis and lipid metabolism-associated dysbiosis in Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Karl; Young, Wayne; McKenzie, Catherine M.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2017-01-01

    Altered gastric accommodation and intestinal morphology suggest impaired gastrointestinal (GI) transit may occur in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, as common in stress-associated functional GI disorders. Because changes in GI transit can alter microbiota composition, we investigated whether these are altered in WKY rats compared with the resilient Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under basal conditions and characterized plasma lipid and metabolite differences. Bead transit was tracked by X-ray imaging to monitor gastric emptying (4 h), small intestine (SI) transit (9 h), and large intestine transit (12 h). Plasma extracts were analyzed by lipid and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cecal microbial composition was determined by Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis using the QIIME pipeline. Stomach retention of beads was 77% for WKY compared with 35% for SD rats. GI transit was decreased by 34% (9 h) and 21% (12 h) in WKY compared with SD rats. Excluding stomach retention, transiting beads moved 29% further along the SI over 4–9 h for WKY compared with SD rats. Cecal Ruminococcus, Roseburia, and unclassified Lachnospiraceae genera were less abundant in WKY rats, whereas the minor taxa Dorea, Turicibacter, and Lactobacillus were higher. Diglycerides, triglycerides, phosphatidyl-ethanolamines, and phosphatidylserine were lower in WKY rats, whereas cholesterol esters and taurocholic acids were higher. The unexpected WKY rat phenotype of delayed gastric emptying, yet rapid SI transit, was associated with altered lipid and metabolite profiles. The delayed gastric emptying of the WKY phenotype suggests this rat strain may be useful as a model for gastroparesis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study reveals that the stress-prone Wistar-Kyoto rat strain has a baseline physiology of gastroparesis and rapid small intestine transit, together with metabolic changes consistent with lipid metabolism-associated

  6. Further dissection of a genomic locus associated with behavioral activity in the Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rat, an animal model of hyperkinesis.

    PubMed

    Moisan, M-P; Llamas, B; Cook, M N; Mormède, P

    2003-03-01

    Molecular genetic studies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are a major focus of current research since this syndrome has been shown to be highly heritable.(1) Our approach has been to search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a genetic animal model of hyperkinesis, the Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive (WKHA) rat, by a whole-genome scan analysis. In a previous article, we reported the detection of a major QTL associated with behavioral activity in an F2 cross between WKHA and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strains.(2) Here, we extend our analysis of this cross by adding new genetic markers, now defining a 10 cM interval on rat chromosome 8 associated with ambulatory and exploratory activities. Then we present a replication of this QTL detection, at least for exploratory activity, by a new genetic mapping analysis of an activity QTL in an F2 cross between the WKHA and Brown Norway (BN) rat strains. Overall, the results provide compelling evidence for the presence of gene(s) influencing activity at this locus. The QTL interval has been refined such that the human orthologous region could be defined and tested in human populations for association with ADHD. Ultimately, the improved dissection of this genomic locus should allow the identification of the causal genes.

  7. Chronic stress induces structural alterations in splenic lymphoid tissue that are associated with changes in corticosterone levels in wistar-kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

  8. [Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements. Part 4: Prof. M. Matsuoka's lecture to medical and civic communities].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2010-03-01

    Dr. M. Matsuoka gave many lectures to physicians at the Postdoctoral Course Lectures sponsored by the Kyoto Eisei Kensasho (Kyoto Bacterial and Biochemical Laboratory) run by the Kyoto Medical Association, and the Postdoctoral Course Lectures of the Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University. He was also invited to give lectures at several regional medical associations. He also was a speaker at the Kyoto Imperial University Extension course and he lectured at the Enryakuji Temple on Mt. Hiei, sponsored by a newspaper company. It is remarkable that these activities were carried out in addition to his other notable academic work previously reported.

  9. Chronic Stress Induces Structural Alterations in Splenic Lymphoid Tissue That Are Associated with Changes in Corticosterone Levels in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Martinez-Mota, Lucia; Salinas, Citlaltepetl; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Hernandez-Chan, Nancy G.; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Streber, María L.; Granados-Camacho, Ivonne; Becerril, Enrique; Javier, Baquera-Heredia; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder patients present chronic stress and decreased immunity. The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) is a strain in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is overactivated. To determine whether chronic stress induces changes in corticosterone levels and splenic lymphoid tissue, 9-week-old male rats were subject to restraint stress (3 h daily), chemical stress (hydrocortisone treatment, 50 mg/Kg weight), mixed stress (restraint plus hydrocortisone), or control treatment (without stress) for 1, 4, and 7 weeks. The serum corticosterone levels by RIA and spleens morphology were analyzed. Corticosterone levels as did the structure, size of the follicles and morphology of the parenchyma (increase in red pulp) in the spleen, varied depending on time and type of stressor. These changes indicate that chronic stress alters the immune response in the spleen in WKY rats by inducing morphological changes, explaining in part the impaired immunity that develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress. PMID:23533999

  10. [Climate change and Kyoto protocol].

    PubMed

    Ergasti, G; Pippia, V; Murzilli, G; De Luca D'Alessandro, E

    2009-01-01

    Due to industrial revolution and the heavy use of fossil fuels, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dramatically during the last hundred years, and this has lead to an increase in mean global temperature. The environmental consequences of this are: the melting of the ice caps, an increase in mean sea-levels, catastrophic events such as floodings, hurricanes and earthquakes, changes to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, a growth in vectors and bacteria in water thus increasing the risk of infectious diseases and damage to agriculture. The toxic effects of the pollution on human health are both acute and chronic. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step in the campaign against climatic changes but it is not sufficient. A possible solution might be for the States which produce the most of pollution to adopt a better political stance for the environment and to use renewable resources for the production of energy.

  11. [Kyoto global consensus report for treatment of Helicobacter pylori and its implications for China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan; Lyu, Nonghua

    2016-01-01

    Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis (Gut, July 2015) is another important international consensus since the European Maastricht Ⅳ consensus was published. Kyoto consensus will improve the etiology-based classification, the diagnostic assessment of gastritis, and the treatment of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and H. pylori gastritis. However, because of high rate of H. pylori infection and antibiotic resistance as well as limited health resources in China, we need to develop our own strategies of H. pylori infection control with the reference of the Kyoto global consensus.

  12. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Goto, S; Sato, K; Fujibuchi, W; Bono, H; Kanehisa, M

    1999-01-01

    Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions in terms of the networks of genes and molecules. The major component of KEGG is the PATHWAY database that consists of graphical diagrams of biochemical pathways including most of the known metabolic pathways and some of the known regulatory pathways. The pathway information is also represented by the ortholog group tables summarizing orthologous and paralogous gene groups among different organisms. KEGG maintains the GENES database for the gene catalogs of all organisms with complete genomes and selected organisms with partial genomes, which are continuously re-annotated, as well as the LIGAND database for chemical compounds and enzymes. Each gene catalog is associated with the graphical genome map for chromosomal locations that is represented by Java applet. In addition to the data collection efforts, KEGG develops and provides various computational tools, such as for reconstructing biochemical pathways from the complete genome sequence and for predicting gene regulatory networks from the gene expression profiles. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  13. The Kyoto Protocol: A business perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, C.B.

    1998-01-19

    Governments have made a tentative start in responding to climate change. In marathon negotiating sessions that extended into an extra day Dec. 1--11 in Kyoto, Japan, representatives from more than 160 governments hammered out the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The protocol calls for developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on averaged by 5.2% below 1990 levels by the years 2008--2012. Developing countries have no new obligations. The paper discusses the agreement, ratification, future questions, business role, and the challenge.

  14. Increasing use of yellow colors in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Munehira; Nara, Iwao

    2002-06-01

    Colors used for commercial signboards, displayed outdoors as well as indoors through windows, such as a store sign, an advertising sign, a sky sign, a poster, a placard, and a billboard were extensively surveyed in Kyoto City, Japan, in 1998. The survey showed that various kinds of yellow painted signs have increased rapidly and invaded a center area and suburbs of the city. Vivid yellow, what we called it the Y98 virus, is specially considered a color unpleasantly matched to the city image of Kyoto which was the capital of Japan for nearly 1000 years (794 to 1868) and is endowed with cultural and historic heritage. Discussions trying to find out what we could do to prevent the rapid spread of a big commercial display painted with vivid yellows what we called 'the Y98 virus' over the city will be summarized in a main text.

  15. In Brief: Kyoto Protocol moves forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-10-01

    The Russian cabinet's 30 September endorsement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) likely clears the way for the treaty's ratification by that country's parliament and for its entry into force. The protocol enters into force when not less than 55 Parties to the Convention, including industrialized countries (so called ``Annex I Parties'') which accounted in total for at least 55 % of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 from that group, officially have agreed to the treaty.

  16. Continuity and Change: Kyoto Chefs Engage with Science.

    PubMed

    de St Maurice, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Kyoto's chefs have reacted proactively to changes brought about by the most recent phase of globalization, hoping to ensure the continued existence and resonance of Kyoto cuisine by using science to adapt it to contemporary circumstances. These chefs are breaking new ground in their pursuit of a scientific understanding of how Kyoto cuisine works. They meet once a month in a kitchen laboratory at Kyoto University to present and analyze culinary experiments in keeping with a predetermined theme. They use their acquired knowledge to more precisely hone their culinary skills and to explain Kyoto cuisine to a global audience. Chefs visit local elementary schools, appear on national television, and welcome chefs from abroad into their kitchens so that people across the world will better understand what authentic Kyoto cuisine consists of. Although these chefs' efforts are groundbreaking, there is also remarkable continuity to their approach. Not only has Kyoto cuisine always been in a steady state of transformation, but the chefs in the Laboratory are engaging with science and a global audience specifically so that they can ascertain Kyoto cuisine's continued existence and importance. Though their means of understanding and articulating what Kyoto cuisine is differs from that of their predecessors, concepts like shun (seasonality) and hin (refinement) still guide chefs today. Ultimately, then, based on interviews and participant observation conducted in and outside of the Japanese Cuisine Laboratory in 2012 and 2013, I argue that by engaging with contemporary food science, Kyoto's chefs achieve a strategic balance of protecting their culinary heritage while adapting it to contemporary circumstances.

  17. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. Results All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. Conclusions A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. PMID:26187502

  18. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, M; Goto, S

    2000-01-01

    KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions, linking genomic information with higher order functional information. The genomic information is stored in the GENES database, which is a collection of gene catalogs for all the completely sequenced genomes and some partial genomes with up-to-date annotation of gene functions. The higher order functional information is stored in the PATHWAY database, which contains graphical representations of cellular processes, such as metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction and cell cycle. The PATHWAY database is supplemented by a set of ortholog group tables for the information about conserved subpathways (pathway motifs), which are often encoded by positionally coupled genes on the chromosome and which are especially useful in predicting gene functions. A third database in KEGG is LIGAND for the information about chemical compounds, enzyme molecules and enzymatic reactions. KEGG provides Java graphics tools for browsing genome maps, comparing two genome maps and manipulating expression maps, as well as computational tools for sequence comparison, graph comparison and path computation. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www. genome.ad.jp/kegg/).

  20. PREFACE: Beyond Kyoto - the necessary road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margrethe Basse, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    The Beyond Kyoto conference in Aarhus March 2009 was organised in collaboration with other knowledge institutions, businesses and authorities. It brought together leading scientists, policy-makers, authorities, intergovernmental organisations, NGO's, business stakeholders and business organisations. The conference was a joint interdisciplinary project involving many academic areas and disciplines. These conference proceedings are organised in central and recurring themes that cut across many debates on climate change, the climatic challenges as well as the solutions. In the front there is a short presentation of the conference concept. Part I of the proceedings focuses on issues related to the society - covering climate policy, law, market based instruments, financial structure, behaviour and consumption, public participation, media communication and response from indigenous peoples etc. Part II of the proceedings concerns the scientific knowledge base on climate related issues - covering climate change processes per se, the potential impacts of projected climate change on biodiversity and adaptation possibilities, the interplay between climate, agriculture and biodiversity, emissions, agricultural systems, increasing pressure on the functioning of agriculture and natural areas, vulnerability to extreme weather events and risks in respect to sea-level rise etc. The conference proceedings committee consists of four professors from Aarhus University: Jens-Christian Svenning, Jørgen E Olesen, Mads Forchhammer and Ellen Margrethe Basse. Aarhus University's Climate Secretariat has had the overall responsibility for coordinating the many presentations, as well as the practical side of arranging the conference and supporting the publication of papers. As Head of the Climate Secretariat and Chair of Aarhus University's Climate Panel, I would like to thank everyone for their contribution. This applies both to the scientific and the practical efforts. Special thanks to

  1. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, p<0.001). Kyoto gastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all p<0.001). No significant differences were noted in the rates of gastric fold hypertrophy or diffuse redness between the two groups. In a multivariate analysis, the risks for H. pylori-positive gastric cancer increased with intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio: 4.453, 95% confidence interval: 3.332-5.950, <0.001) and male sex (1.737, 1.102-2.739, p=0.017). Conclusion Making an appropriate diagnosis and detecting patients at high risk is crucial for achieving total eradication of gastric cancer. The scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the scoring system in the Kyoto gastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.

  2. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, p<0.001). Kyoto gastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all p<0.001). No significant differences were noted in the rates of gastric fold hypertrophy or diffuse redness between the two groups. In a multivariate analysis, the risks for H. pylori-positive gastric cancer increased with intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio: 4.453, 95% confidence interval: 3.332-5.950, <0.001) and male sex (1.737, 1.102-2.739, p=0.017). Conclusion Making an appropriate diagnosis and detecting patients at high risk is crucial for achieving total eradication of gastric cancer. The scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the scoring system in the Kyoto gastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients. PMID:28321054

  3. Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1999-04-18

    The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

  4. Asian School of Urology, Young Leaders' Workshop, Kyoto 2010.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    As part of the 20th Anniversary Celebration of the Urological Association of Asia (UAA), the Asian School of Urology, Young Leaders' Workshop was held in Kyoto, 23-25 April 2010. The workshop focused on future national Asian leaders in the field of Urology and was arranged by the Asian School of Urology (ASU), an educational branch of the UAA, and Dr Osamu Ogawa, the workshop Organizer. Urologists from several Japanese universities contributed to the workshop as advisors, taskforce members, and group members. The workshop was also actively supported by Dr Allen Chiu (Taiwan) and Dr Stephen Lim (Singapore). A younger generation of urologists was invited to attend the workshop and, in all, 29 delegates from 17 countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam), chosen on the basis of recommendations from local councils, attended. The purpose of the workshop was to open channels of communication between future Asian leaders in Urology. The workshop topic was "Asian Clinical Guidelines". Workshop participants were divided into five groups addressing distinct issues associated with the notion of clinical guidelines: Group A, General Problems; Group B, Prostate Cancer; Group C, Stone Disease; Group D, Infectious Diseases; and Group E, Bladder Cancer. The workshop consisted of an introductory session, followed by three main sessions, each of which consisted of a group discussion of specific problems associated with the establishment of Asian Guidelines for Urological Diseases and how best to deal with them, followed by a plenary presentation of the outcomes. © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  6. Chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct-related artery is closely associated with increased five-year mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the CREDO-Kyoto AMI registry).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Ando, Kenji; Kadota, Kazushige; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-02-03

    We sought to investigate the clinical impact of chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery (IRA) on long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Among 5,429 patients enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto AMI registry, the current study population consisted of 2,045 STEMI patients with multivessel disease (MVD) who underwent primary PCI within 24 hours after symptom onset. The cumulative five-year, 30-day and 30-day to five-year incidences of all-cause death were all significantly higher in the CTO group than in the non-CTO group (37.0% versus 22.0%, log-rank p<0.0001, 12.8% versus 6.3%, log-rank p<0.0001, and 28.2% versus 16.8%, log-rank p<0.0001, respectively). The adjusted risk for all-cause death in the CTO group was significantly higher during the entire five years, during the initial 30 days, and beyond 30 days and up to five years (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-1.84, p=0.0009; HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.04-2.13, p=0.03; and HR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.23-2.07, p=0.0006, respectively). CTO in a non-IRA was associated with increased five-year mortality in STEMI patients with MVD. This was consistently seen even after excluding early deaths within 30 days of the index STEMI event.

  7. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  8. The Kyoto Protocol and forestry practices in the United States

    Treesearch

    Bov B. Eav; Richard A. Birdsey; Linda S. Heath

    2000-01-01

    Forestry may play an important if not critical role in the ability of the U.S. to meet its greenhouse gas emissions target under the terms of the Kyoto Protocol. Given the low rate of change in the U.S. forest land area, the major anthropogenic influences on the current net forest carbon flux are forest management and protection activities that have resulted in...

  9. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  10. [Climatic change and public health: scenarios after the coming into force of the Kyoto Protocol].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Díaz, Julio; Moreno, José Manuel

    2006-03-01

    According to the reports of the intergovernmental panel for climatic change (IPCC) human beings of the present and near future are going to experiment, in fact we are already experimenting, important changes in the world climate. Conscious of the magnitude of the problem, international organizations have taken a series of initiatives headed to stop the climatic change and to reduce its impact. This willingness has been shaped into the agreements established in the Kyoto protocol, where countries commit to reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. Kyoto protocol has come into force on February 16th 2005 with the support of 141 signing countries. Among the major worries are the effects which climatic change may have upon health, such as: 1) changes in the morbidity- mortality related to temperature; 2) Effects on health related with extreme meteorological events (tornados, storms, hurricanes and extreme raining); 3) Air pollution and increase of associated health effects; d) Diseases transmitted by food and water and 4) Infectious diseases transmitted by vectors and by rodents. Even if all the countries in the world committed to the Kyoto Protocol, some consequences of the climatic change will be inevitable; among them some will have a negative impact on health. It would be necessary to adapt a key response strategy to minimize the impacts of climatic change and to reduce, at minimum cost, its adverse effects on health. From the Public Health position, a relevant role can and must be played concerning the understanding of the risks for health of such climatic changes, the design of surveillance systems to evaluate possible impacts, and the establishment of systems to prevent or reduce damages as well as the identification and development of investigation needs.

  11. Let`s focus on sustainability, not Kyoto

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, H.R.

    1999-03-01

    This article addresses how to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide produced in the combustion of fossil fuels -- oil, natural gas, and coal -- in a less painful way than that called for in the Kyoto Protocol. Adopting a 1,000-gigatonne global carbon budget for years 1991 to 2100 and a peak annual carbon emission level of 11 gigatonnes between years 2030 and 2040 will buy the time to develop and deploy low- and zero-carbon emission technologies while deferring the controversial issue of the compliance of developing countries.

  12. Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    De Leo, G A; Rizzi, L; Caizzi, A; Gatto, M

    2001-10-04

    The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3% with respect to 1990 values by 2008-2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions.

  13. Cerebellar structure and function in male Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive rats.

    PubMed

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, male WKHAs emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in male WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone conditional stimulus (CS) or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs, and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC.

  14. Cerebellar Structure and Function in Male Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) rat strain may model some of the behavioral features associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have shown that, in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning, WKHA emit eyeblink CRs with shortened onset latencies. To further characterize the shortened CR onset latencies seen in WKHA rats, we examined 750-ms delay conditioning with either a tone CS or a light CS, we extended acquisition training, and we included Wistar rats as an additional, outbred control strain. Our results indicated that WKHAs learned more quickly and showed a shortened CR onset latency to a tone CS compared to both Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) and Wistars. WKHAs and Wistars show a lengthening of CR onset latency over conditioning with a tone CS and an increasing confinement of CRs to the later part of the tone CS (inhibition of delay). WKHAs learned more quickly to a light CS only in comparison to WKHTs and showed a shortened CR onset latency only in comparison to Wistars. Wistars showed an increasing confinement of CRs to the late part of the light CS over conditioning. We used unbiased stereology to estimate the number of Purkinje and granule cells in the cerebellar cortex of the three strains. Our results indicated that WKHAs have more granule cells than Wistars and WKHTs and more Purkinje cells than Wistars. Results are discussed in terms of CS processing and cerebellar cortical contributions to EBC. PMID:23398437

  15. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-ying

    2003-07-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbon market, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex, dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. The modeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared. Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reduction requirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA's withdrawal. Total costs vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs would sharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigation strategies drops to only 0-16% .

  16. UNFINISHED BUSINESS: The Economics of The Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    JA Edmonds; CN MacCracken; RD Sands; SH Kim

    2000-07-06

    The Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was completed on the morning of December 11, 1997, following over two years of negotiations. The product of these deliberations is a complex and incomplete document knitting together the diversity of interests and perspectives represented by the more than 150 delegations. Because the document is complex, its implications are not immediately obvious. If it enters into force, the Kyoto Protocol will have far-reaching implications for all nations--both nations with obligations under the Protocol and those without obligations. National energy systems, and the world's energy system, could be forever changed. In this paper the authors develop an assessment of the energy and economic implications of achieving the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. They find that many of the details of the Protocol that remain to be worked out introduce critical uncertainties affecting the cost of compliance. There are also a variety of uncertainties that further complicate the analysis. These include future non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas emissions and the cost of their mitigation. Other uncertainties include the resolution of negotiations to establish rules for determining and allocating land-use emissions rights, mechanisms for Annex 1 trading, and participation by non-Annex 1 members in the Clean Development Mechanism. In addition, there are economic uncertainties, such as the behavior of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union in supplying emissions credits under Annex 1 trading. These uncertainties in turn could affect private sector investments in anticipation of the Protocol's entrance into force. The longer the nature of future obligations remains unclear, the less able decision makers will be to incorporate these rules into their investment decisions. They find that the cost of implementing the Protocol in the US can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The marginal cost could be as low as $26 per tonne of

  17. Positron beam facility at Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2014-04-01

    A positron beam facility is presently under construction at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A cadmium (Cd) - tungsten (W) source similar to that used in NEPOMUC was chosen in the KUR because Cd is very efficient at producing γ-rays when exposed to thermal neutron flux, and W is a widely used in converter and moderator materials. High-energy positrons are moderated by a W moderator with a mesh structure. Electrical lenses and a solenoid magnetic field are used to extract the moderated positrons and guide them to a platform outside of the reactor, respectively. Since Japan is an earthquake-prone country, a special attention is paid for the design of the in-pile positron source so as not to damage the reactor in the severe earthquake.

  18. DNA damage in Wistar Kyoto rats exercised during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Mikaela da Silva; Gelaleti, Rafael Bottaro; Bento, Giovana Fernanda; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Peraçoli, José Carlos

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate DNA damage levels in pregnant rats undergoing a treadmill exercise program. Wistar Kyoto rats were allocated into two groups (n= 5 animals/group): non-exercise and exercise. The pregnant rats were underwent an exercise protocol on a treadmill throughout pregnancy. Exercise intensity was set at 50% of maximal capacity during maximal exercise testing performed before mating. Body weight, blood pressure and glucose levels, and triglyceride concentration were measured during pregnancy. At day 10 post-natal, the animals were euthanized and maternal blood samples were collected for DNA damage. Blood pressure and glucose levels and biochemical measurements showed no significant differences. Increased DNA damage levels were found in exercise group compared to those of non-exercise group (p<0.05). The exercise intensity protocol used in the study might have been exhaustive leading to maternal increased DNA damage levels, demonstrating the relevance of an adequate protocol of physical exercise.

  19. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis and its impact on Chinese clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Lu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis has had a great effect on the field of H. pylori studies worldwide. For the first time H. pylori gastritis was defined entirely as an infectious disease and H. pylori-associated dyspepsia as a new category of organic dyspepsia apart from functional dyspepsia, together with a proposed diagnostic algorithm. Accordingly, the report states that the eradication of H. pylori should be regarded as the first-line treatment for dyspepsia. Moreover, H. pylori eradication before the development of pre-neoplastic changes is recommended to reduce the risk of more serious complications of H. pylori gastritis. Despite the recommendations of this new global consensus, the task of transforming them into feasible and practical recommendations for individual countries will require them to become region-specific, which requires further discussion.

  20. The characteristic of the building damage from historical large earthquakes in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2016-04-01

    The Kyoto city, which is located in the northern part of Kyoto basin in Japan, has a long history of >1,200 years since the city was initially constructed. The city has been a populated area with many buildings and the center of the politics, economy and culture in Japan for nearly 1,000 years. Some of these buildings are now subscribed as the world's cultural heritage. The Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquakes during the historical period: i.e., in 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662, and 1830. Among these, the last three earthquakes which caused severe damage in Kyoto occurred during the period in which the urban area had expanded. These earthquakes are considered to be inland earthquakes which occurred around the Kyoto basin. The damage distribution in Kyoto from historical large earthquakes is strongly controlled by ground condition and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from estimated source fault. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the strength of ground shaking but also the condition of building such as elapsed years since the construction or last repair in order to more accurately and reliably estimate seismic intensity distribution from historical earthquakes in Kyoto. The obtained seismic intensity map would be helpful for reducing and mitigating disaster from future large earthquakes.

  1. Suppressed expression of cystathionine β-synthase and smaller cerebellum in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Ikeda, Hiromi; Kawase, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuiro

    2015-10-22

    We previously reported that Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, have a characteristically abnormal serine metabolism in the brain, i.e., lower serine and cystathionine, which is a metabolite of serine, concentrations in the brain. To explore the mechanism underlying this abnormality, the expression of cystathionine β-synthase and serine racemase, which are the enzymes involved in the serine metabolism, was investigated in the cerebellum and hippocampus of Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats. Wistar Kyoto rats exhibited a significantly lower mRNA expression of cystathionine β-synthase in the cerebellum in comparison with Wistar rats, while expression levels in the hippocampus did not differ between strains. Previous study indicated that the reduction of cystathionine β-synthase in the brain induced cerebellar aplasia in mice. Therefore, the cerebellar size was compared between Wistar rats and Wistar Kyoto rats. Wistar Kyoto rats displayed a lower ratio of cerebellum weight to whole-brain weight compared with Wistar rats of the same generation or similar body weight, suggesting that Wistar Kyoto rats exhibit smaller cerebellum. These results suggest that the lower mRNA expression of cystathionine β-synthase in the cerebellum and the smaller size of cerebellum may be related to the depression-like behavior in Wistar Kyoto rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The characteristic of the earthquake damage in Kyoto during the historical period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akihito

    2017-04-01

    The Kyoto city is located in the northern part of the Kyoto basin, central Japan and has a history of more than 1200 years. Kyoto has long been populated area with many buildings, and the center of politics, economics and culture of Japan. Due to historical large earthquakes, the Kyoto city was severely damaged such as collapses of buildings and human casualties. In the historical period, the Kyoto city has experienced six damaging large earthquake of 976, 1185, 1449, 1596, 1662 and 1830. Among them, Kyoto has experienced three damaging large earthquakes from the end of the 16th century to the middle of the 19th century, when the urban area was being expanded. All of these earthquakes are considered to be not the earthquakes in the Kyoto basin but inland earthquakes occurred in the surrounding area. The earthquake damage in Kyoto during the historical period is strongly controlled by ground conditions and earthquakes resistance of buildings rather than distance from the estimated source fault. To better estimate seismic intensity based on building damage, it is necessary to consider the state of buildings (e.g., elapsed years since established, histories of repairs and/or reinforcements, building structures) as well as the strength of ground shakings. By considering the strength of buildings at the time of an earthquake occurrence, the seismic intensity distribution due to historical large earthquakes can be estimated with higher reliability than before. The estimated seismic intensity distribution map for such historical earthquakes can be utilized for developing the strong ground motion prediction in the Kyoto basin.

  3. [Approach to Teaching Kampo Medicine at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    An approach to educating our pharmaceutical students about Kampo medicine in the six-year system of undergraduate pharmacy education at Kyoto Pharmaceutical University is introduced, including the author's opinions. Curriculum revisions have been made in our university for students entering after 2012. In teaching Kampo medicine at present, a medical doctor and an on-site pharmacist share information difficult to give in a lecture with the teaching staff in my laboratory. For example, before the curriculum revision, we conferred with a pharmacist and a doctor in the course "Kampo Medicine A, B" for 4th year students, in which students were presented a basic knowledge of Kampo medicine, the application of important Kampo medicines, combinations of crude drugs, etc. Further, in our "Introduction to Kampo Medicine" for 6th year students, presented after they have practiced in hospitals and community pharmacies, we again lecture on the pharmacological characteristics of Kampo medicines, on "pattern (Sho)", and on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research studies of important Kampo medicines. After our curriculum revision, "Kampo Medicine A, B" was rearranged into the courses "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" and "Clinical Kampo Medicine". "Kampo and Pharmacognosy" is now provided in the second semester of the 3rd year, and in this course we lecture on the basic knowledge of Kampo medicine. An advanced lecture will be given on "Clinical Kampo Medicine" in the 6th year. We are searching for the best way to interest students in Kampo medicine, and to counteract any misunderstandings about Kampo medicine.

  4. Influence of outdoor advertisement colors on psychological evaluation of townscape in Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Ayumi; Ishida, Taiichiro; Katsuya, Yoshiko

    2002-06-01

    Outdoor advertisements must be one of the major factors that affect our psychological impression for townscapes. They often conflict with propr color environments in cities particularly in historic cities like Kyoto. In this study we investigated how outdoor advertisements influenced our visual evaluation of townscapes in Kyoto. In recent years, a new regulation for outdoor advertisements came into operation in Kyoto and some of the advertisements have been replaced or removed gradually. We examined psychological evaluation for the townscapes before and after their changes. In the experiment, subjects evaluated 'visual harmony,' 'visual busyness,' 'visual comfort' and 'suitability to Kyoto' of townscapes projected on a screen. The results indicated that the evaluation of 'visual busyness' significantly decreased with the amount of the advertisements. The relations between the advertisements and the psychological evaluation of the townscape are discussed.

  5. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  6. Global warming and environmental production efficiency ranking of the Kyoto Protocol nations.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Ehsan H; Raab, Raymond L; Ulleberg, Gerald T; Alsharif, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the United Nations Organization's Kyoto Protocol nations to address two questions. First, what are the environmental production efficiency rankings of these nations? Second, is there a relationship between a nation's ratification status and its environmental production efficiency ranking? Our findings suggest that the nations that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are more likely to be environmentally production efficient as compared to the nations that have not ratified the Protocol.

  7. Classical and instrumental conditioning of eyeblink responses in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ricart, Thomas M; Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety vulnerability, acquire lever-press avoidance faster than outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Faster avoidance acquisition may reflect an inherent ability to acquire cue-outcome associations, response-outcome associations or both. To evaluate cue-outcome learning, acquisition of classically conditioned eyeblink response was compared in SD and WKY rats using a delay-type paradigm (500-ms conditioned stimulus (CS) coterminating with a 10-ms unconditional stimulus (US)). WKY rats demonstrated enhanced classical conditioning, with both faster acquisition and greater asymptotic performance in delay-type training than SD rats. To evaluate response-outcome learning, separate SD and WKY rats were given control over US delivery through imposition of an omission contingency into delay-type training (emitting a conditioned response (CR) prevented delivery of the US). The schedule of US delivery derived by these rats became the training regimen for a separate group of SD and WKY rats, yoked within strain. In SD rats, no differences in acquisition were detected between those given control over US delivery and those trained with the same partial reinforcement schedule. Acquisition rates of those WKY rats with control exceeded those trained with a yoked-schedule of US presentation. Collectively, WKY rats exhibit enhanced classical conditioning and sensitivity to schedules of reinforcement compared to outbred SD rats. Anxiety vulnerability, in particular inhibited temperament, may be traced to active processes in the prediction and control of aversive events.

  8. WTC deafness Kyoto (dfk): a rat model for extensive investigations of Kcnq1 functions.

    PubMed

    Gohma, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Okajima, Ryoko; Tanimoto, Noriaki; Yamasaki, Ken-ichi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kitada, Kazuhiro; Makiyama, Takeru; Akao, Masaharu; Kita, Toru; Sasa, Masashi; Serikawa, Tadao

    2006-02-14

    KCNQ1 forms K+ channels by assembly with regulatory subunit KCNE proteins and plays a key role in the K+ homeostasis in a variety of tissues. In the heart, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE1 to produce a cardiac delayed rectifier K+ current. In the inner ear, the KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex maintains the high concentration of K+ in the endolymph. In the stomach, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE2 to form the K+ exflux channel that is essential for gastric acid secretion. In the colon and small intestine, KCNQ1 is coassembled with KCNE3 to play an important role in transepithelial cAMP-stimulated Cl- secretion. For further understanding of Kcnq1 function in vivo, an animal model has been required. Here we reported the identification of a coisogenic Kcnq1 mutant rat, named deafness Kyoto (dfk), and the characterization of its phenotypes. WTC-dfk rats carried intragenic deletion at the Kcnq1 gene and showed impaired gain of weight, deafness, and imbalance resulting from the marked reduction of endolymph, prolonged QT interval in the electrocardiogram (ECG), and gastric achlorhydria associated with hypertrophic gastric mucosa. Surprisingly, WTC-dfk rats showed hypertension, which suggested that Kcnq1 might be involved in the regulation of blood pressure. These findings suggest that WTC-dfk rats could represent a powerful tool for studying the physiological functions of KCNQ1 and for the establishment of new therapeutic procedures for Kcnq1-related diseases.

  9. Cocaine self-administration in Wistar-Kyoto rats: a behavioral and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Szumiec, Łukasz; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Smaga, Irena; Bystrowska, Beata; Daniel, Wladyslawa A; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-10-15

    Depression and cocaine abuse disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we employed Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats that showed a depressive-like phenotype to study intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures. We also investigated the basal tissue level of neurotransmitters, their metabolites and plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentrations in WKY rats, bulbectomized (OBX) rats, and control rats. The WKY rats exhibited an attenuation of the cocaine-associated lever presses and cocaine intake during the acquisition/maintenance of cocaine self-administration only under specific conditions. Active lever presses exhibited by the WKY rats and control animals did not differ during the extinction training and cocaine-seeking behaviors. The WKY rats demonstrated alterations in the basal levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in selected brain structures involved in depression and drug addiction. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters in these animals refer not only to the control (Wistar) rats but also to bulbectomized animals, which represent another depression model. Furthermore, we identified unchanged levels of CORT in the WKY and OBX rats during the light phase and free-stress conditions. This finding suggests that WKY rats should not be used to investigate the co-occurrence of depression and cocaine addiction, as this rat strain does not show an enhanced risk of relapse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antidepressants and REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Magnus; Paterson, Louise M; Hutson, Peter H

    2005-10-17

    Compared to other rat strains, the Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep, one of the characteristic sleep changes observed in depressed patients. The aims of this study were firstly to validate a simple sleep stage discriminator and then compare the effect of antidepressants on suppression of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats and an outbred rat strain (Sprague-Dawley). Rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters with electroencephalogram/electromyogram electrodes. Following recovery, the animals were orally dosed at light onset with either desipramine (20 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), citalopram (10 or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle in a cross-over design. Every 12-s epoch was automatically scored as WAKE, NREM or REM sleep. Results confirm that Wistar-Kyoto rats show increased amount of REM sleep and decreased REM latency compared with Sprague-Dawley rats. All antidepressants significantly suppressed REM sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats, but only the high dose of citalopram suppressed REM sleep in Wistar-Kyoto rats. These findings suggest that the enhanced REM activity in Wistar-Kyoto rats is less sensitive to the effect of antidepressants and therefore does not provide any additional predictive validity for assessing antidepressant efficacy.

  11. Museum as an integrated imaging device: visualization of ancient Kyoto cityscape from folding screen artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Oyabu, Umi; Kojima, Michihiro

    2012-03-01

    Museums hold cultural resources such as artworks, historical artifacts, and folklore materials. The National Museum of Japanese History holds over 200,000 of the cultural resources. A role of museum is to exhibit the cultural resources, therefore a museum could be referred to as a visualization device for the information society. In this research, visualization of a history image from cultural resources with interactive user interface will be mentioned. The material focused on is the oldest extant version of a genre of folding screen paintings that depict the thriving city of Kyoto in the four seasons, named Rekihaku's "Scenes In and Around Kyoto" designated as a nationally important cultural property in Japan. Over 1,400 people and a lot of residences, temples, and houses are drawn, and those are also information resource telling us about city scenes and people's life in Kyoto at that time. Historical researches were done by using a high resolution digital image obtained by a large scaled scanner, and scanned images are used for computer programs to visualize a history image of ancient Kyoto. Combinations between real materials and information provided by using the computer programs are also described in this research.

  12. Analysis of the Impacts of an Early Start for Compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Energy Information Administration's analysis of the impacts of an early start, using the same methodology as in Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. Energy Markets and Economic Activity, with only those changes in assumptions caused by the early start date.

  13. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  14. BRAIN ACONITASE ACTIVITY IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHR) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of susceptibility are critical for human health risk assessment. Previous studies indicate that spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats are more sensitive than Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats to the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors such as carbaryl and chlorpyrifos. This diffe...

  15. Development of a national forest inventory for carbon accounting purposes in New Zealand's planted Kyoto forests

    Treesearch

    John Moore; Ian Payton; Larry Burrows; Chris Goulding; Peter Beets; Paul Lane; Peter Stephens

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a monitoring system to estimate carbon sequestration in New Zealand's planted Kyoto forests, those forests that have been planted since January 1, 1990, on land that previously did not contain forest. The system must meet the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change good practice guidance and must be seen to be unbiased,...

  16. A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Sumi, Eriko; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki

    2009-12-22

    In Japan, only clinical research related to investigational new drug trials must be notified to regulatory bodies, and this lack of a uniform standard for clinical research has caused a number of difficulties. The objective of this study was to assess the willingness of physicians to participate in clinical research and to identify effective methods to promote and enhance clinical research. We conducted a cross-sectional survey by administrating questionnaires to physicians in 31 departments in Kyoto University Hospital from October through November 2007. A total of 51.5% (310 of 602) of physicians completed the questionnaire. More than two-thirds of them reported currently participating in clinical research, and nearly all believed that clinical research is necessary for physicians. Less than 20% of respondents had specific training regarding clinical research, and most reported a need to acquire concepts and skills regarding clinical research, especially those related to statistics. "Paperwork was complicated and onerous" was the most frequently cited obstacle in conducting clinical research, followed by "few eligible patients" and "lack of time". Previous participation in and prospective participation in clinical research, previous writing a research protocol were positively associated with current participation in clinical research. Physicians in university hospitals need more training regarding clinical research, particularly in biostatistics. They also require administrative assistance. Our findings indicate that the quality of clinical research could be improved if training in clinical research methodology and biostatistics were provided, and if greater assistance in the preparation of study documents requested by the institutional Independent Ethics Committee were available.

  17. A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In Japan, only clinical research related to investigational new drug trials must be notified to regulatory bodies, and this lack of a uniform standard for clinical research has caused a number of difficulties. The objective of this study was to assess the willingness of physicians to participate in clinical research and to identify effective methods to promote and enhance clinical research. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey by administrating questionnaires to physicians in 31 departments in Kyoto University Hospital from October through November 2007. Results A total of 51.5% (310 of 602) of physicians completed the questionnaire. More than two-thirds of them reported currently participating in clinical research, and nearly all believed that clinical research is necessary for physicians. Less than 20% of respondents had specific training regarding clinical research, and most reported a need to acquire concepts and skills regarding clinical research, especially those related to statistics. "Paperwork was complicated and onerous" was the most frequently cited obstacle in conducting clinical research, followed by "few eligible patients" and "lack of time". Previous participation in and prospective participation in clinical research, previous writing a research protocol were positively associated with current participation in clinical research. Conclusions Physicians in university hospitals need more training regarding clinical research, particularly in biostatistics. They also require administrative assistance. Our findings indicate that the quality of clinical research could be improved if training in clinical research methodology and biostatistics were provided, and if greater assistance in the preparation of study documents requested by the institutional Independent Ethics Committee were available. PMID:20025782

  18. Inhaled environmental combustion particles cause myocardial injury in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Moyer, Carolyn F; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Costa, Daniel L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C; Nyska, Abraham

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, experimental evidence demonstrating causality and pathogenesis of particulate matter (PM)-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We hypothesized that protracted, repeated inhalation by rats of oil combustion-derived, fugitive emission PM (EPM), similar in metal composition to selected sources of urban air PM, causes exposure duration- and dose-dependent myocardial injury in susceptible rat strains. Zinc was the only primary water-leachable/bioavailable element of this EPM. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed nose-only to EPM (2, 5, or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day for 4 consecutive days or 10 mg/m(3), 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 4 or 16 consecutive weeks). Two days following the last EPM exposure, cardiac and pulmonary tissues were examined histologically. The results showed that particle-laden alveolar macrophages were the only pulmonary lesions observed in all three rat strains. However, WKY rats exposed to EPM (10 mg/m(3) 6 h/day, 1 day/week for 16 weeks) demonstrated cardiac lesions with inflammation and degeneration. To further characterize the nature of EPM-associated lesions, more rigorous histopathological and histochemical techniques were employed for WKY and SD rats. We examined the hearts for myocardial degeneration, inflammation, fibrosis, calcium deposits, apoptosis, and the presence of mast cells. Decreased numbers of granulated mast cells, and multifocal myocardial degeneration, chronic-active inflammation, and fibrosis were present in 5 of 6 WKY rats exposed to EPM for 16 weeks. None of these lesions were present in WKY exposed to clean air. EPM-related cardiac lesions were indistinguishable from air-exposed controls in SD and SH rats. This study demonstrates that long-term inhalation exposures to environmentally relevant PM containing

  19. An Aerosol Climatology at Kyoto: Observed Local Radiative Forcing and Columnar Optical Properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Takahiro; Höller, Robert; Tohno, Susumu; Kasahara, Mikio

    2003-06-01

    In order to evaluate the radiative effect of the atmospheric aerosol at Kyoto, Japan, surface solar irradiance and columnar aerosol optical properties were observed in the period between September 1998 and December 2001. The aerosol optical thickness, which is an indicator of the columnar mass burden and the overall radiative effect of the aerosol, was on average 0.27 at a wavelength of 500 nm. Springtime aerosol optical thickness was generally higher primarily because of `yellow dust' from the Asian continent. The Ångström exponent had values ranging from 0.5 to 2.8, with an average value of 1.64, and was found to be low in periods during which the aerosol optical thickness was high. As a first step toward calculating the local climate impact of the atmospheric aerosol at Kyoto, the clear-sky direct radiative forcing is considered in this paper. For an evaluation of the surface aerosol radiative forcing, observed total surface fluxes measured by a pyranometer are subtracted from modeled surface fluxes derived from a non-aerosol-laden atmosphere. From the obtained relationship between the aerosol optical thickness and the surface aerosol radiative forcing, it is concluded that there is a high variability in the physical and chemical characteristics of the aerosol at this location. The surface radiative forcing efficiency, which is the radiative forcing for unit optical thickness, was 85.4 W m2 on average at Kyoto. This observed value is very similar to recently observed surface aerosol radiative forcings during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) and the Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) field campaigns. The aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) was calculated from measured in situ aerosol optical properties and retrieved properties from a comparison of measured and simulated ground solar irradiances. While employing average aerosol optical properties at Kyoto, comprehensive cooling at the TOA was found

  20. Effort of Course Evaluation Survey and Its Characteristics at Faculty of Engineering of Kyoto University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Yusaku; Matsushita, Kayo; Yuasa, Taiichi; Araki, Mituhiko

    At Faculty of Engineering of Kyoto University, the course evaluation survey was carried out to 120 lectures in the second semester of the 2004 fiscal year. In this paper, the structure of the course evaluation questionnaire was clarified, and the feature of the education of the faculty was described based on the results. Although the lectures seem generally to be well-organized and the students had attended the classes seriously, some problems also had been observed. For example, the wide variation of class means would suggest some lectures might not be so effective. Besides, the lack of active self-study of the students was shown. For improvement of engineering education in Kyoto University, it was suggested that a further follow-up survey from entrance to graduation should be carried out.

  1. Considering WTO law in the design of climate change regimes beyond Kyoto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Sanford E.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the most important provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements that should be considered in designing laws and regulations under likely post-Kyoto climate change mitigation regimes. The Kyoto Protocol and the expected post-Kyoto international climate agreement depend on national measures to implement market-based mitigation measures. This market strategy promotes international exchanges of goods, investments, and services such as cross-border trading of credits for emissions reductions and transnational financing for projects that avoid emissions through the Clean Development Mechanism. Moreover, the United States and other countries, concerned over "leakage" of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through relocation of industry to other countries coupled with political worry over manufacturing competitiveness, have proposed national climate legislation containing border adjustments on imported goods or implicit subsidies for national producers, raising additional WTO considerations. The article assesses the likely effectiveness of such trade-related measures in achieving climate change mitigation goals and the potential trade policy infringements and trade distortions that they might bring about. Alternative strategies for achieving GHG mitigation goals in closer conformity with WTO law and policy will be suggested.

  2. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Review of Available and Future Technology for Monitoring Treaty Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Rosenquist, A.; Milne, A. K.; Dobson, M. C.; Qi, J.

    2000-01-01

    An International workshop was held to address how remote sensing technology could be used to support the environmental monitoring requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. An overview of the issues addressed and the findings of the workshop are discussed.

  3. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Takamatsu, Terumasa; Hashimoto, Yukimasa; Takashima, Tooru; Nakano, Kooji; Fujita, Setsuya

    2008-01-01

    We started to use virtual slide (VS) and virtual microscopy (VM) systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a fulltime pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use ×10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis. PMID:18673520

  4. Use of virtual slide system for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Takamatsu, Terumasa; Hashimoto, Yukimasa; Takashima, Tooru; Nakano, Kooji; Fujita, Setsuya

    2008-07-15

    We started to use virtual slide (VS) and virtual microscopy (VM) systems for quick frozen intra-operative telepathology diagnosis in Kyoto, Japan. In the system we used a digital slide scanner, VASSALO by CLARO Inc., and a broadband optic fibre provided by NTT West Japan Inc. with the best effort capacity of 100 Mbps. The client is the pathology laboratory of Yamashiro Public Hospital, one of the local centre hospitals located in the south of Kyoto Prefecture, where a full-time pathologist is not present. The client is connected by VPN to the telepathology centre of our institute located in central Kyoto. As a result of the recent 15 test cases of VS telepathology diagnosis, including cases judging negative or positive surgical margins, we could estimate the usefulness of VS in intra-operative remote diagnosis. The time required for the frozen section VS file making was found to be around 10 min when we use x10 objective and if the maximal dimension of the frozen sample is less than 20 mm. Good correct focus of VS images was attained in all cases and all the fields of each tissue specimen. Up to now the capacity of best effort B-band appears to be sufficient to attain diagnosis on time in intra-operation. Telepathology diagnosis was achieved within 5 minutes in most cases using VS viewer provided by CLARO Inc. The VS telepathology system was found to be superior to the conventional still image telepathology system using a robotic microscope since in the former we can observe much greater image information than in the latter in a certain limited time of intra-operation and in the much more efficient ways. In the near future VS telepathology will replace conventional still image telepathology with a robotic microscope even in quick frozen intra-operative diagnosis.

  5. Shortened Conditioned Eyeblink Response Latency in Male but not Female Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanellou, Alexandra; Schachinger, Kira M.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in the volume of the cerebellum and impairments in cerebellar-dependent eyeblink conditioning have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recently, it was reported that subjects with ADHD as well as male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a strain that is frequently employed as an animal model in the study of ADHD, exhibit a parallel pattern of timing deficits in eyeblink conditioning. One criticism that has been posed regarding the validity of the SHR strain as an animal model for the study of ADHD is that SHRs are not only hyperactive but also hypertensive. It is conceivable that many of the behavioral characteristics seen in SHRs that seem to parallel the behavioral symptoms of ADHD are not solely due to hyperactivity but instead are the net outcome of the interaction between hyperactivity and hypertension. We used Wistar-Kyoto Hyperactive (WKHA) and Wistar-Kyoto Hypertensive (WKHT) rats (males and females), strains generated from recombinant inbreeding of SHRs and their progenitor strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, to compare eyeblink conditioning in strains that are exclusively hyperactive or hypertensive. We used a long-delay eyeblink conditioning task in which a tone conditioned stimulus was paired with a periorbital stimulation unconditioned stimulus (750-ms delay paradigm). Our results showed that WKHA and WKHT rats exhibited similar rates of conditioned response (CR) acquisition. However, WKHA males displayed shortened CR latencies (early onset and peak latency) in comparison to WKHT males. In contrast, female WKHAs and WKHTs did not differ. In subsequent extinction training, WKHA rats extinguished at similar rates in comparison to WKHT rats. The current results support the hypothesis of a relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and ADHD in an animal model of ADHD-like symptoms that does not also exhibit hypertension, and suggest that cerebellar-related timing deficits are specific to males. PMID:19485572

  6. High contrast neutron radiography with optical devices in Kyoto University reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Nakano, T.; Hino, M.; Sunohara, H.; Matsushima, U.; Takenaka, N.

    2004-08-01

    The high-contrast neutron radiography has been performed at a VCN guide (VCN) and a supermirror cold neutron guide (CN-3) in Kyoto University Reactor. The large absorption cross-section of very low-energy neutrons can show a slight change of sample which thermal neutrons can not show. The effectiveness is shown in the fields of botany, agriculture and industrial researches. A new spectrum change option using high Qc supermirror ( m=4) is attached. It can change the upper limit of the energy of exposure neutrons by reflections, and gives a high flexibility of the experimental condition.

  7. Anaerobic digestion of organic waste in Japan: the first demonstration plant at Kyoto City.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, T; Kimura, T; Kuriyama, Y; Isshiki, Y; Kawano, T; Hirao, T; Masuda, M; Yokoyama, K; Matsumoto, T; Takeda, M

    2002-01-01

    Recycling of Municipal Solid Waste is vigorously promoted in Japan and the necessity of energy recovery from organic waste is increasing. An anaerobic digestion demonstration plant for organic waste in Kyoto City, Japan has been operated for about two years. Three kinds of wastes (garbage and leftovers from hotels, yard waste and used paper) mixed at various ratios are used. The plant has maintained stable operations with each mixture, generating biogas by the decomposition of VS at the rate of about 820 m3N/ton-VS.

  8. KEGG-PATH: Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes-based pathway analysis using a path analysis model.

    PubMed

    Du, Junli; Yuan, Zhifa; Ma, Ziwei; Song, Jiuzhou; Xie, Xiaoli; Chen, Yulin

    2014-07-29

    The dynamic impact approach (DIA) represents an alternative to overrepresentation analysis (ORA) for functional analysis of time-course experiments or those involving multiple treatments. The DIA can be used to estimate the biological impact of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with particular biological functions, for example, as represented by the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) annotations. However, the DIA does not take into account the correlated dependence structure of the KEGG pathway hierarchy. We have developed herein a path analysis model (KEGG-PATH) to subdivide the total effect of each KEGG pathway into the direct effect and indirect effect by taking into account not only each KEGG pathway itself, but also the correlation with its related pathways. In addition, this work also attempts to preliminarily estimate the impact direction of each KEGG pathway by a gradient analysis method from principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, the advantage of the KEGG-PATH model is demonstrated through the functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during lactation.

  9. Differential visceral nociceptive, behavioural and neurochemical responses to an immune challenge in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto rat strain.

    PubMed

    O' Mahony, Siobhain M; Clarke, Gerard; McKernan, Declan P; Bravo, Javier A; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2013-09-15

    A highly regulated crosstalk exists between the immune and neuroendocrine systems with the altered immune responses in stress-related disorders being a valid example of this interaction. The Wister Kyoto (WKY) rat is an animal model with a genetic predisposition towards an exaggerated stress response and is used to study disorders such as depression and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where stress plays a substantial role. The impact of a lipopolysaccride (LPS) immune challenge has not yet been investigated in this animal model to date. Hence our aim was to assess if the stress susceptible genetic background of the WKY rat was associated with a differential response to an acute immune challenge. Central and peripheral parameters previously shown to be altered by LPS administration were assessed. Under baseline conditions, WKY rats displayed visceral hypersensitivity compared to Sprague Dawley (SD) control rats. However, only SD rats showed an increase in visceral sensitivity following endotoxin administration. The peripheral immune response to the LPS was similar in both strains whilst the central neurochemistry was blunted in the WKY rats. Sickness behaviour was also abrogated in the WKY rats. Taken together, these data indicate that the genetic background of the WKY rat mitigates the response to infection centrally, but not peripherally. This implies that heightened stress-susceptibility in vulnerable populations may compromise the coordinated CNS response to peripheral immune activation.

  10. beta. -adrenergic receptor binding characteristics and responsiveness in cultured Wistar-Kyoto rat arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jazayeri, A.; Meyer, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    The tone of arterial blood vessels is regulated by the catecholamines through their receptors on arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMC). ..beta..-/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors of ASMC mediate vasodilation through agonist mediated c-AMP production. Previous reports have described these receptors on freshly isolated blood vessels. This study demonstrates the presence of ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on cultured rat ASMC and that these receptors are functional. ..beta..-adrenergic receptor binding was measured using (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding to the membrane of cultured ASMC from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. The ASMC ..beta..-adrenergic receptors have a Kd of 0.56 +/- 0.16 nM and a Bmax of 57.2 +/- 21.7 fmol/mg protein. Competition binding studies revealed a much greater affinity of these receptors for epinephrine than norepinephrine, indicating the preponderance of a ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype. Isoproterenol stimulation of cultured ASMC resulted in a 14 +/- 7 fold increase in intracellular c-AMP content of these cells indicating these receptors are functional. ..beta..-adrenergic receptors of cultured ASMC provide an excellent system in which the association between hypertension and observed ..beta..-adrenergic receptor differences can be further explored.

  11. Impacts of the Kyoto protocol on U.S. energy markets and economic activity

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to assess the available scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information in the field of climate change. The most recent report of the IPCC concluded that ``Our ability to quantify the human influence on global climate is currently limited because the expected signal is still emerging from the noise of natural variability, and because there are uncertainties in key factors. These include the magnitudes and patterns of long-term variability and the time-evolving pattern of forcing by, and response to, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and land surface changes. Nevertheless the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate. The first and second Conference of the Parties in 1995 and 1996 agreed to address the issue of greenhouse gas emissions for the period beyond 2000, and to negotiate quantified emission limitations and reductions for the third Conference of the Parties. On December 1 through 11, 1997, representatives from more than 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for developed nations. The resulting Kyoto Protocol established emissions targets for each of the participating developed countries--the Annex 1 countries--relative to their 1990 emissions levels. 114 refs., 138 figs., 33 tabs.

  12. Mental Health Problems among Undergraduates in Fukushima, Tokyo, and Kyoto after the March 11 Tohoku Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Motoya, Ryo; Sasagawa, Satoko; Takahashi, Takahito; Okajima, Isa; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Essau, Cecilia A

    2015-06-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated the Tohoku region, which led to a tsunami and a nuclear disaster. While these three disasters caused tremendous physical damage, their psychological impact remains unclear. The present study evaluated traumatic responses, internalizing (i.e., anxiety and depression), and externalizing (i.e., anger) symptoms among Japanese young people in the immediate aftermath and 2.5 years later. A total of 435 undergraduates were recruited from universities in three differentially exposed regions: Fukushima, Tokyo, and Kyoto. They completed a set of questionnaires retrospectively (i.e., September to December 2013) to measure their traumatic responses, anxiety and depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and anger immediately after the disaster and 2.5 years later. Participants in Tokyo had the highest level of traumatic response and internalizing symptoms immediately after the earthquake, whereas those in Fukushima had significantly higher levels of trait anger, anger-in (holding one's anger in), and anger-out (expressing one's anger externally). In Kyoto, the levels of anxiety and depression after 2.5 years were significantly higher than they were immediately after the disasters. In conclusion, anger symptoms were high among young people who lived at or near the center of the disasters, while anxiety and depression were high among those who lived far away from the disasters. These findings suggest the importance of providing mental health services to young people who did not live near the disaster area as well as to those living in the directly affected area.

  13. Detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks and wild boars in Kyoto City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Someya, Azusa; Ito, Ryuki; Maeda, Akihiko; Ikenaga, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The tick is a well-known vector for arthropod-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Japanese spotted fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. It is therefore important to know the tick population and distribution in our environment and wild animals in order to prevent tick-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of tick surveillance from May to September 2011 at 14 geographical points and in 5 wild boars in Kyoto City, Kyoto prefecture, Japan. We collected 3,198 ticks comprising 5 tick species, Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, Amblyomma testudinarium and Dermacentor taiwanensis. Interestingly, the proportion of tick species varied according to geographical region within the city. The ticks collected in the city were reported as potential vectors of pathogens, such as rickettsiosis. We detected rickettsial DNA by PCR in 71.1% of 201 ticks investigated. The ticks that carried rickettsiae were distributed across the whole the city. The sequences of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were determined and showed similarities to spotted fever group rickettsiae. Although their pathogenicity for animals including humans is still unclear, it is important to stay alert and pay attention to tick-borne diseases in order to ensure the safety of the citizens of the city as well as that of visitors.

  14. Strategies for bringing stem cell-derived dopamine neurons to the clinic: The Kyoto trial.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Concerted efforts are realizing cell-based therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). In this chapter, I describe efforts at the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University. These efforts use induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as donor cells. The iPSCs were established as human leukocyte antigen homozygous at CiRA and are intended for allogeneic transplantation. Our manufacturing protocol includes a feeder-free cell culture with laminin fragment LM511-E8 and the sorting of CORIN(+) cells. Animal experiments, including those with monkey PD models, proved that the grafted cells survive and function as dopaminergic neurons in the brain without forming any tumors. Furthermore, I emphasize that not only the donor cells but also the host brain environment is critical for successful transplantation. To achieve optimization of the host environment, drug administration, gene modification, and rehabilitation are recommended. Based on these results, researchers plan to start a clinical trial at Kyoto University Hospital in the near future. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion (from the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Erika; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Ono, Koh; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Doi, Osamu; Tamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2013-09-15

    Despite improving success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions, the clinical benefit of recanalization of CTO is still a matter of debate. Of 13,087 patients who underwent PCI in the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2, 1,524 patients received PCI for CTO (CTO-PCI). Clinical outcomes were compared between 1,192 patients with successful CTO-PCI and 332 patients with failed CTO-PCI. In-hospital death tended to occur less frequently in the successful CTO-PCI group than in the failed CTO-PCI group (1.4% vs 3.0%, p = 0.053). Through 3-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of all-cause death was not significantly different between the successful and failed CTO-PCI groups (9.0% vs 13.1%, p = 0.18), whereas the cumulative incidence of cardiac death was significantly less in the successful CTO-PCI group than in the failed CTO-PCI group (4.5% vs 8.4%, p = 0.03). However, after adjusting confounders, successful CTO-PCI was associated with lesser risk for neither all-cause death (hazard ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.37, p = 0.69) nor cardiac death (hazard ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 1.16, p = 0.16). The cumulative incidence of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was remarkably less in patients with successful PCI compared with those with failed PCI (1.8% vs 19.6%, p <0.0001). In conclusion, successful CTO-PCI compared with failed PCI was not associated with lesser risk for 3-year mortality. However, successful CTO-PCI was associated with significantly less subsequent CABG.

  16. Apc-Mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) Rats Are Susceptible to 4-NQO-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Shirakami, Yohei; Mori, Takayuki; Watanabe, Naoki; Naiki, Takafumi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Despite widening interest in the possible association between infection/inflammation and cancer development, knowledge of this issue in relation to oral cancer remains inadequate. This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Apc-mutant Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) rats, which are vulnerable to developing inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in order to clarify the role of inflammation in oral cancer. KAD (20 males and 22 females) and F344/NS1c (22 males and 23 females) rats received drinking water with or without 4-NQO (20 ppm) for eight weeks. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the tongue were performed at week 20. Additionally, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue mucosa was determined at week 8. Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) developed in the KAD and F344/NS1c rats that received 4-NQO. Regardless of gender, the incidence and multiplicity of tongue SCC were greater in the KAD rats than in the F344/NS1c rats. In addition, the multiplicity of tongue SCC in the female KAD rats was significantly greater than that observed in the male KAD (p < 0.01) and female F344/NS1c rats (p < 0.05). The levels of inflammation and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tongue in the 4-NQO-treated female KAD rats were the highest among the rats given 4-NQO. These results show that KAD rats, particularly females, are susceptible to 4-NQO-induced tongue carcinogenesis, suggesting the utility of models employing KAD rats for investigating the pathobiology of oral (tongue) carcinogenesis associated with inflammation. PMID:25050571

  17. Rising to the Kyoto challenge: is the response of Canadian industry adequate?

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Nakamura, M; van Kooten, G C; Vertinsky, I

    2001-10-01

    A major weapon in Canada's CO2-emissions reduction arsenal is reliance on moral suasion and voluntary action. In this regard, the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program constitutes a major effort to encourage industrial firms to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we begin by providing a critical review of Canadian climate change policy and Canada's international commitments. We then investigate the effectiveness of Canadian policies by analyzing a survey of industrial firms, examining factors that determine firms' familiarity with, participation in and commitment to the VCR program, and their stated potential to reduce emissions by 2008-2012 (Kyoto's commitment period). Results indicate that voluntary programs are unlikely to make a significant contribution to emissions reduction, with industrial firms indicating that, on average, they plan to reduce emissions by some 1-2% below their 1990 level under the current policy approach, much lower than Canada's 6% reduction target.

  18. Links between Cairo and Kyoto: addressing global warming through voluntary family planning.

    PubMed

    Skeer, Jeffrey

    2002-02-01

    Over the past three decades, with a combination of new technology, rising female literacy rates, and strengthened family planning programs, the world has seen dramatic increases in the use of contraception, with corresponding declines in fertility and population growth rates. At the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo in 1994, parties pledged a tripling of funding for reproductive health programs in developing countries. Many demographers believe that making such programs more widely available to women would extend the decline in birth rates and shift the world towards the low scenario of United Nations population projections over the next century and a half. By examining the costs and impacts of such programs, in view of the links between population and carbon emissions, this paper shows that extension of voluntary family planning could make a large and cost-effective contribution to the greenhouse gas limitation goals of the Kyoto Protocol that was negotiated in 1997.

  19. Design study of multi-imaging plate system for BNCT irradiation field at Kyoto university reactor.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Endo, Satoru

    2016-09-01

    The converter configuration for a multi-imaging plate system was investigated for the application of quality assurance in the irradiation field profile for boron neutron capture therapy. This was performed by the simulation calculation using the PHITS code in the fields at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. The converter constituents investigated were carbon for gamma rays, and polyethylene with and without LiF at varied (6)Li concentration for thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons. Consequently, potential combinations of the converters were found for two components, gamma rays and thermal neutrons, for the standard thermal neutron mode and three components of gamma rays, epithermal neutrons, and thermal or fast neutrons, for the standard mixed or epithermal neutron modes, respectively.

  20. Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 106/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

  1. [Climate change and Kyoto Protocol. Science and strategies. Obligations for Spain].

    PubMed

    de Castro González, Federico Velázquez

    2005-01-01

    This article presents climate change as the major environmental problem of our time. A result of the so-called "greenhouse effect", climate change is caused by certain gases, the concentrations in the atmosphere of which are growing exponentially. The consequences of these gases are going to be felt throughout the entire biosphere, from weather phenomenon to humans, creating a uncertain panorama which is going to be requiring some fast-paced adaptation on the part of all species. This is not, however, an irreversible process, taking action thus being possible and necessary, by combining education and lawmaking measures brought into being within the timeframes and to the extents set forth under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Spain will be one of the most highly-affected countries, and its strategy may therefore mean a highly-valuable tool for correcting the deviations caused and contributing to the urgent control of global emissions.

  2. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the Montreal Protocol as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Kanter, D.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Grabiel, P.; Moomaw, W.; Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    While nitrous oxide (N2O) was recently identified as the largest remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer, it is currently regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol due to its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the 1987 Montreal Protocol if they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues for the Montreal Protocol and its parent treaty, the 1985 Vienna Convention, to regulate N2O, as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address its most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to mitigation efforts. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built upon by the Montreal Protocol's existing bodies to implement N2O controls. Given the tight coupling of the nitrogen cycle, such controls would likely simultaneously reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen and hence have co-benefits for ecosystems and public health. Nevertheless, there are at least three major regulatory challenges that are unique and central to N2O control: food security, equity, and the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the Montreal Protocol need not be viewed as a sign of the Kyoto Protocol's failure to adequately deal with climate change, given the complexity of the issue. Rather, it could represent an additional tool in the field of sustainable development diplomacy.lt;img border=0 src="images/B43K-06_B.jpg">

  3. Economic Impacts of the Kyoto Protocol. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session, March 25, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This hearing focuses on the economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. In the Kyoto Protocol, which was completed in December 1997, the administration agreed to legally binding obligations to reduce US greenhouse gas emissions to seven percent below 1990 levels during the years 2008--2011. This climate treaty does not subject developing countries to emission targets.

  4. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  5. CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONSISTENT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPs) DURING FALL SEASON IN WISTAR-KYOTO RATS.
    UP Kodavanti, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, LC Walsh, PS Gilmour, MI Gilmour, WP Watkinson, JP Nolan, JH Richards, D Andrews, DL Costa. US EPA...

  6. Cardiotoxicity of catecholamines after application of L-DOPA in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

    PubMed

    Kammermeier, M; Grobecker, H F

    1995-06-01

    In order to estimate the role of the sympatho-adrenal system as a trigger in cardiovascular mortality risk after L-DOPA administration in patients with Parkinsons disease we performed the following experiments in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto-rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). L-DOPA was given orally in increasing doses (30, 100, 300 mg/kg b.w.). Haemodynamic parameters (BP, HR) were measured by tail cuff plethysmography and catecholamine concentrations in tissues assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Stressful situations were induced by experimental myocardial infarction. After administration of L-DOPA a dose-dependent increase in blood pressure in both WKY and SHR was observed with a prolongation in SHR. Significantly increased concentrations of dopamine in the hearts were measured in both strains. Noradrenaline stores in the heart of WKY were more filled than in the heart of SHR. Only in SHR high adrenaline concentration in the adrenal medulla were measured after L-DOPA administration. Circulating adrenaline concentrations were significantly enhanced after myocardial infarction in WKY and could be further elevated by pretreatment with L-DOPA. From the results obtained it is concluded that L-DOPA administration in WKY and SHR leads to exaggerate synthesis and massive release of catecholamines and in consequence to an enhanced cardiovascular mortality risk due to cardiotoxicity of catecholamines. It can be extrapolated that increased cardiovascular mortality risk seen in Parkinson patients treated with L-DOPA and benzerazide is probably associated with increased synthesis and release of catecholamines during stressful situations.

  7. Detrimental effects of acute nicotine on the response-withholding performance of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Gabriel J.; Wood-Isenberg, Gabriel; Watterson, Elizabeth; Sanabria, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a higher prevalence of smoking, which may be related to potential therapeutic effects of nicotine on ADHD symptoms. Whereas nicotine offers robust improvements in sustained attention, the effects of nicotine on impulsivity are unclear. Objectives The present study examined the effects of nicotine on the response inhibition capacity of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD, compared to that of a normotensive control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) using the Fixed Minimum Interval (FMI) schedule of reinforcement. Methods Tests were conducted following acute injections of subcutaneous nicotine (0.1 – 0.6 mg/kg). On each FMI trial, the first lever press initiated an inter-response time (IRT); a head entry into a food receptacle terminated the IRT. IRTs longer than 6 s were intermittently reinforced with sucrose. Results A model that assumes that only a proportion of IRTs are sensitive to the timing contingencies of the FMI provided a close fit to the data, regardless of strain or treatment. No baseline difference in FMI performance was observed between SHR and WKY. Nicotine reduced the duration of timed IRTs and the duration of latencies to the IRT-initiating lever press similarly for both strains. Nicotine dose-dependently increased the proportion of timed IRTs; the dose-response curve was shifted leftwards in SHR relative to WKY. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine (a) reduces response-inhibition capacity (b) enhances the reinforcement efficacy of sucrose, and (c) dose-dependently enhances attention-like sensitivity to contingencies of reinforcement, through mechanisms that are yet unknown. PMID:24414609

  8. Cardiopulmonary responses in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats exposed to concentrated ambient particles from Detroit, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Annette C; Wagner, James G; Morishita, Masako; Kamal, Ali; Keeler, Gerald J; Harkema, Jack R

    2010-05-01

    Toxicological effects have been observed in rats exposed to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) from different regions of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary and systemic effects of CAPs in Detroit. The authors stationed a mobile concentrator at a location near major traffic and industrial sources. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were exposed to fine CAPs (diameter < 0.1-2.5 microm) 8 h/day for 13 consecutive days. Animals were implanted with telemeters, and electrocardiogram data were recorded continuously. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and plasma were analyzed. Comprehensive exposure monitoring was conducted, including CAPs components. CAPs exposure concentrations were 103-918 microg/m(3) (mean = 502 microg/m(3)). The authors found no statistically significant differences in heart rate or SDNN (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals), a measure of heart rate variability, between CAPs-exposed and control rats. The authors found significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein in the serum of CAPs-exposed SH rats compared with air-exposed animals. Protein in BAL fluid was elevated in WKY rats exposed to CAPs. Measurement of trace metals in lung tissue showed elevated concentrations of V, Sb, La, and Ce in CAPs-exposed SH animals versus controls. These elements are generally associated with oil combustion, oil refining, waste incineration, and traffic. Examination of wind rose data from the exposure period confirmed that the predominant wind direction was SSW, the direction of many of the aforementioned sources. These results indicate that ambient particles in Detroit can cause mild pulmonary and systemic changes in rats, and suggest the importance of local PM(2.5) sources in these effects.

  9. IMPACT OF ISOPRENALINE AND CAFFEINE ON DEVELOPMENT OF LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY AND RENAL HEMODYNAMIC IN WISTAR KYOTO RATS.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar Z A; Rathore, Hassaan A; Khan, Safia Akhtar; Lazhari, Mohammed A; Hashmi, Fayaz; Abdullah, Nor A; Johns, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a compensatory mechanism in response to an increased work load on the heart. This study investigated the impact of chronic isoprenaline and caffeine (I/C model) administration on cardiac geometry, systemic hemodynamic and physiological data in rats as LVH develops. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5 mg/kg s.c. every 72 h) and caffeine (62 mg/L) in drinking water for 14 days to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart weight, LV weight, LV chamber diameter and thickness of myocardium were observed as LVH indicators. MAP was significantly higher (142 ± 13 vs. 119 ± 2 mmHg, respectively) while heart rate (HR) in LVH was lower (314 ± 9 vs. 264 ± 18 BPM) compared to control WKY. Heart weight, LV weight and kidney weight were 31%, 38% and 7%, respectively, greater in the LVH group as compared to the control WKY (all p < 0.05).The myocardium thickness was 101% greater while LV chamber diameter was 44% smaller in the LVH group as compared to the control WKY (p < 0.05). The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels were significantly reduced while malonodialdehyde (MDA) level increased in LVH as compared to control WKY (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, isoprenaline and caffeine (I/C) induces LVH and cardiac hypertrophy with increases in blood pressure, fluid excretion and reduced renal hemodynamics. Prooxidant mechanism of the body and arterial stiffness are dominant in this disease model. This model of LVH is easily generated and associated with low mortality.

  10. CCD system upgrading of the Kyoto3DII and integral field spectroscopic observation with the new system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuda, Kazuma; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Minowa, Yosuke; Hayano, Yutaka; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Hattori, Takashi; Kamata, Yukiko; Ozaki, Shinobu; Doi, Mamoru; Sako, Shigeyuki

    2016-08-01

    The Kyoto Tridimensional Spectrograph II (Kyoto 3DII) is an optical integral field spectrograph mounted on the Subaru telescope as a PI-type instrument. Used with AO188, Kyoto 3DII provides us unique opportunities of optical Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) with adaptive optics (AO). While AO works better in redder wavelength regions, quantum efficiency of the previous CCD was low there with optimization for a wider wavelength coverage. To optimize Kyoto 3DII to AO observations, we have newly installed the red-sensitive Hamamatsu fully depleted CCD, which enhances the system efficiency by a factor of 2 in the red wavelength range. Fringes are dramatically reduced, and the readout noise drops to 3:2-3:4e- about two times smaller than previous, due to refrigerator and readout system. With these improvements, we carried out engineering and scientific observations in September 2015, February and March 2016. We measured the system efficiency using a standard star, and confirmed the successful improvement of the system efficiency. We observed galactic nuclei of nearby galaxies in the Natural Guide Star (NGS) and the Laser Guide Star (LGS) modes. We found the spatial resolution of 0.1'' FWHM using a 9.5-magnitude NGS, and 0.2 - 0:4'' in LGS mode. Together with the AO resolution, improved efficiency opens a new window for Kyoto 3DII to carry out high resolution optical IFS targeting faint objects such as high-redshift galaxies as well as faint lines such as [OI] λ6300° A and absorption lines of nearby objects.

  11. Global SF6 emission estimates inferred from atmospheric observations - a test case for Kyoto reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, I.; Naegler, T.

    2009-04-01

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the strongest greenhouse gases per molecule in the atmosphere. SF6 emissions are also one of the six greenhouse gases targeted for reduction under the Kyoto Protocol. Here we present a long-term data set of globally distributed high-precision atmospheric SF6 observations which show an increase in mixing ratios from near zero in the 1970s to a global mean value of 6.3 ppt by the end of 2007. Because of its long atmospheric lifetime of around 3000 years, the accumulation of SF6 in the atmosphere is a direct measure of its global emissions: Analysis of our long-term data records implies a decrease of global SF6 sources after 1995, most likely due to emission reductions in industrialised countries. However, after 1998 the global SF6 source increases again, which is probably due to enhanced emissions from transition economies such as in China and India. Moreover, observed north-south concentration differences in SF6 suggest that emissions calculated from statistical (bottom-up) information and reported by Annex II parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) may be too low by up to 50%. This clearly shows the importance and need for atmospheric (top-down) validation of Kyoto reporting which is only feasible with a dense world-wide observational network for greenhouse and other trace gases. Other members of the Global SF6 Trends Team: R. Heinz (1), D. Osusko (1), E. Cuevas (2), A. Engel (3), J. Ilmberger (1), R.L. Langenfelds (4), B. Neininger (5), C.v. Rohden (1), L.P. Steele (4), A. Varlagin (6), R. Weller (7), D.E. Worthy (8), S.A. Zimov (9) (1) Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany, (2) Centro de Investigación Atmosférica de Izaña, Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM), 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain, (3) Institut für Atmosphäre und Umwelt, J.W. Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt/Main, Germany, (4) Centre for Australian Weather and

  12. APFBC repowering could help meet Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction goals[Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.E.; Tonnemacher, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Clinton Administration signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreement that would limit US greenhouse gas emissions, of which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most significant. While the Kyoto Protocol has not yet been submitted to the Senate for ratification, in the past, there have been few proposed environmental actions that had continued and wide-spread attention of the press and environmental activists that did not eventually lead to regulation. Since the Kyoto Protocol might lead to future regulation, its implications need investigation by the power industry. Limiting CO{sub 2} emissions affects the ability of the US to generate reliable, low cost electricity, and has tremendous potential impact on electric generating companies with a significant investment in coal-fired generation, and on their customers. This paper explores the implications of reducing coal plant CO{sub 2} by various amounts. The amount of reduction for the US that is proposed in the Kyoto Protocol is huge. The Kyoto Protocol would commit the US to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions to 7% below 1990 levels. Since 1990, there has been significant growth in US population and the US economy driving carbon emissions 34% higher by year 2010. That means CO{sub 2} would have to be reduced by 30.9%, which is extremely difficult to accomplish. The paper tells why. There are, however, coal-based technologies that should be available in time to make significant reductions in coal-plant CO{sub 2} emissions. Th paper focuses on one plant repowering method that can reduce CO{sub 2} per kWh by 25%, advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle (APFBC) technology, based on results from a recent APFBC repowering concept evaluation of the Carolina Power and Light Company's (CP and L) L.V. Sutton steam station. The replacement of the existing 50-year base of power generating units needed to meet proposed Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction commitments would be a massive undertaking. It is

  13. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  14. Nickel Mirror And Supermirror Neutron Guide Tubes At The Kyoto University Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, Toru; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Achiwa, Norio; Utsuro, Masahiko; Okamoto, Sunao

    1989-01-01

    We installed the first nickel mirror neutron guide tube with a characteristic wavelength of 2.85 Å at Kyoto University research reactor(KUR, 5MW, cooled and moderated by light water) in 1973 and a supermirror guide tube with a characteristic wavelength of 1.17 Å in 1984, in order to get more intense thermal neutron beam. Four guide tubes are under construction at a cold neutron source installed in 1986. Two of them are supermirror type with a characteristic wavelength of 3 Å and the others are supermirror and Ni-mirror type with characteristic wavelengths of 6 Å and 23 Å, respectively. Supermirrors are made by automatically controlled vacuum deposition of nickel and titanium metal with electron gun. Their averaging reflectivity for the first supermirror guide tube are the following: The apparent critical wavelength, λ/θ, of reflection is 240 Å in term of wavelength(λ/θ) corresponding to the component of wave number perpendicular to the mirror surface. The reflectivity is 0.65 at the apparent critical wavelength and becomes higher with increasing neutron wavelength up to nearly unity for wavelength longer than 500 Å. Supermirror guide tubes are featured by more available neutrons with larger divergent angles and shorter length of the guide tubes. These features would bring us significant advantages depending on experimental requirements.

  15. Precocious differentiation of the virgin Wistar-Kyoto rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Benton, M E; Chen, K S; Haag, J D; Sattler, C A; Gould, M N

    1999-06-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain expresses high levels of beta-casein in its virgin mammary glands. We found that the onset of beta-casein overexpression (BCO) occurs at 6 weeks of age, with morphological differentiation of the mammary gland detectable at 7 weeks of age. BCO was previously shown to be cell autonomous; however, we found that adrenal and ovarian hormones were permissive and necessary for the expression of the BCO phenotype, indicating that the genetic variation that initiates BCO from within the mammary epithelium can only manifest BCO in the presence of virgin hormone levels. Sequencing of the WKY and Wistar-Furth (WF) rat beta-casein promoters showed them to be identical. Culture of primary rat mammary epithelial cells (RMEC) under lactogenic conditions revealed that expression of beta-casein was independent of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in RMEC from virgin WKYv, but was dependent in WFv, RMEC. RMEC from a pregnant WFp responded similarly to WKYv RMEC, suggesting that EGF-independent beta-casein expression occurs naturally in differentiated rat mammary epithelium. However, induction of beta-casein expression in RMEC from immature WKY rats was also independent of EGF, indicating that the induction as well as maintenance of BCO do not require EGF. We suggest that an EGF-independent signaling pathway, arising from a trans-acting inherited effector(s), underlies BCO.

  16. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M.; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminary in vitro and in vivo imaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. PMID:26769799

  17. New Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenic models with ubiquitous expression of green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Garcia Diaz, Ana Isabel; Moyon, Ben; Coan, Philip M; Alfazema, Neza; Venda, Lara; Woollard, Kevin; Aitman, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat inbred strains are well-established models for human crescentic glomerulonephritis (CRGN) and metabolic syndrome, respectively. Novel transgenic (Tg) strains add research opportunities and increase scientific value to well-established rat models. We have created two novel Tg strains using Sleeping Beauty transposon germline transgenesis, ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the rat elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) promoter on the WKY and SHR genetic backgrounds. The Sleeping Beauty system functioned with high transgenesis efficiency; 75% of new rats born after embryo microinjections were transgene positive. By ligation-mediated PCR, we located the genome integration sites, confirming no exonic disruption and defining a single or low copy number of the transgenes in the new WKY-GFP and SHR-GFP Tg lines. We report GFP-bright expression in embryos, tissues and organs in both lines and show preliminaryin vitroandin vivoimaging data that demonstrate the utility of the new GFP-expressing lines for adoptive transfer, transplantation and fate mapping studies of CRGN, metabolic syndrome and other traits for which these strains have been extensively studied over the past four decades. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating.

  19. Development and performance of Kyoto's x-ray astronomical SOI pixel (SOIPIX) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Takeshi G.; Matsumura, Hideaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Hatsui, Takaki; Kameshima, Takashi; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Wagai, Tatsuya; Takei, Dai; Kawahito, Shoji; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kamehama, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    We have been developing monolithic active pixel sensors, known as Kyoto's X-ray SOIPIXs, based on the CMOS SOI (silicon-on-insulator) technology for next-generation X-ray astronomy satellites. The event trigger output function implemented in each pixel offers microsecond time resolution and enables reduction of the non-X-ray background that dominates the high X-ray energy band above 5-10 keV. A fully depleted SOI with a thick depletion layer and back illumination offers wide band coverage of 0.3-40 keV. Here, we report recent progress in the X-ray SOIPIX development. In this study, we achieved an energy resolution of 300 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV and a read-out noise of 33 e- (rms) in the frame readout mode, which allows us to clearly resolve Mn-Kα and Kβ. Moreover, we produced a fully depleted layer with a thickness of 500 μm. The event-driven readout mode has already been successfully demonstrated.

  20. Dysfunctional Inhibitory Mechanisms in Locus Coeruleus Neurons of the Wistar Kyoto Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bruzos-Cidón, C; Llamosas, N; Ugedo, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) has functional relevance in several psychopathologies such as stress, anxiety, and depression. In addition to glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs, the activation of somatodendritic α2-adrenoceptors is the main responsible for LC activity regulation. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat exhibits depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and hyperresponse to stressors. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate in vitro the sensitivity of α2-adrenoceptors, as well as the glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity on LC neurons of the WKY strain. Methods: For that purpose patch-clamp whole-cell recordings were done in LC slices. Results: The α2-adrenoceptors of LC neurons from WKY rats were less sensitive to the effect induced by the agonist UK 14 304 as compared to that recorded in the Wistar (Wis) control strain. In addition, the GABAergic input to LC neurons of WKY rats was significantly modified compared to that in Wis rats, since the amplitude of spontaneous GABAergic postsynaptic currents was reduced and the half-width increased. On the contrary, no significant alterations were detected regarding glutamatergic input to LC neurons between rat strains. Conclusions: These results point out that in WKY rats the inhibitory control exerted by α2-adrenoceptors and GABAergic input onto LC neurons is dysregulated. Overall, this study supports in this animal model the hypothesis that claims an imbalance between the glutamatergic-GABAergic systems as a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:25586927

  1. Cofiring fossil fuels with renewable energy in addressing global climate change and the Kyoto Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    In addressing the issue of Global Climate Change, the use of renewable energy resources and energy efficiency has been traditionally touted as the most effective way to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and to sequester carbon-based emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels for the worldwide production of power. The goal set by the Kyoto Protocol of ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere`` will not be met unless the predictions for world energy production based on the use of oil, gas and coal are considered in using renewable energy resources. The use of renewable energy in the US amounted to 7.4 quads in 1997 which was only 7.8% of total domestic gross energy demand. In the US alone the biomass renewable energy economically accessible resource base is estimated at 14 quads per year which can be considered for use in addressing predicted increases in electric power demand. In 1990 the biomass generated power was 3.1 quads in the US alone, and renewable energy accounted for 14.7% of the total world power production allowing for significant increases in the future. The most significant use of renewable energy other than the power sector is the use of biofuels (principally from wood) in the industrial sector which accounts for 21% of the total renewable demand of 7.432 quads in 1997.

  2. Comparison of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 with the parent-rated Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Sayaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Ikeda, Natsuha; Takekoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Mezawa, Hidetoshi; Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to extend our understanding of the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD) by comparison with a parent-rated scale, the Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS). The participants of this study were 229 children aged 0-4, who were referred to the Developmental Evaluation Center of the National Center for Child Health and Development, due to a suspected developmental disorder/delay. The participants were divided into subgroups, depending on age and overall DQ. For each group separately, correlation analyses were conducted between the Developmental Quotient (DQ) of each KSPD domain and DQ of each KIDS subscale. For high DQ group, in all ages, the KSPD Postural-Motor (P-M) domain DQ demonstrated a high correlation with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, and at young ages, it was also found to be moderately or strongly associated with the KIDS Manipulation DQ. For high DQ group, the KSPD Cognitive-Adaptive (C-A) domain DQ was most consistently related to the KIDS Manipulation DQ, and was also moderately correlated with the KIDS Physical-Motor DQ, Receptive Language DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, Discipline DQ, and Feeding DQ, depending on age. For high DQ group, the KSPD Language-Social (L-S) DQ most consistently showed a moderate or high correlation with the KIDS Receptive Language DQ and the Manipulation DQ, and also related to Physical-Motor DQ, Expressive Language DQ, Language Conception DQ, Social Relationship with Adults DQ, and Social Relationship with Children DQ for some age groups. The low DQ group demonstrated stronger relationships on many of the pairs of the DQ of a KSPD subdomain and the DQ of a KIDS subscale, regardless of the type of subdomains and subscales. For high DQ group, the KSPD P-M domain was consistently related to parent-reported physical/motor development, the C-A domain primarily reflected a child's fine motor skills and his/her ability to understand and follow verbal instructions provided by adults

  3. Report from the 29th World Congress of Endourology and SWL (November 30-December 3, 2011 - Kyoto, Japan).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2012-02-01

    Kyoto is a city of surprises: from the most beautiful castles and temples known far and wide across the world, to the humblest temples, as beautiful as those appearing in all tourist guides, just hidden away in small lanes among busy traffic of bicycles and pedestrians shopping in markets or attending to their daily business. Add the innumerable tourists busily exploring the city's attractions, although this was not the reason for visiting Kyoto, which was the site of this year's World Congress of Endourology and SWL. Nevertheless, maybe as a compensation, the meeting was held in Kokusaikaikan, literally the International Conference Centre, which is a modern facility in the city outskirts, actually adjoining the Takaragaike park, with a beautiful lake and the mountains, brightly led by the trees' red leaves, just visible through the main hall windows.

  4. Promoting Health During the American Occupation of Japan The Public Health Section, Kyoto Military Government Team, 1945-1949

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Sey

    2008-01-01

    During the American occupation of Japan (1945–1952), young public health officers from the US Army Medical Corps were posted in local US Army military government teams. These young doctors (aged 25 to 27 years), who had not absorbed the strong anti-Japanese tradition of the US military during World War II, seem to have alleviated the initial resentment felt by the Japanese toward the new governors of their homeland. The case of the Kyoto Military Government Team illustrates the Kyoto citizenry’s positive view of some American-directed public health measures. The team’s services helped to counter widely held negative views on colonialism, occupation, and public health; lessened resentment toward the unilateral command structure of the occupation forces; and contributed to improved relations between the United States and Japan at the local level. PMID:18235076

  5. [Experience of Collaborative Research through Department of Medical Instrumental Research and Technology in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Both of Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine which offers high, technical and safe medical treatment and Horiba, Ltd. which has small CBC analyzers in a core product established a joint research institute for development of advanced laboratory test analyzer from January 1, 2012 in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine as the "advanced treatment hospital" where the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has got approved. Clinical needs about analyzer and reagent for a laboratory test are being investigated to the emergency medical care unit and the intensive care unit as well as the laboratory test part in the affiliated hospital and many medical departments of the pediatrics, the internal medicine and the surgery. Developing the new analyzer based on high technology, evaluating the performance of them and spreading them to a medical examination and treatment site is our main target.

  6. Learned helplessness and social avoidance in the Wistar-Kyoto rat

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyungwoo; Clinton, Sarah M.; Jackson, Nateka L.; Kerman, Ilan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is an established depression model characterized by elevated anxiety- and depression-like behavior across a variety of tests. Here we further characterized specific behavioral and functional domains relevant to depression that are altered in WKY rats. Moreover, since early-life experience potently shapes emotional behavior, we also determined whether aspects of WKYs' phenotype were modifiable by early-life factors using neonatal handling or maternal separation. We first compared WKYs' behavior to that of Sprague–Dawley (SD), Wistar, and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) rats in: the open field test, elevated plus maze, novelty-suppressed feeding test, a social interaction test, and the forced swim test (FST). WKYs exhibited high baseline immobility in the FST and were the only strain to show increased immobility on FST Day 2 vs. Day 1 (an indicator of learned helplessness). WKYs also showed greater social avoidance, along with enlarged adrenal glands and hearts relative to other strains. We next tested whether neonatal handling or early-life maternal separation stress influenced WKYs' behavior. Neither manipulation affected their anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, likely due to a strong genetic underpinning of their phenotype. Our findings indicate that WKY rats are a useful model that captures specific functional domains relevant to clinical depression including: psychomotor retardation, behavioral inhibition, learned helplessness, social withdrawal, and physiological dysfunction. WKY rats appear to be resistant to early-life manipulations (i.e., neonatal handling) that are therapeutic in other strains, and may be a useful model for the development of personalized anti-depressant therapies for treatment resistant depression. PMID:24744709

  7. [Current state of smoking and alcohol drinking among pregnant women in Kyoto City].

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Takayo; Taniguchi, Chiho; Hamagashira, Naoko

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the current state of smoking and alcohol drinking among pregnant women, and assess the factors related to smoking behavior during pregnancy. Subjects were mothers whose children had undergone 4-month checkups publicly provided by Kyoto City in February 2007. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey about their smoking and alcohol drinking behavior was conducted. Chi-square tests and a logistic regression analysis were carried out to assess the factors related to smoking behavior during pregnancy. Out of a total of 999, 722 questionnaires were returned (response rate, 72.3%). Usable questionnaires were 689 (available response rate, 69.0%). The prevalence levels of alcohol drinking during prenatal, pregnant and postnatal periods were 55.9%, 9.1%, 22.1%, respectively. In 586 breast feeding mothers, the prevalence of alcohol drinking was 19.5%. The percentages of women smoking during prenatal, pregnant and postnatal periods were 23.4%, 7.5%, 9.0%, respectively. Out of prenatal smokers, the rate of quit smoking taking advantage of pregnancy was 67.7%. The prevalence of their husbands' smoking was 43.1%. Logistic regression analysis showed that "young age (<25 years)", "drinking alcohol during pregnancy" and "passive smoking due to their husbands" were significantly related to smoking during pregnancy. Maternal smoking and alcohol drinking are important public health problems. The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was found to be especially high in young women, and some pregnant women could not quit smoking. Approximately half of pregnant women were exposed to passive smoking. The prevalence of alcohol drinking during pregnancy was high in women aged more than 40 years. It is necessary to give knowledge about obstetric and perinatal complications of smoking and alcohol drinking for childbearing-age women, and provide support help quit smoking and alcohol drinking giving due consideration to age.

  8. The first back-side illuminated types of Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOIPIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itou, Makoto; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Matsumura, Hideaki; Ohmura, Shunichi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Shinya; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mori, Koji; Takenaka, Ryota; Nishioka, Yusuke; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Tamasawa, Koki; Tindall, Craig

    2016-09-01

    We have been developing Kyoto's X-ray astronomy SOI pixel sensors, called "XRPIX", aiming to extend the frontiers of X-ray astronomy with the wide-band imaging spectroscopy in the 0.5-40 keV band. A dead layer on the X-ray incident surface should ideally be as thin as possible to achieve a high sensitivity below 1 keV, and the depletion layer is required to be thick enough to detect 40 keV X-rays. Thus, we have started developing fully-depleted back-side illuminated (BI) types of XRPIXs. This paper reports on our first two BI devices and their X-ray evaluation (2.6-12 keV). The device named "XRPIX2b-FZ-LA" successfully reaches a full depletion with a thickness of 500 μm. On the other hand, it has a dead layer with a thickness of 1.1-1.5 μm and struggles to achieve the requirement of 1.0 μm. The other device named "XRPIX2b-CZ-PZ", which is applied with a thin Si sensor-layer and an improved back-side process, is found to satisfy the requirement with its thickness of 0.9-1.0 μm, including Al optical blocking filter of 0.2 μm, although the Si sensor-layer is rather thin with 62 μm. We also describe in this paper the X-ray calibration system that we have built for the X-ray evaluation of XRPIXs.

  9. Environmental manipulation affects depressive-like behaviours in female Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Guergana R; Bielajew, Catherine

    2015-10-15

    While the efficacy of pharmacological interventions to treat depression has been well-studied in animal models, much less work has been done to shed light on how changes in the immediate environment can impact behaviour. Furthermore, most studies have focused on male rodents despite the prevalence of mood disorders in women. In this study, 36 Wistar Kyoto (validated animal model of depression) and 36 Wistar (control) female rats were used to examine the effects of environmental manipulation on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. Animals were assigned to one of three groups: standard (3 rats/cage), enriched (6 rats/cage plus physical enrichment), and isolation (1 rat/cage) housing. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST) were conducted prior to, and four weeks after environmental assignment to measure anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviours, respectively. Sucrose preference assessed anhedonia both before and after environmental assignment. Weight was measured every week to monitor weight-gain over time. Post-environment sucrose preference was significantly increased in animals in enriched housing as compared to those in isolated housing in both strains. While there were significant differences between strains in measures of open arm duration in the EPM and immobility in the FST, there appeared to be no differences between environmental groups. The results of this study highlight the importance of environmental factors in the expression of anhedonia. Enrichment appears to reduce anhedonia while isolation increases anhedonia. These effects should be studied further to assess whether longer periods of social and physical enrichment alleviate other symptoms of depression.

  10. Efficacy of 0.1% adapalene in a non-inflammatory Kyoto Rhino Rat acne model.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kaminaka, Chikako; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2014-11-01

    Acne vulgaris is a disorder of the pilosebaceous unit of the skin, and the underlying mechanism is still obscure. Kyoto rhino (krh/krh) rats were made by ethylnitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis and harbor S413X nonsense mutation of the rat hairless (Hr) gene. Krh/krh rats develop comedones with hair loss on their back as they grow. Our purpose is to assess whether or not the krh/krh rat is a suitable model of non-inflammatory acne, and to investigate the comedolytic effects of adapalene in krh/krh rats. Krh/krh rats at 12weeks of age were topically treated with adapalene or a vehicle 6 times a week, for 12weeks. Skin lesions were clinically investigated and skin samples were obtained from treated skins from each animal after 6 and 12weeks of treatments. Comedone was clinically enlarged in the control group compared with the adapalene group. The adapalene group showed significantly increased epidermal thickness as compared to the control group. Furthermore, open comedone areas were also significantly decreased in the adapalene group as compared to the control group. The adapalene group also showed reduced lipid production in open comedones as compared to the control group. Cytokine productions including IL-10 and IL-12a tended to increase in skin treated with adapalene as compared to the control group. Krh/krh rats represented a new model for non-inflammatory acne with abnormalities in both hair follicles and sebaceous glands. It is hypothesized that adapalene is a superior drug to decrease open comedones by modifying lipid metaboism and cytokine production in krh/krh rats. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spontaneously hypertensive, Wistar Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats differ in their use of place and response strategies in the water radial arm maze.

    PubMed

    Clements, K M; Saunders, A J; Robertson, B-A; Wainwright, P E

    2007-02-01

    This study further characterises the use of mnemonic systems in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), which is frequently used as a rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The objective of this study was to assess the preference of male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for a place or response strategy when trained on an ambiguous T-maze task, and also to examine whether all strains acquired information about both strategies during ambiguous training, regardless of their preferred strategy. In the first experiment, SHR and WKY showed a preference for a response strategy on the ambiguous T-maze task; in contrast, SD displayed a preference for a place strategy. In the second experiment, all strains demonstrated that they learned information about both the response and place strategies during ambiguous training. However, on a conditioned place preference test SHR did not display as strong a preference for the place arm as WKY and SD. This finding supports previous research in a conditioned cue preference test, in which SHR did not display a preference for the cue associated with the platform. These observations that the strains differ with respect to behavioural strategy in a learning task suggest that they differ in the underlying neural circuitry that serves goal-directed behaviour, and are consistent with SHR having deficits associated with the nucleus accumbens.

  12. Renal endothelin system and excretory function in Wistar-Kyoto and Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Girchev, R; Bäcker, A; Markova, P; Kramer, H J

    2006-01-01

    The role of the kidney endothelin system in the renal regulation of fluid and electrolyte excretion was investigated in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Long-Evans (LE) rats in which we found previously marked differences in the renal excretory responses to endothelin A receptor blockade. The selective endothelin A and B receptor antagonists BQ-123 (16.4 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) and BQ-788 (25 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) were infused i.v. for 50 min in conscious chronically instrumented WKY and LE rats and their renal function and renal endothelin system were studied. Without effects on glomerular filtration rate or renal blood flow, BQ-123 and BQ-788 decreased by more than 50% (P < 0.01) both urine flow rate and electrolyte excretion in WKY rats but only urine flow rate (P < 0.05) in LE rats. Endothelin-1 content, preproET-1/GPDH mRNA ratio, B(max) and K(d) of total endothelin receptors in renal cortex did not differ between the two strains. In contrast, plasma endothelin-1 concentration (0.58 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.01 femtomol mL(-1); P < 0.01), renal papillary ET-1 concentration (68 +/- 5 vs. 478 +/- 62 fmol mg(-1) protein; P < 0.01) and preproET-1/GPDH mRNA ratio (0.65 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.88 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05) as well as total endothelin receptor number in renal papilla (B(max) 5.3 +/- 0.4 vs. and 9.0 +/- 1.2 pmol mg(-1) protein; P < 0.05) were markedly lower in LE than in WKY rats. In vitro studies showed that in both strains ET(B) receptors on renal cortical membranes amounted between 65% and 67% and on papillary membranes between 85% and 88%. The present data show that the selective ET(A) or ET(B) receptor blockade differentially affects tubular water and salt handling, which becomes apparent in conditions of low renal papillary endothelin receptor number and tissue endothelin-1 concentration.

  13. Patterns of motor activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Johansen, Espen Borgå

    2016-12-01

    Increased motor activity is a defining characteristic of patients with ADHD, and spontaneously hypertensive rats have been suggested to be an animal model of this disorder. In the present study, we wanted to use linear and non-linear methods to explore differences in motor activity patterns in SHR/NCrl rats compared to Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) rats. A total number of 42 rats (23 SHR/NCrl and 19 WKY/NHsd, male and female) were tested. At PND 51, the animals' movements were video-recorded during an operant test procedure that lasted 90 min. Total activity level and velocity (mean and maximum), standard deviation (SD) and root mean square successive differences (RMSSD) were calculated. In addition, we used Fourier analysis, autocorrelations and two measures of complexity to characterize the time series; sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. The SHR/NCrl rats showed increased total activity levels in addition to increased mean and maximum velocity of movements. The variability measures, SD and RMSSD, were markedly lower in the SHR/NCrl compared to the WKY/NHsd rats. At the same time, the SHR/NCrl rats displayed a higher complexity of the time series, particularly with regard to the total activity level as evidenced by analyses of sample entropy and symbolic dynamics. Autocorrelation analyses also showed differences between the two strains. In the Fourier analysis, the SHR/NCrl rats had an increased variance in the high frequency part of the spectrum, corresponding to the time period of 9-17 s. The findings show that in addition to increased total activity and velocity of movement, the organization of behavior is different in SHR/NCrl relative to WKY/NHsd controls. Compared to controls, behavioral variability is reduced in SHR/NCrl at an aggregate level, and, concomitantly, more complex and unpredictable from moment-to-moment. These finding emphasize the importance of the measures and methods used when characterizing behavioral variability. If valid for ADHD, the

  14. Carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol: a legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Bettelheim, Eric C; D'Origny, Gilonne

    2002-08-15

    The controversy over the issues of carbon sinks and emissions trading nearly aborted the Kyoto Protocol. The lengthy and intense debate over the roles that each are to play under the Protocol and the consequent political compromises has resulted in a complex set of provisions and an arcane nomenclature. The distinction drawn between the use of carbon sinks in developed countries under Joint Implementation and their use in developing countries under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a particular source of intricacy. It is at least arguable that key elements of the compromises reached at COP-6 and COP-7 in this regard are inconsistent with the terms of the Protocol and are ultra vires the Convention on Climate Change. This is a source of both uncertainty and potential legal challenge. Not only do the recent decisions create needless complexity, they also clearly discriminate against developing nations. Among the recent political compromises is the creation of a third type of non-bankable but tradeable unit with respect to forest management, which is only available to Annex I countries. The result is an anomalous one in which a variety of otherwise equivalent carbon credits can be generated under three different regimes including one, the CDM, that is subject to an elaborate regulatory overlay that discriminates against carbon sequestration by developing countries. For example, complying developed countries can essentially self-certify sequestration projects. In contrast, projects in developing countries must obtain prior approval from a subsidiary body, the CDM Executive Board, mandated to require detailed information and impose substantive and procedural hurdles not required or imposed by its companion body, the Article 6 Supervisory Committee on Joint Implementation Projects. The parallel and related debate over the third 'flexibility' mechanism, emissions trading, compounded the complexity of an already asymmetric and bifurcated system. The new requirements

  15. FOREWORD: The 7th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop, 17-19 December 2002, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Nobuyuki; Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2003-09-01

    The 7th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW2002) was held at the International Institute for Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Kyoto, Japan, on 17-19 December 2002. The GWDAW series is one of the important international conferences supported by the Gravitational Wave International Committee (GWIC). The workshops have been held annually, and the topics covered range from data analyses for all kinds of gravitational wave detectors to theoretical issues on gravitational wave sources. This year's workshop consisted of seven categories of sessions: the status of detectors, space-based detectors, event search, detector characterization, coincidence of detectors and detector network analysis, new methods of analysis, and sources for advanced ground-based detectors. The year 2002 was an epoch-making year for gravitational wave detection experiments. Some of the large-scale ground-based laser interferometric detectors (LIGO, GEO and TAMA) entered their initial or developed stage of observation, performing scientific runs with durations of several weeks. As a result, many of the talks presented at the workshop were based on actual data taken from these experiments, and we were able to have more realistic discussions on gravitational wave detection. Furthermore, the successful operations of these laser interferometric detectors gave the gravitational wave community a strong motive to form a worldwide detector network, as practised by existing resonant-type detectors. In fact, there were reports on the simultaneous operation of five laser interferometric detectors, and a report on a plan for coincidence operations over a month. There were also reports on future space-based detectors and their source studies from aspects of the data analysis. Thanks to well-prepared talks and vivid discussions by the participants, the workshop was extremely fruitful. These proceedings contain refined and updated papers based on the talks given at the workshop and will provide readers of

  16. Nicotine modulates the renin-angiotensin system of cultured neurons and glial cells from cardiovascular brain areas of Wistar Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Merari F R; Raizada, Mohan K; Fior-Chadi, Debora R

    2007-01-01

    Considering the importance of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) for the central control of blood pressure and that nicotine increases the probability of development of hypertension associated to genetic predisposition, our aims are (1) to determine RAS in cultured neurons and glia from the brainstem and hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats; (2) to analyze the possibility of nicotine to interact with brain RAS; and (3) to hypothesize any contribution of nicotine and RAS to the development of neurogenic hypertension. This study demonstrated physiological differences in RAS between cultured neuronal and glial cells from the brainstem and hypothalamus of SHR and WKY neonate rats. Our study also featured evidences of direct modulation of the RAS by nicotine in neurons and glia of brainstem and hypothalamus, which seems to be differential between the two rat strains. Such modulation gives us a clue about the mechanisms possibly involved in the genesis of neurogenic hypertension in vivo, for example, increase in angiotensin II type 1 receptor binding and decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. In conclusion, we demonstrated that neuronal and glial RAS from the brainstem and hypothalamus of SHR differ from WKY rats and nicotine differentially modulates the brain RAS in SHR and WKY.

  17. Capping the cost of compliance with the Kyoto Protocol and recycling revenues into land-use projects.

    PubMed

    Schlamadinger, B; Obersteiner, M; Michaelowa, A; Grubb, M; Azar, C; Yamagata, Y; Goldberg, D; Read, P; Kirschbaum, M U; Fearnside, P M; Sugiyama, T; Rametsteiner, E; Böswald, K

    2001-07-14

    There is the concern among some countries that compliance costs with commitments under the Kyoto Protocol may be unacceptably high. There is also the concern that technical difficulties with the inclusion of land use, land-use change, and forestry activities in non-Annex I countries might lead to an effective exclusion of such activities from consideration under the Protocol. This paper is proposing a mechanism that addresses both these concerns. In essence, it is suggested that parties should be able to purchase fixed-price offset certificates if they feel they cannot achieve compliance through other means alone, such as by improved energy efficiency, increased use of renewable energy, or use of the flexible mechanisms in the Kyoto Protocol. These offset certificates would act as a price cap for the cost of compliance for any party to the Protocol. Revenues from purchase of the offset certificates would be directed to forest-based activities in non-Annex I countries such as forest protection that may carry multiple benefits including enhancing net carbon sequestration.

  18. H2S2014 in Kyoto: the 3rd International Conference on H2S in Biology and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2015-04-30

    About 20 years ago, a pungent gas was found to be the physiological mediator of cognitive function and vascular tone. Since then, studies on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have uncovered its numerous physiological roles such as protecting various tissues/organs from ischemia and regulating inflammation, cell growth, oxygen sensing, and senescence. These effects of H2S were extensively studied, and some of the corresponding mechanisms were also studied in detail. Previous studies on the synergistic interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO) have led to the discovery of several potential signaling molecules. Polysulfides are considerably potent and are one of the most active forms of H2S. H2S has a significant therapeutic potential, which is evident from the large number of novel H2S-donating compounds and substances developed for manipulating endogenous levels of H2S. The Third International Conference on H2S was held in Kyoto in June 2014. One hundred and sixty participants from 21 countries convened in Kyoto to report new advances, discuss conflicting findings, and make plans for future research. This article summarizes each oral presentation presented at the conference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications.

  20. Evaluation of the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologist members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG).

    PubMed

    Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the self-reported prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologists members of the Kyoto Radiation Oncology Study Group (KROSG) and to identify factors contributing to burnout. We mailed an anonymous survey to 125 radiation oncologists members of the KROSG. The survey included; the demographic data, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). There were 87 responses out of 125 eligible respondents (69.6% response rate). In terms of burnout, three participants (3.4%) fulfilled the MBI-HSS criteria of having simultaneously high emotional exhaustion (EE), high depersonalization (DP) and low sense of personal accomplishment (PA). Eighteen (20.6%) reported a high score for either EE or DP meeting the alternative criteria for burnout with three of these simultaneously having high EE and high DP. The prevalence of psychological morbidity estimated using GHQ-12 was 32%. A high level of EE and low level of PA significantly correlated with high level of psychological morbidity with P < 0.001 and <0.01 respectively. Having palliative care activities other than radiotherapy and number of patients treated per year were the only factors associated with burnout. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of burnout and psychological morbidity among radiation oncologists in Japan. Compared with other studies involving radiation oncologists, the prevalence of low personal accomplishment was particularly high in the present study. The prevalence of psychological morbidity was almost the double that of the Japanese general population and was significantly associated with low PA and high EE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  1. StAR expression and the long-term aldosterone response to high-potassium diet in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Peters, Barbara; Teubner, Philipp; Clausmeyer, Susanne; Puschner, Tanja; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Wrede, Hans-Josef; Kränzlin, Bettina; Peters, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    ANG II and potassium are known to increase steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) levels. However, a corresponding increase in StAR mRNA levels has so far been observed only in response to ANG II. We therefore studied the regulation of adrenal StAR mRNA expression in the context of dietary potassium-stimulated aldosterone production. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed a diet containing either 1 or 4% KCl for 5 days. The high-potassium diet increased StAR mRNA levels within the zona glomerulosa in both strains, as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. However, aldosterone production increased in WKY but not in SHR (WKY: from 22.8 +/- 4.8 to 137 +/- 25 ng/100 ml, P < 0.001, vs. SHR: from 29 +/- 3.8 to 51 +/- 10.2 ng/100 ml, not significant). This increase was associated with an increase in Cyp11b2 mRNA levels in WKY (3-fold; P < 0.001) but not in SHR. In both strains, the 4% KCl diet was associated with increased plasma renin-independent aldosterone production, as indicated by the marked increase of the aldosterone-to-renin ratios (from 1.4 +/- 0.3 to 9 +/- 3 in WKY and from 3 +/- 1 to 14 +/- 5 in SHR; P < 0.002). We conclude that an increase of StAR mRNA levels within the outer cortex is involved in the long-term adrenal response to potassium. This increase alone is not sufficient to increase aldosterone production in the presence of normal Cyp11b2 mRNA levels.

  2. Impact of statin therapy on late target lesion revascularization after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation (from the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ono, Koh; Shizuta, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kadota, Kazushige; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Kato, Yoshihiro; Suwa, Satoru; Inada, Tsukasa; Doi, Osamu; Takizawa, Akinori; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2012-05-15

    Therapeutic strategies preventing late target lesion revascularization (TLR) after drug-eluting stent implantation have not been yet adequately investigated. In 13,087 consecutive patients undergoing first percutaneous coronary intervention in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2, we identified 10,221 patients who were discharged alive after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) only (SES stratum 5,029) or bare-metal stents (BMSs) only (BMS stratum 5,192). Impact of statin therapy at time of discharge from the index hospitalization on early (within the first year) and late (1 year to 4 years) TLR, was assessed in the SES stratum (statin group 2,735; nonstatin group 2,294) and in the BMS stratum (statin group 2,576; nonstatin group 2,616). Despite a significantly lower incidence of early TLR (7.8% vs 22.2%, p <0.0001), SES use compared to BMS use was associated with a significantly higher incidence of late TLR (7.7% vs 3.0%, p <0.0001). In the SES and BMS strata, the incidence of early TLR was similar regardless of statin use. In the SES stratum, the incidence of late TLR was significantly lower in the statin group than in the nonstatin group (6.1% vs 9.6%, p = 0.002), whereas no significant difference was found in the BMS stratum (2.6% vs 3.3%, p = 0.38). After adjusting confounders, risk for late TLR significantly favored statin use in the SES stratum (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.98, p = 0.04), whereas the risk decrease was not significant in the BMS stratum (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 1.20, p = 0.23). In conclusion, statin therapy at hospital discharge was associated with a significantly lower risk for late TLR after SES implantation.

  3. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  4. A simple method for monitoring mutagenicity of river water. Mutagens in Yodo River system, Kyoto-Osaka

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Hayatsu, Hikoya )

    1990-04-01

    Blue cotton is a cotton preparation, bearing copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate as a covalently linked ligand, and is an adsorbent specific for compounds with three or greater number of fused rings. Due to this special property, blue cotton has been used for extracting mutagenic polycyclic compounds from crude materials. In early work, the authors gave a brief account of the results of monitoring river-water mutagenicity with blue cotton. Recently they have improved the quality of the adsorbent; rayon in place of cotton was employed as the support for the ligand, and a more powerful adsorbent, blue rayon, which contains 2-3 times greater amount of the ligand than blue cotton, was prepared. In this paper the authors report the use of the blue-rayon method to detect mutagenic compounds in the Yodo river, which flows through the cities of Kyoto and Osaka and is a major source of drinking water for the 10 million people in the area.

  5. Kyoto islet isolation method: the optimized one for non-heart-beating donors with highly efficient islet retrieval.

    PubMed

    Okitsu, T; Matsumoto, S; Iwanaga, Y; Noguchi, H; Nagata, H; Yonekawa, Y; Maekawa, T; Tanaka, K

    2005-10-01

    The availability of pancreata for clinical cadaveric islet transplantation is restricted to non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) in Japan. This forced us to modify the current standard islet isolation protocol that was made up for brain-dead donors and make it suitable for NHBDs. The Kyoto islet isolation method is the one with induction of several steps based on the ideas both already reported literally and invented originally by ourselves. Using this islet isolation method, we isolated islets from 13 human pancreata of NHBDs and transplanted 11 preparations to six type-1 diabetic patients. The rate to meet release criteria of Edmonton protocol was 84.6%. Establishment of this method allowed us to begin a clinical islet transplantation program in Japan and to continue to perform the preparation of islets from NHBDs with high rate to meet the release criteria of the Edmonton protocol.

  6. Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    SOT2014 Abstract for presentation: March 23-27, 2014; Phoenix, AZ Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats. V. Bass, D. Andrews, J. Richards, M. Schladweiler, A. Ledb...

  7. The Promotion of Peace Education through Guides in Peace Museums. A Case Study of the Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanigawa, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how peace education at a peace museum is promoted by a volunteer guide service for visitors. Peace museums are places where many materials related to war and peace history are on display. To support the learning experience of museum visitors, many peace museums in Japan provide a volunteer guide service. The Kyoto Museum for…

  8. Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    SOT2014 Abstract for presentation: March 23-27, 2014; Phoenix, AZ Ozone Induced Impairment of Systemic Metabolic Processes: Influence of Prior Ozone Exposure and Metformin Pre-treatment on Aged Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rats. V. Bass, D. Andrews, J. Richards, M. Schladweiler, A. Ledb...

  9. The Promotion of Peace Education through Guides in Peace Museums. A Case Study of the Kyoto Museum for World Peace, Ritsumeikan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanigawa, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on how peace education at a peace museum is promoted by a volunteer guide service for visitors. Peace museums are places where many materials related to war and peace history are on display. To support the learning experience of museum visitors, many peace museums in Japan provide a volunteer guide service. The Kyoto Museum for…

  10. Hα Intensity Map of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 Host Galaxy from Subaru/Kyoto 3DII AO-assisted Optical Integral-field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Sugai, Hajime; Ozaki, Shinobu; Minowa, Yosuke; Hattori, Takashi; Hayano, Yutaka; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Shimono, Atsushi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Doi, Mamoru

    2017-08-01

    We present the Hα intensity map of the host galaxy of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 at a redshift of z = 0.193 obtained with the AO-assisted Kyoto 3DII optical integral-field unit mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We detected a compact Hα-emitting (i.e., star-forming) region in the galaxy, which has a much smaller angular size (< 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 57 (1.9 kpc) at full width at half maximum (FWHM)) than the extended stellar continuum emission region determined by the Gemini/GMOS z\\prime -band image (≃ 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 (4.6 kpc) at FWHM with ellipticity b/a=0.45). The spatial offset between the centroid of the Hα emission region and the position of the radio bursts is 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 08+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 02 (0.26 ± 0.07 kpc), indicating that FRB 121102 is located within the star-forming region. This close spatial association of FRB 121102 with the star-forming region is consistent with expectations from young pulsar/magnetar models for FRB 121102, and it also suggests that the observed Hα emission region can make a major dispersion measure (DM) contribution to the host galaxy DM component of FRB 121102. Nevertheless, the largest possible value of the DM contribution from the Hα emission region inferred from our observations still requires a significant amount of ionized baryons in intergalactic medium (IGM; the so-called “missing” baryons) as the DM source of FRB 121102, and we obtain a 90% confidence level lower limit on the cosmic baryon density in the IGM in the low-redshift universe as {{{Ω }}}{IGM}> 0.012. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  11. Microarray and synchronization of neuronal differentiation with pathway changes in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databank in nerve growth factor-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Feng, Wayne

    2012-08-01

    The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database creates networks from interrelations between molecular biology and underlying chemical elements. This allows for analysis of biologic networks, genomic information, and higher-order functional information at a systems level. We performed microarray experiments and used the KEGG database, systems biology analysis, and annotation of pathway function to study nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. Cells were cultured to 70%-80% confluence, treated with NGF for 1 or 3 hours (h), and RNA was extracted. Stage 1 data analysis involved analysis of variance (ANOVA), and stage 2 involved cluster analysis and heat map generation. We identified 2020 NGF-induced PC12 genes (1038 at 1 h and 1554 at 3 h). Results showed changes in gene expression over time. We compared these genes with 6035 genes from the KEGG database. Cross-matching resulted in 830 genes. Among these, we identified 395 altered genes (155 at 1 h and 301 at 3 h; 2-fold increase from 1 h to 3 h). We identified 191 biologic pathways in the KEGG database; the top 15 showed correlations with neuronal differentiation (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway: 35 genes at 1 h, 54 genes at 3 h; genes associated with axonal guidance: 12 at 1 h, 26 at 3 h; Wnt pathway: 16 at 1 h, 25 at 3 h; neurotrophin pathway: 4 at 1 h, 14 at 3 h). Thus, we identified changes in neuronal differentiation pathways with the KEGG database, which were synchronized with NGF-induced differentiation.

  12. INHALED ENVIRONMENTAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES CAUISE MYOCARDIAL INJURY IN THE WISTAR KYOTO RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, direct experimental evidence showing causality and pathogenesis of PM-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We ...

  13. INHALED ENVIRONMENTAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES CAUISE MYOCARDIAL INJURY IN THE WISTAR KYOTO RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Epidemiologists have associated particulate matter (PM) air pollution with cardiovascular morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. However, direct experimental evidence showing causality and pathogenesis of PM-induced cardiovascular damage has been insufficient. We ...

  14. Antiplatelet therapy discontinuation and the risk of serious cardiovascular events after coronary stenting: observations from the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hirotoshi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kadota, Kazushige; Yamaji, Kyohei; Ando, Kenji; Shizuta, Satoshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tada, Tomohisa; Tazaki, Junichi; Kato, Yoshihiro; Hayano, Mamoru; Abe, Mitsuru; Tamura, Takashi; Shirotani, Manabu; Miki, Shinji; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Mamoru; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Masaru; Aoyama, Takeshi; Doi, Osamu; Hattori, Ryuichi; Kato, Masayuki; Suwa, Satoru; Takizawa, Akinori; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Shinoda, Eiji; Eizawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Teruki; Lee, Jong-Dae; Inoko, Moriaki; Ogawa, Hisao; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Horie, Minoru; Nohara, Ryuji; Kambara, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kastrati, Adnan; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Relation of antiplatelet therapy (APT) discontinuation with the risk of serious cardiovascular events has not been fully addressed yet. This study is aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic event after APT discontinuation based on long-term APT status of large cohort. In the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2 enrolling 15939 consecutive patients undergoing first coronary revascularization, 10470 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention either with bare-metal stents (BMS) only (N=5392) or sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) only (N=5078). Proportions of patients taking dual-APT were 67.3% versus 33.4% at 1-year, and 48.7% versus 24.3% at 5-year in the SES and BMS strata, respectively. We evaluated daily APT status (dual-, single- and no-APT) and linked the adverse events to the APT status just 1-day before the events. No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was associated with significantly higher risk for stent thrombosis (ST) beyond 1-month after SES implantation (cumulative incidence rates beyond 1-month: 1.23 versus 0.15/0.29, P<0.001/P<0.001), while higher risk of no-APT for ST was evident only until 6-month after BMS implantation (incidence rates between 1- and 6-month: 8.43 versus 0.71/1.20, P<0.001/P<0.001, and cumulative incidence rates beyond 6-month: 0.31 versus 0.11/0.08, P=0.16/P=0.08). No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was also associated with significantly higher risk for spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke regardless of the types of stents implanted. Single-APT as compared with dual-APT was not associated with higher risk for serious adverse events, except for the marginally higher risk for ST in the SES stratum. In conclusion, discontinuation of both aspirin and thienopyridines was associated with increased risk for serious cardiovascular events including ST, spontaneous MI and stroke beyond 1-month after coronary stenting.

  15. Antiplatelet Therapy Discontinuation and the Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Events after Coronary Stenting: Observations from the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hirotoshi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kadota, Kazushige; Yamaji, Kyohei; Ando, Kenji; Shizuta, Satoshi; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tada, Tomohisa; Tazaki, Junichi; Kato, Yoshihiro; Hayano, Mamoru; Abe, Mitsuru; Tamura, Takashi; Shirotani, Manabu; Miki, Shinji; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Mamoru; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Masaru; Aoyama, Takeshi; Doi, Osamu; Hattori, Ryuichi; Kato, Masayuki; Suwa, Satoru; Takizawa, Akinori; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Shinoda, Eiji; Eizawa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Teruki; Lee, Jong-Dae; Inoko, Moriaki; Ogawa, Hisao; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Horie, Minoru; Nohara, Ryuji; Kambara, Hirofumi; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kastrati, Adnan; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Relation of antiplatelet therapy (APT) discontinuation with the risk of serious cardiovascular events has not been fully addressed yet. This study is aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic event after APT discontinuation based on long-term APT status of large cohort. In the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2 enrolling 15939 consecutive patients undergoing first coronary revascularization, 10470 patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention either with bare-metal stents (BMS) only (N=5392) or sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) only (N=5078). Proportions of patients taking dual-APT were 67.3% versus 33.4% at 1-year, and 48.7% versus 24.3% at 5-year in the SES and BMS strata, respectively. We evaluated daily APT status (dual-, single- and no-APT) and linked the adverse events to the APT status just 1-day before the events. No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was associated with significantly higher risk for stent thrombosis (ST) beyond 1-month after SES implantation (cumulative incidence rates beyond 1-month: 1.23 versus 0.15/0.29, P<0.001/P<0.001), while higher risk of no-APT for ST was evident only until 6-month after BMS implantation (incidence rates between 1- and 6-month: 8.43 versus 0.71/1.20, P<0.001/P<0.001, and cumulative incidence rates beyond 6-month: 0.31 versus 0.11/0.08, P=0.16/P=0.08). No-APT as compared with dual- or single-APT was also associated with significantly higher risk for spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke regardless of the types of stents implanted. Single-APT as compared with dual-APT was not associated with higher risk for serious adverse events, except for the marginally higher risk for ST in the SES stratum. In conclusion, discontinuation of both aspirin and thienopyridines was associated with increased risk for serious cardiovascular events including ST, spontaneous MI and stroke beyond 1-month after coronary stenting. PMID:25853836

  16. Development of Exoplanet database "ExoKyoto" aiming for inter-comparison with different criteria of Habitable zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashiki, Yosuke; Notsu, Yuta; Sasaki, Takanori; Hosono, Natsuki; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Notsu, Shota; Murashima, Keiya; Takagi, Fuka; Doi, Takao

    2017-05-01

    An integrated database of confirmed exoplanets has been developed and launched as “ExoKyoto,” for the purpose of better comprehension of exoplanetary systems in different star systems. The HOSTSTAR module of the database includes not only host stars for confirmed exoplanets, but also hundreds of thousands of stars existing in the star database listed in (HYG database). Each hoststar can be referred to in the catalogue with its habitable zone calculated, based on the observed/estimated star parameters. For outreach and observation support purpose, ExoKyoto possesses Stellar Windows, developed by the Xlib & Ggd module, and interfaces with GoogleSky for easy comprehension of those celestial bodies on a stellar map. Target stars can be identified and listed by using this database, based on the target magnitude, transit frequency, and photon decrease ratio by its transit.If we interpolate deficient data using assumed functions about the exoplanets that were discovered until now, Sub-Neptune size (1.9-3.1R_Earth) are the most common (971); then Super Earth size (1.2-1.9 R_earth) have been allocated (681).Using the Solar Equivalent Astronomical Unit (SEAU), most of the exoplanets discovered are within a Venus equivalent orbit (3029), and 197 are located within the habitable zone (Venus to Mars equivalent orbit). If we classify them using Kopparapu et al.(2013), within Recent Venus equivalent orbit (3048), there are 130 located in the habitable zone (runaway greenhouse-maximum greenhouse). For example, Kepler-560b is defined as in the habitable zone by its SEAU, but not by Kopparapu et al. (2013). Furthermore, based on an exoplanet's solar revolution, radius, assumed mass (Larsen & Geoffrey, 2014), transit parameters , and main start information (location, class, spectral class, etc.); observation target selection is practical and possible.In addition to the previous habitable zone based on the normal radiation flux from the host star, we'll discuss stellar flares

  17. [Prof. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto University, and his achievements in orthopaedic surgery in the Meiji Era of Japan (part 1: establishment of the department)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2005-09-01

    The Department of Orthopaedic and Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (formerly the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University) was founded by Imperial Ordinance, Article No. 89 issued on April 23, 1906. On May 4, 1906, Dr. Shinichiro Asahara, Assistant Professor of the Department of Surgery, was appointed as the first director of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University. Dr. Michiharu Matsuoka, Assistant Doctor of the Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical School, Imperial University of Tokyo, was appointed Assistant Professor of Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University in March 1901. From August 1903 to May 1906, he studied orthopaedic surgery in Germany and returned on May 5, 1906. Dr. Matsuoka was appointed as the director and chief of the Department on May 13, 1906 and took over Dr. Asahara's position. On June 18, 1906, Dr. Matsuoka started his clinic and began giving lectures on orthopaedic surgery. This was the first department of orthopaedic surgery among the Japanese medical schools. Dr. Matsuoka was appointed as Professor in 1907. He had to overcome several obstacles to establish the medical department of a new discipline that had never existed in Japanese medical schools. This article discusses Dr. Matsuoka's contributions to establishing and developing orthopaedic surgery in Japan in the Meiji-era.

  18. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, John S.; Portmann, Robert W.; Grabiel, Peter M.; Moomaw, William R.; Galloway, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy. PMID:23440192

  19. A post-Kyoto partner: considering the stratospheric ozone regime as a tool to manage nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Kanter, David; Mauzerall, Denise L; Ravishankara, A R; Daniel, John S; Portmann, Robert W; Grabiel, Peter M; Moomaw, William R; Galloway, James N

    2013-03-19

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the largest known remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer. However, it is currently only regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol because of its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the ozone regime (the 1985 Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol) should they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues to regulate N2O under the ozone regime as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address the most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to reducing emissions. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built on by the ozone regime to implement N2O controls. There are several challenges and potential cobenefits to N2O control which we discuss here: food security, equity, and implications of the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the ozone regime need not be viewed as a sign of failure of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adequately deal with climate change. Rather, it could represent an additional valuable tool in sustainable development diplomacy.

  20. Experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system at the Kyoto Univ. critical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pyeon, C. H.; Yagi, T.; Lim, J. Y.; Misawa, T.

    2012-07-01

    The experimental study on the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system (ADS) is conducted in the Kyoto Univ. Critical Assembly (KUCA). The experiments are carried out in both the critical and subcritical states for attaining the reaction rates of the thorium capture and fission reactions. In the critical system, the thorium plate irradiation experiment is carried out for the thorium capture and fission reactions. From the results of the measurements, the thorium fission reactions are obtained apparently in the critical system, and the C/E values of reaction rates show the accuracy of relative difference of about 30%. In the ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons and 100 MeV protons, the subcritical experiments are carried out in the thorium-loaded cores to obtain the capture reaction rates through the measurements of {sup 115}In(n, {gamma}){sup 116m}In reactions. The results of the experiments reveal the difference between the reaction rate distributions for the change in not only the neutron spectrum but also the external neutron source. The comparison between the measured and calculated reaction rate distributions demonstrates a discrepancy of the accuracy of reaction rate analyses of thorium capture reactions through the thorium-loaded ADS experiments with 14 MeV neutrons. Hereafter, kinetic experiments are planned to be carried out to deduce the delayed neutron decay constants and subcriticality using the pulsed neutron method. (authors)

  1. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pardey, Margery C.; Kumar, Natasha N.; Goodchild, Ann K.; Clemens, Kelly J.; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls. PMID:24961199

  2. The effects of captopril on cardiac regression, blood pressure and bradykinin components in diabetic Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J N; Kesavarao, U

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT), total urinary kallikrein, total plasma kininogen and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MABP was significantly raised (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats compared to the respective controls. The LVWT was also significantly (P<0.01) increased in diabetic WKY rats than that of control WKY rats. The mean total urinary kallikrein level and the mean total plasma kininogen level were higher (P<0.01) in diabetic WKY rats, when these rats were treated with captopril (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) against the mean value obtained from control WKY rats. In conclusion, this investigation suggests that diabetes induced in these rats can cause hypertension, increased LVWT and changes in the BK-forming components. Captopril treatment caused reduction in MABP, regression of LVWT and alterations in bradykinin (BK)-forming components. The possible significance of these observations is discussed.

  3. Brief Social Isolation in the Adolescent Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model of Endogenous Depression Alters Corticosterone and Regional Monoamine Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Reshma A; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-24

    The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) model has been suggested as a model of adult and adolescent depression though face, predictive and construct validities of the model to depression remain equivocal. The suitability of the WKY as a diathesis model that tests the double-hit hypothesis, particularly during critical periods of brain and behavioural development remains to be established. Here, effects of post-weaning social isolation were assessed during early adolescence (~30pnd) on behavioural despair and learned helplessness in the forced swim test (FST), plasma corticosterone levels and tissue monoamine concentrations in brain areas critically involved in depression, such as prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus. Significantly increased immobility in the FST was observed in socially-isolated, adolescent WKY with a concomitant increase in corticosterone levels over and above the FST-induced stress. WKY also demonstrated a significantly increased release and utilization of dopamine, as manifested by levels of metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in nucleus accumbens, indicating that the large dopamine storage pool evident during adolescence induces greater dopamine release when stimulated. The serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid was also significantly increased in nucleus accumbens, indicating increased utilization of serotonin, along with norepinephrine levels which were also signficantly elevated in socially-isolated adolescent WKY. Differences in neurochemistry suggest that social or environmental stimuli during critical periods of brain and behavioural development can determine the developmental trajectories of implicated pathways.

  4. Pre-bomb marine reservoir ages in the western north Pacific: Preliminary result on Kyoto University collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; van der Plicht, Johannes; Uchida, Masao; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Ohno, Terufumi

    2000-10-01

    The calibration of radiocarbon dates on marine materials involves a global marine calibration with regional corrections. The marine reservoir ages in the Western North Pacific have not been discussed, while it is quite important to determine the timing of palaeo-environmental changes as well as archaeological interpretation around this region. The lack of adequate collection of the pre-bomb shell from western north Pacific was the biggest problem. Recently we had a chance to examine specimens from an old shell collection stored in Kyoto University, including shell specimens from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Micronesia of 1920s and 1930s. We explored the possibility for usage of specimen without clear evidence of live collection by measuring 30 apparent radiocarbon ages of pre-bomb mollusk shells from 18 sites in Western North Pacific. The preliminary results showed several discrepancies with previously reported results and with each other. We have to carefully select the shell specimen that has biological signs such as articulating fulcrum. In order to exploit this big resource of pre-bomb shell collection, the new technique to distinguish fossils from live collected samples should be developed by using chemical and physical methods.

  5. Comparison of modified Celsior solution and M-kyoto solution for pancreas preservation in human islet isolation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Onaca, Nicholas; Jackson, Andrew; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Yasutaka; Kobayashi, Naoya; Levy, Marlon F; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    Since the successful demonstration of the Edmonton protocol, islet transplantation has advanced significantly on several fronts, including improved pancreas preservation systems. In this study, we evaluated two different types of organ preservation solutions for human islet isolation. Modified Celsior (Celsior solution with hydroxyethyl starch and nafamostat mesilate; HNC) solution and modified Kyoto (MK) solution were compared for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation. Islet yield after purification was significantly higher in the MK group than in the HNC group (MK = 6186 ± 985 IE/g; HNC = 3091 ± 344 IE/g). The HNC group had a longer phase I period (digestion time), a higher volume of undigested tissue, and a higher percentage of embedded islets, suggesting that the solution may inhibit collagenase. However, there was no significant difference in ATP content in the pancreata or in the attainability of posttransplant normoglycemia in diabetic nude mice between the two groups, suggesting that the quality of islets was similar among the two groups. In conclusion, MK solution is better for pancreas preservation before islet isolation than HNC solution due to the higher percentage of islets that can be isolated from the donor pancreas. MK solution should be the solution of choice among the commercially available solutions for pancreatic islet isolation leading to transplantation.

  6. Opiate antagonist binding sites in discrete brain regions of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1991-01-01

    The binding of {sup 3}H-naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, to membranes of discrete brain regions and spinal cord of 10 week old spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was determined. The brain regions examined were hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midbrain and cortex. {sup 3}H-Naltrexone bound to membranes of brain regions and spinal cord at a single high affinity site with an apparent dissociation constant value of 3 nM. The highest density of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding sites were in hippocampus and lowest in the cerebral cortex. The receptor density (B{sub max}value) and apparent dissociation constant (K{sub d} value) values of {sup 3}H-naltrexone to bind to opiate receptors on the membranes of amygdala, hippocampus, corpus striatum, pons and medulla, midgrain, cortex and spinal cord of WKY and SHR rates did not differ. The B{sub max} value of {sup 3}H-naltrexone binding to membranes of hypothalamus of SHR rates was 518% higher than WKY rats but the K{sub d} values in the two strains did not differ. It is concluded that SHR rats have higher density of opiate receptors labeled with {sup 3}H-naltrexone in the hypothalamus only, in comparison with WKY rats, and that such a difference in the density of opiate receptors may be related to the elevated blood pressure in SHR rats.

  7. Long-term effects of chronic oral Ritalin administration on cognitive and neural development in adolescent wistar kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Pardey, Margery C; Kumar, Natasha N; Goodchild, Ann K; Clemens, Kelly J; Homewood, Judi; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2012-09-12

    The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®). With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed "normal" (Wistar Kyoto, WKY) rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day) or distilled water (dH2O). The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT) and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in "normal" WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  8. Chronic imipramine treatment differentially alters the brain and plasma amino acid metabolism in Wistar and Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-09-05

    In the present study, the amino acids which have the possibility for the therapeutic efficacy of imipramine were explored and compared between Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression, and Wistar rats as a normal model. The antidepressant-like effect caused by chronic imipramine treatment was confirmed by decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. Chronic imipramine administration altered the amino acid dynamics in the brain. In the striatum, the concentrations of asparagine, glutamine and methionine were significantly increased by chronic imipramine administration. In the thalamus and hypothalamus, chronic imipramine administration significantly decreased the valine concentration. On the other hand, no amino acid was altered by chronic imipramine administration in the hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, lower concentration of asparagine in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats was improved by chronic imipramine administration. This amelioration only in WKY rats may be a specific effect of chronic imipramine administration under the depressive state. In conclusion, chronic imipramine administration altered the several amino acid dynamics in the brain. Modification of the amino acid metabolism in the brain may provide a new strategy in the development of therapeutic treatment of major depression.

  9. Avoidance perseveration during extinction training in Wistar-Kyoto rats: an interaction of innate vulnerability and stressor intensity.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Beck, Kevin D; Minor, Thomas R; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Given that avoidance is a core feature of anxiety disorders, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats may be a good model of anxiety vulnerability for their hypersensitivity to stress and trait behavioral inhibition. Here, we examined the influence of strain and shock intensity on avoidance acquisition and extinction. Accordingly, we trained WKY and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in lever-press avoidance using either 1.0-mA or 2.0-mA foot-shock. After extinction, neuronal activation was visualized by c-Fos for overall activity and parvalbumin immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuron in brain areas linked to anxiety (medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala). Consistent with earlier work, WKY rats acquired lever-press avoidance faster and to a greater extent than SD rats. However, the intensity of foot shock did not differentially affect acquisition. Although there were no differences during extinction in SD rats, avoidance responses of WKY rats trained with the higher foot shock perseverated during extinction compared to those WKY rats trained with lower foot shock intensity or SD rats. WKY rats trained with 2.0-mA shock exhibited less GABAergic activation in the basolateral amygdala after extinction. These findings suggest that inhibitory modulation in amygdala is important to ensure successful extinction learning. Deficits in avoidance extinction secondary to lower GABAergic activation in baslolateral amygdala may contribute to anxiety vulnerability in this animal model of inhibited temperament.

  10. Changes in the use and management of forests for abating carbon emissions: issues and challenges under the Kyoto Protocol.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra; Swingland, Ian R; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Prance, Ghillean T; Myers, Norman

    2002-08-15

    The global carbon cycle is significantly influenced by changes in the use and management of forests and agriculture. Humans have the potential through changes in land use and management to alter the magnitude of forest-carbon stocks and the direction of forest-carbon fluxes. However, controversy over the use of biological means to absorb or reduce emissions of CO(2) (often referred to as carbon 'sinks') has arisen in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The controversy is based primarily on two arguments: sinks may allow developed nations to delay or avoid actions to reduce fossil fuel emissions, and the technical and operational difficulties are too threatening to the successful implementation of land use and forestry projects for providing carbon offsets. Here we discuss the importance of including carbon sinks in efforts to address global warming and the consequent additional social, environmental and economic benefits to host countries. Activities in tropical forest lands provide the lowest cost methods both of reducing emissions and reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. We conclude that the various objections raised as to the inclusion of carbon sinks to ameliorate climate change can be addressed by existing techniques and technology. Carbon sinks provide a practical available method of achieving meaningful reductions in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide while at the same time contribute to national sustainable development goals.

  11. Comparison of Modified Celsior Solution and M-Kyoto Solution for Pancreas Preservation in Human Islet Isolation.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Onaca, Nicholas; Jackson, Andrew; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Yasutaka; Kobayashi, Naoya; Levy, Marlon F; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2010-06-01

    Since the successful demonstration of the Edmonton protocol, islet transplantation has advanced significantly on several fronts, including improved pancreas preservation systems. In this study, we evaluated two different types of organ preservation solutions for human islet isolation. Modified Celsior (Celsior solution with hydroxyethyl starch and nafamostat mesilate; HNC) solution and modified Kyoto (MK) solution were compared for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation. Islet yield after purification was significantly higher in the MK group than in the HNC group (MK = 6186 ± 985 IE/g; HNC = 3091 ± 344 IE/g). The HNC group had a longer phase I period (digestion time), a higher volume of undigested tissue, and a higher percentage of embedded islets, suggesting that the solution may inhibit collagenase. However, there was no significant difference in ATP content in the pancreata or in the attainability of posttransplant normoglycemia in diabetic nude mice between the two groups, suggesting that the quality of islets was similar among the two groups. In conclusion, MK solution is better for pancreas preservation before islet isolation than HNC solution due to the higher percentage of islets that can be isolated from the donor pancreas. MK solution should be the solution of choice among the commercially available solutions for pancreatic islet isolation leading to transplantation.

  12. Modifier loci in non-mutant, female Wistar Kyoto rats influence cellular pathogenesis of nephronophthisis in Lewis polycystic kidney rats.

    PubMed

    Yengkopiong, Jada Pasquale; Lako, Joseph Daniel Wani

    2015-09-01

    Genetic modifier loci influence the inheritance of diseases and lead to variability in phenotype progression. We report the influence of modifier loci in female Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats on cellular pathogenesis of nephronophthisis inherited from Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rats. The loci modified cellular expression and progression of nephronophthisis in the backcross 1 (BC1) progeny. Mating experiments to produce BC1 progeny were carried out between three male LPK and seven female WKY rats. Fifteen female rats from the F1 generation were mated with the male LPK rats to produce the BC1 progeny. The rats with cystic kidney disease were identified and histology of the kidneys was carried out. Mapping studies and linkage analysis were carried out to identify the modifier loci. The BC1 progeny were less affected than the LPK strain with respect to disease severity and progression of the kidneys to end stage renal disease. It was found that the mean values of all the disease phenotypes of the mutant BC1 progeny were significantly different from those of the LPK rats, and these segregated with the genotypes of the markers located on chromosomes 5q34-q36 and 7q11-q34, giving maximum LOD scores greater than 3 (p < 0.001).

  13. Strain Differences in the Expression of Dopamine D1 Receptors in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew; Yaroslavsky, Irene; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz

    2008-01-01

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a stress-sensitive strain that is prone to depressive-like behavior in various experimental paradigms. While recent work has highlighted a role for dopamine (DA) in the pathology of depression, research on the WKY rat has also suggested that dysfunction of DA pathways may be an important component of the behavior in this strain. Previous work has demonstrated differential patterns of dopamine transporter sites, dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in the WKY rats compared to control strains. To further this work, the present study utilized autoradiographic analysis of [3H]-SCH23390 binding to DA D1 receptors in various brain regions of naïve male WKY and Wistar (WIS) rats. The results revealed a significant strain difference, with WKY rats demonstrating lower D1 binding in the caudate putamen and regions of the nucleus accumbens (p<0.05). An opposite pattern was found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata where D1 binding was higher in WKY rats compared to WIS rats (p<0.05). Because the D1 receptor represents a critical site where DA acts to modify behavior related to depression, the altered expression of this receptor in the WKY rat found in the present study may be reflective of the depressive susceptibility noted in this strain. PMID:18558411

  14. Renal function and effect of statin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing coronary revascularization (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Masahiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Morimoto, Takeshi; Sakata, Ryuzo; Kimura, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Although statin therapy is essential for secondary cardiovascular prevention, the therapeutic effect of statins on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) after coronary revascularization has not been fully elucidated. In the CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-2, 14,706 patients who underwent first coronary revascularization were divided into 4 strata based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or status of hemodialysis (HD). Patients in each stratum were further divided into 2 groups based on statin therapy at discharge: non-CKD stratum (eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), 8,959 patients (statin, n = 4,747; no statin, n = 4,212); mild CKD stratum (eGFR ≥30 to <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), 4,567 patients (statin, n = 2,135; no statin, n = 2,432); severe CKD stratum (eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), 608 patients (statin, n = 229; no statin, n = 379); and HD stratum, 572 patients (statin, n = 117; no statin, n = 455). Median follow-up duration was 956 days (interquartile range 699 to 1,245). Adjusted risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stoke) was significantly lower in the statin group than in the no-statin group in the non-CKD (hazard ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.95, p = 0.01) and mild CKD (hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.56 to 0.84, p = 0.0002) strata. However, a significant association of statin therapy and lower risk for MACEs was not seen in the severe CKD (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 1.38, p = 0.65) and HD (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 1.69, p = 0.87) strata. In conclusion, statin therapy was associated with significantly lower risk for MACEs in patients with non-CKD and mild CKD undergoing coronary revascularization. However, therapeutic benefits of statins were not apparent in patients with severe CKD and HD.

  15. Population health needs beyond ratifying the Kyoto Protocol: a look at occupational deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R B

    2008-01-01

    The dramatic impact of climate change is physically and economically affecting the world, a consequence of neglecting scientific information known since the 1960s and 1970s. International discussion has focused on the needs of the physical environment and general health concerns (such addressing greenhouse gas production and population health issues); however, little acknowledgement has yet been made of local human issues, such as the effect of climate change on the mental health of those in rural communities. This commentary takes an occupational science perspective to describe new ways of classifying potential mental health problems associated with climate change and its impact on the rural environment. It challenges policy makers to take a proactive approach to addressing the current impacts of climate change on the future mental health of individuals in rural communities.

  16. Do foreign direct investment and renewable energy consumption affect the CO2 emissions? New evidence from a panel ARDL approach to Kyoto Annex countries.

    PubMed

    Mert, Mehmet; Bölük, Gülden

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and the potential of renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 21 Kyoto countries using an unbalanced panel data. For this purpose, Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested using panel cointegration analysis. Panel causality tests show that there are significant long-run causalities from the variables to carbon emissions, renewable energy consumption, fossil fuel energy consumption and inflow foreign direct investments. The results of our model support the pollution haloes hypothesis which states that FDI brings in clean technology and improves the environmental standards. However, an inverted U-shaped relationship (EKC) was not supported by the estimated model for the 21 Kyoto countries. This means that economic growth cannot ensure environmental protection itself or environmental goals cannot await economic growth. Another important finding is that renewable energy consumption decreases carbon emissions. Based on the empirical results, some important policy implications emerge. Kyoto countries should stimulate the FDI inflows and usage of renewable energy consumption to mitigate the air pollution and meet the emission targets. This paper provides new insights into environment and energy policies through FDI inclusion.

  17. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic response to high salt load in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats: Role of alpha-1A-adrenoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Kazi, R N; Sattar, M A; Johns, E J

    2017-01-01

    Altered renal adrenergic responses have been recognized as pathophysiological responses to high salt intake. This study aims to investigate the influence of 6 weeks of high salt diet on α1A -adrenoceptor regulation of renal tubular antinatriuretic and antidiuretic response in normal Wistar Kyoto rats. To achieve the above objective, antinatriuretic and antidiuretic response to phenylephrine was measured in the absence and presence of 5-methylurapidil (5-MeU) using the inulin clearance method. Systemic mean arterial blood pressure and renal haemodynamics were also measured simultaneously. Six weeks of high salt intake in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats did not bring any significant increase in mean arterial blood pressure. WKY rat on high salt diet (WKYHNa) showed an exaggerated increase in absolute and fractional sodium excretion. There was a significant involvement of α1A -adrenoceptor in carrying out renal tubular antinatriuretic and antidiuretic response in Wistar Kyoto rats on normal sodium diet (WKYNNa). However, α1A -adrenoceptor played a minimal role in handling the tubular reabsorptive response in WKY rats on high salt diet. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of Frailty Assessed by Fried and Kihon Checklist Indexes in a Prospective Cohort Study: Design and Demographics of the Kyoto-Kameoka Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yosuke; Nanri, Hinako; Watanabe, Yuya; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Itoi, Aya; Date, Heiwa; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Miyake, Motoko; Yamagata, Emi; Tamiya, Hajime; Nishimura, Miho; Fujibayashi, Mami; Ebine, Naoyuki; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Kikutani, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Yamada, Minoru; Nakaya, Tomoki; Yoshinaka, Yasuko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Arai, Hidenori; Kimura, Misaka

    2017-08-01

    The Kyoto-Kameoka Study was launched in 2011-2012 to identify the associations among food intake, nutritional status, physical activity, oral function, quality of life or social capital, the use of long-term care insurance (LTCI) system, and healthy lifespan in community-dwelling older people as a part of the World Health Organization Safe Community program. A prospective cohort study, reporting baseline demographics (cross-sectional data). We conducted 2 mailed self-administered questionnaire surveys; one is a complete population survey with a comprehensive survey of needs in the sphere of daily life (NSDL) that included 2 different frailty indexes, the Kihon Checklist (KCL) and the Fried phenotype, socioeconomic status, general and psychological health, and social relationships; followed by the more detailed Health and Nutrition Survey. A slightly modified NSDL survey was conducted again in 2013. Survival time, LTCI certification, and medical and long-term care costs after the baseline survey will be followed. Of 18,231 NSDL questionnaires distributed, 13,294 people responded (response rate: 72.92%; mean age 73.7 ± 6.4 and 75.1 ± 7.2 years for men and women, respectively; 12,054 people without and 1240 with LTCI certification). In people without LTCI, the proportion of robust, prefrail, and frail were 30.3%, 59.8%, and 9.9% in men and 25.3%, 64.7%, and 10.0% in women, according to the Fried index. The proportion of frail people as defined by KCL ≥7 was 30.8% in men and 33.3% in women. The study is the first to document frailty prevalence using both Fried and KCL measures with a complete city population survey among older Japanese in the community as a part of World Health Organization Safe Community program. The study is expected to provide valuable evidence of the effects of lifestyle habits on long-term care prevention and healthy life span. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  19. Exploring the optimal sequence of abiraterone and enzalutamide in patients with chemotherapy-naïve castration-resistant prostate cancer: The Kyoto-Baltimore collaboration.

    PubMed

    Terada, Naoki; Maughan, Benjamin L; Akamatsu, Shusuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Ogawa, Osamu; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of sequential treatment with abiraterone followed by enzalutamide or vice versa for castration-resistant prostate cancer. We retrospectively evaluated data on 198 consecutive chemotherapy-naïve patients who had received both abiraterone and enzalutamide for castration-resistant prostate cancer at Kyoto University Hospital (including satellite hospitals) and at Johns Hopkins Cancer Center. Prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival and overall survival in patients treated with sequential abiraterone-to-enzalutamide versus enzalutamide-to-abiraterone without intervening therapies were compared. Overall, 113 patients were treated with the abiraterone-to-enzalutamide sequence and 85 with the enzalutamide-to-abiraterone sequence. Median prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival was not significantly different between abiraterone and enzalutamide in the first-line setting (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.66-1.19, P = 0.412), but there was an advantage favoring enzalutamide compared with abiraterone in the second-line setting (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.91, P = 0.009). Furthermore, the combined prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival was significantly longer in the abiraterone-to-enzalutamide sequence than in the enzalutamide-to-abiraterone sequence (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.76, P < 0.001). The difference was significant even in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.99, P = 0.044). There was no statistical difference in overall survival between the two sequences in univariate (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.53-1.43, P = 0.599) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.49-1.35, P = 0.427). The abiraterone-to-enzalutamide sequence might have more favorable efficacy in terms of combined prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival than the

  20. Five-year outcomes of percutaneous versus surgical coronary revascularization in patients with diabetes mellitus (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2015-04-15

    We investigated the impact of diabetes mellitus on long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent era versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a real-world population with advanced coronary disease. We identified 3,982 patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease of 15,939 patients with first coronary revascularization enrolled in the Coronary Revascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2 (patients without diabetes: n = 1,984 [PCI: n = 1,123 and CABG: n = 861], and patients with diabetes: n = 1,998 [PCI: n = 1,065 and CABG: n = 933]). Cumulative 5-year incidence of all-cause death after PCI was significantly higher than after CABG both in patients without and with diabetes (19.8% vs 16.2%, p = 0.01, and 22.9% vs 19.0%, p = 0.046, respectively). After adjusting confounders, the excess mortality risk of PCI relative to CABG was no longer significant (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88 to 1.54; p = 0.29) in patients without diabetes, whereas it remained significant (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.70; p = 0.04) in patients with diabetes. The excess adjusted risks of PCI relative to CABG for cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and any coronary revascularization were significant in both patients without (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.51, p = 0.047; HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.87, p = 0.01; and HR 3.30, 95% CI 2.55 to 4.25, p <0.001, respectively) and with diabetes (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.51, p = 0.047; HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.08, p = 0.004; and HR 3.70, 95% CI 2.91 to 4.69, p <0.001, respectively). There was no interaction between diabetic status and the effect of PCI relative to CABG for all-cause death, cardiac death, MI, and any revascularization. In conclusion, in both patients without and with diabetes with 3-vessel and/or left main disease, CABG compared with PCI was associated with better 5-year outcomes in terms of cardiac death, MI, and any coronary

  1. Anxiety- and depressive-like profiles during early- and mid-adolescence in the female Wistar Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Deepthi; Sadananda, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Approaches for the development of preclinical models of depression extensively use adult and male animals owing to the discrepancies arising out of the hormonal flux in adult females and adolescents during attainment of puberty. Thus the increased vulnerability of females towards clinical depression and anxiety-related disorders remains incompletely understood. Development of clinical models of depression in adolescent females is essential in order to evolve effective treatment strategies for adolescent depression. In the present study, we have examined the anxiety and depressive-like profiles in a putative animal model of childhood depression, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, during early adolescence (∼postnatal day 30) and mid-adolescence (∼postnatal day 40). Female adolescent WKY rats, tested on a series of behavioural tests modelling anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours with age-matched Wistars as controls, demonstrated marked differences during early adolescence in a strain- and age-specific manner. Anxiety indices were obtained from exposure to the elevated plus maze, where social communication vide 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations was also assessed, while immobility and other parameters in the forced swim test were screened for depressive-like profiles. Sucrose preference, used as a measure of anhedonia in animals, was lower in WKYs at both ages tested and decreased with age. Anxiety-related behaviours were prominent in WKY rats only during early adolescence. WKY female rats are anxious during early adolescence and exhibit anhedonia as a core symptom of depression during early- and mid-adolescence, thus indicating that inclusion of female animals in preclinical trials is essential and will contribute to gender-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment of adolescent depression in females. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diesel Exhaust Worsens Cardiac Conduction Instability in Dobutamine-Challenged Wistar-Kyoto and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Mehdi S; Lancaster, Jarrett L; Starobin, Joseph M; Farraj, Aimen K; Cascio, Wayne E

    2017-04-01

    Short-term exposure to air pollution, particularly from vehicular sources, increases the risk of acute clinical cardiovascular events. However, cardiotoxicity is not always clearly discernible under ambient conditions; therefore, more subtle measures of cardiac dysfunction are necessary to elucidate the latent effects of exposure. Determine the effect of whole diesel exhaust (DE) exposure on reserve of refractoriness (RoR), an intrinsic electrophysiological measure of the heart's minimum level of refractoriness relative to development of electrical conduction instability, in rats undergoing exercise-like stress. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats implanted with radiotelemeters to continuously collect electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart rate were exposed to 150 µg/m(3) of DE and challenged with dobutamine 24 h later to mimic exercise-induced increases of the heart rate. The Chernyak-Starobin-Cohen (CSC) model was then applied to the ECG-derived QT and RR intervals collected during progressive increases in heart rate to calculate RoR for each rat. Filtered air-exposed WKY and SH rats did not have any decrease in RoR, which indicates increased risk of cardiac conduction instability; however, DE caused a significant decrease in both strains. Yet, the decrease in RoR in SH rats was eight times steeper when compared to WKY rats indicating greater cardiac conduction instability in the hypertensive strain. These data indicate that after exposure to DE, risk of cardiac instability increases during increasing stress, particularly in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the CSC model, which was previously shown to reveal cardiac risk in humans, can be applied to rodent toxicology studies.

  3. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ward, William O; Ledbetter, Allen D; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2015-01-01

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive analysis of these changes will allow us to better understand the mechanism of pulmonary injury and inflammation. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (10-12 week) were exposed to air, or ozone (0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 ppm) for 4 h and pulmonary injury and inflammation were assessed at 0-h or 20-h (n = 8/group). Lung gene expression profiling was assessed at 0-h (air and 1.0 ppm ozone, n = 3-4/group). At 20-h bronchoalveolar lavage, fluid protein and neutrophils increased at 1 ppm ozone. Numerous genes involved in acute inflammatory response were up-regulated along with changes in genes involved in cell adhesion and migration, steroid metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle control and cell growth. A number of NRF2 target genes were also induced after ozone exposure. Based on expression changes, Rela, SP1 and TP3-mediated signaling were identified to be mediating downstream changes. Remarkable changes in the processes of endocytosis provide the insight that ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation are likely initiated by changes in cell membrane components and receptors likely from oxidatively modified lung lining lipids and proteins. In conclusion, ozone-induced injury and inflammation are preceded by changes in gene targets for cell adhesion/migration, apoptosis, cell cycle control and growth regulated by Rela, SP1 and TP53, likely mediated by the process of endocytosis and altered steroid receptor signaling.

  4. Modulation by 20-HETE of phenylephrine-induced mesenteric artery contraction in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Wang, M H; Krishna, U M; Falck, J R; Laniado-Schwartzman, M; Nasjletti, A

    2001-12-01

    Small mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were compared for the production of 20-HETE and the effects of 20-HETE and N-methylsulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide (DDMS, 30 micromol/L), a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor, on contractile responsiveness to phenylephrine (0.1 to 50.0 micromol/L). 20-HETE production was higher in vessels of SHR compared with WKY (1.34+/-0.16 versus 0.27+/-0.09 pmol/mg tissue, P<0.05). Phenylephrine elicited concentration-dependent vascular contraction; the R(max) was similar in vessels of SHR and WKY, but the former were more sensitive as denoted by the lower EC(50) (1.10+/-0.14 versus 1.89+/-0.33 micromol/L, P<0.05). DDMS caused a rightward shift in the concentration-response curve to phenylephrine, increasing (P<0.05) the EC(50) by 258% and 134% in vessels of SHR and WKY, respectively. In contrast, in DDMS-treated vessels, 20-HETE (0.01 to 10.0 micromol/L) caused a leftward shift in the phenylephrine concentration-response curve, decreasing (P<0.05) the EC(50) without affecting the R(max). Importantly, the minimal concentration of 20-HETE that decreased the EC(50) of phenylephrine was much smaller in vessels of SHR that of WKY (0.01 versus 1.0 micromol/L). We conclude that 20-HETE increases the sensitivity of mesenteric arterial vessels to phenylephrine, vessels of SHR are more sensitive to this action of the eicosanoid than vessels of WKY, and vessels of SHR produce more 20-HETE than do vessels of WKY. Hence, 20-HETE of vascular origin may be a determinant of the increased reactivity to constrictor agonists in the vasculature of SHR.

  5. Neonatal maternal separation stress elicits lasting DNA methylation changes in the hippocampus of stress-reactive Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Chelsea R; Rana, Samir; Stringfellow, Sara Anne; Day, Jeremy J; Wyss, J Michael; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-11-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) can alter neurodevelopment in variable ways, ranging from producing deleterious outcomes to stress resilience. While most ELS studies focus on its harmful effects, recent work by our laboratory and others shows that ELS elicits positive effects in certain individuals. We exposed Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, known for a stress reactive, anxiety/depression-like phenotype, to maternal separation (MS), a model of ELS. MS exposure elicited anxiolytic and antidepressant behavioral effects as well as improved cardiovascular function in adult WKY offspring. This study interrogates an epigenetic mechanism (DNA methylation) that may confer the adaptive effects of MS in WKY offspring. We quantified global genome methylation levels in limbic brain regions of adult WKYs exposed to daily 180-min MS or neonatal handling from postnatal day 1-14. MS exposure triggered dramatic DNA hypermethylation specifically in the hippocampus. Next-generation sequencing methylome profiling revealed reduced methylation at intragenic sites within two key nodes of insulin signaling pathways: the insulin receptor and one of its major downstream targets, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (Map3k5). We then tested the hypothesis that enhancing DNA methylation in WKY rats would elicit adaptive changes akin to the effects of MS. Dietary methyl donor supplementation improved WKY rats' anxiety/depression-like behaviors and also improved cardiovascular measures, similar to previous observations following MS. Overall, these data suggest a potential molecular mechanism that mediates a predicted adaptive response, whereby ELS induces DNA methylation changes in the brain that may contribute to successful stress coping and adaptive physiological changes in adulthood. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin enhances sleep continuity in fear-conditioned Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Benjamin M; Gajewski, Nicholas D; Mann, Graziella L; Kubin, Leszek; Morrison, Adrian R; Ross, Richard J

    2014-03-03

    Fragmentation of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is well described in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and likely has significant functional consequences. Fear-conditioned rodents may offer an attractive model of the changes in sleep that characterize PTSD. Following fear conditioning (FC), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a strain known to be particularly stress-sensitive, have increased REMS fragmentation that can be quantified as a shift in the distribution of REMS episodes towards the more frequent occurrence of sequential REMS (inter-REMS episode interval≤3 min) vs. single REMS (interval>3 min). The α1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin has demonstrated efficacy in normalizing sleep in PTSD. To determine the utility of fear-conditioned WKY rats as a model of sleep disturbances typical of PTSD and as a platform for the development of new treatments, we tested the hypothesis that prazosin would reduce REMS fragmentation in fear-conditioned WKY rats. Sleep parameters and freezing (a standard measure of anxiety in rodents) were quantified at baseline and on Days 1, 7, and 14 following FC, with either prazosin (0.01mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle injections administered prior to testing in a between-group design. Fear conditioning was achieved by pairing tones with a mild electric foot shock (1.0mA, 0.5s). One, 7, and 14 days following FC, prazosin or vehicle was injected, the tone was presented, freezing was measured, and then sleep was recorded from 11 AM to 3 PM. WKY rats given prazosin, compared to those given vehicle, had a lower amount of seq-REMS relative to total REMS time 14 days after FC. They also had a shorter non-REMS latency and fewer non-REMS arousals at baseline and on Days 1 and 7 after FC. Thus, in FC rats, prazosin reduced both REMS fragmentation and non-REMS discontinuity.

  7. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ito-Ihara, Toshiko; Hong, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Ock-Joo; Sumi, Eriko; Kim, Soo-Youn; Tanaka, Shiro; Narita, Keiichi; Hatta, Taichi; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Kyu-Jin; Miyagawa, Takuya; Minami, Manabu; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki

    2013-10-25

    International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians' attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to encourage doctors to participate in and

  8. /sup 22/Na+ and /sup 86/Rb+ transport in vascular smooth muscle of SHR, Wistar Kyoto, and Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriyama, S.; Denny, T.N.; Aviv, A.

    1988-06-01

    To gain further insight into differences in cellular Na+ and K+ regulation between the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY), and American Wistar (W) rats, 22Na+ and 86Rb+ washouts were performed under steady-state conditions in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from the three rat strains. SHR vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly higher bumetanide sensitive 86Rb+ washout rate constant (x 10(-4)/min; mean +/- SEM) than WKY cells (-38.6 +/- 2.84 and -23.8 +/- 3.58, respectively; p less than 0.005). SHR vascular smooth muscle cells also exhibited significantly higher values than WKY cells in the total 22Na+ washout rate constant (x 10(-2)/min) (-61.0 +/- 1.57 vs. -53.8 +/- 1.24; p less than 0.005). The amiloride sensitive component of the 22Na+ washout rate constant accounted for these differences (-18.6 +/- 1.04 for SHR and -12.1 +/- 2.00 for WKY; p less than 0.05). There were no apparent differences in cellular Na+ concentrations between WKY and SHR cells. In general, the 86Rb+ and 22Na+ washout parameters of W rat cells were quite similar to those of cells from SHR. We conclude that the bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ washout (the Na+ K+-cotransport), the overall, and the amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ washout (the latter primarily represents the Na+/H+ antiport) are higher in SHR than WKY rat vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate innate differences in cellular Na+ and K+ transport in vascular smooth muscle cells of the SHR and WKY rat. The mechanisms responsible for these differences are yet to be determined.

  9. Hydrodynamics-based delivery of the viral interleukin-10 gene suppresses experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, N; Maruyama, H; Kuroda, T; Kameda, S; Iino, N; Kawachi, H; Nishikawa, Y; Hanawa, H; Tahara, H; Miyazaki, J; Gejyo, F

    2003-08-01

    Gene therapy is expected to revolutionize the treatment of kidney diseases. Viral interleukin (vIL)-10 has a variety of immunomodulatory properties. We examined the applicability of vIL-10 gene transfer to the treatment of rats with crescentic glomerulonephritis, a T helper 1 (Th 1) predominant disease. To produce the disease, Wistar-Kyoto rats were injected with a rabbit polyclonal anti-rat glomerular basement membrane antibody. After 3 h, a large volume of plasmid DNA expressing vIL-10 (pCAGGS-vIL-10) solution was rapidly injected into the tail vein. pCAGGS solution was similarly injected into control rats (pCAGGS rats). We confirmed the presence of vector-derived vIL-10 mainly in the liver and observed high serum vIL-10 levels in pCAGGS-vIL-10-injected rats. Compared with the pCAGGS rats, the pCAGGS-vIL-10 rats showed significant therapeutic effects: reduced frequency of crescent formation, decrease in the number of total cells, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells in the glomeruli, decrease in urine protein, and attenuation of kidney dysfunction. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we also observed that this model was Th1-predominant in the glomeruli and that the ratio of the transcripts of CD4, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 to the transcripts of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the glomeruli were all significantly lower in the pCAGGS-vIL-10 rats than in the pCAGGS rats. These results demonstrate that pCAGGS-vIL-10 gene transfer by hydrodynamics-based transfection suppresses crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  10. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  11. An international survey of physicians regarding clinical trials: a comparison between Kyoto University Hospital and Seoul National University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International clinical trials are now rapidly expanding into Asia. However, the proportion of global trials is higher in South Korea compared to Japan despite implementation of similar governmental support in both countries. The difference in clinical trial environment might influence the respective physicians’ attitudes and experience towards clinical trials. Therefore, we designed a questionnaire to explore how physicians conceive the issues surrounding clinical trials in both countries. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital (KUHP) and Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) in 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions and 2 open-ended questions on broad key issues relating to clinical trials. Results The number of responders was 301 at KUHP and 398 at SNUH. Doctors with trial experience were 196 at KUHP and 150 at SNUH. Among them, 12% (24/196) at KUHP and 41% (61/150) at SUNH had global trial experience. Most respondents at both institutions viewed clinical trials favorably and thought that conducting clinical trials contributed to medical advances, which would ultimately lead to new and better treatments. The main reason raised as a hindrance to conducting clinical trials was the lack of personnel support and time. Doctors at both university hospitals thought that more clinical research coordinators were required to conduct clinical trials more efficiently. KUHP doctors were driven mainly by pure academic interest or for their desire to find new treatments, while obtaining credits for board certification and co-authorship on manuscripts also served as motivation factors for doctors at SNUH. Conclusions Our results revealed that there might be two different approaches to increase clinical trial activity. One is a social level approach to establish clinical trial infrastructure providing sufficient clinical research professionals. The other is an individual level approach that would provide incentives to

  12. Immunosuppressive effects of the standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus on cellular immune responses in Wistar-Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilangkovan, Menaga; Jantan, Ibrahim; Mesaik, Mohamed Ahmed; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (family: Euphorbiaceae) is of immense interest due to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present study, the standardized 80% ethanol extract of P. amarus was investigated for its modulatory activity on various cellular immune parameters, including chemotaxis of neutrophils, engulfment of Escherichia coli by neutrophils, and Mac-1 expression, in leukocytes isolated from treated/nontreated Wistar-Kyoto rats. The detailed cell-mediated activity of P. amarus was also investigated, including analysis of the effects on T- and B-cell proliferation and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in splenic mononuclear cells, and estimation of serum cytokine production by activated T-cells. The main components of the extract, phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, corilagin, geraniin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts, using validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced neutrophils isolated from rats administered with the extract of P. amarus, at doses ranging from 100 to 400 mg/kg for 14 days, revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction in neutrophil migration (P<0.05). Similar patterns of inhibition were also observed in phagocytic activity and in fMLP-induced changes in expression of β2 integrin polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The results in P. amarus-treated rats also demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B-cell proliferation and concanavalin A–stimulated T-cell proliferation as compared with sensitized control. At a dose of 400 mg/kg (P<0.01), there was a significant decrease in the (%) expression of CD4+ and CD8+ in splenocytes and in serum cytokines of T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4). In conclusion, P. amarus showed effective immunosuppressive activities in cellular immune response, by various immune regulatory mechanisms, and may be useful for

  13. Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Kumolosasi, Endang; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (TC) has been used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of various diseases and has been reported for several pharmacological activities. However, the effects of TC extract on the immune system are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of a standardized 80% ethanol extract of the stem of TC on innate immune responses. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were treated daily at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg doses of the extract for 21 days by oral gavage. The immunomodulatory potential of TC was evaluated by determining its effect on chemotaxis and phagocytic activity of neutrophils isolated from the blood of rats. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, its effects on the proliferation of T- and B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) and on the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were also monitored. The main components of the extracts, syringin and magnoflorine, were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts by using a validated reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. It was observed that the chemotactic activity of neutrophils obtained from extract-treated rats increased as compared to controls. A dose-dependent increase in the number of migrated cells and phagocytosis activity of neutrophils was observed. Dose-dependent increase was also observed in the T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation stimulated with concanavalin A (5 μg/mL) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL), and was statistically significant at 400 mg/kg (P>0.01). Apart from cell-mediated immune response, the concentrations of Th1 (TNF-α, IL-2, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were significantly increased in sera of rats treated with different doses as compared with the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that TC possesses immunostimulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of immune diseases. PMID:26089645

  14. Sex differences and similarities in depressive- and anxiety-like behaviour in the Wistar-Kyoto rat.

    PubMed

    Burke, Nikita N; Coppinger, Jonathan; Deaver, Daniel R; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P; Kelly, John

    2016-12-01

    Depression is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that is highly comorbid with anxiety. Depression is twice as prevalent in women as in men, however, females remain underrepresented in preclinical research. The stress hyperresponsive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat displays hypolocomotion in a novel aversive environment and depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours, which have been mostly characterised in males. The current study characterised behaviour in male and female rats in a battery of behavioural paradigms. Adult male and female WKY rats were tested in the open field and forced swim tests (tests with a locomotor component); and the marble burying, novelty-induced hypophagia and sucrose preference tests (tests with a minimal locomotor component) and 24h home-cage locomotor activity was also monitored. The tests were compared against the Sprague-Dawley (SD) strain, a commonly used "control" strain. SD, but not WKY, females exhibited higher home-cage locomotor activity compared to males. In the open field, WKY rats of both sexes exhibited a significant reduction in locomotor activity and increased anxiety-like behaviour as demonstrated by reduced time in the aversive inner zone of the open field, compared to SD counterparts. In the marble burying test, WKY females, but not males, exhibited a trend towards increased burying, indicative of anxiety-like/neophobic behaviour. In comparison, WKY males, but not females, exhibited enhanced novelty-induced hypophagia, indicative of increased anxiety-like behaviour compared to SD rats. In the forced swim test, WKY rats of both sexes spent more time immobile compared with SD counterparts, indicating depressive-like behaviour. However, in comparison to SD rats, WKY males, but not females, exhibited anhedonic-like behaviour. In conclusion, WKY rats exhibit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours that are complex and nuanced depending on the sex of the rat and testing conditions. This study supports the use of a varied test battery to

  15. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Papacostas-Quintanilla, Helena; Ortiz-Ortega, Víctor Manuel; López-Rubalcava, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB) and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W) and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT) and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala). Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased anxiety

  16. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Papacostas-Quintanilla, Helena; Ortiz-Ortega, Víctor Manuel; López-Rubalcava, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB) and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W) and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT) and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala). Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased anxiety

  17. Comparison of 5-Year Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Heart Failure Patients With Versus Without Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (from the CREDO-Kyoto CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Tanaka, Shiro; Kimura, Takeshi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2015-08-15

    Heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFrEF) is regarded as an independent risk factor for poor outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the impact of HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) still has been unclear. We identified 1,877 patients who received isolated CABG of 15,939 patients who underwent first coronary revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto (Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto) Registry Cohort-2. Of them, 1,489 patients had normal LV function (LVEF >50% without a history of HF; Normal group), 236 had HFrEF (LVEF ≤50% with HF), and 152 had HFpEF (LVEF >50% with HF). Preoperative LVEF was the lowest in the HFrEF group (62 ± 12%, 36 ± 9%, and 61 ± 7% for the Normal, HFrEF, and HFpEF groups, respectively; p <0.001). Unadjusted 30-day mortality rate was the highest in the HFrEF group (0.5%, 3.0%, and 0.7%; p = 0.003). However, cumulative incidences of all-cause death at 5-year was the highest in the HFpEF group (14%, 27%, and 32%, respectively; p <0.001). After adjusting confounders, the risk of all-cause death in the HFpEF group was greater than the Normal group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.97; p = 0.04). The risk of all-cause death was not different between the HFpEF and the HFrEF groups (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.29; p = 0.52). In addition, the risks of cardiac death and sudden death in the HFpEF group were greater than the Normal group (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.49, p = 0.002; and HR 3.60, 95% CI 1.55 to 8.36, p = 0.003, respectively), and the risks of those end points were not different between the HFrEF and the HFpEF groups. Despite low 30-day mortality rate after CABG in patients with HFpEF, HFpEF was associated with high risks of long-term death and cardiovascular events. Patients with HFpEF, as well as HFrEF, should be carefully operated and followed up.

  18. The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in leaves of 276 mulberry cultivars (Morus spp.) in Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yatsunami, Kazuhisa; Ichida, Masatoshi; Onodera, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity in mulberry (Morus) leaves is discussed. Mulberry leaves were collected from the Center for Bioresource Field Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto, Japan on 19 May, 9 July, and 9 August, 2003. Mulberry leaves were extracted with 75% ethanol. The inhibitory activity for rat intestinal crude enzyme was measured using maltose. The content of DNJ in the extracts was measured using HPLC. The mean DNJ content in the 0.04-0.06% range was high in collected samples. The inhibitory activities in July and August were higher (P < 0.01) than in May, and the activity in July was higher (P < 0.01) than in August. A strong correlation (r = 0.901, r (2) = 0.811, n = 15) existed between DNJ content and alpha-glucosidase inhibition in leaves of Morus bombycis harvested in July. Similarly, correlation coefficients of the other mulberry varieties in July were higher than they were in May or August. The inhibitory activity and the DNJ content of Morus latifolia in August were lower than for any other mulberry variety. These results show that the high inhibitory cultivars harvested in July, except for M. latifolia, are more suited to products that contain high DNJ contents.

  19. Influence of high dietary sodium intake on the functional subtypes of alpha-adrenoceptors in the renal cortical vasculature of Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Kazi, R N; Munavvar, A S; Abdullah, N A; Khan, A H; Johns, E J

    2009-01-01

    1 Increased renal vascular resistance is one renal functional abnormality that contributes to hypertension, and alpha(1)-adrenoceptors play a pivotal role in modulating this renal vascular resistance. This study investigates the functional contribution of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes in the renal cortical vasculature of Wistar-Kyoto rats on a normal sodium diet (WKYNNa) compared with those given saline to drink for 6 weeks (WKYHNa). 2 The renal cortical vascular responses to the adrenergic agonists noradrenaline (NA), methoxamine (ME) and phenylephrine (PE) were measured in WKYHNa and WKYNNa rats either in the absence (the control phase) or presence of chloroethylclonidine (CEC), an alpha(1B)-adrenoceptor antagonist, 5-methylurapidil (5-MeU), an alpha(1A) antagonist, or BMY7378, an alpha(1D) antagonist. 3 Results showed a greater renal cortical vascular sensitivity to NA, PE and ME in the WKYHNa compared with WKYNNa rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, 5-MeU and BMY7378 attenuated adrenergically induced renal cortical vasoconstriction in WKYHNa and WKYNNa rats; this response was largely blunted in CEC-treated WKYHNa rats (all P < 0.05) but not in CEC-treated WKYNNa rats. 4 The data suggest that irrespective of dietary sodium content, in Wistar-Kyoto rats alpha(1A)- and alpha(1D)-subtypes are the major alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in renal cortical vasculature; however, there appears to be a functional involvement of alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors in the WKYHNa rats.

  20. PREFACE: MEM05: The 3rd International Workshop on Mechano-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Kyoto, Japan, 17 20 July 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

    2005-12-01

    One of the important challenges facing the international scientific community at the beginning of the third millennium is how to manage the world's energy resources properly. Superconductivity will provide one of the strategies employed to avoid an energy crisis. Of course the ITER Fusion Tokomak that is to be built in France provides an exciting focus for the whole superconductivity community. In parallel, we can expect that other key technologies for superconductivity such as large capacity transmission cables, energy storage systems, and generators and motors will have a real impact in technologically advanced countries. There is broadly a consensus that the prototype stage for high-current high-field superconducting applications is largely completed, and the required performance has been demonstrated. However, before we move to full industrialization of large-scale superconducting technologies, feasibility studies suggest there are two types of problem that remain. The first is the development of high performance and low cost materials which are fully optimized in terms of critical current, low ac loss and high strength. The second is the establishment of optimal procedures for system design accompanying scale up. As the system design is dependent on material development, there is a critical need to study the key issues for developing high performance superconducting materials. Under the activities of the NEDO Grant Project (Applied Superconductivity), MEM05 was organized by Professor Osamura (Kyoto University), Professor Itoh (NIMS), Professor Hojo (Kyoto University) and Professor Matsumoto (Kyoto University) and held in Kyoto, Japan. The focus for the workshop was the elimination of grain boundary weak links, the creation of strong flux pinning sites, the optimal arrangement of filaments and barriers for reducing ac losses, and the design of high strength strain tolerant composite conductors. Five subsessions were held at MEM05. • Mechanical properties of

  1. Clarifying springtime temperature reconstructions of the medieval period by gap-filling the cherry blossom phenological data series at Kyoto, Japan.

    PubMed

    Aono, Yasuyuki; Saito, Shizuka

    2010-03-01

    We investigated documents and diaries from the ninth to the fourteenth centuries to supplement the phenological data series of the flowering of Japanese cherry (Prunus jamasakura) in Kyoto, Japan, to improve and fill gaps in temperature estimates based on previously reported phenological data. We then reconstructed a nearly continuous series of March mean temperatures based on 224 years of cherry flowering data, including 51 years of previously unused data, to clarify springtime climate changes. We also attempted to estimate cherry full-flowering dates from phenological records of other deciduous species, adding further data for 6 years in the tenth and eleventh centuries by using the flowering phenology of Japanese wisteria (Wisteria floribunda). The reconstructed tenth century March mean temperatures were around 7 degrees C, indicating warmer conditions than at present. Temperatures then fell until the 1180s, recovered gradually until the 1310s, and then declined again in the mid-fourteenth century.

  2. The Kyoto protocol and payments for tropical forest: An interdisciplinary method for estimating carbon-offset supply and increasing the feasibility of a carbon market under the CDM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Kerr, Suzi; Hughes, R. Flint; Liu, Shuguang; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Schimel, David; Tosi, Joseph; Watson, Vicente

    2000-01-01

    Protecting tropical forests under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could reduce the cost of emissions limitations set in Kyoto. However, while society must soon decide whether or not to use tropical forest-based offsets, evidence regarding tropical carbon sinks is sparse. This paper presents a general method for constructing an integrated model (based on detailed historical, remote sensing and field data) that can produce land-use and carbon baselines, predict carbon sequestration supply to a carbon-offsets market and also help to evaluate optimal market rules. Creating such integrated models requires close collaboration between social and natural scientists. Our project combines varied disciplinary expertise (in economics, ecology and geography) with local knowledge in order to create high-quality, empirically grounded, integrated models for Costa Rica.

  3. A longitudinal study of short- and long-term activity levels in male and female spontaneously hypertensive, Wistar-Kyoto, and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Cada, Amy M

    2003-04-01

    The pattern of locomotor activity across development was assessed in male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Open field activity did not indicate hyperactivity in the SHR. Instead, the SD strain was generally more active. Strains and sexes did not differ in open-field locomotor response to drug challenges. When short-term (10-12 min) activity in different apparatuses was compared, the SD were most active in the open field, the SHR in the residential figure-eight maze, and the WKY in the running wheel. Long-term tests indicated hyperactivity in the SHR in the residential figure-eight maze and hypoactivity in the SD in the running wheels. Until such strain differences in activity are thoroughly defined, the use of the SHR as a model of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder is limited.

  4. Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2002-10-01

    The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed.

  5. Combination effect of calcium channel blocker and valsartan on cardiovascular event prevention in patients with high-risk hypertension: ancillary results of the KYOTO HEART Study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Takahisa; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Shiraishi, Jun; Kimura, Shinzo; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    The ancillary analysis of the KYOTO HEART Study (n = 3031) was designed to assess the combined treatment with calcium channel blocker (CCB) plus valsartan for high-risk hypertension. With-CCB (n = 1807) showed less primary events than without-CCB (n = 1224) (P = .037), in which acute myocardial infarction was significantly reduced. With-CCB plus valsartan (n = 773) showed lower incidence than with-CCB plus non-angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (n = 1034) (P = .0002), in which angina pectoris and heart failure were significantly reduced. Without-CCB plus valsartan (n = 744) was superior to without-CCB plus non-ARB (n = 480) (P = .0013), in which stroke was reduced. CCB-based therapy was useful, and CCB plus valsartan combination provided a more efficient prevention for high-risk hypertensive patients.

  6. Climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean. A review of the Bonn and Marrakech decisions and their effect on the clean development mechanism of the Kyoto protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Maggiora, C. della

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this document is to present an overview of recent climate change developments, in particular with regards to carbon markets under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The document is divided into three sections. The first section describes the history of the climate change negotiations. Section two presents an overview of the recent decisions adopted at the last international meetings (Bonn Agreements and Marrakech Accord), which have improved the odds of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by 2002. The third section analyzes the carbon credit market. The first part of this section briefly presents the available information regarding real carbon credit transactions, while the second section focuses on the literature review of several theoretical models and presents the theoretical estimates of the price and size of the carbon market.

  7. Comparison of long-term outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Hayano, Mamoru; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Tazaki, Junichi; Imai, Masao; Yamaji, Kyohei; Tada, Tomohisa; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Saijo, Sayaka; Funakoshi, Shunsuke; Nagao, Kazuya; Hanazawa, Koji; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Kadota, Kazushige; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Shizuta, Satoshi; Abe, Mitsuru; Sakata, Ryuzo; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanyu, Michiya; Yamazaki, Fumio; Shimamoto, Mitsuomi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Imoto, Yutaka; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Horie, Minoru; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2012-10-01

    The long-term outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD) remains to be investigated. We identified 1,005 patients with ULMCAD of 15,939 patients with first coronary revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2. Cumulative 3-year incidence of a composite of death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke was significantly higher in the PCI group than in the CABG group (22.7% vs 14.8%, p = 0.0006, log-rank test). However, the adjusted outcome was not different between the PCI and CABG groups (hazard ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79 to 2.15, p = 0.30). Stratified analysis using the SYNTAX score demonstrated that risk for a composite of death/MI/stroke was not different between the 2 treatment groups in patients with low (<23) and intermediate (23 to 33) SYNTAX scores (adjusted HR 1.70, 95% CI 0.77 to 3.76, p = 0.19; adjusted HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.99, p = 0.72, respectively), whereas in patients with a high SYNTAX score (≥33), it was significantly higher after PCI than after CABG (adjusted HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.32 to 5.16, p = 0.006). In conclusion, risk of PCI for serious adverse events seemed to be comparable to that after CABG in patients with ULMCAD with a low or intermediate SYNTAX score, whereas PCI compared with CABG was associated with a higher risk for serious adverse events in patients with a high SYNTAX score.

  8. Dissociation between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) andWistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats in baseline performance and methylphenidate response on measures of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-08

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely accepted rodent model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MP) is a central nervous systemstimulant that has been shown to have a dose-related positive effect on attention task performance in humans with ADHD. The current study was undertaken to compare SHR to its typical control strain, Wistar-Kyoto(WKY) rats, on the performance of a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task (VSPDT) as well as of the responsiveness of the two rat strains to MP treatment. The rats were initially trained on the VSPDT, in which a light cue was presented randomly at three different cue-light intervals (1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms) over one of two levers, and presses on the lever corresponding to the light cue were reinforced with a food pellet. Once rats reached stable performance, the treatment phase of the study began, during which they received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg of MP in a randomized order immediately prior to being tested on the VSPDT. Baseline performance accuracy on the VSPDT did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, a striking strain dissociation was evident in the response of the two strains to treatment; VSPDT performance was substantially disrupted by the 5 and 10 mg/kg dose in the WKY rats but only mildly in the SHR rats. Response omissions were also increased only in WKY rats. Finally, both strains had increased locomotor activity in the operant chamber following MP treatment. These findings point to an important difference in response tendency toMP in the two strains that supports a view that a critical difference between these strains may suggest neurochemical and neuroadaptive differences associated with the behavioral impairments of ADHD.

  9. DIFFERENCES IN CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PM EXPOSURE BETWEEN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE STROKE-PRONE (SHSP) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are associated with exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM), notably in people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand the mechanisms of PM...

  10. DIFFERENCES IN CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO PM EXPOSURE BETWEEN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE STROKE-PRONE (SHSP) AND WISTAR-KYOTO (WKY) RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Epidemiological studies have shown that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are associated with exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM), notably in people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease. To better understand the mechanisms of PM...

  11. Comparison of constitutive gene expression levels of hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes between Wistar-Kyoto and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Ikeda, Ayaka; Ito, Sei; Miyata, Misaki; Yoshida, Chiaki; Degawa, Masakuni

    2013-01-01

    Serum total cholesterol amounts in the stroke-prone hypertensive rat (SHRSP) strain are lower than in the normotensive control strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. To understand the strain difference, constitutive gene expression levels of hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes in male 8-week-old SHRSP and WKY rats were comparatively examined by DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. Of 22 cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme genes, expression levels of 8 genes, Pmvk, Idi1, Fdps, Fdft1, Sqle, Lss, Sc4mol, and Hsd17b7, in SHRSP were less than 50% those of the WKY rats; especially, the expression level of Sqle gene, encoding squalene epoxidase, a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, was about 20%. The gene expression level of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), which functions as a transcription factor upregulating gene expression of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes, in SHRSP was about 70% of that in WKY rats. These results demonstrate the possibility that the lower serum total cholesterol level in SHRSP is defined by lower gene expression of most hepatic cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes. In particular, decreased gene expression level of Sqle gene might be the most essential factor. Moreover, the broad range of lowered rates of these genes in SHRSP suggests that the abnormal function and/or expression not only of SREBP-2 but also of one or more other transcription factors for those gene expressions exist in SHRSP.

  12. Microbial population dynamics during startup of a full-scale anaerobic digester treating industrial food waste in Kyoto eco-energy project.

    PubMed

    Ike, Michihiko; Inoue, Daisuke; Miyano, Tomoki; Liu, Tong Tong; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Kadoshin, Shiro

    2010-06-01

    The microbial community in a full-scale anaerobic digester (2300m3) treating industrial food waste in the Kyoto Eco-Energy Project was analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Both thermophilic and mesophilic sludge of treated swine waste were seeded to the digestion tank. During the 150-day startup period, coffee grounds as a main food waste, along with potato, kelp and boiled beans, tofu, bean curd lees, and deep-fried bean curd were fed to the digestion process step-by-step (max. 40t/d). Finally, the methane yield reached 360m3/t-feed with 40days' retention time, although temporary accumulation of propionate was observed. Eubacterial communities that formed in the thermophilic digestion tank differed greatly from both thermophilic and mesophilic types of seed sludge. Results suggest that the Actinomyces/Thermomonospora and Ralstonia/Shewanella were contributors for hydrolyzation and degradation of food waste into volatile fatty acids. Acetate-utilizing methanogens, Methanosaeta, were dominant in seed sludges of both types, but they decreased drastically during processing in the digestion tank. Methanosarcina and Methanobrevibacter/Methanobacterium were, respectively, possible main contributors for methane production from acetate and H2 plus CO2. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetically mediated resistance to naturally occurring aortic sclerosis in spontaneously hypertensive as against Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Kyoto breeder rats.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, B. C.; McMurtry, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Male and female, normotensive, Sprague-Dawley (S-D), Wistar-Kyoto (WKy), and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were bred repeatedly until the females had given birth to and nursed 6 litters of pups. At the close of the 2nd, 4th and 6th breeding, breeder males and females, along with celibate males and females of equal age, were killed. S-D and WKy breeder rats manifested progressively increasing adiposity and high blood pressure with each successive breeding; breeder SHR showed mild exacerbation of their pre-existing high blood pressure. Adrenocortical hyperplasia and thymus-gland involution suggested increasing pituitary-adrenal activity in breeder rats. Circulating aldosterone levels decreased with repeated breeding in parallel with increased deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone secretion. The repeatedly bred normotensive rats manifested worsening aortic sclerosis as against little or no aortic sclerosis in the repeatedly bred SHR. Breeder SHR developed fibrinohyalin intimal lesions limited exclusively to the arterioles of the testis and ovary. Virgin rats did not develop any vascular disease. It is suggested that a diverse spectrum of adrenal steroids in breeder HSR combined with genetic direction control the morphogenesis of arterial disease in breeder SHR. Images Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7066185

  14. Possible involvement of atrial natriuretic factor in the antihypertensive action of a high-calcium diet in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Kohno, M; Murakawa, K; Yasunari, K; Yokokawa, K; Kurihara, N; Takeda, T

    1989-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine the possible involvement of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the hypotensive action of a high-calcium diet. The effects of increased dietary calcium (2.9% calcium, HCa) on blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, and ANF were examined in 30 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and 30 Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Control groups of 30 SHR and 30 WKY were fed normal calcium lab chow (0.4% calcium, NCa). The HCa diet reduced blood pressure and serum phosphorus concentration and increased urinary excretion of sodium and calcium in SHR and WKY. The HCa diet also caused a sustained increase in plasma ANF concentration and, finally, a decrease in atrial ANF concentration in both groups. A significant inverse correlation was observed between ANF concentrations in plasma and atria of the four experimental groups. Plasma ANF concentration was positively correlated with daily calcium consumption, and blood pressure was inversely correlated with daily calcium consumption in HCa- and NCa-SHR groups and in HCa- and NCa-WKY groups, respectively. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between blood pressure and plasma ANF concentration was observed in SHR groups and in WKY groups, respectively. The observed sustained increment in endogenous plasma ANF concentration, which is probably caused by increased secretion from the atrium, may contribute, in part, to the blood-pressure-lowering effects of the HCa diet.

  15. Differential Responses to Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Effects of Antioxidant (Honey) Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N. S.; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types, severity, and complications of diseases as well as strains may influence responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress. PMID:21673929

  16. Upregulation of the dorsal raphe nucleus-prefrontal cortex serotonin system by chronic treatment with escitalopram in hyposerotonergic Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Makiko; Kawahara, Yukie; Kaneko, Fumi; Kishikawa, Yuki; Sotogaku, Naoki; Poppinga, Wilfred J; Folgering, Joost H A; Dremencov, Eliyahu; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Nishi, Akinori

    2013-09-01

    Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats are sensitive to chronic stressors and exhibit depression-like behavior. Dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonin (5-HT) neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) comprise the important neurocircuitry underlying the pathophysiology of depression. To evaluate the DRN-PFC 5-HT system in WKY rats, we examined the effects of escitalopram (ESCIT) on the extracellular 5-HT level in comparison with Wistar rats using dual-probe microdialysis. The basal levels of 5-HT in the DRN, but not in the PFC, in WKY rats was reduced as low as 30% of Wistar rats. Responses of 5-HT in the DRN and PFC to ESCIT administered systemically and locally were attenuated in WKY rats. Feedback inhibition of DRN 5-HT release induced by ESCIT into the PFC was also attenuated in WKY rats. Chronic ESCIT induced upregulation of the DRN-PFC 5-HT system in WKY rats, with increases in basal 5-HT in the DRN, responsiveness to ESCIT in the DRN and PFC, and feedback inhibition, whereas downregulation of these effects was induced in Wistar rats. Thus, the WKY rat is an animal model of depression with low activity of the DRN-PFC 5HT system. The finding that chronic ESCIT upregulates the 5-HT system in hyposerotonergic WKY rats may contribute to improved understanding of mechanisms of action of antidepressants, especially in depression with 5-HT deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of sodium depletion on the release of /sup 3/Hnorepinephrine from central and peripheral tissue of Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, M.J.; Xue, C.S.; Badino, L.; Westfall, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    To study the relationship between sodium intake, the sympathetic nervous system, and hypertension, a study was made of the effects of a 7-9 day dietary restriction of sodium in three different ages of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Field-stimulated (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine ( (/sup 3/H)NE) release was measured in portal vein, anterior hypothalamus, and the A2 region of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of 5- to 6-, 10- to 11-, and 28- to 30- week-old SHR and age-matched WKY. A low-sodium diet (0.05% Na+, control 0.5% Na+) significantly lowered stimulated (/sup 3/H)NE release from portal vein and anterior hypothalamus in SHR and WKY at all three ages. However, release from the A2 region was not altered by sodium restriction. The results of the present study suggest that lowered dietary sodium can selectively alter norepinephrine release in both the peripheral and central sympathetic nervous system of SHR and WKY. The results also suggest that the SHR at 5-6 weeks are more sensitive to altered dietary sodium than are age-matched WKY.

  18. Tremor dominant Kyoto (Trdk) rats carry a missense mutation in the gene encoding the SK2 subunit of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Takashi; Yokoe, Mayuko; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Ohashi, Kana; Miyake, Takahito; Higuchi, Yuki; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Mashimo, Tomoji; Tanaka, Miyuu; Kuwamura, Mitusru; Kaneko, Shuji; Shimizu, Saki; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-09-13

    Tremor dominant Kyoto (Trdk) is an autosomal dominant mutation that appeared in F344/NSlc rats mutagenized with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). In this study, we characterized and genetically analyzed F344-Trdk/+ heterozygous rats. The rats exhibited a tremor that was especially evident around weaning but persisted throughout life. The tremors of F344-Trdk/+ rats were attenuated by drugs effective against essential tremor (ET) but not drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease-related tremor, indicating that the pharmacological phenotype of F344-Trdk/+ rats was similar to human ET. Using positional candidate approach, we identified the Trdk mutation as a missense substitution (c. 866 T>A, p. I289N) in Kcnn2, which encodes the SK2 subunit of the small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel. In vitro electrophysiological studies revealed that the I289N mutation diminished SK2 channel activity. These findings demonstrate that F344-Trdk/+ rats represent a novel model of ET, and strongly suggest that Kcnn2 is the causative gene for the tremor phenotype in F344-Trdk/+ rats. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Climate change: The impact of the third conference of the parties at Kyoto on the U.S. Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, D.; Nisbet, M.; O`Hare, A.

    1998-12-31

    The paper provides, as background, a brief review of the structure of the US cement industry. It outlines the growth trends of the industry over the last 20 years. It describes the sources and significance of cement imports in the US market, and the importance of exports to Canadian cement producers. The sources of CO{sub 2}, the primary greenhouse gas emitted in the cement manufacturing process, are explained and the impact of improved energy efficiency and fuel switching on CO{sub 2} emissions per ton of product are discussed. The aspects of the Kyoto Protocol relevant to the US cement industry are analyzed as are the types of impacts they can be expected to have on: cement trade, domestic cement production, long term growth of the US cement industry, and US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper projects the US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions to 2010, taking into account anticipated improvements in energy efficiency. It discusses manufacturing process and changes that could be made to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper also covers the types of product modifications that might be made to reduce the embodied CO{sub 2} content. Where possible the potential reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from process and product changes are quantified.

  20. Differential responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats: effects of antioxidant (honey) treatment.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Sulaiman, Siti A; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Ab; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai N S; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types, severity, and complications of diseases as well as strains may influence responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress.

  1. Three-year outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with heart failure: from the CREDO-Kyoto percutaneous coronary intervention/coronary artery bypass graft registry cohort-2†.

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2015-02-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a major risk factor for heart failure. However, long-term benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in those patients has not been well elucidated. Of the 15 939 patients undergoing first myocardial revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2, we identified 1064 patients with multivessel and/or left main disease with a history of heart failure (ACC/AHA Stage C or D). There were 672 patients undergoing PCI and 392 CABG. Preprocedural left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between PCI and CABG (46.6 ± 15.1 vs 46.6 ± 14.6%, P = 0.89), but the CABG group included more patients with triple-vessel and left main disease (P < 0.01 each). Three-year outcomes revealed that the risk of hospital readmission for heart failure was higher after PCI than after CABG (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]; 1.90 [1.18-3.05], P = 0.01). More importantly, adjusted mortality after PCI was significantly higher than after CABG (1.79 [1.13-2.82], P = 0.01). The risk of cardiac death after PCI was also higher than after CABG (1.98 [1.10-3.55], P = 0.02). Stratified analysis using the SYNTAX score demonstrated that risk of death was not different between PCI and CABG in patients with low (<23) and intermediate (23-32) SYNTAX scores (2.10 [0.57-7.68], P = 0.26 and 1.43 [0.63-3.21], P = 0.39, respectively), whereas those with a high (≥ 33) SYNTAX score, the risk of death was far higher after PCI than after CABG (4.83 [1.46-16.0], P = 0.01). In patients with heart failure with advanced coronary artery disease, CABG was a better option than PCI because CABG was associated with better survival benefit, particularly in more complex coronary lesions stratified by the SYNTAX score. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. [Prof. Michiharu Matsuoka, founder of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Kyoto University and his achievements in orthopaedic surgery in the Meiji era of Japan (Part 5, Faculty members and training of doctors from Nagoya)].

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Hayato

    2010-09-01

    During the years when Dr. M. Matsuoka was professor of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kyoto Medical School, Kyoto Imperial University (June, 1907-January, 1914), seven doctors worked as his faculty members and founded the base of the current development and reputation of the Department. After resignation from their academic positions, they served in orthopaedic practice in several areas in Japan where orthopaedic surgery was not well recognized. In addition, Prof. Matsuoka trained three doctors from the Aichi Prefectural Medical College (School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in the orthopaedic practice, including x-ray technique and they contributed to the development of orthopaedic surgery in the areas of Nagoya city and Tokai. Backgrounds and achievements of these ten doctors are described.

  3. Comparison of five-year outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with left ventricular ejection fractions≤50% versus >50% (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2014-10-01

    Coronary heart disease is a major risk factor for left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. However, limited data are available regarding long-term benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the era of drug-eluting stent or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with LV systolic dysfunction with severe coronary artery disease. We identified 3,584 patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease of 15,939 patients undergoing first myocardial revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2. Of them, 2,676 patients had preserved LV systolic function, defined as an LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of >50% and 908 had impaired LV systolic function (LVEF≤50%). In patients with preserved LV function, 5-year outcomes were not different between PCI and CABG regarding propensity score-adjusted risk of all-cause and cardiac deaths. In contrast, in patients with impaired LV systolic function, the risks of all-cause and cardiac deaths after PCI were significantly greater than those after CABG (hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.14, p=0.03 and hazard ratio 2.39, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 3.98, p<0.01). In both patients with moderate (35%associated with better 5-year survival outcomes than PCI in patients with impaired LV systolic function (LVEF≤50%) with complex coronary disease in the era

  4. Influence of initial acute myocardial infarction presentation on the outcome of surgical procedures after coronary stent implantation: a report from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2.

    PubMed

    Tokushige, Akihiro; Shiomi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ono, Koh; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kadota, Kazushige; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Shizuta, Satoshi; Tada, Tomohisa; Tazaki, Junichi; Kato, Yoshihiro; Hayano, Mamoru; Abe, Mitsuru; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Tei, Chuwa; Nakashima, Hitoshi; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Several previous publications have consistently reported that surgical procedures performed early after coronary stenting were associated with significantly higher risk for ischemic events than those performed late. In the current post hoc analysis of the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto PCI/coronary artery bypass grafting Registry Cohort-2, we compared the outcomes of early (within 42 days) versus late surgery (beyond 42 days) after coronary stenting stratified by the initial clinical presentations [acute myocardial infarction (AMI) [early N = 153, and late N = 586] and non-AMI (early N = 202, and late N = 1457)]. Cumulative incidence of death/myocardial infarction/stent thrombosis at 30 days after surgery was significantly higher in the early group than in the late group in the AMI stratum [18.4 vs. 2.6 %, P < 0.0001, and adjusted HR 5.65 (95 % CI 2.42-13.5), P < 0.0001], but not in the non-AMI stratum [3.0 vs. 1.8 %, P = 0.3, and adjusted HR 1.52 (95 % CI 0.47-4.17), P = 0.5]. There was a significant interaction for the risk of ischemic events between the clinical presentation and the timing of surgery (P interaction = 0.03). Deaths in patients with early surgery in the AMI stratum were mostly related to preoperative complications of AMI (76 %), but not related to perioperative stent-related complications (4.0 %). In conclusion, significantly higher risk of early versus late surgery for perioperative ischemic events was seen only in patients with initial AMI presentation, but not in patients with non-AMI presentation. Previous observations suggesting higher risk in early surgery might not be related to the timing after stent implantation per se, but related to more morbid preoperative conditions in patients who underwent early surgery.

  5. Differential splicing patterns of L-type calcium channel Cav1.2 subunit in hearts of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Wistar Kyoto Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen Zhi; Liao, Ping; Li, Guang; Jiang, Feng Li; Yu, Dejie; Hong, Xin; Yong, Tan Fong; Tan, Gregory; Lu, Songqing; Wang, Jing; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2008-01-01

    Cav1.2 L-type calcium channels are essential in heart and smooth muscle contraction. Rat Cav1.2 gene contains 11 alternatively spliced exons (1a, 1, 8a, 8, 9*, 21, 22, 31, 32, 32-6nt and 33) which can be assorted to generate a large number of functionally distinct splice variants. Until now, it is unknown whether the utilization of these alternatively spliced exons is altered in the hypertrophied hearts of hypertensive rats. By comparing the assortments of these 11 exons in full-length Cav1.2 transcripts derived from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs) and Wistar Kyoto Rats (WKYs) hearts, we found that the inclusion of Cav1.2 alternative exons was significantly different between the two rats both at individual loci and in combinatorial arrangements. Functional characterizations of three Cav1.2 channel splice variants that were identified to be significantly altered in SHR hypertrophied cardiomyocytes demonstrated distinct whole-cell electrophysiological properties when expressed in HEK 293 cells. Interestingly, aberrant splice variants which included or excluded both mutually exclusive exons 21/22 or exons 31/32 were found to be increased in hypertensive rats. Two aberrant splice variants that included both exons 21 and 22 were found to be unable to conduct currents even though they expressed proteins with the predicted molecular mass. Characterization of one of the aberrant splice variants showed that it exerted a dominant negative effect on the functional Cav1.2 channels when co-expressed in HEK293 cells. The altered combinatorial splicing profiles of Cav1.2 transcripts identified in SHR hearts provide a different and new perspective in understanding the possible role of molecular remodeling of Cav1.2 channels in cardiac hypertrophy as a consequence of hypertension.

  6. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption upon cardiovascular reactivity, heart rate and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Beilin, L J; Hoffmann, P; Nilsson, H; Skarphedinsson, J; Folkow, B

    1992-07-01

    Clarification of the effect of chronic ethanol consumption upon cardiovascular reactivity in rats. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats were randomly allocated in groups of 10 to ethanol in tap water [20% (v:v) after the first week or tap water for 7-12 weeks]. Intra-arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured at rest and in response to vibration and noise stress. Vascular reactivity was assessed in isolated paired perfused hindquarters and in mesenteric arterioles in a Mulvany-Halpern myograph. Resting intra-arterial blood pressure but not heart rate was lower in both ethanol-treated groups. The ethanol treatment increased the SHR heart rate response to sudden noise but the WKY response did not increase. Pressor responses to noise were initially greater in the ethanol-treated SHR. The ethanol had no effect upon isolated perfused hindquarter resistance at maximal dilation, dose-response curves in response to noradrenaline or vasopressin, or maximal contractile strength. Isolated mesenteric arterioles showed that ethanol had no effect upon responses to nerve stimulation or upon the 50% effective dose required for a response to noradrenaline or vasopressin. Ethanol treatment heightened the heart rate reactivity to stress without substantially affecting vascular neuro-effector characteristics in SHR. This is likely to be a central effect, caused by suppression of the central nervous inhibitory systems that influence the heart rate and baroreflex activity in a strain of rat already showing evidence of an impaired ability to modulate the heart rate and blood pressure in response to stress. The small reduction in resting blood pressure may be a consequence of the lower weight in the ethanol-treated rats, and/or may reflect a direct depressing action by the alcohol on vascular and cardiac muscle. These findings are discussed in the context of ethanol-induced hypertension in humans and possible genetic variations in

  7. The effect of restraint stress on prepulse inhibition and on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF receptor gene expression in Wistar-Kyoto and Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jane E.; Burian, Linda C.; Covault, Jonathan; Conti, Lisa H.

    2010-01-01

    Stress plays a role in many psychiatric disorders that are characterized by deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI), a form of sensorimotor gating. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is one of the most important neurotransmitters involved in behavioral components of the stress response, and central infusion of CRF decreases PPI in rodents. We recently demonstrated that restraint stress decreases PPI and attenuates the increase in PPI caused by repeated testing. To broaden our investigation into how restraint affects PPI, we subjected Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Brown Norway (BN) rats to 10 consecutive days of 2-hour restraint, or to brief handling, prior to assessing PPI. We next examined the effects of 1 or 10 days of 2-hour restraint on plasma corticosterone levels in order to determine whether the endocrine response to stress parallels the behavioral effect of stress. Finally, we examined the effects of 1 or 10 days of 2-hour restraint on CRF and CRF receptor gene expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus in order to determine whether a temporal pattern of gene expression parallels the change in the behavioral response to stress. The major findings of the present study are that 1) restraint stress attenuates the increase in PPI caused by repeated testing in both WKY and BN rats, and BN rats are more sensitive to the effects of restraint on PPI than WKY rats, 2) restraint-induced increases in corticosterone levels mirror the effect of restraint on PPI in WKY rats but not in BN rats, 3) laterality effects on gene expression were observed for the amygdala, whereby restraint increases CRF gene expression in the left, but not right, amygdala, and 4) some restraint-induced changes in CRF and CRF receptor gene expression precede changes in PPI while other changes coincide with altered PPI in a rat strain- and brain region-dependent manner. PMID:20709096

  8. Spatial learning/memory and social and nonsocial behaviors in the spontaneously hypertensive, Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rat strains.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sherry A; Cada, Amy M

    2004-03-01

    The Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) is often described as less behaviorally reactive than its normotensive strain, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), although results are somewhat inconsistent across studies. In part, this may be due to the lack of a definitive characterization of "reactivity." Still, results from identical behavioral tests of SHR and WKY across studies are sometimes conflicting. Further, few comparisons with other rodent strains are available and these might provide guidance in outlining the meaning of reactivity. Here, social and nonsocial behaviors and spatial learning and memory were measured in male and female SHR, WKY, and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Systolic blood pressure measurements at adulthood confirmed hypertension in the SHR. Juvenile play behavior indicated that SHRs were more sensitive to the strain of their play partner than were the WKY or SD, playing less with different strain partners than with same strain partners. However, adult dominance behavior (restricted access in a water competition test) indicated no strain differences. The SHR appeared to exhibit attenuated acoustic startle relative to the WKY and SD and their prepulse inhibition was substantially less at higher prepulse decibel intensities; however, this decreased prepulse inhibition was not the result of decreased startle during the test. Anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze was most prominent in the SD strain, possibly as a result of poorer motor coordination as measured by rotarod performance. Elevated plus maze behavior as well as motor coordination did not differ between the SHR and WKY strains. Performance in the NCTR complex maze and the Morris water maze was significantly better in the SHR. These results do not support hypotheses of decreased behavioral reactivity in the SHR strain. Rather, they suggest complex interactions between social and nonsocial environments and the behavioral capabilities and requirements of the rat strain.

  9. Effects of L-theanine on anxiety-like behavior, cerebrospinal fluid amino acid profile, and hippocampal activity in Wistar Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Ota, Miho; Ogura, Jun; Kato, Koichi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2017-10-03

    The amino acid L-theanine (N-ethyl-L-glutamine) has historically been considered a relaxing agent. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated L-theanine administration on behavior, levels of amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and hippocampal activity in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of anxiety and depressive disorders. Behavioral tests were performed after 7-10 days of L-theanine (0.4 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or saline administration, followed by CSF sampling for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An independent set of animals was subjected to [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scanning after the same dose of L-theanine or saline administration for 7 days. In the elevated plus maze test, the time spent in the open arms was significantly longer in the L-theanine group than in the saline group (P = 0.035). In addition, significantly lower CSF glutamate (P = 0.039) and higher methionine (P = 0.024) concentrations were observed in the L-theanine group than in the saline group. A significant increase in the standard uptake value ratio was observed in the hippocampus/cerebellum of the L-theanine group (P < 0.001). These results suggest that L-theanine enhances hippocampal activity and exerts anxiolytic effects, which may be mediated by changes in glutamate and methionine levels in the brain. Further study is required to more fully elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of L-theanine.

  10. Impact of Low Diastolic Blood Pressure on Risk of Cardiovascular Death in Elderly Patients With Coronary Artery Disease After Revascularization - The CREDO-Kyoto Registry Cohort-1.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hisashi; Kimura, Takeshi; Fukuda, Kenji; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2016-04-25

    We investigated the effects of age and low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) on cardiovascular death in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after coronary revascularization. Stable, chronic CAD patients after coronary revascularization in the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-1 were allocated to the Young (≤64 years, n=2,619), Young-Old (65-74 years, n=2,932), and Old-Old (≥75 years, n=1,629) groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the crude cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death was higher in Young-Old patients with DBP <70 mmHg (P<0.001) and in Old-Old patients with DBP <60 mmHg (P=0.017), but not <70 mmHg (P=0.629), compared with each counterpart. Low DBP did not increase cardiovascular death in young patients. After adjustments with independent predictors, DBP <60 mmHg did not increase the cardiovascular death in the Old-Old group (HR=1.579 [95% CI, 0.944-2.642], P=0.082) and DBP <70 mmHg remained a predictor in the Young-Old group (HR=1.665 [1.094-2.532], P=0.017). On multivariate stepwise Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, independent predictors for cardiovascular death in low DBP patients were creatinine clearance (CCr; inversely), prior cerebrovascular disease, and aortic disease in the Young-Old group and CCr (inversely) and malignancy in the Old-Old group. DBP <60 mmHg was not an independent factor for predicting cardiovascular death in Old-Old revascularized CAD patients, whereas DBP <70 mmHg remained a predictor in the Young-Old. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1232-1241).

  11. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  12. Intrarenal angiotensin III infusion induces natriuresis and angiotensin type 2 receptor translocation in Wistar-Kyoto but not in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Padia, Shetal H; Kemp, Brandon A; Howell, Nancy L; Gildea, John J; Keller, Susanna R; Carey, Robert M

    2009-02-01

    In Sprague-Dawley rats, renal angiotensin (Ang) type 2 receptors (AT(2)Rs) mediate natriuresis in response to renal interstitial (RI) D(1)-like receptor stimulation or RI Ang III infusion. After D(1)-like receptor activation, apical membrane (AM) but not total renal proximal tubule cell AT(2)R expression is increased, suggesting that AM AT(2)R translocation may be important for natriuresis. The onset of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) is preceded by defects in renal sodium excretion. The present study examines AT(2)R-mediated natriuresis in response to RI Ang III infusion in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and SHRs. WKYs and SHRs received RI Ang III infusion after 24 hours of systemic AT(1)R blockade with candesartan. In WKYs, urine sodium excretion rate increased from 0.043+/-0.01 to 0.191+/-0.06 micromol/min (P<0.05) in response to Ang III infusion, but identical conditions failed to increase the urine sodium excretion rate in SHRs. The increase in the urine sodium excretion rate was blocked by coinfusion of PD-123319, a selective AT(2)R antagonist. On confocal microscopy images, Ang III-infused WKYs demonstrated greater renal proximal tubule cell AM AT(2)R fluorescence intensity compared with SHRs (5385+/-725 versus 919+/-35; P<0.0001), and Western blot analysis demonstrated increased AM (0.050+/-0.003 versus 0.038+/-0.003; P<0.01) but not total cell AT(2)R expression in WKYs. In SHRs, AM AT(2)R expression remained unchanged in response to RI Ang III infusion. Thus, RI Ang III infusion elicits natriuresis and renal proximal tubule cell AT(2)R translocation in WKYs. Identical manipulations fail to induce natriuresis or AT(2)R translocation in SHRs, suggesting that defects in AT(2)R-mediated natriuresis and trafficking may be important to the development of hypertension in SHRs.

  13. Short versus prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy duration after bare-metal stent implantation: 2-month landmark analysis from the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2.

    PubMed

    Natsuaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kadota, Kazushige; Ando, Kenji; Shiomi, Hiroki; Toyota, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Hirotoshi; Ono, Koh; Shizuta, Satoshi; Tamura, Takashi; Inoko, Moriaki; Inada, Tsukasa; Shirotani, Manabu; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Aoyama, Takeshi; Onodera, Tomoya; Suwa, Satoru; Takeda, Teruki; Inoue, Katsumi; Kimura, Takeshi

    2016-09-19

    One-month duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has widely been adopted after bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation in the real clinical practice. However, it has not been adequately addressed yet whether DAPT for only 1-month could provide sufficient protection from ischemic events beyond 1-month after BMS implantation. We assessed the effects of short DAPT relative to prolonged DAPT on clinical outcomes with the landmark analysis at 2 month after BMS implantation. Among 13,058 consecutive patients enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto registry cohort-2, this study population consisted of 4905 patients treated with BMS only in whom the information on the status of antiplatelet therapy was available at 2 month after stent implantation [single-antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) group: N = 2575 (acute myocardial infarction (AMI): N = 1257, and non-AMI: N = 1318), and DAPT group: N = 2330 (AMI: N = 1304, and non-AMI: N = 1026)]. Cumulative 3-year incidence of the primary outcome measure (a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, definite stent thrombosis, and GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding) was not significantly different between the SAPT and DAPT groups (9.8 versus 10.6 %, P = 0.34). After adjusting confounders, the risk of SAPT relative to DAPT for the primary outcome measure remained insignificant in the entire cohort (HR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.79-1.19, P = 0.77), and in both AMI and non-AMI strata without any significant interaction between clinical presentation (AMI versus non-AMI) and the effect of SAPT relative to DAPT (P interaction = 0.56). In conclusion, short DAPT <2 month after BMS implantation was as safe as prolonged DAPT ≥2-month in both AMI and non-AMI patients.

  14. Procedures for prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal diseases: a multicenter questionnaire survey of hospitals in the Kyoto Neonatal Disease Study Group, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kousaku; Kawai, Masahiko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Kato, Fumihide; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Yamakawa, Masaru; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Seiichi; Maeda, Shinji; Okumura, Mitsuyoshi; Kanaoka, Hiroo

    2007-02-01

    To explore clinical protocols for the prevention of early-onset group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) disease of the newborn in Japan, we conducted a multicenter questionnaire survey. Of 32 regional centers participating in the Kyoto Neonatal Study Group, 28 provided usable data concerning prevention practices undertaken between 2000 and 2004. Twenty-three (82%) of the 28 hospitals implemented bacteriological screening to identify maternal GBS carriage, and all 23 hospitals administered intrapartum antibiotics to all screening-positive pregnant women. There were no institutes that used risk-based strategies. In the 23 hospitals, bacteriological screening was conducted mostly by lower vaginal swab alone (n = 18). Eighteen hospitals performed screening once during pregnancy, either before 34 weeks' gestation (n = 6) or between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation (n = 12). Oral antepartum antibiotics, when carriage was identified, were administered at 12 (52%) hospitals. Twenty institutes used penicillins for intrapartum prophylaxis. However, the loading dose for chemoprophylaxis ranged from 0.5 to 2 g, and the interval between repeat administrations ranged from 4 to 12 h. Although the results indicated that more than 80% of the hospitals surveyed had introduced some screening-based prevention practices, the timing of the bacteriological screening during the pregnancy, the number of screenings, and the screening sites, as well as the antibiotics used, and their dosage, varied widely. Because of these highly variable methods, the efficacy of the implementation of preventive practices could not be determined. This study is the first to have described preventive practices for EOGBS disease in Japan in the era of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. In light of the above results, a larger study under a unifying protocol would be warranted.

  15. Difference in patient profiles and outcomes in Japanese versus American patients undergoing coronary revascularization (collaborative study by CREDO-Kyoto and the Texas Heart Institute Research Database).

    PubMed

    Kohsaka, Shun; Kimura, Takeshi; Goto, Masashi; Lee, Vei-Vei; Elayda, Macarthur; Furukawa, Yutaka; Fukushima, Masanori; Komeda, Masashi; Sakata, Ryuuzou; Willerson, James T; Wilson, James M; Kita, Toru

    2010-06-15

    Although coronary revascularization is common in both Japan and the United States (US), no direct comparison has been performed to demonstrate differences in the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of patients in these 2 countries. We analyzed the preprocedural, in-hospital, and long-term data from the Coronary Revascularization Demonstrating Outcome registry (Kyoto, Japan) and the Texas Heart Institute Research Database (Houston, Texas) of 16,100 patients who had undergone elective, initial percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. The Japanese procedures were performed from 2000 to 2002 (n = 8,871, follow-up period 3.5 years, interquartile range 2.6 to 4.3) and the US procedures from 1999 to 2003 (n = 7,229, follow-up period 5.2 years, interquartile range 3.8 to 6.5). The Japanese patients tended to be older (mean age 67.2 vs 62.7 years; p <0.001), to smoke (52.9% vs 46.0%; p <0.001), and to have diabetes (39.2% vs 31.0%; p <0.001) and stroke (16.4% vs 5.0%; p <0.001). The US patients were more obese (body mass index 23.7 vs 29.3 kg/m(2); p <0.001), with greater rates of systemic atherosclerotic disease. Both groups had a similar in-hospital mortality rate (Japanese patients 0.9% vs US patients 1.1%; p = 0.19) and crude long-term mortality rate (Japanese patients 27.7/1,000 person-years, US patients 28.2/1,000 person-years; p = 0.35). After adjustment for known predictors, the US group had greater long-term mortality than the Japanese group (hazard ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.50 to 1.95; p <0.001). This finding was consistent among all high-risk subgroups. In conclusion, the 2 registries showed similar crude outcomes but important differences in patient risk factors such as obesity. In the adjusted analysis, the Japanese patients had better outcomes than did the US patients. Additional study is needed to assess the effect of ethnic and risk factor variations on coronary artery disease.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates in Kyoto and Osaka, Japan, 2010 to 2012: Intensified Surveillance after Identification of the First Strain (H041) with High-Level Ceftriaxone Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shimuta, Ken; Unemo, Magnus; Nakayama, Shu-ichi; Morita-Ishihara, Tomoko; Dorin, Misato; Kawahata, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the first high-level ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain (H041) was isolated in Kyoto, Japan. The present study describes an intensified surveillance (antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Kyoto and its neighboring prefecture Osaka, Japan, in 2010 to 2012, which was initiated after the identification of H041. From April 2010 to March 2012, 193 N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected and the MICs (μg/ml) to six antimicrobials, including ceftriaxone, were determined. All isolates showed susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime (MIC values, <0.5 μg/ml), and spectinomycin. The rates of resistance (intermediate susceptibility) to azithromycin, penicillin G, and ciprofloxacin were 3.6% (19.7%), 24.4% (71.0%), and 78.2% (0.5%), respectively. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that 40.9%, 19.2%, and 17.1% of isolates belonged to ST1901, ST7359, and ST7363, respectively. Furthermore, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) revealed that 12 (63%) of the 19 isolates with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.064 μg/ml) were of ST1407. NG-MAST ST1407 was also the most prevalent ST (16.1%; 31 of 193 isolates). In those NG-MAST ST1407 strains, several mosaic type penA alleles were found, including SF-A type (penicillin binding protein 2 allele XXXIV) and its derivatives. These were confirmed using transformation of the penA mosaic alleles as critical determinants for enhanced cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs. The intensified surveillance in Kyoto and Osaka, Japan, did not identify any dissemination of the high-level ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain H041, suggesting that H041 might have caused only a sporadic case and has not spread further. PMID:23939890

  17. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON RHIC SPIN PHYSICS III AND IV, POLARIZED PARTONS AT HIGH Q2 REGION, AUGUST 3, 2000 AT BNL, OCTOBER 14, 2000 AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    BUNCE, G.; VIGDOR, S.

    2001-03-15

    International workshop on II Polarized Partons at High Q2 region 11 was held at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan on October 13-14, 2000, as a satellite of the international conference ''SPIN 2000'' (Osaka, Japan, October 16-21,2000). This workshop was supported by RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and by Yukawa Institute. The scientific program was focused on the upcoming polarized collider RHIC. The workshop was also an annual meeting of RHIC Spin Collaboration (RSC). The number of participants was 55, including 28 foreign visitors and 8 foreign-resident Japanese participants, reflecting the international nature of the RHIC spin program. At the workshop there were 25 oral presentations in four sessions, (1) RHIC Spin Commissioning, (2) Polarized Partons, Present and Future, (3) New Ideas on Polarization Phenomena, (4) Strategy for the Coming Spin Running. In (1) the successful polarized proton commissioning and the readiness of the accelerator for the physics program impressed us. In (2) and (3) active discussions were made on the new structure function to be firstly measured at RHIC, and several new theoretical ideas were presented. In session (4) we have established a plan for the beam time requirement toward the first collision of polarized protons. These proceedings include the transparencies presented at the workshop. The discussion on ''Strategy for the Coming Spin Running'' was summarized by the chairman of the session, S. Vigdor and G. Bunce.

  18. Monitoring of radioactive substances in foods distributed in Kyoto, Japan (1991-2011). - Comparison of detection rates and concentrations before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident - .

    PubMed

    Banno, Yukinori; Namikawa, Mikio; Miwa, Mariko; Ban, Soichirou; Orito, Taichi; Semura, Shunsuke; Kawakami, Masahiro; Doi, Naoya; Miyake, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive substances have been continually monitored in foods collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The importance of the monitoring was increased by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Here, the detection rates and concentrations of radioactive substances were compared among food samples collected before and after the accident in Fukushima prefecture. Before the accident, (137)Cs was the only radioactive substance detected in foods. The detection rate was 70% for fish and shellfish samples and the highest concentration was 1.7 Bq/kg. It was also 83% for fresh mushroom samples and the highest concentration was 7.5 Bq/kg. In contrast, the detection rate was low for vegetables and the concentrations were also lower than those of the above samples. On the other hand, after the accident, (131)I was detected in food produced in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. Actually, (131)I (3,400 Bq/kg), (134)Cs (280 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (280 Bq/kg) were detected in mizuna, a leaf vegetable, on March 23, 2011. These radioactive substances were detected in all leaf vegetable samples examined in March and April 2011, but they were not detected in samples examined in November 2011. (131)I was not detected in any food sample examined after May 2011. However, (137)Cs (average=7.9 Bq/kg) was consistently detected in fish and shellfish samples until November, although the concentrations were less than the regulatory limits. It appears unlikely that foods containing radioactive substances over the regulatory limits are currently being distributed in Kyoto.

  19. Differences between rat strains in the development of PRL-secreting pituitary tumors with long-term estrogen treatment: In vitro insulin-like growth factor-1-induced lactotroph proliferation and gene expression are affected in Wistar-Kyoto rats with low estrogen-susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Tetsuo; Ishida, Maho; Izawa, Michi; Arita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in the susceptibility of rat strains to pituitary growth and lactotroph proliferation caused by long-term treatment with estrogens. To investigate the pituitary mechanism for this strain difference in estrogen-induced lactotroph proliferation, we compared the abilities of 17-β estradiol (E2) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to modulate lactotroph proliferation and gene expression in vitro in Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. These two strains of rats have a high and very low susceptibility to estrogen, respectively. Long-term in vivo treatment with E2 was confirmed to markedly increase pituitary weight and lactotroph proliferation in ovariectomized Wistar, but not in WKY rats. Pituitary lactotrophs in primary cultures showed similar proliferative responsiveness to the culture condition-dependent, stimulatory and inhibitory actions of E2 in both strains. The only difference in lactotroph proliferation in vitro was a lower response to IGF-1 in WKY cells compared with Wistar cells. This difference in proliferation was associated with strain differences in IGF-1-induced gene expression in Wistar and WKY cultured cells. Of the genes tested, IGF-1-induced expression of the Wnt4, Stc1, Mybl1, and Myc genes was attenuated or abolished in WKY cells. These results suggest that the proliferative response to estrogen in lactotrophs in primary culture does not reflect the proliferative response to long-term estrogen treatment observed in vivo in Wistar and WKY rats. The strain difference in proliferation and gene expression to IGF-1 may be implicated in the variable degree of susceptibility for lactotroph proliferation observed in different strains of rats following long-term estrogen treatment.

  20. THE ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MITOCHONDRIA IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED CARDIOPULMONARY INJURY IN STROKE PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHRSP) AND WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have associated PM exposure with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and this effect seems to be enhanced in populations with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. One hypothesis for this exacerbation is that the higher underlying level of oxidative st...

  1. THE ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MITOCHONDRIA IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)-INDUCED CARDIOPULMONARY INJURY IN STROKE PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SHRSP) AND WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have associated PM exposure with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and this effect seems to be enhanced in populations with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. One hypothesis for this exacerbation is that the higher underlying level of oxidative st...

  2. Effects of d-amphetamine on short- and long-term memory in spontaneously hypertensive, Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Ponce-Lopez, T; Tellez, R; Gonzalez, R; Castillo, C; Gasbarri, A

    2011-01-01

    Diverse studies indicate that the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with alterations in encoding processes, including working or short-term memory. Some ADHD dysfunctional domains are reflected in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Here SHR-saline group showed significantly poor STM and LTM relative to SD and WKY saline rats. SD and WKY rats treated with d-amphetamine displayed better STM and LTM, compared to SD-vehicle, WKY-vehicle or SHR-d-amphetamine groups.

  3. Similar changes in clinical and pathological parameters in Wistar Kyoto rats after a 13-week dietary intake of canola oil or a fatty acid composition-based interesterified canola oil mimic.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko; Kasama, Kikuko; Shindo, Tomoko; Yoshida, Hiromichi; Nagata, Tomoko; Okuyama, Harumi

    2009-01-01

    Canola oil (CO) given as a dietary fat deteriorates hypertension-related condition and shortens the life of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Although substances other than fatty acids have been presumed as causatives, CO mimics consisting of oils other than CO also shorten the life. In this study we intended to examine whether or not fatty acid composition unique to CO participates in the adverse effect. CO or an interesterified CO mimic (ICOM) consisting of safflower oil, flaxseed oil and erucic acid was fed as a dietary fat for 13 weeks to Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and clinical and pathological signs were compared. WKY rats were used to avoid the difficulty in evaluating the results in SHRSP due to irregular deterioration in conditions by stroke. Compared to a standard diet, both diets containing CO or ICOM similarly elevated blood pressure, increased plasma lipids, activated hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, decreased platelets, shortened blood coagulation times and induced abnormalities in the kidney. Thus, CO-specific fatty acid composition appeared to affect the pathophysiology of the rat and produce consequent aggravation of pathological status, especially in SHRSP. However, the existence of causative factors other than fatty acids was suggested by increased neutrophil count exclusively induced by CO.

  4. [Analyzing the attributes of surgeons and working environment required for a successful career path and work-life balance: results of a survey administered to doctors working at Kyoto University Hospital].

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Kae; Tanabe, Tomoko; Hisamoto, Norio; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    We conducted a survey in March 2010 of all physicians at Kyoto University Hospital on working environments, levels of satisfaction, and level of exhaustion. A comparison of surgeons with other physicians showed tendencies among surgeons toward longer working hours and lower income. The findings indicated that surgeons experienced satisfaction from teamwork with fellow physicians, opportunities to manage interesting cases, and patient gratitude. Surgeons tended to have low fatigue level and were satisfied with their working environments, despite their low wages and long working hours. Although surgical treatment is currently built upon the feelings of accomplishment and satisfaction of individual surgeons, there is always a limit to his/her psychological strength. Indeed, the number of young surgeons is not increasing. In the future, efforts must be taken to prevent the departure of currently practicing surgeons. Consideration must also be given to reducing nonsurgical duties by increasing the numbers of medical staff, and making work conditions more appealing to young surgeons by guaranteeing income and prohibiting long working hours, particularly consecutive working hours.

  5. Up Regulation of cystathione γ lyase and Hydrogen Sulphide in the Myocardium Inhibits the Progression of Isoproterenol-Caffeine Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Wistar Kyoto Rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar A; Rathore, Hassaan A; Abdulla, Mohammed H; Khan, Safia A; Azam, Maleeha; Abdullah, Nor A; Johns, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C) and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L) for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE) mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05) in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05) in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05) plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress LVH

  6. Up Regulation of cystathione γ lyase and Hydrogen Sulphide in the Myocardium Inhibits the Progression of Isoproterenol–Caffeine Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Wistar Kyoto Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Sattar, Munavvar A.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Abdulla, Mohammed H.; Khan, Safia A.; Azam, Maleeha; Abdullah, Nor A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an emerging molecule in many cardiovascular complications but its role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is unknown. The present study explored the effect of exogenous H2S administration in the regression of LVH by modulating oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and expression of cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, LVH, Control-H2S and LVH-H2S. LVH was induced by administering isoprenaline (5mg/kg, every 72 hours, S/C) and caffeine in drinking water (62mg/L) for 2 weeks. Intraperitoneal NaHS, 56μM/kg/day for 5 weeks, was given as an H2S donor. Myocardial expression of Cystathione γ lyase (CSE) mRNA was quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).There was a 3 fold reduction in the expression of myocardial CSE mRNA in LVH but it was up regulated by 7 and 4 fold in the Control-H2S and LVH-H2S myocardium, respectively. Systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity were reduced (all P<0.05) in LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Heart, LV weight, myocardial thickness were reduced while LV internal diameter was increased (all P<0.05) in the LVH-H2S when compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S in LVH increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity but significantly reduced (all P<0.05) plasma malanodialdehyde in the LVH-H2S compared to the LVH group. The renal cortical blood perfusion increased by 40% in LVH-H2S as compared to the LVH group. Exogenous administration of H2S suppressed the progression of LVH which was associated with an up regulation of myocardial CSE mRNA/ H2S and a reduction in pulse wave velocity with a blunting of systemic hemodynamic. This CSE/H2S pathway exhibits an antihypertrophic role by antagonizing the hypertrophic actions of angiotensin II(Ang II) and noradrenaline (NA) but attenuates oxidative stress and improves pulse wave velocity which helps to suppress LVH

  7. Effects of AT1 receptor antagonism on kainate-induced seizures and concomitant changes in hippocampal extracellular noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Loyens, Ellen; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-05-01

    In the management of epilepsy, AT1 receptor antagonists have been suggested as an additional treatment strategy. A hyperactive brain angiotensin (Ang) II system and upregulated AT1 receptors are implicated in the cerebrovascular alterations in a genetic form of hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension could also, in turn, be a risk factor for a seizure threshold decrease and development of epileptogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the effects of the selective AT1 receptor antagonist ZD7155 on kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) development and accompanying changes in the hippocampal extracellular (EC) neurotransmitter levels of noradrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their parent strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, since monoamines are well-known neurotransmitters involved in mechanisms of both epilepsy and hypertension. Status epilepticus was evoked in freely moving rats by a repetitive intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of KA in subconvulsant doses. In the treatment group, ZD7155 (5mg/kg i.p.) was coadministered with the first KA injection. Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibited higher susceptibility to SE than WKY rats, but the AT1 receptor antagonist did not alter the development of SE in SHRs or in WKY rats. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated significant KA-induced increases of the hippocampal NAD and DA levels in SHRs and of NAD, 5-HT, and DA in WKY rats. Although SHRs developed more severe seizures while receiving a lower dose of KA compared to WKY rats, AT1 receptor antagonism completely prevented all KA-induced increases of hippocampal monoamine levels in both rat strains without affecting seizure development per se. These results suggest a lack of direct relationship between KA-induced seizure susceptibility and adaptive changes of hippocampal NAD, 5-HT, and DA levels in the effects of ZD7155 in WKY rats and SHRs.

  8. Comparative analysis of the central CCK system in Fawn Hooded and Wistar Kyoto rats: extended localisation of CCK-A receptors throughout the rat brain using a novel radioligand.

    PubMed

    Lodge, D J; Lawrence, A J

    2001-06-15

    The neuropeptide cholecystokinin has been implicated in the actions of a number of central processes including anxiety and reward. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to compare the density of CCK-A and -B receptors and the mRNA encoding preproCCK throughout the brains of an alcohol-preferring (Fawn Hooded) rat strain with that of a non-alcohol-preferring (Wistar Kyoto) strain of rat. Our study revealed significant differences with regard to the central CCK system of the FH compared to the WKY rat, including differences in CCK-A receptor binding throughout the dorsal medulla, and altered CCK-B binding density throughout the cerebral cortex and reticular nucleus of the thalamus. The most striking result, given the altered behavioural phenotype of the FH rat, was the 33% lower density of CCKmRNA measured throughout the ventral tegmental area of the FH rat when compared to the WKY. This study also reports on a protocol to utilise a novel radioligand, [125I]-D-Tyr-Gly-A-71378, for autoradiographic detection of CCK-A receptors throughout the rat brain. As previously reported, CCK-A receptors were located throughout the area postrema, interpeduncular nucleus and nucleus tractus solitarii; however, binding to CCK-A receptors was also visualised throughout the medial pre-optic area, the arcuate nucleus and the circumventricular regions of the ventral hypothalamus, regions known to contain CCK-A receptors but which were previously undetectable using autoradiography in rat brain.

  9. Associations of day-to-day temperature change and diurnal temperature range with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the impacts of temperature on mortality and morbidity have been documented, few studies have investigated whether day-to-day temperature change and diurnal temperature range (DTR) are independent risk factors for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design This was a prospective, population-based, observational study. Methods We obtained all OHCA data from 2005-2013 from six major prefectures in Japan: Hokkaido, Tokyo, Kanagawa, Aichi, Kyoto, and Osaka. We used a quasi-Poisson regression analysis with a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the associations of day-to-day temperature change and DTR with OHCA for each prefecture. Results In total, 271,698 OHCAs of presumed cardiac origin were reported during the study period. There was a significant increase in the risk of OHCA associated with cold temperature in five prefectures, with relative risks (RRs) ranging from 1.298 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.649) in Hokkaido to 3.893 (95% CI 1.713-8.845) in Kyoto. DTR was adversely associated with OHCA on hot days in Aichi (RR 1.158; 95% CI 1.028-1.304) and on cold days in Tokyo (RR 1.030; 95% CI 1.000-1.060), Kanagawa (RR 1.042; 95% CI 1.005-1.082), Kyoto (RR 1.060; 95% CI 1.001-1.122), and Osaka (RR 1.050; 95% CI 1.014-1.088), whereas there was no significant association between day-to-day temperature change and OHCA. Conclusion We found that associations between day-to-day temperature change and DTR and OHCA were generally small compared with the association with mean temperature. Our findings suggest that preventative measures for temperature-related OHCA may be more effective when focused on mean temperature and DTR.

  10. Risk factors for developing colorectal cancer in Japanese patients with ulcerative colitis: a retrospective observational study—CAPITAL (Cohort and Practice for IBD total management in Kyoto-Shiga Links) study I

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Takuya; Nakase, Hiroshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Bamba, Shigeki; Okuyama, Yusuke; Kawamura, Takuji; Oki, Teruki; Obata, Hirozumi; Kawanami, Chiharu; Katsushima, Shinji; Kusaka, Toshihiro; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Naito, Yuji; Andoh, Akira; Kogawa, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC), despite the development of new therapeutic agents. Stratification of the individual UC-patient's risk would be helpful to validate the risk factors for CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for the development of CRC in a large cohort of patients with UC. Methods Data were obtained from 12 hospitals in the Kyoto-Shiga region during 2003–2013. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 2137 patients with UC. Results In total, 60 lesions of CRC were detected in 43 (2.0%) of 2137 patients. 30 of the 43 patients were male. The median age was 53 years. The median duration of disease was 13 years, and 67.4% of these patients had a disease duration >10 years. Of the 43 patients, 34 (79.1%) had extensive colitis. Primary sclerosing cholangitis was detected in 2 patients (4.7%). The median corticosteroids (CS) dose was 6.4 g, and 4 patients were treated with a total of more than 10 g of CS. 18 of these patients underwent more than 1 year CS treatment. Of all 60 CRC lesions, 43 (71.7%) were located in the distal colon and 35 (58.3%) were of the superficial type. Moreover, the stage of CRC was stage 0 or I in 55.8% of the 43 patients with CRC. Multivariate analysis suggested that extensive colitis could be a risk factor for the development of advanced CRC in patients with UC. Conclusions Our findings indicated that male, extensive colitis, long-term duration of UC and family history of CRC, but not concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis, are important factors for predicting CRC in Japanese patients with UC. Moreover, long-standing extensive colitis might contribute to the progression of CRC. Further studies are required to establish CRC surveillance in Japanese patients with UC. PMID:27933204

  11. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis (5-year outcomes of the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2014-08-15

    Ischemic heart disease is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, long-term benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) relative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in those patients is still unclear in the drug-eluting stent era. We identified 388 patients with multivessel and/or left main disease with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis among 15,939 patients undergoing first coronary revascularization enrolled in the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2 (PCI: 258 patients and CABG: 130 patients). The CABG group included more patients with 3-vessel (38% vs 57%, p <0.001) and left main disease (10% vs 34%, p <0.001). Preprocedural Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score in the CABG group was significantly higher than that in the PCI group (23.5 ± 8.7 vs 29.4 ± 11.0, p <0.001). Unadjusted 30-day mortality was 2.7% for PCI and 5.4% for CABG. Cumulative 5-year all-cause mortality was 52.3% for PCI and 49.9% for CABG. Propensity score-adjusted all-cause mortality was not different between PCI and CABG (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85 to 2.09, p = 0.219). However, the excess risk of PCI relative to CABG for cardiac death was significant (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.96, p = 0.02). The risk of sudden death was also higher after PCI (HR 4.83, 95% CI 1.01 to 23.08, p = 0.049). The risk of myocardial infarction after PCI tended to be higher than after CABG (HR 3.30, 95% CI 0.72 to 15.09, p = 0.12). The risk of any coronary revascularization after PCI was markedly higher after CABG (HR 3.78, 95% CI 1.91 to 7.50, p <0.001). Among the 201 patients who died during the follow-up, 94 patients (47%) died from noncardiac morbidities such as stroke, respiratory failure, and renal failure. In patients with multivessel and/or left main disease undergoing dialysis, 5-year

  12. A Simple Risk Stratification Model for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) from the Combination of Blood Examination Variables: Acute Myocardial Infarction-Kyoto Multi-Center Risk Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Yokota, Isao; Zen, Kan; Yamano, Tetsuhiro; Shiraishi, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Jun; Sawada, Takahisa; Kohno, Yoshio; Kitamura, Makoto; Furukawa, Keizo; Matoba, Satoaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Many mortality risk scoring tools exist among patients with ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). A risk stratification model that evaluates STEMI prognosis more simply and rapidly is preferred in clinical practice. Methods and Findings We developed a simple stratification model for blood examination by using the STEMI data of AMI-Kyoto registry in the derivation set (n = 1,060) and assessed its utility for mortality prediction in the validation set (n = 521). We selected five variables that significantly worsen in-hospital mortality: white blood cell count, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, creatinine, and blood sugar levels at >10,000/μL, <10 g/dL, >1.0 mg/dL, >1.0 mg/dL, and >200 mg/dL, respectively. In the derivation set, each of the five variables significantly worsened in-hospital mortality (p < 0.01). We developed the risk stratification model by combining laboratory variables that were scored based on each beta coefficient obtained using multivariate analysis and divided three laboratory groups. We also found a significant trend in the in-hospital mortality rate for three laboratory groups. Therefore, we assessed the utility of this model in the validation set. The prognostic discriminatory capacity of our laboratory stratification model was comparable to that of the full multivariable model (c-statistic: derivation set vs validation set, 0.81 vs 0.74). In addition, we divided all cases (n = 1,581) into three thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk index groups based on an In TIME II substudy; the cases were further subdivided based on this laboratory model. The high laboratory group had significantly high in-hospital mortality rate in each TIMI risk index group (trend of in-hospital mortality; p < 0.01). Conclusions This laboratory stratification model can predict in-hospital mortality of STEMI simply and rapidly and might be useful for predicting in-hospital mortality of STEMI by further subdividing the TIMI risk index. PMID

  13. Paired-housing selectively facilitates within-session extinction of avoidance behavior, and increases c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, in anxiety vulnerable Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian M; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J; Jiao, Xilu; Beck, Kevin D

    2016-10-01

    The perseveration of avoidance behavior, even in the absence of once threatening stimuli, is a key feature of anxiety and related psychiatric conditions. This phenomenon can be observed in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat which, in comparison to outbred controls, demonstrates impaired extinction of avoidance behavior. Also characteristic of the WKY rat is abnormalities of the neurocircuitry and neuroplasticity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). One means of reducing physiological responses to anxiety, and conditioned fear, in social species is the presence of a conspecific animal. The current study investigates whether or not pair-housed WKY rats would show facilitated extinction of avoidance in comparison to individual-housed WKY rats, and whether or not pair-housing influences mPFC activation during lever-press avoidance. Male WKY rats were assigned to individual-housed and pair-housed conditions. Rats were trained in lever-press avoidance. Each session of lever-press avoidance consisted of 20 trials, where pressing a lever in response to a warning tone prevented foot-shocks. Rats received 12 acquisition sessions over 4weeks; followed by 6 extinction sessions over 2weeks, where foot-shocks ceased to be delivered. Brains were harvested 90min after trials 1 and 10 of extinction sessions 1 and 6, and mPFC sections underwent c-Fos staining as a measure of activation. Pair-housed rats showed facilitated lever-press avoidance extinction rates, but the main cause for this overall difference was a selective facilitation of within-session extinction. Similar to individual-housed rats, pair-housed rats continued to avoid during trial 1 of extinction even when the avoidance responding had been significantly reduced by the end of the previous session. Pair-housed rats sacrificed on trial 1 showed greater c-Fos expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex subregions of the mPFC compared individual-housed rats sacrificed on trial 1. This data shows pair

  14. Regional Attribution of Ozone Production and Associated Radiative Forcing: a Step to Crediting NOx Emission Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, V.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L.; Schwarzkopf, D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2004-12-01

    The global distribution of tropospheric ozone (O3) depends on the location of emissions of its precursors in addition to chemical and dynamical factors. The global picture of O3 forcing is, therefore, a sum of regional forcings arising from emissions of precursors from different sources. The Kyoto Protocol does not include ozone as a greenhouse gas, and emission reductions of ozone precursors made under Kyoto or any similar agreement would presently receive no credit. In this study, we quantitatively estimate the contribution of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), the primary limiting O3 precursor in the non-urban atmosphere, from specific countries and regions of the world to global O3 concentration distributions. We then estimate radiative forcing resulting from the regional perturbations of NOx emissions. This analysis is intended as an early step towards incorporating O3 into the Kyoto Protocol or any successor agreement. Under such a system countries could obtain credit for improvements in local air quality that result in reductions of O3 concentrations because of the associated reductions in radiative forcing. We use the global chemistry transport model, MOZART-2, to simulate the global O3 distribution for base year 1990 and perturbations to this distribution caused by a 10% percent reduction in the base emissions of NOx from the United States, Europe, East Asia, India, South America, and Africa. We calculate the radiative forcing for the simulated base and perturbed O3 distributions using the GFDL radiative transfer model. The difference between the radiative forcing from O3 for the base and perturbed distributions provides an estimate of the marginal radiative forcing from a region's emissions of NOx. We will present a quantitative analysis of the magnitude, spatial, and temporal distribution of radiative forcing resulting from marginal changes in the NOx emissions from each region.

  15. Recurrence-associated genes in papillary thyroid cancer: An analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ming-Nan; Yang, Po-Sheng; Lee, Jie-Jen; Wang, Tao-Yeuan; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2017-06-01

    Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer is not uncommon, but incorporating clinicopathologic parameters to predict recurrence is suboptimal. The aim of this study was to identify systemically recurrence-associated genes using The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA sequencing database. A total of 504 patients with transcriptome sequencing data of the primary neoplasm were included in this study. High and low levels of expression of each gene were defined by median splits. Differences in recurrence-free survival were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Recurrence-associated genes were subjected to functional enrichment analyses with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotation databases and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We found that 1,807 genes were associated with recurrence-free survival. There were 676 genes of which high expression was associated with a greater risk of recurrence. These genes were enriched in pathways involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Among 1,131 genes of which low expression was associated with recurrence, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes-annotated functions were metabolism, calcium signaling, glycan biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway. Canonical pathways identified by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis included RXR function, nitric oxide signaling, interleukin-8 signaling, and nutrient sensing. In addition, low expression of the majority of thyroid differentiation genes was associated with a significantly less recurrence-free survival. Upregulation of cell cycle-regulating and DNA repair genes appears to have a negative impact on recurrence-free survival in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. Furthermore, recurrence is associated with thyroid dedifferentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of factors associated with psychiatric patient dropout at a university outpatient clinic in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Minamisawa, Atsumi; Narumoto, Jin; Yokota, Isao; Fukui, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient dropout from treatment can lead to a deterioration in clinical condition, thereby increasing the need for more intensive therapy that incurs substantial social and economic losses. The aim of this study was to identify factors related to psychiatric patient dropout at a university outpatient clinic in Japan. Methods We retrospectively examined the medical charts of new psychiatric patients who were diagnosed with either a mood disorder (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, code: F3) or an anxiety disorder (F4) in the outpatient clinic at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Hospital in Kyoto, Japan, between April 2010 and March 2013. The baseline characteristics of the patients (age, sex, Global Assessment of Functioning score, Clinical Global Impression–Severity of Illness score, education, occupation, marital status, duration of treatment, and prior treatment history), treating psychiatrist experience in years, and sex concordance between the patients and their treating psychiatrists were analyzed using Cox regression models. Results From among 1,626 eligible new patients during the study period, 532 patients were enrolled in the study (F3: n=176; F4: n=356). The dropout rate was 35.7%, which was similar to that of previous studies. Higher educational level, being married, and lower Global Assessment of Functioning scores were associated with a lower dropout rate. Although psychiatrist experience was not significantly associated with patient dropout in the multivariate analysis, patients treated by less experienced psychiatrists had a higher hazard ratio for dropout (1.31; 95% confidence interval: 0.94–1.85). Conclusion In order to reduce the dropout rate, special focus should be placed on patients with the factors identified in this study, and young psychiatrists should undergo further education to foster adherence. PMID:27703335

  17. Evaluation of factors associated with psychiatric patient dropout at a university outpatient clinic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minamisawa, Atsumi; Narumoto, Jin; Yokota, Isao; Fukui, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Patient dropout from treatment can lead to a deterioration in clinical condition, thereby increasing the need for more intensive therapy that incurs substantial social and economic losses. The aim of this study was to identify factors related to psychiatric patient dropout at a university outpatient clinic in Japan. We retrospectively examined the medical charts of new psychiatric patients who were diagnosed with either a mood disorder (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, code: F3) or an anxiety disorder (F4) in the outpatient clinic at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Hospital in Kyoto, Japan, between April 2010 and March 2013. The baseline characteristics of the patients (age, sex, Global Assessment of Functioning score, Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness score, education, occupation, marital status, duration of treatment, and prior treatment history), treating psychiatrist experience in years, and sex concordance between the patients and their treating psychiatrists were analyzed using Cox regression models. From among 1,626 eligible new patients during the study period, 532 patients were enrolled in the study (F3: n=176; F4: n=356). The dropout rate was 35.7%, which was similar to that of previous studies. Higher educational level, being married, and lower Global Assessment of Functioning scores were associated with a lower dropout rate. Although psychiatrist experience was not significantly associated with patient dropout in the multivariate analysis, patients treated by less experienced psychiatrists had a higher hazard ratio for dropout (1.31; 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.85). In order to reduce the dropout rate, special focus should be placed on patients with the factors identified in this study, and young psychiatrists should undergo further education to foster adherence.

  18. Inverse association between air pressure and rheumatoid arthritis synovitis.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Hashimoto, Motomu; Furu, Moritoshi; Nakabo, Shuichiro; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakashima, Ran; Imura, Yoshitaka; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a bone destructive autoimmune disease. Many patients with RA recognize fluctuations of their joint synovitis according to changes of air pressure, but the correlations between them have never been addressed in large-scale association studies. To address this point we recruited large-scale assessments of RA activity in a Japanese population, and performed an association analysis. Here, a total of 23,064 assessments of RA activity from 2,131 patients were obtained from the KURAMA (Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance) database. Detailed correlations between air pressure and joint swelling or tenderness were analyzed separately for each of the 326 patients with more than 20 assessments to regulate intra-patient correlations. Association studies were also performed for seven consecutive days to identify the strongest correlations. Standardized multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent influences from other meteorological factors. As a result, components of composite measures for RA disease activity revealed suggestive negative associations with air pressure. The 326 patients displayed significant negative mean correlations between air pressure and swellings or the sum of swellings and tenderness (p = 0.00068 and 0.00011, respectively). Among the seven consecutive days, the most significant mean negative correlations were observed for air pressure three days before evaluations of RA synovitis (p = 1.7 × 10(-7), 0.00027, and 8.3 × 10(-8), for swellings, tenderness and the sum of them, respectively). Standardized multiple linear regression analysis revealed these associations were independent from humidity and temperature. Our findings suggest that air pressure is inversely associated with synovitis in patients with RA.

  19. Database of synesthetic color associations for Japanese kanji.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Saiki, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which certain types of stimuli elicit involuntary perceptions in an unrelated pathway. A common type of synesthesia is grapheme-color synesthesia, in which the visual perception of letters and numbers stimulates the perception of a specific color. Previous studies have often collected relatively small numbers of grapheme-color associations per synesthete, but the accumulation of a large quantity of data has greater promise for uncovering the mechanisms underlying synesthetic association. In this study, we therefore collected large samples of data from a total of eight synesthetes. All told, we obtained over 1000 synesthetic colors associated with Japanese kanji characters from each of two synesthetes, over 100 synesthetic colors form each of three synesthetes, and about 80 synesthetic colors associated with Japanese hiragana, Latin letters, and Arabic numerals from each of three synesthetes. We then compiled the data into a database, called the KANJI-Synesthetic Colors Database (K-SCD), which has a total of 5122 colors for 483, 46, and 46 Japanese kanji, hiragana, and katakana characters, respectively, as well as for 26 Latin letters and ten Arabic numerals. In addition to introducing the K-SCD, this article demonstrates the database's merits by using two examples, in which two new rules for synesthetic association, "shape similarity" and "synesthetic color clustering," were found. The K-SCD is publicly accessible ( www.cv.jinkan.kyoto-u.ac.jp/site/uploads/K-SCD.xlsm ) and will be a valuable resource for those who wish to conduct statistical analyses using a rich dataset in order to uncover the rules governing synesthetic association and to understand its mechanisms.

  20. Inverse Association between Air Pressure and Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovitis

    PubMed Central

    Furu, Moritoshi; Nakabo, Shuichiro; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakashima, Ran; Imura, Yoshitaka; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Ito, Hiromu; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a bone destructive autoimmune disease. Many patients with RA recognize fluctuations of their joint synovitis according to changes of air pressure, but the correlations between them have never been addressed in large-scale association studies. To address this point we recruited large-scale assessments of RA activity in a Japanese population, and performed an association analysis. Here, a total of 23,064 assessments of RA activity from 2,131 patients were obtained from the KURAMA (Kyoto University Rheumatoid Arthritis Management Alliance) database. Detailed correlations between air pressure and joint swelling or tenderness were analyzed separately for each of the 326 patients with more than 20 assessments to regulate intra-patient correlations. Association studies were also performed for seven consecutive days to identify the strongest correlations. Standardized multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent influences from other meteorological factors. As a result, components of composite measures for RA disease activity revealed suggestive negative associations with air pressure. The 326 patients displayed significant negative mean correlations between air pressure and swellings or the sum of swellings and tenderness (p = 0.00068 and 0.00011, respectively). Among the seven consecutive days, the most significant mean negative correlations were observed for air pressure three days before evaluations of RA synovitis (p = 1.7×10−7, 0.00027, and 8.3×10−8, for swellings, tenderness and the sum of them, respectively). Standardized multiple linear regression analysis revealed these associations were independent from humidity and temperature. Our findings suggest that air pressure is inversely associated with synovitis in patients with RA. PMID:24454853

  1. The Art of a Deal: A Kyoto Protocol Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlishaw, Richard; Hunter, Charles; Coy, Jason; Tessmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, groups of students represent countries as they negotiate an agreement to limit greenhouse-gas emissions. While initially developed for and used in an environmental-science course for first-year college students, the case could be applicable to other courses dealing with conflict resolution such as public policy, international…

  2. The Art of a Deal: A Kyoto Protocol Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowlishaw, Richard; Hunter, Charles; Coy, Jason; Tessmer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, groups of students represent countries as they negotiate an agreement to limit greenhouse-gas emissions. While initially developed for and used in an environmental-science course for first-year college students, the case could be applicable to other courses dealing with conflict resolution such as public policy, international…

  3. Konno Operation: The 2015 Kyoto Symposium Konno Memorial Lecture.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    The Konno operation consists of a prosthetic aortic valve replacement by using an anterior enlargement of the small aortic annulus. The original procedure includes a longitudinal incision in the aortic septum placed near the midpoint between the two coronary ostia, a vertical incision in the outflow tract of the right ventricle to join the septal incision, prosthetic aortic valve replacement, and patch reconstruction of the outflow tracts of both ventricles by means of a fusiform Dacron patch. The concept of this operation has been applied in other complex operations, such as modified Konno operation, Ross-Konno operation, and aortic valve replacement after arterial switch operation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Pathway-based analysis of primary biliary cirrhosis genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Kar, SP; Seldin, MF; Chen, W; Lu, E; Hirschfield, GM; Invernizzi, P; Heathcote, J; Cusi, D; Gershwin, ME; Siminovitch, KA; Amos, CI

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified several loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) risk. Pathway analysis complements conventional GWAS analysis. We applied the recently developed linear combination test for pathways to datasets drawn from independent PBC GWAS in Italian and Canadian subjects. Of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and BioCarta pathways tested, 25 pathways in the Italian dataset (449 cases, 940 controls) and 26 pathways in the Canadian dataset (530 cases, 398 controls) were associated with PBC susceptibility (P < 0.05). After correcting for multiple comparisons, only the eight most significant pathways in the Italian dataset had FDR < 0.25 with tumor necrosis factor/stress-related signaling emerging as the top pathway (P = 7.38 × 10−4, FDR = 0.18). Two pathways, phosphatidylinositol signaling and hedgehog signaling, were replicated in both datasets (P < 0.05), and subjected to two additional complementary pathway tests. Both pathway signals remained significant in the Italian dataset on modified gene set enrichment analysis (P < 0.05). In both GWAS, variants nominally associated with PBC were significantly overrepresented in the phosphatidylinositol pathway (Fisher exact P < 0.05). These results point to established and novel pathway-level associations with inherited predisposition to PBC that on further independent replication and functional validation, may provide fresh insights into PBC etiology. PMID:23392275

  5. Pathway-based analysis of primary biliary cirrhosis genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Kar, S P; Seldin, M F; Chen, W; Lu, E; Hirschfield, G M; Invernizzi, P; Heathcote, J; Cusi, D; Gershwin, M E; Siminovitch, K A; Amos, C I

    2013-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified several loci associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) risk. Pathway analysis complements conventional GWAS analysis. We applied the recently developed linear combination test for pathways to datasets drawn from independent PBC GWAS in Italian and Canadian subjects. Of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and BioCarta pathways tested, 25 pathways in the Italian dataset (449 cases, 940 controls) and 26 pathways in the Canadian dataset (530 cases, 398 controls) were associated with PBC susceptibility (P<0.05). After correcting for multiple comparisons, only the eight most significant pathways in the Italian dataset had FDR <0.25 with tumor necrosis factor/stress-related signaling emerging as the top pathway (P=7.38 × 10⁻⁴, FDR=0.18). Two pathways, phosphatidylinositol signaling and hedgehog signaling, were replicated in both datasets (P<0.05), and subjected to two additional complementary pathway tests. Both pathway signals remained significant in the Italian dataset on modified gene set enrichment analysis (P<0.05). In both GWAS, variants nominally associated with PBC were significantly overrepresented in the phosphatidylinositol pathway (Fisher exact P<0.05). These results point to established and novel pathway-level associations with inherited predisposition to PBC that, on further independent replication and functional validation, may provide fresh insights into PBC etiology.

  6. Using the Gene Ontology to Scan Multi-Level Gene Sets for Associations in Genome Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Schaid, Daniel J.; Sinnwell, Jason P.; Jenkins, Gregory D.; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Ingle, James N.; Kubo, Michiaki; Goss, Paul E.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Weinshilboum, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Gene-set analyses have been widely used in gene expression studies, and some of the developed methods have been extended to genome wide association studies (GWAS). Yet, complications due to linkage disequilibrium (LD) among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and variable numbers of SNPs per gene and genes per gene-set, have plagued current approaches, often leading to ad hoc “fixes”. To overcome some of the current limitations, we developed a general approach to scan GWAS SNP data for both gene-level and gene-set analyses, building on score statistics for generalized linear models, and taking advantage of the directed acyclic graph structure of the gene ontology when creating gene-sets. However, other types of gene-set structures can be used, such as the popular Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Our approach combines SNPs into genes, and genes into gene-sets, but assures that positive and negative effects of genes on a trait do not cancel. To control for multiple testing of many gene-sets, we use an efficient computational strategy that accounts for LD and provides accurate step-down adjusted p-values for each gene-set. Application of our methods to two different GWAS provide guidance on the potential strengths and weaknesses of our proposed gene-set analyses. PMID:22161999

  7. Exploring the association between interleukin-1β and its interacting proteins in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lushuang; Lai, Yu; Lei, Fang; Liu, Sujuan; Liu, Ran; Wang, Tinghua

    2015-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is of clinical concern. The association between the nervous and immune system is defined as an neuroimmunological theory that supports a model of pathology or treatment for AD. Interleukin (IL)-1β has a pro-inflammatory function in AD; however, the mechanism of its dysregulation in AD remains unknown. It is therefore of significance to understand the molecular mechanisms of IL-1β and how it may regulate AD. Proteins, which have been previously reported to be associated with IL-1β in AD, have been used in the present study as nodes to illustrate a net of protein interaction in Cytoscape. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes was used to further analyze the association of these proteins with the pathology of AD. The present study identified and subsequently compared two AD and six IL-1β pathways with the network produced in Cytoscape. The present study identified important mechanisms in the pathology of AD and constructed two novel networks using Cytoscape.

  8. New-onset diabetes mellitus after living-donor liver transplantation: association with graft synthetic function.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shintaro; Kaido, Toshimi; Iida, Taku; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-06-01

    It is now known that post-transplant graft function after deceased-donor liver transplantation and living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) differ; however, there is no report assessing the relationship between graft function and the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT). We conducted this study to identify the predictive risk factors for NODAT, including graft function after LDLT. The subjects of this study were 175 adult recipients who underwent LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, and survived for more than 3 months (median observation period, 1046 days). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year incidences of NODAT after LDLT were 26.1, 32.0, and 33.4%, respectively. Pre-transplant diabetes was associated with poor survival (p = 0.0048), whereas NODAT was not associated with patient survival. In the multivariate analysis, recipient age ≥40, a tacrolimus trough level ≥8 ng/mL 3 months after LDLT, and cholinesterase (ChE) <185 IU/L 3 months after LDLT were the independent risk factors for NODAT. Poor graft synthetic function 3 months after LDLT as well as older age of the recipient and a higher tacrolimus concentration were strongly associated with NODAT development after LDLT.

  9. Analisys of interplanetary structures associated with cosmic ray precursory anisotropies and intense geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savian, J. F.; da Silva, M. R.; Signori, M. R.; Andrioli, V. F.; dal Lago, A.; Eduardo, L.; Vieira, A.; Munakata, K.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Schuch, N. J.

    Throughout the 11 year solar cycle a number of energetic phenomena such as "flares" and coronal mass ejections (CME) give rise at earth to the so-called magnetic storms. These storms are characterized by a decrease in the H component of terrestrial magnetic field, lasting some dozens of hours. They are associated to interplanetary structures whose interplanetary magnetic field component in the Z direction (Bz) is southward, i.e., antiparalell to the earth's magnetic field direction. Thus, the interplanetary magnetic field interconnects with the geomagnetic field causing energy to be transported inwards. Some of these structures are associated with precursory anisotropy observed in ground cosmic ray data (muons). The objective of this work is to use a set of intense geomagnetic storm events (Dst<-100nT), already studied by Munakata et al (2000) in terms of cosmic ray signatures, and identify their interplanetary structures using observations made by ACE, Wind and IMP-8 satellites. We use the following interplanetary data: plasma (solar wind speed , density and temperature of protons), interplanetary magnetic field (B, Bx, By, Bz), observed by IMP-8, WIND and ACE satellites, and Dst index from Kyoto to characterize the storms.

  10. Altered heart and kidney phospholipid fatty acid composition are associated with cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Jung, Young-Sang; Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-08-01

    We examined the association of cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis with the phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of heart and kidney in hypertensive rats. Eight-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) (n=8) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs, n=8) as a normotensive control, were fed ad libitum for 6 weeks with regular AIN-76 diet. Phospholipid FA compositions in the left ventricle and kidney were measured and histological analyses were performed. Compared with WKYs, SHRs had lower proportions of γ-linolenic acid, α-linolenic acid, eicosadienoic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, dihomo-γ-linoleic acid, docosadienoic acid and nervonic acid in heart, and stearic acid (SA), γ-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in kidney. After adjusting for food intake, SHRs still maintained higher proportions of SA, and total saturated FAs in the heart and a lower proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid in the kidney. Additionally, compared with WKYs, SHRs showed larger cardiomyocyte diameters in the left ventricles, indicating cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Cardiomyocyte diameters also positively correlated with cardiac SA (r=0.550, p<0.05) and negatively with kidney EPA (r=-0.575, p<0.05). Tissue FA compositions were associated with cardiac hypertrophy in a hypertensive setting, implicating the pathogenic role of tissue FAs in hypertension and related complications. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, Frank

    Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.

  12. Role of connective tissue growth factor in vascular and renal damage associated with hypertension in rats. Interactions with angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    de las Heras, Natalia; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Rupérez, Mónica; Sanz-Rosa, David; Miana, María; Aragoncillo, Paloma; Mezzano, Sergio; Lahera, Vicente; Egido, Jesus; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2006-12-01

    We have evaluated the role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in vascular and renal damage associated with hypertension and possible interactions with angiotensin II (Ang II). Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with either the Ang II receptor antagonist candesartan (C;2 mg/Kg(-1)/day(-1)) or antihypertensive triple therapy (TT; in mg/Kg(-1)/day(-1);20 hydralazine +7 hydrochlorothiazide +0.15 reserpine) for 10 weeks. Wistar Kyoto rats were used as a normotensive control group. Hypertension was associated with an increase in aortic media area, media-to-lumen ratio and collagen density. Kidneys from SHR showed minimum renal alterations. Aorta and renal gene expression and immunostaining of CTGF were higher in SHR. Candesartan decreased arterial pressure, aortic media area, media-to-lumen ratio and collagen density. However, although arterial pressure decrease was comparable for both treatments, TT partially reduced these parameters. Candesartan-treated rats showed lower levels of vascular CTGF expression, aortic media area, media-to-lumen ratio and collagen density than TT-treated animals. Treatments improve renal damage and reduce renal gene expression and CTGF immunostaining in SHR in a similar manner. The results show that vascular and renal damage is associated with stimulation of CTGF gene and protein content. These results also might suggest that CTGF could be one downstream mediator of Ang II in hypertension-associated organ damage in SHR.

  13. Identification of estrogen-associated intrinsic aging genes in Chinese Han female skin by cDNA microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Zhao, ZhenMin; Zhang, LiLi; Wang, DunMei; Yan, Li; Yin, NingBei; Wu, Di; Zhang, Feng

    2011-08-01

    Estrogens play an important role in intrinsic skin aging. The associated changes in global gene expression are poorly understood. We used the Illumina microarray platform to obtain comprehensive gene expression profiles in female Chinese Han skin, and confirmed the data by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR). We found 244 genes significantly related to estrogen-associated intrinsic skin aging, and some of these genes were confirmed by Q-RT-PCR. We also performed functional analysis by both Gene Ontology annotation and enrichment of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways database. The functional analysis revealed 11 biological pathways (including the KEGG pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and metabolic pathways), that were associated with multiple cellular functions which may be involved in intrinsic skin aging. This study suggests that estrogen-associated intrinsic skin aging is a complicated biological process involving many genes and pathways. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Differentially Expressed Genes Involved in Pathways Associated with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Yu, Beiqin; Li, Jianfang; Su, Liping; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Li, Chen; Zhu, Zhenggang; Liu, Bingya

    2015-01-01

    To explore the patterns of gene expression in gastric cancer, a total of 26 paired gastric cancer and noncancerous tissues from patients were enrolled for gene expression microarray analyses. Limma methods were applied to analyze the data, and genes were considered to be significantly differentially expressed if the False Discovery Rate (FDR) value was < 0.01, P-value was <0.01 and the fold change (FC) was >2. Subsequently, Gene Ontology (GO) categories were used to analyze the main functions of the differentially expressed genes. According to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, we found pathways significantly associated with the differential genes. Gene-Act network and co-expression network were built respectively based on the relationships among the genes, proteins and compounds in the database. 2371 mRNAs and 350 lncRNAs considered as significantly differentially expressed genes were selected for the further analysis. The GO categories, pathway analyses and the Gene-Act network showed a consistent result that up-regulated genes were responsible for tumorigenesis, migration, angiogenesis and microenvironment formation, while down-regulated genes were involved in metabolism. These results of this study provide some novel findings on coding RNAs, lncRNAs, pathways and the co-expression network in gastric cancer which will be useful to guide further investigation and target therapy for this disease. PMID:25928635

  15. Jund is a determinant of macrophage activation and is associated with glomerulonephritis susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Behmoaras, Jacques; Bhangal, Gurjeet; Smith, Jennifer; McDonald, Kylie; Mutch, Brenda; Lai, Ping Chin; Domin, Jan; Game, Laurence; Salama, Alan; Foxwell, Brian M; Pusey, Charles D; Cook, H Terence; Aitman, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis is an important cause of human kidney failure for which the underlying molecular basis is largely unknown. In previous studies, we mapped several susceptibility loci, Crgn1–Crgn7, for crescentic glomerulonephritis in the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat1. Here we show by combined congenic, linkage and microarray studies that the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor JunD is a major determinant of macrophage activity and is associated with glomerulonephritis susceptibility. Introgression of Crgn2 from the nonsusceptible Lewis strain onto the WKY background leads to significant reductions in crescent formation, macrophage infiltration, Fc receptor–mediated macrophage activation and cytokine production. Haplotype analysis restricted the Crgn2 linkage interval to a 430-kb interval containing Jund, which is markedly overexpressed in WKY macrophages and glomeruli. Jund knockdown in rat and human primary macrophages led to significantly reduced macrophage activity and cytokine secretion, indicating conservation of JunD function in macrophage activation in rats and humans and suggesting in vivo inhibition of Jund as a possible new therapeutic strategy for diseases characterized by inflammation and macrophage activation. PMID:18443593

  16. Arterial stiffness is inversely associated with a better running record in a full course marathon race

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Jeen; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Sewon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and may contribute to reduced running capacity in humans. This study investigated the relationship between course record and arterial stiffness in marathoners who participated in the Seoul International Marathon in 2012. [Methods] A total of 30 amateur marathoners (Males n = 28, Females n = 2, mean age = 51.6 ± 8.3 years) were assessed before and after the marathon race. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) was assessed by VP-1000 plus (Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) before and immediately after the marathon race. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between race record and ba-PWV. In addition, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine the difference in ba-PWV between before and after the race. [Results] There was no significant change in the ba-PWV of marathoners before and after the race (1271.1 ± 185 vs. 1268.8 ± 200 cm/s, P=0.579). Both the full course record (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.416, P = 0.022) and the record of half line (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.482, P = 0.007) were positively related with the difference in ba-PWV, suggesting that reduced arterial stiffness is associated with a better running record in the marathon. [Conclusion] These results may suggest that good vascular function contributes to a better running record in the marathon race. PMID:25671202

  17. Restructuring of the Jordanian Utility Sector and its Associated Ghg Emissions: a Future Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouad, Rami Hikmat; Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed; Al-Khateeb, Mohammad; Bata, Hamada

    2008-10-01

    As a small, non-oil producing, Middle Eastern country of a young and growing population and rapid urbanization, Jordan, like many countries all over the world, was and is still facing the problem of meeting the rapidly increasing demand of electricity. The main objective of this study is to review many current aspects of the Jordanian electricity sector, including electricity generation, electricity consumption, energy related emissions, and future possibilities, based on time series forecasting, through the term of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol, in which the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan had signed lately, which allows industrialized countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment to invest in projects that reduce emissions in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries. Several scenarios are proposed in this study, based on projected electricity consumption data until year 2028. Without attempting to replace the currently existing fossil-fuel based power plant technologies in Jordan by clean ones, electricity consumption and associated GHG emissions are predicted to rise by 138% by year 2028; however, if new clean technologies are adopted gradually over the same period, electricity consumption as well as GHG emissions will ascend at a lower rate.

  18. CHARGE Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Semanti; Chakraborty, Jayanta

    2012-12-01

    We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy), gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age), GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 μIU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient's karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness.[1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have described a boy with CHARGE

  19. Ramelteon attenuates age-associated hypertension and weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F; Summergrad, Paul

    2010-06-01

    The neuroendocrine theory of aging suggests the common mechanisms of developmental (prereproductive) and aging (postreproductive) processes and identified a cluster of conditions (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, menopause, late onset depression, vascular cognitive impairment, impairment of immune defense, and some forms of cancer) as age-associated neuroendocrine disorders (AAND). Obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes were later described as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because melatonin attenuated development of MetS is age-dependent, that is, in young and old, but not in middle-aged rats, we studied the effect of the selective melatonin agonist, Ramelteon, on the two core symptoms of MetS/AAND: hypertension and body weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto male rats (WKY). SHR rats developed hypertension at the time of maximal weight gain that coincided with the onset of reproductive activity (8-10 weeks old). Chronic (but not acute) administration of Ramelteon (in drinking water, 8 mg/kg/day, from 4 to 12 weeks of age) attenuated age-associated increase of systolic blood pressure (tail-cuff method) by 45%, and age-associated body weight gain by 30%. Acute and chronic Ramelteon did not affect blood pressure and body weight in normotensive WKY rats. Ramelteon-induced attenuation of age-associated hypertension and weight gain suggests that Ramelteon might attenuate the other symptoms of MetS/AAND and might be useful in the treatment of MetS/AAND during puberty, menopause, and old age.

  20. Association between plasma metabolites and gene expression profiles in five porcine endocrine tissues

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endocrine tissues play a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis of plasma metabolites such as non-esterified fatty acids and glucose, the levels of which reflect the energy balance or the health status of animals. However, the relationship between the transcriptome of endocrine tissues and plasma metabolites has been poorly studied. Methods We determined the blood levels of 12 plasma metabolites in 27 pigs belonging to five breeds, each breed consisting of both females and males. The transcriptome of five endocrine tissues i.e. hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, thyroid gland, gonads and backfat tissues from 16 out of the 27 pigs was also determined. Sex and breed effects on the 12 plasma metabolites were investigated and associations between genes expressed in the five endocrine tissues and the 12 plasma metabolites measured were analyzed. A probeset was defined as a quantitative trait transcript (QTT) when its association with a particular metabolic trait achieved a nominal P value < 0.01. Results A larger than expected number of QTT was found for non-esterified fatty acids and alanine aminotransferase in at least two tissues. The associations were highly tissue-specific. The QTT within the tissues were divided into co-expression network modules enriched for genes in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes or gene ontology categories that are related to the physiological functions of the corresponding tissues. We also explored a multi-tissue co-expression network using QTT for non-esterified fatty acids from the five tissues and found that a module, enriched in hypothalamus QTT, was positioned at the centre of the entire multi-tissue network. Conclusions These results emphasize the relationships between endocrine tissues and plasma metabolites in terms of gene expression. Highly tissue-specific association patterns suggest that candidate genes or gene pathways should be investigated in the context of specific tissues. PMID:21787428

  1. National Association Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Hardy R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This section includes national association reports from the American Library Association; the Special Libraries Association; the Association of Research Libraries; the Association of American Publishers; and the American Booksellers Association. (LRW)

  2. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Key Pathways and Genes Associated with Cisplatin Resistance in Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yani; Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Tong; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jinhui; Dai, Penggao

    2017-01-01

    Acquired resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy frequently occurs in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a distinct gene expression pattern is associated with acquired resistance to cisplatin in human lung adenocarcinoma. Whole-transcriptome sequencing was performed to compare the genome-wide gene expression patterns of the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cisplatin-resistant cell line A549/DDP with those of its progenitor cell line A549. A total of 1214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, 656 of which were upregulated and 558 were downregulated. Functional annotation of the DEGs in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database revealed that most of the identified genes were enriched in the PI3K/AKT, mitogen-activated protein kinase, actin cytoskeleton regulation, and focal adhesion pathways in A549/DDP cells. These results support previous studies demonstrating that the pathways regulating cell proliferation and invasion confer resistance to chemotherapy. Furthermore, the results proved that cell adhesion and cytoskeleton regulation is associated with cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer. Our study provides new promising biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis and potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer treatment. PMID:28114404

  3. Systems genetics and genome-wide association approaches for analysis of feed intake, feed efficiency, and performance in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M H A; Freua, M C; Do, D N; Ventura, R V; Kadarmideen, H N; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-10-17

    Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feedlots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle and 943,577 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a genome-wide association analysis was performed for dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake with a Bayesian Lasso procedure. Genes within 50-kb SNPs, most relevant for explaining the genomic variance, were annotated and the biological processes underlying the traits were inferred from Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Our results indicated several putative genomic regions associated with the target phenotypes and showed that almost all genomic variances were in the SNPs located in the intergenic and intronic regions. We further identified five main metabolic pathways related to ion transport, body composition, and feed intake control, which influenced the four phenotypes simultaneously. The systems genetics approach used in this study revealed novel pathways related to feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

  4. An insight into the key genes and biological functions associated with insulin resistance in adipose tissue with microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Cui, Ying; Fu, Fangming; Li, Zhenzuo; Pan, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongzhuan; Li, Lin

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the key genes and biological functions associated with insulin resistance were investigated by comparing the gene expression profiles of adipose tissue obtained from insulin‑sensitive and insulin‑resistant patients. The gene expression data set GSE20950 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, including 39 adipose tissue samples obtained from insulin‑sensitive and insulin‑resistant patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery. Adipose samples were divided into two groups (the insulin‑sensitive and insulin‑resistant groups) and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out with packages of R. The interactions among DEGs were retrieved with Osprey and functional enrichment analysis was performed with the WebGestalt system. Information regarding the interaction network and enriched biological functions was combined to construct a functional interaction network. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was then conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. A total of 170 DEGs were detected in the insulin‑sensitive group, 8 downregulated and 162 upregulated. Response to glucose stimulus was the most significantly over‑represented functional term. The focal adhesion pathway was identified to be significant in the genes of the functional interaction network. The present study revealed key biological functions and DEGs in adipose tissues associated with insulin resistance, which may facilitate the development of novel therapies for insulin resistance and diabetes.

  5. Assessing the Association of Mitochondrial Genetic Variation With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using Gene-Set Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N.; Kang, Jae Hee; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael A.; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L.; Christen, William G.; Fingert, John; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K.; Lichter, Paul R.; Liu, Yutao; Medeiros, Felipe; Moroi, Syoko E.; Richards, Julia E.; Realini, Tony; Ritch, Robert; Schuman, Joel S.; Scott, William K.; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J.; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J.; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Weinreb, Robert N.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Wiggs, Janey L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In this study, we examined the association between POAG and common variations in gene-encoding mitochondrial proteins. Methods We examined genetic data from 3430 POAG cases and 3108 controls derived from the combination of the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR studies. We constructed biological-system coherent mitochondrial nuclear-encoded protein gene-sets by intersecting the MitoCarta database with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. We examined the mitochondrial gene-sets for association with POAG and with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and high-tension glaucoma (HTG) subsets using Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. Results We identified 22 KEGG pathways with significant mitochondrial protein-encoding gene enrichment, belonging to six general biological classes. Among the pathway classes, mitochondrial lipid metabolism was associated with POAG overall (P = 0.013) and with NTG (P = 0.0006), and mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism was associated with NTG (P = 0.030). Examining the individual KEGG pathway mitochondrial gene-sets, fatty acid elongation and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, both lipid metabolism pathways, were significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively) and NTG (P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Butanoate metabolism, a carbohydrate metabolism pathway, was significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.004), NTG (P = 0.001), and HTG (P = 0.010). Conclusions We present an effective approach for assessing the contributions of mitochondrial genetic variation to open-angle glaucoma. Our findings support a role for mitochondria in POAG pathogenesis and specifically point to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways as being important. PMID:27661856

  6. Assessing the Association of Mitochondrial Genetic Variation With Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using Gene-Set Analyses.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Kang, Jae Hee; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Brilliant, Murray; Budenz, Donald L; Christen, William G; Fingert, John; Gaasterland, Douglas; Gaasterland, Terry; Kraft, Peter; Lee, Richard K; Lichter, Paul R; Liu, Yutao; Medeiros, Felipe; Moroi, Syoko E; Richards, Julia E; Realini, Tony; Ritch, Robert; Schuman, Joel S; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Vollrath, Douglas; Wollstein, Gadi; Zack, Donald J; Zhang, Kang; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Weinreb, Robert N; Haines, Jonathan L; Pasquale, Louis R; Wiggs, Janey L

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In this study, we examined the association between POAG and common variations in gene-encoding mitochondrial proteins. We examined genetic data from 3430 POAG cases and 3108 controls derived from the combination of the GLAUGEN and NEIGHBOR studies. We constructed biological-system coherent mitochondrial nuclear-encoded protein gene-sets by intersecting the MitoCarta database with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. We examined the mitochondrial gene-sets for association with POAG and with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and high-tension glaucoma (HTG) subsets using Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. We identified 22 KEGG pathways with significant mitochondrial protein-encoding gene enrichment, belonging to six general biological classes. Among the pathway classes, mitochondrial lipid metabolism was associated with POAG overall (P = 0.013) and with NTG (P = 0.0006), and mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism was associated with NTG (P = 0.030). Examining the individual KEGG pathway mitochondrial gene-sets, fatty acid elongation and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, both lipid metabolism pathways, were significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively) and NTG (P = 0.0004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Butanoate metabolism, a carbohydrate metabolism pathway, was significantly associated with POAG (P = 0.004), NTG (P = 0.001), and HTG (P = 0.010). We present an effective approach for assessing the contributions of mitochondrial genetic variation to open-angle glaucoma. Our findings support a role for mitochondria in POAG pathogenesis and specifically point to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways as being important.

  7. Paraprofessional Groups and Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The American Library Association's "National Directory: Library Paraprofessional Associations" (1996 edition) lists 46 active library paraprofessional associations or subsidiary groups in the United States. Reviews reasons why paraprofessionals began forming associations, compares selected associations, and examines their place within…

  8. Adenosine A(2A) receptor activation prevents progressive kidney fibrosis in a model of immune-associated chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gabriela E; Truong, Luan D; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Johnson, Richard J; Feng, Lili

    2011-08-01

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) in Wistar-Kyoto rats progresses to lethal kidney failure by macrophage (Mφ)-mediated mechanisms. Mφs in nephritic glomeruli express adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs), the activation of which suppresses inflammation. Here, we pharmacologically activated the A(2A)Rs with a selective agonist, CGS 21680, and inactivated them with a selective antagonist, ZM241385, to test the effects on established GN. When activation was delayed until antiglomerular basement membrane GN and extracellular matrix deposition were established, glomerular Mφ infiltration was reduced by 83%. There was also a marked improvement in glomerular lesion histology, as well as decreased proteinuria. A(2A)R activation significantly reduced type I, III, and IV collagen deposition, and E-cadherin expression was restored in association with a reduction of α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts in the interstitium and glomeruli. In contrast, pharmacological inactivation of A(2A)Rs increased glomerular crescent formation, type I, III, and IV collagen expression, and enhanced E-cadherin loss. Activation of A(2A)Rs suppressed the expression of the Mφ-linked glomerular damage mediators, transforming growth factor-β, osteopontin-1, thrombospondin-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. Thus, A(2A)R activation can arrest GN and prevent progressive fibrosis in established pathological lesions.

  9. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Choroidal Detachment by Vitreous iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhifeng; Ding, Nannan; Yu, Mengxi; Wang, Ke; Luo, Shasha; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Ying; Yan, Biao; Jiang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment (RRDCD) is a complicated and serious type of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). In this study, we identified differentially expressed proteins in the vitreous humors of RRDCD and RRD using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ion trap-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS) and bioinformatic analysis. Our result shows that 103 differentially expressed proteins, including 54 up-regulated and 49 down-regulated proteins were identified in RRDCD. Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that most of the differentially expressed proteins were extracellular.The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis suggested that proteins related to complement and coagulation cascades were significantly enriched. iTRAQ-based proteomic profiling reveals that complement and coagulation cascades and inflammation may play important roles in the pathogenesis of RRDCD. This study may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of RRDCD and offer potential opportunities for the diagnosis and treatment of RRDCD. PMID:27941623

  10. Identification and analysis of genes associated with the synthesis of bioactive constituents in Dendrobium officinale using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenjia; Guo, Hong; Chen, Hailing; Shi, Yujun; Meng, Yijun; Lu, Jiangjie; Feng, Shangguo; Wang, Huizhong

    2017-03-15

    Dendrobium officinale L. is an important traditional herb with high commercial value in China. Several bioactive constituents, including polysaccharides and alkaloids, reportedly make major contributions toward the excellent medicinal effect of D. officinale. In this study, the contents of polysaccharides and alkaloids in various organs of D. officinale were measured and compared. We took advantage of transcriptomes from four organs to explore biological mechanisms in the organ-specific distribution of active ingredients in D. officinale. Based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, unigenes related to the enzymes involved in fructose and mannose metabolism and unigenes associated with putative upstream elements of the alkaloid biosynthetic pathway were identified. A large number of candidates, including 35 full-length glycosyltransferase genes and 49 full-length P450 genes, were also identified based on the transcriptome data, and the organ-specific expression pattern of these genes was determined. Furthermore, differential expression of all candidate genes was analyzed in two Dendrobium species, D. nobile L. and D. officinale. The data will supply important clues to exploit useful genes involved in polysaccharide and alkaloid synthesis.

  11. Epigenome-wide Association Study of Breast Cancer Using Prospectively Collected Sister Study Samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested DNA methylation in blood is a potential epigenetic marker of cancer risk, but this has not been evaluated on a genome-wide scale in prospective studies for breast cancer. Methods We measured DNA methylation at 27578 CpGs in blood samples from 298 women who developed breast cancer 0 to 5 years after enrollment in the Sister Study cohort and compared them with a random sample of 612 cohort women who remained cancer free. We also genotyped women for nine common polymorphisms associated with breast cancer. Results We identified 250 differentially methylated CpGs (dmCpGs) between case subjects and noncase subjects (false discovery rate [FDR] Q < 0.05). Of these dmCpGs, 75.2% were undermethylated in case subjects relative to noncase subjects. Women diagnosed within 1 year of blood draw had small but consistently greater divergence from noncase subjects than did women diagnosed at more than 1 year. Gene set enrichment analysis identified Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes cancer pathways at the recommended FDR of Q less than 0.25. Receiver operating characteristic analysis estimated a prediction accuracy of 65.8% (95% confidence interval = 61.0% to 70.5%) for methylation, compared with 56.0% for the Gail model and 58.8% for genome-wide association study polymorphisms. The prediction accuracy of just five dmCpGs (64.1%) was almost as good as the larger panel and was similar (63.1%) when replicated in a small sample of 81 women with diverse ethnic backgrounds. Conclusions Methylation profiling of blood holds promise for breast cancer detection and risk prediction. PMID:23578854

  12. Epigenome-wide association study of breast cancer using prospectively collected sister study samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongli; Bolick, Sophia C E; DeRoo, Lisa A; Weinberg, Clarice R; Sandler, Dale P; Taylor, Jack A

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies have suggested DNA methylation in blood is a potential epigenetic marker of cancer risk, but this has not been evaluated on a genome-wide scale in prospective studies for breast cancer. We measured DNA methylation at 27578 CpGs in blood samples from 298 women who developed breast cancer 0 to 5 years after enrollment in the Sister Study cohort and compared them with a random sample of 612 cohort women who remained cancer free. We also genotyped women for nine common polymorphisms associated with breast cancer. We identified 250 differentially methylated CpGs (dmCpGs) between case subjects and noncase subjects (false discovery rate [FDR] Q < 0.05). Of these dmCpGs, 75.2% were undermethylated in case subjects relative to noncase subjects. Women diagnosed within 1 year of blood draw had small but consistently greater divergence from noncase subjects than did women diagnosed at more than 1 year. Gene set enrichment analysis identified Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes cancer pathways at the recommended FDR of Q less than 0.25. Receiver operating characteristic analysis estimated a prediction accuracy of 65.8% (95% confidence interval = 61.0% to 70.5%) for methylation, compared with 56.0% for the Gail model and 58.8% for genome-wide association study polymorphisms. The prediction accuracy of just five dmCpGs (64.1%) was almost as good as the larger panel and was similar (63.1%) when replicated in a small sample of 81 women with diverse ethnic backgrounds. Methylation profiling of blood holds promise for breast cancer detection and risk prediction.

  13. Identification of genes and signaling pathways associated with diabetic neuropathy using a weighted correlation network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya; Ma, Weiguo; Xie, Chuanqing; Zhang, Min; Yin, Xiaohong; Wang, Fenfen; Xu, Jie; Shi, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The molecular mechanisms behind diabetic neuropathy remains to be investigated. Methods: This is a secondary study on microarray dataset (GSE24290) downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which included 18 nerve tissue samples of progressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≥500 fibers/mm2) and 17 nerve tissue samples of nonprogressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≤100 fibers/mm2). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened between progressing and nonprogressing diabetic neuropathy. With the DEGs obtained, a weighted gene coexpression network analysis was conducted to identify gene clusters associated with diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes-related microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes were predicted and mapped to the genes in the gene clusters identified. Consequently, a miRNA–gene network was constructed, for which gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis was performed. Potential drugs for treatment of diabetic neuropathy were also predicted. Results: Total 370 upregulated and 379 downregulated DEGs were screened between nonprogressing and progressing diabetic neuropathy. Has-miR-377, has-miR-216a, and has-miR-217 were associated with diabetes. Inflammation was the most significant GO term. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway and the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway were significantly KEGG pathways significantly enriched with PPAR gamma (PPARG), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1). Conclusion: The study suggests that PPARG, SCD, CD36, PCK1, AMPK pathway, and PPAR pathway may be involved in progression of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:27893688

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells associated with metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing-Yao; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Xiao-Ge; Cao, Gang; Dong, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is a frequent type of salivary gland cancer which is characterized by slow growth but high incidence of distant metastasis. We aimed to identify therapeutic targets which are associated with metastasis of SACC. Material and methods Total RNA was isolated from a low metastatic SACC cell line (ACC-2) and a highly metastatic SACC cell line (ACC-M), which was screened from ACC-2 by combination of in vivo selection and cloning in vitro. Then the total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened from ACC-M compared with ACC-2, followed by Gene Ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Function annotation for DEGs also was performed. A protein-protein interaction network (PPI) was constructed for DEGs. Results A total of 1128 DEGs were identified from ACC-M cells compared with ACC-2 cells. Both up- and down-regulated DEGs were enriched in different functions in biological process (BP), cellular component (CC) and molecular function (MF). Additionally, down-regulated DEGs were mainly enriched in “Apoptosis” and “Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction” pathways which involved IFN-α1, NTRK1 and TGF-β1. In the PPI network, PIK3CA, PTPN11 and PIK3R1 had a number of nodes greater than 10. Conclusions Transforming growth factor β1 might play a pivotal role during lung metastasis of SACC and be selected as a candidate target for treatment of metastatic SACC. IFNA1, NTRK1 and PIK3CA were also associated with tumor metastasis. PMID:27478471

  15. Identification of hub genes and pathways associated with retinoblastoma based on co-expression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q L; Chen, X; Zhang, M H; Shen, Q H; Qin, Z M

    2015-12-08

    The objective of this paper was to identify hub genes and pathways associated with retinoblastoma using centrality analysis of the co-expression network and pathway-enrichment analysis. The co-expression network of retinoblastoma was constructed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) based on differentially expressed (DE) genes, and clusters were obtained through the molecular complex detection (MCODE) algorithm. Degree centrality analysis of the co-expression network was performed to explore hub genes present in retinoblastoma. Pathway-enrichment analysis was performed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Validation of hub gene expression in retinoblastoma was performed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The co-expression network based on 221 DE genes between retinoblastoma and normal controls consisted of 210 nodes and 3965 edges, and 5 clusters of the network were evaluated. By assessing the centrality analysis of the co-expression network, 21 hub genes were identified, such as SNORD115-41, RASSF2, and SNORD115-44. According to RT-PCR analysis, 16 of the 21 hub genes were differently expressed, including RASSF2 and CDCA7, and 5 were not differently expressed in retinoblastoma compared to normal controls. Pathway analysis showed that genes in 2 clusters were enriched in 3 pathways: purine metabolism, p53 signaling pathway, and melanogenesis. In this study, we successfully identified 16 hub genes and 3 pathways associated with retinoblastoma, which may be potential biomarkers for early detection and therapy for retinoblastoma.

  16. Pathway-based genome-wide association analysis of milk coagulation properties, curd firmness, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dadousis, C; Pegolo, S; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-02-01

    It is becoming common to complement genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with gene-set enrichment analysis to deepen the understanding of the biological pathways affecting quantitative traits. Our objective was to conduct a gene ontology and pathway-based analysis to identify possible biological mechanisms involved in the regulation of bovine milk technological traits: coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, individual cheese yield (CY), and milk nutrient recovery into the curd (REC) or whey loss traits. Results from 2 previous GWAS studies using 1,011 cows genotyped for 50k single nucleotide polymorphisms were used. Overall, the phenotypes analyzed consisted of 3 traditional milk coagulation property measures [RCT: rennet coagulation time defined as the time (min) from addition of enzyme to the beginning of coagulation; k20: the interval (min) from RCT to the time at which a curd firmness of 20 mm is attained; a30: a measure of the extent of curd firmness (mm) 30 min after coagulant addition], 6 curd firmness modeling traits [RCTeq: RCT estimated through the CF equation (min); CFP: potential asymptotic curd firmness (mm); kCF: curd-firming rate constant (% × min(-1)); kSR: syneresis rate constant (% × min(-1)); CFmax: maximum curd firmness (mm); and tmax: time to CFmax (min)], 3 individual CY-related traits expressing the weight of fresh curd (%CYCURD), curd solids (%CYSOLIDS), and curd moisture (%CYWATER) as a percentage of weight of milk processed and 4 milk nutrient and energy recoveries in the curd (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY calculated as the % ratio between the nutrient in curd and the corresponding nutrient in processed milk), milk pH, and protein percentage. Each trait was analyzed separately. In total, 13,269 annotated genes were used in the analysis. The Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases were queried for enrichment analyses. Overall, 21 Gene Ontology and 17 Kyoto Encyclopedia of

  17. Differential DNA methylation and PM2.5 species in a 450K epigenome-wide association study.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingzhen; Mehta, Amar; Mordukhovich, Irina; Just, Allan C; Shen, Jincheng; Hou, Lifang; Koutrakis, Petros; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Schwartz, Joel D

    2017-02-01

    Although there is growing evidence that exposure to ambient particulate matter is associated with global DNA methylation and gene-specific methylation, little is known regarding epigenome-wide changes in DNA methylation in relation to particles and, especially, particle components. Using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we examined the relationship between one-year moving averages of PM2.5 species (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn) and DNA methylation at 484,613 CpG probes in a longitudinal cohort that included 646 subjects. Bonferroni correction was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Bioinformatics analysis of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment was also performed. We observed 20 Bonferroni significant (P-value < 9.4× 10(-9)) CpGs for Fe, 8 for Ni, and 1 for V. Particularly, methylation at Schlafen Family Member 11 (SLFN11) cg10911913 was positively associated with measured levels of all 3 species. The SLFN11 gene codes for an interferon-induced protein that inhibits retroviruses and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that gene targets may be relevant to pathways including cancers, signal transduction, and cell growth and death. Ours is the first study to examine the epigenome-wide association between ambient particles species and DNA methylation. We found that long-term exposures to specific components of ambient particle pollution, especially particles emitted during oil combustion, were associated with methylation changes in genes relevant to immune responses. Our findings provide insight into potential biologic mechanisms on an epigenetic level.

  18. Integrated Pathway-Based Approach Identifies Association between Genomic Regions at CTCF and CACNB2 and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zapatka, Marc; Frank, Josef; Witt, Stephanie H.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Treutlein, Jens; Strohmaier, Jana; Meier, Sandra; Degenhardt, Franziska; Giegling, Ina; Ripke, Stephan; Leber, Markus; Lange, Christoph; Schulze, Thomas G.; Mössner, Rainald; Nenadic, Igor; Sauer, Heinrich; Rujescu, Dan; Maier, Wolfgang; Børglum, Anders; Ophoff, Roel; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Mattheisen, Manuel; Brors, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an integrated hierarchical approach was applied to: (1) identify pathways associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia; (2) detect genes that may be potentially affected in these pathways since they contain an associated polymorphism; and (3) annotate the functional consequences of such single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the affected genes or their regulatory regions. The Global Test was applied to detect schizophrenia-associated pathways using discovery and replication datasets comprising 5,040 and 5,082 individuals of European ancestry, respectively. Information concerning functional gene-sets was retrieved from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Gene Ontology, and the Molecular Signatures Database. Fourteen of the gene-sets or pathways identified in the discovery dataset were confirmed in the replication dataset. These include functional processes involved in transcriptional regulation and gene expression, synapse organization, cell adhesion, and apoptosis. For two genes, i.e. CTCF and CACNB2, evidence for association with schizophrenia was available (at the gene-level) in both the discovery study and published data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia study. Furthermore, these genes mapped to four of the 14 presently identified pathways. Several of the SNPs assigned to CTCF and CACNB2 have potential functional consequences, and a gene in close proximity to CACNB2, i.e. ARL5B, was identified as a potential gene of interest. Application of the present hierarchical approach thus allowed: (1) identification of novel biological gene-sets or pathways with potential involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia, as well as replication of these findings in an independent cohort; (2) detection of genes of interest for future follow-up studies; and (3) the highlighting of novel genes in previously reported candidate regions for schizophrenia. PMID:24901509

  19. Transcriptomics Analysis Reveals Putative Genes Involved in Biofilm Formation and Biofilm-associated Drug Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Chaminda J; Suriyanarayanan, Tanujaa; Swarup, Sanjay; Chia, Kuan Hui Burton; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Zhang, Chengfei

    2017-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive bacterium associated with endodontic infections and is capable of forming biofilms that can confer drug resistance to the bacterium, resulting in treatment failure. Current knowledge on E. faecalis drug resistance is of a limited and conflicting nature. The present study examined the genetic basis of E. faecalis biofilm formation and drug resistance using a RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)-based transcriptome approach. Eighteen clinical isolates of E. faecalis were screened for their biofilm formation abilities using the crystal violet assay, colony counting, and confocal imaging. Selected isolates were then evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility in planktonic and biofilm growth modes followed by RNA-Seq analysis of E. faecalis planktonic, biofilm, and vancomycin-treated biofilm samples and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes mapping in order to identify genes associated with biofilm formation and drug resistance of E. faecalis. All 18 clinical isolates retained biofilm formation ability and were classified as strong, weak, or laboratory American Type Culture Collection strainlike biofilm formers. Interestingly, both the strong and weak biofilm-forming isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin at the treated concentrations (256-4096 μg/mL). RNA-Seq analysis of these isolates identified a total of 163 and 101 differentially regulated genes in planktonic versus biofilm and vancomycin-treated biofilm versus biofilm comparisons, respectively, with significant differences in arsenic resistance operon genes arsR and arsD, sporulation regulatory gene paiA, ABC drug transporter classes, and penicillin-binding proteins. The present transcriptomic study revealed putative genes associated with E. faecalis biofilm formation and drug resistance, which will provide a foundation for improved therapeutic strategies against E. faecalis infections in the future. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  20. Integrated pathway-based approach identifies association between genomic regions at CTCF and CACNB2 and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Juraeva, Dilafruz; Haenisch, Britta; Zapatka, Marc; Frank, Josef; Witt, Stephanie H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Treutlein, Jens; Strohmaier, Jana; Meier, Sandra; Degenhardt, Franziska; Giegling, Ina; Ripke, Stephan; Leber, Markus; Lange, Christoph; Schulze, Thomas G; Mössner, Rainald; Nenadic, Igor; Sauer, Heinrich; Rujescu, Dan; Maier, Wolfgang; Børglum, Anders; Ophoff, Roel; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Mattheisen, Manuel; Brors, Benedikt

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, an integrated hierarchical approach was applied to: (1) identify pathways associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia; (2) detect genes that may be potentially affected in these pathways since they contain an associated polymorphism; and (3) annotate the functional consequences of such single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the affected genes or their regulatory regions. The Global Test was applied to detect schizophrenia-associated pathways using discovery and replication datasets comprising 5,040 and 5,082 individuals of European ancestry, respectively. Information concerning functional gene-sets was retrieved from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Gene Ontology, and the Molecular Signatures Database. Fourteen of the gene-sets or pathways identified in the discovery dataset were confirmed in the replication dataset. These include functional processes involved in transcriptional regulation and gene expression, synapse organization, cell adhesion, and apoptosis. For two genes, i.e. CTCF and CACNB2, evidence for association with schizophrenia was available (at the gene-level) in both the discovery study and published data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia study. Furthermore, these genes mapped to four of the 14 presently identified pathways. Several of the SNPs assigned to CTCF and CACNB2 have potential functional consequences, and a gene in close proximity to CACNB2, i.e. ARL5B, was identified as a potential gene of interest. Application of the present hierarchical approach thus allowed: (1) identification of novel biological gene-sets or pathways with potential involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia, as well as replication of these findings in an independent cohort; (2) detection of genes of interest for future follow-up studies; and (3) the highlighting of novel genes in previously reported candidate regions for schizophrenia.

  1. Reversion of left ventricle remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats by valsartan is associated with the inhibition of caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities

    PubMed Central

    DENG, XU; XIA, KE; CHEN, PO; ALI SHEIKH, MD SAYED; YANG, DA-FENG; LI, SI-MIN; YANG, TIAN-LUN

    2015-01-01

    The development of hypertension is closely associated with cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis, and caspase-3, −8 and −9 are key enzymes of apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of valsartan on left ventricle hypertrophy and myocardial apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and to explore the mechanisms for valsartan against apoptosis. A total of 15 SHRs (16 weeks old) were randomly divided into two groups. The SHRs in the valsartan (n=8) and SHR groups (n=7) were fed with valsartan and distilled water for 8 weeks, respectively. Wistar-Kyoto rats (n=8) were the control group. At the end of the experiments, blood pressure, parameters regarding hypertrophy, apoptosis and activities of caspase-3, −8 and −9 were measured. The results showed that valsartan significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, improved left ventricular remodeling, attenuated the myocardial damage and apoptosis, and decreased the activities of caspase-3, −8 and −9 in SHRs. In conclusion, valsartan is able to reverse hypertension-induced left ventricle remodeling, which is associated with, at least in part, its inhibitory effect on myocardial apoptosis in the death receptor-mediated extrinsic, as well as the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathways. PMID:26171161

  2. [Screening of key genes and inflammatory signalling pathway involved in the pathogenesis of HLA-B27-associated acute anterior uveitis by gene expression microarray].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-feng; Lu, Hong; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-sheng; Zhang, Xiao-long; Liu, Xu-hui; Xu, Zhuo-zai; Hu, Jun-min; Lu, Qing-jun

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the genes and signalling pathways located upstream of the inflammatory processes in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-associated acute anterior uveitis by gene expression microarray. Experimental study. HLA-B27-positive and-negative monocytes isolated from human peripheral blood were stimulated with Vibrio cholera lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Gene expression microarrays were used to identify the differentially expressed genes. Differentially expressed (DE) genes were testified by real-time PCR and analyzed by a series of bioinformatics-based techniques such as Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Gene expression microarray analysis revealed marked differences between HLA-B27-positive acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and HLA-B27-negative healthy control peripheral monocytes in the genes that were upregulated in response to LPS stimulation with 1105 genes and 25 genes respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and pathway analysis indicated that genes participating in protein transport and folding were essential to the inflammatory process. The LPS receptor-Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 induced TLR signalling pathway and pathway related to Vibrio cholerae infection were located upstream of the network and contribute to the overall response. Among the DE genes, PIK3CA, PIK3CB, AKT3, and MAPK1 might play critical roles in inflammation. Equivalent LPS stimulation induces a different response in HLA-B27-positive peripheral monocytes compared to normal control, suggesting that the TLR pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of HLA-B27-associated AAU.

  3. Identification of a Long Noncoding RNA-Associated Competing Endogenous RNA Network in Intracranial Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Lu; Lan, Qing; Wang, Jiangfei; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by an abnormally bulged artery in the brain and subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by IA rupture with a high ratio of fatality and morbidity. However, the genetic cause of IA remains largely unknown. A dysregulated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) -associated competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network was constructed by using sample-matched microRNA (miRNA), lncRNA, and messenger (mRNA) expression profiles in 12 saccular IA samples and paired control arteries. In this study, 1150 lncRNAs, 2545 mRNAs, and 286 miRNAs were differentially expressed in IAs compared with control arteries. Using miRanda, a ceRNA score was assigned, and gene expression methods were used to construct a ceRNA network. The network consists of 8401 miRNA-lncRNA-mRNA interactions (199 miRNAs, 445 lncRNAs, 1116 mRNAs; P < 0.05). Further Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that the mRNAs involved in the ceRNA network were involved in the regulation of muscle contraction and vascular smooth muscle contraction. By comparing IAs and their control arteries, we identified differentially expressed lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs and suggested ceRNA roles in the pathogenesis of IA. These findings may help to characterize the pathogenesis of IA and provide novel therapeutic targets in the future for patients with IA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of functional chemical-protein associations to identify multi-pathway renoprotectants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Meng, Kexin; Zhang, Rui; Yang, He; Liao, Chang; Zhu, Wenliang; Jiao, Jundong

    2014-01-01

    Typically, most nephropathies can be categorized as complex human diseases in which the cumulative effect of multiple minor genes, combined with environmental and lifestyle factors, determines the disease phenotype. Thus, multi-target drugs would be more likely to facilitate comprehensive renoprotection than single-target agents. In this study, functional chemical-protein association analysis was performed to retrieve multi-target drugs of high pathway wideness from the STITCH 3.1 database. Pathway wideness of a drug evaluated the efficiency of regulation of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways in quantity. We identified nine experimentally validated renoprotectants that exerted remarkable impact on KEGG pathways by targeting a limited number of proteins. We selected curcumin as an illustrative compound to display the advantage of multi-pathway drugs on renoprotection. We compared curcumin with hemin, an agonist of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which significantly affects only one KEGG pathway, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism (adjusted p = 1.5×10-5). At the same concentration (10 µM), both curcumin and hemin equivalently mitigated oxidative stress in H2O2-treated glomerular mesangial cells. The benefit of using hemin was derived from its agonistic effect on HO-1, providing relief from oxidative stress. Selective inhibition of HO-1 completely blocked the action of hemin but not that of curcumin, suggesting simultaneous multi-pathway intervention by curcumin. Curcumin also increased cellular autophagy levels, enhancing its protective effect; however, hemin had no effects. Based on the fact that the dysregulation of multiple pathways is implicated in the etiology of complex diseases, we proposed a feasible method for identifying multi-pathway drugs from compounds with validated targets. Our efforts will help identify multi-pathway agents capable of providing comprehensive protection against renal injuries.

  5. Overexpression of CD44 is associated with the occurrence and migration of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanghu; Gao, Yufei; Cui, Yongsheng; Zhang, Tao; Cui, Rui; Jiang, Yang; Shi, Jingwei

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a potentially fatal disease and the incidence is increasing annually. In order to diagnose and treat NSCLC effectively, greater understanding of its molecular mechanism is required. In the present study, 36 NSCLC tissues and 10 normal tissues were selected. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to analyze the CD44 mRNA expression level in NSCLC tissue and DNA sequencing was performed to further verify the CD44 expression level. Differentially expressed genes between tumor tissues and controls were determined by DNA sequencing and the Gene_act_net between CD44 and its associated genes was constructed. Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes was performed by the Biological Networks Gene Ontology tool. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was performed based on the Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer test applied in the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. RT-qPCR results showed that CD34 was overexpressed in 21 of the 36 NSCLC tissues (58.3%). The Gene_act_net indicated that there were 20 differentially expressed genes with 17 upregulated and 3 downregulated. Among them, CD44, MET, ERBB2, EGFR, AKT1, IQGAP1 and STAT3 were associated with the occurrence and migration of NSCLC. In KEGG pathway analysis, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and hematopoietic cell lineage pathways were the most affected by overexpressed CD44; and thus may be important in the development and migration of NSCLC. In conclusion, CD44 was overexpressed in NSCLC and the overexpression was associated with the occurrence of NSCLC and migration of NSCLC cells. PMID:27573351

  6. Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression Associated with Growth and Reproduction of Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) Revealed by Brain Transcriptome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingping; Zheng, Min; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yongzhuang; Lu, Jianguo; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-08-26

    In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome of one- and two-year-old male and female brains of Cynoglossus semilaevis by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 77,066 transcripts, corresponding to 21,475 unigenes, were obtained with a N50 value of 4349 bp. Of these unigenes, 33 genes were found to have significant differential expression and potentially associated with growth, from which 18 genes were down-regulated and 12 genes were up-regulated in two-year-old males, most of these genes had no significant differences in expression among one-year-old males and females and two-year-old females. A similar analysis was conducted to look for genes associated with reproduction; 25 genes were identified, among them, five genes were found to be down regulated and 20 genes up regulated in two-year-old males, again, most of the genes had no significant expression differences among the other three. The performance of up regulated genes in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was significantly different between two-year-old males and females. Males had a high gene expression in genetic information processing, while female's highly expressed genes were mainly enriched on organismal systems. Our work identified a set of sex-biased genes potentially associated with growth and reproduction that might be the candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism of tongue sole, laying the foundation to understand the complex process of sex determination of this economic valuable species.

  7. Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression Associated with Growth and Reproduction of Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) Revealed by Brain Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pingping; Zheng, Min; Liu, Jian; Liu, Yongzhuang; Lu, Jianguo; Sun, Xiaowen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome of one- and two-year-old male and female brains of Cynoglossus semilaevis by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. A total of 77,066 transcripts, corresponding to 21,475 unigenes, were obtained with a N50 value of 4349 bp. Of these unigenes, 33 genes were found to have significant differential expression and potentially associated with growth, from which 18 genes were down-regulated and 12 genes were up-regulated in two-year-old males, most of these genes had no significant differences in expression among one-year-old males and females and two-year-old females. A similar analysis was conducted to look for genes associated with reproduction; 25 genes were identified, among them, five genes were found to be down regulated and 20 genes up regulated in two-year-old males, again, most of the genes had no significant expression differences among the other three. The performance of up regulated genes in Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was significantly different between two-year-old males and females. Males had a high gene expression in genetic information processing, while female’s highly expressed genes were mainly enriched on organismal systems. Our work identified a set of sex-biased genes potentially associated with growth and reproduction that might be the candidate factors affecting sexual dimorphism of tongue sole, laying the foundation to understand the complex process of sex determination of this economic valuable species. PMID:27571066

  8. Up-regulation of the complement system in subcutaneous adipocytes from nonobese, hypertriglyceridemic subjects is associated with adipocyte insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    van Greevenbroek, M M J; Ghosh, S; van der Kallen, C J H; Brouwers, M C G J; Schalkwijk, C G; Stehouwer, C D A

    2012-12-01

    Dysfunctional adipose tissue plays an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adipocyte dysfunction are incompletely understood. The aim of the study was to identify differentially regulated pathways in sc adipocytes of dyslipidemic subjects. Whole-genome expression profiling was conducted on sc adipocytes from a discovery group of nine marginally overweight subjects with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and nine controls of comparable body sizes as well as two independent confirmation groups. In this study, FCHL served as a model of familial insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, in the absence of frank obesity. Functional analyses and gene set enrichment analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes or a custom pathway database identified the complement system and complement regulators as one of the top up-regulated pathways in FCHL [false discovery rate (FDR) < 1E-30]. Higher adipocyte complement expression in FCHL was confirmed in the appropriate confirmation group. Higher complement gene expression was associated with lower adipocyte insulin receptor substrate-1 expression as marker of adipocyte insulin resistance, independent of age, sex, or disease status, and this association was corroborated in the two confirmation groups. Additionally, complement gene expression was associated with triglycerides in the discovery set and with triglycerides and/or waist circumference in the confirmation groups. Complement pathway up-regulation did not appear to be driven by hypertriglyceridemia because a 40% pharmacological reduction in triglycerides did not affect complement expression. These findings point to an up-regulation of a complement-related transcriptome in sc adipocytes under metabolically stressed conditions, even in the absence of overt obesity. Such up-regulation may subsequently influence downstream processes, including macrophage infiltration

  9. Medical Library Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reforms Wed October 4, 2017 The Medical Library Association (MLA) and American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) have recommended changes that ... 05 PM Barbara Epstein, AHIP, FMLA, Medical Library Association President, 2017–2018 Posted on: October 2, 2017 - ...

  10. Celiac Support Association

    MedlinePlus

    National Celiac Association Navigation About About Us Mission & Goals Officers & Staff Medical & Nutritional Advisors Gluten Free Recipes The Gluten-Free Food ... For Hurricanes Cart Welcome to the National Celiac Association (NCA) The National Celiac Association is a 501( ...

  11. Interstitial Cystitis Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have IC. Get The Facts Interstitial Cystitis Association The Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) is the only ... events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, VA ...

  12. From pilot's associate to satellite controller's associate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neyland, David L.; Lizza, Carl; Merkel, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Associate technology is an emerging engineering discipline wherein intelligent automation can significantly augment the performance of man-machine systems. An associate system is one that monitors operator activity and adapts its operational behavior accordingly. Associate technology is most effectively applied when mapped into management of the human-machine interface and display-control loop in typical manned systems. This paper addresses the potential for application of associate technology into the arena of intelligent command and control of satellite systems, from diagnosis of onboard and onground of satellite systems fault conditions, to execution of nominal satellite control functions. Rather than specifying a specific solution, this paper draws parallels between the Pilot's Associate concept and the domain of satellite control.

  13. Copy number variations and genome-wide associations reveal putative genes and metabolic pathways involved with the feed conversion ratio in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Santana, Miguel Henrique; Junior, Gerson Antônio Oliveira; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Freua, Mateus Castelani; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; Leme, Paulo Roberto; Fukumasu, Heidge; Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman

    2016-11-01

    The use of genome-wide association results combined with other genomic approaches may uncover genes and metabolic pathways related to complex traits. In this study, the phenotypic and genotypic data of 1475 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle and 941,033 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for genome-wide association study (GWAS) and copy number variations (CNVs) analysis in order to identify candidate genes and putative pathways involved with the feed conversion ratio (FCR). The GWAS was based on the Bayes B approach analyzing genomic windows with multiple regression models to estimate the proportion of genetic variance explained by each window. The CNVs were detected with PennCNV software using the log R ratio and B allele frequency data. CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified with CNVRuler and a linear regression was used to associate CNVRs and the FCR. Functional annotation of associated genomic regions was performed with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and the metabolic pathways were obtained from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We showed five genomic windows distributed over chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 8, and 24 that explain 12 % of the total genetic variance for FCR, and detected 12 CNVRs (chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 10, and 12) significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05] with the FCR. Significant genomic regions (GWAS and CNV) harbor candidate genes involved in pathways related to energetic, lipid, and protein metabolism. The metabolic pathways found in this study are related to processes directly connected to feed efficiency in beef cattle. It was observed that, even though different genomic regions and genes were found between the two approaches (GWAS and CNV), the metabolic processes covered were related to each other. Therefore, a combination of the approaches complement each other and lead to a better understanding of the FCR.

  14. The severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with gut dysbiosis and shift in the metabolic function of the gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Boursier, Jérôme; Mueller, Olaf; Barret, Matthieu; Machado, Mariana; Fizanne, Lionel; Araujo-Perez, Felix; Guy, Cynthia D; Seed, Patrick C; Rawls, John F; David, Lawrence A; Hunault, Gilles; Oberti, Frédéric; Calès, Paul; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-03-01

    Several animal studies have emphasized the role of gut microbiota in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, data about gut dysbiosis in human NAFLD remain scarce in the literature, especially studies including the whole spectrum of NAFLD lesions. We aimed to evaluate the association between gut dysbiosis and severe NAFLD lesions, that is, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis, in a well-characterized population of adult NAFLD. Fifty-seven patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled. Taxonomic composition of gut microbiota was determined using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of stool samples. Thirty patients had F0/F1 fibrosis stage at liver biopsy (10 with NASH), and 27 patients had significant F≥2 fibrosis (25 with NASH). Bacteroides abundance was significantly increased in NASH and F≥2 patients, whereas Prevotella abundance was decreased. Ruminococcus abundance was significantly higher in F≥2 patients. By multivariate analysis, Bacteroides abundance was independently associated with NASH and Ruminococcus with F≥2 fibrosis. Stratification according to the abundance of these two bacteria generated three patient subgroups with increasing severity of NAFLD lesions. Based on imputed metagenomic profiles, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways significantly related to NASH and fibrosis F≥2 were mostly related to carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. NAFLD severity associates with gut dysbiosis and a shift in metabolic function of the gut microbiota. We identified Bacteroides as independently associated with NASH and Ruminococcus with significant fibrosis. Thus, gut microbiota analysis adds information to classical predictors of NAFLD severity and suggests novel metabolic targets for pre-/probiotics therapies. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Telemetric ambulatory arterial stiffness index, a predictor of cardio-cerebro-vascular mortality, is associated with aortic stiffness-determining factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Tian-Ying; Zhang, Sai-Long; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xue-Wen; Guan, Yun-Feng; Lo, Ming; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2013-09-01

    Ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) has been proposed as a new measure of arterial stiffness for predicting cardio-cerebro-vascular morbidity and mortality. However, there has been no research on the direct relationships between AASI and arterial stiffness-determining factors. We utilized beat-to-beat intra-aortic blood pressure (BP) telemetry to characterize AASI in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). By determination of aortic structural components and analysis of their correlations with AASI, we provided the first direct evidence for the associations between AASI and arterial stiffness-determining factors including the collagen content and collagen/elastin. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index was positively correlated with pulse pressure in both WKY and SHR, less dependent on BP and BP variability than pulse pressure, and relatively stable, especially the number of BP readings not less than ~36. The correlations between AASI and aortic components were comparable for various AASI values derived from BP readings not less than ~36. Not only AASI but also BP variability and pulse pressure demonstrated a direct relationship with arterial stiffness. These findings indicate AASI may become a routine measure in human arterial stiffness assessment. It is recommended to use a cluster of parameters such as AASI, BP variability, and pulse pressure for evaluating arterial stiffness. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Observation of three-dimensional structures of quasi-periodic echoes associated with mid-latitude sporadic-E layers by MU radar ultra-multi-channel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Hashiguchi, H.; Maegawa, A.

    2006-07-01

    Quasi-periodic (QP) backscatter observed by VHF radars associated with the mid-latitude Sporadic-E (Es) layers is characterized by distinct striations on range-time-intensity (RTI) plots. Two competing models claim to explain the structure of unstable regions that scatter the radar waves: horizontally drifting patches at an almost constant altitude and unstable regions elongated in altitude along the geomagnetic field line. We have conducted interferometric imaging observations of QP radar echoes to investigate spatial structures of QP echoes, precisely. Kyoto University's newly developed ultra-multi-channel receiving system of middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar was used. We used 19 independent channels for the radar imaging, and determined the three-dimensional structure and the motion of the QP echoes. During the observation from 30 May to 02 June 2005, well-defined QP echoes were observed on the nights of 31 May, 01 June, and 02 June 2005. Some of QP echoes were found at altitudes higher than 120 km and appeared to descend in altitude as they approached the radar. This result suggests that backscatter regions are developed along the geomagnetic field line from Es layer altitudes to as high as 130 km and that the fluctuations in plasma density and electric field observed by Pfaff et al. (2005) using in-situ measurements form a part of QP echoes.

  17. A characterization of associativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlesworth, Arthur

    1990-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for associativity of a function is given, in terms of a particular relation being a function. The concept of an associative function is generalized to the concept of a function being asssociative relative to a sequence and a characterization of such relative associativity is also given. These two characteristics are applied to the problem of proving the associativity, or relative associativity, of a function.

  18. Effect of eplerenone on hypertension-associated renal damage in rats: potential role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ).

    PubMed

    Miana, M; de Las Heras, N; Rodriguez, C; Sanz-Rosa, D; Martin-Fernandez, B; Mezzano, S; Lahera, V; Martinez-Gonzalez, J; Cachofeiro, V

    2011-02-01

    Several factors, including mineralocorticoids, have been implicated in the renal damage associated with hypertension. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists improve renal damage associated with different pathologies. Therefore, our hypothesis was that mineralocorticoid receptor blockade ameliorates renal damage associated with hypertension and that this improvement may be mediated by PPAR-γ. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with either vehicle or eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, at two different doses: 30 and 100 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks. Age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as a normotensive reference group. SHR showed tubulointersticial fibrosis and mild tubular atrophy. These alterations were accompanied by increases in renal cortex gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and phosphorylated Smad2 protein levels, factors involved in the fibrotic response. Interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene expression were also increased. By contrast, lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and PPAR-γ protein levels were decreased in SHR as compared with normotensive animals. Only the high dose of eplerenone was able to reduce blood pressure and partially prevent LOX down-regulation in SHR. Both eplerenone doses significantly ameliorated interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, reduced TGF-β, CTGF and cytokine gene expression, and decreased Smad2 activation, while normalizing PPAR-γ protein levels. Mineralocorticoid receptor activation participates in hypertension-associated renal damage. This effect seems to involve stimulation of both fibrotic and inflammatory processes mediated (at least in part) by a down-regulation of PPAR-γ that can favour an up-regulation of the TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway.

  19. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Molecule Read More ABTA News April 6, 2017 Chicago-Based American Brain Tumor Association’s Breakthrough for Brain ... Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain Tumor Association Phone: ...

  20. Spondylitis Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... spondylitis. Stay Informed Sign Up Contact Us Spondylitis Association of America PO Box 5872 Sherman Oaks, CA ... 892-1616 Give With Confidence Copyright 2017 Spondylitis Association of America Privacy Statement Terms Of Use Login ...

  1. American Behcet's Disease Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... sponsors, Larry and Terri Gury. American Behcet's Disease Association PO BOX 80576 Rochester, MI 48308 Contact Us | Website Policy | webmaster@behcets.com American Behcet's Disease Association Copyright 2014

  2. Transverse Myelitis Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute Flaccid Myelitis) REGISTER TODAY! The Transverse Myelitis Association Registry The NIH/NCATS GRDR® Program Global Rare ... be followed via electronic surveys THE TRANSVERSE MYELITIS ASSOCIATION ADVOCATING FOR THOSE WITH ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, NEUROMYELITIS ...

  3. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... purchased, 10% will be donated to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association. iGive.com - Online Shopping Joing iGive.com to ... 5% of the purchase price to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association. Bookmark the link http://smile.amazon.com/ch/ ...

  4. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... I first joined the state high school athletic association medical advisory committee, the Catastrophic Sports Injury Research ... Contact NATA Careers Feedback © 2017 National Athletic Trainers' Association. All Rights Reserved, Worldwide. DO BUSINESS WITH NATA

  5. Children's Craniofacial Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and families affected by facial differences. Children's Craniofacial Association is a national, 501(c)3 nonprofit organization, ... contactCCA@ccakids.com Copyright © 2011-17 Children's Craniofacial Association. All Rights Reserved. Internet Marketing by Socius Marketing ...

  6. American Pharmacists Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Booklet A tour booklet on the American Pharmacists Association headquarters. MORE Spotlight Highlight: Erica Tolle, PharmD Each ... Booklet A tour booklet on the American Pharmacists Association headquarters. MORE Popular Links APhM - American Pharmacists Month ...

  7. American Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart.org Media for Heart.org American Heart Association An office pop-in from a coworker came ... employers for help. Why does the American Heart Association name a top college football coach? For Bear ...

  8. American Thyroid Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0 87th Annual Meeting of the American Thyroid Association October 18–22, 2017, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada ... the 87th annual meeting of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) is almost upon us! On... Read More ...

  9. National Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... We Are Development Regions Sections Student National Medical Association ANMA & NAAYI Calendar Employment Opportunities Physician Locator ').appendTo($ ... disparities and promotion of optimal health. National Medical Association | 8403 Colesville Road, Suite 820, Silver Spring, MD ...

  10. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policy Responses Sequestration Impact Programs State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health ... Membership Categories Membership Application PROGRAMS State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health ...

  11. Emergency Nurses Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nurses Week Celebration Led by the Emergency Nurses Association, #ENWeek, Oct. 8-14, recognizes the work of ... care for emergency department patients, the Emergency Nurses Association is opposed to the passage of the recently- ...

  12. Myositis Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pause OUR MISSION The mission of The Myositis Association is to: Increase program support to the myositis ... raise funds and awareness. STAY CONNECTED The Myositis Association 1940 Duke Street, Suite 200 Alexandria, VA 22314 ...

  13. American Veterinary Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Posted Oct. 11, 2017 The American Animal Hospital Association announced Sept. 5 tha AAFP takes strong position ... 01,2017 Posted Oct. 11, 2017 The American Association of Feline Practitioners announced Sept. 6 that it ...

  14. American Burn Association

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    ... by burn injury. Donate today The American Burn Association Web site contains general information for burn care ... local burn center or hospital. © 2017 American Burn Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of Academic Physiatrists

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    ... notactive'); autoPlay();}); }); Your Academic Home for Physiatry The Association of Academic Physiatrists (AAP) is a community of ... Chae, MD, has been named President of the Association of Academic Physiatrists. He is chair of MetroHealth's ...

  16. American Physical Therapy Association

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    ... Media Other Publications For Media American Physical Therapy Association | 1111 North Fairfax Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-1488 ... Follow APTA All contents © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association. All Rights Reserved. Use of this and other ...

  17. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

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    ... Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic Plan ... CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education Services ...

  18. Credible genetic associations?

    PubMed Central

    Munafò, Marcus R

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation in genetic association studies, and the recurring failure of initially promising findings to robustly replicate, demonstrates the need for stringent standards to ensure the identification of credible associations. The Human Genome Epidemiology Network has recently published intermin guideliness on evidential criteria for genetic association studies. These are reviewed, and their value and importance discussed, as well as the impact these guidelines will have on the conduct of genetic association studies. PMID:21537450

  19. Dysglycemia associated with quinolones.

    PubMed

    El Ghandour, Sarah; Azar, Sami T

    2015-06-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is well known to be associated with fluctuations of blood glucose levels. This review aims at exploring the association between glycemic fluctuations and antibiotics mainly focusing on quinolones. Quinolones are associated with hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Several mechanism are proposed to explain this causality.

  20. Invertebrate and microbial associates

    Treesearch

    Fred M. Stephen; C. Wayne Berisford; D.L. Dahlsten; John C. Moser

    1988-01-01

    Coincident with and immediately subsequent to bark penetration, colonization and establishment of bark beetle and pathogen populations in the host, a myriad of associated organisms that are intimately associated with the bark beetles arrives at and finds access to the subcortical environment of infested trees. Although many of these associated species have been...

  1. National Association and Organization Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Barbara J.; Platt, Judith; Miles, Carol; Webster, Duane E.; Morris, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Contains reports from the American Library Association, Association of American Publishers, American Booksellers Association, Association of Research Libraries, and Council on Library and Information Resources. (PEN)

  2. Reconstruction assessment of historical land use: A case study in the Kamo River basin, Kyoto, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pingping; Takara, Kaoru; Apip; He, Bin; Nover, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Reconstruction assessment of historical land use can be useful for understanding historical conditions and the impact of long-term land-use change. This study establishes a new method to estimate historical land use based on a set of basic rules generated from the comparison of present land-use and historical documents. This method has been formalized in the paleo-land-use reconstruction (PLUR) program, allowing users to quickly reconstruct historical land use using historical information. The 1843, 1902 and 1927 historical land use conditions were generated using the PLUR model for the Kamo River basin (KRB). Our results show that between 1902 and 1976, three golf courses (Ohara Public course, Kamigamo course and Funayama course) replaced forest land in the KRB. As a result of agricultural development, the area occupied by paddy fields in 1843 was 2.48 km2 less than that in 1902. Urban areas increased from 1843 to 1976, mainly reflecting declining coverage of paddy fields after 1902. The approach presented in this study can be used to support land-use change analyses and reconstruction of paleo-hydrology. This study also provides a discussion of the major drivers of land use change.

  3. Kyoto Redoux: Assessment of an Environmental Science Collaborative Learning Project for Undergraduate, Non-Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaras, Anastasia P.; Howard, Barbara J.; Wende, Carolee M.

    2000-01-01

    Considers how science can be presented in a format that will allow college-level undergraduates not majoring in the sciences to understand science in terms of everyday life and in the context that science is important in their own fields of interest. (Contains 49 references.) (DDR)

  4. Appendix E. The Path I Have Followed ---at Shimogamo, Kyoto, in April 1974---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukawa, H.

    This is an English translation, adopted from an essay written in Japanese as the preface to the book, Order and Chaos (on Hideki Yukawa), by Sosuke Taka-uchi; it was published by Kosakusha, Tokyo in 1974 and in 1979 (enlarged revised edition). For his book, Taka-uchi, a poet, was awarded a prize by the (well-known) Rekitei group of poets. Translated by M. Konuma by kind permission of Professor H. Yukawa and the publisher.

  5. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  6. A novel point mutation in the human insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia (proinsulin Kyoto).

    PubMed Central

    Yano, H; Kitano, N; Morimoto, M; Polonsky, K S; Imura, H; Seino, Y

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a 65-yr-old nonobese Japanese man with diabetes mellitus, fasting hyperinsulinemia (150-300 pM), and a reduced fasting C-peptide/insulin molar ratio of 2.5-3.0. Fasting hyperinsulinemia was also found in his son and daughter. Analysis of insulin isolated from the serum of the proband and his son by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography revealed a minor peak coeluting with human insulin and a major peak of proinsulin-like materials. The insulin gene of the patient was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and the products were sequenced. A novel point mutation was identified in which guanine was replaced by thymine. The substitution gives rise to a new HindIII recognition site and results in the amino acid replacement of leucine for arginine at position 65. These results indicate that the amino-acid replacement prevents recognition of the C-peptide-A chain dibasic protease and results in an elevation of proinsulin-like materials in the circulation. Furthermore, in this family the proinsulin-like materials is due to a biosynthetic defect, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Rapid detection of this mutation can be accomplished by HindIII restriction enzyme mapping of polymerase chain reaction-generated DNA, which enables us to facilitate the diagnosis and screening. Images PMID:1601997

  7. Forestry in U.S. Climate Change Action Plans: From the Arch to Kyoto

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Moulton

    1998-01-01

    The international community has played a major role in prompting actions to address global climate change. The 1989 Summit of the Arch in Paris resulted in President Bush's announcement in his 1990 State of the Union message of the America the Beautiful (ATB) program, which greatly expanded federal funding for urban forestry and for forest stewardship programs...

  8. Education for Peace: A Conference Report from Kyoto. Peace Education Reports No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerstedt, Ake, Ed.

    Conference sessions of the Peace Education Commission (PEC), a transnational network of people interested in peace education and research related to peace education, are reported in this document. Following an introductory overview of the conference as a whole, the report is divided into four parts. The first part contains three area studies; that…

  9. Identifying gaps in the locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the Kyoto Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Inamoto, Takashi; Benson, John R; Forbes, John F; Mitsumori, Michihide; Robertson, John F R; Sasano, Hironobu; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Yamauchi, Akira; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    A consensus conference was held to investigate issues related to the local management of early breast cancer. Here, we highlight the major topics discussed at the conference and propose ideas for future studies. Regarding axillary management, we examined three major issues. First, we discussed whether the use of axillary reverse mapping could clarify the lymphatic system of breast and whether the ipsilateral arm might help avoid lymphedema. Second, the use of an indocyanine green fluorescent navigation system was discussed for intraoperative lymphatic mapping. These new issues should be examined further in practice. Finally, some agreement was reached on the importance of "four-node diagnosis" to aid in the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel nodes. Regarding breast treatment, there was general agreement that the clinical value of surgical margins in predicting local failure was dependent on the tumor's intrinsic biology and subtypes. For patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy, less extensive excision may be feasible in those who respond to systemic therapy in an acceptable manner. Most trials of preoperative chemotherapy lack outcome data on local recurrence. Therefore, there is a need for such data for overview analysis. We also agreed that radiation after mastectomy may be beneficial in node-positive cases where more than four nodes are involved. Throughout the discussions for both invasive and noninvasive disease, the investigation of nomograms was justified for major issues in the decision-making process, such as the presence or absence of microinvasion and the involvement of nonsentinel nodes in sentinel node-positive patients.

  10. (Fifth international congress of plant pathology, Kyoto, Japan, August 23--27, 1988): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. Jr.

    1988-09-12

    The traveler was invited to present two papers at Symposium XV of the Fifth International Congress of Plant Pathology. The major topics of the sessions within the symposium were (1) physiological and biochemical responses to air pollution, (2) air pollution-vegetation effects models, (3) joint action of multiple pollutants, and (4) acidic deposition. In the last session, the traveler presented two papers on the effects of air pollutants on forests. One described results of ongoing ORNL research on the physiological responses of red spruce to ambient pollution levels at high-elevation sites in the Great Smoky Mountains. The second provided an overview of the research being done in the Southern Commercial Forest Research Cooperative and used selected results from ORNL and other programs to illustrate results reported to date. Relevant information was obtained from several papers on mechanisms of action of chronic air pollution stress; this information may be useful in evaluating the mechanistic basis of pollutant impacts on forest trees. 20 refs.

  11. DIFFERENTIAL CARDIAC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR) TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is linked to increases in cardiovascular effects. This is enhanced in individuals with pre-existing disease. Animal models of cardiovascular disease are used to study this susceptibility. The heart is rich in mitochondria, which produce ...

  12. DIFFERENTIAL CARDIAC SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WISTAR KYOTO (WKY) AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR) TO DIESEL EXHAUST EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is linked to increases in cardiovascular effects. This is enhanced in individuals with pre-existing disease. Animal models of cardiovascular disease are used to study this susceptibility. The heart is rich in mitochondria, which produce ...

  13. Ozone-Induced Metabolic Impairment is Attenuated in Adrenalectomized Wistar Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of metabolic syndrome however the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have recently shown that ozone exposure induces significant hyperglycemia together with elevated serum leptin and epinephrine in the Wistar Ky...

  14. Co-expression network-based analysis of hippocampal expression data associated with Alzheimer's disease using a novel algorithm

    PubMed Central

    YUE, HONG; YANG, BO; YANG, FANG; HU, XIAO-LI; KONG, FAN-BIN

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in bioinformatics has facilitated the clarification of biological processes associated with complex diseases. Numerous methods of co-expression analysis have been proposed for use in the study of pairwise relationships among genes. In the present study, a combined network based on gene pairs was constructed following the conversion and combination of gene pair score values using a novel algorithm across multiple approaches. Three hippocampal expression profiles of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls were extracted from the ArrayExpress database, and a total of 144 differentially expressed (DE) genes across multiple studies were identified by a rank product (RP) method. Five groups of co-expression gene pairs and five networks were identified and constructed using four existing methods [weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), empirical Bayesian (EB), differentially co-expressed genes and links (DCGL), search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes/proteins database (STRING)] and a novel rank-based algorithm with combined score, respectively. Topological analysis indicated that the co-expression network constructed by the WGCNA method had the tendency to exhibit small-world characteristics, and the combined co-expression network was confirmed to be a scale-free network. Functional analysis of the co-expression gene pairs was conducted by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The co-expression gene pairs were mostly enriched in five pathways, namely proteasome, oxidative phosphorylation, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and AD. This study provides a new perspective to co-expression analysis. Since different methods of analysis often present varying abilities, the novel combination algorithm may provide a more credible and robust outcome, and could be used to complement to traditional co-expression analysis. PMID:27168792

  15. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus associated with gastroenteritis and emergence of norovirus GII.4 variant 2012 in Japanese pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Thongprachum, Aksara; Chan-it, Wisoot; Khamrin, Pattara; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart; Okitsu, Shoko; Takanashi, Sayaka; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Maneekarn, Niwat; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    In late 2012, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to norovirus variant Sydney_2012 occurred and have been reported from many counties. In this study, we described surveillance study of the incidence of norovirus infections among Japanese pediatric patients in association with gastroenteritis and investigated the antigenic change of the new variant Sydney_2012 circulated in Japanese populations. A total of 2381 fecal specimens collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Hokkaido, Tokyo, Shizuoka, Kyoto, Osaka, and Saga from 2009 to 2013 were examined for norovirus and further analyzed molecularly. A high proportion (39.3%) of norovirus positive samples and several genotypes were detected. Norovirus GII.4 dominated over other genotypes (71.4%). The Den_Haag_2006b (43.2%) was detected as the predominant variant and co-circulated with New_Orleans_2009 (17.8%) until March 2012. Subsequently, they were displaced by Sydney_2012. The Sydney_2012 variant has been responsible for the majority of norovirus infections in 2012-2013 (85.7%). Although Sydney_2012 variant has a common ancestor with New_Orleans_2009 variant, analysis of P2 sub-domain showed a high level of diversity in comparison with other variants in four amino acid changes at the antigenic sites. The change in particular residue 393 of new variant may affect HBGA recognition. Analysis of noroviruses circulating in the past 4years revealed a change of predominant variant of norovirus GII.4 in each epidemic season. The change of amino acid in putative epitopes may have led the virus escape from the existing herd immunity and explain the increase of new variant outbreaks.

  16. Transcriptional profiling of SHR/NCrl prefrontal cortex shows hyperactivity-associated genes responsive to amphetamine challenge.

    PubMed

    Dela Peña, I J I; Dela Peña, I; de la Peña, J B; Kim, H J; Sohn, A; Shin, C Y; Han, D H; Kim, B-N; Ryu, J H; Cheong, J H

    2017-09-01

    Several studies suggest a strong genetic component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Determining specific genetic risk variants for each symptom dimension of ADHD may aid in the identification of the biological risk factors of the disorder. In this study, we explored the potential genetic underpinnings of the hyperactive phenotype of ADHD. To this end, we examined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SHR/NCrl, an animal model of ADHD, compared with its genetic control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rat and the Wistar rat, strain used to represent the 'normal' heterogeneous population. Relative to WKY/NCrl and Wistar controls, SHR/NCrl showed hyperactivity in the open-field test. Treatment with the ADHD drug, amphetamine (AMPH) reduced hyperactivity in SHR/NCrl. Meanwhile, AMPH increased locomotor activity in WKY/NCrl and Wistar rats. Gene expression analysis found 21 common upregulated and 36 downregulated genes in the PFC of drug-naive SHR/NCrl when compared with WKY/NCrl and Wistar rats. Of these DEGs, expression levels of two genes, Atxn7 and Per2, which are involved in transcription and circadian rhythm, respectively, were downregulated following AMPH treatment in SHR/NCrl. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction analyses verified expression patterns of these genes in the PFC of drug-naïve and AMPH-treated SHR/NCrl. The present findings indicate genetic risk variants that may be associated with the hyperactive phenotype in ADHD. Further studies are warranted to establish the roles of Atxn7 and Per2 in mediating hyperactivity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Clarifying the molecular mechanism associated with carfilzomib resistance in human multiple myeloma using microarray gene expression profile and genetic interaction network

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhihong; Liu, Tingbo; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    Carfilzomib is a Food and Drug Administration-approved selective proteasome inhibitor for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, recent studies indicate that MM cells still develop resistance to carfilzomib, and the molecular mechanisms associated with carfilzomib resistance have not been studied in detail. In this study, to better understand its potential resistant effect and its underlying mechanisms in MM, microarray gene expression profile associated with carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 and its parental cell line was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Raw fluorescent signals were normalized and differently expressed genes were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays method. Genetic interaction network was expanded using String, a biomolecular interaction network JAVA platform. Meanwhile, molecular function, biological process and signaling pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Totally, 27 upregulated and 36 downregulated genes were identified and a genetic interaction network associated with the resistant effect was expanded basing on String, which consisted of 100 nodes and 249 edges. In addition, signaling pathway enrichment analysis indicated that cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways were aberrant in carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 cells. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that carfilzomib potentially conferred drug resistance to KMS-11 cells by cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways, which may provide some potential molecular therapeutic targets for drug combination therapy against carfilzomib resistance. PMID:28280367

  18. Clarifying the molecular mechanism associated with carfilzomib resistance in human multiple myeloma using microarray gene expression profile and genetic interaction network.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhihong; Liu, Tingbo; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Jianda

    2017-01-01

    Carfilzomib is a Food and Drug Administration-approved selective proteasome inhibitor for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, recent studies indicate that MM cells still develop resistance to carfilzomib, and the molecular mechanisms associated with carfilzomib resistance have not been studied in detail. In this study, to better understand its potential resistant effect and its underlying mechanisms in MM, microarray gene expression profile associated with carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 and its parental cell line was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Raw fluorescent signals were normalized and differently expressed genes were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays method. Genetic interaction network was expanded using String, a biomolecular interaction network JAVA platform. Meanwhile, molecular function, biological process and signaling pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Totally, 27 upregulated and 36 downregulated genes were identified and a genetic interaction network associated with the resistant effect was expanded basing on String, which consisted of 100 nodes and 249 edges. In addition, signaling pathway enrichment analysis indicated that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways were aberrant in carfilzomib-resistant KMS-11 cells. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that carfilzomib potentially conferred drug resistance to KMS-11 cells by cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, autophagy, ErbB signaling pathway, microRNAs in cancer and fatty acid metabolism pathways, which may provide some potential molecular therapeutic targets for drug combination therapy against carfilzomib resistance.

  19. Wilson's Disease Association International

    MedlinePlus

    Administration Connect with Wilson Disease Association Send Email Physician Contacts List of Physicians and Institutions in Your Area View Contacts Support Contacts Individuals who can offer Support ...

  20. Associative learning and timing

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Kimberly; Balsam, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Associative learning and timing are clearly inter-related, but are they separate processes or is timing a core part of the associative structure? Emerging research suggests that temporal information is acquired rapidly and that CR's are timed correctly from the start of associative learning. Moreover, specific temporal knowledge can be disclosed even in cases where CR's were not emitted. Timing is not only critical for CR timing, but also contributes to CR expression through the comparison of reinforcer rates, and through the formation of temporal maps. A conceptual framework is proposed in which timing is a core part of the content of associative learning. PMID:27175441

  1. National Aphasia Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenge. […] National Aphasia Association Response to Statements by Trump Campaign Spokesperson In response to a recent statement by Trump campaign spokesperson, Katrina Pierson, and the article which ...

  2. American Art Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read more Insurance Reimbursement About AATA Shop Our Store ...Read more Journal Subscription Continuing Education Advertising and Marketing American Art Therapy Association Follow Us 4875 Eisenhower ...

  3. Scleroderma associated with ANCA-associated vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Rho, Young Hee; Choi, Seong Jae; Lee, Young Ho; Ji, Jong Dae; Song, Gwan Gyu

    2006-03-01

    We have recently reported on two cases of scleroderma patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis for the first time in Korea. In order to explore the nature of this disease combination, we pooled together all the previously known cases and statistically analyzed them. Out of the 50 selected cases, survival analysis was done for comparison of the scleroderma disease period and the clinical factors associated with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients having anti-topoisomerase antibody (anti-Scl-70) and, probably, PR-3 ANCA are at a higher risk for developing AAV than patients without both anti-topoisomerase antibody and anti-centromere antibody (ACA), and patients with MPO-ANCA. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed having anti-topoisomerase antibody as a risk factor for developing AAV [OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.11-8.55), P=0.031]. We suggest that having anti-topoisomerase antibodies may play a role among scleroderma patients in developing AAV.

  4. An Investigation of Highly Geo-effective Solar Transients and Associated Geoeffectivness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Subhash Chandra

    2016-07-01

    The solar Cycle 23 has shown some peculiar features, i.e. slow and prolonged decline phase. It is when combined with the ascending phase of Cycle 24, it provides us a long phase during which the overall magnetic activity was very low. During this interval the average sunspot number appeared on the solar disk were very low and signifies the weak polar magnetic fields, and solar wind streams mainly originating from coronal holes. The study investigate the relationship between magnetic structure of coronal holes and/or coronal mass ejection (CME) source region and their influence on Earth's geomagnetic field, i.e. storms and sub storms. Mainly considering very intense geomagnetic storms that occurred during Solar Cycle 23. The disturbance storm time index Dst is taken as an indicator of geomagnetic activity by setting a value of Dstmin ≤ -200 nT as threshold. By examining halo CMEs that erupted between 2000 to 2008. We selected 07 events associated with M-class and X-class solar flares. Furthermore, as the geomagnetic field (BGeomag) puts a lower cutoff rigidity (Rc) to the entry of cosmic particles in to the earth, depending upon the geomagnetic activity. Sometimes when this entry of charged particles exhibits very sudden sharp and short lived increases in cosmic ray intensities, registered by neutron monitor, it is termed as Ground-level enhancement (GLEs). These enhancements are known to take place during the result of powerful solar eruption. In this present investigation we also studied GLE events associated with solar flare and coronal mass ejection (CMEs). The spacecraft data acquired by various spacecraft mission and those provided by Omni web and geomagnetic stations like WDC-Kyoto are utilized in the study. We observed that IMF B is highly geo-effective during the main phase of magnetic storms, while it more significant at the time of storm peak, which is further contributed by southward component of IMF Bz, substantiating earlier findings. The correlation

  5. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  6. The Family Leukemia Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Eleanor

    1976-01-01

    An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

  7. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  8. Associate Degree Preferred.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale, Ed.

    Designed to encourage dialogue and inform decision making about the associate degree, this book presents perspectives on the role of the associate degree in the nation's two-year colleges. First, "Toward a Greater Degree: A Plan of Action," by Dale Parnell, suggests a plan for preserving and enhancing the value of the education being provided by…

  9. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  10. Epilepsy-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Liu; Xu, Hai-Qing; Shi, Yi-Wu; Yi, Yong-Hong; He, Na; Liao, Wei-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Development in genetic technology has led to the identification of an increasing number of genes associated with epilepsy. These discoveries will both provide the basis for including genetic tests in clinical practice and improve diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. By searching through several databases (OMIM, HGMD, and EpilepsyGene) and recent publications on PubMed, we found 977 genes that are associated with epilepsy. We classified these genes into 4 categories according to the manifestation of epilepsy in phenotypes. We found 84 genes that are considered as epilepsy genes: genes that cause epilepsies or syndromes with epilepsy as the core symptom. 73 genes were listed as neurodevelopment-associated genes: genes associated with both brain-development malformations and epilepsy. Several genes (536) were epilepsy-related: genes associated with both physical or other systemic abnormalities and epilepsy or seizures. We found 284 additional genes putatively associated with epilepsy; this requires further verification. These integrated data will provide new insights useful for both including genetic tests in the clinical practice and evaluating the results of genetic tests. We also summarized the epilepsy-associated genes according to their function, with the goal to better characterize the association between genes and epilepsies and to further understand the mechanisms underlying epilepsy.

  11. Network Consistent Data Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases.

  12. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  13. Dynamics of associating networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shengchang; Habicht, Axel; Wang, Muzhou; Li, Shuaili; Seiffert, Sebastian; Olsen, Bradley

    Associating polymers offer important technological solutions to renewable and self-healing materials, conducting electrolytes for energy storage and transport, and vehicles for cell and protein deliveries. The interplay between polymer topologies and association chemistries warrants new interesting physics from associating networks, yet poses significant challenges to study these systems over a wide range of time and length scales. In a series of studies, we explored self-diffusion mechanisms of associating polymers above the percolation threshold, by combining experimental measurements using forced Rayleigh scattering and analytical insights from a two-state model. Despite the differences in molecular structures, a universal super-diffusion phenomenon is observed when diffusion of molecular species is hindered by dissociation kinetics. The molecular dissociation rate can be used to renormalize shear rheology data, which yields an unprecedented time-temperature-concentration superposition. The obtained shear rheology master curves provide experimental evidence of the relaxation hierarchy in associating networks.

  14. HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Saksena, Nitin K.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with the development of neurocognitive disorders in many infected individuals, including a broad spectrum of motor impairments and cognitive deficits. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is still not clear. This review provides a comprehensive view of HAND, including HIV neuroinvasion, HAND diagnosis and different level of disturbances, influence of highly-active antiretroviral therapy to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), possible pathogenesis of HAD, etc. Together, this review will give a thorough and clear understanding of HAND, especially HAD, which will be vital for future research, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24470972

  15. Hypomethylation of Agtrap is associated with long-term inhibition of left ventricular hypertrophy in prehypertensive losartan-treated spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Jun; Lian, Gui-Li; Lin, Xu; Zhong, Hong-Bin; Xu, Chang-Sheng; Wang, Hua-Jun; Xie, Liang-Di

    2017-02-01

    Prehypertensive losartan treatment may lead to long‑term inhibition of the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor-associated protein (ATRAP/Agtrap) and methylation of the Agtrap gene in the myocardium following the withdrawal of treatment. Four‑week‑old SHRs were randomly divided into three groups, and were treated with saline, amlodipine or losartan, respectively, for 6 weeks. Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs) were used as a control. All rats were followed up regularly until they reached the age of 32 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), left ventricular mass/body weight (LVM/BW), and cardiac fibrosis and structure were measured. The mRNA and protein expression of ATRAP in the myocardium were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Methylation of the Agtrap promoter was detected by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Reduced levels of SBP, LVM/BW, cardiac fibrosis and interventricular septum thickness were determined to be maintained only in prehypertensive losartan‑treated SHRs. Whereas, an increased expression of ATRAP mRNA and protein, and hypomethylation of the Agtrap promoter in the myocardium, were demonstrated only in the losartan‑treated SHRs. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that the hypomethylation of Agtrap accompanying upregulation of ATRAP expression in the myocardium is associated with the long‑term inhibition of LVH in SHRs with prehypertensive losartan treatment.

  16. American Podiatric Medical Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... to do so. Learn More about The National Advertisement Advertisement @APMA Tweets by @APMA Follow @APMA Featured Webinars ... 26 at 8 p.m. EDT. Register now! Advertisement © 2017 American Podiatric Medical Association, Inc. All rights ...

  17. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10:00 Recent Blogs Help ATs Affected by Hurricanes The Texas State Athletic Trainers' Association has started ... fund for athletic trainers in Texas affected by Hurricane Harvey with an initial donation of $1,000. ...

  18. Kennedy's Disease Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Association A Public Benefit, Non-Profit Organization Register GTranslate GTranslate Javascript is required to use GTranslate multilingual website and translation delivery network Select Language English Afrikaans Albanian Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Basque Belarusian ...

  19. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep Disorders Book Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Changing Bad Sleep Habits Asthma and Sleep ...

  20. Kennedy's Disease Association

    MedlinePlus

    Kennedy's Disease Association A Public Benefit, Non-Profit Organization Register GTranslate GTranslate Javascript is required to use ... worldwide. Males generally inherit the disease symptoms and females are the carriers. Help Us Find A Cure! ...

  1. National Spasmodic Torticollis Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... alone anymore. Welcome to National Spasmodic Torticollis Association web site The mission of the National Spasmodic Torticollis ... Signs and Symptoms Treatment Options Medications Botulinum Toxin Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Selective Denervation Surgery Physical Therapy ...

  2. American Association of Suicidology

    MedlinePlus

    Login | My AAS | Shopping Cart AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SUICIDOLOGY Suicide Prevention is Everyone's Business AAS is a charitable, nonprofit membership organization About AAS Staff Board of Directors Contact Us ...

  3. National Stuttering Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1989. Funded by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in 2000, this rewarding program partners NSA members ... Local Chapters NSA Adult Chapters The National Stuttering Association’s motto: If You Stutter, You're Not Alone, ...

  4. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  5. Associative list processing unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  6. Platelet associated antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003552.htm Platelet-associated antibodies blood test To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a ...

  7. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Journal's website MONTHLY HEADLINES from MSKTC (Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center) The American Burn Association Web site contains general information for burn care professionals. The ABA Web site is not intended ...

  8. Government, Marketplace, and Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes events at the 1988 Canadian Library Association (CLA) annual conference, which addressed such issues as access to information, CLA finances, and the information marketplace. A list of CLA officers and awards is included. (MES)

  9. American Sleep Apnea Association

    MedlinePlus

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  10. Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment. C. difficile infection C. difficile is a toxin-producing bacteria that causes antibiotic-associated colitis, which ... doctor feels they're necessary. Antibiotics can treat bacterial infections, but they won't help viral infections, ...

  11. Thyroid-associated paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Faquin, William; Wei, Nancy; Barbesino, Giuseppe; Stephen, Antonia E

    2011-07-01

    Paragangliomas in the region of the thyroid gland are rare tumors that can present a diagnostic challenge by mimicking follicular and c-cell derived thyroid tumors. Thyroid-associated paragangliomas are likely a subset of laryngeal paragangliomas and, although quite rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a hypervascular thyroid nodule. The preoperative diagnosis of thyroid-associated paragangliomas can be challenging since the cytologic and histologic features overlap with more common primary thyroid neoplasms, in particular medullary carcinoma. Differential expression of a panel of immunohistochemical markers, including neuro-specific enolase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, keratin, and S100, can be used to distinguish thyroid-associated paragangliomas from primary thyroid tumors. Intraoperatively, thyroid-associated paragangliomas may be associated with significant intraoperative bleeding and are often densely adherent to surrounding tissues, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Interestingly, the aggressive local behavior of these tumors does not correspond to potential for malignancy, as there are no patients with malignant thyroid-associated paragangliomas reported in the medical literature. Therefore, these tumors may be treated with limited resection. Postoperatively, patients with paragangliomas should receive hormonal evaluation for functional disease, imaging evaluation for multicentric and metastatic disease, and genetic counseling. Thyroid-associated paragangliomas are an important part of the differential diagnosis of a hypervascular thyroid nodule, especially in a patient with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy suggestive of medullary thyroid carcinoma, but with unremarkable serum calcitonin levels. Consideration of a thyroid-associated paraganglioma also has important operative and postoperative implications for determining the extent of thyroid resection as well as follow-up testing.

  12. Thyroid associated orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Rajat; Weis, Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid associated orbitopathy, also known as Graves’ orbitopathy, is typically a self-limiting autoimmune process associated with dysthyroid states. The clinical presentation may vary from very mild disease to severe irreversible sight-threatening complications. Despite ongoing basic science and clinical research, the pathogenesis and highly effective therapeutic strategies remain elusive. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this common, yet poorly understood disease, which remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist. PMID:22446901

  13. Associative Training of Hermissenda

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1974-01-01

    Reflex behavior of Hermissenda in response to visual and rotational stimuli is described. It is shown that repeated association of light with rotation modifies the subsequent responses of the animals to light. This modification does not occur after the same period of light or rotation alone. The effect of the associative training is strongly dependent on the amount of daily light with which the animals are maintained. PMID:4837687

  14. National Association and Organization Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranich, Nancy C.; Platt, Judith; Hoynes, Michael F.; Webster, Duane E.; Smith, Kathlin

    2001-01-01

    Presents five annual reports, from the American Library Association, Association of American Publishers, American Booksellers Association, Association of Research Libraries, and the Council on Library and Information Resources. (LRW)

  15. National Association and Organization Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranich, Nancy C.; Platt, Judith; Hoynes, Michael F.; Webster, Duane E.; Smith, Kathlin

    2001-01-01

    Presents five annual reports, from the American Library Association, Association of American Publishers, American Booksellers Association, Association of Research Libraries, and the Council on Library and Information Resources. (LRW)

  16. Distribution of surface rupture associated the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and its significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, H.; Kumahara, Y.; Tsutsumi, H.; Toda, S.; Ishimura, D.; Okada, S.; Nakata, T.; Kagohara, K.; Kaneda, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Tsumura, S.; Matsuta, N.; Ishiyama, T.; Sugito, N.; Hirouchi, D.; Ishiguro, S.; Yoshida, H.; Tanaka, K.; Takenami, D.; Kashihara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Moriki, H.

    2016-12-01

    A Mj 6.5 earthquake hit Kumamoto prefecture, central Kyushu, southwest Japan at 21:26 JST on April 14th. About 28 hours after, The Mj 7.3 earthquake occurred at 01:25 JST on April 16, and caused severe shaking in and around the epicentral region. An ENE-to-NE-trending surface rupture zone associated with the earthquakes appeared along the previously mapped 100-km-long active fault called the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone (FHFZ) (Watanabe et al., 1979; Research Group for Active Tectonics in Kyushu, 1989; Research Group for Active Faults of Japan, 1991; Ikeda et al., 2001; Nakata and Imaizumi ed, 2002). According to our field survey for three months, we found the 31-km-length surface rupture close to the traces of the northeastern part of the FHFZ, and another 5-km-length rupture on a part of the Denokuchi fault. The rupture along the FHFZ shows right-lateral strike slip mainly ( 2.1 m in maximum). The rupture on the Denokuchi fault, far from about 2km east of the FHFZ, is the normal component with down to northwest. These coseismic ruptures of the Mj 7.3 earthquake have been represented to be a characteristic movement of the northeastern part of the FHFZ. The deformations such as a series of the open cracks with NW-SE trending were traceable for a distance of 5.4 km from Kengun to Shirakawa River in and around the downtown of Kumamoto city. Those features followed on tectonic landform by the active fault and on the line of the fringe abnormal in InSAR image (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, 2016) represent small triggered slip. The eyewitness of local resident and our observation revealed that a coseismic small rupture of the Mj 6.5 earthquake had been appeared along the southern end of Mj 7.3 earthquake ruptures. Seismic inversion theory (DPRI, Kyoto Univ, 2016) showed that the coseismic rupture propagated toward NE along the strike of the FHFZ, and an asperity near the surface was recognized from 10 km far from the epicenter toward NE. The area of maximum

  17. Methamphetamine-associated psychosis.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kathleen M; LeVan, Tricia D; Wells, Sandra M; Li, Ming; Stoltenberg, Scott F; Gendelman, Howard E; Carlo, Gustavo; Bevins, Rick A

    2012-03-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a frequent drug of abuse in U.S. populations and commonly associated with psychosis. This may be a factor in frequent criminal justice referrals and lengthy treatment required by METH users. Persecutory delusions and auditory hallucinations are the most consistent symptoms of METH-associated psychosis (MAP). MAP has largely been studied in Asian populations and risk factors have varied across studies. Duration, frequency and amount of use as well as sexual abuse, family history, other substance use, and co-occurring personality and mood disorders are risk factors for MAP. MAP may be unique with its long duration of psychosis and recurrence without relapse to METH. Seven candidate genes have been identified that may be associated with MAP. Six of these genes are also associated with susceptibility, symptoms, or treatment of schizophrenia and most are linked to glutamatergic neurotransmission. Animal studies of pre-pulse inhibition, attenuation of social interaction, and stereotypy and alterations in locomotion are used to study MAP in rodents. Employing various models, rodent studies have identified neuroanatomical and neurochemical changes associated with METH use. Throughout this review, we identify key gaps in our understanding of MAP and suggest potential directions for future research.

  18. Fibromyalgia syndrome. New associations.

    PubMed

    Waylonis, G W; Heck, W

    1992-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a number of conditions, such as sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression, spastic colon and mitral valve prolapse, associated with fibromyalgia. The present report describes additional symptoms and medical conditions that appear to be associated with the syndrome based on a survey of 554 individuals with fibromyalgia compared with a group of 169 controls. Individuals with fibromyalgia self report a greater incidence of bursitis, chondromalacia, constipation, diarrhea, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, vertigo, sinus and thyroid problems. Symptomatic complaints found statistically more prevalent in fibromyalgia patients included concentration problems, sensory symptoms, swollen glands and tinnitus. Other associations occurring with significant increased frequency were chronic cough, coccygeal and pelvic pain, tachycardia and weakness. Our previous report on inheritance patterns in fibromyalgia was reaffirmed with 12% reporting symptomatic children and 25% reporting symptomatic parents. Of the respondents, 70% noted that their symptoms were aggravated by noise, lights, stress, posture and weather.

  19. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  20. Chaparral-associated hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, N M; Philen, R M; Love, L A

    1997-04-28

    Personal health care practices that may include the use of dietary supplements are common in the United States. Products marketed as dietary supplements are diverse and may include botanicals, vitamins, and/or minerals. Chaparral (Larrea tridentata) is a botanical dietary supplement made from a desert shrub and used for its antioxidant properties. Several reports of chaparral-associated hepatitis have been published since 1990, but a complete picture of the clinical presentation is still unclear. We reviewed the 18 case reports of adverse events associated with the ingestion of chaparral reported to the Food and Drug Administration between 1992 and 1994. These reports were from health care professionals, state health departments, and individual consumers. Of 18 reports of illnesses associated with the ingestion of chaparral, there was evidence of hepatotoxicity in 13 cases. Clinical presentation, characterized as jaundice with a marked increase in serum liver chemistry values, occurred 3 to 52 weeks after the ingestion of chaparral, and it resolved 1 to 17 weeks after most individuals stopped their intake of chaparral. The predominant pattern of liver injury was characterized as toxic or drug-induced cholestatic hepatitis; in 4 individuals, there was progression to cirrhosis; and in 2 individuals, there was acute fulminant liver failure that required liver transplants. These data indicate that the use of chaparral may be associated with acute to chronic irreversible liver damage with fulminant hepatic failure, and they underscore the potential for certain dietary supplement ingredients to cause toxic effects on the liver. Health professionals should be encouraged to inquire routinely about the use of dietary supplements and other products, to be alert to potential adverse effects that may be associated with these products, and, finally, to report any serious adverse events associated with these products through the MEDWatch Program of the Food and Drug

  1. European eye bank association.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gary L A; Ponzin, Diego; Pels, Elisabeth; Maas, Hanneke; Tullo, Andrew B; Claerhout, Ilse

    2009-01-01

    The European Eye Bank Association (EEBA) is a technical-scientific organization for eye banks. Founded in 1989 with the simple objective of sharing information on eye banking, the Association is today the leading pan-national association in Europe dedicated to the advancement of eye banking and an authoritative reference point for eye banks which work according to quality standards. The Association establishes and maintains an agreed set of medical and technical standards, promotes the collection of data on eye bank activities and processes, provides opportunities for the discussion of all aspects of eye banking practice, including eye donor selection and procurement, relevant research and development, education and training in eye banking, and maintains linkage with national and international corneal transplant communities and relevant bodies. The recent introduction of a more structured and focused committee, a permanent secretariat, the development of a website has enabled the Association to establish closer links and collaborative activities with key regulatory bodies and to provide a more constant exchange of clinical, scientific and technical ideas and best practice with fellow professionals by means of its annual meetings, the EEBA directory and website, and a regular newsletter. The EEBA is a scientific organization committed to defining minimum standards and to encouraging eye banks to maintain the highest possible standards for quality and safety. Through its annual meetings, and the collection and exchange of detailed information from member eye banks, the Association can rightly claim to speak with a confident and representative voice on eye banking in Europe. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Identification of genes associated with tongue cancer in patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yin; Fu, Dongna; Xu, Chengbi; Yang, Jingpu; Wang, Zonggui

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify genes associated with tongue cancer in patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use. Microarray dataset GSE42023, including 10 tissue samples of tongue cancer from patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use (habit group) and 11 tissue samples of non-habit-associated tongue cancer (non-habit group), were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between the habit and non-habit groups were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data software package. The enrichment functions and pathways of these genes were subsequently predicted using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. Transcription factors (TFs) and tumor-associated genes (TAGs) were selected from the DEGs using the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements database and the TAG database, respectively. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for DEGs were constructed using Cytoscape. In addition, functional module analysis was performed using BioNet. This analysis identified 642 DEGs between the habit and non-habit groups, including 200 upregulated and 442 downregulated genes. The majority of upregulated DEGs were functionally enriched in the regulation of apoptosis and the calcium signaling pathway. The majority of downregulated DEGs were functionally enriched in fat cell differentiation and the adipocytokine signaling pathway. In addition, 31 TFs and 42 TAGs were identified from the DEGs. Furthermore, this analysis demonstrated that certain DEGs, including AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), E1A binding protein p300 (EP300), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) and epiregulin (EREG), had high connectivity degrees in the PPI networks and/or functional modules. Overall, DEGs in a functional module, such as AKT1, EP300, ERBB2 and EREG, may serve important roles in the development of tongue cancer in patients with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol use. These DEGs are

  3. MSSP Associate Editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottershead, John E.

    2015-08-01

    MSSP is pleased to announce the appointment of three distinguished researchers, Professors Jerome Antoni, Spilios Fassois and Paolo Pennacchi, as Associate Editors. The broad coverage of MSSP research topics demands editorial expertise in several disciplines and the appointment of an editorial team of the highest quality is essential in maintaining and further enhancing the reputation of MSSP as a journal at the forefront of modern experimental mechanics that combines dynamic systems with measurement technology, signal processing and active control. Brief descriptions of the backgrounds and experience of the Associate Editors are provided in the following paragraphs.

  4. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  5. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  6. Bells Palsy Association.

    PubMed

    2011-03-16

    Bells Palsy is a facial paralysis, usually affecting one side of the head, caused by damage to the facial nerve. The Bell's Palsy Association (BPA) is a charity that provides information, advice and support to people with the condition and their carers.

  7. Child Development Associate. Musicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    One of a series of 18, this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module provides a guide to promoting acute hearing and sound discrimination in young children through both group and self-selected music activities. Upon completion of this module the trainee is expected to be able to provide daily music experiences; emphasize enjoyment of and…

  8. Experimental Optoelectronic Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    Optoelectronic associative memory responds to input image by displaying one of M remembered images. Which image to display determined by optoelectronic analog computation of resemblance between input image and each remembered image. Does not rely on precomputation and storage of outer-product synapse matrix. Size of memory needed to store and process images reduced.

  9. ASSOCIATED WRITING PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASSILL, VERLIN

    THREE MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THE ASSOCIATED WRITING PROGRAMS ARE BRIEFLY DISCUSSED. FOR ENGLISH DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN INTERESTED IN EMPLOYING WRITERS, A LIST IS PROVIDED OF WRITERS WITH PUBLICATIONS OR GENERAL REPUTATION OR WITH PERSONAL RECOMMENDATIONS FROM STAFF MEMBERS OF GRADUATE WRITING PROGRAMS. THE FIRST VOLUME OF "INTRO," AN ANNUAL ANTHOLOGY OF…

  10. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  11. Researching Teacher Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard; Kuchah, Kuchah

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue not only for more research "into" English language teacher associations (TAs) but also for research to be carried out "by" and "within" TAs. That is, we advocate their becoming "Researching TAs" themselves. This suggestion derives from our recent collaborative work with/within the…

  12. Experimental Optoelectronic Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    Optoelectronic associative memory responds to input image by displaying one of M remembered images. Which image to display determined by optoelectronic analog computation of resemblance between input image and each remembered image. Does not rely on precomputation and storage of outer-product synapse matrix. Size of memory needed to store and process images reduced.

  13. Pantothenate - kinase associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Alpana; Khare, Shruti; Srivastav, Vipul

    2012-04-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation is a group of disorders, the commonest of which is PKAN (Pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration). We present here, a case of 18 year old boy with progressive dementia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal involvement, dysarthria, seizures and myoclonus. The patient was diagnosed as PKAN (formerly Hallervorden Spatz disease) after "eye of tiger" appearance on neuro-imaging.

  14. Native American Homeschooling Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozon, Gina

    2000-01-01

    The Native American Home School Association helps Native parents to provide a good education free from the assimilationist tendencies of public school and to transmit Native values and culture. Discusses various home schooling styles, the effectiveness of home schooling in terms of academic achievement and socialization, and the effectiveness of…

  15. Fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Yang, Yun-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones (FQs) are used to treat a wide range of infections because of their excellent gastrointestinal absorption, superior tissue penetration and broad-spectrum activity. Recently, FQ-associated tendinopathy and tendon rupture have been reported, especially in the elderly and patients with diabetes and renal failure. However, these adverse effects do not appear to be widely known among physicians. Because of the frequent use of FQs in clinical practice, physicians should be aware of their potential for severe disability from tendon rupture. Achilles tendinopathy or rupture is among the most serious side effects associated with FQ use, with reports markedly increasing, especially with the use of ciprofloxacin. The histopathologic findings include degenerative lesions, fissures, interstitial edema without cellular infiltration, necrosis and neovascularization. There are possible molecular mechanisms accounting for FQ-associated tendinopathy. First, ciprofloxacin mediates inhibition of cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle arrest in tendon cells by down-regulation of cyclin B and cyclin-dependent kinase 1. Second, ciprofloxacin inhibits the spead and migration of tenocytes by down-regulation of focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Third, ciprofloxacin enhances the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 with degradation of type I collagen. Management of FQ-associated tendinopathy includes immediate discontinuation of FQs, rest, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical modalities and eccentric strengthening exercise. Tendon rupture may require surgical intervention.

  16. International Radiosurgery Support Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... January 2003 IRSA® -- International RadioSurgery Association Since 1995, IRSA® , an independent organization, has dedicated itself ... went into remission. Read More... © Copyright IRSA® 1995-2017 Terms of Service | Medical Advisors | Resources | About ...

  17. Transcriptome Characterization of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' Using 454 Pyrosequencing and Its Application in the Identification of Genes Associated with Leaf Color Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Hailin; Huang, Dan; Wang, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    The highly variable leaf color of Cymbidium sinense significantly improves its horticultural and economic value, and makes it highly desirable in the flower markets in China and Southeast Asia. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanism underlying leaf-color variations. In this study, we found the content of photosynthetic pigments, especially chlorophyll degradation metabolite in the leaf-color mutants is distinguished significantly from that in the wild type of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma'. To further determine the candidate genes controlling leaf-color variations, we first sequenced the global transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. More than 0.7 million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average read length of 445.9 bp were generated and assembled into 103,295 isotigs representing 68,460 genes. Of these isotigs, 43,433 were significantly aligned to known proteins in the public database, of which 29,299 could be categorized into 42 functional groups in the gene ontology system, 10,079 classified into 23 functional classifications in the clusters of orthologous groups system, and 23,092 assigned to 139 clusters of specific metabolic pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Among these annotations, 95 isotigs were designated as involved in chlorophyll metabolism. On this basis, we identified 16 key enzyme-encoding genes in the chlorophyll metabolism pathway, the full length cDNAs and expressions of which were further confirmed. Expression pattern indicated that the key enzyme-encoding genes for chlorophyll degradation were more highly expressed in the leaf color mutants, as was consistent with their lower chlorophyll contents. This study is the first to supply an informative 454 EST dataset for Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' and to identify original leaf color-associated genes, which provide important resources to facilitate gene discovery for molecular breeding, marketable trait discovery, and investigating various biological

  18. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates myocardial collagen remodeling in association with inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Jin, Hongfang; Sun, Lujing; Chen, Siyao; Huang, Yaqian; Liu, Jia; Li, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Manman; Sun, Yan; Tang, Chaoshu; Zhao, Bin; Du, Junbao

    2015-01-20

    The study was designed to explore the role and possible mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the regulation of myocardial collagen remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). We treated nine-week-old male SHRs and age- and sex-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) with NaHS (90 μmol/kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 9 wks. At 18 wks, plasma H2S, tail arterial pressure, morphology of the heart, myocardial ultrastructure and collagen volume fraction (CVF), myocardial expressions of collagen I and III protein and procollagen I and III mRNA, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β type I receptor (TβR-I), type II receptor (TβR-II), p-Smad2 and 3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-1 proteins were determined. TGF-β1-stimulated cultured cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were used to further study the mechanisms. The results showed that compared with WKYs, SHRs showed a reduced plasma H2S, elevated tail artery pressure and increased myocardial collagen, TGF-β1, TβR-II, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 expressions. However, NaHS markedly decreased tail artery pressure and inhibited myocardial collagen, TGF-β1, TβR-II, p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 protein expressions, but H2S had no effect on the expressions of MMP-13 and TIMP-1. Hydralazine reduced blood pressure but had no effect on myocardial collagen, MMP-13 and TIMP-1 expressions and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. H2S prevented activation of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway and abnormal collagen synthesis in CFs. In conclusion, the results suggested that H2S could prevent myocardial collagen remodeling in SHR. The mechanism might be associated with inhibition of collagen synthesis via TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway.

  19. Transcriptome Characterization of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' Using 454 Pyrosequencing and Its Application in the Identification of Genes Associated with Leaf Color Variation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Genfa; Yang, Fengxi; Shi, Shanshan; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Hailin; Huang, Dan; Wang, Caiyun

    2015-01-01

    The highly variable leaf color of Cymbidium sinense significantly improves its horticultural and economic value, and makes it highly desirable in the flower markets in China and Southeast Asia. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanism underlying leaf-color variations. In this study, we found the content of photosynthetic pigments, especially chlorophyll degradation metabolite in the leaf-color mutants is distinguished significantly from that in the wild type of Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma'. To further determine the candidate genes controlling leaf-color variations, we first sequenced the global transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing. More than 0.7 million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with an average read length of 445.9 bp were generated and assembled into 103,295 isotigs representing 68,460 genes. Of these isotigs, 43,433 were significantly aligned to known proteins in the public database, of which 29,299 could be categorized into 42 functional groups in the gene ontology system, 10,079 classified into 23 functional classifications in the clusters of orthologous groups system, and 23,092 assigned to 139 clusters of specific metabolic pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Among these annotations, 95 isotigs were designated as involved in chlorophyll metabolism. On this basis, we identified 16 key enzyme-encoding genes in the chlorophyll metabolism pathway, the full length cDNAs and expressions of which were further confirmed. Expression pattern indicated that the key enzyme-encoding genes for chlorophyll degradation were more highly expressed in the leaf color mutants, as was consistent with their lower chlorophyll contents. This study is the first to supply an informative 454 EST dataset for Cymbidium sinense 'Dharma' and to identify original leaf color-associated genes, which provide important resources to facilitate gene discovery for molecular breeding, marketable trait discovery, and investigating various biological

  20. Mitigation of Insulin Resistance by Mangiferin in a Rat Model of Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Modulation of CD36 Redistribution in the Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Pan, Yongquan; Chonan, Ritsu; Batey, Robert; Rong, Xianglu; Yamahara, Johji; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yuhao

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin is one of the prominent active components responsible for the antidiabetic property of many traditional herbs, but its underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. CD36 in skeletal muscle is known to contribute to the etiology of insulin resistance by facilitating fatty acid uptake. This study investigated the effect of mangiferin on insulin resistance. The results showed that treatment of Wistar-Kyoto rats with mangiferin (15 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage) for 7 weeks inhibited chronic liquid fructose consumption-induced increases in plasma insulin concentrations at the baseline and during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. It also suppressed the increases in fasted plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration and the adipose tissue insulin resistance index. Mechanistically, mangiferin neither affected intakes of fructose and chow, and the increase in epididymal and perirenal fat, nor attenuated fructose-induced hypertension. In contrast, mangiferin attenuated fructose-induced acceleration of plasma NEFA clearance during OGTT, and tended to decrease excessive triglyceride accumulation in gastrocnemius. Immunofluorescence staining and subsequent rating of CD36-expressing fibers in gastrocnemius revealed that mangiferin restored fructose-stimulated sarcolemmal CD36 overexpression and decreased intracellular CD36 distribution. In addition, the effects of mangiferin on the parameters associated with insulin resistance and abnormal fatty acid metabolism were absent in the spontaneously hypertensive rats carrying numerous nonfunctional mutations in the CD36 gene. Thus, these results suggest that mangiferin treatment mitigates insulin resistance in a rat model of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome by modulating sarcolemmal and intracellular CD36 redistribution in the skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Digital Gene Expression Analysis Based on De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Reveals New Genes Associated with Floral Organ Differentiation of the Orchid Plant Cymbidium ensifolium

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fengxi; Zhu, Genfa

    2015-01-01

    Cymbidium ensifolium belongs to the genus Cymbidium of the orchid family. Owing to its spectacular flower morphology, C. ensifolium has considerable ecological and cultural value. However, limited genetic data is available for this non-model plant, and the molecular mechanism underlying floral organ identity is still poorly understood. In this study, we characterize the floral transcriptome of C. ensifolium and present, for the first time, extensive sequence and transcript abundance data of individual floral organs. After sequencing, over 10 Gb clean sequence data were generated and assembled into 111,892 unigenes with an average length of 932.03 base pairs, including 1,227 clusters and 110,665 singletons. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous group terms, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the plant transcription factor database. From these annotations, 131 flowering-associated unigenes, 61 CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) unigenes and 90 floral homeotic genes were identified. In addition, four digital gene expression libraries were constructed for the sepal, petal, labellum and gynostemium, and 1,058 genes corresponding to individual floral organ development were identified. Among them, eight MADS-box genes were further investigated by full-length cDNA sequence analysis and expression validation, which revealed two APETALA1/AGL9-like MADS-box genes preferentially expressed in the sepal and petal, two AGAMOUS-like genes particularly restricted to the gynostemium, and four DEF-like genes distinctively expressed in different floral organs. The spatial expression of these genes varied distinctly in different floral mutant corresponding to different floral morphogenesis, which validated the specialized roles of them in floral patterning and further supported the effectiveness of our in silico analysis. This dataset generated in our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying floral

  2. MiRNA-548ah, a potential molecule associated with transition from immune tolerance to immune activation of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Xing, Tong-Jing; Xu, Hong-Tao; Yu, Wen-Qing; Wang, Bian; Zhang, Jing

    2014-08-19

    The present study aims to identify the differently expressed microRNA (miRNA) molecules and target genes of miRNA in the immune tolerance (IT) and immune activation (IA) stages of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). miRNA expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at the IT and IA stages of CHB were screened using miRNA microarrays and authenticated using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) were used to analyze the significant functions and pathways of possible target genes of miRNAs. Assays of the gain and loss of function of the miRNAs were performed to verify the target genes in THP-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter test was used on 293T cells as direct targets. Significantly upregulated miR-548 and miR-4804 were observed in the miRNA microarrays and confirmed by RT-PCR in PBMCs at the IT and IA stages of CHB. GO and KEGG analysis revealed that MiR-548 and miR-4804 could be involved in numerous signaling pathways and protein binding activity. IFNγR1 was predicted as a target gene and validated as the direct gene of MiR-548. Significant negative correlation was found between the miR-548ah and mRNA levels of IFN-γR1 in CHB patients. The abnormal expression profiles of miRNA in PBMCs could be closely associated with immune activation of chronic HBV infection. miR-548, by targeting IFN-γR1, may represent a mechanism that can facilitate viral pathogenesis and help determine new therapeutic molecular targets.

  3. Pathway analysis of cervical cancer genome-wide association study highlights the MHC region and pathways involved in response to infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Enroth, Stefan; Ivansson, Emma; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2014-11-15

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified several susceptibility loci for cervical cancer, but they explain only a small fraction of cervical cancer heritability. Other variants with weaker effect may be missed due to the stringent significance threshold. To identify important pathways in cervical carcinogenesis, we performed a two-stage pathway analysis in two independent GWASs in the Swedish population, using the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ratio test. The 565 predefined pathways from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and BioCarta databases were systematically evaluated in the discovery stage (1034 cases and 3948 controls with 632,668 SNPs) and the suggestive pathways were further validated in the replication stage (616 cases and 506 controls with 341,358 SNPs). We found 12 pathways that were significant in both stages, and these were further validated using set-based analysis. For 10 of these pathways, the effect was mainly due to genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. In addition, we identified a set of novel candidate genes outside the MHC region in the pathways denoted 'Staphylococcus aureus infection' and 'herpes simplex infection' that influenced susceptibility to cervical cancer (empirical P = 4.99 × 10(-5) and 4.99 × 10(-5) in the discovery study; empirical P = 8.98 × 10(-5) and 0.009 in the replication study, respectively). Staphylococcus aureus infection may evoke an inflammatory response that inadvertently enhances malignant progression caused by HPV infection, and Herpes simplex virus-2 infection may act in conjunction with HPV infection to increase the risk of cervical carcinoma development. These findings provide new insights into the etiology of cervical cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Catheter-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Barbara W.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2010-01-01

    Intravascular catheters and urinary catheters are the 2 most commonly inserted medical devices in the United States, and they are likewise the two most common causes of nosocomially acquired bloodstream infection. Biofilm formation on the surfaces of indwelling catheters is central to the pathogenesis of infection of both types of catheters. The cornerstone to any preventive strategy of intravascular catheter infections is strict attention to infection control practices. Antimicrobial-impregnated intravascular catheters are a useful adjunction to infection control measures. Prevention of urinary catheter–associated infection is hindered by the numbers and types of organisms present in the periurethral area as well as by the typically longer duration of catheter placement. Antimicrobial agents in general have not been effective in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection in persons with long-term, indwelling urethral catheters. Preventive strategies that avoid the use of antimicrobial agents may be necessary in this population. PMID:15111369

  5. Thyroid associated orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Gupta, Mani; Mehta, Vinod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a self-limiting auto-immune condition usually associated with Grave's disease. It is characterised by ocular pain, eyelid swelling, chemosis, proptosis and keratopathy. As the mechanism for ophthamoplegia and optic neuropathy is the orbital swelling leading to mechanical restriction of ocular muscles and compression of optic nerve, one expects proptosis rather than ptosis in TAO. We describe a case of a young adult woman who presented with acute onset restriction of movement along with partial ptosis and severe diminution of vision in left eye. The MRI of orbit revealed significant swelling of recti along with signal alteration consistent with TAO. The radio-isotope thyroid scan revealed thyroiditis, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody was significantly high; hence, the diagnosis of Hashimoto thyroiditis was considered. A course of intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral steroid was administered, which produced marked improvement in vision and extraocular movement. PMID:23737589

  6. Burns associated with fondues.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PATIENTS: All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. RESULTS: The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. CONCLUSION: Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:1393897

  7. Burns associated with fondues.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

    1992-10-01

    To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. Descriptive case series. All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem.

  8. Vasculitis associated with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mertz, L E; Conn, D L

    1992-02-01

    A large variety of vasculopathic syndromes are uncommonly associated with malignancies. Vasculitis is usually manifested by skin lesions and is generally associated with hematologic malignancies rather than solid tumors. Evidence of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and complement consumption is typically absent. Myelodysplastic syndromes can be confidently linked to vasculitis on the basis of recent literature. The temporal relationship of malignancy to vasculitis development is variable except that vasculitis generally follows the discovery of hairy cell leukemia and splenectomy. Vasculitis may occasionally be a complication of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation. Occasionally, malignant disorders may mimic vasculitic syndromes. The etiopathogenesis of vasculitis in patients with malignant disorders is unknown. The recent literature on vasculitis and malignancy addresses predominantly case reports and small patient cohorts and identifies clinical characteristics rather than pathogenic mechanisms.

  9. Multitasking Associative Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Moauro, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a bipartite, diluted and frustrated, network as a sparse restricted Boltzmann machine and we show its thermodynamical equivalence to an associative working memory able to retrieve several patterns in parallel without falling into spurious states typical of classical neural networks. We focus on systems processing in parallel a finite (up to logarithmic growth in the volume) amount of patterns, mirroring the low-level storage of standard Amit-Gutfreund-Sompolinsky theory. Results obtained through statistical mechanics, the signal-to-noise technique, and Monte Carlo simulations are overall in perfect agreement and carry interesting biological insights. Indeed, these associative networks pave new perspectives in the understanding of multitasking features expressed by complex systems, e.g., neural and immune networks.

  10. Symbolic versus associative learning.

    PubMed

    Hummel, John E

    2010-08-01

    Ramscar and colleagues (2010, this volume) describe the "feature-label-order" (FLO) effect on category learning and characterize it as a constraint on symbolic learning. I argue that FLO is neither a constraint on symbolic learning in the sense of "learning elements of a symbol system" (instead, it is an effect on nonsymbolic, association learning) nor is it, more than any other constraint on category learning, a constraint on symbolic learning in the sense of "solving the symbol grounding problem."

  11. Optical Bidirectional Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosko, Bart; Guest, Clark

    1987-06-01

    Four optical implementations of bidirectional associative memories (BAMs) are presented. BAMs are heteroassociative content addressable memories (CAMs). A BAM stores the m binary associations (A1, B1), ..., (Am, Bm) , where A is a point in the Boolean n-cube and B is a point in the Boolean p-cube. A is a neural network of n bivalent or continuous neurons ai; B is a network of p bivalent or continuous neurons bi. The fixed synaptic connections between the A and B networks are represented by some n-by-p real matrix M. Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, in neural nets produces two-way associative search for the nearest stored pair (Ai, Bi) to an input key. Every matrix is a bidirectionally stable hetero-associative CAM for boh bivalent and continuous networks. This generalizes the well-known unidirectional stability for autoassociative networks with square symmetric M. When the BAM neurons are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of two-pattern reverberation, or pseudo-adaptive resonance. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. Heteroassociative pairs (Ai, Bi) are encoded in a BAM M by summing bipolar correlation matrices, M = X1T Y1 + ... + XmT Ym , where Xi (Yi) is the bipolar version of Ai (Bi), with -1s replacing Os. the BAM storage capacity for reliable recall is roughly m < min(n, p)--pattern number is bounded by pattern dimensionality. BAM optical implementations are divided into two approaches: matrix vector multipliers and holographic correlators. The four optical BAMs described respectively emphasize a spatial light modulator, laser diodes and high-speed detectors, a reflection hologram, and a transmission hologram.

  12. Fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  13. Associated morbidity of blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Arie Y; Vinker, Shlomo; Kaiserman, Igor

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of systemic medical conditions in patients with blepharitis. A retrospective observational case-control study. All the members who were diagnosed with blepharitis in the Central District of Clalit Health Services in Israel (years 2000-2009; n=16706) and 16706 age- and gender-matched controls randomly selected from the district members. Analysis of the prevalence of various ocular and systemic conditions, risk factors, age, gender, marriage status, country of origin, place of residency, and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of any associated morbidity. Demographically, a significantly higher tendency to develop blepharitis was found in populations of lower socioeconomic class, populations living in urban areas, and Ashkenazi Jews. A significant association of P<0.001 was found with some inflammatory diseases (gastritis, peptic ulcer, asthma, arthropathy, and ulcerative colitis), psychologic conditions (anxiety, irritable bowel syndrome, neuroses, and depression), hormonal conditions (hypothyroidism and prostatic hypertrophy), cardiovascular diseases (carotid artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease), and other eye conditions (chalazion, pterygium). The strongest associations found were between blepharitis and chalazia (odds ratio [OR] 4.7; confidence interval [CI], 3.8-5.7), rosacea (OR 3; CI, 2.1-4.3), pterygia (OR 2.0; CI, 1.5-2.6), ulcerative colitis (OR 2.3; CI, 1.2-4.2), irritable bowel syndrome (OR 1.8; CI, 1.3-2.5), anxiety (OR 1.6; CI, 1.4-1.9), and gastritis (OR 1.6; CI, 1.4-1.7). Some ocular and systemic conditions are more prevalent among patients with blepharitis. Better understanding of the pathophysiologic association between those diseases and blepharitis may help in its treatment and prevention. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Bovine coronavirus associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Kapil, Sanjay

    2010-03-01

    Bovine coronaviruses, like other animal coronaviruses, have a predilection for intestinal and respiratory tracts. The viruses responsible for enteric and respiratory symptoms are closely related antigenically and genetically. Only 4 bovine coronavirus isolates have been completely sequenced and thus, the information about the genetics of the virus is still limited. This article reviews the clinical syndromes associated with bovine coronavirus, including pneumonia in calves and adult cattle, calf diarrhea, and winter dysentery; diagnostic methods; prevention using vaccination; and treatment, with adjunctive immunotherapy.

  15. Genome Wide Association Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Solovieff, Nadia

    The availability of high throughput technology for parallel genotyping has opened the field of genetics to genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These studies generate massive amount of genetic data that challenge investigators with issues related to data management, statistical analysis of large data sets, visualization, and annotation of results. We will review the common approach to analysis of GWAS data and then discuss options to learn more from these data.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: VACTERL association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions VACTERL association VACTERL association Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description VACTERL association is a disorder that affects many body systems. ...

  17. Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Şahlı, Esra; Gündüz, Kaan

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most frequent extrathyroidal involvement of Graves’ disease but it sometimes occurs in euthyroid or hypothyroid patients. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder, but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Autoimmunity against putative antigens shared by the thyroid and the orbit plays a role in the pathogenesis of disease. There is an increased volume of extraocular muscles, orbital connective and adipose tissues. Clinical findings of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy are soft tissue involvement, eyelid retraction, proptosis, compressive optic neuropathy, and restrictive myopathy. To assess the activity of the ophthalmopathy and response to treatment, clinical activity score, which includes manifestations reflecting inflammatory changes, can be used. Supportive approaches can control symptoms and signs in mild cases. In severe active disease, systemic steroid and/or orbital radiotherapy are the main treatments. In inactive disease with proptosis, orbital decompression can be preferred. Miscellaneous treatments such as immunosuppressive drugs, somatostatin analogs, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulins and anticytokine therapies have been used in patients who are resistant to conventional treatments. Rehabilitative surgeries are often needed after treatment. PMID:28405484

  18. Association of container reconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, P.W. )

    1993-03-01

    By providing high-quality drums for the storage and transport of industrial materials, container reconditioners not only help protect the environment but also help create jobs. Members of the Association of Container Reconditioners (ACR; Landover, MD), have shown an exemplary commitment to recycling. Established in 1941 as the National Barrel Drum Association (NABADA), ACR represents more than 90% of the North American reconditioning industry and many of the largest reconditioners worldwide. The association in 1992 changed its name to reflect industry's trend to recondition for reuse all types of non-bulk containers. ACR is comprised of about 100 companies, which collectively operate thousands of trucks and trailers. Every day, they transport tens of thousands of empty containers from emptying locations to reconditioning facilities strategically located throughout the US. ACR promotes the reuse of industrial containers. Thus, the reconditioning industry is an important environmental partner of many manufacturing industries, including chemicals, paints and coatings, and adhesives. Through safe and environmentally secure container management services, ACR members help their customers comply with waste management and recycling regulations, as well as with industry codes of practice.

  19. Reminders Through Association

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Todd; Milkman, Katherine L.

    2017-01-01

    People often fail to follow through on good intentions. While limited self-control is frequently the culprit, another cause is simply forgetting to enact intentions when opportunities arise. We introduce a novel, potent approach to facilitating follow-through: the reminders-through-association approach. This approach involves associating intentions (e.g., to mail a letter on your desk tomorrow) with distinctive cues that will capture attention when you have opportunities to act on those intentions (e.g., Valentine’s Day flowers that arrived late yesterday, which are sitting on your desk). We showed that cue-based reminders are more potent when the cues they employ are distinctive relative to (a) other regularly encountered stimuli and (b) other stimuli encountered concurrently. Further, they can be more effective than written or electronic reminder messages, and they are undervalued and underused. The reminders-through-association approach, developed by integrating and expanding on past research on self-control, reminders, and prospective memory, can be a powerful tool for policymakers and individuals. PMID:27207873

  20. Reminders Through Association.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Todd; Milkman, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    People often fail to follow through on good intentions. While limited self-control is frequently the culprit, another cause is simply forgetting to enact intentions when opportunities arise. We introduce a novel, potent approach to facilitating follow-through: the reminders-through-association approach. This approach involves associating intentions (e.g., to mail a letter on your desk tomorrow) with distinctive cues that will capture attention when you have opportunities to act on those intentions (e.g., Valentine's Day flowers that arrived late yesterday, which are sitting on your desk). We showed that cue-based reminders are more potent when the cues they employ are distinctive relative to (a) other regularly encountered stimuli and (b) other stimuli encountered concurrently. Further, they can be more effective than written or electronic reminder messages, and they are undervalued and underused. The reminders-through-association approach, developed by integrating and expanding on past research on self-control, reminders, and prospective memory, can be a powerful tool for policymakers and individuals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Morehead, R S; Pinto, S J

    2000-07-10

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a common complication in intensive care units, occurring in 9% to 24% of patients intubated for longer than 48 hours. Because of this large disease burden and the resultant attributable morbidity and mortality, there is great interest in accurately diagnosing, treating, and preventing this complication. More severely ill patients tend to develop ventilator-associated pneumonia, and identified risk factors include prolonged mechanical ventilation, reintubation after failed extubation, and a few other clinical variables. The efficacy of diagnostic and preventive strategies is somewhat controversial. Diagnosis by invasive methods requires a considerable commitment of resources but can potentially reduce cost of care; however, mortality benefit from this approach has not been demonstrated. As such, in most institutions, ventilator-associated pneumonia is best diagnosed using traditional clinical criteria. Prompt administration of appropriate antibiotics seems to be the only intervention that alters outcome once the diagnosis is established. Several strategies seem to reduce pneumonia incidence; however, mortality and cost benefits have yet to be convincingly shown.

  2. Toxicant-associated Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Beier, Juliane I.; Clair, Heather B.; Bellis-Jones, Heather J.; Falkner, K. Cameron; McClain, Craig J.; Cave, Matt C.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is the most common organ injury due to occupational and environmental exposures to industrial chemicals. A wide range of liver pathologies ranging from necrosis to cancer have been observed following chemical exposures both in humans and in animal models. Toxicant-associated fatty liver disease (TAFLD) is a recently named form of liver injury pathologically similar to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH) is a more severe form of TAFLD characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltrate, and in some cases, fibrosis. While subjects with TASH have exposures to industrial chemicals, such as vinyl chloride, they do not have traditional risk factors for fatty liver such as significant alcohol consumption or obesity. Conventional biomarkers of hepatotoxicity including serum alanine aminotransferase activity may be normal in TASH, making screening problematic. This article examines selected chemical exposures associated with TAFLD in human subjects or animal models and concisely reviews the closely related NAFLD and ALD. PMID:23262638

  3. Changes in the Proteome of Langat-Infected Ixodes scapularis ISE6 Cells: Metabolic Pathways Associated with Flavivirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Jeffrey M.; Perera, Rushika; Roumani, Ali M.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Inerowicz, Halina D.; Hill, Catherine A.; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ticks (Family Ixodidae) transmit a variety of disease causing agents to humans and animals. The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs; family Flaviviridae) are a complex of viruses, many of which cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and represent global threats to human health and biosecurity. Pathogenesis has been well studied in human and animal disease models. Equivalent analyses of tick-flavivirus interactions are limited and represent an area of study that could reveal novel approaches for TBF control. Methodology/Principal Findings High resolution LC-MS/MS was used to analyze the proteome of Ixodes scapularis (Lyme disease tick) embryonic ISE6 cells following infection with Langat virus (LGTV) and identify proteins associated with viral infection and replication. Maximal LGTV infection of cells and determination of peak release of infectious virus, was observed at 36 hours post infection (hpi). Proteins were extracted from ISE6 cells treated with LGTV and non-infectious (UV inactivated) LGTV at 36 hpi and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The Omics Discovery Pipeline (ODP) identified thousands of MS peaks. Protein homology searches against the I. scapularis IscaW1 genome assembly identified a total of 486 proteins that were subsequently assigned to putative functional pathways using searches against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. 266 proteins were differentially expressed following LGTV infection relative to non-infected (mock) cells. Of these, 68 proteins exhibited increased expression and 198 proteins had decreased expression. The majority of the former were classified in the KEGG pathways: “translation”, “amino acid metabolism”, and “protein folding/sorting/degradation”. Finally, Trichostatin A and Oligomycin A increased and decreased LGTV replication in vitro in ISE6 cells, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Proteomic analyses revealed ISE6 proteins that were differentially expressed at the peak of LGTV

  4. Transcriptome analysis of Cymbidium sinense and its application to the identification of genes associated with floral development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cymbidium sinense belongs to the Orchidaceae, which is one of the most abundant angiosperm families. C. sinense, a high-grade traditional potted flower, is most prevalent in China and some Southeast Asian countries. The control of flowering time is a major bottleneck in the industrialized development of C. sinense. Little is known about the mechanisms responsible for floral development in this orchid. Moreover, genome references for entire transcriptome sequences do not currently exist for C. sinense. Thus, transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are needed as an important resource to identify genes and to better understand the biological mechanisms of floral development in C. sinense. Results In this study, de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis using Illumina sequencing technology were performed. Transcriptome analysis assembles gene-related information related to vegetative and reproductive growth of C. sinense. Illumina sequencing generated 54,248,006 high quality reads that were assembled into 83,580 unigenes with an average sequence length of 612 base pairs, including 13,315 clusters and 70,265 singletons. A total of 41,687 (49.88%) unique sequences were annotated, 23,092 of which were assigned to specific metabolic pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the annotated unigenes revealed that the majority of sequenced genes were associated with metabolic and cellular processes, cell and cell parts, catalytic activity and binding. Furthermore, 120 flowering-associated unigenes, 73 MADS-box unigenes and 28 CONSTANS-LIKE (COL) unigenes were identified from our collection. In addition, three digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were constructed for the vegetative phase (VP), floral differentiation phase (FDP) and reproductive phase (RP). The specific expression of many genes in the three development phases was also identified. 32 genes among three sub

  5. Changes in the Proteome of Langat-Infected Ixodes scapularis ISE6 Cells: Metabolic Pathways Associated with Flavivirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Jeffrey M; Perera, Rushika; Roumani, Ali M; Hedrick, Victoria E; Inerowicz, Halina D; Hill, Catherine A; Kuhn, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Ticks (Family Ixodidae) transmit a variety of disease causing agents to humans and animals. The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs; family Flaviviridae) are a complex of viruses, many of which cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and represent global threats to human health and biosecurity. Pathogenesis has been well studied in human and animal disease models. Equivalent analyses of tick-flavivirus interactions are limited and represent an area of study that could reveal novel approaches for TBF control. High resolution LC-MS/MS was used to analyze the proteome of Ixodes scapularis (Lyme disease tick) embryonic ISE6 cells following infection with Langat virus (LGTV) and identify proteins associated with viral infection and replication. Maximal LGTV infection of cells and determination of peak release of infectious virus, was observed at 36 hours post infection (hpi). Proteins were extracted from ISE6 cells treated with LGTV and non-infectious (UV inactivated) LGTV at 36 hpi and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The Omics Discovery Pipeline (ODP) identified thousands of MS peaks. Protein homology searches against the I. scapularis IscaW1 genome assembly identified a total of 486 proteins that were subsequently assigned to putative functional pathways using searches against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. 266 proteins were differentially expressed following LGTV infection relative to non-infected (mock) cells. Of these, 68 proteins exhibited increased expression and 198 proteins had decreased expression. The majority of the former were classified in the KEGG pathways: "translation", "amino acid metabolism", and "protein folding/sorting/degradation". Finally, Trichostatin A and Oligomycin A increased and decreased LGTV replication in vitro in ISE6 cells, respectively. Proteomic analyses revealed ISE6 proteins that were differentially expressed at the peak of LGTV replication. Proteins with increased expression following infection were

  6. [Poppers-associated maculopathy].

    PubMed

    Pahlitzsch, M; Draghici, S; Mehrinfar, B M; Merinfhar, B M

    2013-07-01

    Poppers are a common drug belonging to the alkyl nitrite group and in use for several decades. They can be legally purchased for air freshening, but are illegal to buy for inhalation. Abuse is associated with maculopathy and visual loss as a rare side effect. A case series of 27 male, homosexual patients with poppers abuse presenting to a single eye clinic in Berlin, Germany, is described. Four patients with visual impairment and maculopathy associated with the inhalation of poppers were found. Four patients experienced subacute visual loss over 2-6 months, one patient can no longer read without a magnifying glass. The median age is 40.25 years (28-45 years). Three patients are HIV-positive (known since 10-22 years, HAART), a patient is also hepatitis C-positive. No other ocular and systemic diseases are known. Poppers have been inhaled for about 1.5, 12, 15 and 25 years (3-4 ×/week); all patients have a mixed use with the brands Jungle Juice, Rush and Amsterdam. Three patients noticed a simultaneous change in colour and shade. Clinical signs on fundoscopy ranged from normal foveal appearance to yellowish, dull macula. Optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) showed varying degrees of disruption of the presumed inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction; 3 cases bilaterally symmetrical. Although poppers have been in use for several decades, in 2007 in England, the popper composition was changed by law from isobutyl nitrite to isopropyl nitrite. It is hard to distinguish whether a specific nitrite group triggers the maculopathy or whether it is the dose level, thus suggesting the existence of a cumulative dose-response relationship. We postulate that a major factor of the manifestation of maculopathy is the individual limit of vulnerability. Despite decades of use, the majority of our series does not present any pathology. Limits of our patient population represents the HIV disease: three maculopathies of our series are HIV-associated and controlled by

  7. Arthritis-associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Osial, T A; Cash, J M; Eisenbeis, C H

    1993-12-01

    There are a number of diseases characterized by inflammatory arthropathy that, although not as commonly seen as rheumatoid arthritis, often present to the family physician as difficult diagnostic problems. The diagnosis is frequently most difficult during the early course of these diseases. During recent years, new and altered concepts have arisen regarding both diagnostic and therapeutic management of this challenging group of arthropathies. This article presents a review of the more common arthritis-associated syndromes with emphasis on the differential diagnosis and medicinal therapeutics.

  8. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication.

  9. Phonotrauma associated with crying.

    PubMed

    Murry, T; Rosen, C A

    2000-12-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage often results in a sudden change in voice quality. Traumatic use of the voice (phonation or singing) is generally thought to be the cause of the vocal fold hemorrhage. The current report reviews three cases in which the traumatic event was crying. In one case, the patient's voice was only used for crying. All three patients were female and all were professional singers. The treatment of these individuals consisted of voice rest and subsequent phonomicrosurgery for lesions associated with the vocal fold hemorrhage. These case studies suggest that crying as a traumatic vocal behavior may result in vocal fold hemorrhage.

  10. California Medical Association

    PubMed Central

    1951-01-01

    Herewith is printed for the second time in California Medicine, the proposed C.M.A. Constitution introduced in the 1950 House of Delegates by Reference Committee No. 3 of that body. Included in this document is an additional proposed section introduced by Reference Committee No. 3 as an addendum to its original introduction of the proposed Constitution. Members of the Association, and especially members of the House of Delegates, are urged to give this proposed Constitution a thorough study. It contains various provisions which are different from existing constitutional provisions and which have been under discussion in the House of Delegates in the past. PMID:18731735

  11. Dermatosis associated with menopause

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is defined as permanent irreversible cessation of menses brought by decline in ovarian follicular activity. Hormonal alteration results in various physical, psychological, and sexual changes in menopausal women. Associated dermatological problems can be classified as physiological changes, age-related changes, changes due to estrogen deficiency and due to hormone replacement therapy. Dermatosis seen due to estrogen deficiency includes Atrophic Vulvovaginitis, Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus, Dyaesthetic Vulvodynia, Hirsutism, Alopecia, Menopausal Flushing, Keratoderma Climactericum, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be familiar with the problems of menopausal women, as with increase in life expectancy, women passing through this phase is rising. PMID:25540566

  12. 2011 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presents the 2011 reports from the Annual Meetings of the Regional Psychological Associations. The following Associations are featured: The Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern…

  13. 2007 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Provides the 2007 reports of APA's Regional Associations. Included are the annual meeting reports from the Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern Psychological Association, and…

  14. 2007 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Provides the 2007 reports of APA's Regional Associations. Included are the annual meeting reports from the Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern Psychological Association, and…

  15. 2011 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presents the 2011 reports from the Annual Meetings of the Regional Psychological Associations. The following Associations are featured: The Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern…

  16. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Gofton, Teneille E; Young, G Bryan

    2012-10-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a diffuse brain dysfunction that occurs secondary to infection in the body without overt CNS infection. SAE is frequently encountered in critically ill patients in intensive care units, and in up to 70% of patients with severe systemic infection. The severity of SAE can range from mild delirium to deep coma. Seizures and myoclonus are infrequent and cranial nerves are almost always spared, but most severe cases have an associated critical illness neuromyopathy. Development of SAE probably involves a number of mechanisms that are not mutually exclusive and vary from patient to patient. Substantial neurological and psychological morbidities often occur in survivors. Mortality is almost always due to multiorgan failure rather than neurological complications, and is almost 70% in patients with severe SAE. Further research into the pathophysiology, management and prevention of SAE is needed. This Review discusses the epidemiology and clinical presentation of SAE. Recent evidence for SAE pathophysiology is outlined and a diagnostic approach to patients with this syndrome is presented. Lastly, prognosis and management of SAE is discussed.

  17. [Dyslipidemia associated with food].

    PubMed

    Luengas-Escudero, M E; Mejía-Aranguré, J M; Cruz-Ruíz, M; Aguirre-Gas, H; Carreño-Mejía, E; Lerdo de Tejada-Hay, A

    1997-01-01

    The increase of the morbi-mortality due to CHD in México, particularly among the Social Security Institute (IMSS) workers led us to do research on the relative risk and the protection provided by foodstuffs usually consumed by these workers. We found significant evidence of low levels of cholesterol associated with dry alcoholic drinks, skimmed milk and yogurt as well as fresh cheeses. C-LDL was low among people that usually consume sweet alcoholic drinks and fresh cheese. High levels of TG were associated with those people consuming food products containing saturated fat (bacon, pork crackling, fatty red meat, fowl with skin) and viscera, more than three standard cups of alcoholic drinks three times a week, soft drinks and salt. Skimmed milk and yogurt and all vegetables were related to low levels of TG. Products related to high levels of C-HDL were all kinds of vegetables and beans. This study of IMSS worker eating habits could be useful to do research on the food intake of other worker populations, and could help us to design Health Education programs based on scientific knowledge.

  18. Happiness by association: breadth of free association influences affective states.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Gagnon, Stephanie A; Paczynski, Martin; Shenhav, Amitai; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that affective states influence the number of associations formed between remotely related concepts. Someone in a neutral or negative affective state might draw the association between cold and hot, whereas someone in a positive affective state might spontaneously form the more distant association between cold and sneeze. Could the reverse be true, that generating increasingly broad or narrow associations will put someone in a more or less positive affective state? We test this possibility by using verbal free association tasks, and asking whether the breadth of semantic associativity between cue words and generated responses might predict resulting affective states. Two experiments show that generating broader associations, regardless of their valence, changes affect; specifically, broader associations lowered negative affect and marginally increased positive affect over time. These findings carry implications for theories positing interactions between brain areas mediating associative processing and affect, and may hold promise for enhancing affect in clinical contexts.

  19. The All Sky Young Association (ASYA): a New Young Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, C. A. O.; Quast, G. R.; Montes, D.

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the SACY (Search for Associations Containing Young stars) survey we developed a method to find young associations and to define their high probability members. These bona fide members enable to obtain the kinematical and the physical properties of each association in a proper way. Recently we noted a concentration in the UV plane and we found a new association we are calling ASYA (All Sky Young Association) for its overall distribution in the sky with a total of 38 bonafide members and an estimated age of 110 Myr, the oldest young association found in the SACY survey. We present here its kinematical, space and Li distributions and its HR diagram.

  20. [Pruritus associated with cholestasis].

    PubMed

    Terán, Alvaro; Fábrega, Emilio; Pons-Romero, Fernando

    2010-04-01

    Pruritus is commonly associated with cholestatic disorders and shows wide interindividual variability. The presence of skin lesions due to scratching and the application of a visual analogue scale are useful for clinical evaluation. Although the pathophysiology of this entity is not well understood, advances have recently been made in understanding of the pruritoceptive neural pathway, which shares certain similarities with the nociceptive pathway, although there are other distinguishing characteristics such as the action of a specific neurotransmitter, GPR, on the first synapsis at the posterior horn of the spinal cord. Amongst the modulator systems of the pruritoceptive pathway is the action of the endogenous opioids. An increase of these opioids in cholestatic situations is the most widely accepted hypothesis for pruritus in these patients. Some treatments have proven efficacy in randomized clinical trials in patients with cholestatic disorders, such as anion exchange resins, rifampicin, opioid antagonists and ursodeoxycholic acid; the latter is especially useful in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

  1. Hyponatremia-associated rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Trimarchi, H; Gonzalez, J; Olivero, J

    1999-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder. However, hyponatremia rarely results from excessive water intake, unless the kidney is unable to excrete free water, such as in patients on thiazide diuretics; in addition, hyponatremia is an uncommon cause of rhabdomyolysis. We present a 51-year-old hypertensive woman on chronic hydrochlorothiazide therapy who developed acute water intoxication and severe myalgias. The patient developed acute hypotonic hyponatremia and subsequent rhabdomyolysis. We discuss the mechanisms responsible for the development of hyponatremia and its association with rhabdomyolysis. Muscle enzymes should be monitored in patients with acute hyponatremia who develop muscle pain, and hyponatremia-induced rhabdomyolysis must be considered in patients with myalgias receiving thiazide diuretics.

  2. Optoelectronic associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An associative optical memory including an input spatial light modulator (SLM) in the form of an edge enhanced liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) and a pair of memory SLM's in the form of liquid crystal televisions (LCTV's) forms a matrix array of an input image which is cross correlated with a matrix array of stored images. The correlation product is detected and nonlinearly amplified to illuminate a replica of the stored image array to select the stored image correlating with the input image. The LCLV is edge enhanced by reducing the bias frequency and voltage and rotating its orientation. The edge enhancement and nonlinearity of the photodetection improves the orthogonality of the stored image. The illumination of the replicate stored image provides a clean stored image, uncontaminated by the image comparison process.

  3. [Gonococcus-associated arthritis].

    PubMed

    Bodmer, K

    1989-04-01

    The various forms of arthritis associated with a gonococcus infection are pathogenetically and clinically differentiated. Whereas an infectious systemic process with different clinical symptoms is said to be underlying the arthritis-dermatitis syndrome as well as the septic GO-arthritis, the third form is para-infectious reactive arthritis. It is often difficult to diagnose an infectious GO-arthritis, as direct evidence of the virus found in joint and blood is rarely positive, so that the diagnosis can be affirmed or negated on the basis of clinical facts of the reaction of arthritis after an appropriate antibiotic therapy. Differential diagnostic considerations may help to find the correct diagnosis in view of an acute urethritis arthritis.

  4. Ecstasy-Associated Pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Marasco, Silvana F; Lim, H Kiat

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ecstasy, also known as MDMA (3,4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine), is a popular illicit party drug amongst young adults. The drug induces a state of euphoria secondary to its stimulant activity in the central nervous system. PATIENTS AND METHODS A database review at two major inner city hospitals was undertaken to identify patients presenting with pneumomediastinum and their charts reviewed. A Medline review of all reported cases of pneumomediastinum associated with ecstasy abuse was undertaken. RESULTS A total of 56 patients presenting with pneumomediastinum were identified over a 5-year period. Review of the charts revealed a history of ecstasy use in the hours prior to presentation in six of these patients, representing the largest series reported to date. CONCLUSIONS Review of previously reported cases reveals the likely mechanism is due to Valsalva manoeuvre during periods of extreme physical exertion, and not a direct pharmacological effect of the drug. PMID:17535617

  5. Methamphetamine-Associated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sekon; Hong, Robert A.; Shohet, Ralph V.; Seto, Todd B.; Parikh, Nisha I.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine and related compounds are now the second most commonly used illicit substance worldwide, after cannabis. Reports of methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MAC) are increasing, but MAC has not been well reviewed. This analysis of MAC will provide an overview of the pharmacology of methamphetamine, historical perspective and epidemiology, a review of case and clinical studies, and a summary of the proposed mechanisms for MAC. Clinically, many questions remain, including the appropriate therapeutic interventions for MAC, the incidence and prevalence of cardiac pathology in methamphetamine users, risk factors for developing MAC, and prognosis of these patients. In conclusion, recognition of the significance of MAC among physicians and other medical caregivers is important given the growing use of methamphetamine and related stimulants worldwide. PMID:24037954

  6. Endosymbiotic associations within protists

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Eva C. M.; Melkonian, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of an endosymbiotic relationship typically seems to be driven through complementation of the host's limited metabolic capabilities by the biochemical versatility of the endosymbiont. The most significant examples of endosymbiosis are represented by the endosymbiotic acquisition of plastids and mitochondria, introducing photosynthesis and respiration to eukaryotes. However, there are numerous other endosymbioses that evolved more recently and repeatedly across the tree of life. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have led to a better understanding of the physiological basis of many endosymbiotic associations. This review focuses on endosymbionts in protists (unicellular eukaryotes). Selected examples illustrate the incorporation of various new biochemical functions, such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and recycling, and methanogenesis, into protist hosts by prokaryotic endosymbionts. Furthermore, photosynthetic eukaryotic endosymbionts display a great diversity of modes of integration into different protist hosts. In conclusion, endosymbiosis seems to represent a general evolutionary strategy of protists to acquire novel biochemical functions and is thus an important source of genetic innovation. PMID:20124339

  7. Endosymbiotic associations within protists.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Eva C M; Melkonian, Michael

    2010-03-12

    The establishment of an endosymbiotic relationship typically seems to be driven through complementation of the host's limited metabolic capabilities by the biochemical versatility of the endosymbiont. The most significant examples of endosymbiosis are represented by the endosymbiotic acquisition of plastids and mitochondria, introducing photosynthesis and respiration to eukaryotes. However, there are numerous other endosymbioses that evolved more recently and repeatedly across the tree of life. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have led to a better understanding of the physiological basis of many endosymbiotic associations. This review focuses on endosymbionts in protists (unicellular eukaryotes). Selected examples illustrate the incorporation of various new biochemical functions, such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and recycling, and methanogenesis, into protist hosts by prokaryotic endosymbionts. Furthermore, photosynthetic eukaryotic endosymbionts display a great diversity of modes of integration into different protist hosts. In conclusion, endosymbiosis seems to represent a general evolutionary strategy of protists to acquire novel biochemical functions and is thus an important source of genetic innovation.

  8. Necrotizing myopathy: clinicoserologic associations.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Elizabeth; Ann Tan, Ju; Lester, Sue; Tucker, Graeme; Blumbergs, Peter; Roberts-Thomson, Peter; Limaye, Vidya

    2012-02-01

    Necrotizing myopathy (NM) is distinguished from idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) by dominance of myofiber necrosis, lack of mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates, and presence of antibodies to signal recognition particle (SRP). The clinical features of 64 cases of NM were determined. Measurement of autoantibodies was undertaken on stored sera from 23 patients with NM. The incidence of malignancy was determined from the South Australian Cancer Registry. NM patients showed male predominance (61%), more frequent myalgias, and higher creatine kinase (CK) levels compared with IIM patients. Patients with NM had a high incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (21%), hypertension (11 of 17, 65%), and diabetes mellitus (3 of 13, 23%). No patient had antibodies to SRP. NM patients showed no altered risk for malignancy compared with the South Australian population (P = 0.86). NM is associated with SLE, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Comprehensive assessment of cardiovascular risk is indicated in NM, which raises the possibility of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. MUTYH-associated polyposis.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Julian R; Jones, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by adenomatous polyps of the colorectum and a very high risk of colorectal cancer. It appears to be at least as prevalent as autosomal dominant familial adenomatous polyposis (that is caused by truncating mutations in the APC gene) with which it shares important gastroenterological features. It was first recognised as recently as 2002 and its full phenotype and natural history are still being characterised. Key extracolonic manifestations include a predisposition to duodenal adenomas and cancer and a modest increase in risk for several extraintestinal tumours. Testing for mutations in the MUTYH gene is indicated in patients who have multiple colorectal adenomas or a family history suggestive of autosomal recessive colorectal cancer and for the siblings and spouses of patients with MAP in order to inform surveillance and treatment for patients and their families.

  10. Statin-associated myopathy.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-Craig, I

    2001-11-05

    Myopathy occurs in 0.1%-0.2% of patients receiving statins in clinical trials. This adverse effect is shared by all statins, but is more common with cerivastatin, especially in combination with gemfibrozil. The risk of myopathy is increased by: the use of high doses of statins, concurrent use of fibrates, concurrent use of hepatic cytochrome P450 inhibitors, acute viral infections, major trauma, surgery, hypothyroidism and other conditions. Statin-associated myopathy should be suspected when a statin-treated patient complains of unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness. Statin therapy should be stopped in cases of suspected myopathy, and serum creatine kinase levels should be checked and monitored. No specific therapies other than statin withdrawal and supportive measures for rhabdomyolysis are currently available.

  11. Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a pneumonia that develops initially more than 48 h from the start of tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The route of infection is almost always through the respiratory tract. Intake of contaminants from outside the tracheal tube (silent aspiration) is considered a key route, and suctioning of secretions that have accumulated above the cuff of the endotracheal tubes is effective in preventing infection. The circuit is managed and heated-wire humidifiers and suction are manipulated based on appropriate infection control measures. To diagnose pathogens, efforts should be made to collect specimens from the pneumonia focus. Realistically, however, diagnosis can also be achieved based on the clinical course and from the results of culture of samples from tracheal aspirate. Use of prophylactic antimicrobials is not recommended, but once a diagnosis is made, antimicrobials are administered that combat the causative microorganism.

  12. Korean Dermatological Association.

    PubMed

    Ro, B I

    1998-12-01

    The Korean Dermatological Association (KDA) was founded on October 27, 1945. The first annual meeting was held on November 15, 1947, and meetings have been held twice a year since 1975. The KDA 50th Annual Spring Meeting was on April 15-16, 1998. Korean Journal of Dermatology, the official journal of the KDA, was first published in 1960 and has been published bimonthly since 1978. Annals of Dermatology (Seoul), the English journal, was first published in 1989 and has been published quarterly since 1995. The American residency and specialty board system was introduced in 1954. Board specialty examination of dermatology candidates by the KDA requires four years of residency. Three hundred and twenty residents are now in the training course in the fifty-nine resident training approved hospitals this year. KDA has seven regional dermatological societies; Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Honam, Chungchong, Jeonbuk, and Kangwon. KDA has had eleven research subcommittees since 1981. There are two associated societies of the KDA; the Korean Society for Investigative Dermatology was founded in 1991, and the Korean Society for Medical Mycology was founded in 1994. The Korea-Japan Joint Meeting of Dermatology has been held every two years since 1979 and the Korea-China Joint Meeting of Dermatology and Mycology has been held since 1996. About three hundred papers were presented at the 49th Annual Autumn Meeting on October 21-23, 1997. These included special lectures, invited lectures, educational lectures, oral presentations, and posters. About five hundred dermatologists participated in that meeting. KDA joined the International League of Dermatological Societies in 1973 with forty-seven members. There are around 1200 members of the KDA including 320 residents in 1998.

  13. Associate Administrator, Robert Lightfoot address the Marshall Association.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-28

    NASA ASSOCIATE ADMINISTRATOR ROBERT LIGHTFOOT SHARED HIS PERSONAL REFLECTIONS ON LEADERSHIP WITH MARSHALL ASSOCIATION MEMBERS AND GUESTS DURING A LUNCHEON JULY 28 AT NASA’S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER.

  14. Non-associative versus associative learning by foraging predatory mites.

    PubMed

    Schausberger, Peter; Peneder, Stefan

    2017-01-14

    Learning processes can be broadly categorized into associative and non-associative. Associative learning occurs through the pairing of two previously unrelated stimuli, whereas non-associative learning occurs in response to a single stimulus. How these two principal processes compare in the same learning task and how they contribute to the overall behavioural changes brought about by experience is poorly understood. We tackled this issue by scrutinizing associative and non-associative learning of prey, Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus. We compared the behaviour of thrips-experienced and -naïve predators, which, early in life, were exposed to either thrips with feeding (associative learning), thrips without feeding (non-associative learning), thrips traces on the surface (non-associative learning), spider mites with feeding (thrips-naïve) or spider mite traces on the surface (thrips-naïve). Thrips experience in early life, no matter whether associative or not, resulted in higher predation rates on thrips by adult females. In the no-choice experiment, associative thrips experience increased the predation rate on the first day, but shortened the longevity of food-stressed predators, a cost of learning. In the choice experiment, thrips experience, no matter whether associative or not, increased egg production, an adaptive benefit of learning. Our study shows that both non-associative and associative learning forms operate in foraging predatory mites, N. californicus. The non-rewarded thrips prey experience produced a slightly weaker, but less costly, learning effect than the rewarded experience. We argue that in foraging predatory mites non-associative learning is an inevitable component of associative learning, rather than a separate process.

  15. Happiness by Association: Breadth of Free Association Influences Affective States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Paczynski, Martin; Shenhav, Amitai; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that affective states influence the number of associations formed between remotely related concepts. Someone in a neutral or negative affective state might draw the association between "cold" and "hot", whereas someone in a positive affective state might spontaneously form the more distant association between…

  16. Happiness by Association: Breadth of Free Association Influences Affective States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Gagnon, Stephanie A.; Paczynski, Martin; Shenhav, Amitai; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that affective states influence the number of associations formed between remotely related concepts. Someone in a neutral or negative affective state might draw the association between "cold" and "hot", whereas someone in a positive affective state might spontaneously form the more distant association between…

  17. Fatty liver is associated with transcriptional downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and impaired protein dimerization.

    PubMed

    Fernández Gianotti, Tomas; Burgueño, Adriana; Gonzales Mansilla, Noelia; Pirola, Carlos Jose; Sookoian, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the modulation of liver stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) by dietary factors and insulin resistance (IR) in two experimental models of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The first model included Sprague Dawley (SD) rats that developed NAFLD without IR, and the second one included a rat model of genetic IR and cardiovascular disease, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and its normotensive, insulin-sensitive control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY). The adult rats were given standard chow diet (CD) or HFD for 10 weeks. In all the animals, we explored the hepatic Scd1 transcriptional activity and protein levels. HFD-fed rats of both strains developed severe NAFLD. Liver abundance of Scd1 mRNA was significantly decreased in HFD-fed rats regardless of the strain; SD-CD: 235±195 vs. SD-HFD 4.5±2.9, p<0.0004, and SHR-CD: 75.6±10.8 vs. SHR-HFD: 4.48±17.4, and WKY-CD: 168.7±17.4 vs. WKY-HFD: 12.9±17.4, p<0.000001 (mean±SE, ANCOVA adjusted by HOMA). Analysis of liver Scd1 protein expression showed a particular pattern in the HFD groups, characterized by the presence of high levels of a monomeric protein band (32.2-36.6 Kda, p<0.003) and decreased levels of a dimeric protein band (61.9-66.1 Kda, p<0.02) regardless of the rat strain. Pharmacologic intervention with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist clofibrate reverted the liver phenotype and significantly modified the hepatic Scd1 transcriptional activity and protein expression. Diet-induced fatty liver is associated with the downregulation of hepatic Scd1 transcript and de-dimerization of the protein, and these changes were not much affected by the status of peripheral IR.

  18. High density associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layered, thin-film, digital memory having associative recall. There is a first memory matrix and a second memory matrix. Each memory matrix comprises, a first layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated row conductors; a second layer comprising a plurality of electrically separated column conductors intersecting but electrically separated from the row conductors; and, a plurality of resistance elements electrically connected between the row condutors and the column conductors at respective intersections of the row conductors and the column conductors, each resistance element comprising, in series, a first resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct a sensible element current therethrough with virtually no heat-generating power consumption when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross and a second resistor of sufficiently high ohmage to conduct no sensible current therethrough when a low voltage as employed in thin-film applications is applied thereacross, the second resistor having the quality of breaking down to create a short therethrough upon the application of a breakdown level voltage across the first and second resistors.

  19. Simulated Associating Polymer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, Joris

    Telechelic associating polymer networks consist of polymer chains terminated by endgroups that have a different chemical composition than the polymer backbone. When dissolved in a solution, the endgroups cluster together to form aggregates. At low temperature, a strongly connected reversible network is formed and the system behaves like a gel. Telechelic networks are of interest since they are representative for biopolymer networks (e.g. F-actin) and are widely used in medical applications (e.g. hydrogels for tissue engineering, wound dressings) and consumer products (e.g. contact lenses, paint thickeners). In this thesis such systems are studied by means of a molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo simulation. At first, the system in rest is studied by means of graph theory. The changes in network topology upon cooling to the gel state, are characterized. Hereto an extensive study of the eigenvalue spectrum of the gel network is performed. As a result, an in-depth investigation of the eigenvalue spectra for spatial ER, scale-free, and small-world networks is carried out. Next, the gel under the application of a constant shear is studied, with a focus on shear banding and the changes in topology under shear. Finally, the relation between the gel transition and percolation is discussed.

  20. Mortality associated with phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Prejbisz, A; Lenders, J W M; Eisenhofer, G; Januszewicz, A

    2013-02-01

    Two major categories of mortality are distinguished in patients with phaeochromocytoma. First, the effects of excessive circulating catecholamines may result in lethal complications if the disease is not diagnosed and/or treated timely. The second category of mortality is related to development of metastatic disease or other neoplasms. Improvements in disease recognition and diagnosis over the past few decades have reduced mortality from undiagnosed tumours. Nevertheless, many tumours remain unrecognised until they cause severe complications. Death resulting from unrecognised or untreated tumour is caused by cardiovascular complications. There are also numerous drugs and diagnostic or therapeutic manipulations that can cause fatal complications in patients with phaeochromocytoma. Previously it has been reported that operative mortality was as high as 50% in unprepared patients with phaeochromocytoma who were operated and in whom the diagnosis was unsuspected. Today mortality during surgery in medically prepared patients with the tumour is minimal. Phaeochromocytomas may be malignant at presentation or metastases may develop later, but both scenarios are associated with a potentially lethal outcome. Patients with phaeochromocytoma run an increased risk to develop other tumours, resulting in an increased mortality risk compared to the general population. Phaeochromocytoma during pregnancy represents a condition with potentially high maternal and foetal mortality. However, today phaeochromocytoma in pregnancy is recognised earlier and in conjunction with improved medical management, maternal mortality has decreased to less than 5%. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Neera; Duggal, Ashish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis. It is characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction secondary to infection elsewhere in the body without overt CNS infection. The pathophysiology of SAE is complex and multifactorial including a number of intertwined mechanisms such as vascular damage, endothelial activation, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, altered brain signaling, brain inflammation, and apoptosis. Clinical presentation of SAE may range from mild symptoms such as malaise and concentration deficits to deep coma. The evaluation of cognitive dysfunction is made difficult by the absence of any specific investigations or biomarkers and the common use of sedation in critically ill patients. SAE thus remains diagnosis of exclusion which can only be made after ruling out other causes of altered mentation in a febrile, critically ill patient by appropriate investigations. In spite of high mortality rate, management of SAE is limited to treatment of the underlying infection and symptomatic treatment for delirium and seizures. It is important to be aware of this condition because SAE may present in early stages of sepsis, even before the diagnostic criteria for sepsis can be met. This review discusses the diagnostic approach to patients with SAE along with its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis.

  2. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cotena, Simona; Piazza, Ornella

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is defined as a diffuse or multifocal cerebral dysfunction induced by the systemic response to the infection without clinical or laboratory evidence of direct brain infection. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial. SAE generally occurs early during severe sepsis and precedes multiple-organ failure. The most common clinical feature of SAE is the consciousness alteration which ranges from mildly reduced awareness to unresponsiveness and coma. Diagnosis of SAE is primarily clinical and depends on the exclusion of other possible causes of brain deterioration. Electroencephalography (EEG) is almost sensitive, but it is not specific for SAE. Computed Tomography (CT) head scan generally is negative in case of SAE, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can show brain abnormalities in case of SAE, but they are not specific for this condition. Somatosensitive Evoked Potentials (SEPs) are sensitive markers of developing cerebral dysfunction in sepsis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CBF) analysis is generally normal, a part an inconstant elevation of proteins concentration. S100B and NSE have been proposed like biomarkers for diagnosis of SAE, but the existing data are controversial. SAE is reversible even if survivors of severe sepsis have often long lasting or irreversible cognitive and behavioral sequel; however the presence of SAE can have a negative influence on survival. A specific therapy of SAE does not exist and the outcome depends on a prompt and appropriate treatment of sepsis as whole.

  3. Acrodysostosis associated with hypercalcemia.

    PubMed

    Kirnap, Mehmet; Calis, Mustafa; Gokce, Cumali; Kurtoglu, Selim; Ozturk, Mustafa; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old man was admitted to the clinic complaining of deterioration in the function of his hands and feet. The clinical examination revealed that his movements were clumsy and that he had disproportionally short limbs. In addition, he also had facial abnormalities of frontal bossing, hypertelorism, maxillary hypoplasia, broad low nasal bridge, short upturned nose with anteverted nostrils and triangular mouth. All extremities appeared short with stubby fingers and toes and with broad hands and wrinkling of the dorsal skin. Chromosomal analysis showed a normal (46, XY) karyotype. X-ray studies revealed broad, short metacarpals and phalanges with cone-shaped epiphyses and brachycdactyly and a diagnosis of peripheral dysostosis was confirmed by the characteristic radiographic appearance of the hands. Serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels were high, parathormone (PTH) was low, but 25 (OH) Vitamin D, albumin, and 24 hour urine calcium levels were in the normal range. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of acrodysostosis associated with hypercalcemia was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first description of this syndrome.

  4. Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Neera; Duggal, Ashish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis. It is characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction secondary to infection elsewhere in the body without overt CNS infection. The pathophysiology of SAE is complex and multifactorial including a number of intertwined mechanisms such as vascular damage, endothelial activation, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, altered brain signaling, brain inflammation, and apoptosis. Clinical presentation of SAE may range from mild symptoms such as malaise and concentration deficits to deep coma. The evaluation of cognitive dysfunction is made difficult by the absence of any specific investigations or biomarkers and the common use of sedation in critically ill patients. SAE thus remains diagnosis of exclusion which can only be made after ruling out other causes of altered mentation in a febrile, critically ill patient by appropriate investigations. In spite of high mortality rate, management of SAE is limited to treatment of the underlying infection and symptomatic treatment for delirium and seizures. It is important to be aware of this condition because SAE may present in early stages of sepsis, even before the diagnostic criteria for sepsis can be met. This review discusses the diagnostic approach to patients with SAE along with its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis. PMID:26556425

  5. American Association for Hand Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vargas Award Volunteer Scholarships Publications HAND Journal Hand Association News Research Annual Research Grant AAHS/PSF Combined ... Annual Meeting The annual meetings of the American Association for Hand Surgery, American Society for Peripheral Nerve, ...

  6. Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... sizes of shoes. The Children’s Hemiplegia and Stroke Association has created the CHASA Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Shoe ... College Scholarships – 2016 The Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Association (CHASA) has awarded fourteen scholarships to students pursuing ...

  7. Association of American Indian Physicians

    MedlinePlus

    Association of American Indian Physicians Apply Log In Facebook Twitter YouTube About Mission Board of Directors Staff ... of AAIP student programs. Join Renew Programs The Association of American Indian Physicians provides educational programs, health ...

  8. National Association of Social Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... workers provide. NASW monitoring Trump Election Commission The Association is concerned that the group may actually suppress ... October 2017 October 02, 2017 Read More >> National Association of Social Workers 750 First Street, NE Suite ...

  9. American Health Information Management Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Of Directors House Of Delegates Affiliates Component State Associations Volunteer Advocacy & Public Policy Advocacy Agenda Current Efforts ... Workshop AHIMA is collaborating with the American Medical Association (AMA) to offer an interactive, one-day outpatient ...

  10. Facts and Stats - Hydrocephalus Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Can Make A Difference Contact Us Hydrocephalus Association 4340 East West Highway Suite 905 Bethesda, MD ... org Technical Support: webmaster@hydroassoc.org Copyright © Hydrocephalus Association Privacy Policy Donor Privacy Policy Information on this ...

  11. Stimulus Recognition and Associative Coding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.; Evans, Annabel

    1972-01-01

    Purpose of this experiment was to investigate the relationship between stimulus recognition and various learning conditions which were designed to affect both stimulus encoding and associative learning in a paired-associate task. (Authors)

  12. Associated particle imaging (API)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Associated Particle Imaging (API) is an active neutron probe technique that provides a 3-D image with elemental composition of the material under interrogation, and so occupies a unique niche in the interrogation of unknown objects. The highly penetrating nature of neutrons enables API to provide detailed information about targets of interest that are hidden from view. Due to the isotropic nature of the induced reactions, radiation detectors can be set on the same side of the object as the neutron source, so that the object can be interrogated from a single side. At the heat of the system is a small generator that produces a continuous, monoenergetic flux of neutrons. By measuring the trajectory of coincident alpha particles that are produced as part of the process, the trajectory of the neutron can be inferred. Interactions between a neutron and the material in its path often produce a gamma ray whose energy is characteristic of that material. When the gamma ray is detected, its energy is measured and combined with the trajectory information to produce a 3-D image of the composition of the object being interrogated. During the course of API development, a number of improvements have been made. A new, more rugged sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and fabricated that is less susceptible to radiation damage and better able to withstand the rigors of fielding than earlier designs. A specialized high-voltage power supply for the STNG has also been designed and built. A complete package of software has been written for the tasks of system calibration, diagnostics and data acquisition and analysis. A portable system has been built and field tested, proving that API can be taken out of the lab and into real-world situations, and that its performance in the field is equal to that in the lab.

  13. Associative Hierarchical Random Fields.

    PubMed

    Ladický, L'ubor; Russell, Chris; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S

    2014-06-01

    This paper makes two contributions: the first is the proposal of a new model-The associative hierarchical random field (AHRF), and a novel algorithm for its optimization; the second is the application of this model to the problem of semantic segmentation. Most methods for semantic segmentation are formulated as a labeling problem for variables that might correspond to either pixels or segments such as super-pixels. It is well known that the generation of super pixel segmentations is not unique. This has motivated many researchers to use multiple super pixel segmentations for problems such as semantic segmentation or single view reconstruction. These super-pixels have not yet been combined in a principled manner, this is a difficult problem, as they may overlap, or be nested in such a way that the segmentations form a segmentation tree. Our new hierarchical random field model allows information from all of the multiple segmentations to contribute to a global energy. MAP inference in this model can be performed efficiently using powerful graph cut based move making algorithms. Our framework generalizes much of the previous work based on pixels or segments, and the resulting labelings can be viewed both as a detailed segmentation at the pixel level, or at the other extreme, as a segment selector that pieces together a solution like a jigsaw, selecting the best segments from different segmentations as pieces. We evaluate its performance on some of the most challenging data sets for object class segmentation, and show that this ability to perform inference using multiple overlapping segmentations leads to state-of-the-art results.

  14. Is Association Membership Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel Singer

    2004-01-01

    Librarians looking for an increased connection with the profession have traditionally gotten involved with associations. They become American Library Association (ALA) members, join a division or round table, perhaps volunteer for a committee. They take part in their state association, attend state conferences, perhaps present a poster session or…

  15. Creating a New Professional Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Reading and Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This position paper investigates the merits and potential benefits of creating a new, more comprehensive professional association for members of the learning assistance and developmental education profession. This was the task assigned to the College Reading and Learning Association/National Association for Developmental Education (CRLA/NADE)…

  16. Assembly of Associations: Communique, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Helle, Comp.; Brown, Gerald R., Comp.

    This document reports developments in school librarianship from around the world. Reports from the following countries, regions, and organizations are included: Austria; the Australian School Library Association; the Botswana Secondary School Librarians Association; Burundi; the Association for Teacher-Librarianship in Canada; the Canadian School…

  17. NLN: Celebrating Associate Degree Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddick, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a project celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of associate degree nursing (ADN) education. Reviews the efforts and plans of two national associations to identify and resolve recurring ADN issues and recognize the associate degree nurse's contributions. Describes the forums and publications planned to meet these objectives. Includes…

  18. NLN: Celebrating Associate Degree Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddick, Nancy A.

    1981-01-01

    Introduces a project celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of associate degree nursing (ADN) education. Reviews the efforts and plans of two national associations to identify and resolve recurring ADN issues and recognize the associate degree nurse's contributions. Describes the forums and publications planned to meet these objectives. Includes…

  19. Polarimetric Investigations of Stellar Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikian, E. Ye.; Eritsian, M. A.; Hovhannessian, R. Kh.

    2002-07-01

    The degree of polarization of light from stars in 44 O B associations as a function of interstellar absorption is investigated. It is shown that the character of the dependence of P on A V for stars in associations and stars not in associations depends on the value of A V: for A V 2 m .5 it has a linear character and is the same for both groups of stars. For A V > 2 m .5 the dependence of P on A V for stars in and not in associations departs from linearity and for A V = 4 m .5 it reaches P ass = 1.8% and P nonass = 1%, respectively. Such a difference is explained by the additional depolarization in stellar associations. Such strong depolarization in associations may be due to the overall magnetic field of the Galaxy and to physical peculiarities in the association itself.

  20. Associative learning and animal cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action. PMID:22927572

  1. Associative learning and animal cognition.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-10-05

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action.

  2. Aberrant cortical associative plasticity associated with severe adult Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Ruiz-Rodríguez, María Adilia; Palomar, Francisco J; Cáceres-Redondo, María Teresa; Vargas, Laura; Porcacchia, Paolo; Gómez-Crespo, Mercedes; Huertas-Fernández, Ismael; Carrillo, Fátima; Madruga-Garrido, Marcos; Mir, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown altered cortical plasticity in adult patients with Tourette syndrome. However, the clinical significance of this finding remains elusive. Motor cortical plasticity was evaluated in 15 adult patients with severe Tourette syndrome and 16 healthy controls using the paired associative stimulation protocol by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Associations between paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity and relevant clinical variables, including cortical excitability, psychiatric comorbidities, drug treatment and tic severity, were assessed. Motor cortical plasticity was abnormally increased in patients with Tourette syndrome compared with healthy subjects. This abnormal plasticity was independently associated with tic severity. Patients with severe Tourette syndrome display abnormally increased cortical associative plasticity. This aberrant cortical plasticity was associated with tic severity, suggesting an underlying mechanism for tic pathophysiology. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Treatment of Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Associated Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dittmer, Dirk P.; Richards, Kristy L.; Damania, Blossom

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-defining cancer worldwide. KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of KS, and the virus is also associated with two lymphoproliferative diseases. Both KS and KSHV-associated lymphomas, are cancers of unique molecular composition. They represent a challenge for cancer treatment and an opportunity to identify new mechanisms of transformation. Here, we review the current clinical insights into KSHV-associated cancers and discuss scientific insights into the pathobiology of KS, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman’s disease. PMID:22529843

  4. Sang-qi Granula Reduces Blood Pressure and Myocardial Fibrosis by Suppressing Inflammatory Responses Associated with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Nuclear Factor κ B Protein in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan-Yu; Pan, Chun-Shui; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Li, Lin; Han, Jing-Yan; Huang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Sang-qi Granula (SQ) is a compound prepared from Chinese herbs and is currently used for treatment of hypertension in China. Given its protective effects on cardial function in decreasing blood pressure, we investigated the mechanism of protective effects of SQ on myocardium. Methods. 16 male normal Wistar-Kyoto rats and 16 spontaneous hypertension rats (SHR) were employed without medical treatment. 16 SHR were employed with SQ treatment. Rats in each group were sacrificed at two time points (8-week treatment and 16-week treatment). Blood pressure (BP), and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) were measured. The expression of myeloperoxidase (MCP-1), ICAM-1, TNF- α , and CD68-positive cells was assessed. The interstitial collagen volume fraction (CVF), perivascular collagen volume area (PVCA), and the expression of TGF- β , Smad-3, PPAR α , γ , and NF- κ B (P65 and P50) were observed. Results. SQ significantly inhibited the elevation of the blood pressure and HW/BW of SHR. Next, SQ prevented myocardial fibrosis. Finally, a proinflammatory mediator associated with NF- κ B (TNF- α , ICAM-1, MCP-1, CD68), TGF- β , and Smad-3 related to collagen deposition, which is upregulated in SHR group, was significantly suppressed by SQ. Expression of NF- κ B was decreased in SHQ+SQ group compared to PPAR α , and γ expression was increased by SQ. Conclusion. Treatment with SQ ameliorates cardial fibrosis induced by hypertension by attenuating the upregulation of ICAM-1, TNF- α , MCP-1, TGF- β , Smad-3, P65, and P50 expression and improving PPAR α and PPAR γ expression level. The results suggest that SQ may be an option for preventing cardial fibrosis through PPAR signalling pathway.

  5. Aseptic meningitis associated with rofecoxib.

    PubMed

    Bonnel, Renan A; Villalba, Maria L; Karwoski, Claudia B; Beitz, Julie

    2002-03-25

    Rofecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is reported to act by selectively inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2. A review and analysis of reports sent to the Spontaneous Reporting System of the Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, Md, suggest that aseptic meningitis is associated with rofecoxib use. To our knowledge, there have been no published reports of aseptic meningitis occurring in association with rofecoxib use to date. We report 5 serious cases of aseptic meningitis associated with rofecoxib use.

  6. Metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Courties, Alice; Sellam, Jérémie; Berenbaum, Francis

    2017-03-01

    Interest in the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype is increasing. Here, we summarize recently published significant findings. Meta-analyses confirmed an association between type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis and between cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Recent advances in the study of metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis have focused on a better understanding of the role of metabolic diseases in inducing or aggravating joint damage. In-vivo models of obesity, diabetes, or dyslipidemia have helped to better decipher this association. They give emerging evidence that, beyond the role of common pathogenic mechanisms for metabolic diseases and osteoarthritis (i.e., low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress), metabolic diseases have a direct systemic effect on joints. In addition to the impact of weight, obesity-associated inflammation is associated with osteoarthritis severity and may modulate osteoarthritis progression in mouse models. As well, osteoarthritis synovium from type 2 diabetic patients shows insulin-resistant features, which may participate in joint catabolism. Finally, exciting data are emerging on the association of gut microbiota and circadian rhythm and metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis. The systemic role of metabolic syndrome in osteoarthritis pathophysiology is now better understood, but new avenues of research are being pursued to better decipher the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype.

  7. Associate physician selection: perception & reality.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C Kay

    2008-01-01

    Whatever real or perceived margin for error without consequence in associate physician selection there has been in the past is now one. Reasons include the indisputable fact that competition for first- and second-tier associates continues to escalate with no end in sight. It is, therefore, a rational conclusion that the options for practices that do not become organized to get associate selection right the first time will be limited and could include arrival at a destination not envisioned. This article addresses practice dynamics that trigger adverse associate selection and presents creative selection tactics--to get it right the first time.

  8. Effects of pubertal development, height, weight, and grip strength on the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and hip in peripubertal Japanese children: Kyoto kids increase density in the skeleton study (Kyoto KIDS study).

    PubMed

    Naka, Hiroshi; Iki, Masayuki; Morita, Akemi; Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2005-01-01

    The effects of growth and pubertal development on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip in peripubertal Japanese children were studied as a basis for evaluating the effects of modifiable factors on bone mass gain. The study comprised bone mass measurements in the lumbar spine (L2-4), femoral neck, and total hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as well as body size measurements and detailed interviews on medical history and pubertal status. The subjects were 404 first-grade students in three junior high schools (129 boys and 275 girls, mean age 12.8 +/- 0.3 years) with no diseases or medication that would affect bone metabolism. BMD at each site showed an increasing trend with physical growth and sexual maturity. Significant positive correlations were observed between BMD at every skeletal site and height, weight, and grip strength in pre- and postpubertal boys and girls. In multiple regression analyses, pubertal development had a significant positive independent effect on BMD at every skeletal site in girls, but not in boys. Physical and pubertal development showed major effects on BMD, but the magnitude of these effects differed in boys and girls, even if they were of the same age. We conclude that confounding factors due to physical and pubertal development should be taken into consideration in different ways for boys and girls in investigations on the effects of environmental or behavioral factors on bone mass acquisition in peripubertal children.

  9. Mucosa-associated microbiota dysbiosis in colitis associated cancer.

    PubMed

    Richard, Mathias L; Liguori, Giuseppina; Lamas, Bruno; Brandi, Giovanni; da Costa, Gregory; Hoffmann, Thomas W; Pierluigi Di Simone, Massimo; Calabrese, Carlo; Poggioli, Gilberto; Langella, Philippe; Campieri, Massimo; Sokol, Harry

    2017-09-15

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota has also been recognized as potentially involved in aggravating or favoring the tumor development. However, very little is known on the structure and role of the microbiota in colitis associated cancer (CAC), an important complication of IBD in human. Here we analyzed the bacterial and fungal composition of the mucosa associated microbiota of patients suffering CAC, sporadic cancer (SC) and of healthy subjects (HS) by barcode sequences analysis on the following cohort: 7 CAC patients, 10 SC patients and 10 HS using 16S (MiSeq) and ITS2 (pyrosequencing) sequencing, for bacteria and fungi respectively. Mucosa-associated bacterial microbiota in CAC was significantly different from the ones in SC or in HS, while the fungal showed no differences. Comparison between mucosa-associated microbiota on the tumor site or in normal mucosa near the tumor showed very similar patterns. The global mucosa-associated bacterial microbiota in cancer patients was characterized by a restriction in biodiversity but no change for the fungal community. Compared to SC, CAC was characterized by an increase of Enterobacteriacae family and Sphingomonas genus and a decrease of Fusobacterium and Ruminococcus genus. Our study confirms the alteration of the mucosa-associated bacterial microbiota in IBD and SC. Although the cohort is limited in number, this is the first evidence of the existence of an altered bacterial microbiota in CAC clearly different from the one in SC patients.

  10. Associative Asymmetry of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Boulton, Kathy L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A??) and backward (??B) cued recall. This…

  11. Predictors of Alumni Association Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Melissa D.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined factors associated with membership of university graduates in the dues-based alumni association of their alma mater. Logistic regression was used to analyze variables that came from survey responses and from an existing database. All participants had attended a public doctoral-granting research university in the South.…

  12. Associative Asymmetry of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Jeremy B.; Boulton, Kathy L.; Gagné, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A??) and backward (??B) cued recall. This…

  13. Hospital association libraries: an overview.

    PubMed

    Poole, C

    1982-04-01

    Results of a survey conducted by the Library of the American Hospital Association to gather data about library and information services provided by other hospital associations are reported. Topics covered include staffing, funding, collection size, users, and services. The interface of these libraries with other health sciences libraries and the national Biomedical Communications Network (BCN) is discussed.

  14. Washington Education Association Directory, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    This directory presents profiles of 73 higher education associations located in the Washington, DC (and northern Virginia) area. Preliminary information includes an alphabetical list of the associations by full name and an alphabetical list by organizational acronym. Each profile includes the organization's address, telephone numbers, e-mail and…

  15. Predictors of Alumni Association Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Melissa D.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined factors associated with membership of university graduates in the dues-based alumni association of their alma mater. Logistic regression was used to analyze variables that came from survey responses and from an existing database. All participants had attended a public doctoral-granting research university in the South.…

  16. What's elementary about associative learning?

    PubMed

    Wasserman, E A; Miller, R R

    1997-01-01

    The scientific study of associative learning began nearly 100 years ago with the pioneering studies of Thorndike and Pavlov, and it continues today as an active area of research and theory. Associative learning should be the foundation for our understanding of other forms of behavior and cognition in human and nonhuman animals. The laws of associative learning are complex, and many modern theorists posit the involvement of attention, memory, and information processing in such basic conditioning phenomena as overshadowing and blocking, and the effects of stimulus preexposure on later conditioning. An unresolved problem for learning theory is distinguishing the formation of associations from their behavioral expression. This and other problems will occupy future generations of behavioral scientists interested in the experimental investigation of associative learning. Neuroscientists and cognitive scientists will both contribute to and benefit from that effort in the next 100 years of inquiry.

  17. The Effect of Intermittent Noise Stress on Ozone-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have established that acute exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction. Intrinsic factors are likely the most important determinants of how the body responds to an exposure. But data also suggests that non-environmental stressors l...

  18. Lung transcriptional profiling: insights into the mechanisms of ozone-induced pulmonary injury in Wistar Kyoto rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation are well characterized in rats; however, mechanistic understanding of the pathways involved is limited. We hypothesized that acute exposure of healthy rats to ozone will cause transcriptional alterations, and comprehensive ana...

  19. Type I diabetes mellitus in human and chimpanzee: a comparison of kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-04-01

    Diabetes is a worldwide medical problem and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The identification of causative genes for the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes in humans has made significant progress in recent years. Studies of pathways for type 1 diabetes in other living things can give useful information on the nature of type 1 diabetes. Here, the author used a new pathway technology to compare type 1 diabetes mellitus in the human and the chimpanzee. According to the comparison, the mainframes of pathways are similar for both the human and the chimpanzee. These results can imply a close relation between the human and the chimpanzee. They also confirm usage of the chimpanzee model for studies of type 1 diabetes pathophysiology.

  20. U.S.-Japan Seminar on Dielectric and Piezoelectric Ceramics Held in Kyoto, Japan on 11-14 December 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    for ceramic research and development in China. Also, this is the only time I could afford to make the visit. I found it most educational ! Probably the...JAPANESE PARTICIPANTS T6shio Tanimoto Nobutatsu Yamaoka Department of Materials Sience Taiyo Yuden Co. Ltd. and Ceramic Technology 43-1 Yahatabara-cho