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Sample records for asthma dust mite

  1. House dust mite barrier bedding for childhood asthma: randomised placebo controlled trial in primary care [ISRCTN63308372].

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Aziz; Hurwitz, Brian; Sibbald, Bonnie; Barnes, Greta; Howe, Maggie; Durham, Stephen

    2002-06-18

    The house dust mite is the most important environmental allergen implicated in the aetiology of childhood asthma in the UK. Dust mite barrier bedding is relatively inexpensive, convenient to use, and of proven effectiveness in reducing mattress house dust mite load, but no studies have evaluated its clinical effectiveness in the control of childhood asthma when dispensed in primary care. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of house dust mite barrier bedding in children with asthma treated in primary care. Pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial conducted in eight family practices in England. Forty-seven children aged 5 to 14 years with confirmed house dust mite sensitive asthma were randomised to receive six months treatment with either house dust mite barrier or placebo bedding. Peak expiratory flow was the main outcome measure of interest; secondary outcome measures included asthma symptom scores and asthma medication usage. No difference was noted in mean monthly peak expiratory flow, asthma symptom score, medication usage or asthma consultations, between children who received active bedding and those who received placebo bedding. Treating house dust mite sensitive asthmatic children in primary care with house dust mite barrier bedding for six months failed to improve peak expiratory flow. Results strongly suggest that the intervention made no impact upon other clinical features of asthma.

  2. House dust mite barrier bedding for childhood asthma: randomised placebo controlled trial in primary care [ISRCTN63308372

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Aziz; Hurwitz, Brian; Sibbald, Bonnie; Barnes, Greta; Howe, Maggie; Durham, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Background The house dust mite is the most important environmental allergen implicated in the aetiology of childhood asthma in the UK. Dust mite barrier bedding is relatively inexpensive, convenient to use, and of proven effectiveness in reducing mattress house dust mite load, but no studies have evaluated its clinical effectiveness in the control of childhood asthma when dispensed in primary care. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of house dust mite barrier bedding in children with asthma treated in primary care. Methods Pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial conducted in eight family practices in England. Forty-seven children aged 5 to 14 years with confirmed house dust mite sensitive asthma were randomised to receive six months treatment with either house dust mite barrier or placebo bedding. Peak expiratory flow was the main outcome measure of interest; secondary outcome measures included asthma symptom scores and asthma medication usage. Results No difference was noted in mean monthly peak expiratory flow, asthma symptom score, medication usage or asthma consultations, between children who received active bedding and those who received placebo bedding. Conclusions Treating house dust mite sensitive asthmatic children in primary care with house dust mite barrier bedding for six months failed to improve peak expiratory flow. Results strongly suggest that the intervention made no impact upon other clinical features of asthma. PMID:12079502

  3. Genome-wide interaction study of dust mite allergen on lung function in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Sordillo, Joanne; Brehm, John; Chen, Wei; Benos, Takis; Yan, Qi; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quirós, Manuel; Cloutier, Michelle M; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Alvarez, Maria; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Weiss, Scott T; Litonjua, Augusto A; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-10-01

    Childhood asthma is likely the result of gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Dust mite is a known risk factor for asthma morbidity. Yet, there have been no genome-wide G × E studies of dust mite allergen on asthma-related phenotypes. We sought to identify genetic variants whose effects on lung function in children with asthma are modified by the level of dust mite allergen exposure. A genome-wide interaction analysis of dust mite allergen level and lung function was performed in a cohort of Puerto Rican children with asthma (Puerto Rico Genetics of Asthma and Lifestyle [PRGOAL]). Replication was attempted in 2 independent cohorts, the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) and the Genetics of Asthma in Costa Rica Study. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs117902240 showed a significant interaction effect on FEV 1 with dust mite allergen level in PRGOAL (interaction P = 3.1 × 10 -8 ), and replicated in the same direction in CAMP white children and CAMP Hispanic children (combined interaction P = .0065 for replication cohorts and 7.4 × 10 -9 for all cohorts). Rs117902240 was positively associated with FEV 1 in children exposed to low dust mite allergen levels, but negatively associated with FEV 1 in children exposed to high levels. This SNP is on chromosome 8q24, adjacent to a binding site for CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, a transcription factor that forms part of the IL-17 signaling pathway. None of the SNPs identified for FEV 1 /forced vital capacity replicated in the independent cohorts. Dust mite allergen exposure modifies the estimated effect of rs117902240 on FEV 1 in children with asthma. Analysis of existing data suggests that this SNP may have transcription factor regulatory functions. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of asthma management education program on stress and compliance of patients with allergic asthma to house dust mite.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yang Sook; Cho, Ok Hee; Kim, Eun Sin; Jeong, Hye Sun

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of asthma management education program applied to allergic asthma patients receiving immunotherapy due to house dust mite on their stress and compliance with health care regimens. A quasi experimental design with non-equivalent control group and non-synchronized design was used. The subjects of this study were 61 patients who were receiving immunotherapy at intervals of a week after their symptoms were diagnosed as house dust mite allergic asthma at the pulmonary department of a university hospital in Seoul. They were divided into an experimental group of 29 patients who received asthma management education and a control group of 32 patients. The asthma management education program was composed of group education (once) and reinforcement education (three times) with environmental therapy and immunotherapy to house dust mite. Stress significantly decreased in the experimental group compared to that in the control group. Compliance with health care regimens significantly increased in the experimental group compared to that in the control group. The results suggested that the asthma management education program is effective for the management of stress and the improvement of compliance in patients with allergic asthma to house dust mite.

  5. A NEW HOUSE DUST COLLECTION SYSTEM AND ITS USE IN A STUDY OF ASTHMA IN DUST MITE SENSITIVE CHILDREN IN RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype dust collection system, the House Dust Vacuum One (HDVI), was designed for use in a study to investigate the relationship between house dust mite antigen levels and the presence of asthma in dust mite sensitive children. The HDVI was designed for the collection of dus...

  6. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

  7. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  8. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  9. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to the allergen can cause the ongoing (chronic) inflammation associated with asthma. Dust mites eat organic matter ... their debris can cause complications. Sinus infections. Ongoing (chronic) inflammation of tissues in the nasal passages caused by ...

  10. Exposure to dust mite allergen and endotoxin in early life and asthma and atopy in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Celedón, Juan C.; Milton, Donald K.; Ramsey, Clare D.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Ryan, Louise; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.; Gold, Diane R.

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been no longitudinal study of the relation between concurrent exposure to dust mite allergen and endotoxin in early life and asthma and atopy at school age. Objectives To examine the relation between exposure to dust mite allergen and endotoxin at age 2 to 3 months and asthma, wheeze, and atopy in high-risk children. Methods Birth cohort study of 440 children with parental history of atopy in the Boston metropolitan area. Results In multivariate analyses, early exposure to high levels of dust mite allergen (≥10 μg/g) was associated with increased risks of asthma at age 7 years (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-7.9) and late-onset wheeze (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.5-16.4). Exposure to endotoxin levels above the lowest quartile at age 2 to 3 months was associated with reduced odds of atopy at school age (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). In contrast with its inverse association with atopy, endotoxin exposure in early life was associated with an increased risk of any wheeze between ages 1 and 7 years that did not change significantly with time (hazard ratio for each quartile increment in endotoxin levels, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.43). Conclusion Among children at risk of atopy, early exposure to high levels of dust mite allergen is associated with increased risks of asthma and late-onset wheeze. In these children, endotoxin exposure is associated with a reduced risk of atopy but an increased risk of wheeze. Clinical implications Early endotoxin exposure may be a protective factor against atopy but a risk factor for wheeze in high-risk children. PMID:17507083

  11. House dust mites, our intimate associates.

    PubMed

    Nadchatram, M

    2005-06-01

    House dust mites have lived in human contact from time immemorial. Human dander or dead skin constitutes the major organic component of the house dust ecosystem. Because the mites feed on dander, dust mites and human association will continue to co-exist as part of our environment. Efficient house-keeping practice is the best form of control to reduce infestation. However, special precautions are important when individuals are susceptible or sensitive to dust mites. House dust mites are responsible for causing asthma, rhinitis and contact dermatitis. The respiratory allergies are caused by the inhalation of dead or live mites, their faecal matter or other byproducts. Immune factors are of paramount importance in the development of dust related or mite induced respiratory diseases. House dust mites were found in some 1,000 samples of dust taken from approximately 330 dwellings in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Mattresses, carpets, corners of a bedroom, and floor beneath the bed are favourable dust mite habitats. The incriminating species based on studies here and elsewhere, as well as many other species of dust mites of unknown etiological importance are widely distributed in Malaysian homes. Density of dust mites in Malaysia and Singapore is greater than in temperate countries. Prevention and control measures with reference to subjects sensitive to dust mite allergies, including chemical control described in studies conducted in Europe and America are discussed. However, a cost free and most practical way to remove mites, their faecal matter and other products is to resort to sunning the bedding and carpets to kill the living mites, and then beaten and brushed to remove the dust and other components.

  12. A review of the effects of impermeable bedding encasements on dust-mite allergen exposure and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in dust-mite-sensitized patients.

    PubMed

    Recer, G M

    2004-02-01

    Sensitization and exposure to dust-mite antigens are causative factors in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Impermeable bedding encasements are considered a first-line treatment to reduce dust-mite antigen exposure in clinical asthma-management guidelines. Public-health recommendations for environmental asthma treatments should be based on the weight of evidence supporting the reliability of environmental interventions so that uncertainties regarding their effectiveness can be accurately communicated to patients, and so that limited public-health resources can be most effectively utilized. To evaluate the strength of a clinical-trial evidence supporting the efficacy of bedding encasements as an asthma treatment. A narrative review was conducted of all clinical trials involving bedding encasement for the treatment of asthma. Collective statistical analyses were also performed to characterize the quantitative effect of bedding encasement on dust-mite allergen exposure and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) when used by asthma patients. Over 30 clinical trials were reviewed. Of those studies reporting adequate exposure and BHR results, four reported significant reduction in dust-mite allergen exposure and concomitant BHR reduction in active-treatment groups using bedding encasements. In 10 studies, mite-allergen exposure was reportedly decreased during the study, but BHR was not changed in the active-treatment group or was reduced to a similar degree in the active-treatment and control groups. Five other studies reported a lack of significant effect of the intervention on exposure and BHR. Collective paired analyses found that the effect of bedding encasement on allergen exposure and BHR tended toward only a modest, non-significant improvement. Collectively, effects of bedding encasement on BHR and dust-mite allergen exposure were modestly correlated only when the baseline exposure was above 2 microg Type 1 antigen per gram settled dust. Although bedding

  13. Feather bedding and childhood asthma associated with house dust mite sensitisation: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Kemp, Andrew; Tovey, Euan; van Asperen, Peter; McKay, Karen; Forbes, Samantha

    2011-06-01

    Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. To determine whether, among children not using feather upper bedding, a new feather pillow and feather quilt reduces asthma severity among house dust mite (HDM) sensitised children with asthma over a 1-year period compared with standard dust mite avoidance advice, and giving children a new mite-occlusive mattress cover. RCT. The Calvary Hospital in the Australian Capital Territory and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales. 197 children with HDM sensitisation and moderate to severe asthma. Intervention New upper bedding duck feather pillow and quilt and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (feather) versus standard care and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (standard). The proportion of children reporting four or more episodes of wheeze in the past year; an episode of speech-limiting wheeze; or one or more episodes of sleep disturbance caused by wheezing; and spirometry with challenge testing. Statistical analysis included multiple logistic and linear regression. No differences between groups were found for primary end points--frequent wheeze (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.76, p=0.17), speech-limiting wheeze (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.48, p=0.35), sleep disturbed because of wheezing (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.13, p=0.61) or for any secondary end points. Secondary analyses indicated the intervention reduced the risk of sleep being disturbed because of wheezing and severe wheeze to a greater extent for children who slept supine. No differences in respiratory symptoms or lung function were observed 1 year after children with moderate-severe asthma and HDM sensitisation were given a mite-occlusive mattress cover and then received either feather upper bedding (pillow and quilt) or standard

  14. Feather bedding and childhood asthma associated with house dust mite sensitisation: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Nicholas J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Kemp, Andrew; Tovey, Euan; van Asperen, Peter; McKay, Karen; Forbes, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies report inverse associations between the use of feather upper bedding (pillow and/or quilt) and asthma symptoms but there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence assessing the role of feather upper bedding as a secondary prevention measure. Objective To determine whether, among children not using feather upper bedding, a new feather pillow and feather quilt reduces asthma severity among house dust mite (HDM) sensitised children with asthma over a 1-year period compared with standard dust mite avoidance advice, and giving children a new mite-occlusive mattress cover. Design RCT. Setting The Calvary Hospital in the Australian Capital Territory and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales. Patients 197 children with HDM sensitisation and moderate to severe asthma. Intervention New upper bedding duck feather pillow and quilt and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (feather) versus standard care and a mite-occlusive mattress cover (standard). Main outcome measures The proportion of children reporting four or more episodes of wheeze in the past year; an episode of speech-limiting wheeze; or one or more episodes of sleep disturbance caused by wheezing; and spirometry with challenge testing. Statistical analysis included multiple logistic and linear regression. Results No differences between groups were found for primary end points – frequent wheeze (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.76, p=0.17), speech-limiting wheeze (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.48, p=0.35), sleep disturbed because of wheezing (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.13, p=0.61) or for any secondary end points. Secondary analyses indicated the intervention reduced the risk of sleep being disturbed because of wheezing and severe wheeze to a greater extent for children who slept supine. Conclusion No differences in respiratory symptoms or lung function were observed 1 year after children with moderate–severe asthma and HDM sensitisation were given a mite

  15. [Inhibition of antisense-endothelin converting enzyme RNA on interleukin-5 released from dust mite-challenged peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with allergic asthma].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xu, Ju; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the effect of antisense endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) RNA on levels of cytokines released from CD(4)(+) lymphocytes in patients with allergic diseases responsive to house dust mites. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated from 21 patients who were sensitive to dust mites. PBMCs from those patients were divided into two groups. No stimulation group (A group) induded A(1) group (anti-ECE epithelial cells + PBMCs) and A(2) group (control cells + PBMCs). Stimulation group (B group) included B(1) group (anti-ECE epithelial cells + PBMCs + dust mites extract) and B(2) group (control cells + PBMCs + dust mites extract). House dust mite extract (20 microg/ml) was added to the culture of stimulation group as described above. After 72 hours, supernatants from both groups were collected and the levels of IL-5 and IFN-ggr; released into the supernatants were detected by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. IL-5 levels were increased significantly after treatment with dust mite in twelve of 21 cases. No significant differences of IL-5 were found between the groups of A(1)[(6.0 +/- 1.3) x 10(-9) g/L] and A(2) [(7.5 +/- 1.1) x 10(-9) g/L] before house dust mite stimulation in the 12 cases (P > 0.05), and no significant differences in IFN-ggr; were found between the groups of A(1) [(63 +/- 26) x 10(-9) g/L] and A(2) [(70 +/- 52) x 10(-9) g/L] before house dust mite stimulation (P > 0.05). IL-5 level was increased in both groups after stimulation but it was significantly lower in the B(1) group [(8.2 +/- 1.6) x 10(-9) g/L] than that in the B(2) [(12.0 +/- 1.8) x 10(-9) g/L] (P = 0.047). It seemed that increased IFN-ggr; level after stimulation was higher in B(2) [(153 +/- 71) x 10(-9) g/L] than that in the B(1) group (100 +/- 41) x 10(-9) g/L], but there was no statistic significance (P > 0.05). In addition, our results also showed that the release of IL-5 was significantly increased in those cases with asthma, or asthma plus allergic rhinitis

  16. Gene-by-environment effect of house dust mite on purinergic receptor P2Y12 (P2RY12) and lung function in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Bunyavanich, S; Boyce, J A; Raby, B A; Weiss, S T

    2012-02-01

    Distinct receptors likely exist for leukotriene (LT)E(4), a potent mediator of airway inflammation. Purinergic receptor P2Y12 is needed for LTE(4)-induced airways inflammation, and P2Y12 antagonism attenuates house dust mite-induced pulmonary eosinophilia in mice. Although experimental data support a role for P2Y12 in airway inflammation, its role in human asthma has never been studied. To test for association between variants in the P2Y12 gene (P2RY12) and lung function in human subjects with asthma, and to examine for gene-by-environment interaction with house dust mite exposure. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in P2RY12 were genotyped in 422 children with asthma and their parents (n = 1266). Using family based methods, we tested for associations between these SNPs and five lung function measures. We performed haplotype association analyses and tested for gene-by-environment interactions using house dust mite exposure. We used the false discovery rate to account for multiple comparisons. Five SNPs in P2RY12 were associated with multiple lung function measures (P-values 0.006–0.025). Haplotypes in P2RY12 were also associated with lung function (P-values 0.0055–0.046). House dust mite exposure modulated associations between P2RY12 and lung function, with minor allele homozygotes exposed to house dust mite demonstrating worse lung function than those unexposed (significant interaction P-values 0.0028–0.040). The P2RY12 variants were associated with lung function in a large family-based asthma cohort. House dust mite exposure caused significant gene-by-environment effects. Our findings add the first human evidence to experimental data supporting a role for P2Y12 in lung function. P2Y12 could represent a novel target for asthma treatment.

  17. Sensitivity to House Dust Mites Allergens with Atopic Asthma and Its Relationship with CD14 C(-159T) Polymorphism in Patients of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amlan; Dutta, Shampa; Podder, Sanjoy; Mondal, Priti; Laha, Arghya; Saha, Nimai Chandra; Moitra, Saibal; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2018-01-10

    India is the home to around 15-20 million asthmatics, and asthma prevalence is increasing in Indian metropolitan area, including Kolkata, West Bengal. Complex interactions of genetic and environmental factors are involved in asthma. Genome-wide search for susceptible loci regulating IgE response (atopy) have identified a candidate gene CD14 which is most important in the context of allergic responses of respiratory system. This study was aimed to investigate the role of house dust and house dust mites in development of bronchial asthma and to explore the possible association of candidate gene CD14 with disease manifestation among Kolkata patient population. Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 8 aeroallergens, including house dust and house dust mites and total serum IgE and allergen-specific IgE were measured. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was done in patients and nonasthmatic control (n = 255 in each) to characterize a functional polymorphism, C(-159)T, of CD14, a positional candidate gene for allergy. We identified house dust as the most common aeroallergen sensitizer among atopic patients in Kolkata followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) mites. Patient's sera contain significantly higher IgE level than that of control. Allergen-specific IgE antibody test revealed that 76.36% patients had specific IgE antibody against D. pteronyssinus mite. There was a significant difference in the distribution of alleles and genotypes for CD14 polymorphism with an increase in disease severity. So, in Kolkata, house dust mite is a common aeroallergen and D. pteronyssinus is predominant among mites. The present study revealed that bronchial asthma has a genetic background. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jennifer A; Kicic, Anthony; Berry, Luke J; Fernandes, Lynette B; Zosky, Graeme R; Sly, Peter D; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle) daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B). Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils), increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance). We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms.

  19. Reducing risk of house dust mite and cockroach allergen exposure in inner-city children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Kuster, P A

    1996-01-01

    Asthma prevalence among disadvantaged and minority children is disproportionately higher in inner-city populations. Environmental allergen exposure, particularly that of house dust mites and cockroaches, is known to contribute to asthma exacerbations in children. Environmental control of these particular triggers is a necessary component of asthma education and should be incorporated into the teaching plan for these children. The costs surrounding environmental control may not be within the means of many families living in urban, inner-city environments; therefore nurses should offer families creative ideas and cost effective suggestions for controlling environmental triggers.

  20. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.

  1. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001). Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001) and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001). In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness. PMID:25923543

  2. Maternal house dust mite exposure during pregnancy enhances severity of house dust mite-induced asthma in murine offspring.

    PubMed

    Richgels, Phoebe K; Yamani, Amnah; Chougnet, Claire A; Lewkowich, Ian P

    2017-11-01

    Atopic status of the mother and maternal exposure to environmental factors are associated with increased asthma risk. Moreover, animal models demonstrate that exposure to allergens in strongly sensitized mothers influences offspring asthma development, suggesting that in utero exposures can influence offspring asthma. However, it is unclear whether maternal exposure to common human allergens such as house dust mite (HDM), in the absence of additional adjuvants, influences offspring asthma development. We sought to determine whether maternal HDM exposure influences asthma development in offspring. Pregnant female mice were exposed to PBS or HDM during pregnancy. Using offspring of PBS- or HDM-exposed mothers, the magnitude of HDM or Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) extract-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, immunoglobulin production, T H 2-associated cytokine synthesis, and pulmonary dendritic cell activity was assessed. Compared with offspring of PBS-exposed mothers, offspring of HDM-exposed mothers demonstrate increased AHR, airway inflammation, T H 2 cytokine production, and immunoglobulin levels and a modest decrease in the phagocytic capacity of pulmonary macrophage populations following HDM exposure. Increased sensitivity to AF-induced airway disease was not observed. Offspring of HDM-exposed B-cell-deficient mothers also demonstrated increased HDM-induced AHR, suggesting that transfer of maternal immunoglobulins is not required. Our data demonstrate that maternal exposure to HDM during pregnancy increases asthma sensitivity in offspring in an HDM-specific manner, suggesting that vertical transmission of maternal immune responses may be involved. These findings have important implications for regulation of asthma risk, and suggest that exposure to HDM in the developed world may have underappreciated influences on the overall prevalence of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  3. The Role of Dust Mites in Allergy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey D

    2018-06-23

    House dust mites are an unsurpassed cause of atopic sensitization and allergic illness throughout the world. The major allergenic dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Euroglyphus maynei, and Blomia tropicalis are eight-legged members of the Arachnid class. Their approximately 3-month lifespan comprises egg, larval, protonymph, tritonymph, and adult stages, with adults, about one fourth to one third of a millimeter in size, being at the threshold of visibility. The geographic and seasonal distributions of dust mites are determined by their need for adequate humidity, while their distribution within substrates is further determined by their avoidance of light. By contacting the epithelium of the eyes, nose, lower airways, skin, and gut, the allergen-containing particles of dust mites can induce sensitization and atopic symptoms in those organs. Various mite allergens, contained primarily in mite fecal particles but also in shed mite exoskeletons and decaying mite body fragments, have properties that include proteolytic activity, homology with the lipopolysaccharide-binding component of Toll-like receptor 4, homology with other invertebrate tropomyosins, and chitin-cleaving and chitin-binding activity. Mite proteases have direct epithelial effects including the breaching of tight junctions and the stimulation of protease-activated receptors, the latter inducing pruritus, epithelial dysfunction, and cytokine release. Other components, including chitin, unmethylated mite and bacterial DNA, and endotoxin, activate pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system and act as adjuvants promoting sensitization to mite and other allergens. Clinical conditions resulting from mite sensitization and exposure include rhinitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Systemic allergy symptoms can also occur from the ingestion of cross-reacting invertebrates, such as shrimp or snail, or from the accidental ingestion of mite

  4. Specific immunotherapy for rhinitis and asthma with a subcutaneous hypoallergenic high-dose house dust mite extract: results of a 9-month therapy.

    PubMed

    El-Qutob, David; Moreno, Francisco; Subtil-Rodríguez, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    Effectiveness of a 9-month specific immunotherapy with a subcutaneous hypoallergenic high-dose house dust mite extract to reduce allergic symptoms as perceived by patients and physicians was assessed. An observational, retrospective, multicenter study was carried out in patients diagnosed with asthma and/or rhinitis caused by house dust mites having started specific immunotherapy with Acaroid(®). Primary end point was perceived effectiveness. A total of 409 patients were included. According to physician-completed visual analogue scale, a 58.1% clinical improvement was observed. Patient-completed visual analogue scale showed a 69.8% clinical improvement. The need for unscheduled/emergency healthcare, as an indication of poor quality of life, showed a significant reduction. Our results confirm in a real-world setting the findings from randomized clinical trials of high-dose house dust mites allergoid immunotherapy with a subcutaneous hypoallergenic high-dose house dust mite extract.

  5. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bakolis, I; Heinrich, J; Zock, J P; Norbäck, D; Svanes, C; Chen, C M; Accordini, S; Verlato, G; Olivieri, M; Jarvis, D

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890 adults aged between 27 and 56 years living in 22 centers in 10 countries. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association of respiratory symptoms with house dust-mite concentrations, adjusting for individual and household confounders. There was no overall association of respiratory outcomes with measured house dust-mite concentrations, even in those who reported they had symptoms on exposure to dust and those who had physician-diagnosed asthma. However, there was a positive association of high serum specific IgE levels to HDM (>3.5 kUA /l) with mattress house dust-mite concentrations and a negative association of sensitization to cat with increasing house dust-mite concentrations. In conclusion, there was no evidence that respiratory symptoms in adults were associated with exposure to house dust-mite allergen in the mattress, but an association of house mite with strong sensitization was observed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Research on dust mite allergen gathered from filters of air-conditioners].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-dong; Wu, Hua; Hu, Hui-min; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the relation between the dust mite allergen (Der) in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the filters of air-conditioners in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households, respectively. The concentrations of Der f 1 and Der p1 were detected by ELISA, and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentrations of Der f 1 in the dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households were 1.52, 1.24, 1.31 µg/g and 1.46 µg/g respectively, and the concentrations of Der p 1 were 1.23, 1.12, 1.16 µg/ g and 1.18 µg, respectively. One hour after the running of air-conditioners, the concentrations of Der f 1 and Der p 1 in the air were higher than those before the running of air-conditioners, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05). Additionally, the dot-ELISA results revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. Der f 1 and Der p 1 appear abundantly in the filters of air-conditioners in domestic houses in Wuhu City, and the allergens can induce asthma.

  7. [An analysis of skin prick test reactivity to dust mite in overweight and normal weight children with allergic asthma before and after specific immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xue-Li; Huang, Xia; Xu, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Fan-Mei

    2016-04-01

    To study the skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to house dust mite allergens in overweight and normal weight children with allergic asthma before and after standard subcutaneous specific immunotherapy. Two hundred and fifteen children with allergic asthma who had positive SPT responses to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) and Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) were enrolled. According to the weight index, they were classified into overweight (n=63) and normal weight groups (n=152). Skin indices (SI) to DP and DF were compared between the two groups at 6 months and 1 year after standard subcutaneous specific immunotherapy. The overweight group had a significantly larger histamine wheal diameter than the normal weight group after controlling the variation in testing time (P<0.05). After controlling the variation in weights, there were significant differences in the SIs to DP and DF before specific immunotherapy and at 6 months and 1 year after specific immunotherapy. At 6 months and 1 year after specific immunotherapy, the SIs to DP and DF were significantly reduced in both groups (P<0.05), and the overweight group had greater decreases in the SIs to DP and DF than the normal weight group. The overweight children with allergic asthma have stronger responses to histamine than the normal weight patients. Specific immunotherapy can reduce the reactivity to dust mite allergens in children with allergic asthma. Within one year after specific immunotherapy, the overweight children with allergic asthma have a significantly greater decrease in the reactivity to dust mite allergens than the normal weight patients.

  8. Dynamics of house dust mite transfer in modern clothing fabrics.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David; Burke, Daniel; Gormally, Michael; Byrne, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is largely presumed as being the mechanism by which house dust mites are distributed among locations in homes, yet little research to date has investigated the capacity with which various clothing fabric types serve as vectors for their accumulation and dispersal. Although previous research has indicated that car seats provide a habitat for mite populations, dynamics involved in the transfer of mites to clothing via car seat material is still unknown. To investigate the dynamics involved in the transfer of house dust mites from car seat material to modern clothing fabrics. A total of 480 samples of car seat material were seeded with mites and subjected to contact with plain woven cotton, denim, and fleece. Contact forces equivalent to the mass of a typical adult and child were administered for different durations of contact. Mean transfer efficiencies of mites from car seat material to receiving clothing fabrics ranged from 7.2% to 19.1%. Fabric type, mite condition (live or dead), and the force applied all revealed a significant effect (P < .001 for each variable) on the transfer efficiency of house dust mites from seeded material to receiving fabrics, whereas duration of contact revealed no effect (P = .20). In particular, mean numbers of mites transferred to fleece (compared with denim and plain woven cotton) were greater for each treatment. These findings indicate that clothing type can have important implications for the colonization of other biotopes by house dust mites, with potential for affecting an individuals' personal exposure to dust mite allergens. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early-life house dust mite allergens, childhood mite sensitization, and respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casas, L; Sunyer, J; Tischer, C; Gehring, U; Wickman, M; Garcia-Esteban, R; Lehmann, I; Kull, I; Reich, A; Lau, S; Wijga, A; Antó, J M; Nawrot, T S; Heinrich, J; Keil, T; Torrent, M

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens during early life may play a role in the development of the immune system and inception of asthma. To describe the house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentrations in bedroom dust during early life and to evaluate its associations with HDM sensitization, wheezing, and asthma, from birth to school age, in 5 geographically spread European birth cohorts. We included 4334 children from INMA-Menorca (Spain), BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and MAS (Germany), and PIAMA-NHS (the Netherlands). Dust samples were collected from bedrooms during early life and analyzed for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f1). HDM concentrations were divided into four categories. Sensitization was determined by specific IgE. Wheezing and asthma information up to 8/10 years was collected through questionnaires. We performed mixed-effects logistic regression models and expressed associations as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. House dust mite concentrations varied across cohorts. Mean allergen concentrations were highest in INMA-Menorca (geometric mean (GM) Der p1 = 3.3 μg/g) and LISAplus (GM Der f1 = 2.1 μg/g) and lowest in BAMSE (GM Der p1 = 0.1 μg/g, Der f1 = 0.3 μg/g). Moderate and high HDM concentrations were significantly (P-values < 0.05) associated with 50-90% higher prevalence of HDM sensitization. No significant associations were observed with respiratory outcomes. Our study based on geographically spread regions, a large sample size, and a wide range of allergen concentration shows that HDM allergen concentrations vary across regions and that exposure during early life plays a role in the development of allergic sensitization but not in the development of respiratory outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Der p 1 suppresses indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in dendritic cells from house dust mite-sensitive patients with asthma.

    PubMed

    Maneechotesuwan, Kittipong; Wamanuttajinda, Valla; Kasetsinsombat, Kanda; Huabprasert, Sukit; Yaikwawong, Metha; Barnes, Peter J; Wongkajornsilp, Adisak

    2009-01-01

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan-degrading enzyme in dendritic cells (DCs), mediates an immunosuppressive effect on activated T lymphocytes. However, little is known about the effect of Der p 1 on IDO in human DCs. The aim was to investigate the effect of Der p 1 on the expression and activity of IDO in monocyte-derived DCs from house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive patients with asthma. Using real-time RT-PCR and HPLC, the expression and activity of IDO were assessed in TNF-alpha-induced mature DCs from HDM-sensitive and nonatopic patients with asthma in response to Der p 1 exposure ex vivo. We also monitored the alteration of IDO activity in Der p 1-pulsed DCs after the coincubation with autologous T cells. With a reliance on its protease activity, Der p 1 suppressed functional IDO in DCs from HDM-sensitive patients with asthma but enhanced IDO activity in DCs from nonatopic patients with asthma. This suppression was maintained by the reciprocally induced IL-4 from the coculturing autologous HDM-sensitive T cells. Conversely, the upregulation of IDO activity in Der p 1-pulsed DCs was maintained by IFN-gamma released from autologous nonatopic T cells and the regulatory T-cell subset. Der p 1 pulsation to sensitive DCs failed to raise regulatory T cells but raised progenitor fractions from cloned HDM-sensitive CD4(+) cells through direct contact and soluble mediators. House dust mite-sensitive DCs exposed to Der p 1 downregulated IDO activity and tipped the T(H)1/T(H)2 cytokine balance toward IL-4, resulting in sustainable IDO suppression.

  11. Effects of physical interventions on house dust mite allergen levels in carpet, bed, and upholstery dust in low-income, urban homes.

    PubMed Central

    Vojta, P J; Randels, S P; Stout, J; Muilenberg, M; Burge, H A; Lynn, H; Mitchell, H; O'Connor, G T; Zeldin, D C

    2001-01-01

    House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of physical interventions to mitigate house dust mite allergens in this setting. Homes with high levels of house dust mite allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 > or = 10 microg/g dust by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in the bed, bedroom carpet, and/or upholstered furniture were enrolled in the study. Carpets and upholstered furniture were subjected to a single treatment of either dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming (carpet only) or intensive vacuuming alone. Bed interventions consisted of complete encasement of the mattress, box spring, and pillows plus either weekly professional or in-home laundering of nonencased bedding. Dust samples were collected at baseline and again at 3 days (carpet and upholstery only) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks posttreatment. We compared pretreatment mean allergen concentrations and loads to posttreatment values and performed between-group analyses after adjusting for differences in the pretreatment means. Both dry steam cleaning plus vacuuming and vacuuming alone resulted in a significant reduction in carpet house dust mite allergen concentration and load (p < 0.05). Levels approached pretreatment values by 4 weeks posttreatment in the intensive vacuuming group, whereas steam cleaning plus vacuuming effected a decrease that persisted for up to 8 weeks. Significant decreases in bed house dust mite allergen concentration and load were obtained in response to encasement and either professional or in-home laundering (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis revealed significantly less postintervention house dust mite allergen load in professionally laundered compared to home-laundered beds (p < 0.05). Intensive vacuuming and dry

  12. Allergic asthma induced in rhesus monkeys by house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae).

    PubMed

    Schelegle, E S; Gershwin, L J; Miller, L A; Fanucchi, M V; Van Winkle, L S; Gerriets, J P; Walby, W F; Omlor, A M; Buckpitt, A R; Tarkington, B K; Wong, V J; Joad, J P; Pinkerton, K B; Wu, R; Evans, M J; Hyde, D M; Plopper, C G

    2001-01-01

    To establish whether allergic asthma could be induced experimentally in a nonhuman primate using a common human allergen, three female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were sensitized with house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) allergen (HDMA) by subcutaneous injection, followed by four intranasal sensitizations, and exposure to allergen aerosol 3 hours per day, 3 days per week for up to 13 weeks. Before aerosol challenge, all three monkeys skin-tested positive for HDMA. During aerosol challenge with HDMA, sensitized monkeys exhibited cough and rapid shallow breathing and increased airway resistance, which was reversed by albuterol aerosol treatment. Compared to nonsensitized monkeys, there was a fourfold reduction in the dose of histamine aerosol necessary to produce a 150% increase in airway resistance in sensitized monkeys. After aerosol challenge, serum levels of histamine were elevated in sensitized monkeys. Sensitized monkeys exhibited increased levels of HDMA-specific IgE in serum, numbers of eosinophils and exfoliated cells within lavage, and elevated CD25 expression on circulating CD4(+) lymphocytes. Intrapulmonary bronchi of sensitized monkeys had focal mucus cell hyperplasia, interstitial infiltrates of eosinophils, and thickening of the basement membrane zone. We conclude that a model of allergic asthma can be induced in rhesus monkeys using a protocol consisting of subcutaneous injection, intranasal instillation, and aerosol challenge with HDMA.

  13. Allergic Asthma Induced in Rhesus Monkeys by House Dust Mite (Dermatophagoides farinae)

    PubMed Central

    Schelegle, Edward S.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Miller, Lisa A.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Gerriets, Joan P.; Walby, William F.; Omlor, Amanda M.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Tarkington, Brian K.; Wong, Viviana J.; Joad, Jesse P.; Pinkerton, Kent B.; Wu, Reen; Evans, Michael J.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Plopper, Charles G.

    2001-01-01

    To establish whether allergic asthma could be induced experimentally in a nonhuman primate using a common human allergen, three female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were sensitized with house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) allergen (HDMA) by subcutaneous injection, followed by four intranasal sensitizations, and exposure to allergen aerosol 3 hours per day, 3 days per week for up to 13 weeks. Before aerosol challenge, all three monkeys skin-tested positive for HDMA. During aerosol challenge with HDMA, sensitized monkeys exhibited cough and rapid shallow breathing and increased airway resistance, which was reversed by albuterol aerosol treatment. Compared to nonsensitized monkeys, there was a fourfold reduction in the dose of histamine aerosol necessary to produce a 150% increase in airway resistance in sensitized monkeys. After aerosol challenge, serum levels of histamine were elevated in sensitized monkeys. Sensitized monkeys exhibited increased levels of HDMA-specific IgE in serum, numbers of eosinophils and exfoliated cells within lavage, and elevated CD25 expression on circulating CD4+ lymphocytes. Intrapulmonary bronchi of sensitized monkeys had focal mucus cell hyperplasia, interstitial infiltrates of eosinophils, and thickening of the basement membrane zone. We conclude that a model of allergic asthma can be induced in rhesus monkeys using a protocol consisting of subcutaneous injection, intranasal instillation, and aerosol challenge with HDMA. PMID:11141508

  14. Allergens in household dust and serological indicators of atopy and sensitization in Detroit children with history-based evidence of asthma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ann Houston; Smith, James Travis; Hudgens, Edward E; Rhoney, Scott; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Hamilton, Robert G; Gallagher, Jane E

    2011-09-01

    Home exposure to allergens is an important factor in the development of sensitization and subsequent exacerbations of allergic asthma. We investigated linkages among allergen exposure, immunological measurements, and asthma by examining (1) reservoir dust allergen levels in homes, (2) associations between presence of allergens in homes and sensitization status of resident children, and (3) associations between asthma status and total IgE, atopy (by Phadiatop), and positive allergen-specific tests. The study protocol was approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) of the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; Westat, Inc.; and the US Environmental Protection Agency Human Research Protocol Office. Data were collected from questionnaires, serum analyses, and household vacuum dust. Children (n = 205) were predominately African American (AA) (85.4%) and 51.6% were asthmatic. Sera from 185 children and home dust samples (n = 141) were analyzed for total and specific IgE antibodies to allergens from cat and dog dander, cockroach, dust mites, mice, rats, and molds. Sixty percent of the homes had detectable levels of three or more dust allergens. The proportions of children with positive allergen-specific IgE tests were dust mite (32%), dog (28%), cat (23%), cockroach (18%), mouse (5%), rat (4%), and molds (24-36%). Children testing positive to a single allergen also had positive responses to other allergens. Those children with positive serum tests for cat, dog, and dust mite lived in homes with detectable levels of cat (51%), dog (90%), and dust mite (Der f 1) (92%) allergens. Correlations between children's specific IgE levels and dust levels were linearly related for dog (p < .04), but not for cat (p = .12) or dust mite (Der f 1) (p = .21). Odds ratios (95% CI) for the associations between asthma and serum-specific IgE were over 1.0 for cat, dog, dust mite (Der f 1), cockroach, and four types of molds. House dust allergen exposure levels, however, exhibited no

  15. Life cycle and reproduction of house-dust mites: environmental factors influencing mite populations.

    PubMed

    Hart, B J

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the life cycle of house-dust mites, as well as environmental factors influencing mite populations, can be exploited in mite control. The most important limiting factor for house-dust-mite populations is air humidity. House-dust mites osmoregulate through the cuticle and therefore require a high ambient air humidity to prevent excessive water loss. In addition, the supracoxal glands actively take up ambient water vapour, and the protonynph stage of the life cycle is resistant to desiccation. Larger house-dust-mite populations are found when the absolute indoor air humidity is above 7 g/kg (45% relative humidity at 20 degrees C). Consequently, ventilation by air-conditioning systems is being developed as a means of control. A number of other aspects of the domestic environment are also being manipulated in an integrated approach to render the habitat less suitable for mites. The potential exists for developing models for house-dust mite populations, environmental characteristics, and the effects of various approaches to control.

  16. Time-dependent distinct roles of Toll-like receptor 4 in a house dust mite-induced asthma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ishii, T; Niikura, Y; Kurata, K; Muroi, M; Tanamoto, K; Nagase, T; Sakaguchi, M; Yamashita, N

    2018-03-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) are a common source of allergens that trigger both allergen-specific and innate immune responses in humans. Here, we examined the effect of allergen concentration and the involvement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the process of sensitization to house dust mite allergens in an HDM extract-induced asthma mouse model. Intranasal administration of HDM extract induced an immunoglobulin E response and eosinophilic inflammation in a dose-dependent manner from 2.5 to 30 μg/dose. In TLR4-knockout mice, the infiltration of eosinophils and neutrophils into the lung was decreased compared with that in wild-type mice in the early phase of inflammation (total of three doses). However, in the late phase of inflammation (total of seven doses), eosinophil infiltration was significantly greater in TLR4-knockout mice than in wild-type mice. This suggests that the roles of TLR4 signaling are different between the early phase and the later phase of HDM allergen-induced inflammation. Thus, innate immune response through TLR4 regulated the response to HDM allergens, and the regulation was altered during the phase of inflammation. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  17. Sensitization to house dust mites in Reykjavik, Iceland, in the absence of domestic exposure to mites.

    PubMed

    Hallas, T E; Gislason, D; Björnsdottir, U S; Jörundsdottir, K B; Janson, C; Luczynska, C M; Gislason, T

    2004-05-01

    House dust mites are common sources of indoor allergens. In Reykjavik, Iceland, 9% of the young adult population had serum-specific IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Sensitization to mites is usually assumed to be due to exposure to house dust mites in the indoor environment. This investigation was carried out to measure the concentrations of house dust mite allergens and to investigate which species of mites were present in beds in Iceland. A total of 197 randomly selected adults were visited at home using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) II Indoor protocol. Dust samples were collected from mattresses for measurement of house dust mite allergen concentrations and to estimate the number and type of house dust mites. Additional samples from mattresses and floors were collected from the homes of 10 patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to D. pteronyssinus. House dust mite allergen concentrations were measured using ELISA and examination of mite species was carried out using microscopy. Climatic parameters were assessed using psychrometer readings in the bedrooms and outdoors. We found two single mite specimens, both D. pteronyssinus, in two dust samples. Mite allergen analyses indicated that two other dust samples had Der f 1 results close to the cut-off of 0.1 microg/g of dust. No samples were positive for Der p 1. In an additional collection of dust from the homes of 10 SPT-positive patients no Dermatophagoides spp. were found. Reykjavik citizens are exposed to extremely low amounts of house dust mite allergens in their homes. Possible alternative sources for sensitization are discussed, such as bird nests, exposure from travelling abroad, or other mites or invertebrates that cross-react with house dust mite allergens. Our findings suggest that exposures other than to house dust mites indoors are possible sources of mite allergen exposure.

  18. An experimental model of allergic asthma in cats sensitized to house dust mite or bermuda grass allergen.

    PubMed

    Norris Reinero, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Roy D; Williams, Kurt J; Leutenegger, Christian M; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2004-10-01

    Animal models are used to mimic human asthma, however, not all models replicate the major characteristics of the human disease. Spontaneous development of asthma with hallmark features similar to humans has been documented to occur with relative frequency in only one animal species, the cat. We hypothesized that we could develop an experimental model of feline asthma using clinically relevant aeroallergens identified from cases of naturally developing feline asthma, and characterize immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes over 1 year. House dust mite (HDMA) and Bermuda grass (BGA) allergen were selected by screening 10 privately owned pet cats with spontaneous asthma using a serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA. Parenteral sensitization and aerosol challenges were used to replicate the naturally developing disease in research cats. The asthmatic phenotype was characterized using intradermal skin testing, serum allergen-specific IgE ELISA, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgG and IgA ELISAs, airway hyperresponsiveness testing, BALF cytology, cytokine profiles using TaqMan PCR, and histopathologic evaluation. Sensitization with HDMA or BGA in cats led to allergen-specific IgE production, allergen-specific serum and BALF IgG and IgA production, airway hyperreactivity, airway eosinophilia, an acute T helper 2 cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and BALF cells, and histologic evidence of airway remodeling. Using clinically relevant aeroallergens to sensitize and challenge the cat provides an additional animal model to study the immunopathophysiologic mechanisms of allergic asthma. Chronic exposure to allergen in the cat leads to a variety of immunologic, physiologic, and pathologic changes that mimic the features seen in human asthma.

  19. Placebo-controlled study of the mite allergen-reducing effect of tannic acid plus benzyl benzoate on carpets in homes of children with house dust mite sensitization and asthma.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanne; Wahn, Julia; Schulz, Gabriele; Sommerfeld, Christine; Wahn, Ulrich

    2002-02-01

    We studied the effect of a spray containing 1% benzyl benzoate, an acaricide, and 1% tannic acid ('Lowal'; a protein-denaturing substance), on concentrations of major allergens from house dust mite (HDM) species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae (Der p 1 and Der f 1, respectively) in carpets. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with crossover design, 30 homes of children with HDM sensitization and asthma were included. All houses showed > or = 400 ng/g of Der p 1 + Der f 1 in carpet dust. The first treatment was performed on day 0 (group 1 active treatment, n = 15; group 2 placebo treatment, n = 15). After 2 and 8 weeks, dust samples were collected for quantification of mite allergens. After a 2-week washout period, the second treatment was performed (group 1 placebo treatment; group 2 active treatment). Again, carpet dust was collected after 2 and 8 weeks. Twenty-two of 30 families completed the trial: 14/15 in group 1 and eight of 15 in group 2. On day 0, there was no significant difference in mite allergen exposure between group 1 and group 2 (1,498 vs. 2,239 ng/g of Der p 1 + Der f 1, respectively). In group 1, the geometric mean for the difference of mite allergen concentration comparing day 0 and week 6 was 196 ng/g (95% CI: -7,161 and 8,401) for the first treatment (active) and 15 ng/g (95% CI: -1,079 and 1,292) for the second treatment (control). In group 2, the difference was 66 ng/g (95% CI: -398 and 1,515) for the first treatment (control) and 609 ng/g (95% CI: 186 and 9,264) for the second treatment (active). Comparing placebo and active treatment in total, there was a significant decrease following placebo treatment after 14 days (p = 0.026). After 8 weeks, active treatment was superior to placebo treatment (p = 0.049), but the allergen reduction achieved was < 20% (median 1,500 ng/g on day 0 vs. 1,250 ng/g after 8 weeks). We conclude that the slight mite allergen reduction on carpets achieved by the treatment with 'Lowal' is

  20. MITE ANTIGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN HOUSE DUST AND THE OCCURRENCE OF WHEEZING IN CHILDREN WITH MITE DUST ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with either D-. farinae or D pteronyssinus antige...

  1. Clinical benefits of treatment with SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet in house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Rehm, D

    2017-10-01

    Treatment with SQ (standardised quality) house dust mite sublingual tablet for 1 year resulted in a decreased probability of having an allergic rhinitis (AR) exacerbation day (from 11% [placebo] to 5% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]) and an increased probability of having a mild AR day (from 16% [placebo] to 34% [SQ house dust mite sublingual tablet]). © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  2. [Detection of mite allergens in the dust of filter-net and air of air-conditioned room].

    PubMed

    Lian, Yu-yin; Liu, Zhi-gang; Wang, Hong-yu; Chai, Cheng-yu; Liu, Xiao-yu

    2007-08-01

    To detect mite allergens in the dust of air conditioner filter-net and floating air in room. Samples were collected from rooms of asthma patient and normal families with or without air conditioner. Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 were determined by two monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. In asthma patient families, the concentration of airborne Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 was (0.23 +/- 0.13), (2.62 +/- 1.08), (0.93 +/- 0.41) ng/m3, and (0.56 +/- 0.25), (4.74 +/- 1.22), (2.33 +/- 0.64) ng/m3 respectively before and after the air conditioner switched on, all showing a significant difference (P < 0.05). In families without asthma patient, the concentration of Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 was (0.33 +/- 0.11), (11.50 +/- 3.08) and (2.10 +/- 0.80) ng/m3, and (0.63 +/- 0.23), (19.80 +/- 4.30) and (3.60 +/- 1.00) ng/m3 respectively before and after the air conditioner switched on, also showing a significant difference (P < 0.05). From the filter-net dust of air conditioner in family with allergic asthma patient, the concentration of Der p1, Der f1 and Der 2 was (0.52 +/- 0.19), (3.34 +/- 0.63), (2.53 +/- 0.65) microg/g dust, while that of normal families was (1.30 +/- 0.35), (5.16 +/- 0.92), (3.47 +/- 1.13) microg/g dust respectively. The concentration of Der f1 and Der 2 at both asthma families and normal families was higher than 2 microg/g, an allergen concentration threshold. Mite allergens exist in the filter-net dust of air conditioner, which may be an important source of indoor allergens and a cause of the increasing prevalence of allergic asthma.

  3. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    MedlinePlus

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  4. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth W.

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collectedmore » in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.« less

  5. Environmental interventions for mite-induced asthma: a journey between systematic reviews, contrasting evidence and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, G; Pinter, E

    2013-05-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are one of the most important sources of indoor allergens worldwide. Exposure to high environmental levels of dust mite allergen is associated with an increased risk of sensitization, asthma and deterioration of lung function. On the basis of these data, it would be logical to assume that asthmatic patients with mite allergy could benefit from a reduction of exposure to these allergens. Several environmental prophylactic actions against HDM, either physical or chemical have been tried, alone or in different combinations. However, a recent Cochrane Systematic Review did not detect specific clinical benefits from the use of prophylactic environmental measures in asthmatic patients sensitive to HDM and concluded that such measures can no longer be recommended as they are ineffective. This paper presents the results of a web-based questionnaire, administered to more than 200 Italian paediatricians, and shows that physicians' behaviour in real life is very far from SR conclusions. It also summarizes the indications of the most authoritative guidelines, highlighting some contrasting evidence and some significant weaknesses of the SR, that could make the final conclusions at least uncertain. In the light of these findings, it seems that the recent Cochrane SR cannot be considered the definitive document on the uselessness of environmental prevention of mite-related asthma.

  6. Association between HLA genes and dust mite sensitivity in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    da Costa Lima Caniatti, Marcela Caleffi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Guilherme, Ana Lúcia Falavigna; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie

    2017-02-01

    Type I hypersensitivity, also known as IgE-mediated allergy, is a complex, multifactorial condition whose onset and severity are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Mite allergens stimulate the production of humoral response (IgE), especially in children, which is closely involved in atopic asthma and rhinitis. This study aimed to investigate the association between HLA class I (-A, -B, and -C), and HLA class II (-DRB1) genes in individuals sensitive to dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, or Blomia tropicalis) and mite-insensitive controls. 396 participants were grouped as mite-sensitive and mite-insensitive according to immediate hypersensitivity as determined by skin-prick tests, and to HLA genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO). After chi-square heterogeneity testing no significant differences were observed in HLA-A, B, and C genes, except for the HLA-DRB1 locus, which, showed a negative association for DRB1∗04, between mite-sensitive and mite-insensitive individuals. In high resolution, DRB1∗04:11 allele was significantly different from all other results (P=0.0042, OR=0.26, and 95%CI=0.09-0.70). The analysis stratified by etiologic agent confirmed these associations. Our results suggest a possible association between HLA-DRB1 genes and hypersensitivity to dust mites. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The relative allergenicity of Stachybotrys chartarum compared to house dust mite extracts in a mouse model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. The authors compared the ability of the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum (SCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to i...

  8. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  9. The effect of encasings on quality of life in adult house dust mite allergic patients with rhinitis, asthma and/or atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Terreehorst, I; Duivenvoorden, H J; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; Oosting, A J; de Monchy, J G R; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; van Wijk, R Gerth

    2005-07-01

    Environmental control has been put forward as an integral part of the management of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in sensitized patients. To validate this statement allergic disorders involved in HDM allergy--allergic asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS)--should be taken together and studied in terms of the efficacy of environmental control. Because a generic quality of life questionnaire exceeds the border of disease, this may be used as major outcome parameter. To study the effects of bedding encasings in HDM allergic patients with asthma, rhinitis and AEDS. A total of 224 adult HDM allergic patients with rhinitis and/or asthma and/or dermatitis were randomly allocated impermeable or nonimpermeable encasings for mattress, pillow and duvet. Short form 36 (SF-36) was filled in at baseline and after 12 months. Lower physical (P = 0.01) and emotional (P < 0.001) sumscores were seen in females. Also, the presence of asthma resulted in lower physical sumscore (P = 0.01). However, no effect was seen of encasings on either sumscore. Bedding encasings do not improve quality of life in a mixed population of subjects with combinations with rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis and sensitized to HDMs.

  10. House dust mite-induced asthma causes oxidative damage and DNA double-strand breaks in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tze Khee; Loh, Xin Yi; Peh, Hong Yong; Tan, W N Felicia; Tan, W S Daniel; Li, Na; Tay, Ian J J; Wong, W S Fred; Engelward, Bevin P

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is related to airway inflammation and oxidative stress. High levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can induce cytotoxic DNA damage. Nevertheless, little is known about the possible role of allergen-induced DNA damage and DNA repair as modulators of asthma-associated pathology. We sought to study DNA damage and DNA damage responses induced by house dust mite (HDM) in vivo and in vitro. We measured DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), DNA repair proteins, and apoptosis in an HDM-induced allergic asthma model and in lung samples from asthmatic patients. To study DNA repair, we treated mice with the DSB repair inhibitor NU7441. To study the direct DNA-damaging effect of HDM on human bronchial epithelial cells, we exposed BEAS-2B cells to HDM and measured DNA damage and reactive oxygen species levels. HDM challenge increased lung levels of oxidative damage to proteins (3-nitrotyrosine), lipids (8-isoprostane), and nucleic acid (8-oxoguanine). Immunohistochemical evidence for HDM-induced DNA DSBs was revealed by increased levels of the DSB marker γ Histone 2AX (H2AX) foci in bronchial epithelium. BEAS-2B cells exposed to HDM showed enhanced DNA damage, as measured by using the comet assay and γH2AX staining. In lung tissue from human patients with asthma, we observed increased levels of DNA repair proteins and apoptosis, as shown by caspase-3 cleavage, caspase-activated DNase levels, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining. Notably, NU7441 augmented DNA damage and cytokine production in the bronchial epithelium and apoptosis in the allergic airway, implicating DSBs as an underlying driver of asthma pathophysiology. This work calls attention to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and HDM-induced cytotoxicity and to a potential role for DNA repair as a modulator of asthma-associated pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of a cluster specific immunotherapy in children with bronchial asthma and mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Schubert, R; Eickmeier, O; Garn, H; Baer, P C; Mueller, T; Schulze, J; Rose, M A; Rosewich, M; Renz, H; Zielen, S

    2009-01-01

    Cluster specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a modern form of allergen immunotherapy allowing safe administration of high allergen doses in a short time interval compared to classic SIT. In the current study, we investigated the safety profile and immunological effect of cluster SIT in children with allergic asthma due to house dust mite allergy. A total of 34 children (6-18 years) with allergic asthma were assigned to cluster (n = 22) or classic SIT (n = 12). To achieve a maintenance dose of allergen extract, cluster patients received 14 injections of house dust mite allergen within 6 weeks, whereas the classic SIT group received 14 injections within 14 weeks. Safety was monitored by recording adverse events. Immunogenicity was measured by specific IgG(Mite) and IgG4(Mite), by antibody-blocking properties on basophil activation, and by the T cell subset transcription factors Foxp3, T-bet, and GATA-3. There were no significant differences in local and systemic side effects between the two groups. In the cluster group, serum levels of specific IgG(Mite) (p < 0.001) and specific IgG4(Mite) (p < 0.001) significantly increased after 8 weeks, while it took 12 weeks in the classic SIT group. These data were confirmed by blocking CD63 expression as well as release of cysteinyl leukotrienes after in vitro basophil stimulation. No differences in transcription factor expression were found in the two groups. Cluster SIT is safe in children. Additionally, our data demonstrated an even more rapid induction of specific immune tolerance. Cluster SIT is an attractive alternative to conventional up-dosing schedules with fewer consultations for the patients. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Influence of environmental characteristics and climatic factors on mites in the dust of air-conditioner filters.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Liu, Z G; Ran, P X; Wang, B

    2009-12-01

    To investigate mites in the dust of air-conditioner filters (MACF) in China, a total of 652 dust samples were collected from six cities: Guangzhou (n = 129), Nanchang (n = 127), Shanghai (n = 113), Xian (n = 93), Beijing (n = 93), and Shenyang (n = 79). Tarsonemus granarius was the most dominant species (87.2%). Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae only represented 7.0 and 3.0% of total mites, respectively. With latitude increasing, both mite occurrence rate (P < 0.001) and density (mites/g dust) (P < 0.001) were significantly decreasing. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that the annual average temperature and minimum temperature in different cities had dominant influences on MACF density. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of MACF was positively associated with air-conditioner age, utilization time and power. Wall and window type air-conditioner had higher risk of finding MACF than the floor type air-conditioner. As far as the cleaning interval time of ACF was concerned, higher risk ratio and the highest density of MACF were found in the time stage of >3, < or =12 months. It was also suggested that house type could influence the presence of MACF. A negative association between the house floor and the MACF prevalence was found as well. Mites present in the dust of air-conditioner filters are potential indoor threat to asthma and allergy sufferers. In this study, we find that the storage mite Tarsonemus granarius is the predominant species of mites in the dust of air-conditioner filters (MACF). Thus, the possible clinical importance of T. granarius should cause more our attentions in the future. The abundance and distribution of MACF are also found significantly varied in different climatic regions of China. When we try to assess the possible risk of MACF, more attentions should be focused on subtropical region than temperate region. The influence analysis of environmental characteristics on the prevalence of

  13. Vaccination against IL-33 Inhibits Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation in a House Dust Mite Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ying; Adner, Mikael; Hellman, Lars; Nilsson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    In several clinical and experimental studies IL-33 and its receptor have been found to play important roles in the development of asthma and allergic airway inflammation. We evaluated the effects of vaccination against IL-33 in a mouse model of airway inflammation induced by house dust mite (HDM) allergen. Balb/c mice received the IL-33 vaccine subcutaneously, followed by intranasal administration of HDM for up to six weeks. Vaccination against IL-33 induced high titers of specific anti-IL-33 IgG antibodies that inhibited HDM-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in the conducting airways and tissue damping. The vaccination also attenuated the HDM-induced elevation in the numbers of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and suppressed the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airways. Furthermore, the levels of IL-17A, IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in lung tissue homogenates were reduced by vaccination against IL-33. These observations demonstrate that vaccination against IL-33 inhibits HDM-induced development of AHR, airway inflammation and production of inflammatory cytokines. The results also indicate an important role of IL-33 in the regulation of AHR of the distal lung compartments. Thus, administration of such a vaccine is potentially an effective therapeutic tool for treating allergic asthma. PMID:26214807

  14. The Allergen Der p3 from House Dust Mite Stimulates Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels and Mast Cell Migration through PAR4 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ping; Nelson, Charmaine; Kramer, Holger; Parekh, Anant B

    2018-04-19

    The house dust mite is the principal source of perennial aeroallergens in man. How these allergens activate innate and adaptive immunity is unclear, and therefore, there are no therapies targeting mite allergens. Here, we show that house dust mite extract activates store-operated Ca 2+ channels, a common signaling module in numerous cell types in the lung. Activation of channel pore-forming Orai1 subunits by mite extract requires gating by STIM1 proteins. Although mite extract stimulates both protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR2) and PAR4 receptors, Ca 2+ influx is more tightly coupled to the PAR4 pathway. We identify a major role for the serine protease allergen Der p3 in stimulating Orai1 channels and show that a therapy involving sub-maximal inhibition of both Der p3 and Orai1 channels suppresses mast cell activation to house dust mite. Our results reveal Der p3 as an important aeroallergen that activates Ca 2+ channels and suggest a therapeutic strategy for treating mite-induced asthma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the Allergic Responses Induced by PeniciIlium chrysogenum and House Dust Mite Extracts in a Mouse Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. We compared the ability of the fungal Penicillium chrysogenum (PCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce al...

  16. Effect of a change to mite-free bedding on children with mite-sensitive asthma: a controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Burr, M L; Neale, E; Dean, B V; Verrier-Jones, E R

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-one children with mite-sensitive asthma took part in a crossover randomised controlled trial of mite-free bedding. Each child was issued with a new sleeping bag and pillow for a month, and twice-daily peak flow readings were compared with those obtained during a month in the child's ordinary bedding. Seventeen of the children had higher mean peak flow readings during the period in the mite-free bedding (p < 0.01). The overall improvement was only modest, however, and some mites had appeared in most of the bedding by the end of the trial. New bedding may be helpful to patients with mite-sensitive asthma, but methods are needed to prevent colonisation by mites. PMID:7001668

  17. Antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    PubMed

    Homma, R; Ando, T; Miyahara, A; Kimura, H; Ito, G; Uesato, N; Ino, Y; Iwaki, M

    1994-12-01

    We have examined the antigenic relationship between the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that there was a very weak antigenic cross-reactivity between these different suborder of mites but that this cross-reactivity was not attributed to D. farinaes major allergen's, Der fI and Der fII. These results suggest that P. persimilis might scarcely provoke allergic symptoms in patients sensitized to house dust mites.

  18. Anti-mite measurements in mite-sensitive adult asthma. A controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Burr, M L; St Leger, A S; Neale, E

    1976-02-14

    A cross-over controlled trial has been conducted among 32 adult patients with mite-sensitive asthma. The bedclothes and pillows of each subject were laundered and vacuum-cleaned and a plastic cover applied to the mattress for six weeks in an attempt to reduce exposure to mites. No improvement in daily peak-flow reading or drug usage was found in comparison with a control period.

  19. House-Dust Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    House-dust allergy is a common cause of perennial allergic rhinitis and extrinsic asthma. Symptoms tend to be worse when the patient is in bed. A positive skin test properly performed and interpreted confirms the diagnosis. The house-dust mite is the most important antigenic component of house-dust. Treatment consists of environmental control directed at reducing the mite content of bedroom dust, plus control of symptoms with drugs. Immunotherapy is controversial. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21286201

  20. Effect of bedding control on amount of house dust mite allergens, asthma symptoms, and peak expiratory flow rate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inn-Sook

    2003-04-30

    This quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of bedding control on the amount of house dust mite (HDM) allergens, asthma symptoms, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in asthmatics sensitive to HDMs. The subjects in the study were drawn from patients receiving treatment at the allergy clinics of three university-affiliated hospitals in Seoul. Forty-two patients without prior practice of the bedding control used in this study were selected. They commonly showed bronchial asthma caused by HDMs, and exhibited strong positive points (more than 3 points) in skin prick test (D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus), and positive response in both fluoro-allergosorbent test (FAST), and PC20 methacholine test. Of the subjects, alternatively, 22 were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to control group. Bedding control consisted of the use of outer cotton covers, boiling them for 10 minutes fortnightly, and disinfecting bedding by sunlight fortnightly. The experimental group was under bedding control for 4 weeks. The data were collected from October 2000 to January 2001. The results were as follows: 1. After bedding control, the total amount of HDM allergens decreased significantly in the experimental group. However there was no significant difference in the decrease of the amount of HDM allergens between the two groups. 2. Of the asthma symptoms, there was significant difference only in the decrease of the frequency of dyspnea, and in the increase of sleeping disturbance between the two groups after bedding control. 3. After bedding control, PEFR increased in the experimental group whereas it decreased in the control group. However, neither change was significant. The above findings indicate that bedding control improved several asthma symptoms in asthmatics sensitive to HDMs. Accordingly, we suggest that bedding control is adopted as a useful nursing intervention in the field.

  1. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Johannes L.M.; Barcari, Elena; Hradecky, Marc; Trefz, Simone; Tolasch, Till; Gantert, Cornelia; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897), the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z)-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z)-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z)-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies. PMID:26462831

  2. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Thorkil E

    2010-05-01

    Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented in accordance with known physical laws. The occasional finding of higher concentrations is the result of synchronized populations of the mites developing outdoors and being passively transported into our homes by wind and dust. The hypothesis explains why we find mites in our homes but nonetheless have no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy.

  3. Assessing the efficacy of a novel temperature and humidity control machine to minimize house dust mite allergen exposure and clinical symptoms in allergic rhinitis children sensitized to dust mites: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Padungpak, Savitree; Luecha, Orawin; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Sasisakulporn, Cherapat; Vilaiyuk, Soamarat; Monyakul, Veerapol; Benjaponpitak, Suwat

    2015-06-01

    House dust mite avoidance is advised in dust mite sensitized patients to decrease the risk to develop allergic symptoms. Maintaining a relative humidity (RH) of less than 50% in households is recommended to prevent dust mite proliferation. To investigate the efficacy of a novel temperature and humidity machine to control the level of dust mite allergens and total nasal symptom score (TNSS) in dust mite sensitized allergic rhinitis children. Children (8-15 years) with dust mite sensitized persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) were enrolled. The temperature and humidity control machine was installed in the bedroom where the enrolled children stayed for 6 months. TNSS was assessed before and every month after machine set up and the level of dust mite allergen (Der p 1 and Der f 1) from the mattress were measured before and every 2 months after machine set up using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 7 children were enrolled. Noticeable reduction of Der f 1 was observed as early as 2 months after installing the machine, but proper significant differences appeared 4 months after and remained low until the end of the experiment (p <0.05). Although no correlation was observed between TNSS and the level of dust mite allergens, there was a significant reduction in TNSS at 2 and 4 months (p <0.05) and 70% of the patients were able to stop using their intranasal corticosteroids by the end of the experiment. The level of house dust mite in mattresses was significantly reduced after using the temperature and humidity control machine. This machine may be used as an effective tool to control clinical symptoms of dust mite sensitized AR children.

  4. Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill

    2012-07-11

    House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contactmore » residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.« less

  5. Molecular identification of house dust mites and storage mites.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shew Fung; Chong, Ai Ling; Mak, Joon Wah; Tan, Jessie; Ling, Suk Jiun; Ho, Tze Ming

    2011-10-01

    Mites are known causes of allergic diseases. Currently, identification of mites based on morphology is difficult if only one mite is isolated from a (dust) sample, or when only one gender is found, or when the specimen is not intact especially with the loss of the legs. The purpose of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the ITS2 gene, to complement the morphological data for the identification of mites to the species level. For this, six species were cultured: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Aleuroglyphus ovatus and Glycycometus malaysiensis. Genomic DNA of the mites was extracted, quantified, amplified and digested individually with restriction enzymes. Hinf I and Ple I differentiated the restriction patterns of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Bfa I and Alu I enzymes differentiated B. tropicalis and G. malaysiensis. Ple I enzyme was useful for the differentiation between T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus. Bfa I was useful for the differentiation of G. malaysiensis from the rest of the species. In conclusion, different species of mites can be differentiated using PCR-RFLP of ITS2 region. With the established PCR-RFLP method in this study, identification of these mites to the species level is possible even if complete and intact adult specimens of both sexes are not available. As no study to date has reported PCR-RFLP method for the identification of domestic mites, the established method should be validated for the identification of other species of mites that were not included in this study.

  6. Hypersensitivity to house dust mite and cockroach is the most common allergy in north of iran.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Javad; Khademloo, Mohammad; Saffar, Mohammad Jafar; Rafiei, Alireza; Masiha, Farzad

    2010-12-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are among the most common diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to detect, by skin prick test, aeroallergens in allergic patients in Sari, Mazandaran in north of Iran. This is a prospective study of skin prick test of aeroallergens in asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination with clinical diagnosis. Three hundred and seventy five cases aged between 5 to 50 years, were referred to Tooba and Boo-Ali allergic centers of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences between December 2006 and July 2009. The aeroallergens studied included house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), cockroaches, feather, aspergillus, Alternaria, pigweed, nettle, oak and maple. Of the studied individuals, 175 cases were males (46.7%) and 200 were females (53.3%), of which 156 (n=41.5%) reacted to allergen extracts. In asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination, the respective positive percentages were 26.6%, 22.9%, and 32.6% for Dermatophagoides farinae; 26.6%, 25.3%, and 23.3% for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; 12.7%, 17.4%, and 11.6% for cockroaches and 16.5%, 4.7%, and 7.0% for the feather. Other allergens were positive up to 5 percent. Total IgE levels were elevated in 56.4%, 53% and 60.5% of asthmatic, allergic rhinitis and the combination group, respectively. Eosinophils count was elevated in 40.5%, 33.2% and 37.2% of the same groups, respectively. The hypersensitivity to house dust mites is very common in north of Iran which may be attributed to the warm and humid weather of this area.

  7. Indoor air pollution and childhood asthma: effective environmental interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R A

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollutants such as tobacco smoke and dust mites may exacerbate childhood asthma. Environmental interventions to reduce exposures to these pollutants can help prevent exacerbations of the disease. Among the most important interventions is the elimination of environmental tobacco smoke from the environments of children with asthma. However, the effectiveness of reducing asthmatic children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the severity of their symptoms has not yet been systematically evaluated. Dust mite reduction is another helpful environmental intervention. This can be achieved by enclosing the child's mattresses, blankets, and pillows in zippered polyurethane-coated casings. Primary prevention of asthma is not as well understood. It is anticipated that efforts to reduce smoking during pregnancy could reduce the incidence of asthma in children. European studies have suggested that reducing exposure to food and house dust mite antigens during lactation and for the first 12 months of life diminishes the development of allergic disorders in infants with high total IgE in the cord blood and a family history of atopy. Many children with asthma and their families are not receiving adequate counseling about environmental interventions from health care providers or other sources. PMID:8549490

  8. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with short-term beta-glucuronidase therapy in children with chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma due to dust mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Galli, E; Bassi, M S; Mora, E; Martelli, M; Gianni, S; Auricchio, G; Arabito, E; Rossi, P

    2006-01-01

    Enzyme potentiated desensitization, in which beta-glucuronidase (BG) is administered with low doses of mixed allergens, was proposed in the 1970s for specific immunotherapy. The BG currently commercially available in a purified and standardized preparation devoid of any allergen has been suggested as a regulator in the allergic immune response, acting on the cytokine-network of type 2 helper T cells. A double-blind trial with a single-dose of BG proved effective in preventing symptoms in adult patients with rhinoconjunctivitis due to grass pollens. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to confirm the safety and effectiveness of double-dose intradermal BG immunotherapy in preventing symptoms in children suffering from chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma due to dust mite. We randomized 125 children with dust-mite related chronic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma to the BG treated group (67) or the placebo group (58). All patients were screened before treatment (TO), at BG or placebo administration (T1 and T3), and at 3 and 9 months after T1 (T2 and T4). Drug intake and bronchial, nasal and ocular symptoms were recorded in a diary. Patients in both groups completed the study and BG treatment was well tolerated without side effects. Significant differences in symptoms were observed, in particular for conjunctivitis (P= .008). The total drug intake for allergic symptoms was significantly lower in the treated group than in the placebo group (P<. 01). BG immunotherapy is efficacious, safe, and well tolerated in allergic children. Moreover, good compliance with the administration of 2 doses per year and the lack of significant side effects makes the benefit/risk ratio of this treatment particularly favorable.

  9. Different sensitization to storage mites depending on the co-exposure to house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Morales, María; Iraola, Victor; Leonor, José Ramón; Bartra, Joan; Rodríguez, Fernando; Boquete, Manuel; Huertas, Ángel Julio; Paniagua, María Josefa; Pinto, Helder; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2015-01-01

    Co-sensitization to house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs) is very frequent, although the clinical relevance is not well established. To describe the pattern of sensitization and immunologic characterization of patients with positive skin prick test reactions to HDMs and SMs in 4 areas of Spain, selected according to high exposure to HDMs and variable exposure to SMs. One hundred sixty-nine individuals with positive skin prick test reactions to HDMs and SMs were included. Specific IgE levels to different mite species and to Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10 were determined. Immunoblots to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Lepidoglyphus destructor, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae extracts were carried out, and allergograms were obtained. Results of different areas were compared. A high rate of polysensitization to SMs was observed, although 12% of participants did not have specific IgE to any SM species. Sensitization to Dermatophagoides species, Der p 2, and L destructor were predominant, although significant differences were observed among areas depending on the grade of exposure to SMs. In areas with high exposure, the SM allergogram showed greater recognition of group 2 allergen. Sensitization patterns to SMs in patients sensitized to HDMs and SMs differ depending on the exposure to SMs. Sensitization, mainly to L destructor, seems to exist in areas with high exposure, possibly with group 2 allergens mainly involved. However, in areas with low SM populations, sensitizations observed by skin prick testing appear to be related to HDM exposure. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Pollen Counts Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search ... to dust mites, dander from dogs or cats, pollen and other environmental allergens can trigger an asthma ...

  11. Variability in Population Density of House Dust Mites of Bitlis and Muş, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aykut, M; Erman, O K; Doğan, S

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the number of house dust mites/g dust and different physical and environmental variables. A total of 1,040 house dust samples were collected from houses in Bitlis and Muş Provinces, Turkey, between May 2010 and February 2012. Overall, 751 (72.2%) of dust samples were mite positive. The number of mites/g dust varied between 20 and 1,840 in mite-positive houses. A significant correlation was detected between mean number of mites and altitude of houses, frequency of monthly vacuum cleaning, number of individuals in the household, and relative humidity. No association was found between the number of mites and temperature, type of heating, existence of allergic diseases, age and structure of houses. A maximum number of mites were detected in summer and a minimum number was detected in autumn. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Group 1 and 2 Dermatophagoides house dust mite allergens in the microenvironment of cats.

    PubMed

    Loft, Klaus Earl; Rosser, Edmund J

    2010-04-01

    House dust mite allergens (HDMAs) are some of the most common allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans and dogs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HDMAs could be detected in cat-associated household microenvironments. From 50 cat-only households with 95 cats, dust samples were collected by vacuuming for 2 min m(-2) from three areas where cats slept or rested regularly from September to October 2006. Relative humidity and temperature were measured in each household using a data logger. Each owner completed a questionnaire on potential factors that might influence the prevalence of house dust mites (HDMs). Dust samples were analysed utilizing an ELISA for Der p 1, Der f 1 and HDM group 2 allergens. In 38 of 50 households there was greater than 2 microg g(-1) of dust for at least one HDMA. Using stepwise logistic regression, factors associated with increased HDMA levels included: free-standing houses, number of humans in household, longhaired cats and age of the cat. Factors associated with decreased HDMA concentrations included: forced air heating and central air conditioning, less than 50% carpeting of the home, use of flea control, cats suffering from dermatological disease and the average temperature of the household. Many sleeping/resting areas utilized by cats contain sufficiently high levels of HDMAs to be potential sources of sensitization. This finding should lead to further determination of the role of HDMs in cats suffering from putative allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis or asthma.

  13. Prevalence of house dust mites and dermatophagoides group 1 antigens collected from bedding, skin and hair coat of dogs in south-west England.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Anna P; Foster, Aiden P; Hart, Barbara J; Helps, Chris R; Shaw, Susan E

    2005-02-01

    The house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) and D. pteronyssinus (Dpt) are commonly implicated as allergens causing canine atopic dermatitis in the UK. However, there are few studies that characterize the exposure of UK pet dogs to these mites. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of the mite species on the skin, hair coat and bedding of a population of pet dogs. Dust samples (n = 68) were collected from both dogs and their beds using a standardized vacuuming technique and stored at -20 degrees C. Mites were identified using accepted morphological criteria. House dust mite allergen concentrations were assayed using standardized ELISA for Dpt and Df group 1 allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1). Mites were identified in 15/68 samples (22%) and Dpt was the most common. Df mites were not present. Der p 1 allergens were detected in 60% of samples, and Der f 1 in 6% of samples. There were no significant differences between the number of Der p 1 positive samples from dogs and the number of those from their bedding, or between the average Der p 1 concentrations from dogs and the number of those from their bedding. Contrary to studies elsewhere in Europe and the USA, these findings support studies of human asthma patients in the UK, where exposure to Df is rare, but to Dpt is common. As the prevalence of positive intradermal and serological reactions to Df in atopic dogs is high, further investigations are warranted to clarify true Df hypersensitivity or potential immunological cross-reactivity between mite allergens.

  14. Dust Mites Population in Indoor Houses of Suspected Allergic Patients of South Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhruba; Dutta, B. K.; Singh, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In the present study, quality and quantity of indoor dust mites was evaluated at the residence of 150 atopic allergic patients from four different districts of South Assam. Methods. Suspected patients with case history of allergic disease were selected for indoor survey. Dust samples (500 mg) were collected from the selected patient's house and were analyzed using standard methods. Results. About 60% of the selected patients were found suffering from respiratory disorders and rest 40% from skin allergy. The dominant mites recorded from indoor dust samples were Dermatophagoides followed by Blomia, Acarus, and Cheyletus while Caloglyphus was recorded in least number. The distribution of mites on the basis of housing pattern indicates that RCC type of buildings supports maximum dust mite's population followed by Assam type (semi-RCC) buildings, and the lowest count was observed in wooden houses. Environmental factors like temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity are found to determine the indoor mite's population. Severity of allergic attack in some of the typical cases was found to be proportional to the allergen load of mites in the dust samples. Conclusions. The economic status, housing pattern, and local environmental factors determine the diversity and abundance of dust mites in indoor environment. PMID:23724231

  15. Pyroglyphid mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity in dust from hospital mattresses.

    PubMed

    v d Lustgraaf, B; Jorde, W

    1977-12-01

    Dust from mattresses of different composition and age was analysed for mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity. The mites of the genus Demodex were the most abundant (58.2 per cent). Also pyroglyphid mites occurred commonly (36.6 per cent). Pyroglyphid mites were present in small numbers (mean: 1 specimen/0.2 g of dust) in 12 out of the 17 older polyester-foam mattresses. The 11 cotton-horsechair mattresses and the newly used polyester-foam mattresses (three tested) were without them. The dust from the cotton-horsehair mattresses had a significantly higher allergenic activity than from those of polyester-foam. Xerophilic fungi were isolated in three out of 31 mattresses. The species isolated belonged to the genus Aspergillus and Eurotium. E. repens occurred most frequently. Disinfection of mattresses was suggested to have a negative influence on the occurrence of mites and fungi.

  16. Treating Asthma in Children Ages 12 and Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergy-induced asthma Your doctor may recommend allergy shots (immunotherapy) if an allergy induces asthma attacks and ... dust mites or pollens. The purpose of allergy shots is to build up a tolerance by gradually ...

  17. Mould-devouring mites differ in guanine excretion from dust-eating Acari, a possible error source in mite allergen exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Kort, H S; Schober, G; Koren, L G; Scharringa, J

    1997-08-01

    Measurement of guanine in dust proved a good assessment of mite allergen exposure. Exposure to mite allergens may lead to atopic inflictions. In a semi-natural test system the development of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart) and Glycyphagus domesticus (De Geer), and the presence of their guanine excretion, was examined in a dust-soiled and mouldy environment. Mites were counted after heat-escape, and guanine was detected by means of capillary zone electrophoresis. For each species, 50 mites randomly taken, were inoculated on soiled test-surfaces of 10 x 10 cm. Rough wooden board, gypsum board, tufted carpet, and a self-made mattress representing wall surfaces and home-textiles, respectively, were used. Eight weeks after inoculation with mites only, the surfaces were all mould ridden, and mite and guanine measurements were taken. The Spearman rank correlation test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used in statistical analysis. The confidence limit was set at 1%. Among the various test-surfaces, no differences were found regarding total mite numbers and amount of guanine present (P > 0.01). For the dust-eating mite D. pteronyssinus, total mite numbers correlated with the amount of guanine present (P = 0.002) on all inoculated surfaces, indicating feeding on the protein-rich dust. For the mould devouring mite G. domesticus, however, no such correlation was found (P = 0.72). Apparently, they mainly consumed fungal carbohydrates during this experiment. The allergological relevance of storage mites has been under discussion for the last 25 years. In humid homes, these mites will feed almost exclusively on fungi and may produce allergenic or irritating substances different from those arising on protein-rich laboratory media used in allergen extract production or present in carpets, bedding and furniture.

  18. Mite fauna and fungal flora in house dust from homes of asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Ishii, A; Takaoka, M; Ichinoe, M; Kabasawa, Y; Ouchi, T

    1979-12-01

    Mite fauna and fungal flora in the house dust from homes of asthmatic children with positive and negative skin test to house dust allergen and non-asthmatic controls were examined. There was no conspicuous difference in mite species distribution among the three groups. Pyroglyphid mites dominate the mite fauna in house dust more than half of which being Dermatophagoides: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. There was no statistically significant difference in numbers between the two species and either species could dominate depending on the conditions of the individual houses. The average number of acarina in 0.5 g of fine dust did not differ statistically among the three groups; however, mite number per square meter floor differed between patients with positive skin test and negative skin test. The results suggest that house-cleaning might influence the possible sensitization of children. The genetic distribution of mould fungi in house dust was largely similar to that of airborne fungi. The average number of fungal colonies detected in 0.5 g of dust did not differ statistically among the three groups. Wallemia with its minute spores may cause sensitization but has so far been insufficiently investigated.

  19. House dust mites on skin, clothes, and bedding of atopic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Teplitsky, Valery; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Babai, Ilan; Dalal, Ilan; Cohen, Rifka; Tanay, Amir

    2008-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic condition in children, often associated with a positive skin reaction to house dust mite allergens. To determine the presence of house dust mites on the skin, clothes, and bedding of patients with atopic dermatitis. Nineteen patients with atopic dermatitis were examined during a 2-year period. Samples from affected and healthy skin surfaces were obtained with adhesive tape, and dust samples from bedding and clothes were collected with a vacuum cleaner at the start of the study and 3-6 weeks later, and examined for the presence of house dust mites. The findings were compared with those of 21 healthy controls. The most common mite species on skin were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, which were found in nine patients and three controls. The patient group showed a significantly larger percentage of samples with mites than did the control group (34.9% and 7.9%, respectively) (P < 0.001), and a significantly larger percentage of individuals with at least one positive sample (84.2% and 14.2%, respectively) (P < 0.0001). No correlation was found between the number of mites on the skin and clothes/bedding of patients, or between patients and controls with regard to the number of mites on the clothes and bedding. Patients with atopic dermatitis showed a higher prevalence of mites on their skin than did healthy individuals, which could be involved in allergic sensitization and disease exacerbation.

  20. Atopy patch test reactions to house dust mites in patients with scabies.

    PubMed

    Taşkapan, Oktay; Harmanyeri, Yavuz

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the house dust and the scabies mites are related phylogenetically. We therefore performed atopy patch tests with house dust mite antigens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) and/or Dermatophagoides farinae (Df)) in scabies patients without atopy and healthy controls. We studied 25 men with active scabies and 25 healthy controls. Skin prick tests with standardized house dust mite extract were performed for all patients and controls. An intradermal test procedure was carried out in skin prick test-negative patients, and for controls showing positive atopy patch test to Dp and/or Df. While atopy patch tests were performed directly in all healthy controls, patients with scabies were first treated and on the next day, atopy patch tests were performed. Twenty-two of 25 patients with scabies (88%) had skin prick test and/or intradermal test positivity against house dust mites, whereas 17/25 patients (68%) had atopy patch test positivity against house dust mites (Dp and/or Df). There was no statistically significant difference between skin prick test and/or intradermal test positivity and atopy patch test positivity in a regression analysis (p=0.222). The only statistically significant correlation was between atopy patch test positivity and the extent of scabies involvement (p<0.05). Only few of the healthy controls had positive tests. In this study, we have shown that a positive atopy patch test to house dust mite antigens is not specific for patients with atopic dermatitis, but also occurs in scabies patients without a history of atopic dermatitis.

  1. Dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergen concentrations in homes of asthmatic children in the northeastern United States: impact of socioeconomic factors and population density.

    PubMed Central

    Leaderer, Brian P; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Holford, Theodore; Gold, Diane R; Kim, Young; Jankun, Thomas; Ren, Ping; McSharry Je, Jean-ellen; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Chapman, Martin D; Bracken, Michael B

    2002-01-01

    Home exposures to aeroallergens are an important environmental factor in allergic sensitization and in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We assessed variations in home concentrations of dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens in dust collected in the main living areas of asthmatics' homes by family income, mother's education, dwelling type, population density, household population density, and ethnicity in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts. Dust samples were collected at the time of home interview in 999 homes as part of an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,002 infants and their asthmatic siblings. The analysis employed lower and upper cut points for group 1 dust mite (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10 microg/g), cockroach (> or = 1.0 U/g and > or = 4.0 U/g), cat (> or = 1.0 microg/g and > or = 8.0 ug/g), and dog (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10.0 microg/g) allergens. Subject residences were geocoded to assess population density from the U.S. Census, and multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounding. The portion of homes at the lower cut point for dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens were 46.9%, 24.9%, 42.2%, and 35.6%, respectively; the upper cut point for each of the allergens was reached in 22.4%, 13.4%, 21.0%, and 22.9% of the homes, respectively. In all, 86.0% of the homes had at least one allergen at the lower cut point, and 58.0% had at least one allergen at the upper cut point. Forty-nine percent of the homes had two or more allergens at the lower cut point, and 19.7% had two or more allergens at the upper cut point. Higher education of the mother, higher household income, living in a single-family home in a less densely populated area with fewer people per room, and being a white household were associated with elevated dust mite, cat, and dog allergens and low cockroach allergen. In contrast, low income, living in a multifamily home in a high population density area with a higher occupancy

  2. Sensitization of children in the Stockholm area to house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Nordvall, S L; Eriksson, M; Rylander, E; Schwartz, B

    1988-09-01

    Atopic sensitization of children in the Stockholm area to house dust mites (HDM) was investigated in a case-control study. Sixty children with and 60 without positive skin prick tests for HDM were matched for age and sex. HDM-sensitized children had previously more often lived in other areas known to be mite infested than the control children. Sensitization to mites was related to dampness in the homes, but no significant relationship was found to the type of residence, frequent visits to a summer house in the archipelago or parental smoking. Dust samples from mattresses of the children with the strongest positive reactions to mites in skin prick tests and the respective controls were subjected to an enzyme immunoassay, to measure the content of the major allergens of the Dermatophagoides (D.) species D. pterinyssinus, D. farinae and D. microceras. Mattress dust samples from the beds of HDM-sensitized children contained significantly higher HDM antigen concentrations than those from the beds of controls. Private houses contained significantly more HDM antigens than flats and 10 of 11 homes in which a dampness problem was recognized contained mite antigens. It is postulated that mite infestation is increasing in the area, energy-saving measures creating improved conditions for HDM survival.

  3. Cord blood versus age 5 mononuclear cell proliferation on IgE and asthma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fetal immune responses following exposure of mothers to allergens during pregnancy may influence the subsequent risk of childhood asthma. However, the association of allergen-induced cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) proliferation and cytokine production with later allergic immune responses and asthma has been controversial. Our objective was to compare indoor allergen-induced CBMC with age 5 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation and determine which may be associated with age 5 allergic immune responses and asthma in an inner city cohort. Methods As part of an ongoing cohort study of the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH), CBMCs and age 5 PBMCs were cultured with cockroach, mouse, and dust mite protein extracts. CBMC proliferation and cytokine (IL-5 and IFN-γ) responses, and age 5 PBMC proliferation responses, were compared to anti-cockroach, anti-mouse, and anti-dust mite IgE levels, wheeze, cough, eczema and asthma. Results Correlations between CBMC and age 5 PBMC proliferation in response to cockroach, mouse, and dust mite antigens were nonsignificant. Cockroach-, mouse-, and dust mite-induced CBMC proliferation and cytokine responses were not associated with allergen-specific IgE at ages 2, 3, and 5, or with asthma and eczema at age 5. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, age 5 cockroach-induced PBMC proliferation was associated with anti-cockroach IgE, total IgE, and asthma (p < 0.05). Conclusion In contrast to allergen-induced CBMC proliferation, age 5 cockroach-induced PBMC proliferation was associated with age 5 specific and total IgE, and asthma, in an inner-city cohort where cockroach allergens are prevalent and exposure can be high. PMID:20684781

  4. Assessment of cross-reactivity among five species of house dust and storage mites.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Marsella, Rosanna; Lee, Kenneth W; Esch, Robert E; Farmaki, Rania; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2008-04-01

    In vitro cross-reactivity among two house dust (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus) and three storage (Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor) mites was examined in 20 mite-sensitive dogs with natural occurring atopic dermatitis (group A), 13 high-IgE beagles experimentally sensitized to D. farinae (group B), and five healthy beagles (group C). Intradermal testing (IDT) and serology for allergen-specific IgE demonstrated that co-sensitization for all possible pairs of the five mites was generally 45% or higher among group A dogs. In the same dogs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay cross-inhibition results indicated that each one of D. farinae, A. siro and T. putrescentiae was a strong inhibitor of all the remaining mites, whereas D. pteronyssinus was a strong inhibitor of L. destructor. A high number of positive IDT and serology test results for D. pteronyssinus, A. siro, T. putrescentiae and L. destructor were recorded among group B dogs. No conclusive evidence of exposure to these mites was found upon analysis of dust samples from their environment and their food for the presence of mites and guanine. Also, the number of positive test results was generally higher among group B than among group C dogs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay cross-inhibition revealed that D. farinae was a strong inhibitor of D. pteronyssinus, A. siro and T. putrescentiae. Collectively, these results demonstrated extensive in vitro cross-reactivity among house dust and/or storage mites that can explain false-positive results upon testing of dust mite-sensitive dogs with atopic dermatitis.

  5. Effects of bleach activator, sodium alkyl acyloxybenzene sulfonate, on house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae).

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Kamezaki, Hiroki; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Takaoka, Hiromitsu; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    House dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae) in bedding and clothes are a major allergen. However, house dust mites cannot be killed by general washing conditions under 50 degrees C. Therefore, low-temperature washing conditions must be improved to eliminate house dust mites. Sodium alkyl acyloxybenzene sulfonate (OBS) is a bleach activator that is used to intensify the bleaching effects of some laundry products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of OBS on the elimination of house dust mites in low-temperature washing conditions. D. farinae was soaked in solutions containing different types of OBS for various durations and at various temperatures. The miticidal effects of the various washing conditions were also evaluated for D. farinae. Then sodium lauroyloxybenzene sulfonate (OBS-12) produced the highest D. farinae mortality rate among the OBS solutions that were examined and had a stronger miticidal effect than available chlorine under general washing conditions. OBS exhibited miticidal effects under general washing conditions at low temperatures. Since OBS is already used as an additive in some laundry products to increase the bleaching activity, OBS can be easily used to kill house dust mites under general washing conditions.

  6. House dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for treating eczema.

    PubMed

    Nankervis, Helen; Pynn, Emma V; Boyle, Robert J; Rushton, Lesley; Williams, Hywel C; Hewson, Deanne M; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2015-01-19

    Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that tends to involve skin creases, such as the folds of the elbows or knees; it is an intensely itchy skin condition, which can relapse and remit over time. As many as a third of people with eczema who have a positive test for allergy to house dust mite have reported worsening of eczema or respiratory symptoms when exposed to dust. To assess the effects of all house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema. We searched the following databases up to 14 August 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 8), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the GREAT database. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies for further references to relevant studies. We handsearched abstracts from international eczema and allergy meetings. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any of the house dust mite reduction and avoidance measures for the treatment of eczema, which included participants of any age diagnosed by a clinician with eczema as defined by the World Allergy Organization. We included all non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that sought to reduce or avoid exposure to house dust mite and their allergenic faeces. The comparators were any active treatment, no treatment, placebo, or standard care only. Two authors independently checked the titles and abstracts identified, and there were no disagreements. We contacted authors of included studies for additional information. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane methodology. We included seven studies of 324 adults and children with eczema. Overall, the included studies had a high risk of bias. Four of the seven trials tested interventions with multiple components, and three tested a single intervention. Two of the seven trials included only children, four included children and adults, and one

  7. Respiratory allergen from house dust mite is present in human milk and primes for allergic sensitization in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Macchiaverni, P; Rekima, A; Turfkruyer, M; Mascarell, L; Airouche, S; Moingeon, P; Adel-Patient, K; Condino-Neto, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Prescott, S L; Tulic, M K; Verhasselt, V

    2014-03-01

    There is an urgent need to identify environmental risk and protective factors in early life for the prevention of allergy. Our study demonstrates the presence of respiratory allergen from house dust mite, Der p 1, in human breast milk. Der p 1 in milk is immunoreactive, present in similar amounts as dietary egg antigen, and can be found in breast milk from diverse regions of the world. In a mouse model of asthma, oral exposure to Der p through breast milk strongly promotes sensitization rather than protect the progeny as we reported with egg antigen. These data highlight that antigen administration to the neonate through the oral route may contribute to child allergic sensitization and have important implications for the design of studies assessing early oral antigen exposure for allergic disease prevention. The up-to-now unknown worldwide presence of respiratory allergen in maternal milk allows new interpretation and design of environmental control epidemiological studies for allergic disease prevention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles exacerbate house dust mite induced type II airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Kirsty; Robertson, Sarah B; Römer, Isabella; Marczylo, Tim; Dean, Lareb S N; Rogers, Andrew; Gant, Timothy W; Smith, Rachel; Tetley, Terry D; Leonard, Martin O

    2018-05-23

    Nanomaterial inhalation represents a potential hazard for respiratory conditions such as asthma. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs) have the ability to modify disease outcome but have not been investigated for their effect on models of asthma and inflammatory lung disease. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CeO 2 NPs in a house dust mite (HDM) induced murine model of asthma. Repeated intranasal instillation of CeO 2 NPs in the presence of HDM caused the induction of a type II inflammatory response, characterised by increased bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils, mast cells, total plasma IgE and goblet cell metaplasia. This was accompanied by increases in IL-4, CCL11 and MCPT1 gene expression together with increases in the mucin and inflammatory regulators CLCA1 and SLC26A4. CLCA1 and SLC26A4 were also induced by CeO 2 NPs + HDM co-exposure in air liquid interface cultures of human primary bronchial epithelial cells. HDM induced airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling in mice were not altered with CeO 2 NPs co-exposure. Repeated HMD instillations followed by a single exposure to CeO 2 NPs failed to produce changes in type II inflammatory endpoints but did result in alterations in the neutrophil marker CD177. Treatment of mice with CeO 2 NPs in the absence of HDM did not have any significant effects. RNA-SEQ was used to explore early effects 24 h after single treatment exposures. Changes in SAA3 expression paralleled increased neutrophil BAL levels, while no changes in eosinophil or lymphocyte levels were observed. HDM resulted in a strong induction of type I interferon and IRF3 dependent gene expression, which was inhibited with CeO 2 NPs co-exposure. Changes in the expression of genes including CCL20, CXCL10, NLRC5, IRF7 and CLEC10A suggest regulation of dendritic cells, macrophage functionality and IRF3 modulation as key early events in how CeO 2 NPs may guide pulmonary responses to HDM towards type II inflammation. CeO 2 NPs

  9. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-06-01

    The haematophagous poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control has often relied on chemical pesticides, but inert dusts, which are thought to kill target hosts primarily by desiccation, have become one of the most commonly applied alternative control methods for poultry red mite in Europe. This development has occurred despite a lack of knowledge of the efficacy of the different types of inert dusts and how this is affected by environmental parameters, e.g. the high relative humidity found in poultry houses. In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH the efficacy was significantly lower for all tested compounds (P < 0.001). Weight changes over time followed an exponential evaporation model until the mites started dying whereafter the rate of evaporation increased again and followed a slightly different exponential evaporation model. A tarsal test showed that 24 h exposure to surfaces treated with doses much lower than those recommended by the producers is sufficient to kill mites as fast as when they were dusted with massive doses. These data emphasise the need for thorough treatment of all surfaces in a poultry house in order to combat D. gallinae.

  10. Early life rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease more severely in female mice.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jennifer A; Kicic, Anthony; Berry, Luke J; Sly, Peter D; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have employed animal models to investigate links between rhinovirus infection and allergic airways disease, however, most do not involve early life infection, and none consider the effects of sex on responses. Here, we infected male and female mice with human rhinovirus 1B (or control) on day 7 of life. Mice were then subjected to 7 weeks of exposure to house-dust-mite prior to assessment of bronchoalveolar inflammation, serum antibodies, lung function, and responsiveness to methacholine. There were significant differences in responses between males and females in most outcomes. In males, chronic house-dust-mite exposure increased bronchoalveolar inflammation, house-dust-mite specific IgG1 and responsiveness of the lung parenchyma, however, there was no additional impact of rhinovirus infection. Conversely, in females, there were additive and synergistic effects of rhinovirus infection and house-dust-mite exposure on neutrophilia, airway resistance, and responsiveness of the lung parenchyma. We conclude that early life rhinovirus infection influences the development of house-dust-mite induced lung disease in female, but not male mice.

  11. The effect of sub-floor heating on house-dust-mite populations on floors and in furniture.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Rob

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that dehydrating conditions for house dust mites can be created by simply raising the temperature, causing loss of body water and eventually death. Thus, it can be expected that conditions for dust mites are less favourable on floors supplied with sub-floor heating. This was examined in a study of 16 houses with sub-floor heating and 21 without. The pattern of changes in air humidity and temperature on the floors was investigated and compared to known data of the tolerance of dust mites. Also the resident mite populations were compared. Floors with sub-floor heating had, on average, fewer mites, but the difference with unheated floors was small. It was remarkable that mite numbers were also lower in upholstered furniture. Another important observation was that some houses with sub-floor heating had high mite numbers, indicating that this type of heating is compatible with a thriving mite population. Temperature and humidity conditions of heated floors may allow mites not only to survive, but also to remain active in winter. A moderate increase in temperature, a moderate decrease in (absolute) air humidity, or a combination of both, will suffice to keep the humidity all winter below the Critical Equilibrium Humidity, the level of air humidity that is critical for mite growth and reproduction, hence for allergen production. However, it is argued that measures to suppress allergen production by house dust mites are likely to be far more effective if taken in summer rather than in winter.

  12. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu; Kezik, Julie M., E-mail: julie.colburn@yale.edu; Hill, Melissa E., E-mail: melissa.hill@yale.edu

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recordedmore » on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor

  13. Neutrophil infiltration and release of IL-8 in airway mucosa from subjects with grain dust-induced occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Jung, K S; Hwang, S C; Nahm, D H; Yim, H E

    1998-06-01

    The immuno-pathological mechanism for occupational asthma induced by grain dust (GD) remains to be clarified. There have been few reports suggesting the involvement of neutrophils inducing bronchoconstriction after inhalation of GD. To further understand the role of neutrophil in the pathogenesis of GD-induced asthma. We studied the phenotype of leucocytes of the bronchial mucosa in patients with GD-induced asthma. Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained by fibreoptic bronchoscopy from six subjects with GD-induced asthma. Six allergic asthma patients sensitive to house dust mite were enrolled as controls. Bronchial biopsy specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry with a panel of monoclonal antibodies to tryptase-containing mast cell (AA1), activated eosinophil (EG2), pan T-lymphocyte (CD3) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Induced sputum was collected before and after the GD-bronchoprovocation test. The IL-8 level in the sputum was measured using ELISA. There was a significant increase in the number of AA1+ and NE+ cells in bronchial mucosa of GD-induced asthma, compared with those of allergic asthma (P=0.01, P=0.01, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the number of EG2+ and CD3+ cells (P = 0.13, P=0.15, respectively). IL-8 was abundant in the sputum of all GD-induced asthma patients and significantly increased after the bronchial challenges compared with the baseline value (P = 0.03). These findings support the view that neutrophil recruitment together with mast cells may contribute to the bronchoconstriction induced by GD. A possible involvement of IL-8 was suggested.

  14. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Der f 2, a Potent Allergen Derived from the House Dust Mite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophugoides sp.) are particularly ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis, and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are often caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unclear biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, has been recombinantly expressed and characterized. The Der f 2 protein has been crystallized in our laboratory and a native data set collected at a synchrotron source. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group I422 with unit cell parameters of a = 95.2 Angstroms, b = 95.2 Angstroms, and c = 103.3 Angstroms. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 Angstroms. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the available NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pterovssinus) failed to reveal a creditable solution.

  15. Prevalence of house dust mite allergens in low-income homes with evaporative coolers in a semiarid climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Barney, Taylor P; Crandall, Justin H; Brown, Marinn A; Westover, Tarah R; Paulson, Sterling M; Smith, Madeleine S; Weber, K Scott

    2018-01-02

    House dust mites are typically absent in homes in arid and semiarid climates due to low humidity. Evaporative "swamp" cooling significantly increases indoor humidity in dry climates and is suspected of promoting dust mite survival in these regions. We investigated the prevalence and concentration of mite allergens in dust from low-income homes (N = 22) with evaporative coolers in Utah County, Utah. Overall, 15 homes (68.2%) were positive for either Der p 1 or Der f 1 in at least 1 location. Geometric mean allergen levels in mattresses were 0.107 and 0.087 ug/g dust for Der p 1 and Der f 1, respectively. In furniture, levels were 0.143 and 0.165 ug/g dust for Der p1 and Der f 1, respectively. The percentage of positive homes in this study was much higher than previously reported in larger homes with swamp coolers in the same community. These results suggest socioeconomic factors may play a role in dust mite allergen prevalence in homes with evaporative coolers in dry climates.

  16. Sublingual immunotherapy in patients with house dust mite allergic rhinitis: prospective study of clinical outcomes over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Soh, J Y; Thalayasingam, M; Ong, S; Loo, E X L; Shek, L P; Chao, S S

    2016-03-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis sensitised to house dust mites is safe, but its efficacy is controversial and sublingual immunotherapy with Blomia tropicalis has not yet been studied. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite extract in children and adults with house dust mite allergic rhinitis over a period of two years. A prospective observational study was conducted of children and adults diagnosed with house dust mite allergic rhinitis who were treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2008 to 2012. Total Nasal Symptom Scores, Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life scores and medication usage scores were assessed prospectively. Thirty-nine patients, comprising 24 children and 15 adults, were studied. Total Nasal Symptom Scores and Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life scores dropped significantly at three months into therapy, and continued to improve. Medication usage scores improved at one year into immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite extracts, including B tropicalis, is efficacious as a treatment for patients with house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

  17. Mite and pet allergen levels in homes of children born to allergic and nonallergic parents: the PIAMA study.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Rob T; Koopman, Laurens P; Kerkhof, Marjan; Spithoven, Jack; de Jongste, Johan C; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Neijens, Herman J; Aalberse, Rob C; Smit, Henriette A; Brunekreef, Bert

    2002-11-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study is a birth cohort study that investigates the influence of allergen exposure on the development of allergy and asthma in the first several years of life. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between a family history of allergy and/or asthma and exposure of newborn children to mite and pet allergen and to study the influence of different home and occupant characteristics on mite allergen exposure. Dust was sampled from the child's mattress and the parental mattress at 3 months after birth of the index child and analyzed for mite and pet allergens. Subjects were divided in groups according to history of asthma and allergy in their parents, and allergen exposure was studied in the different groups. Cat allergen exposure was significantly lower on parental mattresses in families with allergic mothers, but dog allergen exposure was not different. Mite allergen exposure was lower on parental mattresses in families with allergic mothers. Use of mite allergen-impermeable mattress covers reduced mite allergen exposure. Some other characteristics such as age of home and mattress were also found to influence mite allergen exposure. Parental mattresses in homes of allergic mothers had lower cat and mite (but not dog) allergen loadings than mattresses in homes of nonallergic parents. Paternal (as opposed to maternal) allergy seemed to have little influence.

  18. Depigmented and polymerised house dust mite allergoid: allergen content, induction of IgG4 and clinical response.

    PubMed

    Gallego, M T; Iraola, V; Himly, M; Robinson, D S; Badiola, C; García-Robaina, J C; Briza, P; Carnés, J

    2010-01-01

    Polymerised allergenic extracts (allergoids) are commonly used in allergen immunotherapy. Clinical efficacy and safety of these extracts have been demonstrated. Recently, allergen sequences have been identified by mass spectrometry in depigmented and polymerised (Dpg-Pol) extracts. The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of allergens in Dpg-Pol extracts of house dust mite and to analyze the immunological changes induced by these extracts in asthmatic patients enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dpg-Pol extracts were manufactured and vaccines with a composition of 50% Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and 50% D. farinae (100 HEPL/ml) were prepared. Allergen composition was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Patients with asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis were treated in a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with 6 up-dosing and monthly maintenance injections. Specific IgE and IgG4 titres to D. pteronyssinus, Der p 1 and Der p 2 were measured in patients' sera using the CAP system and direct ELISA experiments. Sequences from the major allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 and from other allergens were identified in native and Dpg-Pol extracts. There was a statistically significant increase in specific IgG4, a decrease in the ratio of IgE/IgG4 to D. pteronyssinus and a significant increase in specific IgG4 to Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the patients allotted to active treatment. The detection of allergen sequences suggests preservation of major and minor allergens in Dpg-Pol allergoids from house dust mites. Efficacy in asthma treatment and the increase in specific IgG4 seem to be associated with the presence of major allergens in Dpg-Pol allergen extracts. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Evolution and predictive value of IgE responses toward a comprehensive panel of house dust mite allergens during the first 2 decades of life.

    PubMed

    Posa, Daniela; Perna, Serena; Resch, Yvonne; Lupinek, Christian; Panetta, Valentina; Hofmaier, Stephanie; Rohrbach, Alexander; Hatzler, Laura; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffman, Ute; Forster, Johannes; Zepp, Fred; Schuster, Antje; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne; Vrtala, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2017-02-01

    The evolution of the IgE response to the numerous allergen molecules of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is still unknown. We sought to characterize the evolutionary patterns of the IgE response to 12 molecules of D pteronyssinus from birth to adulthood and to investigate their determinants and clinical relevance. We investigated the clinical data and sera of 722 participants in the German Multicenter Allergy Study, a birth cohort started in 1990. Diagnoses of current allergic rhinitis (AR) related to mite allergy and asthma were based on yearly interviews at the ages of 1 to 13 years and 20 years. IgE to the extract and 12 molecules of D pteronyssinus were tested by means of ImmunoCAP and microarray technology, respectively, in sera collected at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, and 20 years. Exposure to mites at age 6 and 18 months was assessed by measuring Der p 1 weight/weight concentration in house dust. One hundred ninety-one (26.5%) of 722 participants ever had IgE to D pteronyssinus extract (≥0.35 kU A /L). At age 20 years, their IgE recognized most frequently Der p 2, Der p 1, and Der p 23 (group A molecules; prevalence, >40%), followed by Der p 5, Der p 7, Der p 4, and Der p 21 (group B molecules; prevalence, 15% to 30%) and Der p 11, Der p 18, clone 16, Der p 14, and Der p 15 (group C molecules; prevalence, <10%). IgE sensitization started almost invariably with group A molecules and expanded sequentially first to group B and finally to group C molecules. Early IgE sensitization onset, parental hay fever, and higher exposure to mites were associated with a broader polymolecular IgE sensitization pattern. Participants reaching the broadest IgE sensitization stage (ie, ABC) had significantly higher risk of mite-related AR and asthma than unsensitized participants. IgE to Der p 1 or Der p 23 at age 5 years or less predicted asthma at school age. Parental hay fever and early exposure to D pteronyssinus allergens promote IgE polysensitization to several

  20. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    2014-04-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control, but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each of the desiccant dusts and the fungus, with observed levels of mite mortality significantly higher than those expected for an additive effect (up to 38 % higher). Synergistic interaction between desiccant dust and fungus was found also when different application methods were used for the fungus and at different levels of relative humidity. Although increased levels of mortality were reached due to the synergistic interaction, the speed of lethal action was not influenced by combining the two components. The persistence of the control agents applied separately or in combination did not change over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites.

  1. House dust and forage mite allergens and their role in human and canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, T J; Hill, Peter B; Bensignor, E; Willemse, T

    2006-08-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the role of house dust and forage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. The presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to these mites, especially to Dermatophagoides farinae, is common in both normal and atopic dogs. Exposure of dogs to the different mites is described both in the direct environment and in the coat of animals for house dust mites and in the food for forage mites. Allergens causing allergic disease in dogs seem to be different from those in humans. Dogs seem to react to high molecular weight allergens, compared to the low molecular weight group 1 and group 2 proteases that are commonly implicated in humans with atopic diseases. Despite numerous published studies dealing with this subject, a number of questions still need to be addressed to better understand the exact role of these mites in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis and to improve the quality of the allergens used in practice.

  2. The role of water temperature and laundry procedures in reducing house dust mite populations and allergen content of bedding.

    PubMed

    McDonald, L G; Tovey, E

    1992-10-01

    The effects of various laundry procedures on house dust mites and their allergens have been established. All mites were killed by water temperatures 55 degrees C or greater. Killing at lower temperatures was not enhanced by any of the pure detergents or laundry products tested. A cold cycle of laundry washing with or without laundry powder did not remove most live mites from bedding, however, the allergen concentration (Der p I/gm fine dust) was reduced by more than 90%. Dry cleaning did not reduce the allergen concentration of the dust, although most, if not all, mites were killed.

  3. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    PubMed

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P < 0.0001). There were significant correlations between Der p 1 in house dust and food from the paper (P < 0.0001) and plastic bags (P = 0.003), and mite numbers in house dust and food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. A 4-Week Model of House Dust Mite (HDM) Induced Allergic Airways Inflammation with Airway Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Woo, L N; Guo, W Y; Wang, X; Young, A; Salehi, S; Hin, A; Zhang, Y; Scott, J A; Chow, C W

    2018-05-02

    Animal models of allergic airways inflammation are useful tools in studying the pathogenesis of asthma and potential therapeutic interventions. The different allergic airways inflammation models available to date employ varying doses, frequency, duration and types of allergen, which lead to the development of different features of asthma; showing varying degrees of airways inflammation and hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and airways remodeling. Models that also exhibit airway remodeling, a key feature of asthma, in addition to AHR and airway inflammation typically require 5-12 weeks to develop. In this report, we describe a 4-week mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic airways inflammation, and compare the phenotypic features of two different doses of HDM exposures (10 µg and 25 µg) for 5 days/week with a well-characterized 8-week chronic HDM model. We found that 4 weeks of intranasal HDM (25 µg in 35 µl saline; 5 days/week) resulted in AHR, airway inflammation and airway remodeling that were comparable to the 8-week model. We conclude that this new 4-week HDM model is another useful tool in studies of human asthma that offers advantages of shorter duration for development and decreased costs when compared to other models that require longer durations of exposure (5-12 weeks) to develop.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Der f 2, a potent allergen derived from the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeber, Dana; Achari, Aniruddha; Takai, Toshiro; Okumura, Yasushi; Scott, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Although a number of allergens have been identified and isolated, the underlying molecular basis for the potent immune response is poorly understood. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.) are ubiquitous contributors to atopy in developed countries. The rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma associated with allergic reactions to these arthropods are frequently caused by relatively small (125-129 amino acids) mite proteins of unknown biological function. Der f 2, a major allergen from the mite D. farinae, has been recombinantly expressed, characterized and crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.2, c = 103.3 A. An essentially complete (97.2%) data set has been collected to 2.4 A at a synchrotron source. Attempts to solve the crystal structure of Der f 2 by molecular replacement using the NMR coordinates for either Der f 2 or Der p 2 (the homologous protein from D. pteronyssinus) failed, but preliminary searches using the crystalline Der p 2 atomic coordinates appear to be promising.

  6. Grain dust and the lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  7. House dust mite sensitization in toddlers predict persistent wheeze in children between eight to fourteen years old

    PubMed Central

    Llanora, Genevieve V.; Ming, Low Jia; Wei, Lee Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying toddlers at increased risk of developing persistent wheeze provides an opportunity for risk-reducing interventions. House dust mite (HDM) allergen sensitization might identify this group of high-risk children. Objective We examined whether a positive skin prick test (SPT) to at least 1 of the 3 HDMs in wheezing toddlers, would serve as a predictor for persistent wheeze at age 8 to 14 years old. Methods A cohort of 78 children, who had wheezing episodes, and underwent SPT to 3 HDMs between the ages of 2 to 5 years old, were enrolled. SPT results were obtained from the National University Hospital database. Four to 9 years later, the children, currently between 8 to 14 years old, were re-assessed for persistence of asthma symptoms and other atopic disorders via a telephone interview. A validated questionnaire on current wheezing and asthma, developed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, was used. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate the association between persistence of asthma and a positive SPT. Results Of the 78 children who participated in the study, 42 (53.8%) had a positive SPT and 36 (46.2%) had a negative SPT. Of these, 18 (42.9%) of SPT positive and 7 (19.4%) of SPT negative children had persistence of asthma symptoms. There is a significant association between a positive SPT during the preschool years, and persistence of asthma (p = 0.0314 [<0.05]). Conclusion HDM sensitization at ages 2 to 5 years old in wheezing children predicts persistence of asthma after 4 to 9 years. This in turn may have benefits for management of asthma in this high-risk group. PMID:22872820

  8. Mast cell-dependent IL-33/ST2 signaling is protective against the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in a house dust mite mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Zoltowska Nilsson, A M; Lei, Y; Adner, M; Nilsson, G P

    2018-03-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its receptor ST2 have been influentially associated with the pathophysiology of asthma. Due to the divergent roles of IL-33 in regulating mast cell functions, there is a need to further characterize IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses and their significance in the context of asthma. This study aimed to investigate how IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses contribute to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation in a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma. Mast cell-deficient C57BL/6-Kit W-sh (Wsh) mice engrafted with either wild-type (Wsh + MC-WT) or ST2-deficient bone marrow-derived mast cells (Wsh + MC-ST2KO) were exposed to HDM delivered intranasally. An exacerbated development of AHR in response to HDM was seen in Wsh + MC-ST2KO compared with Wsh + MC-WT mice. The contribution of this IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell response to AHR seems to reside within the smaller airways in the peripheral parts of the lung, as suggested by the isolated yet marked effect on tissue resistance. Considering the absence of a parallel increase in cellular inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung, the aggravated AHR in Wsh + MC-ST2KO mice seems to be independent of cellular inflammation. We observed an association between the elevated AHR and reduced PGE 2 levels in BALF . Due to the protective properties of PGE 2 in airway responses, it is conceivable that IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell induction of PGE 2 could be responsible for the dampening effect on AHR. In conclusion, we reveal that IL-33/ST2-dependent mast cell responses can have a protective, rather than causative role, in the development of AHR.

  9. Ventilation in homes infested by house-dust mites.

    PubMed

    Sundell, J; Wickman, M; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, S L

    1995-02-01

    Thirty single-family homes with either high (> or = 2000 ng/g) or low (< or = 1000 ng/g) house-dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in mattress dust were examined for ventilation, thermal climate, and air quality (formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). Elevated concentrations of HDM allergen in mattress and floor dust were associated with the difference in absolute humidity between indoor and outdoor air, as well as with low air-change rates of the home, particularly the bedroom. No correlation was found between concentration of TVOC or formaldehyde in bedroom air and HDM allergen concentration. In regions with a cold winter climate, the air-change rate of the home and the infiltration of outdoor air into the bedroom appear to be important for the infestation of HDM.

  10. The accumulation of dust mite allergens on mattresses made of different kinds of materials.

    PubMed

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Chirdjirapong, Varakorn; Pootong, Visanu; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Pacharn, Punchama; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Mahakittikun, Vanna; Vichyanond, Pakit

    2010-01-01

    Different mattress materials may affect the accumulation of allergens. To compare the amount of group 1 dust mite allergens (Der p1 + Der f1) on mattresses made of different kinds of materials before and after use. Sixty new mattresses made of kapok, synthetic fiber, coconut fiber and sponge-like polyurethane, were placed in the house officers' dormitory at Siriraj hospital, Thailand. The dust samples were collected before (0), 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the mattresses were used. Group 1 dust mite allergens were analyzed using two-site monoclonal antibody ELISA. Der f1 made up 86.7 % of group 1 allergens found in the matress dust. After the 2nd month, only the mean level in sponge-like polyurethane mattress was under 2 microg/g dust (sensitized level). At the 6th month, the mean levels were 13.1 in coconut, 21.7 in kapok and 17.3 microg/g dust in synthetic fiber, all of which were more than 10 microg/g dust (symptomatic level). At the 9th month, the level in sponge-like polyurethane mattress was increased to 11.2 microg/g. At 12th month the level in coconut fiber, sponge-like polyurethane synthetic fiber and kapok mattresses were 20.2, 22.4, 28.9 and 32.2 microg/g dust respectively. The accumulation rate in kapok and synthetic mattresses was significantly higher than coconut and sponge-like polyurethane mattresses. The mean level of group 1 mite allergens exceeded 10 microg/g dust after the 6th month of use in coconut fiber, kapok and synthetic fiber and at the 9th month in sponge-like polyurethane mattress.

  11. Interleukin-21-Producing CD4(+) T Cells Promote Type 2 Immunity to House Dust Mites.

    PubMed

    Coquet, Jonathan M; Schuijs, Martijn J; Smyth, Mark J; Deswarte, Kim; Beyaert, Rudi; Braun, Harald; Boon, Louis; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Nutt, Steven L; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2015-08-18

    Asthma is a T helper 2 (Th2)-cell-mediated disease; however, recent findings implicate Th17 and innate lymphoid cells also in regulating airway inflammation. Herein, we have demonstrated profound interleukin-21 (IL-21) production after house dust mite (HDM)-driven asthma by using T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice reactive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 and an IL-21GFP reporter mouse. IL-21-producing cells in the mediastinal lymph node (mLN) bore characteristics of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, whereas IL-21(+) cells in the lung did not express CXCR5 (a chemokine receptor expressed by Tfh cells) and were distinct from effector Th2 or Th17 cells. Il21r(-/-) mice developed reduced type 2 responses and the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) enhanced Th2 cell function in a cell-intrinsic manner. Finally, administration of recombinant IL-21 and IL-25 synergistically promoted airway eosinophilia primarily via effects on CD4(+) lymphocytes. This highlights an important Th2-cell-amplifying function of IL-21-producing CD4(+) T cells in allergic airway inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dust mites as occupational allergens in two bakeries of La Habana, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Duro, Bárbara I; Alvarez-Castelló, Mirta; Mateo-Morejón, Mayteé; Luis-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Labrada-Rosado, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Occupational allergies are becoming more frequent. The allergens present in the working environment of bakeries, such as mites, are not well identified despite being known risk factors of respiratory diseases. To isolate and identify the species of mites present in two bakeries in La Habana, Cuba, with high sensitization of mites on their workers. A descriptive study was done in which samples were taken by tripled from potential sources of mites in bakeries -as flourin use, spills of wheat on the floors, wheat flour stored in sealed bags, sugar, yeast, granulated baker- that were processed, according to the method of flotation of Hart and Fain (1987) to isolate, identify and count the mites present. Mites were found in samples of wheat flourin use, spills on the floorsand in the wheat flourstored in sealed bags. The species identified were Blomia tropicalis (70%), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (20%) and to a lesser degree Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides siboney. There is a high exposure to house dust mites, particularly to store mites, which constitute a risk factor of occupational allergy to consider.

  13. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

    PubMed

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  14. Allergen exposure modifies the relation of sensitization to FENO levels in children at risk for allergy and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sordillo, Joanne E; Webb, Tara; Kwan, Doris; Kamel, Jimmy; Hoffman, Elaine; Milton, Donald K; Gold, Diane R

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on airway inflammation, measured as fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), have focused on its relation to control of asthma, but the contribution of allergen exposure to elevation of FENO is unknown. Objective We evaluated (1) whether FENO was elevated in children with allergic sensitization or asthma; (2) whether specific allergen exposure increased FENO levels in sensitized, but not in unsensitized children; and (3) whether sedentary behavior increased FENO, independent of allergen exposures. Methods At age 12, in a birth cohort of children with parental history of allergy or asthma, we measured bed dust allergen (dust mite, cat, cockroach) by ELISA; specific allergic sensitization primarily by specific IgE ; and respiratory disease (current asthma, rhinitis, and wheeze) and hours of TV viewing/video game playing by questionnaire. Children performed spirometry maneuvers before and after bronchodilator responses, and had FENO measured using electrochemical detection methods (NIOX MINO). Results FENO was elevated in children with current asthma (32.2 ppb), wheeze (27.0 ppb), or rhinitis (23.2ppb) as compared to individuals without these respective symptoms/diagnoses (16.4 ppb to 16.6 ppb, p< 0.005 for all comparisons). Allergic sensitization to indoor allergens (cat, dog, dust mite) predicted higher levels of FENO, and explained one third of the variability of FENO. FENO levels were highest in children both sensitized and exposed to dust mite. Greater than 10 hours of weekday TV viewing was associated with a 0.64 log increase in FENO, after controlling indoor allergen exposure, BMI and allergic sensitization. Conclusion Allergen exposures and sedentary behavior (TV viewing/ video game playing), may increase airway inflammation, measured as FENO. PMID:21463890

  15. Sensitization by subcutaneous route is superior to intraperitoneal route in induction of asthma by house dust mite in a murine mode

    PubMed Central

    Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz Mangueira; de Almeida, Francine Maria; Brüggemann, Thayse Regina; Kalil, Jorge; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Arantes-Costa, Fernanda Magalhães; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To develop a new experimental model of chronic allergic pulmonary disease induced by house dust mite, with marked production of specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the airways and remodeling, comparing two different routes of sensitization. Methods The protocol lasted 30 days. BALB/c mice were divided into six groups and were sensitized subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with saline (negative control), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 50 or 500mcg in three injections. Subsequently they underwent intranasal challenge with Der p or saline for 7 days and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last challenge. We evaluated the titration of specific IgE anti-Der p, eosinophilic density in peribronchovascular space and airway remodeling. Results Both animals sensitized intraperitoneally and subcutaneously produced specific IgE anti-Der p. Peribronchovascular eosinophilia increased only in mice receiving lower doses of Der p. However, only the group sensitized with Der p 50mcg through subcutaneously route showed significant airway remodeling. Conclusion In this murine model of asthma, both pathways of sensitization led to the production of specific IgE and eosinophilia in the airways. However, only the subcutaneously route was able to induce remodeling. Furthermore, lower doses of Der p used in sensitization were better than higher ones, suggesting immune tolerance. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this model in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but it can already be replicated in experiments to create new therapeutic drugs or immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:26761554

  16. Lack of Association Between Dust Mite Sensitivity and Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan Ian; Hanifin, Jon M; Law, Sandra; White, Kevin; Storrs, Frances J

    2016-01-01

    Dust mites (DMs) play a role in type I respiratory allergy. Studies relating to DM irritant versus immune reactions are somewhat conflicting in atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic use of patch testing to DM in patients with AD and other dermatitides. We performed a prospective study of 323 adults recruited in a patch testing clinic. Patch testing antigens were DM extract (0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 20% in petrolatum; Chemotechnique) and/or 200 index of reactivity in petrolatum (Stallergenes). Patches were placed and read at 48 hours with delayed readings after 72 to 168 hours. There was no association of DM positivity with AD, asthma, hay fever, or demographic factors. There was no association of DM positivity with the clinical diagnosis or phenotype. The number of positive (+, ++, and +++) and doubtful reactions to Chemotechnique DM extract increased with higher concentrations. Positive reactions to DM had a morphological appearance characterized by numerous discrete erythematous papules and, rarely, papulovesicles. Positive reactions to Stallergenes DM 200 IR were infrequent and all weak reactions, similar to DM 0.01%. Patch testing to DM does not seem to have clinical use for determining the etiology of dermatitis.

  17. House Dust Mite Prevalence in the House of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ziyaei, Toktam; Berenji, Fariba; Jabbari-Azad, Farahzad; Fata, Abdolmajid; Jarahi, Lida; Fereidouni, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the contamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient's residential home with atopic dermatitis. In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test). Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed) by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer -20 °C) were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software. Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35%) in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30%) bedrooms' carpet, 3 cases (15%) living room's carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. Only mites were found (5%) in living room's carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farina e. (98% vs 83%). Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In positive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom's carpet more than negative prick test patient's sheets and carpets.

  18. [Mites in mattress dust and relevant environmental factors in student dormitories in Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Wu, Jie; Liu, Zhi-gang; Ran, Pi-xin; Gao, Qiao; Luo, Chun-hui; Ai, Mei

    2009-02-28

    Three hundred and eight mattress dust samples were collected from college dormitories in Shenzhen with a mite prevalence of 88% (271/308). From the samples, 6163 mites were isolated and identified. Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis were three most abundant species, occupying 29.7%, 21.7% and 17.9%, respectively. It was found that sex of the students, mattress cover (bamboo mat or bed sheet), with or without air conditioner installation, and daily using of air conditioner (<2 h, 2-8 h and >8 h) had no significant influence on the mite prevalence (P>0.05). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of mite sensitization in male student dormitory was significantly lower than that in female dormitory (OR=0.55, P=0.038), and the risk of using bed sheets was significantly higher than using bamboo mats (OR=2.13, P=0.040). Both mite prevalence and the risk of mite sensitization significantly decreased with higher floor of the dormitory building.

  19. The unfavorable effects of concomitant asthma and sleeplessness due to the atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS) on quality of life in subjects allergic to house-dust mites.

    PubMed

    Terreehorst, I; Duivenvoorden, H J; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; Oosting, A J; de Monchy, J G R; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; Post, M W M; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2002-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis, asthma or the atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS) may independently impair quality of life in patients. However, although many allergic patients may suffer from more than one disorder, the effect of concomitant disease -- in particular, the impact of AEDS -- is largely unknown. As part of a large multicenter clinical trial on the efficacy of mattress casings in house-dust mite (HDM) allergy, generic quality of life in a mixed population of 224 subjects with rhinitis (n = 198) and/or asthma (n = 111) and/or AEDS (n = 64) was studied. The study aimed to estimate quality of life impairment in these atopic patients and to address the question/issue of whether one atopic disorder goes beyond other existing allergic diseases, thereby causing further impairment to quality of life. Generic quality of life was assessed by SF-36. Quality of life in the atopic group was compared with a Dutch norm population. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the effects of disease (i.e. the presence of allergic rhinitis, asthma or AEDS) or disease severity, as assessed by visual analog scores (VAS) for asthma, rhinitis, VAS sleeplessness and VAS itching being considered as major symptoms in AEDS on SF-36 domains. Compared to the norm group, atopic patients were impaired in: physical functioning; role physical functioning; general health; vitality; and social functioning. The diagnosis of asthma was negatively associated with the SF-36 subscales for physical functioning (P = 0.02), and general health (P < 0.01). In line with these findings, asthma severity (VAS asthma) was negatively associated with physical functioning (P < 0.01), role physical functioning (P < 0.01), general health (P < 0.0.1), social functioning (P = 0.01), emotional functioning (P = 0.01), and vitality (P = 0.01). VAS sleeplessness had significant negative effect on role physical functioning (P < 0.01), bodily pain (P < 0.01), General health (P = 0.01), mental health (P < 0

  20. Repellent activity of desiccant dusts and conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana when tested against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-11-01

    Desiccant dusts and entomopathogenic fungi have previously been found to hold potential against the poultry red mite, which is an important pest in egg production and notoriously difficult to control. Both control agents may cause repellence in other arthropods and potentially also influence control levels adversely when used against the poultry red mite. Five desiccant dust products with good efficacy against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae caused avoidance behavior in mites when tested in bioassays. The repellent activity was correlated with efficacy, which was found to depend on both dose and relative humidity (RH). However, one desiccant dust was significantly less repellent compared to other dusts with similar levels of efficacy. Further, dry conidia of the fungus Beauveria bassiana were also shown to be repellent to poultry red mites, both when applied on its own and when admixed with a low dose of the desiccant dust Diamol. The pick-up of desiccant dust particles and fungus conidia from treated surfaces by mites did not differ depending on RH, whereas the overall efficacy of the two control agents were significantly higher at 75 than at 85 % RH. In addition, the combined effect of the two substances was synergistic when tested in a bioassay where mites could choose whether to cross a treated surface. This is the first time a member of Acari has been shown to be repelled by desiccant dusts and by conidia of an entomopathogenic fungus.

  1. House Dust Mite Prevalence in the House of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ziyaei, Toktam; Berenji, Fariba; Jabbari-Azad, Farahzad; Fata, Abdolmajid; Jarahi, Lida; Fereidouni, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the contamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient’s residential home with atopic dermatitis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test). Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed) by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer −20 °C) were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software. Results: Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35%) in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30%) bedrooms’ carpet, 3 cases (15%) living room’s carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40%) male and 12 (60%) female. Only mites were found (5%) in living room’s carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farinae. (98% vs 83%). Conclusion: Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In positive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom’s carpet more than negative prick test patient’s sheets and carpets. PMID:29062855

  2. Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Markowicz, Pawel; Cai, Gui-Hong; Hashim, Zailina; Ali, Faridah; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Larsson, Lennart; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor’s diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380–690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention. PMID

  3. Dust storms and the risk of asthma admissions to hospitals in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Thalib, Lukman; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2012-09-01

    Arid areas in the Arabian Peninsula are one of the largest sources of global dust, yet there is no data on the impact of this on human health. This study aimed to investigate the impact of dust storms on hospital admissions due to asthma and all respiratory diseases over a period of 5 years in Kuwait. A population-based retrospective time series study of daily emergency asthma admissions and admissions due to respiratory causes in public hospitals in Kuwait was analyzed in relation to dust storm events. Dust storm days were defined as the mean daily PM(10)>200 μg/m(3) based on measurements obtained from all six monitoring sites in the country. During the five-year study period, 569 (33.6%) days had dust storm events and they were significantly associated with an increased risk of same-day asthma and respiratory admission, adjusted relative risk of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.12) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04-1.08), respectively. This was particularly evident among children. Dust storms have a significant impact on respiratory and asthma admissions. Evidence is more convincing and robust compared to that from other geographical settings which highlights the importance of public health measures to protect people's health during dust storms and reduce the burden on health services due to dust events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In the strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations, allergic asthma needs specific treatment.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Ridolo, Erminia

    2015-04-01

    No generally accepted definition of asthma exacerbation is thus far available, though in 2012 an expert committee endorsed by the National Institute of Health proposed such definition as "a worsening of asthma requiring the use of systemic corticosteroids to prevent a serious outcome". Graham and Eid reviewed the impact of asthma exacerbations, and noted that, analysing the outcomes with existing treatments, many patients with asthma remain symptomatic and experience exacerbations. This requires the introduction of new strategies to more effectively reduce the exacerbation risk, based on correct diagnosis, stopping smoking, correct inhaler technique, consistent adherence, weight management, and gaining control with the addition of medication". Indeed, as allergic asthma is the most common form, a specific approach by allergen immunotherapy should receive more attention. Actually, the efficacy of immunotherapy in allergic asthma, by the subcutaneous or the sublingual route, is supported by robust meta-analyses. The most important allergen source causing asthma is the house dust mite, but an increasing role for molds is apparent due to the ongoing climate change.

  5. Comparison between Siriraj mite allergen vaccine and standardized commercial mite vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults.

    PubMed

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Sripramong, Chaweewan; Sookrung, Nitat; Bunnag, Chaweewan

    2010-03-01

    House dust mite is a major cause of allergic asthma and rhinitis in Thai population. Skin prick test (SPT) is a useful tool for the diagnosis of the IgE-mediated reactions. The imported commercial mite vaccine for SPT is available but it is relatively expensive. Aim of this study is to compare Siriraj Mite Allergen Vaccine (SMAV) with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults. A double blind, self-controlled study between the SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine was performed by SPT in 17 normal Thai adult males and non-pregnant or non-lactating females aged 18-60 years. The study showed that 35.29 % of non atopic adults had positive SPT reaction to Dp and Df of both SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. Mean wheal and flare diameters from SPT of Dp and Df of SMAV showed strong correlation with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine (r= 0.768 and 0.897 in Dp and Df respectively, p <0.001). The intraclass correlation was also excellent (0.893 and 0.775 in Dp and Df respectively). There was no significant difference in wheal and flare diameter between SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. No systemic or large local reaction was found in any of the study cases.

  6. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions

    PubMed Central

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. Methods A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. Results HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. Conclusions In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect. PMID:27126724

  7. No Concentration Decrease of House Dust Mite Allergens With Rising Altitude in Alpine Regions.

    PubMed

    Grafetstätter, Carina; Prossegger, Johanna; Braunschmid, Herbert; Sanovic, Renata; Hahne, Penelope; Pichler, Christina; Thalhamer, Josef; Hartl, Arnulf

    2016-07-01

    Several studies over the past 4 decades have indicated a significant reduction in house dust mite (HDM) and HDM allergen concentration in areas higher than 1,500 m above sea level. These have served as basis of allergen avoidance therapies for HDM allergy and asthma. However, modern construction techniques used in the insulation, heating, and glazing of buildings as well as global warming have changed the environmental parameters for HDM living conditions. The present study revisits the paradigm of decreasing HDM allergen concentrations with increasing altitude in the alpine region of Germany and Austria. A total of 122 dust samples from different abodes (hotels, privates and mountain huts) at different altitudes (400-2,600 m) were taken, and concentrations of HDM allergens were analyzed. Humidity and temperature conditions, and numerous indoor environmental parameters such as fine dust, type of flooring, age of building, and frequency of cleaning were determined. HDM allergen concentrations did not significantly change with increasing altitude or relative humidity. At the level of indoor parameters, correlations could be found for different flooring types and the concentration of HDM allergens. In contrast to the widespread view of the relationship between altitude and HDM allergen concentrations, clinically relevant concentrations of HDM allergens could be detected in high-lying alpine regions in Austria and Germany. These results indicate that improvement in conditions of asthmatic patients sensitized against HDMs during a stay at high altitude can no longer be ascribed to decreased levels of HDM allergens, instead, other mechanisms may trigger the beneficial effect.

  8. [Clinical investigation of basophil activation test as a complementary test for house dust mite allergen].

    PubMed

    Ren, H L; Li, J D; Miao, Y H; Xu, T

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical application of glass micro fiber basophil activation test (BAT) used as a complementary test for house dust mite allergen. Method: Forty patients with clinical diagnosed allergic rhinitis was test by three methods for house dust mite allergen, skin prick test(SPT),Immuno CAP sIgE, and BAT in vitro. The sensitivity and specificity of glass micro fiber were accessed, and the consistency between BAT, SPT, and Immuno sIgE was analyzed. As in vivo provocation was not performed, gold standard is regarded as the combination of medical history and positive reports of SPT and/or ImmunoCAP sIgE test. Result: Twentythree patients are diagnosed as house dust mite allergic rhinitis by gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of glass micro fiber BAT were 60.9% and 88.2%, the sensitivity of SPT and sIgE was 87.0% and sIgE 73.9%. The correlation rates between BAT with SPT is 0.67( P <0.05), and sIgE 0.55( P <0.05). The accuracy, predictive value of positive and negative of BAT are 0.47,60.9%,88.2%.The Kappa values of BAT, SPT and sIgE with gold standard are 0.47,0.86,0.71. Conclusion: As a complementary test for house dust mite allergic rhinitis, BAT have a good consistency with SPT and sIgE, while as it has only moderate consistency with "gold standard", further studies are needed to prove its clinical significance. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  9. Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

  10. Levels of house dust mite allergen in cars.

    PubMed

    Mason, Howard J; Smith, Ian; Anua, Siti Marwanis; Tagiyeva, Nargiz; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham

    2015-09-01

    This small study investigated house dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in cars and their owners' homes in north-east Scotland. Dust samples from twelve households and cars were collected in a standardised manner. The dust samples were extracted and measured for the Dermatophagoides group 2 allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2) and total soluble protein. Allergen levels at homes tended to be higher than in the cars, but not significantly. However, they significantly correlated with paired car dust samples expressed either per unit weight of dust or soluble protein (rho=0.657; p=0.02 and 0.769; p=0.003, respectively). This points to house-to-car allergen transfer, with the car allergen levels largely reflecting levels in the owner's home. Car HDM allergen levels were lower than those reported in Brazil and the USA. Twenty-five percent of the houses and none of the cars had allergen levels in dust greater than 2000 ng g(-1). This value is often quoted as a threshold for the risk of sensitisation, although a number of studies report increased risk of sensitisation at lower levels. This small study does not allow for characterisation of the distribution of HDM allergen in vehicles in this geographic area, or of the likely levels in other warmer and more humid areas of the UK. Cars and other vehicles are an under-investigated micro-environment for exposure to allergenic material.

  11. The development of allergic inflammation in a murine house dust mite asthma model is suppressed by synbiotic mixtures of non-digestible oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V.

    PubMed

    Verheijden, K A T; Willemsen, L E M; Braber, S; Leusink-Muis, T; Jeurink, P V; Garssen, J; Kraneveld, A D; Folkerts, G

    2016-04-01

    The incidence and severity of allergic asthma is rising, and novel strategies to prevent or treat this disease are needed. This study investigated the effects of different mixtures of non-digestible oligosaccharides combined with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (BB) on the development of allergic airway inflammation in an animal model for house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized intranasally (i.n.) with HDM and subsequently challenged (i.n.) with PBS or HDM while being fed diets containing different oligosaccharide mixtures in combination with BB or an isocaloric identical control diet. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) inflammatory cell influx, chemokine and cytokine concentrations in lung homogenates and supernatants of ex vivo HDM-restimulated lung cells were analyzed. The HDM-induced influx of eosinophils and lymphocytes was reduced by the diet containing the short-chain and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides and BB (FFBB). In addition to the HDM-induced cell influx, concentrations of IL-33, CCL17, CCL22, IL-6, IL-13 and IL-5 were increased in supernatants of lung homogenates or BALF and IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-10 were increased in restimulated lung cell suspensions of HDM-allergic mice. The diet containing FFBB reduced IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 concentrations, whereas the combination of galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides with BB was less potent in this model. These findings show that synbiotic dietary supplementation can affect respiratory allergic inflammation induced by HDM. The combination of FFBB was most effective in the prevention of HDM-induced airway inflammation in mice.

  12. A Three-Year Course of House Dust Mite Sublingual Immunotherapy Appears Effective in Controlling the Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Silviya M; Novakova, Plamena I; Yakovliev, Plamen H; Staevska, Maria T; Mateva, Nonka G; Dimcheva, Teodora D; Peichev, Jivko L

    2018-05-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disorder. Although the management of the disease is successful in many patients, based on guidelines, some of them remain with symptoms uncontrolled with pharmacotherapy. Presently, there is no substantiated information on the control of allergic rhinitis in patients who underwent sublingual immunotherapy. Objective The purpose of this prospective follow-up study was to assess the control of allergic rhinitis in adults after a three-year course of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy. Methods This prospective real-life study was designed to include adults with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis sensitized to house dust mite who underwent a three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy. Control of symptoms was assessed by Rhinitis Control Assessment Test (RCAT) after three years of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy. Additionally, patients assessed their symptoms by utilizing a visual analog scale. Results A total number of 86 consecutively enrolled patients (46 (53.49%) men; mean age 26.10 years (SD = 5.85)) with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis and clinically relevant sensitization to house dust mite were evaluated. When assessed by RCAT on the third year, 74 (86.05%) had well-controlled symptoms and 20 (27.03%) of them were completely controlled. A significant reduction in visual analog scale scores-from 7.52 cm at baseline to 2.31 cm-was established ( P < 0.0001). There was a strong negative correlation between RCAT scores and visual analog scale (r = -0.65; P < 0.01). Conclusion This study provided evidence that a three-year course of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy appears effective in controlling the symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

  13. Effect on quality of life of the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lisha; Guan, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Although many patients with allergic rhinitis have symptoms due to sensitization to more than one kind of allergens, and mixed allergen extracts are widely used for immunotherapy, there are few published trials. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of multiple-allergen immunotherapy on improving the symptoms and quality of life of allergic rhinitis patients. We performed a 1-year single-center observation study of subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract (n = 12), weed pollen extract (n = 21), or mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract (n = 11) in 44 allergic rhinitis patients. All the allergens responsible for the symptom of each patient were included in his immunotherapy. Symptom score, medication score, and quality of life of the patients were evaluated before and after 1-year immunotherapy. Quality of life was evaluated with the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. In all 3 groups receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy, significant improvement of symptom score, medication score, and quality of life was found vs. baseline at 1 year, irrespective of the allergen used. In the weed pollen season, the changes of quality of life questionnaire score after 1-year treatment were not significantly different between the weed pollen group (1.55 ± 1.24) and the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen group (1.14 ± 1.01). The same happened in the nonpollen seasons, during which dust mite immunotherapy (1.23 ± 1.63) and mixed immunotherapy (0.60 ± 0.47) did not show significantly different effect on the quality of life. The multiple-allergen immunotherapy might be effective in polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients, and could improve their quality of life. Our result did not show significant difference between the effects of multiple-allergen immunotherapy and mono-allergen immunotherapy.

  14. Definition of a pool of epitopes that recapitulates the T cell reactivity against major house dust mite allergens.

    PubMed

    Hinz, D; Oseroff, C; Pham, J; Sidney, J; Peters, B; Sette, A

    2015-10-01

    Allergens from house dust mites (HDM) are a common cause of asthma. Der p and Der f from Dermatophagoides sp. are strong immunogens in humans. Allergen extracts are used to study T helper (Th2) cell responses to HDM, which are implicated in the development and regulation of allergic disease. To define an epitope mixture that recapitulates, and might substitute for, HDM extract in terms of detecting and characterizing Th2 cell responses. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 52 HDM allergic and 10 non-allergic individuals were stimulated with HDM extracts and assayed with a set of 178 peptides spanning mite allergens group Der p 1, 2, 23 and Der f group 1 and 2 allergens. A pool of the most dominant T cell epitopes identified in the present study and from published literature was assembled and tested for ex vivo T cell responses. Correlation with HDM-specific IgE titres was examined. Patterns of T cell reactivity to Der p and Der f - derived peptides revealed a large number of epitopes. Clear patterns of immunodominance were apparent, with HDM allergen group 1 and 2 dominant over group 23. Furthermore, within a given antigen, 6-11 epitopes accounted for the vast majority of responses. Based on these results and published data, a comprehensive dust mite pool (DMP) of epitopes was designed and found to allow detection of ex vivo T cell responses. DMP ex vivo reactivity correlated with HDM-specific IgE titres and was similar to that detected with commonly used HDM extracts. Ex vivo DMP stimulation was associated with a predominant Th2 response in allergic donors, and minor reactivity of T cells producing IFNγ, IL17 and IL10. A detailed map of Der p and Der f antigens defined a pool of epitopes that can be used to detect ex vivo HDM responses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Allergens in Urban Schools and Homes of Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Permaul, Perdita; Hoffman, Elaine B.; Fu, Chunxia; Sheehan, William J.; Baxi, Sachin N.; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Lane, Jeffrey P.; Bailey, Ann; King, Eva; Chapman, Martin D.; Gold, Diane R.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies of indoor allergens have focused on the home environment. However, schools may be an important site of allergen exposure for children with asthma. We compared school allergen exposure to home exposure in a cohort of children with asthma. Correlations between settled dust and airborne allergen levels in classrooms were examined. Methods Settled dust and airborne samples from 12 inner-city schools were analyzed for indoor allergens using multiplex array technology (MARIA). School samples were linked to students with asthma enrolled in the School Inner-City Asthma Study (SICAS). Settled dust samples from students’ bedrooms were analyzed similarly. Results From schools, 229 settled dust and 197 airborne samples were obtained. From homes, 118 settled dust samples were obtained. Linear mixed regression models of log-transformed variables showed significantly higher settled dust levels of mouse, cat and dog allergens in schools than homes (545% higher for Mus m 1, estimated absolute difference 0.55 μg/g, p<0.0001; 198% higher for Fel d 1, estimated absolute difference 0.13 μg/g, p=0.0033; and 144% higher for Can f 1, estimated absolute difference 0.05 μg/g, p=0.0008). Airborne and settled dust Mus m 1 levels in classrooms were moderately correlated (r=0.48; p< 0.0001). There were undetectable to very low levels of cockroach and dust mite allergens in both homes and schools. Conclusions Mouse allergen levels in schools were substantial. In general, cat and dog allergen levels were low, but detectable, and were higher in schools. Aerosolization of mouse allergen in classrooms may be a significant exposure for students. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of indoor allergen exposure in schools on asthma morbidity in students with asthma. PMID:22672325

  16. Allergic factors associated with the development of asthma and the influence of cetirizine in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial: first results of ETAC. Early Treatment of the Atopic Child.

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    There is a common progression known as the allergic march from atopic dermatitis to allergic asthma. Cetirizine has several antiallergic properties that suggest a potential effect on the development of airway inflammation and asthma in infants with atopic dermatitis. Over a two year period, 817 infants aged one to two years who suffered from atopic dermatitis and with a history of atopic disease in a parent or sibling were included in the ETAC (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child) trial, a multi-country, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The infants were treated for 18 months with either cetirizine (0.25mg/ kg b.i.d.) or placebo. The number of infants who developed asthma was compared between the two groups. Clinical and biological assessments including analysis of total and specific IgE antibodies were performed. In the placebo group, the relative risk (RR) for developing asthma was elevated in patients with a raised level of total IgE (> or = 30 kU/l) or specific IgE (> or = 0.35 kUA/l) for grass pollen, house dust mite or cat dander (RR between 1.4 and 1.7). Compared to placebo, cetirizine significantly reduced the incidence of asthma for patients sensitised to grass pollen (RR = 0.5) or to house dust mite (RR = 0.6). However, in the population that included all infants with normal and elevated total or specific IgE (intention-to-treat - ITT), there was no difference between the numbers of infants developing asthma while receiving cetirizine or placebo. The adverse events profile was similar in the two treatment groups. Raised total IgE level and raised specific IgE levels to grass pollen, house dust mite or cat dander were predictive of subsequent asthma. Cetirizine halved the number of patients developing asthma in the subgroups sensitised to grass pollen or house dust mite (i.e. 20% of the study population). In view of the proven safety of the drug, we propose this treatment as a primary pharmacological intervention strategy to prevent the

  17. Interferon response factor 3 is essential for house dust mite-induced airway allergy.

    PubMed

    Marichal, Thomas; Bedoret, Denis; Mesnil, Claire; Pichavant, Muriel; Goriely, Stanislas; Trottein, François; Cataldo, Didier; Goldman, Michel; Lekeux, Pierre; Bureau, Fabrice; Desmet, Christophe J

    2010-10-01

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critically involved in the pathophysiology of airway allergy, yet most of the signaling pathways downstream of PRRs implicated in allergic airway sensitization remain unknown. We sought to study the effects of genetic depletion of interferon response factor (IRF) 3 and IRF7, important transcription factors downstream of various PRRs, in a murine model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma. We compared HDM-induced allergic immune responses in IRF3-deficient (IRF3(-/-)), IRF7(-/-), and wild-type mice. Parameters of airway allergy caused by HDM exposure were strongly attenuated in IRF3(-/-), but not IRF7(-/-), mice compared with those in wild-type mice. Indeed, in HDM-exposed IRF3(-/-) mice HDM-specific T(H)2 cell responses did not develop. This correlated with impaired maturation and migration of IRF3(-/-) lung dendritic cells (DCs) on HDM treatment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of HDM-loaded DCs indicated that IRF3(-/-) DCs had an intrinsic defect rendering them unable to migrate and to prime HDM-specific T(H)2 responses. Intriguingly, we also show that DC function and allergic airway sensitization in response to HDM were independent of signaling by type I interferons, the main target genes of IRF3. Through its role in DC function, IRF3, mainly known as a central activator of antiviral immunity, is essential for the development of T(H)2-type responses to airway allergens. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Outstanding animal studies in allergy I. From asthma to food allergy and anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Roth-Walter, Franziska

    2017-06-01

    Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results. Instead of model antigens, gradually relevant allergens such as house dust mite in asthma, and food allergens like peanut, apple and peach in food allergy research were used. Novel engineered mouse models such as a mouse with a T-cell receptor for house dust mite allergen Der p 1, or with transgenic human hFcγR genes, facilitated the investigation of single molecules of interest. Whole-body plethysmography has become a state-of-the-art in-vivo readout in asthma research. In food allergy and anaphylaxis research, novel techniques were developed allowing real-time monitoring of in-vivo effects following allergen challenge. Networks to share tissues were established as an effort to reduce animal experiments in allergy which cannot be replaced by in-vitro measures. Natural and artificial animal models were used to explore the pathophysiology of asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis and to improve prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Especially the novel mouse models mimicking molecular aspects of the complex immune network in asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis will facilitate proof-of-concept studies under controlled conditions.

  19. Occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to grain dust.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H. S.; Nahm, D. H.; Suh, C. H.; Kwon, O. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, S. W.; Chung, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate type I hypersensitivity to grain dust (GD), its prevalence and relationship to respiratory dysfunction, we studied clinical and immunologic features, including skin prick tests (SPT), serum specific IgE, and bronchoprovocation tests of 43 employees working in the animal feed industry. To further characterize IgE-mediated reaction, SDS-PAGE and electroblot studies were performed. Our survey revealed that 15 (34.9%) subjects had work-related skin response (> or =2+ of A/H ratio) to GD, thirteen (30.2%) had high specific IgE antibody against GD. The specific IgE antibody was detected more frequently in symptomatic workers (40%) than in asymptomatic workers (11%). Significant association was found between specific IgE antibody and atopy or smoking (p<0.05). The ELISA inhibition test of GD revealed significant inhibitions by GD extract and minimal inhibitions by the house dust mite, storage mite and corn dust. Immunoblot analysis showed 8 IgE binding components within GD ranging from 13.5 to 142.5 kDa. Two bands (13.5, 33 kDa) were bound to the IgE from more than 50% of the 14 sera tested. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GD inhalation could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers. PMID:9681805

  20. Occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to grain dust.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Nahm, D H; Suh, C H; Kwon, O Y; Kim, K S; Lee, S W; Chung, H K

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate type I hypersensitivity to grain dust (GD), its prevalence and relationship to respiratory dysfunction, we studied clinical and immunologic features, including skin prick tests (SPT), serum specific IgE, and bronchoprovocation tests of 43 employees working in the animal feed industry. To further characterize IgE-mediated reaction, SDS-PAGE and electroblot studies were performed. Our survey revealed that 15 (34.9%) subjects had work-related skin response (> or =2+ of A/H ratio) to GD, thirteen (30.2%) had high specific IgE antibody against GD. The specific IgE antibody was detected more frequently in symptomatic workers (40%) than in asymptomatic workers (11%). Significant association was found between specific IgE antibody and atopy or smoking (p<0.05). The ELISA inhibition test of GD revealed significant inhibitions by GD extract and minimal inhibitions by the house dust mite, storage mite and corn dust. Immunoblot analysis showed 8 IgE binding components within GD ranging from 13.5 to 142.5 kDa. Two bands (13.5, 33 kDa) were bound to the IgE from more than 50% of the 14 sera tested. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GD inhalation could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers.

  1. Comparative efficacy of house dust mite extermination products.

    PubMed

    Schober, G; Kniest, F M; Kort, H S; De Saint Georges Gridelet, D M; Van Bronswijk, J E

    1992-06-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of nine marketed products, i.e. Acardust, Acarosan (foam and powder), Actelic 50, Artilin 3A (spirit and water base), liquid nitrogen, Paragerm AK, and Tymasil, and of intensive vacuum-cleaning have been compared on four different test surfaces: mattress, tufted carpet, gypsum board and rough wooden board, all covered with artificial house dust. They were inoculated with the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus or the house-dust fungus Aspergillus repens for evaluation of the fungistatic claims of some products. The acaricidal activity of Tymasil did not surpass that of vacuuming; its fungistatic effect was not apparent. The other products showed complete to almost complete eradication on at least one of the substrates tested. Taking into account the results of acaricidal efficacy as well as the data on safety and practicality acquired earlier, Acarosan powder was considered first choice for carpet treatment. Acarosan and liquid nitrogen, were found to be effective in the treatment of mattress, pillow, upholstered furniture and heavy curtains. On wooden surfaces Acarosan was found to be both effective and safe, while Acardust, Actelic 50, Artilin 3A (both fungistatic as well as acaricidal), liquid nitrogen and Paragerm also passed the efficiency test.

  2. House Dust Endotoxin Levels Are Associated with Adult Asthma in a U.S. Farming Population

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Megan Ulmer; Hoppin, Jane A.; Metwali, Nervana; Wyss, Annah B.; Hankinson, John L.; O’Connell, Elizabeth Long; Richards, Marie; Long, Stuart; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Sandler, Dale P.; Henneberger, Paul K.; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Umbach, David M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Endotoxin initiates a proinflammatory response from the innate immune system. Studies in children suggest that endotoxin exposure from house dust may be an important risk factor for asthma, but few studies have been conducted in adult populations. Objectives: To investigate the association of house dust endotoxin levels with asthma and related phenotypes (wheeze, atopy, and pulmonary function) in a large U.S. farming population. Methods: Dust was collected from the bedrooms (n = 2,485) of participants enrolled in a case–control study of current asthma (927 cases) nested within the Agricultural Health Study. Dust endotoxin was measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Outcomes were measured by questionnaire, spirometry, and blood draw. We evaluated associations using linear and logistic regression. Measurements and Main Results: Endotoxin was significantly associated with current asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–1.47), and this relationship was modified by early-life farm exposure (born on a farm: OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02–1.37; not born on a farm: OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.26–2.20; Interaction P = 0.05). Significant positive associations were seen with both atopic and nonatopic asthma. Endotoxin was not related to either atopy or wheeze. Higher endotoxin was related to lower FEV1/FVC in asthma cases only (Interaction P = 0.01). For asthma, there was suggestive evidence of a gene-by-environment interaction for the CD14 variant rs2569190 (Interaction P = 0.16) but not for the TLR4 variants rs4986790 and rs4986791. Conclusions: House dust endotoxin was associated with current atopic and nonatopic asthma in a U.S. farming population. The degree of the association with asthma depended on early-life farm exposures. Furthermore, endotoxin was associated with lower pulmonary function in patients with asthma. PMID:27977294

  3. House Dust Endotoxin Levels Are Associated with Adult Asthma in a U.S. Farming Population.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Megan Ulmer; Hoppin, Jane A; Metwali, Nervana; Wyss, Annah B; Hankinson, John L; O'Connell, Elizabeth Long; Richards, Marie; Long, Stuart; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P; Henneberger, Paul K; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Umbach, David M; Thorne, Peter S; London, Stephanie J

    2017-03-01

    Endotoxin initiates a proinflammatory response from the innate immune system. Studies in children suggest that endotoxin exposure from house dust may be an important risk factor for asthma, but few studies have been conducted in adult populations. To investigate the association of house dust endotoxin levels with asthma and related phenotypes (wheeze, atopy, and pulmonary function) in a large U.S. farming population. Dust was collected from the bedrooms (n = 2,485) of participants enrolled in a case-control study of current asthma (927 cases) nested within the Agricultural Health Study. Dust endotoxin was measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Outcomes were measured by questionnaire, spirometry, and blood draw. We evaluated associations using linear and logistic regression. Endotoxin was significantly associated with current asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.47), and this relationship was modified by early-life farm exposure (born on a farm: OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.37; not born on a farm: OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.26-2.20; Interaction P = 0.05). Significant positive associations were seen with both atopic and nonatopic asthma. Endotoxin was not related to either atopy or wheeze. Higher endotoxin was related to lower FEV 1 /FVC in asthma cases only (Interaction P = 0.01). For asthma, there was suggestive evidence of a gene-by-environment interaction for the CD14 variant rs2569190 (Interaction P = 0.16) but not for the TLR4 variants rs4986790 and rs4986791. House dust endotoxin was associated with current atopic and nonatopic asthma in a U.S. farming population. The degree of the association with asthma depended on early-life farm exposures. Furthermore, endotoxin was associated with lower pulmonary function in patients with asthma.

  4. School exposure and asthma.

    PubMed

    Esty, Brittany; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2018-05-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of common school exposures and the association between school exposures and pediatric asthma morbidity. A comprehensive literature review was performed using PubMed. Full-length, peer-reviewed studies published in English were considered for review. In vivo, in vitro, and animal studies were excluded. Studies of school exposure to cockroach, mouse, dust mite, dog, cat, molds, pollution, and endotoxin associated with asthma and asthma morbidity were considered. The current literature establishes an association between school exposure and pediatric asthma morbidity. There is a need for ongoing research to evaluate the effects of school-based environmental interventions on asthma morbidity. It is evident that the indoor school environment is a significant reservoir of allergens, molds, pollutants, and endotoxin and that there is an association between school exposure and pediatric asthma morbidity. School-based interventions have the potential for substantial individual, community, and public health benefit. It is important that researchers continue to study the health effects associated with school exposures and assess cost-effectiveness of multifaceted school-based interventions. Copyright © 2018 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-01-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC 50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC 50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus. PMID:17111463

  6. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-12-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC(50) of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC(50) values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

  7. Clinical and immunological responses of dust mite sensitive, atopic dogs to treatment with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT).

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Douglas J; Verbrugge, Maria; Morris, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been reported to be beneficial in people with atopic dermatitis (AD) and dust mite sensitivity. Evaluation of this therapy has not been reported in spontaneous canine AD. The objective of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the effectiveness of an established SLIT protocol, as used in human patients, in dogs with AD. Ten dust mite sensitive dogs with spontaneous AD. Dogs underwent a 6 month open trial of SLIT concurrently with decreasing dose oral methylprednisolone. Clinical evaluations and quantitative serum anti-mite IgE and IgG levels were performed every 2 months. Mean methylprednisolone use from the first 2 months of the study to the final 2 months declined from 10.2 to 4.3 mg/kg/2 months (P < 0.001, Student's paired t-test); at 6 months, four dogs required no oral corticosteroid administration. Over the course of the study, median Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 scores declined from 76.5 to 59; median pruritus scores declined from 65 to 37 (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Pre- and post-SLIT intradermal test scores for mite allergen were not significantly different over time. Median Dermatophagoides farinae (DF)-specific IgE levels declined significantly from 150.2 × 10(3) AU/mL to 3.6 × 10(3) AU/mL (P < 0.05). Concurrently, median DF-specific IgG levels increased from 18.5 × 10(6) AU/mL to 3923.4 × 10(6) AU/mL (P < 0.05; Wilcoxon signed-rank tests). SLIT treatment produced clinical improvement in dogs with dust mite-associated AD and was associated with serological changes supporting this improvement. Further studies in larger numbers of dogs and those with polysensitization are warranted. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. [A case of chrome asthma induced by exposure to the stone cutter dust].

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Reiko; Tanabe, Kimiko; Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Fukuchi, Tetsuroh; Nakata, Kazunori; Hiki, Toshinobu

    2006-12-01

    The case of a forty-six year old, male patient with asthma caused by exposure to dust containing chrome is presented. When the patient was nineteen years old, he started working as a stonemason in a factory. He cut and ground stone with a stone-cutter to make statues and tombstones. Three years after staring to work, contact dermatitis was observed on his arms and hands. Within six years of work, he suffered from chronic coughing. After eight years, he experienced bronchial asthma attacks with wheezing and dyspnea. He had been exposed to dust for eight years before developing asthma. The symptoms increased gradually. He fell into severe asthma attacks causing unconsciousness and dyspnea. Several common therapies were not effective. The characteristics of his clinical course and occupational history suggested that the asthma must be caused by exposure to dust containing metal generated in the factory. Skin Patch Tests (SPT) were performed for cobalt, copper, iron, chrome, tin, and manganese salt. The result of the SPT indicated a strong positive result for potassium dichromate and positive for chromium sulfate, but did not show any indications in the control or for other metallic salt. Fluorescent X-ray analysis detected that chrome was present in the powder dust under the stone-cutter machine. However, the fluorescent X-ray analysis did not detect chrome in the stone materials. It was suggested that chrome must be contained in the metal dust generated from the steel cutter used to cut off and grind the stone. The metal component in the used cutter edge and the unused cutter edge were analyzed with electro-probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The result revealed that chrome was contained in the used, dull cutter edge and not in the new sharp cutter edge. Thus, the patient had been exposed to the dust containing chrome generated from part of the stainless steel of cutter. He had sensitized to chrome and this had caused the occupational chrome-asthma.

  9. Outstanding animal studies in allergy I. From asthma to food allergy and anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Roth-Walter, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. Recent findings While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results. Instead of model antigens, gradually relevant allergens such as house dust mite in asthma, and food allergens like peanut, apple and peach in food allergy research were used. Novel engineered mouse models such as a mouse with a T-cell receptor for house dust mite allergen Der p 1, or with transgenic human hFcγR genes, facilitated the investigation of single molecules of interest. Whole-body plethysmography has become a state-of-the-art in-vivo readout in asthma research. In food allergy and anaphylaxis research, novel techniques were developed allowing real-time monitoring of in-vivo effects following allergen challenge. Networks to share tissues were established as an effort to reduce animal experiments in allergy which cannot be replaced by in-vitro measures. Summary Natural and artificial animal models were used to explore the pathophysiology of asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis and to improve prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Especially the novel mouse models mimicking molecular aspects of the complex immune network in asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis will facilitate proof-of-concept studies under controlled conditions. PMID:28346234

  10. Environmental risk factors of childhood asthma in urban centers.

    PubMed

    Malveaux, F J; Fletcher-Vincent, S A

    1995-09-01

    Asthma morbidity and mortality are disproportionately high in urban centers, and minority children are especially vulnerable. Factors that contribute to this dilemma include inadequate preventive medical care for asthma management, inadequate asthma knowledge and management skills among children and their families, psychosocial factors, and environmental exposure to allergens or irritants. Living in substandard housing often constitutes excess exposure to indoor allergens and pollutants. Allergens associated with dust mites (DM) and cockroaches (CR) are probably important in both onset and worsening of asthma symptoms for children who are chronically exposed to these agents. Young children spend a great deal of time on or near the floor where these allergens are concentrated in dust. Of children (2 to 10 years of age) living in metropolitan Washington, DC, 60% were found to be sensitive to CR and 72% were allergic to DM. Exposure to tobacco smoke contributes to onset of asthma earlier in life and is a risk factor for asthma morbidity. Since disparity of asthma mortality and morbidity among minority children in urban centers is closely linked to socioeconomic status and poverty, measures to reduce exposure to environmental allergens and irritants and to eliminate barriers to access to health care are likely to have a major positive impact. Interventions for children in urban centers must focus on prevention of asthma symptoms and promotion of wellness.

  11. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy: An Overview of Current Therapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the efficacy of pharmacotherapy treatment for known HDM-allergic patients is weaker. The standard diagnostic techniques--skin prick test and specific IgE testing--can be confounded by cross-reactivity. However, component-resolved diagnosis using purified and recombinant allergens can improve the accuracy of specific IgE testing, but availability is limited. Treatment options for HDM allergy are limited and include HDM avoidance, which is widely recommended as a strategy, although evidence for its efficacy is variable. Clinical efficacy of pharmacotherapy is well documented; however, symptom relief does not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease, as well as further development and improved access to molecular allergy diagnosis. Furthermore, there is a need for the development of better-designed clinical trials to explore the utility of allergen-specific approaches, and uptake of data into guidance for physicians on more effective diagnosis and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a potential novel biomarker in childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xin; Yang, Yong-chang; Wang, Jing-feng; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Jie; Fu, Wen-liang; Zhu, Ze-yi; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Zou, Min-ji; Wang, Jia-xi; Xu, Dong-qun; Xu, Dong-gang

    2013-03-01

    The presence of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) in human peripheral blood cells may suggest a role under pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the expression profile of TRPV2 gene and childhood asthma in the north of China. The effects of allergens exposure on the expression of TRPV2 gene were also investigated. Sixty asthmatics children confirmed by physician diagnosis and 60 healthy children as a control group were recruited. Serum total IgE and specific IgE were measured. Using quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), TRPV2 was detected in total RNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Student's t-test and chi-square test were used to analyze the relationship between TRPV2 transcript and different parameter variables on susceptibility of childhood asthma. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between TRPV2 gene and allergens. The expression level of TRPV2 gene was increased 2.6 times in asthmatic children compared with controls (p < .01). The up-regulation of TRPV2 gene and sensitization to one of three the allergens-spring pollen, dust mite, and dog and cat hair-were correlated with childhood asthma. In addition, the hypersensitivity to spring pollen, cockroach, and dust mite and up-regulation of TRPV2 gene expression may be the risk factors for the childhood asthma in Beijing. The increased expression of TRPV2 gene in peripheral lymphocytes is closely correlated with childhood asthma in the north of China. This study provides a potential new biomarker of childhood asthma and lays the basis for further clarification of the pathogenesis underlying asthma.

  13. [Prevalence of sensitization to allergens in school children with asthma residents from Guadalajara metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Alcalá-Padilla, Guadalupe; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Kestler-Gramajo, Amanda; Valdez-López, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is dependent on the geographical and climatic conditions in each region; therefore, identify agents most commonly sensitized children with asthma is important for planning prevention measures. To determine the prevalence of the sensitization to allergens in children with asthma. This cross-sectional and prolective study includes children from ages 6 to 14, who have asthma, attended for the first time in an allergy service. The patients were recruited consecutively between the months of January 1st 2014 to December 31st 2014. The frequency of the allergen sensitization was estimated. This study included 186 children, the median age was 7 years olds, the male group was 104/186 (55.9%) The median of the positive results was 5 and monosensitized were 47/186 (2.2%). The most common category of allergens was the indoor (90.3%), then trees (71.0%), and finally the fungi (9.7%). Individually, the house dust mites were more common in between the interior allergens, followed by the epithelial; in the tree pollen were oaks (31.7%) and ashes (28.0%), in weeds was mugwort (21.5%), in grasses was Zea mays (18.3%) and in the fungi was Cladosporium spp. (6.5%). The high prevalence of the sensitization to house dust mites and epithelial in children with asthma, stimulates to implement methods of environmental control for contributing a better control of the disease.

  14. Association between KIR genes and dust mite sensitization in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Caniatti, Marcela Caleffi da Costa Lima; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Guilherme, Ana Lúcia Falavigna; Franzener, Soraya Barrionuevo; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie

    2018-01-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), found on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, play a key role in controlling the innate response. Such response depends on a series of cellular interactions between these receptors and HLA activating/inhibiting ligands. Atopic diseases have been associated with genes that regulate cytokine production and HLA genes, which may either protect or predispose to hypersensitivity. To verify an association study of KIR genes with sensitization to the following mites: Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Blomia tropicalis. A total of 341 children aged up to 14 years, were classified as mite-sensitive or mite-insensitive after undergoing a skin prick test for immediate allergic reactions. The presence/absence of KIR genes and their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands was determined by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) with the commercial kit LabType™ using Luminex™. The frequencies of KIR genes and their respective class I HLA ligands and the frequency of haplotypes were performed in sensitive and insensitive individuals, and no significant differences were found. Our results suggest no influence of KIR genes on resistance/susceptibility to sensitization to dust mites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  16. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    PubMed Central

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

  17. Occupational agriculture organic dust exposure and its relationship to asthma and airway inflammation in adults.

    PubMed

    Wunschel, Javen; Poole, Jill A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have made advances into understanding the complex agriculture work exposure environment in influencing asthma in adults. The objective of this study is to review studies of occupational agricultural exposures including dust, animal, and pesticide exposures with asthma in adult populations. PubMed databases were searched for articles pertaining to farming, agriculture, asthma, occupational asthma, airway inflammation, respiratory disease, lung disease, pesticides, and organic dust. Studies chosen were published in or after 1999 that included adults and asthma and farming/agricultural work or agricultural exposures and airway inflammatory disease measurements. The data remain inconclusive. Several retrospective studies demonstrate agricultural work to be protective against asthma in adults, especially with increased farming exposure over time. In contrast, other studies find increased risk of asthma with farming exposures, especially for the non-atopic adult. Mechanistic and genetic studies have focused on defining the wide variety and abundance of microorganisms within these complex organic dusts that trigger several pattern recognition receptor pathways to modulate the hosts' response. Asthma risk depends on the interplay of genetic factors, gender, atopic predisposition, type of livestock, pesticide exposure, and magnitude and duration of exposure in the adult subject. Longer exposure to occupational farming is associated with decreased asthma risk. However, studies also suggest that agricultural work and multiple types of livestock are independent risk factors for developing asthma. Prospective and longitudinal studies focusing on genetic polymorphisms, objective assessments, and environmental sampling are needed to further delineate the influence of agriculture exposure in the adult worker.

  18. Advances in asthma in 2016: Designing individualized approaches to management.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William C; Apter, Andrea J; Dutmer, Cullen M; Searing, Daniel A; Szefler, Stanley J

    2017-09-01

    In this year's Advances in Asthma review, we discuss viral infections in asthmatic patients and potential therapeutic agents, the microbiome, novel genetic associations with asthma, air quality and climate effects on asthma, exposures during development and long-term sequelae of childhood asthma, patient-centered outcomes research, and precision medicine. In addition, we discuss application of biomarkers to precision medicine and new information on asthma medications. New evidence indicates that rhinovirus-triggered asthma exacerbations become more severe as the degree of sensitization to dust mite and mouse increase. The 2 biggest drivers of asthma severity are an allergy pathway starting with allergic sensitization and an environmental tobacco smoke pathway. In addition, allergic sensitization and blood eosinophils can be used to select medications for management of early asthma in young children. These current findings, among others covered in this review, represent significant steps toward addressing rapidly advancing areas of knowledge that have implications for asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The descriptive epidemiology of house dust mite-specific and total immunoglobin E in England using a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Court, C S; Cook, D G; Strachan, D P

    2002-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that IgE levels vary according to factors such as age, gender and smoking but most studies have been small and none have been based on a nationally representative sample. To investigate the influence of epidemiological factors on serum total IgE and house dust mite-specific IgE levels. An interviewer-led questionnaire was carried out and blood samples taken from 24 952 people aged 11 and over as part of the 1995 and 1996 Health Surveys for England. Serum total IgE and house dust mite-specific IgE were measured. Both total and house dust mite-specific IgE were more frequently raised in men and in younger age groups. After adjusting for age and sex, raised total IgE was more common in current smokers and non-white ethnic groups and was not related to social class. The higher levels in non-white ethnic groups was not explained by smoking, urban living or being born outside the UK. Whilst total IgE levels declined in older age groups in non-smokers, among smokers they increased across successive age groups from 50 years onwards. In contrast, following adjustment for age and sex, raised house dust mite IgE was more common in non-manual workers and in some non-white ethnic groups but was not related to smoking. This large nationwide study provides further confirmation of differing epidemiological patterns for total serum IgE and allergen-specific sensitization. Indicative ranges for 'usual' values for a wide range of ages among men and women in England are given.

  20. Indoor mite allergens in patients with respiratory allergy living in Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Plácido, J L; Cuesta, C; Delgado, L; da Silva, J P; Miranda, M; Ventas, P; Vaz, M

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the levels of mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, and Lep d 1) in dust samples from the homes of 59 patients with asthma, 36 sensitized to house-dust mites (HDM) and 23 to grass pollen (controls), living in Porto, northern Portugal. The relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM and the influence of housing conditions on mite-allergen levels were also evaluated. Der p 1 (median 9.2 micrograms/g) and Der 2 (4.6 micrograms/g) were the main allergens, while Der f 1 and Lep d 1 levels were always < 1 microgram/g dust and undetectable in 11% and 47% of samples, respectively. All HDM-sensitized asthmatics were exposed to Der p 1 levels > 2 micrograms/g and their homes contained significantly higher levels of Der p 1 (median 12.5 vs 6.4 micrograms/g; P = 0.008) and Der 2 (6.2 vs 3.0 micrograms/g; P = 0.004) when compared to the control group. A significant correlation was observed between the exposure to Der p 1 and the wheal area at skin testing with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) extract (P = 0.01) as well as with serum specific IgE levels to Dp (P = 0.03). Patients with higher levels of serum specific IgE (> or = 17.5 HRU/ml) were also more frequently exposed to Der p 1 levels > or = 10 micrograms/g (P = 0.002). Old homes, presence of carpets, and signs of dampness were conditions associated with significantly higher levels of mite allergens. In conclusion, we found high levels of Der p 1 and Der 2 particularly in the homes of HDM-sensitized patients and we confirm the relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM, assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In additional to a favorable outdoor climate, we found in our region housing conditions propitious to mite growth, suggesting that specific geographic characteristics must also be taken into account for the correct planning of mite-avoidance measures.

  1. Baker's asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Alonso, E; Ausín, A; Elices, A; Moreno-Escobosa, M; Ibáñez, M; Laso, M

    2001-01-01

    baker's asthma is a well-known occupational lung disease which usually develops in adults. We report the case of a two years old boy who suffered from asthma, urticaria and atopic dermatitis for twelve months, whose symptoms were associated to visits to his grandfather's bakery. skin prick tests (SPT) were made to dust mites, moulds, flours, alfa-amylase and egg. It was also determined total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to alfa-amylase and flours. Subsequently, a challenge test was carried out with wheat flour. The SPTs were positive to flours, alfa-amylase and egg. The determination of specific IgE antibodies showed 2.64 kU/L to wheat, 0.79 kU/L to glyadin and 2.98 kU/L to alfa-amylase. The patient developed asthma and rhinitis after manipulating wheat flour for 10 min. we demonstrated a type I hypersensitivity to wheat flour and alfa-amylase in a two years old child by SPT, specific IgE antibodies and challenge test. This case in the childhood equivalent of occupational baker's asthma.

  2. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens: the classroom may be a culprit.

    PubMed

    Epstien, B L

    2001-10-01

    Asthma has become the most common chronic illness among children. Indoor environments appear to play a substantial role in the development of asthma. Recent studies indicate strong evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to certain indoor environmental pollutants and development and/or exacerbation of asthma in susceptible individuals. Allergens of concern include those produced by dust mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds. It is important to better understand this relationship and take preventive and corrective steps to reduce or eliminate these sources in schools, homes, and day care centers. Measures include tracking of asthma and allergic response incidents; monitoring for the presence of allergens and molds; effective cleaning procedures; prompt repair of water leaks and/or moisture problems; control of indoor relative humidity; and proper operation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

  3. House-dust mite allergy: mapping of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens for dogs by two-dimensional immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luís Miguel Lourenço; Marques, Andreia Grilo; Pereira, Luísa Maria Dotti Silva; Goicoa, Ana; Semião-Santos, Saul José; Bento, Ofélia Pereira

    2015-04-01

    Specific immunotherapy has shown to be very useful for allergy control in dogs, with a common success rate ranging from 65% to 70%. However, this efficacy could probably be improved and the identification of individual allergomes, with the choice of more adequate molecular allergen pools for specific immunotherapy, being the strategy. To map Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) allergens for mite-sensitized atopic dogs, for better understanding how individual allergograms may influence the response to house-dust mite immunotherapy. To identify the Der p mite allergome for dogs, 20 individuals allergic to dust-mites and sensitized to Der p, were selected. The extract from Der p was submitted to isoelectric focusing (IEF), one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Separated proteins were blotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes and immunoblottings were performed with patient sera. Allergen-bound specific IgE was detected. Eleven allergens were identified from isoelectric focusing (IEF), as well as from 1-D SDS PAGE. From 2-D SDS-PAGE, 24 spots were identified. Several similarities were found between dog and human allergograms and no absolute correlation between sensitization and allergy was observed either. As in humans, different individual allergograms do not seem to implicate different clinical patterns, but may influence the response to specific immunotherapy. The molecular epidemiology approach in veterinary allergy management, by the characterization of individual patients' allergoms and by choosing the best molecular allergen pool for each patient could also improve the efficacy of allergy immunotherapy.

  4. Ecological relationships between xerophilic fungi and house-dust mites (Acarida: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Lustgraaf, B V D

    1978-01-01

    At. 75 and 80% relative humidity (RH), on a wheat germ flake medium, Aspergillus penicilloides grew abundantly and suppressed the population growth of Dermatophagoides pteronyssiunus. At 71% RH, A. penicilloides grew moderately and was only antagonistic to D. pteronyssinus when the fungus was previously incubated on the medium.On a human dander medium and on mattress dust, A. penicilloides grew moderately at 71% and 75% RH and stimulated the development of D. pteronyssinus populations. Also a moderate growth of Eurotium repens on human dander positively influenced D. pteronyssinus. Wallemia sebi and Penicillium brevicompactum grew slightly or did not grow at all at 75% RH. No effect was observed on D. pteronyssinus.It appears that xerophilic fungi may stimulate, and occasionally may reduce, the growth of house-dust mite populations in the natural environment.

  5. Repeated measurements of mite and pet allergen levels in house dust over a time period of 8 years.

    PubMed

    Antens, C J M; Oldenwening, M; Wolse, A; Gehring, U; Smit, H A; Aalberse, R C; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; de Jongste, J C; Brunekreef, B

    2006-12-01

    Studies of the association between indoor allergen exposure and the development of allergic diseases have often measured allergen exposure at one point in time. We investigated the variability of house dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergen in Dutch homes over a period of 8 years. Data were obtained in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. Dust from the child's mattress, the parents' mattress and the living room floor was collected at four points in time, when the child was 3 months, 4, 6 and 8 years old. Dust samples were analysed for Der p 1, Der f 1 and Fel d 1 by sandwich enzyme immuno assay. Mite allergen concentrations for the child's mattress, the parents' mattress and the living room floor were moderately correlated between time-points. Agreement was better for cat allergen. For Der p 1 and Der f 1 on the child's mattress, the within-home variance was close to or smaller than the between-home variance in most cases. For Fel d 1, the within-home variance was almost always smaller than the between-home variance. Results were similar for allergen levels expressed per gram of dust and allergen levels expressed per square metre of the sampled surface. Variance ratios were smaller when samples were taken at shorter time intervals than at longer time intervals. Over a period of 4 years, mite and cat allergens measured in house dust are sufficiently stable to use single measurements with confidence in epidemiological studies. The within-home variance was larger when samples were taken 8 years apart so that over such long periods, repetition of sampling is recommended.

  6. Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

  7. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen.

    PubMed

    Resch, Yvonne; Blatt, Katharina; Malkus, Ursula; Fercher, Christian; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Seiberler, Susanne; Mittermann, Irene; Lupinek, Christian; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Azahara; Zieglmayer, Petra; Zieglmayer, René; Keller, Walter; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated. To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level. Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects). IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98) and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments. Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients. Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy.

  8. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Yvonne; Blatt, Katharina; Malkus, Ursula; Fercher, Christian; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Chen, Kuan-Wei; Seiberler, Susanne; Mittermann, Irene; Lupinek, Christian; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Azahara; Zieglmayer, Petra; Zieglmayer, René; Keller, Walter; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background The house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated. Objective To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level. Methods Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects). IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98) and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments. Results Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients. Conclusion Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy. PMID:27548813

  9. [Serious systemic adverse events associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in children with asthma].

    PubMed

    Dai, Li; Huang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Han, Huan-Li; Li, Qu-Bei; Jiang, Yong-Hui

    2014-01-01

    To retrospectively assess serious systemic adverse effects of standardized dust-mite vaccine in children with asthma. Medical records of 704 children (5-17 years in age) with asthma between January, 2005 and December, 2011 were reviewed. Serious systemic adverse events following treatment with a standardized dust-mite vaccine in these children were analyzed. A total of 336 systemic adverse reactions were observed in 17.0% (120/704) of the patients analyzed of these adverse reactions, 18 (5.4%) were serious (level 3), 318 (94.6%) were not serious (below level 3), and no single case of anaphylactic shock (level 4) was recorded. Systemic adverse events occurred most frequently in the 5 to 11-year age group and in the summer season (from June to August). In the 18 severe cases, the peak expiratory flow (PEF) dropped by 20% immediately after the vaccine injection, and other major clinical symptoms included cough, wheezing and urticaria. All children with serious systemic adverse effects were given inhaled hormone and atomized short-acting beta agonists, oral antihistamines, intravenous dexamethasone and/or intramuscular adrenaline. After these treatments, the clinical symptoms were significantly relieved. The rate of serious systemic adverse events following allergen-specific immunotherapy is relatively low in children with allergic asthma. Conventional medications are effective in managing these immunotherapy-associated adverse events.

  10. Pyroglyphid mites as a source of work-related allergens.

    PubMed

    Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Milković-Kraus, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Pyroglyphid mites are primarily associated with allergen exposure at home; hence the name house dust mites. However, we have found numerous studies reporting pyroglyhid mite levels in public and occupational settings. This review presents the findings of house dust mite allergens (family Pyroglyphidae, species Dermatophagoides) as potential work-related risk factors and proposes occupations at risk of house dust mite-related diseases. Pyroglyphid mites or their allergens are found in various workplaces, but clinically relevant exposures have been observed in hotels, cinemas, schools, day-care centres, libraries, public transportation (buses, trains, taxies, and airplanes), fishing-boats, submarines, poultry farms, and churches. Here we propose a classification of occupational risk as low (occasional exposure to mite allergen levels up to 2 μg g(-1)), moderate (exposure between 2 μg g(-1) and 10 μg g(-1)), and high (exposure >10 μg g(-1)). The classification of risk should include factors relevant for indoor mite population (climate, building characteristics, and cleaning schedule). To avoid development or aggravation of allergies associated with exposure to house dust mites at work, occupational physicians should assess exposure risk at work, propose proper protection, provide vocational guidance to persons at risk and conduct pre-employment and periodic examinations to diagnose new allergy cases. Protection at work should aim to control dust mite levels at work. Measures may include proper interior design and regular cleaning and building maintenance.

  11. T Follicular Helper Cell Plasticity Shapes Pathogenic T Helper 2 Cell-Mediated Immunity to Inhaled House Dust Mite.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Tato, André; Randall, Troy D; Lund, Frances E; Spolski, Rosanne; Leonard, Warren J; León, Beatriz

    2016-02-16

    Exposure to environmental antigens, such as house dust mite (HDM), often leads to T helper 2 (Th2) cell-driven allergic responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of these responses are incompletely understood. We found that the initial exposure to HDM did not lead to Th2 cell development but instead promoted the formation of interleukin-4 (IL-4)-committed T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Following challenge exposure to HDM, Tfh cells differentiated into IL-4 and IL-13 double-producing Th2 cells that accumulated in the lung and recruited eosinophils. B cells were required to expand IL-4-committed Tfh cells during the sensitization phase, but did not directly contribute to disease. Impairment of Tfh cell responses during the sensitization phase or Tfh cell depletion prevented Th2 cell-mediated responses following challenge. Thus, our data demonstrate that Tfh cells are precursors of HDM-specific Th2 cells and reveal an unexpected role of B cells and Tfh cells in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. House dust mite induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in EoL-1 human eosinophilic leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Byoung Chul; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2007-10-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is considered to be the most common indoor allergen associated with bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated whether crude extract of the HDM Dermatophagoides farinae could activate human eosinophilic leukemic cells (EoL-1) to induce upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules. When EoL-1 cells were incubated with D. farinae extract, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) significantly increased on the cell surfaces compared to cells incubated with medium alone. In contrast, surface expression of CD11b and CD49d in EoL-1 cells was not affected by D. farinae extract. In addition, pretreatment of cells with NF-kappaB inhibitor (MG-132) or JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly inhibited ICAM-1 expression promoted by HDM extract. However, neither p38 MAP kinase inhibitor nor MEK inhibitor prevented HDM-induced ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells. These results suggest that crude extract of D. farinae induces ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells through signaling pathways involving both NF-kappaB and JNK.

  13. House Dust Mite Induces Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in EoL-1 Human Eosinophilic Leukemic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Byoung Chul; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2007-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is considered to be the most common indoor allergen associated with bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated whether crude extract of the HDM Dermatophagoides farinae could activate human eosinophilic leukemic cells (EoL-1) to induce upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules. When EoL-1 cells were incubated with D. farinae extract, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) significantly increased on the cell surfaces compared to cells incubated with medium alone. In contrast, surface expression of CD11b and CD49d in EoL-1 cells was not affected by D. farinae extract. In addition, pretreatment of cells with NF-κB inhibitor (MG-132) or JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly inhibited ICAM-1 expression promoted by HDM extract. However, neither p38 MAP kinase inhibitor nor MEK inhibitor prevented HDM-induced ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells. These results suggest that crude extract of D. farinae induces ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells through signaling pathways involving both NF-κB and JNK. PMID:17982228

  14. [The impact of subcutaneous immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus on the quality of life of patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma].

    PubMed

    Yepes-Núñez, Juan José; Gómez, Carolina; Espinoza, Yeinis; Cardona, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis in Colombia is increasing at the same rate as it is in other parts of the world. It has been determined that allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy is effective in subjects with allergic rhinitis and asthma that are sensitized to house dust mites: Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus . To provide evidence on changes in the quality of life of subjects induced by allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus . We selected 76 subjects with a diagnosis of respiratory allergy with sensitization to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus . The instruments used for evaluating the quality of life were Kidscreen-27 and SF-36. These instruments were applied twice for each subject: once during the first visit, and during the twelfth visit corresponding to the one-year follow-up. Twenty-two subjects completed this study. After one year of treatment with allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy, we found positive changes in terms of the quality of life. In children, the main change was in the School Environment domain while in adults it was in the Physical Function domain. We evaluated, for the first time in Colombia, benefits induced by allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy for dust mites in terms of quality of life in subjects with allergic rhinitis and asthma. These results demonstrated that allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy produces a positive influence on subjects sensitized to dust mites that received allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus after one year.

  15. Detailed two-dimensional gel proteomic mapping of the feces of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and comparison with D. farinae: Reduced trypsin protease content in D. pteronyssinus and different isoforms.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Harant, Karel; Hubert, Jan

    2017-06-06

    Major domestic mite allergens are present in feces. We present a detailed 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis of the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus feces. Precise cultivation yielded a pure fecal extract. We detected differences in fecal allergens/digestive enzymes between D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae using 2D-E fingerprinting, including unique information on species-specific protease isoforms. Proteomic analysis was performed by 2D-E coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF identification. The species-specific differences in the fecal extracts of the mites were attributed to trypsin-like proteases known as group 3 allergens. In D. farinae, Der f 3 exhibited high abundance with a pI similar (acidic) to that of the cysteine protease Der f 1 and the chymotrypsin protease Der f 6, whereas in D. pteronyssinus, Der p 3 was rarely detected and exhibited low abundance only at basic pI. Moreover, Der p 9 was detected at a pI of ~ 10, in contrast to Der p 1 and Der p 6, suggesting different compartmentalization in the body. Overall, in D. pteronyssinus feces, allergens of groups 1, 2, 6, and 15 were quantitatively similar to those of D. farinae with the exception of the group 3 and 9 allergens. This work provides novel insights into mite-defecated proteins/digestive enzymes, which are important allergens. Millions of people are affected by allergy and asthma, and their number is growing. In homes, the major triggers of allergy and asthma are the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and a clear understanding of the development of diseases caused by these mites is needed. The major sources of mite allergens are their feces, which are deposited in the environment and are easily inhaled as part of aeroplankton. However, descriptions of and comparisons between the major fecal allergens of these two mites are lacking. This study shows that similar group 1 (cysteine protease), 2 (NPC2 family), 6 (chymotrypsin) and 15 (chitinase-like) allergens are present in the feces of

  16. The relationships between atopy, rhinitis and asthma: pathophysiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Marie-Eve; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2003-02-01

    A close relationship has been described between atopy, allergic rhinitis and asthma. The purpose of this work was to review recent data that have become available on the interactions between these conditions and the ways in which they influence one another. Recent findings support previous observations suggesting that atopic dermatitis and rhinitis often accompany or precede the development of asthma. Further data support the notion that early-life exposure to domestic animals, a farming environment, passive smoking, and being raised in a large family, may be protective against the development of atopy and/or allergic diseases, although this seems modulated by genetic factors. Furthermore, the appearance of house-dust-mite-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies in early childhood has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of asthma in children with atopic dermatitis; and the association between sensitization to specific allergens and airway hyperresponsiveness was reported to be the strongest for indoor allergens such as house-dust-mite and cat. Allergen exposure can increase airway responsiveness in non-asthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis and is associated with an increase in markers of lower airway inflammation, particularly with indoor allergens. Furthermore, nasal allergen provocation can induce bronchial inflammation and vice versa, suggesting close interrelations between upper and lower airways. In summary, the recent observations on the relationships between atopy, rhinitis and asthma support the hypothesis of a unique systemic condition with variable manifestations, which may develop following an imbalance between T helper cell types 1 and 2 lymphocyte populations. The latter may be influenced by environmental exposure in early life. Upper- and lower-airway inflammatory events influence each other, supporting the concept of 'united airways'. Further studies should look at the relationships between these conditions to identify

  17. Effects of microwave radiation on house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Ernieenor, F C L; Ho, T M

    2010-11-01

    Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae mites are commonly found in house dust, and are important sources of allergens affecting humans. Various approaches to killing the mites have been examined. This study investigated the mortalities of adult mites exposed to 2,450 MHz microwave radiation produced by 3 ovens at various exposure times and power settings. The ovens all had 3 power settings. The average maximum water temperatures generated at high, medium and low power settings were 99.4 +/- 0.2, 84.1 +/- 0.4 and 44.8 +/- 0.9 degrees C, respectively. At high and medium settings, there was 100.0% mortality in both species when exposed for 300 seconds. The mean mortality rates at low power were 10.8 +/- 0.7% for D. pteronyssinus and 9.7 +/- 2.6% for D. farinae. When mites were exposed in the presence of culture media, the mortality rates decreased with increasing weight of media. The mean mortality with the largest amount of media tested at high power setting was 61.4%.

  18. Correlation between Asian dust storms and worsening asthma in Western Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Yamasaki, Akira; Burioka, Naoto; Kurai, Jun; Yoneda, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Atsushi; Igishi, Tadashi; Fukuoka, Yasushi; Nakamoto, Masaki; Takeuchi, Hiromi; Suyama, Hisashi; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Chikumi, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Shingo; Sako, Takanori; Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Okazaki, Ryota; Horasaki, Kazunori; Shimizu, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    Severe wind storms during spring in East Asia, called Asian dust storms (ADS), have been assessed in the past for their effect on health in Asian countries. Our objective was to study the ADS association with asthma symptoms in adult patients in Japan. We designed a telephone survey to assess ADS influence on upper and lower respiratory, ocular and cutaneous symptoms in 98 patients with adult asthma from April to May 2007. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was also measured from February to May. Worsening lower respiratory symptoms were noted by 22 of 98 patients during ADS in April, when Japanese cedar pollen levels also increased. During ADS in May, however, Japanese cedar and cypress pollen levels were not elevated, 11 patients had worsening of lower respiratory symptoms. None required emergency treatment for the exacerbation. Lower respiratory symptoms worsening most were cough and sputum; this was more common in patients with allergic rhinitis or atopy than in those without (P < 0.05). Min%Max differed significantly at 88.7 ± 6.6% during dust dispersion period, defined as the ADS day plus the next 6 days, versus 92.0 ± 5.3% during the 7-day period before a dust storm. We found that ADS aggravated lower respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but this influence was mild.

  19. Indoor factors associated with concentrations of house dust mite allergen, Der p 1, in a random sample of houses in Norwich, UK.

    PubMed

    Luczynska, C; Sterne, J; Bond, J; Azima, H; Burney, P

    1998-10-01

    Studies of house dust mite allergen concentrations suggest large variations both within and between homes. It is likely that different household characteristics influence allergen levels in different locations within the house. To investigate household characteristics associated with higher concentrations of house dust mite allergen in a random sample of houses. Information on indoor environment was obtained from 158 adults aged 20-44. Dust samples were collected from their living room floor, bedroom floor and mattress. Concentrations of Der p 1, the major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, were measured by monoclonal antibody immunoassay. Associations between mite allergen concentrations and household characteristics were examined using censored-normal regression models. Factors that were related to Der p 1 (P dust, 1.7 microg/g in bedroom floor dust and 2.0 microg/g in mattress dust. Approximately 25% of living room floor and mattress, and over 30% of bedroom floor samples had Der p 1 concentrations greater than 10 microg/g. Household characteristics associated with Der p 1 concentrations in both living room and bedroom were floor level, extractor fan in the kitchen, and age of carpet. Living room Der p 1 concentrations were also associated with gas oven/hob, window condensation, open fires, vacuum cleaner type, smokers in the house and age of house. Bedroom Der p 1 concentrations were also associated with use of blankets and wash temperature of bedding. Mattress Der p 1 concentrations were associated with window condensation, concrete bedroom floor and age of mattress. Different household characteristics were associated with high Der p 1 concentrations in different parts of the house. These findings are relevant

  20. DIESEL AND CARBON PARTICLES ENHANCE HOUSE DUST MITE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel and Carbon Particles Enhance House Dust Mite-Induced Pulmonary Hypersensitivity in Brown Norway Rats. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels2, D. Winsett2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, M. Madden2 and M.I. Gilmour2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC and 2 USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Ep...

  1. Path to health asthma study: A survey of pediatric asthma in an urban community.

    PubMed

    Alicea-Alvarez, Norma; Foppiano Palacios, Carlo; Ortiz, Melanie; Huang, Diana; Reeves, Kathleen

    2017-04-01

    Minority children with asthma who live in low-income urban communities bear a disproportionate burden of the disease. This study explores the perceived health care needs related to asthma care, identifies asthma triggers, potential barriers to care, and assesses the need for additional community resources. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Hispanic and African American adults (n = 53) who take care of a child with asthma and live in an urban community of North Philadelphia. Input from community leaders was obtained in the development the survey tool resulting in a unique 'community-centric' questionnaire. The survey was also available in Spanish. All surveys were conducted in the community setting. Variables were used to measure asthma severity and triggers. Children were categorized with intermittent (n = 24, 45.3%), mild persistent (n = 13, 24.5%), or moderate-to-severe persistent asthma (n = 16, 30.2%). Most children with persistent asthma were enrolled under Medicaid or CHIP (n = 24, p = 0.011) and reflected a low-income socioeconomic status. Persistent asthma was found to be associated with most triggers: pets, dust mites, mice, mold, and cockroaches. There was no significant association between environmental tobacco smoke and persistent asthma. Children with persistent asthma and 2 or more triggers were more likely to be hospitalized and go to the Emergency Department. Urban minority children living in low-income communities face neighborhood-specific asthma triggers and challenges to care. Studies conducted in urban neighborhoods, with collaboration from community members, will highlight the need of comprehensive services to account for community-centric social determinants.

  2. [The clinical efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy with water-salt extracts and adjuvant allergens for atopic asthma with household sensitization].

    PubMed

    Ushakova, D V; Nikonov, E L

    To evaluate the clinical and economic efficiency of allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT); to comparatively analyze the efficiency of various therapy regimens for atopic asthma. The clinical and economic efficiency of asthma therapy using ASIT with water-salt allergen extracts or the adjuvant drug alustal 'mite allergen' and only with medicines were comparatively analyzed. The investigation enrolled 156 patients with mild and moderate atopic asthma, household allergy. In Group 1 (n = 57), ASIT was performed using the classical scheme by subcutaneous injection of house dust mite allergen (JSC 'I.I. Mechnikov Biomed', Russia). In Group 2 (n = 43), ASIT was conducted using the alustal 'mite allergen' (Stallergenes, France). Group 3 (n = 56) received only medical therapy. ASIT with both water-salt allergen extracts and the adjuvant allergen alustal is an effective treatment for mild and moderate atopic asthma. ASIT greatly reduces the need for anti-inflammatory treatment and the use of symptomatic drugs and improves the physical and psychoemotional indicators of quality of life in patients. The economic benefit of ASIT is delayed, but its use significantly reduces financing costs. ASIT is a reasonable, highly effective and ultimately cost-effective treatment in patients with atopic asthma. A variety of drugs for ASIT can choose schemes that are convenient and acceptable for each patient, which allows wider use of this treatment.

  3. CROSS REACTIVITY IN ALLERGIC ASTHMA-LIKE RESPONSES BETWEEN MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds are ubiquitous in the environment and exposures to molds contribute to various human diseases including allergic asthma. Some mold allergens have been implicated as the causal agent for allergic asthma. Western blot analysis demonstrated IgE-binding cross-reactivity among m...

  4. Allergen sensitivity (mites, insects, and pets) in a Puerto Rican population.

    PubMed

    Nazario, Sylvette; Zaragoza, Rafael; Velázquez, Vylma; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Acantilado, Carmen; Rodríguez, Ray; Rivera, Angel M; Alvarez, María M; López-Almodóvar, Carlos; López-Malpica, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The people of Puerto Rico have one of the highest asthma prevalence and morbidity rates in the U.S.A. Limited information is available on the most common allergy sensitivities among island residents. The aims of the study were to determine the most common inhalant allergen sensitivities among a convenience sample in Puerto Rico and determine as well their relationship to an asthma or a rhinitis diagnosis. In August of 2008, we evaluated a cohort of subjects visiting ambulatory clinics offering health screening; the clinics were located in two of the island's biggest cities: Guaynabo in the north and Ponce in the south. Subjects over three years of age (or their parents) visiting the clinics answered a survey on asthma and rhinitis and were skin tested for reactivity to common aeroallergens. The survey included 395 subjects with a mean age of 29 years. Thirty-six percent reported a history of asthma, of whom 83% (30% of the total participants) reported still having asthma, and 76% reported having rhinitis. Sixty-five percent of the subjects were sensitive to at least one antigen. Subjects sensitive to mites were 53% more likely to have suffered from asthma than were non-mite-sensitized subjects (OR = 1.53, p < 0.05) sensitivity to mosquitoes (OR = 2.25, p < 0.02), mites (OR = 2.53, p < 0.00001), feathers (OR = 2.72, p < 0.03), dogs (OR = 3.02, p < 0.01), or cats (OR = 3.42, p < 0.001) increased an individual's likelihood of suffering from rhinitis. The most common sensitivities identified were to mites and insects. Mite sensitivity was associated with rhinitis and asthma. Sensitivity to animal dander as well as to mosquitoes was associated to with rhinitis. Further studies are warranted to explore the relevance of allergen sensitivity in terms of asthma and rhinitis prevalence and morbidity among residents of Puerto Rico.

  5. Asthma in the United States: burden and current theories.

    PubMed

    Redd, Stephen C

    2002-08-01

    Asthma has emerged as a major public health problem in the United States over the past 20 years. Currently, nearly 15 million Americans have asthma, including almost 5 million children. The number of asthma cases has more than doubled since 1980. Approximately 5,500 persons die from asthma each year, and rates have increased over the past 20 years. Rates of death, hospitalization, and emergency department visits are 2-3 times higher among African Americans than among white Americans. The costs of asthma have also increased to 12.7 billion dollars in 1998. Both lifestyle and environmental hypotheses have been invoked to explain the increase in asthma prevalence. Several studies have examined the relationship of obesity and asthma and found associations suggesting that obesity predisposes to the development of asthma. Some studies have found that day care attendance and having older siblings protect against the development of asthma. This observation has led investigators to hypothesize that increased exposure to microbial agents might protect against asthma (the hygiene hypothesis). Environmental exposures found to predispose to asthma include house dust mite allergen and environmental tobacco smoke. Although current knowledge does not permit definitive conclusions about the causes of asthma onset, better adherence to current recommendations for medical therapy and environmental management of asthma would reduce the burden of this disease.

  6. Sensitization of Children to Storage Mites in Kutahya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Soyucen, Erdogan

    2009-01-01

    Specific IgE against Acarus siro, Glycphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor have been investigated by ELISA in sera of 92 children. Of them, 41 were found to be specific IgE positive (≥ 0.35 IU/ml) against at least one of house dust mite species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, by an immunoblot. In 65.9% of the dust mite-sensitized children, specific IgE against at least one of these mite species was found. Sensitization levels, including co-sensitization cases were found to be 35.7% against A. siro, 24.4% against T. putrescentiae, 31.7% against L. destructor, and 26.8% against G. domesticus. In non-sensitized children, dust mite sensitization level was found to be 25.5%. Breakdown of sensitization by individual species in this group was; against A. siro and T. putrescentiae at 7.8%, against L. destructor at 13.7%, and against G. domesticus at 9.8%. When all children were reckoned, 43.5% was found to be sensitized against at least one storage mite species, with sensitizations against A. siro at 18.5%, T. putrescentiae at 26.1%, L. destructor at 21.7%, and G. domesticus at 17.4%. In dust samples collected from the dwellings of children, distribution of species was found to be A. siro (17%), G. domesticus (23%), T. putrescentiae (29%), L. destructor (25%), and unidentified (6%). In Fisher's chi-square test on SPSS program, there was a relationship between dust mite sensitization and storage mite sensitization (P < 0.05), but no meaningful relationship was found on the basis of individual mite species. PMID:19967087

  7. Effect of acupuncture on house dust mite specific IgE, substance P, and symptoms in persistent allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, John Leslie; Smith, Peter K; Smith, Caroline A; Changli Xue, Charlie; Golianu, Brenda; Cripps, Allan W

    2016-06-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that acupuncture improves symptoms in persistent allergic rhinitis, but the physiologic basis of these improvements is not well understood. A randomized, sham-controlled trial of acupuncture for persistent allergic rhinitis in adults investigated possible modulation of mucosal immune responses. A total of 151 individuals were randomized into real and sham acupuncture groups (who received twice-weekly treatments for 8 weeks) and a no acupuncture group. Various cytokines, neurotrophins, proinflammatory neuropeptides, and immunoglobulins were measured in saliva or plasma from baseline to 4-week follow-up. Statistically significant reduction in allergen specific IgE for house dust mite was seen only in the real acupuncture group, from 18.87 kU/L (95% CI, 10.16-27.58 kU/L) to 17.82 kU/L (95% CI, 9.81-25.83 kU/L) (P = .04). A mean (SE) statistically significant down-regulation was also seen in proinflammatory neuropeptide substance P (SP) 18 to 24 hours after the first treatment from 408.74 (299.12) pg/mL to 90.77 (22.54) pg/mL (P = .04). No significant changes were seen in the other neuropeptides, neurotrophins, or cytokines tested. Nasal obstruction, nasal itch, sneezing, runny nose, eye itch, and unrefreshed sleep improved significantly in the real acupuncture group (postnasal drip and sinus pain did not) and continued to improve up to 4-week follow-up. Acupuncture modulated mucosal immune response in the upper airway in adults with persistent allergic rhinitis. This modulation appears to be associated with down-regulation of allergen specific IgE for house dust mite, which this study is the first to report. Improvements in nasal itch, eye itch, and sneezing after acupuncture are suggestive of down-regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ACTRN 12610001052022. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. [Rhinitis and asthma related to cotton dust exposure in apprentices in the clothing industry].

    PubMed

    Chaari, N; Amri, C; Khalfallah, T; Alaya, A; Abdallah, B; Harzallah, L; Henchi, M-A; Bchir, N; Kamel, A; Akrout, M

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory allergies are the most common occupational diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rhinitis and asthma among apprentices exposed to cotton dust in the clothing industry and to describe their epidemiologic and clinical profiles. We carried out a descriptive study of 600 apprentices in a textile and clothing vocational training centre in the Monastir area. The investigation comprised a questionnaire exploring risk factors and symptoms appearing during their training. Subjects who developed allergic respiratory symptoms at the work-place underwent a clinical examination, rhinomanometry and investigation of their allergic status and respiratory function. One hundred twenty apprentices (20%) developed allergic respiratory reactions due to exposure to textile dust (exclusively cotton) during their training, with a positive withdrawal-re-exposure test. Conjunctivitis (14.3%) and rhinitis (8.5%) were the most frequent allergic symptoms. Twenty eight apprentices (4.6%) presented symptoms of asthma. Rhinitis was associated with asthma in 45% of cases. Two cases of asthma were diagnosed clinically at the work-place following their exposure to textile dust. The prick test performed in 120 symptomatic apprentices was positive in 41.6% of cases. There was sensitization to pollens in 29 cases and to dermatophagoides in 13 cases. Cotton and wool allergy was noted in two cases. Allergic symptoms developing during the training were significantly more frequent in the atopic group, and they varied according to the intensity of textile dust exposure. In the textile and clothing industry the frequency of respiratory disorders caused by allergens remains high, especially in atopic apprentices who constitute a population at high risk.

  9. Typical halogenated persistent organic pollutants in indoor dust and the associations with childhood asthma in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ge; Nie, Zhiqing; Feng, Yan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Yin, Yong; Wang, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated persistent organic pollutants (Hal-POPs) are significant contaminants in the indoor environment that are related to many human diseases. Ingestion of indoor dust is considered the major pathway of Hal-POP exposures, especially for children aged 3-6 years. Alongside a retrospective study on the associations between typical Hal-POP exposure and childhood asthma in Shanghai, indoor dust samples from asthmatic and non-asthmatic children's homes (n = 60, each) were collected. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured by GC-MS. BDE-209, PCB-8 and p,p'-DDE were the predominant components in each chemical category. The concentrations of most Hal-POPs were significantly higher in the asthmatic families. The associations between Hal-POP exposure and asthma occurrence were examined by calculating the odds ratios (ORs) using a logistic regression model. A positive association was found between p,p'-DDE in indoor dust and childhood asthma (OR = 1.825, 95%CI: 1.004, 3.317; p = 0.048). The average daily doses of Hal-POP intake were calculated using the method provided by the USEPA. Non-carcinogenic health risks were preliminarily assessed. Our study indicated that exposure to p,p'-DDE via indoor dust may contribute to childhood asthma occurrence. Non-carcinogenic health risks were not found with the intake of Hal-POPs via the ingestion of indoor dust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Infant origins of childhood asthma associated with specific molds.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Tiina; Lockey, James; Bernstein, David I; Vesper, Stephen J; Levin, Linda; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Zheng, Shu; Ryan, Patrick; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Villareal, Manuel; Lemasters, Grace

    2012-09-01

    The specific cause or causes of asthma development must be identified to prevent this disease. Our hypothesis was that specific mold exposures are associated with childhood asthma development. Infants were identified from birth certificates. Dust samples were collected from 289 homes when the infants were 8 months of age. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of 36 molds that comprise the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) and endotoxin, house dust mite, cat, dog, and cockroach allergens. Children were evaluated at age 7 years for asthma based on reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function. Host, environmental exposure, and home characteristics evaluated included a history of parental asthma, race, sex, upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, season of birth, family income, cigarette smoke exposure, air conditioning, use of a dehumidifier, presence of carpeting, age of home, and visible mold at age 1 year and child's positive skin prick test response to aeroallergens and molds at age 7 years. Asthma was diagnosed in 24% of the children at age 7 years. A statistically significant increase in asthma risk at age 7 years was associated with high ERMI values in the child's home in infancy (adjusted relative risk for a 10-unit increase in ERMI value, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2). The summation of levels of 3 mold species, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus unguis, and Penicillium variabile, was significantly associated with asthma (adjusted relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8-2.7). In this birth cohort study exposure during infancy to 3 mold species common to water-damaged buildings was associated with childhood asthma at age 7 years. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical evaluation for sublingual immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides farinae drops in adult patients with allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhong, C; Yang, W; Li, Y; Zou, L; Deng, Z; Liu, M; Huang, X

    2018-05-01

    The efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in house dust mite-induced allergic asthma (AA) have yet to be firmly established, especially in adult patients. Our objective is to evaluate the efficacy of SLIT with Dermatophagoides farinae drops in adult patients with AA. One hundred and thirty-four adult patient data with house dust mite (HDM)-induced AA who had been treated for 2 years were collected. These patient data that we collected were divided into the SLIT group (n = 85) and control group (n = 49). All patients were treated with low to moderate dose of inhaled glucocorticoid and long-acting β2 agonists. Patients in the SLIT group were further treated with D. farinae drops. Clinical scores including the total asthma symptom score (TASS), total asthma medicine score (TAMS), asthma control test (ACT), and peak flow percentage (PEF%) were assessed before treatment and at yearly visits. The presence of adverse events (AEs) were recorded once a month. Before treatment, the PEF% in the SLIT group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). After 2 years, both treatments were effective in the clinical scores when compared with baseline values (all p < 0.001). Meanwhile, the SLIT group showed significantly lower TASS and TAMS (all p < 0.001) and higher ACT (p < 0.001) and PEF% (p < 0.05) when compared with the control group. No severe systemic AEs were reported. SLIT with D. farinae drops plus pharmacotherapy is more effective than routine drug treatment in adult patients with AA.

  12. Risk factors for allergic rhinitis in Costa Rican children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Bunyavanich, S; Soto-Quiros, M E; Avila, L; Laskey, D; Senter, J M; Celedón, J C

    2010-02-01

    Risk factors for allergic rhinitis (AR) in asthmatics are likely distinct from those for AR or asthma alone. We sought to identify clinical and environmental risk factors for AR in children with asthma. We performed a cross-sectional study of 616 Costa Rican children aged 6-14 years with asthma. Candidate risk factors were drawn from questionnaire data, spirometry, methacholine challenge testing, skin testing, and serology. Two outcome measures, skin test reaction (STR)-positive AR and physician-diagnosed AR, were examined by logistic regression. STR-positive AR had high prevalence (80%) in Costa Rican children with asthma, and its independent risk factors were nasal symptoms after exposure to dust or mold, parental history of AR, older age at asthma onset, oral steroid use in the past year, eosinophilia, and positive IgEs to dust mite and cockroach. Physician-diagnosed AR had lower prevalence (27%), and its independent risk factors were nasal symptoms after pollen exposure, STR to tree pollens, a parental history of AR, inhaled steroid and short-acting beta2 agonist use in the past year, household mold/mildew, and fewer older siblings. A physician's diagnosis was only 29.5% sensitive for STR-positive AR. Risk factors for AR in children with asthma depend on the definition of AR. Indoor allergens drive risk for STR-positive AR. Outdoor allergens and home environmental conditions are risk factors for physician-diagnosed AR. We propose that children with asthma in Costa Rica and other Latin American nations undergo limited skin testing or specific IgE measurements to reduce the current under-diagnosis of AR.

  13. Indoor environmental exposures for children with asthma enrolled in the HEAL study, post-Katrina New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, L Faye; Chulada, Patricia C; Kennedy, Suzanne; White, LuAnn; Wildfire, Jeremy; Cohn, Richard D; Mitchell, Herman; Thornton, Eleanor; El-Dahr, Jane; Mvula, Mosanda M; Sterling, Yvonne; Martin, William J; Stephens, Kevin U; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2012-11-01

    Rain and flooding from Hurricane Katrina resulted in widespread growth of mold and bacteria and production of allergens in New Orleans, Louisiana, which may have led to increased exposures and morbidity in children with asthma. The goal of the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) study was to characterize post-Katrina exposures to mold and allergens in children with asthma. The homes of 182 children with asthma in New Orleans and surrounding parishes were evaluated by visual inspection, temperature and moisture measurements, and air and dust sampling. Air was collected using vacuum-pump spore traps and analyzed for > 30 mold taxa using bright field microscopy. Dust was collected from the children's beds and bedroom floors and analyzed for mouse (Mus m 1), dust mite (Der p 1), cockroach (Bla g 1), and mold (Alternaria mix) allergens using ELISA. More than half (62%) of the children were living in homes that had been damaged by rain, flooding, or both. Geometric mean indoor and outdoor airborne mold levels were 501 and 3,958 spores/m3, respectively. Alternaria antigen was detected in dust from 98% of homes, with 58% having concentrations > 10 µg/g. Mus m 1, Der p 1, and Bla g 1 were detected in 60%, 35%, and 20% of homes, respectively, at low mean concentrations. Except for Alternaria antigen in dust, concentrations of airborne mold (ratio of indoor to outdoor mold) and dust allergens in the homes of HEAL children were lower than measurements found in other studies, possibly because of extensive post-Katrina mold remediation and renovations, or because children moved into cleaner homes upon returning to New Orleans.

  14. Genetic polymorphisms and asthma: findings from a case-control study in the Madeira island population.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Anabela Gonçalves; Fernandes, Ana Teresa; Oliveira, Susana; Rodrigues, Mariana; Ornelas, Pedro; Romeira, Diogo; Serrão, Tânia; Rosa, Alexandra; Câmara, Rita

    2014-09-04

    Asthma is a complex disease influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. While Madeira has the highest prevalence of asthma in Portugal (14.6%), the effect of both genetic and environmental factors in this population has never been assessed. We categorized 98 asthma patients according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, established their sensitization profile, and measured their forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) indexes. Selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analysed as potential markers for asthma susceptibility and severity in the interleukin 4 (IL4), interleukin 13 (IL13), beta-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33), gasdermin-like (GSDML) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) genes comparatively to a population reference set. Although mites are the major source of allergic sensitization, no significant difference was found amongst asthma severity categories. IL4-590*CT/TT and IL4-RP2*253183/183183 were found to predict the risk (2-fold) and severity (3 to 4-fold) of asthma and were associated with a lower FEV1 index. ADRB2-c.16*AG is a risk factor (3.5-fold), while genotype GSDML-236*TT was protective (4-fold) for moderate-severe asthma. ADAM33-V4*C was associated to asthma and mild asthma by the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). Finally, ADAM33-V4*CC and STAT6-21*TT were associated with higher sensitization (mean wheal size ≥10 mm) to house dust (1.4-fold) and storage mite (7.8-fold). In Madeira, IL4-590C/T, IL4-RP2 253/183, GSDML-236C/T and ADAM33-V4C/G SNPs are important risk factors for asthma susceptibility and severity, with implications for asthma healthcare management.

  15. The effects of dust storms on quality of life of allergic patients with or without asthma.

    PubMed

    Soy, Fatih Kemal; Yazıcı, Haşmet; Kulduk, Erkan; Dündar, Rıza; Gülen, Şule Taş; Doğan, Sedat; Can, İlknur Haberal

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the quality of life of allergic patients with or without asthma during dust storms. A total of 148 allergic patients (66 males, 82 females; mean age 35.7±15.5 years; range 18 to 65 years) were classified as those with (group 1, n=80) or without (group 2, n=68) concomitant asthma between January 2012 and January 2013. The quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)] scores, Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ), nasal symptom and visual analog scale (VAS) scores at the time of diagnosis were obtained. The particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) values of that day from the General Directorate of Meteorology were recorded. The day of dust storm and PM10 and SO2 measurements along with SF-36, RQLQ, nasal symptom and VAS scores were recorded again. The absolute change in the RQLQ subparameters including eye and nasal symptoms, practical problems and global scores was statistically significant (p=0.022, p=0.036, p=0.026 and p=0.032, respectively). There were statistically significant changes in the SF-36 subgroups of general health, physical functioning, vitality, and mental health (p=0.026, p=0.042, p=0.008 and p=0.026, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression model, specific and general quality of life was 4.6 times worse in RQLQ and 3.8 times in SF-36 after the dust storm in patients with asthma, while 2.1 times worse in RQLQ and 1.9 times in SF-36 in patients with pure allergic rhinitis. The attributable risk of asthma was found to be 2.5 times higher in RQLQ and 1.9 times higher in SF-36. Dust storms may deteriorate the quality of life of patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and lead to related personal and societal problems.

  16. Occupational asthma caused by samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon) wood dust in a professional maker of wooden models of airplanes: a case study.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk-Szulc, Patrycja; Wiszniewska, Marta; Pałczyński, Cezary; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Kozak, Anna; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-06-01

    Wood dust is a known occupational allergen that may induce, in exposed workers, respiratory diseases including asthma and allergic rhinitis. Samba (obeche, Triplochiton scleroxylon) is a tropical tree, which grows in West Africa, therefore, Polish workers are rarely exposed to it. This paper describes a case of occupational asthma caused by samba wood dust. The patient with suspicion of occupational asthma due to wood dust was examined at the Department of Occupational Diseases and Clinical Toxicology in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine. Clinical evaluation included: analysis of occupational history, skin prick tests (SPT) to common and occupational allergens, determination of serum specific IgE to occupational allergens, serial spirometry measurements, metacholine challenge test and specific inhalation challenge test with samba dust SPT and specific serum IgE assessment revealed sensitization to common and occupational allergens including samba. Spirometry measurements showed mild obstruction. Metacholine challenge test revealed a high level of bronchial hyperactivity. Specific inhalation challenge test was positive and cellular changes in nasal lavage and induced sputum confirmed allergic reaction to samba. IgE mediated allergy to samba wood dust was confirmed. This case report presents the first documented occupational asthma and rhinitis due to samba wood dust in wooden airplanes model maker in Poland.

  17. Sensitivity to the house dust mite and airway hyperresponsiveness in a young adult population.

    PubMed

    Obase, Y; Shimoda, T; Mitsuta, K; Matsuo, N; Matsuse, H; Kohno, S

    1999-10-01

    The pathogenic mechanisms of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma are unknown and only a few studies have examined the importance of sensitivity to antigens in AHR in young adults. We investigated the correlation between AHR and sensitivity to specific antigens, atopy, history of childhood asthma and spirometry in a young adult population. Based on the results of interviews with 447 students at our university, 308 non-smoker students were classified into six groups. Group 1 comprised subjects with intermittent mild bronchial asthma; group 2, subjects with history of childhood asthma; group 3, subjects with atopic disease, and a RAST score for Dermatophagoides farinae (Def) of > or = 2; group 4, normal subjects with a RAST score for Def of > or = 2; group 5, subjects with cedar pollinosis; and group 6, normal subjects. We measured AHR to methacholine (MCh), spirometry, immunoglobulin E-radioimmunosorbent test (IgE-RIST), IgE-radioallergosorbent test to six common antigens, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood in each subject. Airway hyperresponsiveness to MCh did not correlate with IgE-RIST, eosinophil count, or ECP. The highest AHR to MCh was present in groups 1 and 2 and lowest in groups 5 and 6. Multiple regression analysis showed that sensitivity to Def was the only factor that significantly influenced AHR to MCh. Airway hyperresponsiveness to MCh of groups with a RAST score for Def of 0/1 was lower than groups with a RAST score of 2 to 6. Airway hyperresponsiveness to MCh did not correlate with the degree of positivity to Def antigen among positive sensitized groups (RAST score 2 to 6). Sensitivity to mite antigen may be important in the pathogenesis of AHR and Def is a major contributing antigen in young adults in Japan. Once asthma occurs, AHR remains positive for a long time even after the disappearance of asthma-related symptoms.

  18. Pet ownership is associated with increased risk of non-atopic asthma and reduced risk of atopy in childhood: findings from a UK birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Collin, S M; Granell, R; Westgarth, C; Murray, J; Paul, E; Sterne, J A C; John Henderson, A

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an inverse association of pet ownership with allergy but inconclusive findings for asthma. To investigate whether pet ownership during pregnancy and childhood was associated with asthma and atopy at the age of 7 in a UK population-based birth cohort. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used to investigate associations of pet ownership at six time points from pregnancy to the age of 7 with asthma, atopy (grass, house dust mite, and cat skin prick test) and atopic vs. non-atopic asthma at the age of 7 using logistic regression models adjusted for child's sex, maternal history of asthma/atopy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and family adversity. A total of 3768 children had complete data on pet ownership, asthma, and atopy. Compared with non-ownership, continuous ownership of any pet (before and after the age of 3) was associated with 52% lower odds of atopic asthma [odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% CI 0.34-0.68]. Pet ownership tended to be associated with increased risk of non-atopic asthma, particularly rabbits (OR 1.61, 1.04-2.51) and rodents (OR 1.86, 1.15-3.01), comparing continuous vs. non-ownership. Pet ownership was consistently associated with lower odds of sensitization to grass, house dust mite, and cat allergens, but rodent ownership was associated with higher odds of sensitization to rodent allergen. Differential effects of pet ownership on atopic vs. non-atopic asthma were evident for all pet types. Pet ownership during pregnancy and childhood in this birth cohort was consistently associated with a reduced risk of aeroallergen sensitization and atopic asthma at the age of 7, but tended to be associated (particularly for rabbits and rodents) with an increased risk of non-atopic asthma. The opposing effects on atopy vs. non-atopic asthma might be considered by parents when they are deciding whether to acquire a pet. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pet ownership is associated with increased risk of non-atopic asthma and reduced risk of atopy in childhood: findings from a UK birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Collin, S.M.; Granell, R; Westgarth, C; Murray, J; Paul, E; Sterne, J.A.C.; Henderson, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown an inverse association of pet ownership with allergy but inconclusive findings for asthma. Objective To investigate whether pet ownership during pregnancy and childhood was associated with asthma and atopy at age 7 years in a UK population-based birth cohort. Methods Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used to investigate associations of pet ownership at six time-points from pregnancy to age 7 years with asthma, atopy (grass, house-dust mite, and cat skin prick test) and atopic versus non-atopic asthma at age 7 years using logistic regression models adjusted for child's sex, maternal history of asthma/atopy, maternal smoking during pregnancy and family adversity. Results 3,768 children had complete data on pet ownership, asthma and atopy. Compared with non-ownership, continuous ownership of any pet (before and after age 3 years) was associated with 52% lower odds of atopic asthma (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% CI 0.34–0.68). Pet ownership tended to be associated with increased risk of non-atopic asthma, particularly rabbits (OR 1.61, 1.04–2.51) and rodents (OR 1.86, 1.15–3.01), comparing continuous versus non-ownership. Pet ownership was consistently associated with lower odds of sensitization to grass, house-dust mite and cat allergens, but rodent ownership was associated with higher odds of sensitization to rodent allergen. Differential effects of pet ownership on atopic versus non-atopic asthma were evident for all pet types. Conclusions Pet ownership during pregnancy and childhood in this birth cohort was consistently associated with a reduced risk of aeroallergen sensitization and atopic asthma at age 7 years, but tended to be associated (particularly for rabbits and rodents) with an increased risk of non-atopic asthma. Clinical relevance The opposing effects on atopy versus non-atopic asthma might be considered by parents when they are deciding whether to acquire a pet. PMID:25077415

  20. Safety of Accelerated Schedules of Subcutaneous Allergen Immunotherapy with House Dust Mite Extract in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Sung, Joon-Mo; Lee, Jin-Woo; Choi, Gil-Soon

    2011-01-01

    The safety of accelerated schedules of allergen immunotherapy (ASAI) in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) has been reported but there are little data on the safety of ASAI for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we investigated the safety of ASAI in patients with AD. Sixty patients with AD and 18 patients with BA sensitized to house dust mites (HDM) were studied. A maximum maintenance dose of HDM extract, adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, was administered to patients by subcutaneous injection with either a 3-day protocol (rush immunotherapy) or 1-day protocol (ultra-rush immunotherapy). Systemic reactions were observed 4 of 15 patients (26.7%) with AD during rush immunotherapy, 13 of 45 patients (28.9%) with AD during ultra-rush immunotherapy, and 4 of 18 patients (22.2%) with BA during rush immunotherapy (P > 0.05). No severe or near fatal systemic reactions occurred in 78 subjects of this study. Systemic reactions developed within 4 hr after administration of the maximum allergen dose in 20 of 21 patients (95.2%) with AD and BA who showed systemic reactions during rush or ultra-rush immunotherapy. In conclusion, ASAI was safe and well tolerated in patients with AD. ASAI can be a useful therapeutic option for AD. PMID:21935270

  1. Attempting to control mite allergens with mechanical ventilation and dehumidification in British houses.

    PubMed

    Niven, R; Fletcher, A M; Pickering, A C; Custovic, A; Sivour, J B; Preece, A R; Oldham, L A; Francis, H C

    1999-05-01

    Allergen avoidance is of considerable interest in the treatment and even prevention of asthma. Attempts to control house dust mites have included environmental manipulation in homes in an attempt to reduce humidity below a level that favors mite survival. This appears to have some benefit in Scandinavia, but a previous attempt with mechanical ventilation heat pump recovery (MVHR) units in the UK failed to achieve the desired results. We report a study using an additional central dehumidification modification of the MVHR (MVHRcd) in an attempt to reduce allergen levels in houses of asthmatic subjects. Ten houses of asthmatic patients allergic to dust mites and 10 architectural control houses were studied. The active houses were fitted with an MVHRcd unit in November/December 1994 and activated in January 1995. The active and control houses were monitored continuously for internal temperature and humidity by using digital sensors in the asthmatic and control bedrooms. Dust samples were collected to determine allergen levels at baseline (January 1994) and 3, 6, 9, and 15 months after switching on the units. The winter seasonal average humidity fell from 50% relative humidity (RH) in control bedrooms to 37% RH in asthmatic bedrooms compared with 72% RH in the ambient air as measured on the intake of the MVHRcd systems. There was no corresponding change in seasonal mean temperature within the houses. Although the temperature and humidity weekly and seasonal means remained below the study target of 45% RH or 7 g/kg absolute humidity at 21 degrees C, there were transient rises in humidity detected by the sensors in the houses with MVHRcd systems. Allergen levels fell both in active and control houses during the study period, but there was no significant advantage gained from the installation of MVHRcd systems. The MVHRcd system failed to confer a benefit in terms of mite allergen reduction despite apparently adequate control of temperature and humidity.

  2. Der p 5 Crystal Structure Provides Insight into the Group 5 Dust Mite Allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.; Gosavi, R; Krahn, J

    2010-01-01

    Group 5 allergens from house dust mites elicit strong IgE antibody binding in mite-allergic patients. The structure of Der p 5 was determined by x-ray crystallography to better understand the IgE epitopes, to investigate the biologic function in mites, and to compare with the conflicting published Blo t 5 structures, designated 2JMH and 2JRK in the Protein Data Bank. Der p 5 is a three-helical bundle similar to Blo t 5, but the interactions of the helices are more similar to 2JMH than 2JRK. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains three dimers of Der p 5 that are not exactly alike.more » Solution scattering techniques were used to assess the multimeric state of Der p 5 in vitro and showed that the predominant state was monomeric, similar to Blo t 5, but larger multimeric species are also present. In the crystal, the formation of the Der p 5 dimer creates a large hydrophobic cavity of {approx}3000 {angstrom}{sup 3} that could be a ligand-binding site. Many allergens are known to bind hydrophobic ligands, which are thought to stimulate the innate immune system and have adjuvant-like effects on IgE-mediated inflammatory responses.« less

  3. PKCλ/ι regulates Th17 differentiation and house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingying; Dong, Panpan; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Yonghua; Xu, Yongliang; Mei, Congjin; Guo, Fukun; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Jun-Qi

    2018-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway inflammation in which Th2 and Th17 cells play critical roles in its pathogenesis. We have reported that atypical protein kinase (PKC) λ/ι is a new regulator for Th2 differentiation and function. However, the role of PKCλ/ι for Th17 cells remains elusive. In this study, we explored the effect of PKCλ/ι on Th17 cells in the context of ex vivo cell culture systems and an in vivo murine model of allergic airway inflammation with the use of activated T cell-specific conditional PKCλ/ι-deficient mice. Our findings indicate that PKCλ/ι regulates Th17 cells. The secretion of Th17 effector cytokines, including IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22, were inhibited from PKCλ/ι-deficient T cells under non-skewing or Th17-skewing culture conditions. Moreover, the impaired Th17 differentiation and function by the PKCλ/ι-deficiency was associated with the downregulation of Stat3 and Rorγt, key Th17 transcription factors. We developed a model of Th17 and neutrophil-involved allergic airway inflammation by intratracheal inoculation of house dust mites. PKCλ/ι-deficiency significantly inhibited airway inflammations. The infiltrating cells in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were significantly reduced in conditional PKCλ/ι-deficient mice. Th17 effector cytokines were reduced in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and lungs at protein and mRNA levels. Thus, PKCλ/ι emerges as a critical regulator of Th17 differentiation and allergic airway hyperresponsiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of a novel epicutaneous delivery system for patch testing of house dust mite-hypersensitive dogs.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Linder, Keith E; Paps, Judy S; Bizikova, Petra; Dunston, Stan; Donne, Nathalie; Mondoulet, Lucie

    2012-12-01

    Patch tests with allergens are used for the evaluation of cellular hypersensitivity to food and environmental allergens in dogs and humans with atopic dermatitis. Viaskin is a novel allergen epicutaneous delivery system that enhances epidermal allergen capture by immune cells. To compare the use of Viaskin and Finn chamber patch tests in dogs hypersensitive to mite allergens. Empty control or Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mite-containing Viaskin or Finn chamber patches were applied to the thoracic skin of six mite-hypersensitive Maltese-beagle crossbred atopic dogs. Lesions were graded 49 and 72 h after patch test application, and skin biopsies were collected after 72 h. Overall microscopic inflammation, eosinophil and T-lymphocyte infiltrations were scored. Positive macroscopic patch test reactions developed at five of six Viaskin application sites and four of six Finn chamber application sites. Median microscopic epidermal and dermal inflammation, as well as eosinophil and CD3 T-lymphocyte dermal scores were always higher in biopsies collected at Viaskin than at Finn chamber sites. Microscopic inflammation scores were significantly higher after mite allergen-containing Viaskin compared with empty patches, but this was not the case for mite-containing Finn chambers compared with control chambers. Scores obtained using Viaskin were not significantly different from those obtained using Finn chambers. Macroscopic and microscopic scores were significantly correlated. In mite-allergic dogs, Viaskin epicutaneous delivery systems appear to induce stronger allergen-specific inflammation than currently used Finn chamber patch tests. Consequently, Viaskin patches might offer a better alternative for screening cellular hypersensitivity to food and environmental allergens. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. The effects of inhaled corticosteroids on intrinsic responsiveness and histology of airways from infant monkeys exposed to house dust mite allergen and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, Jesse P.; Kott, Kayleen S.; Bric, John M.

    2008-01-15

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are recommended to treat infants with asthma, some with intermittent asthma. We previously showed that exposing infant monkeys to allergen/ozone resulted in asthma-like characteristics of their airways. We evaluated the effects of ICS on histology and intrinsic responsiveness of allergen/ozone-exposed and normal infant primate airways. Infant monkeys were exposed by inhalation to (1) filtered air and saline, (2) house dust mite allergen (HDMA) + ozone and saline, (3) filtered air and ICS (budesonide) or (4) HDMA + ozone and ICS. Allergen/ozone exposures started at 1 month and ICS at 3 months of age. At 6 months ofmore » age, methacholine-induced changes in luminal area of airways in proximal and distal lung slices were determined using videomicrometry, followed by histology of the same slices. Proximal airway responsiveness was increased by allergen/ozone and by ICS. Eosinophil profiles were increased by allergen/ozone in both proximal and distal airways, an effect that was decreased by ICS in distal airways. In both allergen/ozone- and air-exposed monkeys, ICS increased the number of alveolar attachments in distal airways, decreased mucin in proximal airways and decreased epithelial volume in both airways. ICS increased smooth muscle in air-exposed animals while decreasing it in allergen/ozone-exposed animals in both airways. In proximal airways, there was a small but significant positive correlation between smooth muscle and airway responsiveness, as well as between alveolar attachments and responsiveness. ICS change morphology and function in normal airways as well as allergen/ozone-exposed airways, suggesting that they should be reserved for infants with active symptoms.« less

  6. A 12-week DBPC dose-finding study with sublingual monomeric allergoid tablets in house dust mite-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Hüser, C; Dieterich, P; Singh, J; Shah-Hosseini, K; Allekotte, S; Lehmacher, W; Compalati, E; Mösges, R

    2017-01-01

    In sublingual immunotherapy, optimal doses are a key factor for therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this study with tablets containing carbamylated monomeric house dust mite allergoids was to determine the most effective and safe dose. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 131 patients with house dust mite-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were randomized to 12-week treatments with 300 UA/day, 1000 UA/day, 2000 UA/day, 3000 UA/day or placebo. Conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) were performed before, during and after treatment. The change in mean allergic severity (primary endpoint), calculated from the severity of the CPT reaction, and the proportion of patients with an improved CPT threshold (secondary endpoint) determined the treatment effect. The mean allergic severity decreased in all groups, including the placebo group. It was lower in all active treatment groups (300 UA/day: 0.14, 1000 UA/day: 0.15, 2000 UA/day: 0.10, 3000 UA/day: 0.15) than in the placebo group (0.30). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P < 0.1). The percentage of patients with an improved CPT threshold was higher in the active treatment groups (300 UA/day: 73.9%; 1000 UA/day: 76.0%; 2000 UA/day: 88.5%; 3000 UA/day: 76.0%) than in the placebo group (64.3%). The difference between placebo and 2000 UA/day was statistically significant (P = 0.04). In 13 (10%) exposed patients, a total of 20 treatment-related adverse events of mild severity were observed. The 12-week daily treatment using 2000 UA/day monomeric allergoid sublingual tablets is well tolerated and reduces the CPT reaction in house dust mite-allergic patients. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Indoor Environmental Exposures for Children with Asthma Enrolled in the HEAL Study, Post-Katrina New Orleans

    PubMed Central

    Chulada, Patricia C.; Kennedy, Suzanne; White, LuAnn; Wildfire, Jeremy; Cohn, Richard D.; Mitchell, Herman; Thornton, Eleanor; El-Dahr, Jane; Mvula, Mosanda M.; Sterling, Yvonne; Martin, William J.; Stephens, Kevin U.; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rain and flooding from Hurricane Katrina resulted in widespread growth of mold and bacteria and production of allergens in New Orleans, Louisiana, which may have led to increased exposures and morbidity in children with asthma. Objectives: The goal of the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL) study was to characterize post-Katrina exposures to mold and allergens in children with asthma. Methods: The homes of 182 children with asthma in New Orleans and surrounding parishes were evaluated by visual inspection, temperature and moisture measurements, and air and dust sampling. Air was collected using vacuum-pump spore traps and analyzed for > 30 mold taxa using bright field microscopy. Dust was collected from the children’s beds and bedroom floors and analyzed for mouse (Mus m 1), dust mite (Der p 1), cockroach (Bla g 1), and mold (Alternaria mix) allergens using ELISA. Results: More than half (62%) of the children were living in homes that had been damaged by rain, flooding, or both. Geometric mean indoor and outdoor airborne mold levels were 501 and 3,958 spores/m3, respectively. Alternaria antigen was detected in dust from 98% of homes, with 58% having concentrations > 10 µg/g. Mus m 1, Der p 1, and Bla g 1 were detected in 60%, 35%, and 20% of homes, respectively, at low mean concentrations. Conclusions: Except for Alternaria antigen in dust, concentrations of airborne mold (ratio of indoor to outdoor mold) and dust allergens in the homes of HEAL children were lower than measurements found in other studies, possibly because of extensive post-Katrina mold remediation and renovations, or because children moved into cleaner homes upon returning to New Orleans. PMID:22894816

  8. Risk Factors for Allergic Rhinitis in Costa Rican Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E.; Avila, Lydiana; Laskey, Daniel; Senter, Jody M.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Risk factors for allergic rhinitis (AR) in asthmatics are likely distinct from those for AR or asthma alone. We sought to identify clinical and environmental risk factors for AR in children with asthma. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 616 Costa Rican children aged 6–14 years with asthma. Candidate risk factors were drawn from questionnaire data, spirometry, methacholine challenge testing, skin testing, and serology. Two outcome measures, skin test reaction (STR)-positive AR and physician-diagnosed AR, were examined by logistic regression. Results STR-positive AR had high prevalence (80%) in Costa Rican children with asthma, and its independent risk factors were nasal symptoms after exposure to dust or mold, parental history of AR, older age at asthma onset, oral steroid use in the past year, eosinophilia, and positive IgEs to dust mite and cockroach. Physician-diagnosed AR had lower prevalence (27%), and its independent risk factors were nasal symptoms after pollen exposure, STR to tree pollens, a parental history of AR, inhaled steroid and short-acting β2 agonist use in the past year, household mold/mildew, and fewer older siblings. A physician’s diagnosis was only 29.5% sensitive for STR-positive AR. Conclusions Risk factors for AR in children with asthma depend on the definition of AR. Indoor allergens drive risk for STR-positive AR. Outdoor allergens and home environmental conditions are risk factors for physician-diagnosed AR. We propose that children with asthma in Costa Rica and other Latin American nations undergo limited skin testing or specific IgE measurements to reduce the current under-diagnosis of AR. PMID:19796208

  9. Influence of indoor factors in dwellings on the development of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    busy roads, and in damp homes where are visible moulds at home. The causing agents of the increased risk of living in damp homes remained uncertain and needs clarification. Exposure to pet-derived allergens and house dust mites are very commonly investigated and thought to be related to asthma onset. The epidemiological evidence is not sufficient to recommend avoidance measures against pet and dust mites as preventive activities against allergies. More research is also needed to clarify the potential risk for exposure to volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds due to renovation activities, phthalates and chlorine chemicals due to cleaning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues.

    PubMed

    Rottier, Bart L; Eber, Ernst; Hedlin, Gunilla; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Mantzourani, Eva; Kulkarni, Neeta

    2015-06-01

    Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  11. Animal models of asthma: utility and limitations.

    PubMed

    Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Bonamichi-Santos, Rafael; Arantes-Costa, Fernanda Magalhães; Kalil, Jorge; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Clinical studies in asthma are not able to clear up all aspects of disease pathophysiology. Animal models have been developed to better understand these mechanisms and to evaluate both safety and efficacy of therapies before starting clinical trials. Several species of animals have been used in experimental models of asthma, such as Drosophila , rats, guinea pigs, cats, dogs, pigs, primates and equines. However, the most common species studied in the last two decades is mice, particularly BALB/c. Animal models of asthma try to mimic the pathophysiology of human disease. They classically include two phases: sensitization and challenge. Sensitization is traditionally performed by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes, but intranasal instillation of allergens has been increasingly used because human asthma is induced by inhalation of allergens. Challenges with allergens are performed through aerosol, intranasal or intratracheal instillation. However, few studies have compared different routes of sensitization and challenge. The causative allergen is another important issue in developing a good animal model. Despite being more traditional and leading to intense inflammation, ovalbumin has been replaced by aeroallergens, such as house dust mites, to use the allergens that cause human disease. Finally, researchers should define outcomes to be evaluated, such as serum-specific antibodies, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation and remodeling. The present review analyzes the animal models of asthma, assessing differences between species, allergens and routes of allergen administration.

  12. Effective allergen avoidance for reducing exposure to house dust mite allergens and improving disease management in adult atopic asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Saito, Akemi; Oshikata, Chiyako; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the best strategy for adult asthmatics to avoid exposure to Dermatophagoides group (Der-1) allergens. Adult atopic asthmatics (n = 111) followed a 32-item checklist for avoiding Der-1 allergen exposure. Twenty-five patients were excluded through incomplete sampling; 50 remaining patients encased their pillows/futons/mattresses in microfine-fiber covers, 13 used vacuum cleaners with dust-mite-collection nozzles, and 23 acted as non-intervention controls. During August-October 2010 and August-October 2011, dust samples were collected in Petri dishes placed in bedrooms for 2 weeks and from mattresses/futons by using adhesive tape on one morning. A Der-1 level decrease was defined as a mean 2011 Der-1 level of <1 as a ratio of the 2010 level on tape or Petri dish samples. We analyzed the associations between Der-1 level change (by ELISA) and % weekly variability in peak expiratory flow (PEF) or fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) after intervention. Der-1 levels decreased significantly in the covers group but not the vacuuming group. FeNO levels and PEF variability were unchanged in both groups. In patients whose Petri dish or tape samples showed decreased Der-1 levels, the % PEF variability was lower in 2011 than in 2010, but FeNO levels were unchanged. Three interventions (vacuuming all family members' mattress/futon surfaces at least weekly or after exposure of the futons to sunlight, and floor wiping before vacuuming), plus using covers, were the most effective management strategy in reducing Der-1 levels. This environmental and bedding maintenance program may help manage adult atopic asthma.

  13. Birth month and sensitization to house dust mites in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Y; Yu, J; Kang, H; Kim, D K; Koh, Y Y; Kim, C K

    2005-10-01

    Early exposure to high quantities of allergen has an important role in the incidence of atopic sensitization. In fact, subjects sensitized to house dust mites (HDMs) have a significantly higher proportion of births in the season when HDMs are most abundant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth month patterns differ for asthmatic patients sensitized only to HDMs and for those sensitized to HDMs and other allergen(s). Among 2225 patients with asthma, aged 10-16 years, 1642 sensitized to HDMs were identified by skin prick testing. This group was composed of patients sensitized only to HDMs (n = 715) and patients sensitized to HDMs and other allergen(s) (n = 927). The birth month distributions of the group of HDM-sensitive asthmatics or its subgroups were compared with that of a reference population (total live births in the same years as the studied subjects). The risk ratio of a given birth month in relation to all the other months was calculated as an odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). A significant difference in birth month distribution was observed for HDM-sensitive asthmatics (chi(2) = 23.6, P = 0.015), with higher rates of birth in August (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.04-1.46) and September (1.24, 1.04-1.46). When the two subgroups were analyzed separately, significantly more births were noted in August (1.34, 1.06-1.71) and September (1.34, 1.05-1.70) for those sensitized only to HDMs, whereas no such birth month preference was observed for those sensitized to HDMs and other allergen(s). The HDM-positive asthmatics showed a greater proportion of births in August and September, which correspond to high HDM exposure. However, this birth month pattern was evident in asthmatic-sensitive only to HDMs, but was not observed in those sensitive to HDMs and other allergen(s).

  14. Evidence of the efficacy and safety of house dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy in elderly allergic rhinitis patients: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bożek, Andrzej; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kozłowska, Renata; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2017-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) in elderly patients is controversial, and there is still little evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of this treatment in this population. The study objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AIT for house dust mite allergens in patients over 65 years of age with allergic rhinitis (AR) and a documented allergy to house dust mites. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in the mean average adjusted symptom score (AAdSS) and the total combined rhinitis score (TCRS) difference in the least square means for the label compared to placebo. Fifty-eight AR elderly patients who were monosensitized to house dust mites were individually randomized in comparable numbers to one of two parallel groups with the following interventions: 2 years of perennial AIT using PURETHAL Mites or placebo. The symptoms and medication scores were presented as the AAdSS and TCRS. Quality of life, based on the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ), nasal allergen provocation responsiveness, serum allergen-specific IgG4 to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae and Der p1 and Der p2 were monitored. The intent-to-treat population was analysed. After 24 months of AIT, AAdSS significantly decreased from 4.27 ± 1.58 to 1.82 ± 0.71 ( p  < 0.05). The TCRS was significantly decreased after 2 years of AIT. Serum-specific IgG4 against D. pteronyssinus , D. farinae, Der p1 , and Der p2 increased during the AIT trial in the study group. The RQLQ score was significantly improved in patients who received AIT, from 1.86 (95% CI 1.51-1.78) to 1.26 (95% CI 1.09-1.55). Two mild systemic anaphylactic reactions (degree I) were reported after injections in the active group during the AIT therapy. The DBPC trial showed AIT for house dust mite allergens was effective and safe in elderly patients with allergic rhinitis. This randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled (DBPC) trial was conducted at one centre (Clinical

  15. TH17-induced neutrophils enhance the pulmonary allergic response following BALB/c exposure to house dust mite allergen and fine particulate matter from California and China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Fulgar, Ciara C; Mar, Tiffany; Young, Dominique E; Zhang, Qi; Bein, Keith J; Cui, Liangliang; Castañeda, Alejandro; Vogel, Christoph F A; Sun, Xiaolin; Li, Wei; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette; Zhang, Zunzhen; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2018-05-28

    Asthma is a global and increasingly prevalent disease. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 235 million people suffer from asthma. Studies suggest that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can induce innate immune responses, promote allergic sensitization, and exacerbate asthmatic symptoms and airway hyper-responsiveness. Recently, severe asthma and allergic sensitization have been associated with T-helper cell type 17 (TH17) activation. Few studies have investigated the links between PM2.5 exposure, allergic sensitization, asthma, and TH17 activation. This study aimed to determine whether 1) low-dose extracts of PM2.5 from California (PMCA) or China (PMCH) enhance allergic sensitization in mice following exposure to house dust mite (HDM) allergen; 2) eosinophilic or neutrophilic inflammatory responses result from PM and HDM exposure; and 3) TH17-associated cytokines are increased in the lung following exposure to PM and/or HDM.Ten-week old male BALB/c mice (n = 6-10/group) were intranasally instilled with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), PM+PBS, HDM, or PM+HDM, on Days 1, 3, and 5 (sensitization experiments), and PBS or HDM on Days 12-14 (challenge experiments). Pulmonary function, bronchoalveolar lavage cell differentials, plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) protein levels, and lung tissue pathology, cyto-/chemo-kine proteins, and gene expression were assessed on Day 15.Results indicated low-dose PM2.5 extracts can enhance allergic sensitization and TH17-associated responses. While PMCA+HDM significantly decreased pulmonary function, and significantly increased neutrophils, Igs, and TH17-related protein and gene levels compared to HDM, there were no significant differences between HDM and PMCH+HDM treatments. This may result from greater copper and oxidized organic content in PMCA versus PMCH.

  16. Efficacy evaluation of a pollen blocker cream against dust-mite allergy: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqing; Cheng, Lei; Chen, Xiaoning; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Dehui

    2015-01-01

    To further evaluate the efficacy and safety of a pollen blocker cream against dust-mite allergy. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted in a Chinese population. Patients diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis, sensitive to dust-mite allergy including Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were randomly allocated to receive a pollen blocker cream or placebo, which was applied and spread evenly to the lower internal nose region three times daily for a total of 30 days. The primary outcome measurements for efficacy were total nasal symptom score (TNSS) and individual nasal symptom score (iNSS). Adverse events were also monitored. After application of a pollen blocker, the mean TNSS decreased from 23.1 to 13.8, the decrease of the pollen blocker group (9.3) was highly significant compared with the placebo group (5.2; p < 0.001). Similarly, the decreases in iNSSs (rhinorrhea, congestion, sneezing, and itching) between the pollen blocker group and the placebo group were also significant (p < 0.05). In addition, in adults, the pollen blocker led to a remarkably significant decrease in TNSS (9.5) compared with placebo (5.4; p < 0.001); in children, the pollen blocker led to a significant decrease in TNSS (8.6) compared with placebo (4.8; p < 0.05). No statistical difference was found in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups (p > 0.05), and no severe systematic reactions were observed. Pollen Blocker is a safe and effective alternative to the drugs for treatment of AR, especially for Chinese people allergic to dust-mite allergy.

  17. The National Asthma Campaign Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study.

    PubMed

    Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Bridget M; Murray, Clare S; Lowe, Lesley; Woodcock, Ashley

    2002-01-01

    The NACManchester Asthma and Allergy Study is a prospective study of the development of asthma and allergies in childhood. The subjects (995 children at age 3 years) were recruited in utero by screening parents in the antenatal clinic using skin prick testing and a questionnaire regarding allergic diseases. Children were assigned to risk groups according to parental atopic status (high risk, both parents atopic; medium risk, one parent atopic; low risk, neither parent atopic). A subgroup of those at high risk (with no pets in the home) was randomized to stringent environmental control (allergen impermeable covers for the parental and infant bed, hot washing of bedding weekly, HEPA vacuum cleaner, hard floor for the nursery), and the remainder followed a normal regime. The children have been followed prospectively. The environmental influences are very clearly defined. Measurements of environmental exposures include levels of house dust mite; cat and dog allergens during pregnancy and early life; pet ownership and exposure; childcare arrangements; number of siblings; vaccination uptake; thorough dietary questionnaire; and endotoxin exposure. Further unique objective outcome in the cohort is the assessment of lung function in preschool children using specific airways resistance, which at age 3 years clearly reflects both genetic and environmental influences.

  18. Assessing the efficacy of immunotherapy with a glutaraldehyde-modified house dust mite extract in children by monitoring changes in clinical parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jaime; Cruz, María-Jesús; Piquer, Mónica; Giner, Maria-Teresa; Plaza, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of specific immunotherapy (SIT) management with allergoids in children with allergic asthma by monitoring changes in clinical parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. The study population included 43 patients (24 males) of 6-14 years of age, who had allergic asthma and were sensitized to mites. Twenty-three individuals were treated with subcutaneous SIT (PURETHAL® Mites, HAL Allergy) for 8 months, i.e. the SIT group, and 20 were given medication to treat symptoms only, i.e. the control group. Before treatment and after 4 and 8 months, several clinical parameters, the levels of exhaled nitric oxide and the pH of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were determined. The SIT group presented with an improvement in asthma classification, a reduction in maintenance drug therapy and improved scores on the quality-of-life questionnaire. These changes were not observed in the control group. Both groups presented significant decreases in EBC pH values at 4 and 8 months after treatment compared to at baseline. However, analysis of the variable 'ratio' showed an increase in the EBC pH values after 8 months of treatment in the SIT group compared with the values at 4 months. SIT with standardized mite extract reduces asthma symptoms in children. A decrease in EBC pH values was observed in both groups, although the SIT group presented a tendency of recovered values after 8 months. Future studies of EBC pH monitoring in the longer term are needed to determine the effectiveness of this marker. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Dust Allergens within Rural Northern Rocky Mountain Residences.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Emily; Semmens, Erin; Noonan, Curtis; Cady, Carol; Ward, Tony

    2015-01-23

    To date, few studies have characterized allergens within residences located in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountain region. In this study, we collected dust samples from 57 homes located throughout western Montana and northern Idaho. Dust samples were collected and later analyzed for dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 , Group 2 mite allergens ( Der p 2 and Der f 2 ), domestic feline ( Fel d 1 ), and canine ( Can f 1 ). Indoor temperature and humidity levels were also measured during the sampling program, as were basic characteristics of each home. Dog (96%) and cat (82%) allergens were the most prevalent allergens found in these homes (even when a feline or canine did not reside in the home). Results also revealed the presence of dust mites. Seven percent (7%) of homes tested positive for Der p 1 , 19% of homes were positive for Der f 1 , and 5% of homes were positive for the Group 2 mite allergens. Indoor relative humidity averaged 27.0 ± 7.6% within the homes. Overall, humidity was not significantly associated with dust mite presence, nor was any of the other measured home characteristics. This study provides a descriptive assessment of indoor allergen presence (including dust mites) in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountains, and provides new information to assist regional patients with reducing allergen exposure using in-home intervention strategies.

  20. Eucalyptus pollen allergy and asthma in children: a cross-sectional study in South-East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jane E M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree) pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma. Males (n = 180) and females (n = 200) aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic), some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range) near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species). Skin prick test (SPT) responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and 'asthma' (n = 97) versus 'healthy' status (n = 107) groups, were compared. SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter) indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7) compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018), Eucalyptus (p = .046) and cockroach (p = .047) allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm) were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher's Exact Test (α .05). For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm) was greatest for 'dust mite' (30.9%-46%), 'cockroach' (18.1% -35%) and 'Bermuda grass' (10.6%-19.4%). The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas. Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be appropriate. The findings pose validity questions regarding the use of some

  1. Hyper IgE in Childhood Eczema and Risk of Asthma in Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chantel; Hon, Kam Lun; Kung, Jeng Sum Charmaine; Pong, Nga Hin; Leung, Ting-Fan; Wong, Chun Kwok

    2016-06-10

    Atopic eczema is a common childhood disease associated with high IgE and eosinophilia. We characterized the clinical features associated with hyper-IgE (defined as IgE > 2000 IU/L) in eczema. Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), family and personal history of atopy, skin prick test (SPT) for common food and aeroallergens, highest serum IgE ever and eosinophil counts were evaluated in 330 children eczema patients. Childhood-NESS (NESS performed at <10 years of age) and adolescent-NESS (NESS performed at >10 years of age) were further analyzed. IgE correlated with NESS (spearman coefficient 0.35, p < 0.001) and eosinophil percentage (spearman coefficient 0.56, p = 0.001). Compared with IgE ≤ 2000IU/L (n = 167), patients with hyper-IgE (n = 163) were associated with male gender (p = 0.002); paternal atopy (p = 0.026); personal history of atopic rhinitis (p = 0.016); asthma (p < 0.001); dietary avoidance (p < 0.001); use of wet wrap (p < 0.001); traditional Chinese medicine use (TCM, p < 0.001); immunomodulant use (azathioprine or cyclosporine, p < 0.001); skin prick sensitization by dust mites (p < 0.001), cats (p = 0.012), dogs (p = 0.018), food (p = 0.002); eosinophilia (p < 0.001); more severe disease during childhood (p < 0.0001) and during adolescence (p < 0.0001), but not onset age of eczema or maternal atopy. Logistic regression showed that hyper-IgE was associated with personal history of asthma (exp(B) = 5.12, p = 0.002) and eczema severity during childhood and adolescence (p < 0.001). For patients <10 years of age, dust mite sensitization (p = 0.008) was associated with hyper-IgE. For patients >10years of age, food allergen sensitization was associated with hyper-IgE (p = 0.008). Hyper-IgE is independently associated with asthma, more severe atopy and more severe eczema during childhood and adolescence. IgE > 2000 IU/L may be a tool to aid prognostication of this chronic relapsing dermatologic disease and its progression to asthma.

  2. Comparison of the skin-prick test and Phadia ImmunoCAP as tools to diagnose house-dust mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Gi; Cho, Hyun-Jin; Park, Ga Young; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Chung, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seon Woo

    2010-01-01

    When the skin-prick test (SPT) and in vitro test such as ImmunoCAP assay are performed simultaneously, results do not always coincide in some patients. Our objectives, therefore, were (1) to assess differences in allergic test results according to age group and (2) to establish appropriate guidelines for diagnosing mite allergy according to age. A total of 692 participants complaining of allergic rhinitis symptoms participated. Patients were divided according to age; the mean age was 32 years (range, 8-76 years). The SPT and ImmunoCAP assays were performed to detect allergies to house-dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae). The association between age and the result of each allergy test were examined, and a cutoff age for proper application of each test was than estimated. Three hundred thirty-six patients (48.6%) were allergic to D. pteronyssinus and 350 patients (50.6%) were allergic to D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, SPT was proved to be more useful in detecting allergy for subjects <50 years old (p < 0.0001). However in case of D. farinae, ImmunoCAP was useful for all age groups, but SPT showed decreased ratio of positive result for subjects >30 years old (p < 0.0001). This study was the first to compare results of allergy tests according to age using true allergens. For patients >50 years of age, the ImmunoCAP was found to be the preferred method for detecting allergy to house-dust mites and for patients <30 years old, SPT is the recommended first choice.

  3. Detection of Dermatophagoides farinae in the dust of air conditioning filters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Bai, Yu; Ji, Kunmei; Liu, Xiaoyu; Cai, Chengyu; Yu, Haiqiong; Li, Meng; Bao, Ying; Lian, Yuyin; Gao, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The allergenic dust mite species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae generally inhabit warm moist environments. This study tested the hypothesis that these allergenic species may thrive in air conditioner filters. A year-long investigation of the dust mite population densities and species identities living in air conditioner filters in Shenzhen City in Southern China was performed. Additional data describing the levels of major dust mite allergen proteins from samples collected in July and August 2004 were analyzed. Genetic polymorphism analysis of Der f 1 and Der f 2 genes in the collected animals was also conducted. Our investigation revealed that larval dust mites started to grow in March, from which time their populations proceeded to steadily increase until reaching their population zenith in July and August. The dust mite populations decreased sharply in October and live dust mites were no longer observed in the winter. Among the mites collected in July and August, 30.1 and 25.8% were of the species D. farinae. The concentration of Der f 1 was 3.04 +/- 1.75 and 3.21 +/- 1.84 microg/g dust in July and August, respectively, and that of Der f 2 was 2.15 +/- 0.82 and 2.04 +/- 1.15 microg/g dust. Four types of Der f 1 and 5 types of Der f 2 cDNA sequences were cloned from collected Der f mites. Their sequences were highly homologous with those previously published in GenBank (No. AB034946.1 and No. AB195580.1). This research demonstrated that Der f allergens exist in the dust of air conditioner filters in this area.

  4. Allergens in household dust and serological indicators of atopy and sensitization in Detroit children with history--based eivdence of asthma

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Home exposure to allergens is an important factor in the development of sensitization and subsequent exacerbations of allergic asthma. We investigated linkages among allergen exposure, immunological measurements, and asthma by examining (1) reservoir dust allergen lev...

  5. Relevance of Cat and Dog Sensitization by Skin Prick Testing in Childhood Eczema and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Kathy Yin Ching; Pong, Nga Hin Henry; Leung, Ting Fan

    2017-01-01

    Household animal dander has been implicated as aeroallergen in childhood atopic diseases. Many parents seek healthcare advice if household pet keeping may be detrimental in atopic eczema (AE), allergic rhinitis and asthma. We investigated if skin sensitization by cat/dog dander was associated with disease severity and quality of life in children with AE. Demographics, skin prick test (SPT) results, disease severity (Nottingham eczema severity score NESS), Children Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), blood IgE and eosinophil counts of a cohort of AE patients were reviewed. 325 AE patients followed at a pediatric dermatology clinic were evaluated. Personal history of asthma was lowest (20%) in the dog-dander-positive-group but highest (61%) in bothcat- and-dog-dander-positive group (p=0.007). Binomial logistic regression ascertained that catdander sensitization was associated with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.056; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.109; p=0.029), dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 4.625; 95% CI, 1.444 to 14.815; p=0.010), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 2.330; 95% CI, 1.259 to 4.310; p=0.007) and keeping-cat-ever (aOR, 7.325; 95% CI, 1.193 to 44.971; p=0.032); whereas dogdander sensitization was associated with dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 9.091; 95% CI, 1.148 to 71.980; p=0.037), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.341 to 9.492; p=0.011) and keeping-dog-ever (aOR, 6.809; 95% CI, 2.179 to 21.281; p=0.001). However, neither cat nor dog sensitization were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, parental or sibling atopic status, disease severity or quality of life. Physicians should advise parents that there is no direct correlation between AE severity, quality of life, asthma or allergic rhinitis with cutaneous sensitization to cats or dogs. Sensitized patients especially those with concomitant asthma and severe symptoms may consider non-furry alternatives if they plan to have a pet. Highly sensitized

  6. Tropomyosin or not tropomyosin, what is the relevant allergen in house dust mite and snail cross allergies?

    PubMed

    Bessot, J C; Metz-Favre, C; Rame, J M; De Blay, F; Pauli, G

    2010-02-01

    Since tropomyosin is cross reactive in many arthropods, it was assumed that this highly conserved protein could be responsible for cross reactions in house dust mite (HDM) allergic patients who experienced adverse reactions after crustacean and mollusc ingestion. Here we report two clinical cases where the role of tropomyosin is a matter of debate. In the first case, the clinical history, as well as the results of in vivo and in vitro investigations, are in favour of a shrimp allergy without any snail allergy in a patient sensitized to HDM. In the second, the clinical history and the cutaneous tests are in favour of an allergy to snails without any allergy to shrimps in a patient suffering from HDM allergies. The clinical presentation is different in shrimp and snail allergies. In shrimp allergy, symptoms are mainly urticaria or angio-oedema. In snail allergies, adverse reactions are especially severe asthma. Shrimp tropomyosin is a dominant allergen in crustaceans whereas has a much less prominent role in HDM sensitization. Cross reactivities between HDM and snails have been confirmed by inhibition experiments. However, tropomyosin appears to be a minor allergen or even is not involved in snail allergy. It is necessary to clarify the allergens shared between HDMI and snails. The effects of HDM immunotherapy in snail allergy are questioned. Knowledge of taxonomy can contribute to more precise evaluation of cross reactivities between crustaceans and molluscs.

  7. The influence of household pets on the composition and quantity of allergenic mite fauna within Irish homes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D; Dix, E; Liddy, S; Gormally, M; Byrne, M

    2016-03-01

    Allergenic mites are responsible for inducing hypersensitive reactions in genetically predisposed people worldwide. Mites in dust from 30 Irish homes with pets (dogs, n = 23; cats, n = 7) were compared with those in 30 homes without pets. House dust mites constituted 78% of all mites recorded, with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) representing 57-72% of mites in furniture and mattresses in both home types compared with only 22% of mites in pet beds. Although storage mites accounted for just 13% of all mites recorded, they represented 46% of mites recorded in pet beds. Median levels of the dust mite allergen Der p 1 (µg/g) in dust samples from mattresses in homes without pets were significantly greater than in mattresses from homes with pets, reflecting the greater densities of D. pteronyssinus found in the former home category. Mite species richness was greater in homes with pets (17 species) than in homes without pets (13 species). This suggests that although the presence of pets can result in a wider variety of epidemiologically important mite species within households, increased competition among mite species may result in a more balanced mite fauna in the home, inhibiting the dominance of any one species and hence lowering allergen-associated risks. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Tuttle, Steven C; Nelson, Morgan C; Bradshaw, Rebecca K; Hoybjerg, Taylor G; Johnson, Julene B; Kruman, Bryce A; Orton, Taylor S; Cook, Ryan B; Eggett, Dennis L; Weber, K Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr) and summer (July-Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  9. Environmental Issues in Managing Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Diette, Gregory B; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2008-01-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and cleaning activities, and particles that penetrate from the outdoors. Nitrogen dioxide sources include gas stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces. Indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are linked to asthma morbidity. The indoor ozone concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor ozone concentration. The health effects of indoor ozone exposure have not been well studied. In contrast, there is substantial evidence of detrimental health effects from secondhand smoke. Guideline recommendations are not specific for optimizing indoor air quality. The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program asthma guidelines recommend eliminating indoor smoking and improving the ventilation. Though the guidelines state that there is insufficient evidence to recommend air cleaners, air cleaners and reducing activities that generate indoor pollutants may be sound practical approaches for improving the health of individuals with asthma. The guidelines are more specific about allergen avoidance; they recommend identifying allergens to which the individual is immunoglobin E sensitized and employing a multifaceted, comprehensive strategy to reduce exposure. Outdoor air pollutants that impact asthma include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, and guidelines recommend that individuals with asthma avoid exertion outdoors when these pollutants are elevated. Outdoor allergens include tree, grass, and weed pollens, which vary in concentration by season

  10. Associations of Early Life Exposures and Environmental Factors With Asthma Among Children in Rural and Urban Areas of Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mulin; Yang, Zhaowei; Pan, Liying; Lai, Xuxin; Xian, Mo; Huang, Xiafei; Chen, Yan; Schröder, Paul C; Roponen, Marjut; Schaub, Bianca; Wong, Gary W K; Li, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Environmental factors may play important roles in asthma, but findings have been inconsistent. The goal of this study was to determine the associations between early life exposures, environmental factors, and asthma in urban and rural children in southeast China. A screening questionnaire survey was conducted in 7,164 children from urban Guangzhou and 6,087 from rural Conghua. In the second stage, subsamples of 854 children (419 from Guangzhou, 435 from Conghua) were recruited for a case-control study that included a detailed questionnaire enquiring on family history, early life environmental exposures, dietary habits, and laboratory tests (including histamine airway provocation testing, skin prick tests, and serum antibody analyses). House dust samples from 76 Guangzhou families and 80 Conghua families were obtained to analyze levels of endotoxins, house dust mites, and cockroach allergens. According to the screening survey, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was lower in children from Conghua (3.4%) than in those from Guangzhou (6.9%) (P < .001). A lower percentage of asthma was reported in rural subjects compared with urban subjects (2.8% vs. 29.4%; P < .001) in the case-control study. Atopy (OR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.58-2.29]), parental atopy (OR, 2.49 [95% CI, 1.55-4.01]), hospitalization before 3 years of age (OR, 2.54 [95% CI, 1.37-4.70]), high consumption of milk products (OR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.03-2.73]), and dust Dermatophagoides farinae group 1 allergen (OR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.34-2.19]) were positively associated with asthma. Living in a crop-farming family at < 1 year of age (OR, 0.15 [95% CI, 0.08-0.32]) and dust endotoxin levels (OR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.50-0.95]) were negatively associated with asthma. Rural children from an agricultural background exhibited a reduced risk of asthma. Early life exposure to crop farming and high environmental endotoxin levels might protect the children from asthma in southern China. Copyright © 2016 American College of

  11. Conventional and monocyte-derived CD11b(+) dendritic cells initiate and maintain T helper 2 cell-mediated immunity to house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Maud; Guilliams, Martin; Vanheerswynghels, Manon; Deswarte, Kim; Branco-Madeira, Filipe; Toussaint, Wendy; Vanhoutte, Leen; Neyt, Katrijn; Killeen, Nigel; Malissen, Bernard; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2013-02-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for mounting allergic airway inflammation, but it is unclear which subset of DCs performs this task. By using CD64 and MAR-1 staining, we reliably separated CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) from conventional DCs (cDCs) and studied antigen uptake, migration, and presentation assays of lung and lymph node (LN) DCs in response to inhaled house dust mite (HDM). Mainly CD11b(+) cDCs but not CD103(+) cDCs induced T helper 2 (Th2) cell immunity in HDM-specific T cells in vitro and asthma in vivo. Studies in Flt3l(-/-) mice, lacking all cDCs, revealed that moDCs were also sufficient to induce Th2 cell-mediated immunity but only when high-dose HDM was given. The main function of moDCs was the production of proinflammatory chemokines and allergen presentation in the lung during challenge. Thus, we have identified migratory CD11b(+) cDCs as the principal subset inducing Th2 cell-mediated immunity in the LN, whereas moDCs orchestrate allergic inflammation in the lung. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of two doses of carbamylated allergoid extract of dust mite on nasal reactivity.

    PubMed

    Scalone, G; Compalati, E; Bruno, M E; Mistrello, G

    2013-11-01

    Background and Objective. Single SLIT studies with native allergen extracts support a dose-response effect for clinical and immunological outcomes. Conversely for carbamylated allergoids this dose-response effects is less evident, likely because the threshold for efficacy is more easily reached through the enhanced bioavailability of the extract consequent to the selective chemical modification. Thus this pilot study investigates the dose-response effect on nasal specific reactivity and safety of two unusual doses of carbamylated allergoid in patients mono-sensitized to house dust mites. Methods. A prospective open randomized study involved 6-65 year-old Italian patients with clinically relevant sensitization to house dust mites and positive response to nasal provocation challenge. Monomeric carbamylated allergoid was delivered once daily at the dose of 1000 AU or 2000 AU from June to September 2009, during the lowest level of mites exposure. Primary outcomes were the change of the threshold of allergen concentration for a positive nasal provocation test (NPT) before and after the treatment and the product safety. Secondary outcome was the change  in the mean percentage fall of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) following nasal challenge. Results. Thirty-four patients were enrolled. Fifteen in group 1 and 14 in group 2 concluded the study. After 12 weeks all patients treated in group 1 and all but one in group 2 showed an increase in the threshold dose provoking a positive NPT. Those with no symptoms onset with the highest dose delivered were 80% in group 1 and 78.6% in group 2 (p=0.92). From first to second challenge, the mean percentage fall of PNIF  was reduced with no statistical difference between groups (p=0.95), and with no difference between the final mean percentage falls (p=0.65). No serious adverse reactions occurred and the frequency of events, all mild, was similar in the two groups. Conclusions. Twelve weeks of carbamylated sublingual allergoid

  13. Airway wall thickness of allergic asthma caused by weed pollen or house dust mite assessed by computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Li, Guangrun; Sun, Yuemei; Li, Jian; Tang, Ningbo; Dong, Liang

    2015-03-01

    Little was known about Airway wall thickness of asthma patients with different allergen allergy. So we explored the possible difference of Airway wall thickness of asthma patients mono-sensitized to weed pollen or HDM using high-resolution computed tomography. 85 severe asthma patients were divided into weed pollen group and HDM group according to relevant allergen. 20 healthy donors served as controls. Airway wall area, percentage wall area and luminal area at the trunk of the apical bronchus of the right upper lobe were quantified using HRCT and compared. The values of pulmonary function were assessed as well. There were differences between HDM group and weed pollen group in WA/BSA,WA% and FEF25-75% pred, and no significant difference in FEV1%pred, FEV1/FVC and LA/BSA. In weed pollen group, WA/BSA was observed to correlate with the duration of rhinitis, whereas in HDM group, WA/BSA and LA/BSA was observed to correlate with the duration of asthma. In weed pollen group, FEV1/FVC showed a weak but significant negative correlation with WA%, but in HDM group FEV1/FVC showed a significant positive correlation with WA% and a statistical negative correlation with LA/BSA. FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75% pred were higher and WA/BSA and LA/BSA were lower in healthy control group than asthma group. FEV1%pred and WA% was no significant difference between asthma patients and healthy subjects. There are differences between HDM mono-sensitized subjects and weed pollen mono-sensitized subjects, not only in airway wall thickness, but also small airway obstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Health economics analysis of specific immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis accompanied with asthma].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjun; Xiang, Jisheng; Wang, Yanjun; Shi, Qiumei; Tan, Huifang; Kong, Weijia

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the cost-effectiveness of standardized specific immunotherapy (SIT) for allergic rhinitis patients accompanied with asthma (ARAS) in China. Forty ARAS patients sensitized with house dust mite (HDM) were administered with SIT (SIT group) or merely medicine treatment (control group). Alutard dermatophagoides pteronyssinus vaccine from ALK company was used for immunotherapy. The usage of symptom control medicine was according to the ARIA and GINA guideline. Cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) and Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio(ICER) analysis was conducted. The effectiveness was measured in terms of symptom scores, quality of life, objective improvement of rhinitis and asthma. Sensitive analysis was conducted to verify the stability of the results. The cost of SIT group for 1 year (6578 yuan) was higher than that of control group (1733.3 yuan), while the cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of SIT group were significant better than that of control group in all items. CER was 1686.7 yuan in SIT group compared with 3466.6 yuan in control group for nasal symptom scores, 4698.6 yuan in SIT group compared with 5777.8 yuan in control group for asthma symptom scores, 3462.1 yuan in SIT group compared with 8666.7 yuan in control group. The sensitive analysis of the price 10 percent higher or lower showed the same results. The cost-effectiveness of specific immunotherapy (SIT) for mite sensitized ARAS patients was better than that of merely medicine treatment.

  15. Activation of mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors by the house dust mite cysteine protease Der p1 provides a new mechanism linking allergy and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vemuri B; Lerner, Ethan A

    2017-10-20

    Cysteine and serine proteases function via protease-activated and mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs) to contribute to allergy and inflammation. Der p1 is a cysteine protease and major allergen from the house dust mite and is associated with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Der p1 activates protease-activated receptor 2 and induces the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from cells. However, the possibility that Der p1 acts on Mrgprs has not been considered. We report here that ratiometric calcium imaging reveals that Der p1 activates the human receptor MRGPRX1 and the mouse homolog MrgprC11, implicated previously in itch. Der p1 cleavage of N-terminal receptor peptides followed by site-directed mutagenesis of the cleavage sites links receptor activation to specific amino acid residues. Der p1 also induced the release of IL-6 from heterologous cells expressing MRGPRX1. In summary, activation of Mrgprs by the allergen Der p1 may contribute to inflammation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Rebamipide suppresses mite-induced asthmatic responses in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Ikuo; Zhang, Ran; Kubo, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Eguchi, Eri; Ogino, Keiki

    2015-10-15

    Allergic asthma caused by continuous allergen exposure evokes allergen-specific Th2 responses and is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. A previous report showed that rebamipide improved asthmatic symptoms in an ovalbumin/trypsin mice model. However, it is still unclear how rebamipide exerts its effects in asthma. In this study, rebamipide improved the asthmatic responses induced by mite exposure in NC/Nga mice, revealing the mechanism of this therapeutic effect. Rebamipide suppressed the infiltration of eosinophils into the airways and lung as well as attenuating the production of reactive oxygen species in tissues. In addition to these anti-inflammatory effects, rebamipide inhibited the production of IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family that drives the subsequent production of Th2-associated cytokines. These observations identify the point where rebamipide exerts its suppressive action on asthma and suggest that rebamipide has therapeutic potential in preventing mite-induced asthma. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... mites (tiny insects that live in dust) cockroaches pollen (a kind of dust that comes from plants) ... up, such as: windy conditions that stir up pollens and molds rain that lets trees and grasses ...

  18. DNA methylation levels associated with race and childhood asthma severity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Marcia A; Ciaccio, Christina E; Gigliotti, Nicole M; Rezaiekhaligh, Mo; Siedlik, Jacob A; Kennedy, Kevin; Barnes, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to its incidence and severity. A disproportionate number of children with asthma are economically disadvantaged and live in substandard housing with potential indoor environmental exposures such as cockroaches, dust mites, rodents and molds. These exposures may manifest through epigenetic mechanisms that can lead to changes in relevant gene expression. We examined the association of global DNA methylation levels with socioeconomic status, asthma severity and race/ethnicity. We measured global DNA methylation in peripheral blood of children with asthma enrolled in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program. Inclusion criteria included residing in the same home for a minimum of 4 days per week and total family income of less than 80% of the Kansas City median family income. DNA methylation levels were quantified by an immunoassay that assessed the percentage of 5-methylcytosine. Our results indicate that overall, African American children had higher levels of global DNA methylation than children of other races/ethnicities (p = 0.029). This difference was more pronounced when socioeconomic status and asthma severity were coupled with race/ethnicity (p = 0.042) where low-income, African American children with persistent asthma had significantly elevated methylation levels relative to other races/ethnicities in the same context (p = 0.006, Hedges g = 1.14). Our study demonstrates a significant interaction effect among global DNA methylation levels, asthma severity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

  19. Prenatal Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Asthma in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, Jordi; Torrent, Maties; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Carrizo, Daniel; Grimalt, Joan; Antó, Josep M.; Cullinan, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma increases with increasing dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) levels. However, the effect of early-life exposure, the fundamental window of exposure, is unknown. We assessed the association between prenatal DDE and other organochlorine compounds, and atopy and asthma during infancy. All women presenting for antenatal care in Menorca (Spain) over 12 months starting in mid-1997 were invited to take part in a longitudinal study; 482 children were subsequently enrolled, and 468 (97.1%) provided complete outcome data up to the fourth year of study. Prenatal exposure of organochlorine compounds was measured in cord serum in 405 (83%) children. Asthma was defined on the basis of wheezing at 4 years of age, persistent wheezing, or doctor-diagnosed asthma. We measured specific immunoglobulin-E (IgE) against house dust mite, cat, and grass in sera extracted at 4 years of age. DDE (median = 1.03 ng/mL) was detected in all children, as well as hexachlorobenzene (0.68 ng/mL) and polychlorobiphenyls (0.69 ng/mL). Wheezing at 4 years of age increased with DDE concentration, particularly at the highest quartile [9% in the lowest quartile (< 0.57 ng/mL) vs. 19% in the highest quartile (1.90 ng/mL); relative risk = 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.19–4.69), adjusting for maternal asthma, breast-feeding, education, social class, or other organochlorines]. The association was not modified by IgE sensitization and occurred with the same strength among nonatopic subjects and among those with persistent wheezing or diagnosed asthma. DDE was not associated with atopy alone. Prenatal exposure to DDE residues may contribute to development of asthma. PMID:16330365

  20. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James D.; Tuttle, Steven C.; Nelson, Morgan C.; Bradshaw, Rebecca K.; Hoybjerg, Taylor G.; Johnson, Julene B.; Kruman, Bryce A.; Orton, Taylor S.; Cook, Ryan B.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Weber, K. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan–Apr) and summer (July–Sept), 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction. PMID:26808528

  1. A Cost-Minimisation Analysis Comparing Sublingual Immunotherapy to Subcutaneous Immunotherapy for the Treatment of House Dust Mite Allergy in a Swedish Setting.

    PubMed

    Björstad, Åse; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Hahn-Pedersen, Julie; Svärd, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    In Sweden, approximately 6% of children and 10% of adults suffer from house dust mite (HDM) allergy with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Treatment is aimed at reducing HDM exposure and to control the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma by symptom-relieving pharmacotherapy. This pharmacotherapy is often effective, but some patients remain inadequately controlled. For these patients, allergy immunotherapy (AIT, subcutaneous or sublingual) with repeated administration of HDM allergen should be considered. The objective of this study was to compare the costs for sublingual AIT (SLIT; SQ ® SLIT-tablet) to the costs for subcutaneous AIT (SCIT; SQ ® SCIT) for the treatment of HDM allergy in a cost-minimisation analysis (CMA). The CMA included resources (and costs) for treatment, healthcare visits, travelling and lost productivity. Resource use based on Swedish clinical treatment practice and costs were obtained from medical price lists. Analyses were conducted from the societal, as well as healthcare perspective, by use of a time horizon of 3 years. The results show that SQ ® SLIT-tablet is a cost-saving treatment as compared to SQ ® SCIT for the treatment of HDM allergy (€6800 over 3 years). The results are mainly driven by the cost of healthcare visits and the frequency of SCIT administrations. In conclusion, cost-savings of €6800 over 3 years are expected from treating HDM allergy with SQ ® SLIT-tablet as compared to SQ ® SCIT, including costs for treatment, healthcare visits, travelling and lost productivity. The reduced number of healthcare visits compensates for higher medication costs.

  2. Sensitization to allergens of house-dust mite in adults with atopic dermatitis in a cold temperature region.

    PubMed

    Holm, L; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Ohman, S; Scheynius, A

    1999-07-01

    An IgE-mediated contact reaction to airborne allergens has been suggested as one important pathogenetic mechanism in atopic dermatitis (AD). The house-dust mite (HDM) might be a common allergen involved. In Scandinavia, sensitization to HDM has been rare, probably because of the cold, dry climate. However, recent studies indicate high levels of domestic mites and HDM allergen in 15-20% of homes in central and northern Sweden. To evaluate the importance of the HDM in patients with AD in the Stockholm region, we screened 81 adult Stockholm residents with AD, for the prevalence and degree of sensitization to the HDM, according to specific IgE (RAST), skin prick test (SPT), and atopy patch test (APT). We also assessed the HDM exposure in their homes and correlated the results with clinical history, severity of the dermatitis, and type of residence during childhood and today. The sensitization rate to HDM was high (56% according to RAST, 24% according to SPT, and 47% according to APT), and 20% of the patients were exposed to HDM allergens in their beds. Mite exposure seemed to aggravate the dermatitis in highly sensitized patients. The results indicate that we have to take the HDM into account when discussing aggravating factors in adult patients with AD in the Stockholm region.

  3. Inhaled endotoxin and organic dust particulates have synergistic proinflammatory effects in equine heaves (organic dust-induced asthma).

    PubMed

    Pirie, R S; Collie, D D S; Dixon, P M; McGorum, B C

    2003-05-01

    Equine heaves is a naturally occurring organic dust-induced asthma characterized by airway neutrophilia, mucus hypersecretion and obstructive lung dysfunction. However, the relative role of different dust components in disease severity remains unclear. This study investigated the relative contribution of inhaled endotoxin and organic dust particulates (mainly mould spores) in inducing heaves in heaves-susceptible horses. Control and heaves-susceptible horses received inhalation challenges with hay dust suspension (HDS) before and after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) depletion. Heaves-susceptible horses also received inhalation challenge with HDS particulates with and without the addition of LPS and were housed in two separate dusty environments during which mould and endotoxin exposure was measured. The airway inflammatory and functional response to each challenge was measured. Depletion of endotoxin from HDS attenuated the airway neutrophilia and abrogated the airway dysfunction induced in heaves horses by inhaled HDS. The airway response was re-established by adding back LPS to the depleted HDS, confirming that the attenuation in airway response was due specifically to endotoxin depletion. Interestingly, the magnitude of alteration in airway response following endotoxin depletion and add-back was greater than that which could be attributed solely to endotoxin per se, indicating that the LPS activity was enhanced by the other dust components. Consistent with this possibility, washed particulates harvested from HDS enhanced the airway response to inhaled LPS in heaves horses. Heaves horses given two different hay/straw challenges had a significantly different severity of airway inflammation and dysfunction, despite airborne dust and endotoxin concentrations in the horses' breathing zones being similar. Although inhaled endotoxin appears not to be the only determinant of disease severity in heaves, it does contribute significantly to the induction of airway inflammation

  4. Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Clarisse; Charpin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs), molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Since avoidance is not easy to achieve, clean air policies remain the most effective strategy. Indoor air is also affected by air pollutants, such as cigarette smoke and

  5. Prevalence of pollen sensitization in younger children who have asthma.

    PubMed

    Ogershok, Paul R; Warner, Daniel J; Hogan, Mary Beth; Wilson, Nevin W

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly believed that young children are incapable of pollen sensitization; therefore, skin testing usually is not performed to these allergens. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of positive skin tests to outdoor allergens among younger children who have asthma. Patients who have asthma, aged 6 months to 10 years, were evaluated for pollen sensitization over a 10-year period. Skin-prick testing was performed to relevant individual aeroallergens including trees, grasses, and weeds. Testing for perennial indoor allergens such as dust mites, cats, dogs, cockroaches, and molds was performed also. A total of 687 children with asthma were evaluated. No child <12 months old was sensitized to pollens. Children between 12 and 24 months of age had a 29% incidence of pollen sensitization. Three-year-old children were as likely to be skin test positive to pollen as an indoor allergen. Notably, 49% of 3- and 4-year olds were sensitized to outdoor allergens. Primary sensitizing pollens in this age group were short ragweed, box elder, and June grass. In this population, pollen sensitization was not related to tobacco or wood smoke exposure. Although it is widely believed that young children with asthma are most commonly allergic to indoor allergens, almost 40% of our 1- to 3-year old children with asthma showed IgE-mediated sensitivity to outdoor allergens. Pediatric allergists should consider performing skin-prick testing to their local common aeroallergens in young children with asthma and seasonal symptoms.

  6. Occupational exposure to chemicals drives the increased risk of asthma and rhinitis observed for exposure to vapours, gas, dust and fumes: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Schyllert, Christian; Rönmark, Eva; Andersson, Martin; Hedlund, Ulf; Lundbäck, Bo; Hedman, Linnea; Lindberg, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to the composite measure vapours, gases, dusts and fumes (VGDF), contribute to the burden of asthma and rhinitis. The objective was to evaluate occupational exposure to VGDF, which is further divided into the components chemicals, organic and inorganic dust in relation to asthma and rhinitis. Previously examined participants from three population-based cohorts in the Obstructive Lung disease In Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies were re-examined during 2002-2004. In total, 4036 participated in a structured interview and answered a questionnaire on occupational exposures. Occupational exposure to VGDF increased the risk of asthma, and concomitant asthma and rhinitis. Exposure to chemicals, but not dust, showed a similar pattern. Exposure to chemicals increased the risks (OR, 95% CI) of rhinitis without asthma (1.29, 1.10 to 1.52), asthma without rhinitis (1.42, 1.15 to 1.77) and concomitant asthma and rhinitis (1.60, 1.31 to 1.96) when adjusted for confounders such as age, smoking habits, body mass index and sex. The association between exposure to chemicals and asthma and rhinitis remained independent of exposure to dust and was also so when excluding exposure to isocyanates and welding fumes. The results were similar for women and men, as well as for never-smokers and participants without a history of allergy. In this cross-sectional population-based study, occupational exposure to chemicals contributed substantially to the increased risk of asthma and rhinitis observed for occupational exposure to VGDF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Seasonal variations in emergency room visits for asthma attacks in Gama, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valença, Laércio Moreira; Restivo, Paulo César Nunes; Nunes, Mário Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    To quantify the number of asthma attacks treated in the emergency room of a public hospital and to study seasonal fluctuations, taking into consideration the local climate, which is characterized by having only two seasons: a rainy/humid season and a dry season. A retrospective survey was conducted in a community general hospital. A total of 37,642 emergency room consultations related to asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, upper-airway infection or other respiratory complaints were registered during a two year period. The data from each patient chart were collected for later analysis. Among the respiratory conditions treated, asthma (24.4%) was the second most common diagnosis. Most of the asthma consultations (56.6%) involved children below the age of fifteen. Regression analysis revealed a seasonal variation in the number of asthma consultations, which was significantly higher in March (p = 0.0109), the low points being in August (p = 0.0485) and September (p = 0.0169). The correlation between climate and asthma was most significant in relation to changes in humidity, although the effect was delayed by one month (p = 0.0026) or two months (p = 0.0002). Visits to the emergency room for the treatment of asthma attacks were more frequent during the rainy season, increasing at one to two months after the annual increase in humidity and decreasing in the dry season. This positive correlation raises the possibility of a causal relationship with proliferation of house dust mites and molds.

  8. Asthma Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Pollen Counts Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search ... bacterial infections, exercise, exposure to allergens such as pollen, dust mites or pet dander, acid reflux, some ...

  9. Indoor Environmental Control Practices and Asthma Management.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Elizabeth C; Abramson, Stuart L; Sandel, Megan T

    2016-11-01

    Indoor environmental exposures, particularly allergens and pollutants, are major contributors to asthma morbidity in children; environmental control practices aimed at reducing these exposures are an integral component of asthma management. Some individually tailored environmental control practices that have been shown to reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations are similar in efficacy and cost to controller medications. As a part of developing tailored strategies regarding environmental control measures, an environmental history can be obtained to evaluate the key indoor environmental exposures that are known to trigger asthma symptoms and exacerbations, including both indoor pollutants and allergens. An environmental history includes questions regarding the presence of pets or pests or evidence of pests in the home, as well as knowledge regarding whether the climatic characteristics in the community favor dust mites. In addition, the history focuses on sources of indoor air pollution, including the presence of smokers who live in the home or care for children and the use of gas stoves and appliances in the home. Serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E antibody tests can be performed or the patient can be referred for allergy skin testing to identify indoor allergens that are most likely to be clinically relevant. Environmental control strategies are tailored to each potentially relevant indoor exposure and are based on knowledge of the sources and underlying characteristics of the exposure. Strategies include source removal, source control, and mitigation strategies, such as high-efficiency particulate air purifiers and allergen-proof mattress and pillow encasements, as well as education, which can be delivered by primary care pediatricians, allergists, pediatric pulmonologists, other health care workers, or community health workers trained in asthma environmental control and asthma education. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Home-based family intervention for low-income children with asthma: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marianne P; Holsey, Chanda Nicole; Kobrynski, Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Low-income African American children have disproportionately higher asthma morbidity and mortality. Education alone may not address barriers to asthma management due to psychosocial stress. This study evaluated the efficacy of a home-based family intervention integrating asthma education and strategies to address stress using a community-based participatory research model. Children age 8 to 13 with poorly controlled asthma and their caregivers were recruited from an urban hospital and an asthma camp. Caregivers with elevated scores on a stress measure were enrolled. Forty-three families were randomized to the 4- to 6-session Home Based Family Intervention (HBFI) or the single session of Enhanced Treatment as Usual (ETAU). All families received an asthma action plan and dust mite covers; children performed spirometry and demonstrated MDI/spacer technique at each home visit. The HBFI addressed family-selected goals targeting asthma management and stressors. Asthma management, morbidity, family functioning, and caregiver stress were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 6 months after the intervention. ED visits and hospitalizations were ascertained by medical record review for a year after intervention completion. Only one child (5%) in HBFI had an asthma-related hospitalization compared to 7 patients (35%) in ETAU in the year following intervention. Participants in both groups demonstrated improved asthma management and family functioning, and reduced ED visits, symptom days, missed school days, and caregiver stress, but there were no differential treatment effects. The results suggest that a home-based intervention addressing medical and psychosocial needs may prevent hospitalizations for children with poorly controlled asthma and caregivers under stress. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity after bronchial challenge in subjects with grain dust-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Jung, K S

    1998-03-01

    There have been few reports suggesting involvement of neutrophils in induction of bronchoconstriction after inhalation of grain dust. To understand the role of neutrophils in pathogenesis of grain dust-induced asthma. We observed serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during grain dust-bronchoprovocation tests in six asthmatic subjects with positive bronchial challenges (group I). They were compared with those of six symptomatic subjects from the same workplace with negative bronchial challenges (group II). After grain dust inhalation, serum neutrophil chemotactic activity significantly increased at 30 minutes (P = .028), and then decreased to baseline level at 240 minutes (P = .028) in five subjects of group I having isolated early asthmatic responses. Enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity was persistent for up to 240 minutes in one asthmatic subject having both early and late asthmatic responses. There was, however, no significant change in serum neutrophil chemotactic activity during bronchial challenges in subjects of group II. Pre-incubation of sera with anti-interleukin-8 (IL-8) antibody did not affect the neutrophil chemotactic activity results of group I subjects. These results suggest that enhanced neutrophil chemotactic activity distinct from IL-8 may contribute to significant bronchoconstriction induced by grain dust.

  12. Mite and pet allergen exposure in hotels in Uberlândia, Midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simplício, E C; Silva, D A O; Braga, I A; Sopelete, M C; Sung, S J; Taketomi, E A

    2007-08-01

    Mite allergens are involved in airway sensitization and allergic diseases. We evaluated the exposure to house dust-mite (Der p 1 and Der f 1) and pet (Fel d 1 and Can f 1) allergens in hotels in Uberlândia, Midwestern Brazil. A total of 140 dust samples were collected from bedding (n = 98) and carpet (n = 42) of bedrooms in 20 hotels enrolled for this study. Geometric mean (GM) levels of Der f 1 (11.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 8.34-15.30 microg/g) were significantly higher than Der p 1 (0.15 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.13-0.18 microg/g) in bedding dust samples (P < 0.001), regardless of the hotel classes. Der f 1 levels were significantly higher in bedding (11.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 8.34-15.30 microg/g) than carpet (6.32 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 4.31-9.26 microg/g) dust samples (P < 0.05). High levels of Der f 1 (>10 microg/g of dust) were found in 58%, 76%, and 69% of dust samples from Simple, Economical, and Tourist/Superior hotels, respectively, while GM levels of Fel d 1 (0.11 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.09-0.14 microg/g) and Can f 1 (0.30 microg/g of dust; 95% CI: 0.20-0.44 microg/g) were relatively low. These results indicate that Der f 1 is the predominant allergen in hotels in Uberlândia, especially in bedding dust samples, regardless of the hotel classes and could represent an important risk factor for exacerbation of allergic symptoms in previously mite-sensitized guests. Mites and pets are important sources of indoor allergens. Most people spend the greatest part of their time indoors. Hotels can constitute an important allergen reservoir of the indoor environment and could represent an important risk for exacerbation of allergic symptoms in previously sensitized guests. Thus, hotels should also be included for planning indoor allergen avoidance as part of a global management strategy, especially in patients with respiratory allergy.

  13. Generation of a transgenic rice seed-based edible vaccine against house dust mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kazuya; Hirose, Sakiko; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2008-01-11

    As an alternative approach to conventional allergen-specific immunotherapy, transgenic rice seed expressing a major house dust mite (HDM) allergen, Der p 1, was developed as an edible vaccine. The C-terminal KDEL-tagged Der p 1 allergen specifically accumulated in seed endosperm tissue under the control of the endosperm-specific GluB1 promoter. Der p 1 reached a maximum concentration of 58 microg/grain and was deposited in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived protein body I (PB-I). Plant-derived Der p 1 was posttranslationally modified with high-mannose-type glycan structures. Glycosylated Der p 1 displayed reduced IgE binding capacity in comparison with its unglycosylated counterpart in vitro. Our results indicate that transgenic Der p 1 rice seeds are a safe, potential oral delivery vaccine for the treatment of HDM allergy.

  14. Asthma Education and Intervention Program: Partnership for Asthma Trigger-Free Homes (PATH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    military setting if additional funding is procured.) 15. SUBJECT TERMS Asthma , longitudinal study, asthma education, indoor asthma triggers, dust...caregiver quality of life, we make use of the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Caregiver’s Quality of Life questionnaire (PACQLQ). It measures the problems that...whose reliability and validity are described below. We employ the Juniper Pediatric Asthma Caregiver’s Quality of Life questionnaire (PACQLQ) to measure

  15. Validation of an asthma questionnaire for use in healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Delclos, G L; Arif, A A; Aday, L; Carson, A; Lai, D; Lusk, C; Stock, T; Symanski, E; Whitehead, L W; Benavides, F G; Antó, J M

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have described increased occurrence of asthma among healthcare workers, but to our knowledge there are no validated survey questionnaires with which to study this occupational group. Aims To develop, validate, and refine a new survey instrument on asthma for use in epidemiological studies of healthcare workers. Methods An initial draft questionnaire, designed by a multidisciplinary team, used previously validated questions where possible; the occupational exposure section was developed by updating health services specific chemical lists through hospital walk‐through surveys and review of material safety data sheets. A cross‐sectional validation study was conducted in 118 non‐smoking subjects, who also underwent bronchial challenge testing, an interview with an industrial hygienist, and measurement of specific IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens. Results The final version consisted of 43 main questions in four sections. Time to completion of the questionnaire ranged from 13 to 25 minutes. Test–retest reliability of asthma and allergy items ranged from 75% to 94%, and internal consistency for these items was excellent (Cronbach's α ⩾ 0.86). Against methacholine challenge, an eight item combination of asthma related symptoms had a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 70%; against a physician diagnosis of asthma, this same combination showed a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 98%. Agreement between self‐reported exposures and industrial hygienist review was similar to previous studies and only moderate, indicating the need to incorporate more reliable methods of exposure assessment. Against the aerollergen panel, the best combinations of sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a history of allergies to dust, dust mite, and animals. Conclusions Initial evaluation of this new questionnaire indicates good validity and reliability, and further field testing and cross‐validation in a larger healthcare worker

  16. Longitudinal urinary metabolomic profiling reveals metabolites for asthma development in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Lin, Gigin; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Chiang, Meng-Han; Tsai, Ming-Han; Su, Kuan-Wen; Hua, Man-Chin; Liao, Sui-Ling; Lai, Shen-Hao; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2018-04-21

    Several metabolites and altered metabolic pathways have been reported to be associated with asthma. However, longitudinal analysis of the dynamics of metabolites contributing to the development of asthma has not yet been fully clarified. We sought to identify the metabolic mechanisms underlying asthma development in early childhood. Thirty children with asthma and paired healthy controls from a prospective birth cohort were enrolled. Time-series analysis of urinary metabolites collected at ages 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were assessed using 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Metabolites identified were studied in relation to changes over time in a linear mixed model for repeated measures. A total of 172 urine samples collected from the enrolled children were analyzed. Urinary metabolomics identified four metabolites significantly associated with childhood asthma development, with longitudinal analysis. Among them, dimethylamine, a metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria, appeared to shift from higher to lower level during asthma development. A persistent lower level of 1-methylnicotinamide and allantoin was found in children with asthma, with a peak difference at age 3 years (P = 0.032 and P = 0.021 respectively). Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation was found between allantoin and house dust mite sensitization (Spearman's r = -0.297 P = 0.035). Longitudinal urinary metabolomic profiling provides a link of microbe-environment interactions in the development of childhood asthma. 1-Methylnicotinamide and allantoin may participate in allergic reactions in response to allergen exposure, potentially serving as specific biomarkers for asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The clinical efficacy of in vitro allergen-specific IgE antibody test in the diagnosis of allergic children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Chou, Tzn-Yu; Wu, Kuo-Yao; Shieh, Chi-Chang; Wang, Jiu-Yao

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is a very common respiratory allergic disease in Taiwan. The aims of this study were to investigate the allergen-sensitized profile and its relationship with serum total IgE levels in allergic asthmatic children in Taiwan. Moreover, the number of allergens to be tested for the most efficient and effective diagnosis of allergic diseases was also examined. Total IgE and IgE specific for a panel of common aeroallergens were assayed in 200 serum samples of asthmatic children using Pharmacia CAP system (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden). House dust mites Der p (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), Der f (Dermatophagoides farinae), and Bt (Blomia Tropicalis) had the highest sensitized rates at 82.5%, 82.0%, and 72%, respectively. Candida albican (14.0%) and Bermuda grass (8.0%) were the most common sensitized fungus and pollen in our subjects, respectively. The accumulated sensitized rate (10%) for pollens was lower than those of fungus (21.5%) and house dust allergens (84%). The average serum total IgE of the allergen-negative asthmatic children (n=30) was significantly lower than that of children with at least one allergen sensitized asthma (n=170) (377.9 +/- 123.6 vs. 1117.8 +/- 235.7 IU/ml, p<0.05). The level of total IgE was significantly correlated with the concentrations of mite-specific IgE antibodies, but not with the numbers of allergen sensitized. In addition, the detection rate was 84% when the 4 most common allergens (Der p, Der f, Dog dander, and cockroach) were tested, similar to the result after testing for all 12.

  18. Hospital admissions for asthma and acute bronchitis in El Paso, Texas: do age, sex, and insurance status modify the effects of dust and low wind events?

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Staniswalis, Joan G; Bulathsinhala, Priyangi; Peng, Yanlei; Gill, Thomas E

    2011-11-01

    El Paso County (Texas) is prone to still air inversions and is one of the dust "hot spots" in North America. In this context, we examined the sub-lethal effects of airborne dust and low wind events on human respiratory health (i.e., asthma and acute bronchitis) between 2000 and 2003, when 110 dust and 157 low wind events occurred. Because environmental conditions may not affect everyone the same, we explored the effects of dust and low wind within three age groups (children, adults, and the elderly), testing for effect modifications by sex and insurance status, while controlling for weather and air pollutants. We used a case-crossover design using events matched with referent days on the same day-of-the-week, month, and year with conditional logistic regression to estimate the probability of hospital admission, while controlling for apparent temperature (lag 1), nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter of 2.5μm or less. Children (aged 1-17) were 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.41) times more likely to be hospitalized for asthma three days after a low wind event, and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01-1.75) times more likely to be hospitalized for acute bronchitis one day after a dust event than on a clear day. Girls were more sensitive to acute bronchitis hospitalizations after dust events (1.83, 95% CI: 1.09-3.08) than boys, but less sensitive than boys to acute bronchitis hospitalizations after low wind events (0.68, 95% CI: 0.46-1.00). We found general trends with regard to dust and low wind events being associated with increased odds of hospitalization for asthma and bronchitis amongst all ages and adults (aged 18-64). Adults covered by Medicaid and adults without health insurance had higher risks of hospitalization for asthma and acute bronchitis after both low wind and dust events. Results suggest that there were respiratory health effects associated with dust and low wind events in El Paso, with stronger impacts among children and poor adults. Girls and boys with

  19. Hospital admissions for asthma and acute bronchitis in El Paso, Texas: Do age, sex, and insurance status modify the effects of dust and low wind events?

    PubMed Central

    Staniswalis, Joan G.; Bulathsinhala, Priyangi; Peng, Yanlei; Gill, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Background El Paso County (Texas) is prone to still air inversions and is one of the dust “hot spots” in North America. In this context, we examined the sub-lethal effects of airborne dust and low wind events on human respiratory health (i.e., asthma and acute bronchitis) between 2000 and 2003, when 110 dust and 157 low wind events occurred. Because environmental conditions may not affect everyone the same, we explored the effects of dust and low wind within three age groups (children, adults, and the elderly), testing for effect modifications by sex and insurance status, while controlling for weather and air pollutants. Methods We used a case-crossover design using events matched with referent days on the same day-of-the-week, month, and year with conditional logistic regression to estimate the probability of hospital admission, while controlling for apparent temperature (lag 1), nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter of 2.5 micrometers or less. Results Children (aged 1–17) were 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.00–1.41) times more likely to be hospitalized for asthma three days after a low wind event, and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01–1.75) times more likely to be hospitalized for acute bronchitis one day after a dust event than on a clear day. Girls were more sensitive to acute bronchitis hospitalizations after dust events (1.83, 95% CI: 1.09–3.08) than boys, but less sensitive than boys to acute bronchitis hospitalizations after low wind events (0.68, 95% CI: 0.46–1.00). We found general trends with regard to dust and low wind events being associated with increased odds of hospitalization for asthma and bronchitis amongst all ages and adults (aged 18–64). Adults covered by Medicaid and adults without health insurance had higher risks of hospitalization for asthma and acute bronchitis after both low wind and dust event Conclusions Results suggest that there were respiratory health effects associated with dust and low wind events in El Paso, with stronger

  20. The influence of air conditioning, humidity, temperature and other household characteristics on mite allergen concentrations in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    van Strien, R T; Gehring, U; Belanger, K; Triche, E; Gent, J; Bracken, M B; Leaderer, B P

    2004-06-01

    Information about the influence of housing and occupant characteristics on mite allergen concentrations is crucial to determine which methods could be used to decrease exposure of susceptible subjects. To identify housing and occupant characteristics that are associated with mite allergen concentrations in house dust collected from living rooms and mattresses. We collected dust samples from 750 homes in the northeastern US. The influence of various characteristics on concentrations of mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) was studied using multiple linear regression analysis. Some characteristics, like absence of air conditioners, the presence of mold or mildew, and a lower temperature were consistently associated with higher concentrations of both mite allergens in dust from all sampling locations. However, none of these factors changed Der p 1 or Der f 1 concentrations by more than a factor of 2. People of white ethnic background had roughly two times higher mite allergen concentrations, while family income, family size, and education level only marginally influenced mite allergen concentrations. Various housing characteristics have some influence on mite allergen concentrations, and could possibly be used to decrease exposure of susceptible subjects. However, only a limited percentage of the variation in mite allergen concentrations was explained by these characteristics.

  1. Cat, dog and house dust mite allergen levels on children's soft toys.

    PubMed

    Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Wu, Mei-Wen; Ting, Ming-Hui; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2014-02-01

    Children's soft toys are known to harbour house dust mite (HDM) allergens, but little is known whether they harbour cat or dog allergens. The objective of the study was to measure cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and HDM allergens on children's soft toys. Dust was collected from 40 children's soft toys and their mattresses. Data were collected on pet ownership. Dust samples were analysed for Fel d 1, Can f 1, Der p 1 and Der f 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and results are expressed as median levels with inter-quartile ranges. Thirty-five (87.5%) soft toys had detectable Fel d 1 levels (median: 0.73 µg/g; inter-quartile range: 0.26-2.56 µg/g) while 34 (85%) had detectable Can f 1 levels (1.20 µg/g; 0.53-2.68). Correspondingly, 32 (80%) mattresses had detectable Fel d 1 levels (0.18 µg/g, 0.07-1.01) while 34 (85%) had detectable Can f 1 levels (0.50 µg/g; 0.33-1.06). All mattresses and soft toys had detectable HDM allergen (Der p 1 + Der f 1) levels with soft toys containing about three times higher levels than mattresses. In homes with cats (n = 10) Fel d 1 levels were higher on soft toys than homes without cats (2.49 versus 0.48 µg/g; p = 0.0009). In homes with dogs (n = 25) Can f 1 levels were generally higher on soft toys (1.38 versus 0.63 µg/g; p = 0.10). This study has shown that soft toys can harbour cat and dog allergen as well as HDM allergens, some with very high levels. Cat and dog ownership resulted in higher Fel d 1 and Can f 1 levels on soft toys and mattresses. The levels of Fel d 1, Can f 1 and HDM allergens on soft toys could be of importance to sensitized asthmatic children.

  2. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  3. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  4. Characterization of Allergen Exposure in Homes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-17

    dust mixture.6 Dust mite allergens have been associated causatively with asthma, atopic dermatitis , and rhini- tis. 7 Studies from several countries...Asthma: A Controlled Trial. The Lancet 1976; ***:333-335. 10. Tuft L. Importance of Inhalant Allergens in Atopic Dermatitis . The Journal of Investigative...surface concentration. Correlation between units for cat antigen Fel d 1 was strong. However, the more conventional unit of mass of antigen per unit area

  5. Carbamylated monomeric allergoids as a therapeutic option for sublingual immunotherapy of dust mite- and grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: a systematic review of published trials with a meta-analysis of treatment using Lais® tablets.

    PubMed

    Mösges, R; Ritter, B; Kayoko, G; Allekotte, S

    2010-10-01

    Lais® allergoid tablets contain allergens that are modified by carbamylation. Due to their modified chemical structure, they are suitable for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) (13, 16, 17, 24). Based on their small molecule size of 12 to 40 kDa, they can be easily absorbed via the oral mucosa (1). In this review, we studied the efficacy of SLIT with carbamylated monomeric allergoid tablets in the treatment of grass pollen- and dust mite-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis on the basis of symptom and medication score improvements. Following a selective internet and databank search, six trials-some placebo-controlled-regarding the treatment of grass pollen- (n = 266) and dust mite-induced (n = 241) allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were used to draw conclusions regarding the clinical efficacy of allergoid tablets. The primary endpoints in these trials were decreases in the need for allergy medications and/or reductions in the occurrence of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. Data was recorded from patient diaries regarding their symptoms and medications used and conclusions were then drawn about the effectiveness and tolerabieity of Lais® tablets. The average improvement in symptom score in three trials of grass pollen allergy treatment was 34% in comparison to the placebo group. The treatment of dust mite-induced rhinoconjunctivitis produced an average symptom score improvement of 22% compared to the placebo or control groups. The intake of symptomatic rescue medication during allergoid tablet therapy declined. Treatment of grass pollen allergies and dust mite-induced rhinoconjunctivitis showed an average medication score improvement of 49% and 24%, respectively. Few side effects were documented in the trials and predominantly local effects were observed. Severe systemic side effects did not occur. On the basis of the trial results summarized in this review, we suggest that SLIT using Lais® sublingual tablets is an effective and well-tolerated form of treatment.

  6. Contribution of residential exposures to asthma in us children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lanphear, B P; Kahn, R S; Berger, O; Auinger, P; Bortnick, S M; Nahhas, R W

    2001-06-01

    Residential exposures are recognized risk factors for asthma, but the relative contribution of specific indoor allergens and their overall contribution to asthma among older children and adolescents in the United States are unknown. To estimate the relative contributions, population-attributable risks, and costs of residential risk factors for doctor-diagnosed asthma. Design. Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey conducted from 1988 to 1994. A total of 5384 children who were 6 to 16 years old and participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, a survey of the health and nutritional status of children and adults in the United States. Doctor-diagnosed asthma, as reported by the parent. Five hundred three of 5384 children and adolescents (11.4%) had doctor-diagnosed asthma. After adjusting for age, gender, race, urban status, region of country, educational attainment of the head of household, and poverty, predictors of doctor-diagnosed asthma included a history of allergy to a pet (odds ratio [OR: 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7, 3.3), presence of a pet in the household (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1), and immediate hypersensitivity to dust mite (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.0), Alternaria (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.8), and cockroach allergens (OR: 1.4; CI: 1.04, 1.9). Family history of atopy (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7) and diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (OR: 2.1; CI: 1.1, 3.7) were also predictors for asthma. The population-attributable risk of having 1 or more residential exposures associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma was 44.4% (95% CI: 29-60), or an estimated 2 million excess cases. The attributable cost of asthma resulting from residential exposures was $405 million (95% CI: $264-$547 million) annually. The elimination of identified residential exposures, if causally associated with asthma, would result in a 44% decline in doctor-diagnosed asthma among older children and adolescents in the United States.

  7. Risk factors for development of asthma in Thai adults in Phitsanulok: a university-based study.

    PubMed

    Uthaisangsook, Suwannee

    2010-03-01

    Studies have shown that asthma in children is caused by environmental and genetic factors. In adult asthma, risk factors were less well recognized. Likewise, in Thailand, data in adult asthma is limited. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors, determine skin reactivities to allergens, and assess concomitant allergy among adult asthma in Phitsanulok, a major city in the lower northern Thailand. Five hundred and thirteen Naresuan University staff members and students completed 2 sets of questionnaires and underwent allergy skin prick tests. The first set of questionnaires was standardized Thai version of ISAAC questionnaire for identifying asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema. The second set was modified from ISAAC phase II questionnaire to identify asthma risk factors. Fifty-eight subjects (11.6%) were identified as having physician's diagnosed asthma and 89 subjects (17.7%) wheezed in the past 12 months. Among 89 subjects, 14.4% wheezed more than once a month, 45.6% had wheezes interfering with sleep. Concomitant allergic rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema among these asthma subjects were 82.5%, 67.9%, and 14.9%, respectively. Eighty seven point nine percent of asthmatic subjects had positive skin reactivities to at least one allergen. Two of the most common allergens were house dust mites and cockroaches. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, smoking among family members, and family history of allergy were statistically significant risks for developing asthma, while having a rice field around the residence represented a significant protective factor. In conclusion, high prevalence of asthma presented in Phitsanulok and many asthmatic subjects were partly controlled or uncontrolled. The environment such as a rice field could protect against asthma, however atopy and smoking exposure were significant risks for asthma development

  8. [Skin sensitisation profiles to inhalant allergens for patients in Tétouan city (North West of Morocco)].

    PubMed

    Bardei, F; Bouziane, H; Kadiri, M; Rkiek, B; Tebay, A; Saoud, A

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of respiratory allergies is increasing and is a serious global health problem. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of skin sensitization to inhalant allergens in patients consulting for respiratory allergy, to identify the main allergens involved and to evaluate the profile of skin prick-test reactivity related to sex, age and season. This retrospective study included 379 patients consulting during 2009-2012 in three private medical offices of Tetouan. Of the 379 patients, 39.6% were monosensitized and 60.4% polysensitized. The percentages of polysensitized patients were higher in patients exhibiting rhinoconjunctivitis and astma-rhinoconjunctivitis than in subjects with asthma. The prevalence of symptoms according to sex showed no significant difference (P=0.64). Regarding age, a significant difference was observed in the case of rhinoconjunctivitis (P<0.01), while asthma and asthma-rhinoconjunctivitis showed no significant difference. Sensitization to house dust mites was the most frequent followed by grasses, olives and Parietaria. The multiple correspondence analyses (ACM) showed that patients under 20-years of age with asthma and asthma-rhinoconjunctivitis profile are more associated with sensitization to mites during the spring and autumn. The 20-49-year age group was represented mainly by polysensitized patients with rhinoconjunctivitis. Sensitization to mites ranks first in Tetouan followed by the percentage of sensitized patients to grass pollen and olive. The ACM showed that the house dust mite asthma seems to affect more children and adolescents while the 20-49 year age of polysensitized group suffers significantly rhinoconjunctivitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduction in Asthma Morbidity in Children as a Result of Home Remediation Aimed at Moisture Sources

    PubMed Central

    Kercsmar, Carolyn M.; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Schluchter, Mark; Xue, Lintong; Kirchner, H. Lester; Sobolewski, John; Greenberg, Stuart J.; Vesper, Stephen J.; Allan, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Objective Home dampness and the presence of mold and allergens have been associated with asthma morbidity. We examined changes in asthma morbidity in children as a result of home remediation aimed at moisture sources. Design In this prospective, randomized controlled trial, symptomatic, asthmatic children (n = 62), 2–17 years of age, living in a home with indoor mold, received an asthma intervention including an action plan, education, and individualized problem solving. The remediation group also received household repairs, including reduction of water infiltration, removal of water-damaged building materials, and heating/ventilation/air-conditioning alterations. The control group received only home cleaning information. We measured children’s total and allergen-specific serum immuno-globulin E, peripheral blood eosinophil counts, and urinary cotinine. Environmental dust samples were analyzed for dust mite, cockroach, rodent urinary protein, endotoxin, and fungi. The follow-up period was 1 year. Results Children in both groups showed improvement in asthma symptomatic days during the preremediation portion of the study. The remediation group had a significant decrease in symptom days (p = 0.003, as randomized; p = 0.004, intent to treat) after remodeling, whereas these parameters in the control group did not significantly change. In the postremediation period, the remediation group had a lower rate of exacerbations compared with control asthmatics (as treated: 1 of 29 vs. 11 of 33, respectively, p = 0. 003; intent to treat: 28.1% and 10.0%, respectively, p = 0.11). Conclusion Construction remediation aimed at the root cause of moisture sources and combined with a medical/behavioral intervention significantly reduces symptom days and health care use for asthmatic children who live in homes with a documented mold problem. PMID:17035145

  10. The Seattle-King County healthy homes project: implementation of a comprehensive approach to improving indoor environmental quality for low-income children with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James K; Takaro, Tim K; Allen, Carol; Song, Lin; Weaver, Marcia; Chai, Sanders; Dickey, Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Pediatric asthma is a growing public health issue, disproportionately affecting low-income people and people of color. Exposure to indoor asthma triggers plays an important role in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We describe the implementation of the Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project, a randomized, controlled trial of an outreach/education intervention to improve asthma-related health status by reducing exposure to allergens and irritants in the home. We randomly assigned 274 low-income children with asthma ages 4-12 to either a high- or a low-intensity group. In the high-intensity group, community health workers called Community Home Environmental Specialists (CHES) conducted initial home environmental assessments, provided individualized action plans, and made additional visits over a 12-month period to provide education and social support, encouragement of participant actions, provision of materials to reduce exposures (including bedding encasements), assistance with roach and rodent eradication, and advocacy for improved housing conditions. Members of the low-intensity group received the initial assessment, home action plan, limited education during the assessment visit, and bedding encasements. We describe the recruitment and training of CHES and challenges they faced and explain the assessment and exposure reduction protocols addressing dust mites, mold, tobacco smoke, pets, cockroaches, rodents, dust, moisture, and toxic or hazardous chemicals. We also discuss the gap between the practices recommended in the literature and what is feasible in the home. We accomplished home interventions and participants found the project very useful. The project was limited in resolving structural housing quality issues that contributed to exposure to indoor triggers. PMID:11929743

  11. The influence of sublingual immunotherapy on several parameters of immunological response in children suffering from atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis depending on asthma features.

    PubMed

    Ciepiela, Olga; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Kotuła, Iwona; Demkow, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has already been proven and is known to be high. Its influence on the immunological system of patients suffering from bronchial asthma was also examined. However, it is still unclear how the polysensitisation, coexistence of other atopic disease and asthma treatment step influence the response to treatment with specific immunotherapy. Herein we evaluate the impact of one-year SLIT on selected markers of immunological response depending on different individual and clinical factors of children suffering from atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Twenty-five patients aged 8.1 ± 3.1 years (range 5-15 years), 21 boys and 4 girls, suffering from asthma and allergic rhinitis with polysensitisation to seasonal and non-seasonal allergens, shortlisted for SLIT, were included in the study. Th1 cell and Th2 cell percentages, Bcl-2 expression in T cells, and basophil activation after allergen challenge (house dust mite and/or grass pollen antigen in solution used for skin prick tests) in peripheral blood were measured using flow cytometry. The association between clinical features of asthma and the influence of SLIT on immunological parameters was evaluated with exact Fisher test. No association between the influence of one-year sublingual immunotherapy on immunological system and patients' age, polysensitisation, asthma treatment step, or coexistence of any other atopic diseases was observed. However, an increase of the Th1 percentage in children sensitised against more than three allergens was found more often (at the limit of statistical significance) than in the group of children sensitised against three or less allergens. Based on our results, we cannot point to any subgroup isolated in the study, in which the response of the immunological system to sublingual immunotherapy is more satisfactory than any other. Nevertheless, the increase of Th1 cells may be more specific for polysensitised children.

  12. [Gohieria fusca found in dust of air-conditioner filters].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Chai; Xiao-Dong, Zhan; Wei, Guo; Chao-Pin, Li

    2017-09-25

    To investigate the pollution status of Gohieria fusca in the air conditioner-filters of different places in Wuhu City. The dust samples were collected from the filters of air-conditioners in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households between June and September, 2013, and G. fusca was detected in the dust samples. There were 430 dust samples collected and 98 were G. fusca positive with the breeding rate of 22.79%. The difference of breeding rates of G. fusca were statistically significant among the different places ( χ 2 =18.294, P < 0.05). Among 510.5 g dust samples in total, 783 G. fusca mites were detected with an average breeding density of 1.53 mite/g. G. fusca breeds in the dust of air-conditioner filters in Wuhu City gravely.

  13. Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) from house-dust mites may cause covariation of sensitization to allergens from other invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Inam, Muhammad; Ismail, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Farhana Riaz

    2012-01-01

    Group 10 allergens (tropomyosins) have been assumed to be a major cause of cross-reactivity between house-dust mites (HDMs) and other invertebrates. Despite all of the published data regarding the epidemiology, percent IgE binding and level of sensitization in the population, the role of tropomyosin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients with multiple allergy syndrome still remains to be elucidated. Homology between amino acid sequences reported in allergen databases of selected invertebrate tropomyosins was determined with Der f 10 as the reference allergen. The 66.9 and 54.4% identities were found with selected crustacean and insect species, respectively, whereas only 20.4% identity was seen with mollusks. A similar analysis was performed using reported B-cell IgE-binding epitopes from Met e1 (shrimp allergen) and Bla g7 (cockroach allergen) with other invertebrate tropomyosins. The percent identity in linear sequences was higher than 35% in mites, crustaceans, and cockroaches. The polar and hydrophobic regions in these groups were highly conserved. These findings suggest that tropomyosin may be a major cause of covariation of sensitization between HDMs, crustaceans, and some species of insects and mollusks. PMID:23342293

  14. Altered fatty acid metabolism and reduced stearoyl-coenzyme a desaturase activity in asthma.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, N; Schiavi, E; Frei, R; Ferstl, R; Wawrzyniak, P; Smolinska, S; Sokolowska, M; Sievi, N A; Kohler, M; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Michalovich, D; Simpson, K D; Hessel, E M; Jutel, M; Martin-Fontecha, M; Palomares, O; Akdis, C A; O'Mahony, L

    2017-11-01

    Fatty acids and lipid mediator signaling play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, yet this area remains largely underexplored. The aims of this study were (i) to examine fatty acid levels and their metabolism in obese and nonobese asthma patients and (ii) to determine the functional effects of altered fatty acid metabolism in experimental models. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid levels were quantified in serum from 161 human volunteers by LC/MS. Changes in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) expression and activity were evaluated in the ovalbumin (OVA) and house dust mite (HDM) murine models. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients and controls were evaluated for SCD expression and activity. The serum desaturation index (an indirect measure of SCD) was significantly reduced in nonobese asthma patients and in the OVA murine model. SCD1 gene expression was significantly reduced within the lungs following OVA or HDM challenge. Inhibition of SCD in mice promoted airway hyper-responsiveness. SCD1 expression was suppressed in bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients. IL-4 and IL-13 reduced epithelial cell SCD1 expression. Inhibition of SCD reduced surfactant protein C expression and suppressed rhinovirus-induced IP-10 secretion, which was associated with increased viral titers. This is the first study to demonstrate decreased fatty acid desaturase activity in humans with asthma. Experimental models in mice and human epithelial cells suggest that inhibition of desaturase activity leads to airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced antiviral defense. SCD may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in asthma patients. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  15. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  16. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Activation Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced IgE Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Post, Sijranke; Heijink, Irene H.; Petersen, Arjen H.; de Bruin, Harold G.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroallergens such as house dust mite (HDM), cockroach, and grass or tree pollen are innocuous substances that can induce allergic sensitization upon inhalation. The serine proteases present in these allergens are thought to activate the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, on the airway epithelium, thereby potentially inducing allergic sensitization at the expense of inhalation tolerance. We hypothesized that the proteolytic activity of allergens may play an important factor in the allergenicity to house dust mite and is essential to overcome airway tolerance. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of PAR-2 activation in allergic sensitization and HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. In our study, Par-2 deficient mice were treated with two different HDM extracts containing high and low serine protease activities twice a week for a period of 5 weeks. We determined airway inflammation through quantification of percentages of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and measured total IgE and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum. Furthermore, Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-5, IL-13, Eotaxin-1, IL-17, KC, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), were measured in lung tissue homogenates. We observed that independent of the serine protease content, HDM was able to induce elevated levels of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways of both wild-type (WT) and Par-2 deficient mice. Furthermore, we show that induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by HDM exposure is independent of Par-2 activation. In contrast, serine protease activity of HDM does contribute to enhanced levels of total IgE, but not HDM-specific IgE. We conclude that, while Par-2 activation contributes to the development of IgE responses, it is largely dispensable for the HDM-induced induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and airway inflammation in an experimental mouse model of HDM

  17. Distribution features of biological hazardous pollutants in residential environments in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheol Min; Hong, Soo Jong; Kim, Yoon Shin; Park, Gee Yong; Nam Goung, Sun Ju; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    This research has been conducted continuously since 2009 as part of a cohort of studies examining relationships between asthma and genetic factors, dietary habits, and environmental factors. Based on data from environmental research on house dust mites and endotoxins, which are widely known as pollutants in bedding that cause asthma in pregnant women and children, this work was conducted to obtain basic data that can be used in future cohort studies that analyze links between distribution of biological hazards and physical features of residential environments. The detection rates of house dust mite allergens, Der p1 and Der f1, were 52.7 and 86.5%, respectively, indicating that Der f1 is a dominant species in domestic indoor environments. According to comparisons between concentrations of house dust mites and endotoxins in bedding of pregnant women and children, Der p1 and endotoxins showed significantly lower concentrations in bedding of pregnant women compared with those in bedding of children, whereas Der f1 showed no significant difference in concentration according to bedding.

  18. Fusarium semitectum, a potential mycopathogen against thrips and mites in chilli, Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    In India, chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) suffers with a characteristic leaf curl symptoms due to the attack of mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or both. Experiments were conducted in the fields of College of Agriculture, Shimoga, India during kharif (September 2003 to January 2004) and summer (March-June) 2004. After proving its pathogenicity, the potential of the mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum was evaluated under field conditions using the popular chilli variety "Byadagi". Different combinations of Fusarium semitectum formulations with monocrotophos (0.025% and 0.05%) were tested. Oil-emulsion and dust-water formulations (DWF) at 1x 10(8) spore/ml, DWF with monocrotophos and 5% Neem Seed Kernal Extract (NSKE) were evaluated. Population of S. dorsalis, P. latus, predatory mite Amblyseius ovalis and damage index were estimated. Populations of thrips, mite and the predatory mite were estimated at 15 days interval after 30 days of transplanting. Damage index was assessed using a visual rating method. Plant height, fruit length and dry chilli yield of each treatment were also taken. Among the treatments, oil-emulsion formulation and dust water formulation of F. semitectum in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) reduced the population of thrips significantly over other treatments. Dust water formulation was achieved a significant decline of thrips population in chilli plants after 60 days of transplanting. This reduction of thrips population could be achieved due to the effect of second spraying, which was given at 50 days after transplanting. Chilli plant height and fruit length did not vary significantly among the treatment in both seasons. The highest dry chilli yield of 512 and 1058 kg/ha was recorded in dust water formulation in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) followed by oil formulation (432 kg/ha and 763 kg/ha) in Kharif and summer seasons, respectively

  19. Asthma and the hygiene hypothesis. Does cleanliness matter?

    PubMed

    Weber, Juliane; Illi, Sabina; Nowak, Dennis; Schierl, Rudolf; Holst, Otto; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J

    2015-03-01

    The early hygiene hypothesis explained the development of allergies by a lack of infections; nowadays, the aspect of excessive cleanliness in affluent populations seems to have replaced this concept. Yet, no investigation has shown that home or personal cleanliness relate to allergic diseases. To relate personal and home cleanliness to risk of asthma and allergies. Comprehensive questionnaire information on home or personal cleanliness and allergic health conditions at school age was collected in 399 participants of the urban Perinatale Asthma Umwelt Langzeit Allergie Studie (PAULA) birth cohort. Bacterial markers were assessed in floor and mattress dust and were related to cleanliness and allergic diseases. Personal cleanliness was inversely related to bacterial compounds on floors and mattresses, whereas home cleanliness effectively reduced dust amount but not microbial markers. Exposure to muramic acid related to a lower prevalence of school-age asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 0.59 [95% confidence interval, 0.39; 0.90]). Mattress endotoxin in the first year of life was inversely associated with atopic sensitization (0.73 [0.56-0.96]) and asthma at school age (0.72 [0.55-0.95]). Despite the associations of dust parameters both with cleanliness and allergic health conditions, the development of allergies was not related to home and personal cleanliness. Bacterial exposure in house dust determined childhood asthma and allergies. Personal cleanliness, such as washing hands, and home cleanliness were objectively reflected by dust parameters in homes. However, neither personal nor home cleanliness was associated with a risk for asthma and allergies. Other microbial components in house dust not affected by personal hygiene are likely to play a role.

  20. Polyclonal and allergen-induced cytokine responses in adults with asthma: resolution of asthma is associated with normalization of IFN-gamma responses.

    PubMed

    Smart, Joanne M; Horak, Elisabeth; Kemp, Andrew S; Robertson, Colin F; Tang, Mimi L K

    2002-09-01

    Atopic disease is associated with skewing of immune responses away from a T(H)1 toward a T(H)2 profile. Previous studies have implicated this cytokine imbalance in the development of disease. However, it is not known whether normalization of this imbalance is conversely associated with disease resolution. To further delineate the role of reduced T(H)1 and increased T(H)2 cytokine production in the pathogenesis of atopic disease and to determine whether disease resolution is associated with alteration of cytokine profiles, we investigated cytokine responses in a cohort of adult patients with asthma followed from childhood. A cohort of wheezy children and control subjects aged 7 to 10 years were recruited from 1964 to 1967. Subjects were reevaluated every 7 years to monitor the outcome of childhood asthma. At the 42-year follow-up, 89 subjects from this cohort were evaluated for mitogen and house dust mite (HDM)-induced T(H)1 (IFN-gamma) and T(H)2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) cytokine responses. Cytokine responses were compared in patients with ongoing asthma, patients with resolved asthma, and control subjects. Patients with severe ongoing asthma had significantly reduced HDM-induced IFN-gamma production compared with that of control subjects and patients with resolved asthma. In contrast, HDM-induced IFN-gamma production in patients with resolved asthma was equivalent to that seen in control subjects. Patients with ongoing and resolved asthma produced significantly higher levels of IL-5 in response to HDM compared with that seen in control subjects, with levels being equivalent in patients with active and resolved asthma. HDM-induced IL-13 production was significantly increased in the patients with resolved asthma when compared with that seen in the control subjects. PHA-induced cytokine responses did not parallel HDM-induced responses. Patients with persistent and severe atopic asthma have a reduced HDM-induced T(H)1 response, whereas those with resolved asthma do not

  1. IκBNS induces Muc5ac expression in epithelial cells and causes airway hyper-responsiveness in murine asthma models.

    PubMed

    Yokota, M; Tamachi, T; Yokoyama, Y; Maezawa, Y; Takatori, H; Suto, A; Suzuki, K; Hirose, K; Takeda, K; Nakajima, H

    2017-07-01

    In allergic asthma, environmental allergens including house dust mite (HDM) trigger pattern recognition receptors and activate downstream signaling pathways including NF-κB pathways not only in immune cells but also in airway epithelial cells. Recent studies have shown that NF-κB activation is regulated positively or negatively depending on the cellular context by IκBNS (encoded by the gene Nfkbid), one of atypical IκB proteins, in the nucleus. Therefore, we hypothesized that IκBNS expressed in immune cells or epithelial cells is involved in the regulation of asthmatic responses. To determine the roles of IκBNS in HDM-induced asthmatic responses. Roles of IκBNS in HDM-induced airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) were examined by using IκBNS-deficient (Nfkbid -/- ) mice. Roles of IκBNS expressed in hematopoietic cells and nonhematopoietic cells were separately evaluated by bone marrow chimeric mice. Roles of IκBNS expressed in murine tracheal epithelial cells (mTECs) were examined by air-liquid interface culture. House dust mite-induced airway inflammation and AHR were exacerbated in mice lacking IκBNS in hematopoietic cells. In contrast, HDM-induced airway inflammation was exacerbated, but AHR was attenuated in mice lacking IκBNS in nonhematopoietic cells. The induction of Muc5ac, a representative mucin in asthmatic airways, was reduced in Nfkbid -/- mTEC, whereas the induction of Spdef, a master regulator of goblet cell metaplasia, was not impaired in Nfkbid -/- mTEC. Moreover, IκBNS bound to and activated the MUC5AC distal promoter in epithelial cells. IκBNS is involved in inducing Muc5ac expression in lung epithelial cells and causing AHR in HDM-induced asthma models. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G.; Levetin, E.; Van de water, P.; Myers, O.; Budge, A. M.; Krapfl, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Yin 2007) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Yin 2007). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that health effects of pollen can better be tracked for linkage with health outcome data including asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost work days. DREAM is based on the SKIRON/Eta modeling system and the Eta/NCEP regional atmospheric model. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterizations of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particle size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The dust production mechanism is based on the viscous/turbulent mixing, shear-free convection diffusion, and soil moisture. In addition to these sophisticated mechanisms, very high resolution databases, including elevation, soil properties, and vegetation cover are utilized. The DREAM model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust (PREAM). Pollen release will be estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) will provide information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, peak

  3. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells induce a house dust mite-specific Th2 allergic inflammation in the lung of humanized SCID mice: involvement of CCR7.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N; Pochard, Pierre; Gosset, Philippe; Marquillies, Philippe; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2002-08-01

    In rodents, airway dendritic cells (DCs) capture inhaled Ag, undergo maturation, and migrate to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) to initiate the Ag-specific T cell response. However, the role of human DCs in the pathogenesis of the Th2 cell-mediated disease asthma remains to be clarified. Here, by using SCID mice engrafted with T cells from either house dust mite (HDM)-allergic patients or healthy donors, we show that DCs pulsed with Der p 1, one of the major allergens of HDM, and injected intratracheally into naive animals migrated into the MLN. In the MLN, Der p 1-pulsed DCs from allergic patients induced the proliferation of IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells, whereas those from healthy donors induced IFN-gamma-secreting cells. In reconstituted human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice primed with pulsed DCs from allergic patients, repeated exposure to aerosols of HDM induced 1) a strong pulmonary inflammatory reaction rich in T cells and eosinophils, 2) an increase in IL-4 and IL-5 production in the lung lavage fluid, and 3) increased IgE production compared with that in mice primed with unpulsed DCs. All these effects were reduced following in vivo neutralization of the CCR7 ligand secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine. These data in human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice show that monocyte-derived DCs might play a key role in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary allergic response by inducing Th2 effector function following migration to the MLN.

  4. Polymorphisms in IL12A and cockroach allergy in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Pistiner, Michael; Hunninghake, Gary M; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E; Avila, Lydiana; Murphy, Amy; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Schuemann, Brooke; Klanderman, Barbara J; Raby, Benjamin A; Celedón, Juan C

    2008-07-31

    IL12A has been implicated in T-cell development and may thus influence the development of atopy and allergic diseases. We tested for association between four linkage disequilibrium (LD)-tagging SNPs (rs2243123, rs2243151, rs668998, and rs17826053) in IL12A and asthma and allergy-related (serum total and allergen-specific IgE, and skin test reactivity [STR] to two common allergens) phenotypes in two samples: 417 Costa Rican children with asthma and their parents, and 470 families of 503 white children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). The analysis was conducted using the family-based association test (FBAT) statistic implemented in the PBAT program. Among Costa Rican children with asthma, homozygosity for the minor allele of each of two SNPs in IL12A (rs2243123 and rs2243151) was associated with increased risks of STR to American cockroach (P asthma, STR to dust mite, or total IgE in Costa Rica or CAMP. Our findings suggest that variants in IL12A influence cockroach allergy among children with asthma.

  5. Peri-adolescent asthma symptoms cause adult anxiety-related behavior and neurobiological processes in mice.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Jasmine I; Caruso, Michael J; Michael, Kerry C; Bourne, Rebecca A; Chirichella, Nicole R; Klein, Laura C; Craig, Timothy; Bonneau, Robert H; August, Avery; Cavigelli, Sonia A

    2017-05-30

    Human and animal studies have shown that physical challenges and stressors during adolescence can have significant influences on behavioral and neurobiological development associated with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of asthma during adolescence and increased rates of internalizing disorders in humans with asthma, we used a mouse model to test if and which symptoms of adolescent allergic asthma (airway inflammation or labored breathing) cause adult anxiety- and depression-related behavior and brain function. To mimic symptoms of allergic asthma in young BALB/cJ mice (postnatal days [P] 7-57; N=98), we induced lung inflammation with repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite extract (most common aeroallergen for humans) and bronchoconstriction with aerosolized methacholine (non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist). Three experimental groups, in addition to a control group, included: (1) "Airway inflammation only", allergen exposure 3 times/week, (2) "Labored breathing only", methacholine exposure once/week, and (3) "Airway inflammation+Labored breathing", allergen and methacholine exposure. Compared to controls, mice that experienced methacholine-induced labored breathing during adolescence displayed a ∼20% decrease in time on open arms of the elevated plus maze in early adulthood (P60), a ∼30% decrease in brainstem serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA expression and a ∼50% increase in hippocampal serotonin receptor 1a (5Htr1a) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (Crhr1) expression in adulthood (P75). This is the first evidence that experimentally-induced clinical symptoms of adolescent asthma alter adult anxiety-related behavior and brain function several weeks after completion of asthma manipulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Peri-adolescent asthma symptoms cause adult anxiety-related behavior and neurobiological processes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Jasmine I.; Caruso, Michael J.; Michael, Kerry C.; Bourne, Rebecca A.; Chirichella, Nicole R.; Klein, Laura C.; Craig, Timothy; Bonneau, Robert H.; August, Avery; Cavigelli, Sonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Human and animal studies have shown that physical challenges and stressors during adolescence can have significant influences on behavioral and neurobiological development associated with internalizing disorders such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of asthma during adolescence and increased rates of internalizing disorders in humans with asthma, we used a mouse model to test if and which symptoms of adolescent allergic asthma (airway inflammation or labored breathing) cause adult anxiety- and depression-related behavior and brain function. To mimic symptoms of allergic asthma in young BALB/cJ mice (postnatal days [P] 7–57; N=98), we induced lung inflammation with repeated intranasal administration of house dust mite extract (most common aeroallergen for humans) and bronchoconstriction with aerosolized methacholine (non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist). Three experimental groups, in addition to a control group, included: (1) “Airway inflammation only”, allergen exposure 3 times/week, (2) “Labored breathing only”, methacholine exposure once/week, and (3) “Airway inflammation + Labored breathing”, allergen and methacholine exposure. Compared to controls, mice that experienced methacholine-induced labored breathing during adolescence displayed a ~20% decrease in time on open arms of the elevated plus maze in early adulthood (P60), a ~30% decrease in brainstem serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA expression and a ~50% increase in hippocampal serotonin receptor 1a (5Htr1a) and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (Crhr1) expression in adulthood (P75). This is the first evidence that experimentally-induced clinical symptoms of adolescent asthma alter adult anxiety-related behavior and brain function several weeks after completion of asthma manipulations. PMID:28284954

  7. Allergen sensitization of asthmatic and nonasthmatic schoolchildren in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Soto-Quiros, M; Gutierrez, I; Calvo, N; Araya, C; Karlberg, J; Hanson, L A; Belin, L

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in Costa Rica is very high -- at the level of 20-30% -- and the reason is still unknown. A group of children from our previous epidemiologic study was randomly selected in order to establish the relation between asthma symptoms and allergy sensitization to common allergens. Serum samples from children with and without asthma were analyzed for the presence of IgE antibodies to 36 different allergens, for the presence of IgE antibodies to a pool of 10 common allergens, and for total serum IgE. The most prevalent IgE antibodies were those to mite, cockroach, dog, and house-dust allergens with MAST pipettes for the serologic measurements. Positive reactions to house dust, mite, cat, and the two molds (Alternaria and Cladosporium), and food allergens such as egg white, peanut, and shellfish were significantly more prevalent among the asthmatics than the nonasthmatics. Sensitization was equally prevalent at different ages, but the house-dust, mite, cat, dog, cockroach, Alternaria, and egg-white allergens had sensitized boys more often than girls (P < 0.01). The result of the analysis of IgE antibodies to a pool of 10 common allergens by Phadiatop supported the MAST pipette results, showing allergen sensitization in 57.7% of the asthmatic children and 42.3% in the nonasthmatic group. The concentration of IgE was significantly higher among the asthmatic children (372.2 kU/l) than among the nonasthmatic children (249.1 kU/l) (P < 0.00001). Parasitic infestations were not examined in this study, but in most of Costa Rica these have largely been eliminated and could not explain the high total IgE levels. Our data indicate that the very high prevalence of bronchial asthma in Costa Rican schoolchildren can be related to sensitization, especially to airborne indoor allergens such as those of mites, cockroaches, and dogs.

  8. [Asthma due to grain dust].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Preisser, A; Wegner, R

    2003-06-01

    The actual literature as well as two case reports described in detail show that grain dust induces asthmatic reactions and ODTS which are obviously not of allergic origin. For diagnosis occupational-type exposure tests are decisive whereas allergological testing usually is not. Endotoxins which are present in the grain dust samples in high concentrations have to be regarded as the major causative components. To avoid irreversible lung function impairment a comprehensive early diagnosis is necessary. Generally, a remarkable reduction of exposure to dust with high levels of airborne endotoxin in agriculture has to be achieved since in many workplaces corresponding exposures are still rather high.

  9. Asthma: Not Just a Childhood Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Kandra

    2002-01-01

    Asthma has grown to epidemic proportions among school-age children, and nearly 10 million U.S. adults suffer from it. This paper describes asthma and its triggers and explains how to take measures to manage asthma symptoms within the school (e.g., dusting regularly and keeping medications available). A sidebar presents tips on controlling asthma…

  10. Vapor, Dust and Smoke Exposure in relation to adult-onset asthma and chronic respiratory symptoms: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    LeVan, Tricia D.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lee, Hin-Peng; Koh, David; Yu, Mimi C.; London, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Occupational factors contribute to a significant fraction of respiratory disease and symptoms. We evaluated the role of occupational exposures on asthma, chronic bronchitis, and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort, the Singapore Chinese Health Study. History of occupations, occupational exposures, and respiratory conditions were collected by interviews with 52,325 Singaporeans born 1918–1953. Exposure to dusts, from cotton, wood, metal, mineral and/or asbestos, was associated with non-chronic cough and/or phlegm (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.30), chronic bronchitis (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.57) and adult-onset asthma (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.30). Cotton dust was the major component contributing to respiratory symptoms. Vapor exposure, from chemical solvents, dyes, cooling oils, paints, wood preservatives and/or pesticides, was associated with non-chronic cough or phlegm (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27), chronic dry cough (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19, 2.01) and adult-onset asthma (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.56). Chemical solvents, cooling oils and pesticides were the major sources contributing to respiratory symptoms. These data support the role of occupational exposures in the etiology of respiratory illness in a population-based cohort in Singapore with a low prevalence of atopic illness. PMID:16707657

  11. Evaluation of HEPA vacuum cleaning and dry steam cleaning in reducing levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and house dust mite allergens in carpets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Yiin, Lih-Ming; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Rhoads, George G.

    2014-01-01

    Dry steam cleaning, which has gained recent attention as an effective method to reduce house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentration and loading in carpets, was evaluated in this study for its efficacy in lowering levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as HDM allergens. Fifty urban homes with wail-to-wall carpets, mostly low-income and with known lead contamination, were studied in 2003 and 2004. Two carpet-cleaning interventions were compared: Repeated HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air filtered) vacuuming alone and repeated HEPA vacuuming supplemented with dry steam cleaning. Vacuum samples were collected to measure carpet loading of dust and contaminants immediately before and after cleaning. Paired comparisons were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the cleaning protocols in reducing the levels of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets. The results indicated that both cleaning methods substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens as well as dust in carpets (p < 0.0001). The reductions in loading of dust (64.4%), PAHs (69.1%), and HDM allergens (85.5%), by dry steam cleaning plus repetitive HEPA vacuuming were larger than the reductions by regular HEPA vacuuming alone: dust (55.5%), PAHs (58.6%), and HDM allergens (80.8%), although the difference was statistically significant only for dust and PAHs. We conclude that intensive HEPA vacuum cleaning substantially reduced the loading of PAHs and HDM allergens in carpets in these urban homes and that dry steam cleaning added modestly to cleaning effectiveness. PMID:19137159

  12. The Translational Repressor T-cell Intracellular Antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a Key Modulator of Th2 and Th17 Responses Driving Pulmonary Inflammation Induced by Exposure to House Dust Mite

    PubMed Central

    Simarro, Maria; Giannattasio, Giorgio; Xing, Wei; Lundequist, Emma-Maria; Stewart, Samantha; Stevens, Richard L.; Orduña, Antonio; Boyce, Joshua A.; Anderson, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    T-cell Intracellular Antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a translational repressor that dampens the production of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes. In this study we investigated the role of TIA-1 in a mouse model of pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to the allergenic extract (Df) of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. When intranasally challenged with a low dose of Df, mice lacking TIA-1 protein (Tia-1−/−) showed more severe airway and tissue eosinophilia, infiltration of lung bronchovascular bundles, and goblet cell metaplasia than wild-type littermates. Tia-1−/− mice also had higher levels of Df-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum and ex vivo restimulated Tia-1−/− lymph node cells and splenocytes transcribed and released more Th2/Th17 cytokines. To evaluate the site of action of TIA-1, we studied the response to Df in bone marrow chimeras. These experiments revealed that TIA-1 acts on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells to dampen pulmonary inflammation. Our results identify TIA-1 as a negative regulator of allergen-mediated pulmonary inflammation in vivo. Thus, TIA-1 might be an important player in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. PMID:22525013

  13. The translational repressor T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a key modulator of Th2 and Th17 responses driving pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to house dust mite.

    PubMed

    Simarro, Maria; Giannattasio, Giorgio; Xing, Wei; Lundequist, Emma-Maria; Stewart, Samantha; Stevens, Richard L; Orduña, Antonio; Boyce, Joshua A; Anderson, Paul J

    2012-08-30

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a translational repressor that dampens the production of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes. In this study we investigated the role of TIA-1 in a mouse model of pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to the allergenic extract (Df) of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. When intranasally challenged with a low dose of Df, mice lacking TIA-1 protein (Tia-1(-/-)) showed more severe airway and tissue eosinophilia, infiltration of lung bronchovascular bundles, and goblet cell metaplasia than wild-type littermates. Tia-1(-/-) mice also had higher levels of Df-specific IgE and IgG(1) in serum and ex vivo restimulated Tia-1(-/-) lymph node cells and splenocytes transcribed and released more Th2/Th17 cytokines. To evaluate the site of action of TIA-1, we studied the response to Df in bone marrow chimeras. These experiments revealed that TIA-1 acts on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells to dampen pulmonary inflammation. Our results identify TIA-1 as a negative regulator of allergen-mediated pulmonary inflammation in vivo. Thus, TIA-1 might be an important player in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Asian Dust Particles on the Early-Stage Antigen-Induced Immune Response of Asthma in NC/Nga Mice.

    PubMed

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Hantan, Degejirihu; Tohda, Yuji; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-11-16

    Asian dust (AD) can aggravate airway inflammation in asthma, but the association between AD and the development of asthma remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AD on the early stage of antigen sensitization using a mouse model of asthma, as well as the role of leukotrienes (LTs) in antigen-induced airway inflammation potentiated by AD particles. NC/Nga mice were co-sensitized by intranasal instillation of AD particles and/or Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) for five consecutive days. Df-sensitized mice were stimulated with an intranasal Df challenge at seven days. Mice were treated with the type 1 cysteinyl LT (CysLT₁) receptor antagonist orally 4 h before and 1 h after the allergen challenge. At 24 h post-challenge, the differential leukocyte count, inflammatory cytokines, and LTs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed, and airway inflammation was evaluated histopathologically. AD augmented neutrophilic and eosinophilic airway inflammation with increased CysLTs and dihydroxy-LT in a mouse model of asthma. The CysLT₁ receptor antagonist was shown to attenuate both neutrophilic and eosinophilic airway inflammation augmented by AD. Therefore, exposure to AD may be associated with the development of asthma and LTs may play important roles in airway inflammation augmented by AD.

  15. The association between endotoxin and beta-(1 → 3)-D-glucan in house dust with asthma severity among schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi; Rennie, Donna C; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Dyck, Roland; Afanasieva, Anna; Kirychuk, Shelley; Katselis, George; Lawson, Joshua A

    2018-05-01

    Asthma severity can be affected by microbial exposures. However, less is known about the specific indoor agents aggravating the disease in children. We examined the associations between indoor endotoxin and beta-(1 → 3)-D-glucan exposures and asthma severity in children with asthma. A clinical cross-sectional study of schoolchildren (aged 7-17 years) was conducted in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Children with asthma (n = 116) were identified from 335 participants using a combination of survey responses and objective clinical assessments. We then ascertained asthma severity based on recommended guidelines (continuous daytime asthma symptoms, frequent nighttime asthma symptoms, and ≤ 60% predicted FEV 1 ). Levels of indoor endotoxin and beta-(1 → 3)-D-glucan were measured in dust samples obtained from play area floors and child's mattresses. The study population of 116 children with asthma was comprised of 75.9% mild asthma and 24.1% moderate/severe asthma. Higher mattress endotoxin concentration was associated with increased odds of moderate/severe asthma [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 11.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-89.43] while higher beta-(1 → 3)-D-glucan concentration (aOR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.03-0.89) and load (aOR = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.02-0.72) in play areas were inversely associated with moderate/severe asthma. Furthermore, higher mattress endotoxin concentration was associated with lower FVC (p = 0.01) and FEV 1 (p = 0.03). These associations were not seen for beta-(1 → 3)-D-glucan. Our results showed differential effects of microbial exposures on childhood asthma severity and further highlight domestic endotoxin exposure effects on respiratory health outcomes in children with asthma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coexistence of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg imbalances in patients with allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-heng; Shi, Guo-chao; Wan, Huan-ying; Jiang, Li-hua; Ai, Xiang-yan; Zhu, Hai-xing; Tang, Wei; Ma, Jia-yun; Jin, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Bo-ying

    2011-07-05

    Recent recognition is that Th2 response is insufficient to fully explain the aetiology of asthma. Other CD4(+) T cells subsets might play a role in asthma. We investigated the relative abundance and activities of Th1, Th2, Th17 and CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells in patients with allergic asthma. Twenty-two patients with mild asthma, 17 patients with moderate to severe asthma and 20 healthy donors were enrolled. All patients were allergic to house dust mites. Plasma total IgE, pulmonary function and Asthma Control Questionnaire were assessed. The proportions of peripheral blood Th1, Th2, Th17 and CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells were determined by flow cytometry. The expression of cytokines in plasma and in the culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by enzyme linked, immunosorbent assay. The frequency of blood Th2 cells and IL-4 levels in plasma and culture supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were increased in all patients with allergic asthma. The frequency of Th17 cells and the plasma and culture supernatant levels of IL-17 were increased, whereas the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and plasma IL-10 levels were decreased in patients with moderate to severe asthma. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus specific IgE levels were positively correlated with the percentage of blood Th2 cells and plasma IL-4 levels. Forced expiratory volume in the first second was negatively correlated with the frequency of Th17 cells and plasma IL-17 levels, and positively correlated with the frequency of Treg cells. However, mean Asthma Control Questionnaire scores were positively correlated with the frequency of Th17 cells and plasma IL-17 levels, and negatively correlated with the frequency of Treg cells. Imbalances in Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg were found in patients with allergic asthma. Furthermore, elevated Th17 cell responses, the absence of Tregs and an imbalance in Th17/Treg levels were associated with moderate to severe asthma.

  17. Biomarkers of Disease and Treatment in Murine and Cynomolgus Models of Chronic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Louten, Jennifer; Mattson, Jeanine D.; Malinao, Maria-Christina; Li, Ying; Emson, Claire; Vega, Felix; Wardle, Robert L.; Van Scott, Michael R.; Fick, Robert B.; McClanahan, Terrill K.; de Waal Malefyt, Rene; Beaumont, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    Background Biomarkers facilitate early detection of disease and measurement of therapeutic efficacy, both at clinical and experimental levels. Recent advances in analytics and disease models allow comprehensive screening for biomarkers in complex diseases, such as asthma, that was previously not feasible. Objective Using murine and nonhuman primate (NHP) models of asthma, identify biomarkers associated with early and chronic stages of asthma and responses to steroid treatment. Methods The total protein content from thymic stromal lymphopoietin transgenic (TSLP Tg) mouse BAL fluid was ascertained by shotgun proteomics analysis. A subset of these potential markers was further analyzed in BAL fluid, BAL cell mRNA, and lung tissue mRNA during the stages of asthma and following corticosteroid treatment. Validation was conducted in murine and NHP models of allergic asthma. Results Over 40 proteins were increased in the BAL fluid of TSLP Tg mice that were also detected by qRT-PCR in lung tissue and BAL cells, as well as in OVA-sensitive mice and house dust mite-sensitive NHP. Previously undescribed as asthma biomarkers, KLK1, Reg3γ, ITLN2, and LTF were modulated in asthmatic mice, and Clca3, Chi3l4 (YM2), and Ear11 were the first lung biomarkers to increase during disease and the last biomarkers to decline in response to therapy. In contrast, GP-39, LCN2, sICAM-1, YM1, Epx, Mmp12, and Klk1 were good indicators of early therapeutic intervention. In NHP, AMCase, sICAM-1, CLCA1, and GP-39 were reduced upon treatment with corticosteroids. Conclusions and clinical relevance These results significantly advance our understanding of the biomarkers present in various tissue compartments in animal models of asthma, including those induced early during asthma and modulated with therapeutic intervention, and show that BAL cells (or their surrogate, induced sputum cells) are a viable choice for biomarker examination. PMID:22837640

  18. Use of temperature-controlled laminar airflow in the management of atopic asthma: clinical evidence and experience.

    PubMed

    Warner, John O

    2017-04-01

    Avoidance of allergens in the treatment of asthma has hitherto not achieved significant benefit despite the strong evidence that allergy both increases severity and contributes to exacerbations of asthma. House dust mite, cat and dog allergens are the most common perennial allergic triggers and most avoidance strategies have focused on reducing exposures in bedrooms. Cochrane reviews have suggested that they neither significantly reduce allergen levels nor improve asthma. While the lack of efficacy may be assumed to be a consequence of exposures occurring outside the bedroom, prolonged sleep is associated with increased susceptibility to bronchospasm and airway inflammation. Thus, if efficient reductions in allergen exposure could be achieved during sleep, it might be expected that this would result in significant improvements in control of asthma. The temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) is a system which can be employed over beds in a domestic environment and results in massive reductions in particulate exposure of recumbent subjects, including highly respirable allergens such as Fel. D1 from cats. Trials of TLA have demonstrated highly significant improvements in asthma quality of life and reductions on airway inflammation as monitored by exhaled nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, in patients with the worst disease, severe exacerbation frequency was significantly reduced. Based on UK health-service costs, the use of TLA falls well below the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) threshold for the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Indeed, for those with frequent exacerbations, it is cost saving and should be prescribed for such allergic asthmatic patients.

  19. [A case of severe asthma and peach allergy that improved with omalizumab therapy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shintaro; Matsuura, Takayuki; Kimura, Teruaki; Tazaki, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Mitsuru; Homma, Tetsuya; Matsukura, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Masatsugu; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2012-02-01

    A 30-year-old woman had refractory asthma. She had also experienced twice severe anaphylaxis episodes after ingesting peaches. The patient was extremely wary about reoccurrence of anaphylaxis and avoided ingesting any fruits, including peaches. She visited our hospital for testing and treatment for asthma and the peach allergy. Skin and serologic testing showed that she had a severe allergy to house dust, mites, and peaches. The food challenge test results showed that ingesting 6.5 g of the peach fruit induced dyspnea in the patient. Her asthma could not be controlled despite treatment involving a leukotriene receptor antagonist and combination inhalation of high-dose salmeterol xinafoate/fluticasone propionate. We advised the patient to keep strict avoidance ingesting peaches because of her food allergy. However, she hoped to overcome her food restrictions, especially those for fruits. We initiated treatment involving the recombinant humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody omalizumab (150 mg, once a month) to ensure that the asthma was controlled well and to improve the patient's diet. The asthmatic symptoms ameliorated, and the peak expiratory flow increased in a short time. We gradually reduced the restriction on peach consumption. This was achieved by rechallenging the patient with increasing doses of 290 mg of the peach fruit and was initiated at 28 weeks after starting omalizumab therapy. The restriction on peach consumption was lifted eventually, and the patient did not experience any allergic symptoms subsequently on ingesting peaches. Thus, for our patient, omalizumab therapy was highly effective in achieving remission from both asthma and peach allergy.

  20. Use of temperature-controlled laminar airflow in the management of atopic asthma: clinical evidence and experience

    PubMed Central

    Warner, John O.

    2017-01-01

    Avoidance of allergens in the treatment of asthma has hitherto not achieved significant benefit despite the strong evidence that allergy both increases severity and contributes to exacerbations of asthma. House dust mite, cat and dog allergens are the most common perennial allergic triggers and most avoidance strategies have focused on reducing exposures in bedrooms. Cochrane reviews have suggested that they neither significantly reduce allergen levels nor improve asthma. While the lack of efficacy may be assumed to be a consequence of exposures occurring outside the bedroom, prolonged sleep is associated with increased susceptibility to bronchospasm and airway inflammation. Thus, if efficient reductions in allergen exposure could be achieved during sleep, it might be expected that this would result in significant improvements in control of asthma. The temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) is a system which can be employed over beds in a domestic environment and results in massive reductions in particulate exposure of recumbent subjects, including highly respirable allergens such as Fel. D1 from cats. Trials of TLA have demonstrated highly significant improvements in asthma quality of life and reductions on airway inflammation as monitored by exhaled nitric oxide levels. Furthermore, in patients with the worst disease, severe exacerbation frequency was significantly reduced. Based on UK health-service costs, the use of TLA falls well below the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) threshold for the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Indeed, for those with frequent exacerbations, it is cost saving and should be prescribed for such allergic asthmatic patients. PMID:28391760

  1. Bakery flour dust exposure causes non-allergic inflammation and enhances allergic airway inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Marraccini, Paolo; Brass, David M.; Hollingsworth, John W.; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Garantziotis, Stavros; Schwartz, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Baker’s asthma is one of the most commonly reported occupational lung diseases in countries where fresh bread is baked daily in large quantities, and is characterized by rhinitis, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible airflow obstruction. Epidemiological studies have identified pre-existing atopy as an important risk factor for developing baker’s asthma, yet the etiology and pathogenesis of baker’s asthma remain poorly understood. Objective We sought to develop a mouse model of baker’s asthma that could be used to characterize the development and progression of baker’s asthma. Methods We were unable to sensitize mice to bakery flour dust or flour dust extract. We assessed total inflammatory cells, cellular differential, total serum IgE and the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to oropharyngeally instilled bakery flour dust or flour dust extract by itself or in the context of OVA sensitization and challenge. Results Both bakery flour dust and flour dust extract consistently elicited a neutrophilic inflammation in a tlr4-independent manner; suggesting that endotoxin is not playing a role in the inflammatory response to flour dust. Moreover, bakery flour dust and dust extract significantly enhance the inflammatory response in OVA sensitized and challenged mice. Conclusions Bakery flour dust and flour dust extract are strongly pro-inflammatory and can cause non-allergic airway inflammation and can enhance allergen-mediated airway inflammation. PMID:18564331

  2. Asthma and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause an asthma attack vary from person to person. Common triggers include breathing in cold air, cold/flu viruses, strenuous exercise, chemicals, cigarette smoke, and allergies to dust, animals, pollen, or mold. ...

  3. The primary prevention of asthma in children study: design of a multifaceted prevention program.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Sandra; Maas, Tanja; van Schayck, Constant P; Muris, Jean W M; Schönberger, Huub J A M; Dompeling, Edward; Gijsbers, Barbara; van Weel, Chris; Knottnerus, J André

    2005-06-01

    The PREVASC study addresses the primary prevention of asthma in infants and small children. The objective of this study is to investigate whether a multifaceted prenatally started intervention strategy in high-risk infants leads to a decrease in the occurrence of (severe) asthma and whether a refinement of the prevention strategy leads to an increase in the adherence to the prevention program. The primary prevention program includes house dust mite impermeable bed coverings, education on breast feeding, hypoallergenic feeding, timing of introduction of solid food and smoking cessation. A total of 888 infants were prenatally included. By the time of inclusion the mothers were 3-7 months pregnant. About 27 infants were excluded from the study and 18 dropped out. Of the remaining 843 infants 535 had a first-degree familial predisposition of asthma (high-risk group), whereas a reference group of 308 (162 boys) infants was not predisposed for asthma in the first-degree (low-risk group). To evaluate the (cost-)effectiveness of the preventive intervention, 222 (118 boys) infants of the high-risk group allocated to the intervention group and 221 (112 boys) allocated to a control group are followed up. The low-risk infants served as controls to evaluate the predictive value of high risk (first-degree familial predisposition of asthma). The infants are followed from the prenatal stage until they reach the age of 6 yr. The remaining 92 high-risk infants were included in an optimized randomized-clinical adherence trial (RCAT). Of these 92 infants, 45 (20 boys) were allocated to an intervention group and 47 (24 boys) to a control group. Until now all infants have been followed for at least 1 yr.

  4. House Dust Mite Der p 1 Effects on Sinonasal Epithelial Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A.; Beste, Kyle Den; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Methods Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen versus control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of tight junction proteins was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Results Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1 exposed cultured sinonasal cells versus controls. Conclusion Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. PMID:23592402

  5. Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust.

    PubMed

    Añibarro, B; Fontela, J L; De La Hoz, F

    1997-12-01

    Garlic dust has not been a frequently encountered cause of IgE-mediated disease. We report on 12 patients (all of them garlic workers) with the clinical criteria for occupational asthma. Skin prick tests and serum-specific IgE determinations were performed with common inhalants, garlic, and other members of the Liliaceae family (onion, leek, and asparagus). Bronchial challenge test with garlic powder was performed in all patients. Garlic and onion extract proteins were separated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblot and IgE immunoblot inhibition analyses were performed with patients' sera on extracts of garlic, onion, and pollens of Phleum pratense and Chenopodium album. Garlic sensitization was demonstrated by bronchial challenge test in seven patients (group 1) and ruled out in the remaining five (group 2). Clinical data were similar in both groups. The patients with garlic allergy had a mean age of 27 years, and all of them had pollen allergy; sensitization to other members of the Liliaceae family was also common. Electrophoresis of garlic extract revealed two major protein bands at approximately 12 and 54 kd. During IgE immunoblotting, the pool of sera reacted with garlic proteins mainly at 54 kd. Preincubation with onion, Phleum, and Chenopodium partially abolished the IgE binding to several allergens of garlic. We report on seven patients in whom an occupational garlic allergy was demonstrated. Garlic allergy is relatively rare but seems to affect young subjects with pollen allergy, and sensitization to other members of the Liliaceae family is common. The results of this study confirm the presence of some structurally similar allergens in garlic, onion, and certain pollens.

  6. High environmental relative moldiness index during infancy as a predictor of asthma at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Tiina; Vesper, Stephen; Levin, Linda; Johansson, Elisabet; Ryan, Patrick; Burkle, Jeffery; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Zheng, Shu; Bernstein, David I; Lockey, James; Villareal, Manuel; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; LeMasters, Grace

    2011-08-01

    Mold exposures may contribute to the development of asthma, but previous studies have lacked a standardized approach to quantifying exposures. To determine whether mold exposures at the ages of 1 and/or 7 years were associated with asthma at the age of 7 years. This study followed up a high-risk birth cohort from infancy to 7 years of age. Mold was assessed by a DNA-based analysis for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) at the ages of 1 and 7 years. At the age of 7 years, children were evaluated for allergic sensitization and asthma based on symptom history, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, and airway reversibility. A questionnaire was administered to the parent regarding the child's asthma symptoms and other potential cofactors. At the age of 7 years, 31 of 176 children (18%) were found to be asthmatic. Children living in a high ERMI value (≥5.2) home at 1 year of age had more than twice the risk of developing asthma than those in low ERMI value homes (<5.2) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-6.26). Of the other covariates, only parental asthma (aOR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.69-9.62) and allergic sensitization to house dust mite (aOR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.55-11.07) were risk factors for asthma development. In contrast, air-conditioning at home reduced the risk of asthma development (aOR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.14-0.83). A high ERMI value at 7 years of age was not associated with asthma at 7 years of age. Early exposure to molds as measured by ERMI at 1 year of age, but not 7 years of age, significantly increased the risk for asthma at 7 years of age. Copyright © 2011 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subtropical acarien profile by topography, seasons and change of house furnishings: 80's blueprint to the future.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas G; Hope, Bradley E; Furumizo, Roy T

    2010-04-01

    In Hawai'i, mortality and morbidity from asthma are significant. In the 80's, there had been no local studies of topography folklore. There had been only one report of seasonal variation in house dust mite (HDM) density in Hawai'i, and this showed no significant variation in O'ahu's Manoa Valley but a definite variation in Waikiki. There were no studies of complete replacement of furnishings. In this pilot study, homes in a valley, coastal, and plain sites were investigated for 12 months in 2 homes on O'ahu. A 3rd home was studied prior to and after arrival of furnishings from Denver, Colorado. Of the 3 homes, #1 was in Palolo Valley Honolulu, #2 coastal at Pearl Harbor and #3 on the plain at Mililani. House dust samples were taken from 4-5 sites in 2 rooms every 5 weeks. Sampling and determination of density and species were those of Furumizo. They were unsupportive of the topography and seasonal variation folklore. Density surged in the 3rd home to > 12000 mites/ gram of dust within 10-15 weeks with the complete change of low density HDM furnishings. D. pteronyssinus (Dp) was dominant in each home year-round. Minor species of mites made up to 1/3 of total mites in 2 homes. The folklore relating improvement in asthma to geography was not supported. 2 of the 3 homes showed minimal seasonal variation in HDM density. Local mites heavily colonized furniture from high altitude Colorado in a surge within 10-15 weeks.

  8. DAMP molecules S100A9 and S100A8 activated by IL-17A and house-dust mites are increased in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shan; Park, Chang Ook; Shin, Jung U; Noh, Ji Yeon; Lee, Yun Sun; Lee, Na Ra; Kim, Hye Ran; Noh, Seongmin; Lee, Young; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hoon

    2014-12-01

    S100A9 and S100A8 are called damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules because of their pro-inflammatory properties. Few studies have evaluated S100A9 and S100A8 function as DAMP molecules in atopic dermatitis (AD). We investigated how house-dust mites affect S100A9 and S100A8 expression in Th2 cytokine- and Th17 cytokine-treated keratinocytes, and how secretion of these molecules affects keratinocyte-derived cytokines. Finally, we evaluated expression of these DAMP molecules in AD patients. S100A9 expression and S100A8 expression were strongly induced in IL-17A- and Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae-treated keratinocytes, respectively. Furthermore, co-treatment with D. farinae and IL-17A strongly increased expression of S100A9 and S100A8 compared with D. farinae-Th2 cytokine co-treatment. The IL-33 mRNA level increased in a dose-dependent manner in S100A9-treated keratinocytes, but TSLP expression did not change. S100A8/A9 levels were also higher in the lesional skin and serum of AD patients, and correlated with disease severity. Taken together, S100A9 and S100A8 may be involved in inducing DAMP-mediated inflammation in AD triggered by IL-17A and house-dust mites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Eucalyptus Pollen Allergy and Asthma in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jane E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree) pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma. Methods Males (n = 180) and females (n = 200) aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic), some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range) near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species). Skin prick test (SPT) responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and ‘asthma’ (n = 97) versus ‘healthy’ status (n = 107) groups, were compared. Results SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter) indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7) compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018), Eucalyptus (p = .046) and cockroach (p = .047) allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm) were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher’s Exact Test (α .05). For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm) was greatest for ‘dust mite’ (30.9%-46%), ‘cockroach’ (18.1% -35%) and ‘Bermuda grass’ (10.6%-19.4%). Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas. Implications Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be

  10. House dust mite-specific immunotherapy alters the basal expression of T regulatory and FcεRI pathway genes.

    PubMed

    Pevec, Branko; Radulovic Pevec, Mira; Stipic Markovic, Asja; Batista, Irena; Rijavec, Matija; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja; Korosec, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells and IgE-mediated signaling pathways could play important roles in the induction of allergen tolerance during house dust mite-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (HDM-SCIT). Our aim was to compare the basal expression levels of Treg, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 transcription factors and components involved in IgE-mediated signaling in healthy subjects with those in HDM-allergic patients both untreated and successfully treated with HDM-SCIT. Thirty-nine HDM-allergic patients who completed a 3- to 5-year course of mite extract SCIT, 20 mite-allergic controls and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. The efficacy of SCIT was monitored using skin-prick tests (SPTs), total immunoglobulin E (tIgE), specific IgE (sIgE), sIgG(4), nasal challenge and visual analog scale (VAS) scores at several time points. The mRNA levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), T-BET, GATA-3, FcεRI, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) were quantified by real-time RT-PCR using nonstimulated whole blood samples. Decreased wheal sizes and VAS scores, negative challenges and increased sIgG(4) levels indicated that SCIT was effective in the treated patients. Basal expression levels of FOXP3 and GATA-3 decreased and T-BET levels increased in both treated patients and in healthy controls compared to untreated patients. The IgE-mediated pathway kinases Syk and PI3K exhibited reduced expression, whereas SHIP phosphatase levels were elevated in both treated patients and healthy controls relative to untreated patients. The expression levels of FcεRI were not significantly altered. Immunotherapy using HDM extracts results in a modification of the basal expression levels of several IgE-related signaling factors and induces a highly significant upregulation of Th1-response and downregulation of Th2-response transcription factors. Interestingly, this therapy also appears to reduce the basal

  11. Effects on asthma and induction of interleukin-8 caused by Asian dust particles collected in western Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Sano, Hiroyuki; Abe, Satoshi; Saito, Rumiko; Minato, Sayaka; Igishi, Tadashi; Burioka, Naoto; Sako, Takanori; Yasuda, Kazuhito; Mikami, Masaaki; Kurita, Shinichi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Ueda, Yasuto; Konishi, Tatsuya; Yamasaki, Akira; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    Asian dust storms (ADS) contain various airborne particles that may augment airway inflammation by increasing the level of interleukin-8. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of exposure to an ADS with worsening of symptoms of adult asthma and the effect of ADS particles on interleukin-8 transcriptional activity. The subjects were 112 patients with mild to moderate asthma who recorded scores for their daily upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms and measured morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) from March to May 2011. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells that were exposed to airborne particles collected during days of ADS exposure. Of the 112 patients, 31 had comorbid allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or chronic sinusitis (CS), and had worsened scores for upper respiratory tract symptoms on ADS days compared to non-ADS days. Scores for lower respiratory tract symptoms during ADS days were higher than non-ADS days in all patients. Three patients also had unscheduled hospital visits for exacerbation of asthma on ADS days. However, there was no significant difference in daily morning PEF between ADS and non-ADS days. Airborne particles collected on ADS days induced interleukin-8 transcriptional activity in THP-G8 cells compared to the original soil of the ADS. Exposure to an ADS aggravates upper and lower tract respiratory symptoms in patients with adult asthma. ADS airborne particles may increase airway inflammation through enhancement of interleukin-8 transcriptional activity.

  12. Infant Sleeping Environment and Asthma at 7 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Trevillian, Leigh F.; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Carmichael, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the role of infant bedding items, as part of a composite bedding environment, in the development of childhood wheezing. Methods. This prospective cohort investigation involved 863 children who participated in an infant survey in 1988 and an asthma study in Tasmania, Australia, in 1995. The derived 3 composite infant bedding categories corresponded to increasing numbers of house dust mite (HDM)–rich bedding items used. Outcomes measured included recent and frequent wheezing. Results. Composite infant bedding used was associated with recent wheezing. Effects increased at increasing levels of HDM–rich bedding items used. Effects were further enhanced by home environmental factors of bedroom heating, recent bedroom painting, and absence of bedroom carpeting. When any 2 or more of these environmental factors were present, a strong dose–response relationship was evident. Conclusions. Our results show that bedding exposures in infancy are prospectively associated with childhood wheezing and that home environmental conditions may modify this association. PMID:16304135

  13. Measurement of nicotine in household dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sungroul; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205; Aung, Ther

    An analytical method of measuring nicotine in house dust was optimized and associations among three secondhand smoking exposure markers were evaluated, i.e., nicotine concentrations of both house dust and indoor air, and the self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily in a household. We obtained seven house dust samples from self-reported nonsmoking homes and 30 samples from smoking homes along with the information on indoor air nicotine concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked daily from an asthma cohort study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment. House dust nicotine was analyzed by isotope dilutionmore » gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using our optimized method, the median concentration of nicotine in the dust of self-reported nonsmoking homes was 11.7 ng/mg while that of smoking homes was 43.4 ng/mg. We found a substantially positive association (r=0.67, P<0.0001) between house dust nicotine concentrations and the numbers of cigarettes smoked daily. Optimized analytical methods showed a feasibility to detect nicotine in house dust. Our results indicated that the measurement of nicotine in house dust can be used potentially as a marker of longer term SHS exposure.« less

  14. Environmental Causes of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Donald W

    2018-02-01

    Environmental factors which cause asthma are those that induce airway inflammation with eosinophils (more common) or neutrophils along with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The most common of these (indeed the most common cause of asthma) are IgE-mediated inhalant allergen exposures. Allergen-induced AHR and inflammation are both associated with the allergen-induced late asthmatic response (LAR). Although allergens were previously recognized only as causes of symptoms and bronchoconstriction in asthmatics, we now appreciate them as causes of the fundamental pathophysiologic features of asthma. Low-molecular-weight chemical sensitizers, causes of occupational asthma, also cause asthma in a manner analogous to allergen. Acute irritant-induced asthma (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome) following a very heavy irritant exposure and chronic irritant-induced asthma following repeated high exposures can also induce persistent or permanent changes (inflammation and AHR) consistent with asthma. Textile dust exposure produces a different form of airway disease (byssinosis) which is less frequently observed currently. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke facilitates the development of asthma in children. Personal smoking and environmental air pollution have an inconsistent and likely generally small effect in causing asthma. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 effects on sinonasal epithelial tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Oswaldo A; Den Beste, Kyle; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, which are cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen vs control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of TJPs was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1-exposed cultured sinonasal cells vs controls. Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. Asthma, allergy, and atopy in three south-east Asian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, R.; Ho, P.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Whilst many recent reports have suggested a rise in the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in Western countries, little is known about the epidemiology of these common conditions in south-east Asia. This study compared the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease amongst secondary school students in three south-east Asian populations--Hong Kong, Kota Kinabalu in Malaysia, and San Bu in China--and investigated the associations with atopy and family history. METHODS--Secondary school students were given standard questionnaires on respiratory and allergic symptoms for completion by parents with response rates of 89.2% in Hong Kong (611 male, 451 female; mean (SD) age = 13.9 (1.8 years), 87.6% in Kota Kinabalu (134 male, 275 female; 15.5 (2.1) years), and 98.6% in San Bu (492 male, 245 female; 16.4 (1.8) years). Skin tests were performed in a subsample of students to determine atopic status. RESULTS--The respective prevalence (and 95% CI) for hayfever, eczema, and wheeze or asthma were 15.7% (13.5, 17.9), 20.1% (17.7, 22.5), 11.6% (9.3, 13.9) in Hong Kong, 11.2% (8.2, 14.3), 7.6% (5.0, 10.1), 8.2% (5.5, 10.9) in Kota Kinabalu, and 2.1% (1.2, 3.1), 7.2% (5.4, 9.1), 1.9% (0.7, 3.1) in San Bu. Atopy was common and was present in 49.0-63.9% of subjects in the three populations. Dust mite and cockroach were the commonest allergens that gave positive reactions in 42.8-60.5% and 25.7-35.9% of students respectively. A higher proportion of students in Hong Kong had severe degree of reactivity on skin test than the other two populations. Family history was associated with asthma and allergic symptoms in the three populations conferring a 3-80-fold increase in risk to family members and was a stronger predictor for asthma and allergy than atopy. CONCLUSIONS--Prevalence of asthma and allergic disease is low compared with Western countries, but considerable differences exist between the three south-east Asian populations despite similar rates of atopy. Asthma

  17. Effect of Asian dust on pulmonary function in adult asthma patients in western Japan: A panel study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yasuto; Touge, Hirokazu; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Toshikazu; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Konishi, Tatsuya; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Asian dust (AD) has become a major health concern. The concentration of AD is typically expressed in particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5). However, PM10 and PM2.5 consist of various substances besides AD. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems can selectively measure the quantity of AD particles to distinguish non-spherical airborne particles from spherical airborne particles. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pulmonary function in adult asthma patients and AD using LIDAR data. Subjects were 231 adult asthma patients who had their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) measured from March to May 2012. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association of PEF with sand dust particles detected by LIDAR. Increases in the interquartile range of AD particles (0.018 km(-1)) led to changes in PEF of -0.42 L/min (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.85 to 0.01). An increase of 11.8 μg/m(3) in suspended particulate matter and 6.9 μg/m(3) in PM2.5 led to decreases of -0.17 L/min (-0.53 to 0.21) and 0.03 L/min (-0.35 to 0.42), respectively. A heavy AD day was defined as a day with a level of AD particles >0.032 km(-1), which was the average plus one standard deviation during the study period, and six heavy AD days were identified. Change in PEF after a heavy AD day was -0.97 L/min (-1.90 to -0.04). Heavy exposure to AD particles was significantly associated with decreased pulmonary function in adult asthma patients. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Differential Allergy Induction by Molds Found in Water-Damaged Homes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: We compared the allergy induction potential of high concentration molds found in water-damaged homes and molds found more universally to house dust mite (HDM) in our mouse allergy/asthma model. Female BALB/c mice received 1 or 4 exposures by intratracheal aspiration of ...

  20. Belching, regurgitation, chest tightness and dyspnea: not gastroesophageal reflux disease but asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Xi; Zhan, Xian-Bao; Bai, Chong; Li, Qiang

    2015-02-07

    Belching is a common symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease. If the symptoms are not relieved after anti-reflux treatment, another etiology should be considered. Here, we report a case of a 43-year-old man who presented with belching, regurgitation, chest tightness and dyspnea for 18 mo, which became gradually more severe. Gastroscopic examination suggested superficial gastritis. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring showed that the Demeester score was 11.4, in the normal range. High-resolution manometry showed that integrated relaxation pressure and intrabolus pressure were higher than normal (20 mmHg and 22.4 mmHg, respectively), indicating gastroesophageal junction outflow tract obstruction. Pulmonary function test showed severe obstructive ventilation dysfunction [forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity 32%, FEV1 was 1.21 L, occupying 35% predicted value after salbuterol inhalation], and positive bronchial dilation test (∆FEV1 260 mL, ∆FEV1% 27%). Skin prick test showed Dermatophagoides farinae (++), house dust mite (++++), and shrimp protein (++). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement was 76 ppb. All the symptoms were alleviated completely and pulmonary function increased after combination therapy with corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonist. Bronchial asthma was eventually diagnosed by laboratory tests and the effect of anti-asthmatic treatment, therefore, physicians, especially the Gastrointestinal physicians, should pay attention to the belching symptoms of asthma.

  1. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among office workers in an academic institution, Malaysia--associations with asthma, allergies and office environment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Md Said, Salmiah; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Norbäck, Dan

    2016-01-01

    There are few studies on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and respiratory symptoms among adults in tropical areas. The aim was to study associations between FeNO and selected personal factors, respiratory symptoms, allergies, office characteristics and indoor office exposures among office workers (n = 460) from a university in Malaysia. Information on health was collected by a questionnaire, skin prick test and FeNO measurement. Temperature, relative air humidity, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were measured in the offices. Settled dust was vacuumed in the offices and analyzed for endotoxin, (1,3)-β-glucan and house dust mites allergens, namely Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). Two-level linear mixed models and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the associations. One-fourth (25.9%) of the office workers had elevated FeNO level (≥ 25 ppb) and 61.5% had HDM, cat, seafood or pollen allergy. Male gender (p < 0.001), current smoking (p = 0.037), height (p < 0.001) and atopy (p < 0.001) were associated with FeNO. The amount of vacuumed dust was associated with FeNO among atopic subjects (p = 0.009). Asthma and rhinitis symptoms were associated with FeNO (p < 0.05), especially among atopic subjects. In particular, a combination of atopy and elevated FeNO were associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma (p < 0.001), rhinitis (p < 0.001) and airway symptoms last 12 months (p < 0.001). Gender, smoking, height and atopy are important risk factors for elevated FeNO levels. A combination of allergy testing and FeNO measurement could be useful in respiratory illness epidemiology studies and patient investigations in tropical areas.

  2. Socioeconomic predictors of high allergen levels in homes in the greater Boston area.

    PubMed

    Kitch, B T; Chew, G; Burge, H A; Muilenberg, M L; Weiss, S T; Platts-Mills, T A; O'Connor, G; Gold, D R

    2000-04-01

    In the United States, childhood asthma morbidity and prevalence rates are the highest in less affluent urban minority communities. More than 80% of childhood asthmatics are allergic to one or more inhalant allergens. We evaluated whether socioeconomic status was associated with a differential in the levels and types of indoor home allergens. Dust samples for an ELISA allergen assay were collected from the homes of 499 families as part of a metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, longitudinal birth cohort study of home allergens and asthma in children with a parental history of asthma or allergy. The proportion of homes with maximum home allergen levels in the highest category was 42% for dust mite allergen (> or = 10 microg/g Der p 1 or Der f 1), 13% for cockroach allergen (> or = 2 U/g Bla g 1 or Bla g 2), 26% for cat allergen (> or = 8 microg/g Fel d 1), and 20% for dog allergen (> or = 10 microg/g Can f 1). Homes in the high-poverty area (> 20% of the population below the poverty level) were more likely to have high cockroach allergen levels than homes in the low-poverty area [51 vs. 3%; OR, 33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 12-90], but less likely to have high levels of dust mite allergen (16 vs. 53%; OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1-0.4). Lower family income, less maternal education, and race/ethnicity (black or Hispanic vs. white) were also associated with a lower risk of high dust mite levels and a greater risk of high cockroach allergen levels. Within a single U.S. metropolitan area we found marked between-community differences in the types of allergens present in the home, but not necessarily in the overall burden of allergen exposure.

  3. Aeroallergen sensitization and allergic disease phenotypes in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tham, Elizabeth Huiwen; Lee, Alison Joanne; Bever, Hugo Van

    2016-09-01

    Allergic diseases are on the rise in Asia. Aeroallergen exposure is a strong risk factor for sensitization, development and severity of atopic diseases, especially in the Asian paediatric population. Geographical and seasonal variations in aeroallergen sensitization are seen even within Asian countries and changes in aeroallergen sensitization patterns have been observed over time. Some possible reasons include climate change as well as rapid urbanization and improved sanitation which follow socioeconomic development. House dust mite allergy is present in up to 90% of Asian atopic patients, far exceeding that which is seen in Western populations which report prevalences of only 50% to 70%. Pollen and animal dander affect less than 10% of Asian patients as compared to 40-70% of individuals with asthma and allergic rhinitis living in the West, a burden almost equivalent to the dust mite burden in those regions. There is thus a pressing need for preventive measures to reduce dust mite sensitization in Asian children today.

  4. Immunoproteomic analysis of house dust mite antigens reveals distinct classes of dominant T cell antigens according to function and serological reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Westernberg, Luise; Pham, John; Lane, Jerome; Paul, Sinu; Greenbaum, Jason; Stranzl, Thomas; Lund, Gitte; Hoof, Ilka; Holm, Jens; Würtzen, Peter A; Meno, Kåre H.; Frazier, April; Schulten, Veronique; Andersen, Peter S.; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND House dust mite (HDM) allergens are a common cause of allergy and allergic asthma. A comprehensive analysis of proteins targeted by T cells, which are implicated in the development and regulation of allergic disease independent of their antibody reactivity, is still lacking. OBJECTIVE To comprehensively analyze the HDM-derived protein targets of T cell responses in HDM-allergic individuals, and investigate their correlation with IgE/IgG responses and protein function. METHODS Proteomic analysis (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) of HDM extracts identified 90 distinct protein clusters, corresponding to 29 known allergens and 61 novel proteins. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 20 HDM-allergic individuals were stimulated with HDM extracts and assayed with a set of ~2500 peptides derived from these 90 protein clusters and predicted to bind the most common HLA class II types. 2D immunoblots were made in parallel to elucidate IgE and IgG reactivity and putative function analyses were performed in silico according to gene ontology (GO) annotations. RESULTS Analysis of T cell reactivity revealed a large number of T cell epitopes. Overall response magnitude and frequency was comparable for known and novel proteins, with 15 antigens (nine of which were novel) dominating the total T cell response. Most of the known allergens that were dominant at the T cell level were also IgE-reactive, as expected, while few novel dominant T cell antigens were IgE reactive. Among known allergens, hydrolase activity and detectable IgE/IgG reactivity are strongly correlated, while no protein function correlates with immunogenicity of novel proteins. A total of 106 epitopes accounted for half of the total T-cell response, underlining the heterogeneity of T cell responses to HDM allergens. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Herein, we define the T cell targets for both known allergens and novel proteins, which may inform future diagnostics and

  5. Risk factors and immunological pathways for asthma and other allergic diseases in children: background and methodology of a longitudinal study in a large urban center in Northeastern Brazil (Salvador-SCAALA study).

    PubMed

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Cunha, Sergio S; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza; Carvalho, Lain P; Cruz, Alvaro A; Stein, Renato T; Genser, Bernd; Cooper, Philip J; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2006-06-23

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised English-speaking countries. It is likely that the marked changes in the environment, life style and living conditions in Latin America are responsible for these observations. The understanding of the epidemiological and immunological changes that underlie the increase in asthma and allergic diseases in Latin America aimed by SCAALA studies in Brazil and Ecuador will be crucial for the identification of novel preventive interventions. The Salvador-SCAALA project described here is a longitudinal study involving children aged 4-11 years living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data on asthma and allergic diseases (rhinitis and eczema) and potential risk factors will be collected in successive surveys using standardised questionnaire. This will be completed with data on dust collection (to dust mite and endotoxin), skin test to most common allergens, stool examinations to helminth and parasites, blood samples (to infection, total and specific IgE, and immunological makers), formaldehyde, physical inspection to diagnoses of eczema, and anthropometric measures. Data on earlier exposures when these children were 0-3 years old are available from a different project. It is expected that knowledge generated may help identify public health interventions that may enable countries in LA to enjoy the benefits of a "modern" lifestyle while avoiding--or minimising--increases in morbidity caused by asthma and allergies.

  6. Risk factors and immunological pathways for asthma and other allergic diseases in children: background and methodology of a longitudinal study in a large urban center in Northeastern Brazil (Salvador-SCAALA study)

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Cunha, Sergio S; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza; Carvalho, Lain P; Cruz, Álvaro A; Stein, Renato T; Genser, Bernd; Cooper, Philip J; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2006-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised English-speaking countries. It is likely that the marked changes in the environment, life style and living conditions in Latin America are responsible for these observations. The understanding of the epidemiological and immunological changes that underlie the increase in asthma and allergic diseases in Latin America aimed by SCAALA studies in Brazil and Ecuador will be crucial for the identification of novel preventive interventions. Methods/Design The Salvador-SCAALA project described here is a longitudinal study involving children aged 4–11 years living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data on asthma and allergic diseases (rhinitis and eczema) and potential risk factors will be collected in successive surveys using standardised questionnaire. This will be completed with data on dust collection (to dust mite and endotoxin), skin test to most common allergens, stool examinations to helminth and parasites, blood samples (to infection, total and specific IgE, and immunological makers), formaldehyde, physical inspection to diagnoses of eczema, and anthropometric measures. Data on earlier exposures when these children were 0–3 years old are available from a different project. Discussion It is expected that knowledge generated may help identify public health interventions that may enable countries in LA to enjoy the benefits of a "modern" lifestyle while avoiding – or minimising – increases in morbidity caused by asthma and allergies. PMID:16796729

  7. Involvement of the mannose receptor in the uptake of Der p 1, a major mite allergen, by human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Deslée, Gaëtan; Charbonnier, Anne-Sophie; Hammad, Hamida; Angyalosi, Gerhild; Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Mantovani, Alberto; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2002-11-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) take up antigens in peripheral tissues and, after antigen processing, mature to efficiently stimulate T cells in secondary lymph nodes. In allergic airway diseases DCs have been shown to be involved in the induction and maintenance of a T(H)2-type profile. The present study was undertaken to determine pathways of Der p 1 (a house dust mite allergen) uptake by human DCs and to compare Der p 1 uptake between DCs from patients with house dust mite allergy and DCs from healthy donors. Monocyte-derived DCs (MD-DCs) were obtained from patients with house dust mite allergy (n = 13) and healthy donors (n = 11). Der p 1 was labeled with rhodamine. Der p 1 uptake by MD-DCs was analyzed by means of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Rhodamine- labeled Der p 1 was demonstrated to be taken up by MD-DCs in a dose-, time-, and temperature- dependent manner. The involvement of the mannose receptor (MR) in the Der p 1 uptake was demonstrated by using (1) inhibitors of the MR- mediated endocytosis (mannan and blocking anti-MR mAb), which inhibited the Der p 1 uptake from 40 % to 50 %, and (2) confocal microscopy showing the colocalization of rhodamine-labeled Der p 1 with FITC-dextran. Interestingly, compared with DCs from healthy donors, DCs from allergic patients expressed more MR and were more efficient in Der p 1 uptake. These results suggest that the MR could play a key role in the Der p 1 allergen uptake by DCs and in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in dust mite -sensitive patients.

  8. In vitro efficacy of ByeMite and Mite-Stop on developmental stages of the red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2009-10-01

    The present in vitro study shows the efficacy of two antimite products (ByeMite = phoxim, Mite-Stop = neem seed extract) against all developing stages of the important red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae (obtained at two farms in France and Germany). While permanent contact with the active compound led to an efficacy of 100% in the case of Mite-Stop on mites in both farms, there was only a 96.2% killing effect of ByeMite on the mites of the French farm. Even short contacts of only 4 s killed 100% of mites in the case of Mite-Stop at the French farm and only 84.5% in the German farm. ByeMite, on the other hand, killed only 27.8% (Germany) and 30% (France) when mites got the chance to escape from the treated grounds to untreated ones. When using only the half doses of both products, Mite-Stop(R) still reached, after permanent contact, 100% activity on the German farm and 98.2% in France, while ByeMite killed 93.8% (Germany) and 90.6% (France). Short contact to half doses of course reduced the activity of both products (Mite-Stop = 59.3% in France, 22.1% in Germany; ByeMite = 28.8% in France, 18.8% in Germany). With respect to the fumigant activity of the products, the strains of D. gallinae reacted differently. While Mite-Stop(R) showed a clear fumigant activity in the case of the German mites, this product did not affect the French mites by air distribution, neither did ByeMite in both cases. Therefore, mites have to come in contact with both products. Against Mite-Stop, there was apparently no resistance and low doses have high efficacy after even short contacts, which regularly occur in a treated stable, where mites have the chance to leave treated places to untreated hidden spots.

  9. Relationships among Prenatal Aeroallergen Exposure, Maternal and Cord Blood Immunoglobulin E: Project ACCESS

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Junenette L.; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Hosen, Jacob; Gold, Diane R.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2009-01-01

    Background While some evidence suggests that antigen sensitization may begin prenatally, the influence of maternal allergen exposure during pregnancy has not been fully elucidated. Objectives We examined the relationship between prenatal maternal aeroallergen exposure and cord blood total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the potential mediating/indirect effect of maternal immune response. Methods This study was performed in 301 mother-infant pairs enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS) project, a study examining the effects of prenatal and early life social and physical environmental exposures on urban asthma risk. Dust samples collected prenatally from mothers’ bedrooms were analyzed for cockroach and dust mite allergens. Cord blood was analyzed for total IgE and maternal serum collected during pregnancy for total and specific IgE. We assessed the relationship between prenatal exposure and cord blood total IgE and the potential mediation effect adjusting for maternal age, race, education, smoking status and dust collection season; and child’s gender and season of birth. Results In multivariate models, elevated prenatal dust mite levels (> 0.2 µg/g) increased cord blood IgE concentrations by 29% (p=0.08) and continuous dust mite concentration was associated with a significant non-linear increase in cord blood IgE (p=0.02). Elevated prenatal exposure to cockroach allergen (> 2 U/g) was not associated with cord blood IgE, but showed a significant indirect relationship through maternal total IgE (β=0.23; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.41). Conclusions These results demonstrate that maternal prenatal exposure to household allergens may impact cord blood IgE albeit the underlying mechanism may be allergen-specific. Clinical Implications Maternal prenatal inhalant allergen exposure may precipitate infant immune response although the pathway of the effect may differ by allergen. Capsule Summary Prenatal exposure to dust mite was associated

  10. Sensitization to common allergens and its association with allergic disorders at age 4 years: a whole population birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Arshad, S H; Tariq, S M; Matthews, S; Hakim, E

    2001-08-01

    Atopy is defined as the genetic propensity to develop immunoglobulin E antibodies in response to exposure to allergens and assessed by skin prick test responses to common allergens. Although it is generally agreed that atopy is an important risk factor for allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, the extent to which atopy accounts for these diseases is controversial. We aim to describe the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens and investigate the degree of association of atopy (as defined by positive skin prick test to 1 or more common allergens) to asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in a birth cohort at the age of 4 years. A birth cohort of 1456 children was recruited over a 14-month period (1989-1990). These children have been seen previously at 1 and 2 years of age. At 4 years, 1218 children were reviewed and an interview was administered or postal questionnaire was completed for the presence of allergic diseases (asthma, rhinitis, and eczema). Additionally, in 981 children, skin prick tests with a battery of 12 common allergens were performed. Allergens were house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssimus), grass pollen mix, cat, dog, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, cow's milk, hen's egg, soya, cod, wheat, and peanut. A mean wheal diameter of at least 3 mm greater than the negative control was taken as positive. This analysis is confined to the 981 (67% of the original population) who also had skin prick tests to the standard battery. chi(2) tests were used to test the univariate association between each allergic disease and positive skin test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the independent effect of sensitization to each allergen on allergic disease, adjusting for the effect of sensitization to other allergens. To ascertain how much of allergic disease is attributable to atopy, we estimated the population-attributable risk. This

  11. Determinants of asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers.

    PubMed

    Baatjies, R; Lopata, A L; Sander, I; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Bateman, E D; Meijster, T; Heederik, D; Robins, T G; Jeebhay, M F

    2009-10-01

    While baker's asthma has been well described, various asthma phenotypes in bakery workers have yet to be characterised. Our study aims to describe the asthma phenotypes in supermarket bakery workers in relation to host risk factors and self-reported exposure to flour dust. A cross-sectional study of 517 supermarket bakery workers in 31 bakeries used a questionnaire, skin prick tests, and specific immunoglobulin E to wheat, rye and fungal alpha-amylase and methacholine challenge testing. The prevalence of probable occupational asthma (OA, 13%) was higher than atopic (6%), nonatopic (6%) and work-aggravated asthma (WAA, 3%) phenotypes. Previous episodes of high exposure to dusts, fumes and vapours causing asthma symptoms were more strongly associated with WAA (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.7-19.2) than OA (2.8, 1.4-5.5). Work-related ocular-nasal symptoms were significantly associated with WAA (4.3, 1.3-13.8) and OA (3.1, 1.8-5.5). Bakers with OA had an increased odds ratio of reporting adverse reactions to ingested grain products (6.4, 2.0-19.8). OA is the most common phenotype among supermarket bakery workers. Analysis of risk factors contributes to defining clinical phenotypes, which will guide ongoing medical surveillance and clinical management of bakery workers.

  12. A systematic review of associations between environmental exposures and development of asthma in children aged up to 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Dick, S; Friend, A; Dynes, K; AlKandari, F; Doust, E; Cowie, H; Ayres, J G; Turner, S W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Childhood asthma is a complex condition where many environmental factors are implicated in causation. The aim of this study was to complete a systematic review of the literature describing associations between environmental exposures and the development of asthma in young children. Setting A systematic review of the literature up to November 2013 was conducted using key words agreed by the research team. Abstracts were screened and potentially eligible papers reviewed. Papers describing associations between exposures and exacerbation of pre-existing asthma were not included. Papers were placed into the following predefined categories: secondhand smoke (SHS), inhaled chemicals, damp housing/mould, inhaled allergens, air pollution, domestic combustion, dietary exposures, respiratory virus infection and medications. Participants Children aged up to 9 years. Primary outcomes Diagnosed asthma and wheeze. Results 14 691 abstracts were identified, 207 papers reviewed and 135 included in the present review of which 15 were systematic reviews, 6 were meta-analyses and 14 were intervention studies. There was consistent evidence linking exposures to SHS, inhaled chemicals, mould, ambient air pollutants, some deficiencies in maternal diet and respiratory viruses to an increased risk for asthma (OR typically increased by 1.5–2.0). There was less consistent evidence linking exposures to pets, breast feeding and infant dietary exposures to asthma risk, and although there were consistent associations between exposures to antibiotics and paracetamol in early life, these associations might reflect reverse causation. There was good evidence that exposures to house dust mites (in isolation) was not associated with asthma risk. Evidence from observational and intervention studies suggest that interactions between exposures were important to asthma causation, where the effect size was typically 1.5–3.0. Conclusions There are many publications reporting associations

  13. Breathing Easier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolkin, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    Describes use of Environmental Protection Agency's Tools for Schools tool kit to improve indoor air quality aimed specifically at eliminating asthma triggers such as dust mites and mold. Includes several examples of school district efforts to reduce or eliminate student health problems associated with poor indoor air quality. (PKP)

  14. Protocols for the delivery of small molecules to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Maria Andreia; Zhurov, Vladimir; Dermauw, Wannes; Osakabe, Masahiro; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Miodrag

    2017-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a chelicerate herbivore with an extremely wide host range and an extraordinary ability to develop pesticide resistance. Due to its responsiveness to natural and synthetic xenobiotics, the spider mite is becoming a prime pest herbivore model for studies of the evolution of host range, plant-herbivore interactions and mechanisms of xenobiotic resistance. The spider mite genome has been sequenced and its transcriptional responses to developmental and various biotic and abiotic cues have been documented. However, to identify biological and evolutionary roles of T. urticae genes and proteins, it is necessary to develop methods for the efficient manipulation of mite gene function or protein activity. Here, we describe protocols developed for the delivery of small molecules into spider mites. Starting with mite maintenance and the preparation of the experimental mite populations of developmentally synchronized larvae and adults, we describe 3 methods for delivery of small molecules including artificial diet, leaf coating, and soaking. The presented results define critical steps in these methods and demonstrate that they can successfully deliver tracer dyes into mites. Described protocols provide guidelines for high-throughput setups for delivery of experimental compounds that could be used in reverse genetics platforms to modulate gene expression or protein activity, or for screens focused on discovery of new molecules for mite control. In addition, described protocols could be adapted for other Tetranychidae and related species of economic importance such as Varroa, dust and poultry mites. PMID:28686745

  15. Lung health in era of climate change and dust storms.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Michael D; Calzadilla, Andrew S; Salamo, Oriana; Sharifi, Arash; Kumar, Naresh; Holt, Gregory; Campos, Michael; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2018-05-01

    Dust storms are strong winds which lead to particle exposure over extensive areas. These storms influence air quality on both a local and global scale which lead to both short and long-term effects. The frequency of dust storms has been on the rise during the last decade. Forecasts suggest that their incidence will increase as a response to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Elderly people, young children, and individuals with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are at the greatest risk for health effects of dust storms. A wide variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases have been associated with dust exposure. Influenza A virus, pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, bacterial pneumonia, and meningococcal meningitis are a few examples of dust-related infectious diseases. Among non-infectious diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, sarcoidosis and pulmonary fibrosis have been associated with dust contact. Here, we review two molecular mechanisms of dust induced lung disease for asthma and sarcoidosis. We can also then further understand the mechanisms by which dust particles disturb airway epithelial and immune cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of adult-onset atopic dermatitis with positive skin prick testing to mites.

    PubMed

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Chularojanamontri, Leena; Manapajon, Araya; Nuchkull, Piyavadee

    2011-12-01

    The clinical role of house dust mite (HDM) in atopic dermatitis (AD) is still controversial. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence, clinical relevance and characteristics of adult-onset AD patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to mites. The case record forms of adult-onset AD patients who underwent SPT at the Skin Allergy Clinic, Siriraj Hospital were reviewed. Forty-one of 62 patients (66.1%) had positive SPT to mites. The frequency of intrinsic AD among adult-onset AD was 4.8% (3/62). SPT to HDM tended to be positive in patients who had personal or family history of atopy, positive SPT to several specific antigens or who presented with elevated serum IgE, chelitis, recurrent conjunctivitis and perifollicular accentuation, respectively. CONCLUSION The prevalence of adult-onset AD patients with mite sensitivity was high. There were some notable features that tended to be present in mite sensitive adult-onset AD patients.

  17. [Clinical and spirometric correlation with home allergens and with pollutants].

    PubMed

    Varela Delgado, A L; Segura Méndez, N H; Salas Ramírez, M; Espínola Reyna, G; Torres Salazar, A B

    2001-01-01

    Environmental contamination causes an increase in respiratory symptoms, especially in patients with asthma. The severity of allergic asthma in children is associated with the presence of intradomicilliary aeroallergens and intramural contaminants. Correlation to clinical abnormalities, spyrometryand skin test with the intradomiciliary pollution. Children who participated ranged in age from 6 to 15 years, attended public schools, and were classified as healthy and asthmatic. A questionnaire was applied to them, as well as a clinical history, spirometry, skin tests, and an environmental study at home. Fifty-seven children were studied, of 10 years of age (+/- 3). Group 1 (23 healthy children): Positive skin tests, dust 66.6%, cockroaches 66.6%, mites 33.3%, cat 33.3%, dog 4.3%. Principal clinical symptoms were cough 91.3%, wheezing 78.3%, respiratory difficulty 39.1% with a morning predominance of 78.3%. Spirometry showed an obstructive pattern in 30.5%. Group 2 (34 asthmatic children): Positive skin tests, mites 52.1%, dust 47.8%, cockroach 21.7%, cat 21.7%, dog 4.3%, passive exposure to tobacco smoke 79.5%. Principal clinical symptoms were cough 91.3%, respiratory 82.3%, wheezing 79.4%, predominantly at night 70.5%. Spirometry showed obstructive pattern in 67.7%. Children with asthma present great contact and sensitivity for intradomicilliary allergens such as mites in household dust, proteins from cat, dog, and cockroach feces, in addition to greater frequency of passive smoking. It is important to point out that these factors can be modifiable at low cost, thus presenting the conditions for a better quality of life for the patient and diminishing costs of medical attention.

  18. Are neighborhood-level characteristics associated with indoor allergens in the household?

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-02-01

    Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York City Department of City Planning. We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n = 261), we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1,000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates), and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 microg/g; cat: >1 microg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 microg/g. Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat, and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions.

  19. Are Neighborhood-Level Characteristics Associated with Indoor Allergens in the Household?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Rudd, Rima; Chew, Ginger L.; Emmons, Karen; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Background Individual home characteristics have been associated with indoor allergen exposure; however, the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics has not been well-studied. We defined neighborhoods as community districts determined by the New York Department of City Planning. Objective We examined the relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and the presence of dust mite (Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), cockroach (Bla g 2), and mouse (MUP) allergens in the household. Methods Using data from the Puerto Rican Asthma Project, a birth cohort of Puerto Rican children at risk of allergic sensitization (n=261) we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics (percent tree canopy, asthma hospitalizations per 1000 children, roadway length within 100 meters of buildings, serious housing code violations per 1000 rental units, poverty rates, and felony crime rates) and the presence of indoor allergens. Allergen cutpoints were used for categorical analyses and defined as follows: dust mite: >0.25 μg/g; cat: >1 μg/g; cockroach: >1 U/g; mouse: >1.6 μg/g. Results Serious housing code violations were statistically significantly positively associated with dust mite, cat and mouse allergens (continuous variables), adjusting for mother's income and education, and all neighborhood-level characteristics. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, medium levels of housing code violations were associated with higher dust mite and cat allergens (1.81, 95%CI: 1.08, 3.03 and 3.10, 95%CI: 1.22, 7.92, respectively). A high level of serious housing code violations was associated with higher mouse allergen (2.04, 95%CI: 1.15, 3.62). A medium level of housing code violations was associated with higher cockroach allergen (3.30, 95%CI: 1.11, 9.78). Conclusions Neighborhood-level characteristics, specifically housing code violations, appear to be related to indoor allergens, which may have implications for future research explorations and policy decisions. PMID

  20. A novel and well tolerated mite allergoid subcutaneous immunotherapy: evidence of clinical and immunologic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Albert; Depreux, Nathalie; Jurgens, Yani; Heath, Matthew D; Garcia, Gloria; Skinner, Murray A

    2014-01-01

    Allergy to house dust mite is one of the most common causes of allergic rhinitis. A novel tyrosine-adsorbed, modified allergen product, Acarovac Plus, developed for the treatment of perennial mite allergy seeks to address the underlying cause of allergic rhinitis in this instance. One of two dosing regimens may be used, either the Conventional Regimen or the Cluster Regimen. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of a specific immunotherapy, developed for the treatment of perennial mite allergy, administered under a Conventional and Clustered dosing schedule in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis. Thirty adult patients, between 18 and 65 years old, with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma secondary to hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were administered with either conventional or cluster initial regime, with a final visit one week after the last dose administration. The efficacy to the Conventional and Cluster regimens was measured using a Nasal Challenge Test monitoring clinical symptoms and peak nasal inspiratory flow. Total IgE, serum-specific inmunoglobulins (IgE and IgG4) to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and relevant cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) were assessed. A Satisfaction Questionnaire (TSQM) was completed after each patient's final visit. The tolerability of the vaccine was assessed monitoring adverse reactions. No adverse events were recorded in either conventional or cluster regime. The specific Nasal Challenge Test led to a decrease in symptom scores and a significant decrease in mean nasal peak inspiratory flow drop was recorded in both dosing regimen groups. A significant increase in IgG4-specific antibody titres was assessed. No significant changes were observed in concentrations of total IgE, specific IgE or cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13). Patients declared themselves most satisfied in relation to “Secondary effects”, with high overall satisfaction in both groups. Cluster and

  1. Cognitive Factors Mediate Placebo Responses in Patients with House Dust Mite Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Sven; Rueckert, Annika; Hillen, Uwe; Schadendorf, Dirk; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Placebo effects have been reported in type I allergic reactions. However the neuropsychological mechanisms steering placebo responses in allergies are largely unknown. The study analyzed whether and to what extend a conditioned placebo response is affecting type I allergic reactions and whether this response can be reproduced at multiple occasions. Methods 62 patients with house dust mite allergy were randomly allocated to either a conditioned (n = 25), sham-conditioned (n = 25) or natural history (n = 12) group. During the learning phase (acquisition), patients in the conditioned group received the H1-receptor antagonist desloratadine (5mg) (unconditioned stimulus/US) together with a novel tasting gustatory stimulus (conditioned stimulus/CS). Patients in the sham-conditioned control group received the CS together with a placebo pill. After a wash out time of 9 days patients in the conditioned and sham-conditioned group received placebo pills together with the CS during evocation. Allergic responses documented by wheal size after skin prick test and symptom scores after nasal provocation were analyzed at baseline, after last desloratadine treatment and after the 1st and 5th CS re-exposure. Results Both conditioned and sham-conditioned patients showed significantly decreased wheal sizes after the 1st CS-evocation and significantly decreased symptom scores after the 1st as well as after the 5th evocation compared to the natural history control group. Conclusions These results indicate that placebo responses in type I allergy are not primarily mediated by learning processes, but seemed to be induced by cognitive factors such as patients’ expectation, with these effects not restricted to a single evocation. PMID:24260254

  2. Asthma in furniture and wood processing workers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wiggans, R E; Evans, G; Fishwick, D; Barber, C M

    2016-04-01

    Wood dust is a common cause of occupational asthma. There is potential for high exposure to wood dust during furniture and wood manufacturing processes. To evaluate the evidence for non-neoplastic respiratory ill health associated with work in the furniture and wood manufacturing sector. A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Articles were graded using SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network) and MERGE (Methods for Evaluating Research Guidelines and Evidence) criteria, with data grouped by study outcome. Initial searches identified 1328 references, from which 55 articles were included in the review. Fourteen studies were graded A using MERGE or >2++ using SIGN. All but one paper describing airway symptoms reported an increased risk in higher wood dust exposed workers in comparison to lower or non-exposed groups. Five studies reporting asthma examined dose response; three found a positive effect. The relative risk for asthma in exposed workers in the single meta-analysis was 1.5 (95% CI 1.25-1.87). Two studies reported more obstructive lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]/forced vital capacity < 0.7) in exposed populations. Excess longitudinal FEV1 decline was reported in female smokers with high wood dust exposures in one study population. Where measured, work-related respiratory symptoms did not clearly relate to specific wood immunoglobulin E positivity. Work in this sector was associated with a significantly increased risk of respiratory symptoms and asthma. The evidence for wood dust exposure causing impaired lung function is less clearly established. Further study is required to better understand the prevalence, and causes, of respiratory problems within this sector. © Crown copyright 2015.

  3. Effects of the flavanone combination hesperetin-naringenin, and orange and grapefruit juices, on airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine asthma model.

    PubMed

    Seyedrezazadeh, Ensiyeh; Kolahian, Saeed; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali; Ansarin, Khalil; Pour Moghaddam, Masoud; Sakhinia, Masoud; Sakhinia, Ebrahim; Vafa, Mohammadreza

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether flavanones, hesperetin-naringenin, orange, and grapefruit juices reduce airway inflammation and remodeling in murine chronic asthma model. To establish chronic asthma, mice received house dust mite (HDM) for 3 days in 2 weeks, followed by twice per week for 4 weeks. Concurrently, during the last 4 weeks, mice received hesperetin plus naringenin (HN), orange plus grapefruit juice (OGJ), orange juice (OJ), or grapefruit juice (GJ); whereas the asthmatic control (AC) group and non-asthmatic control (NC) group consumed water ad libitum. In histopathological examination, no goblet cells metaplasia was observed in the HN, OJ, and GJ groups; also, intra-alveolar macrophages decreased compared with those of the AC group. Hesperetin plus naringenin significantly decreased subepithelial fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophy in airways, and lung atelectasis compared with the AC group. Also, there was a reduction of subepithelial fibrosis in airways in OJ and GJ groups compared with AC group, but it was not noticed in OGJ group. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, macrophages numbers decreased in OJ and OGJ groups, whereas eosinophil numbers were increased in OJ group compared with NC group. Our finding revealed that hesperetin plus naringenin ameliorate airway structural remodeling more than orange juice and grapefruit juice in murine model of HDM-induced asthma. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI)-2010 annual meeting. 26 February-2 March 2010, New Orleans, LA, USA.

    PubMed

    Bielory, Leonard

    2010-05-01

    The 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) meeting, held in New Orleans, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the fields of allergy, asthma and immunological diseases. This conference report highlights selected presentations on potential treatments for food and other allergies, as well as therapies for asthma and other immunological diseases. Investigational drugs discussed include Oralair Mites (Stallergenes SA/Paladin Labs Inc), PF-03654746 (Pfizer Inc) and AMG-853 (Amgen Inc).

  5. l-Arginine administration attenuates airway inflammation by altering l-arginine metabolism in an NC/Nga mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Kubo, Masayuki; Murakami, Ikuo; Setiawan, Heri; Takemoto, Kei; Inoue, Kiyomi; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Ogino, Keiki

    2015-05-01

    Changes in l-arginine metabolism, including increased arginase levels and decreased nitric oxide production, are involved in the pathophysiology of asthma. In this study, using an intranasal mite-induced NC/Nga mouse model of asthma, we examined whether administration of l-arginine ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation by altering l-arginine metabolism. Experimental asthma was induced in NC/Nga mice via intranasal administration of mite crude extract (50 µg/day) on 5 consecutive days (days 0-4, sensitization) and on day 11 (challenge). Oral administration of l-arginine (250 mg/kg) was performed twice daily on days 5-10 for prevention or on days 11-13 for therapy. On day 14, we evaluated the inflammatory airway response (airway hyperresponsiveness, the number of cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the changes in pathological inflammation of the lung), arginase expression and activity, l-arginine bioavailability, and the concentration of NOx, the end products of nitric oxide. Treatment with l-arginine ameliorated the mite-induced inflammatory airway response. Furthermore, l-arginine administration attenuated the increases in arginase expression and activity and elevated the NOx levels by enhancing l-arginine bioavailability. These findings indicate that l-arginine administration may contribute to the improvement of asthmatic symptoms by altering l-arginine metabolism.

  6. Effect of freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil on house dust mites in soft toys.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Fu; Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ying; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2011-09-01

    Soft toys are a major source of house dust mites (HDM) and HDM allergens, and sleeping with soft toys is a significant risk factor for HDM sensitization. We studied three techniques to eliminate HDM from soft toys, namely freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil. Thirty-six toys (12 in each treatment group) were enumerated for live HDM by the heat escape method before and after freezing overnight, hot tumble drying for 1 h and washing in 0.2% to 0.4% eucalyptus oil. Freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in significant reductions in live HDM, an average reduction of 95.1%, 89.1% and 95.1%, respectively. Additionally, washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in a significant reduction in HDM allergens as well from a geometric mean of 9.12 μg/g to 0.37 μg/g (p = 0.033). These three HDM elimination techniques give parents of infants effective and acceptable methods of limiting HDM exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Inhibitory effects of Drynaria fortunei extract on house dust mite antigen-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Yang, Won-Kyung; Nho, Kyoung Jin; Seo, Hyeong Seok; Kim, Young Sang; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-10-31

    Drynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, rheumatism, and bone healing. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% ethanol extract of Drynaria fortunei (DFE). We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied DFE on house dust mite Dermatophargoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Treatment of NC/Nga mice with DFE reduced the dermatitis score, ear thickness, and serum levels of IgE, IgG1, and IL-6. Histopathological analyses of ear and skin lesions showed inhibition of the thickening of the epidermis and reduced epidermal/dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. In ear lesions, mRNA expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were reduced by DFE treatment. DFE inhibited the development of dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. These results suggest that DFE may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Repeated measurement of nasal lavage fluid chemokines in school-age children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Noah, Terry L; Tudor, Gail E; Ivins, Sally S; Murphy, Paula C; Peden, David B; Henderson, Frederick W

    2006-02-01

    Inflammatory processes at the mucosal surface may play a role in maintenance of asthma pathophysiology. Cross-sectional studies in asthmatic patients suggest that chemokines such as interleukin 8 (IL-8) are overproduced by respiratory epithelium. To test the hypothesis that chemokine levels are persistently elevated in the respiratory secretions of asthmatic children at a stable baseline. We measured nasal lavage fluid (NLF) levels of chemokines and other mediators at 3- to 4-month intervals in a longitudinal study of asthmatic children, with nonasthmatic siblings as controls. In a linear mixed-model analysis, both family and day of visit had significant effects on nasal mediators. Thus, data for 12 asthmatic-nonasthmatic sibling pairs who had 3 or more same-day visits were analyzed separately. For sibling pairs, median eosinophil cationic protein levels derived from serial measurements in NLF were elevated in asthmatic patients compared with nonasthmatic patients, with a near-significant tendency for elevation of total protein and eotaxin levels as well. However, no significant differences were found for IL-8 or several other chemokines. Ratios of IL-13 or IL-5 to interferon-gamma released by house dust mite antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, tested on a single occasion, were significantly increased for asthmatic patients. Substantial temporal and family-related variability exists in nasal inflammation in asthmatic children. Although higher levels of eosinophil cationic protein are usually present in NLF of patients with stable asthma compared with patients without asthma, chemokines other than eotaxin are not consistently increased. Eosinophil activation at the mucosal surface is a more consistent predictor of asthmatic symptoms than nonspecific elevation of epithelium-derived inflammatory chemokine levels.

  9. Asthma & Allergy Development: Contrasting Influences of Yeasts & Other Fungal Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Behbod, Behrooz; Sordillo, Joanne E.; Hoffman, Elaine B.; Datta, Soma; Webb, Tara E.; Kwan, Doris L.; Kamel, Jimmy A.; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Scott, James A.; Chew, Ginger L.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent; Burge, Harriet; Gold, Diane R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infancy is a developmental stage with heightened susceptibility to environmental influences on the risk of chronic childhood disease. Few birth cohort studies have detailed measures of fungal diversity data in infants’ bedrooms, limiting the potential to measure long-term associations of these complex exposures with development of asthma or allergy. Objective We evaluated the relation of home fungal levels in infancy to repeated measures of wheeze and development of asthma and rhinitis by age 13, and sensitization by age 12 years. Methods In the Epidemiology of Home Allergens and Asthma prospective birth cohort study, we recruited 408 children with family history of allergic disease or asthma. When children were aged 2–3 months, we measured culturable fungi in bedroom air and dust, and in outdoor air. Main outcomes included ascertainment of symptoms/disease onset by questionnaire from birth through age 13. We estimated hazard ratios and, for wheeze and sensitization, odds ratios for an interquartile increase in log-transformed fungal concentrations, adjusting for other outcome predictors and potential confounders. Results Elevated levels of yeasts in bedroom floor dust were associated with reduced: i) wheeze at any age; ii) fungal sensitization; and iii) asthma development by age 13 (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), [0.75 to 0.98]). Outdoor airborne Cladosporium and dustborne Aspergillus predicted increased rhinitis. Risk of fungal sensitization by age 12, in response to environmental Alternaria and Aspergillus, was elevated in children with a maternal history of fungal sensitization. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Despite the irritant and allergenic properties of fungi, early-life elevated dust yeast exposures or their components may be protective against allergy and asthma in children at risk for these outcomes. Ascertainment of fungal components associated with immunoprotective effects may have therapeutic relevance for

  10. Concentrations of cysteinyl leukotrienes in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of cats with experimentally induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Norris, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Berghaus, Londa J; Berghaus, Roy D; Walby, William F; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate changes in cysteinyl leukotriene (LT) concentrations in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in cats with experimentally induced asthma. 19 cats with experimentally induced asthma and 5 control cats. Cats were sensitized to Bermuda grass or house dust mite allergen, and phenotypic features of asthma were confirmed with intradermal skin testing, evaluation of BALF eosinophil percentages, and pulmonary function testing. A competitive ELISA kit for LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 was used for quantitative analysis of LTs. Urinary creatinine concentrations and BALF total protein (TP) concentrations were measured, and urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios and BALF LT-to-TP ratios were calculated. Mean urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios did not differ significantly between control cats and allergen-sensitized cats before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or allergen, respectively. In BALF the mean LT-to-TP ratio of control cats did not differ significantly before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline. Asthmatic cats had BALF LT-to-TP ratios that were significantly lower than control cats at all time points, whereas ratios for asthmatic cats did not differ significantly among the various time points. Although LTs were readily detectable in urine, no significant increases in urinary LT concentrations were detected after challenge in allergen-sensitized cats. Spot testing of urinary LT concentrations appears to have no clinical benefit for use in monitoring the inflammatory asthmatic state in cats. The possibility that cysteinyl LTs bind effectively to their target receptors in BALF and, thus, decrease free LT concentrations deserves further study.

  11. Predictors of microbial agents in dust and respiratory health in the Ecrhs.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Christina; Zock, Jan-Paul; Valkonen, Maria; Doekes, Gert; Guerra, Stefano; Heederik, Dick; Jarvis, Deborah; Norbäck, Dan; Olivieri, Mario; Sunyer, Jordi; Svanes, Cecilie; Täubel, Martin; Thiering, Elisabeth; Verlato, Giuseppe; Hyvärinen, Anne; Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-05-02

    Dampness and mould exposure have been repeatedly associated with respiratory health. However, less is known about the specific agents provoking or arresting health effects in adult populations. We aimed to assess predictors of microbial agents in mattress dust throughout Europe and to investigate associations between microbial exposures, home characteristics and respiratory health. Seven different fungal and bacterial parameters were assessed in mattress dust from 956 adult ECRHS II participants in addition to interview based home characteristics. Associations between microbial parameters and the asthma score and lung function were examined using mixed negative binomial regression and linear mixed models, respectively. Indoor dampness and pet keeping were significant predictors for higher microbial agent concentrations in mattress dust. Current mould and condensation in the bedroom were significantly associated with lung function decline and current mould at home was positively associated with the asthma score. Higher concentrations of muramic acid were associated with higher mean ratios of the asthma score (aMR 1.37, 95%CI 1.17-1.61). There was no evidence for any association between fungal and bacterial components and lung function. Indoor dampness was associated with microbial levels in mattress dust which in turn was positively associated with asthma symptoms.

  12. Comparison of atopy patch testing to skin prick testing for diagnosing mite-induced atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yumei; Peng, Jianglong; Zhou, Ying; Cui, Yubao

    2017-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) can occur after contact with aeroallergens like house dust mites, pollen, and animal dander. Despite its controversial diagnostic value, the atopy patch test (APT) has been used as an important tool in the diagnosis of AD caused by house dust mites. Here, we present a meta-analysis comparing APT to the common skin prick test (SPT) in the diagnosis of mite-induced AD. A structured search was performed using online databases and bibliographies published as of April 30, 2017. All studies evaluating the accuracy of APT and SPT in the diagnosis of mite-induced atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome were selected, appraised, and data was extracted. Ten studies were identified for inclusion in our analysis. Meta-analysis revealed that the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratios for APT were 0.54 (95% CI 0.42-0.66), 0.72 (95% CI 0.56-0.85), 1.97 (95% CI 1.20-3.23), 0.63 (95% CI 0.48-0.83), and 3.12 (95% CI 1.53-6.39). The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61-0.69). Our analysis indicates that APT is a useful tool in the screening of mite-induced AD, although this conclusion must be interpreted cautiously due to high heterogeneity among the included studies.

  13. Effect of exposure to an Asian dust storm on fractional exhaled nitric oxide in adult asthma patients in Western Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations indicate that an Asian dust storm (ADS) can aggravate respiratory disorders. However, the effects of ADS on airway inflammation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of exposure to ADS with airway inflammation. The subjects were 33 adult patients with asthma who measured daily peak flow expiratory (PEF) from March to May 2012. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured before and after ADS. The FeNO values were 13.8±13.7 ppb before the ADS and 20.3±19.0 ppb after the ADS, with no significant difference. There was also no significant association of PEF with ADS exposure. However, the increase of FeNO after ADS exposure was proportional to the decrease of PEF (R=-0.78, P<0.0001). These results suggest that airway inflammation aggravated by ADS exposure may induce a decrease in pulmonary function in some adult patients with asthma.

  14. The presence of quill mites (Gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (Struthiolipeurus struthionis) in ostrich wing feathers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G; El Doumani, H A A

    2006-03-01

    Quill mites (Gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (Struthiolipeurus struthionis) may infest ostrich feathers, resulting in skin damage, pruritus and excessive feather preening and loss. Four different feather types (prime white, femina extra wide, femina class 1, and femina short; n = 10) were collected. The quill mites and lice were removed with fine forceps, studied using a photographic optical microscope and counted microscopically at x 100 magnification following collection by sedimentation. They were placed in separate Petri dishes containing lactophenol solution and examined (x40 magnification). Anatomical features are described. The density of quill mites in all feather types of both wings was higher than that of the lice. There was no significant difference between the counts of both arthropods on the left wing and the right wing, respectively, except for the femina class 1 quill mites (P = 0.01). The femina extra wide feathers were a preferred habitat in both wings. Large standard deviations (quill mites left wing: 73 +/- 8; quill mites right wing: 69 +/- 7) suggested variations in the degree of migration between feather shafts or as a response to escape preening. It is recommended that ostriches be treated with an oral preparation of Ivermectin administered per os at a dosage rate of 0.2 mg/kg at 30-day intervals for quill mites, and with a 1-5 % Malathion dust at 14-day intervals for lice.

  15. Environmental and mucosal microbiota and their role in childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Birzele, L T; Depner, M; Ege, M J; Engel, M; Kublik, S; Bernau, C; Loss, G J; Genuneit, J; Horak, E; Schloter, M; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Danielewicz, H; Heederik, D; von Mutius, E; Legatzki, A

    2017-01-01

    High microbial diversity in the environment has been associated with lower asthma risk, particularly in children exposed to farming. It remains unclear whether this effect operates through an altered microbiome of the mucosal surfaces of the airways. DNA from mattress dust and nasal samples of 86 school age children was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs), bacterial diversity and composition were related to farm exposure and asthma status. Farm exposure was positively associated with bacterial diversity in mattress dust samples as determined by richness (P = 8.1 × 10 -6 ) and Shannon index (P = 1.3 × 10 -5 ). Despite considerable agreement of richness between mattress and nasal samples, the association of richness with farming in nasal samples was restricted to a high gradient of farm exposure, that is, exposure to cows and straw vs no exposure at all. In mattress dust, the genera Clostridium, Facklamia, an unclassified genus within the family of Ruminococcaceae, and six OTUs were positively associated with farming. Asthma was inversely associated with richness [aOR = 0.48 (0.22-1.02)] and Shannon index [aOR = 0.41 (0.21-0.83)] in mattress dust and to a lower extent in nasal samples [richness aOR 0.63 = (0.38-1.06), Shannon index aOR = 0.66 (0.39-1.12)]. The stronger inverse association of asthma with bacterial diversity in mattress dust as compared to nasal samples suggests microbial involvement beyond mere colonization of the upper airways. Whether inhalation of metabolites of environmental bacteria contributes to this phenomenon should be the focus of future research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Occupational asthma in greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Monsó, Eduard

    2004-03-01

    A prevalence of asthma over 5% has been reported in flower farmers,and work inside greenhouses has emerged as an additional risk factor. Workplace determinants behind this high prevalence has been examined, and a prevalence of sensitization to workplace allergens over 30% has been reported being pollens, moulds, and Tetranychus urticae allergens the main sensitizers. Bronchial challenge tests in the workplace have demonstrated occupational asthma in more than 20% of the sensitized greenhouse growers. Air contamination inside greenhouses is mainly related to moulds, and is facilitated by the high indoor temperature and humidity. Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria and a wide range of flower pollens are able to sensitize the greenhouse worker and cause occupational asthma. Tetranychus urticae have allergens shared with other mites, but the low prevalence of cross-sensitization between them confirm that Tetranychus urticae contains species-specific allergens that may cause respiratory symptoms. Additionally, working inside greenhouses has been related to an increase in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers. The cultivation of greenhouse crops may cause occupational asthma through sensitization to workplace pollens, moulds, and Tetranychus urticae allergens. In greenhouse flower growers, skin testing identifies sensitization to these allergens in one third of the growers, and more than one fifth of the sensitized workers will develop occupational asthma. Greenhouse work has also been related to chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers, suggesting a causal effect of greenhouse air contaminants on this disease as well.

  17. CD24(hi)CD27(+) B cells from patients with allergic asthma have impaired regulatory activity in response to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    van der Vlugt, L E P M; Mlejnek, E; Ozir-Fazalalikhan, A; Janssen Bonas, M; Dijksman, T R; Labuda, L A; Schot, R; Guigas, B; Möller, G M; Hiemstra, P S; Yazdanbakhsh, M; Smits, H H

    2014-04-01

    Regulatory B cells have been identified that strongly reduce allergic and auto-immune inflammation in experimental models by producing IL-10. Recently, several human regulatory B-cell subsets with an impaired function in auto-immunity have been described, but there is no information on regulatory B cells in allergic asthma. In this study, the frequency and function of IL-10 producing B-cell subsets in allergic asthma were investigated. Isolated peripheral blood B cells from 13 patients with allergic asthma and matched healthy controls were analyzed for the expression of different regulatory B-cell markers. Next, the B cells were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG or through the B-cell receptor, followed by co-culture with endogenous memory CD4(+) T cells and house dust mite allergen DerP1. Lower number of IL-10 producing B cells were found in patients in response to LPS, however, this was not the case when B cells were activated through the B-cell receptor or by CpG. Further dissection showed that only the CD24(hi)CD27(+) B-cell subset was reduced in number and IL-10 production to LPS. In response to DerP1, CD4(+) T cells from patients co-cultured with LPS-primed total B cells produced less IL-10 compared to similar cultures from controls. These results are in line with the finding that sorted CD24(hi)CD27(+) B cells are responsible for the induction of IL-10(+) CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, these data indicate that CD24(hi)CD27(+) B cells from allergic asthma patients produce less IL-10 in response to LPS leading to a weaker IL-10 induction in T cells in response to DerP1, which may play a role in allergic asthma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Reduction of the IgE-binding ability and maintenance of immunogenicity of gamma-irradiated Dermatophagoides farinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Soo-Young; Park, Joong-Won; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-11-01

    House dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, are major allergens in the most common indoor allergen and are important risk factor for asthma. The modified antigen has been studied to treat allergic disorder. This study was carried out to measure possibility of modified allergen using gamma irradiation to treat allergy such as asthma. DF solutions (2 mg/ml) as target allergen were irradiated with Co-60 at 50 and 100 kGy. Conformational alternation of irradiated DF was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Levels of anti-irradiated DF mouse IgGs (sub-isotypes) against intact DF were measured similar to that of anti-intact DF IgGs. The binding abilities of house dust mite-allergic patients' IgE were reduced depending on radiation dose, and irradiation could inhibit the binding ability of patients' IgE more than 40%. This study has shown that the binding ability of IgE was reduced by conformational alteration by irradiation and the irradiated DF had epitopes capable to induce immunogeniciy.

  19. Respiratory and skin effects of exposure to wood dust from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Sripaiboonkij, P; Phanprasit, W; Jaakkola, M S

    2009-07-01

    Potential health effects related to wood dust from the rubber tree, which produces natural rubber latex, have not been previously investigated. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relations of rubber tree dust exposure to respiratory and skin symptoms, asthma and lung function. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 103 workers (response rate 89%) in a rubber tree furniture factory and 76 office workers (73%) in four factories in Thailand. All participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Inhalable dust levels were measured in different work areas. Factory workers showed increased risk of wheezing, nasal symptoms and asthma compared to office workers. There was a dose-dependent increase in wheeze and skin symptoms in relation to dust level. Significantly increased risks of nasal symptoms (adj OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.45 to 9.28) and asthma (8.41, 1.06 to 66.60) were detected in the low exposure category. Workers exposed to ethyl cyanoacrylate glue had significantly increased risk of cough, breathlessness and nasal symptoms. There was dose-dependent reduction in spirometric lung function with wood dust level. This study provides new evidence that workers exposed to wood dust from the rubber tree experience increased risk of nasal symptoms, wheeze, asthma and skin symptoms and have reduced spirometric lung function. Exposure to cyanoacrylate is related to significantly increased respiratory symptoms. Results suggest that the furniture industry using rubber tree wood should implement appropriate exposure control measures to reduce wood dust exposure and cyanoacrylate glue exposure to protect their employees.

  20. Pulmonary microRNA profiles identify involvement of Creb1 and Sec14l3 in bronchial epithelial changes in allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Sabine; Schulz, Nikola; Alessandrini, Francesca; Schamberger, Andrea C.; Pagel, Philipp; Theis, Fabian J.; Milger, Katrin; Noessner, Elfriede; Stick, Stephen M.; Kicic, Anthony; Eickelberg, Oliver; Freishtat, Robert J.; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is highly prevalent, but current therapies cannot influence the chronic course of the disease. It is thus important to understand underlying early molecular events. In this study, we aimed to use microRNAs (miRNAs) - which are critical regulators of signaling cascades - to identify so far uncharacterized asthma pathogenesis pathways. Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs was assessed in whole lungs from mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI). In silico predicted target genes were confirmed in reporter assays and in house-dust-mite (HDM) induced AAI and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) cultured at the air-liquid interface. We identified and validated the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (Creb1) and its transcriptional co-activators (Crtc1-3) as targets of miR-17, miR-144, and miR-21. Sec14-like 3 (Sec14l3) - a putative target of Creb1 - was down-regulated in both asthma models and in NHBE cells upon IL13 treatment, while it’s expression correlated with ciliated cell development and decreased along with increasing goblet cell metaplasia. Finally, we propose that Creb1/Crtc1-3 and Sec14l3 could be important for early responses of the bronchial epithelium to Th2-stimuli. This study shows that miRNA profiles can be used to identify novel targets that would be overlooked in mRNA based strategies. PMID:28383034

  1. Pulmonary microRNA profiles identify involvement of Creb1 and Sec14l3 in bronchial epithelial changes in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Sabine; Schulz, Nikola; Alessandrini, Francesca; Schamberger, Andrea C; Pagel, Philipp; Theis, Fabian J; Milger, Katrin; Noessner, Elfriede; Stick, Stephen M; Kicic, Anthony; Eickelberg, Oliver; Freishtat, Robert J; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne

    2017-04-06

    Asthma is highly prevalent, but current therapies cannot influence the chronic course of the disease. It is thus important to understand underlying early molecular events. In this study, we aimed to use microRNAs (miRNAs) - which are critical regulators of signaling cascades - to identify so far uncharacterized asthma pathogenesis pathways. Therefore, deregulation of miRNAs was assessed in whole lungs from mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI). In silico predicted target genes were confirmed in reporter assays and in house-dust-mite (HDM) induced AAI and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) cultured at the air-liquid interface. We identified and validated the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (Creb1) and its transcriptional co-activators (Crtc1-3) as targets of miR-17, miR-144, and miR-21. Sec14-like 3 (Sec14l3) - a putative target of Creb1 - was down-regulated in both asthma models and in NHBE cells upon IL13 treatment, while it's expression correlated with ciliated cell development and decreased along with increasing goblet cell metaplasia. Finally, we propose that Creb1/Crtc1-3 and Sec14l3 could be important for early responses of the bronchial epithelium to Th2-stimuli. This study shows that miRNA profiles can be used to identify novel targets that would be overlooked in mRNA based strategies.

  2. [Prevalence and risk factors of bronchial asthma among Li nationality in Hainan province].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi-peng; Yao, Hong-xia; Tang, Xiao-lan; He, Hai-wu; Shi, Hui-fang; Lin, Li; Li, Min; Chen, Shan; Chen, Jing; Wang, Hai-jiao

    2011-02-01

    To study the risk factors of bronchial asthma of Li nationality in Hainan. A total of 13 050 subjects of Li nationality were selected by random unequal ratio stratified cluster sampling method from southern, central and western part of Hainan and investigated with Hainan Epidemiological Asthma Survey Questionnaire of Li Nationality. There were 441 cases of bronchial asthma, and 1296 cases of control that were sampled by random number table method. The logistic regression method was used to analyze risk factors. The asthma prevalence of Li nationality in Hainan was 3.38%(441/13 050). The main risk factors of asthma were family asthma (OR = 4.323, 95%CI = 3.259 - 5.735), hypersensitiveness (OR = 7.775, 95%CI = 5.686 - 10.632), smoking (OR = 1.494, 95%CI = 1.174 - 1.902), cooking fuels and living environment. Cold air change (OR = 1.604, 95%CI = 1.286 - 2.001) and respirable dust or irritant gas (OR = 2.123, 95%CI = 1.702 - 2.648) were the important incentives. The main risk factors of asthma among Li nationality were family asthma, hypersensitiveness, smoking, cooking fuels by means of fuel oil, hay or wood, living environment by means of couch grass room and human-livestock mix live, cold air change, respirable dust or irritant gas.

  3. Dust and airborne exposure to allergens derived from cockroach (Blattella germanica) in low-cost public housing in Strasbourg (France).

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Sanchez, J; Hedelin, G; Perez-Infante, A; Vérot, A; Chapman, M; Pauli, G

    1997-01-01

    Although a strong association between allergy to cockroach (CR) and asthma has been observed in the United States and Asia, there are little data about the extent of exposure to CR allergen in Europe. To determine the levels of CR allergens in dust samples from apartments in Strasbourg and to determine the concentration and size of CR allergens in the air. Nine apartments in a public housing complex were chosen on the basis of visual evidence of CR infestation. Levels of CR allergens (Bla g 1 and Bla g 2) in kitchen and mattress dust samples were measured by immunoassay with the use of monoclonal antibodies. Air was sampled for 3 to 8 hours in the kitchen under undisturbed conditions, during artificial disturbance, and during normal domestic activity by using an impinger and a parallel glass fiber filter and at flow rates of 2 to 20 L/min. Airborne CR and mite allergens were measured concurrently in the bedroom of one apartment before, during, and after artificial disturbance. High levels of Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were found in kitchen dust from the nine apartments (geometric means of 3919 U/gm [range 530 to 14306 U/gm] and 497 U/gm [range 73 to 1946 U/gm], respectively). Under undisturbed conditions, airborne CR allergens were not detectable in any of the apartments. During vigorous artificial disturbance, Bla g 1 and Bla g 2 were detectable in air samples from seven apartments (geometric means of 4.5 U/m3 [range 0.7 to 17.2 U/m3] and 1.0 U/m3 [range 0.4 to 3.4 U/m3], respectively). Both allergens were predominantly collected on the first stage of the impinger, and 76% to 80% of the airborne allergen was associated with particles greater than 10 microns in diameter. The levels were significantly higher than those collected on the second or third stages of the impinger (p < 0.001). A comparison of the levels of mite and CR allergens showed that the airborne properties of these allergens were similar, that is, measurable only during disturbance and not detectable 30

  4. Skin test hypersensitivity for childhood asthma in Istanbul during a period of 16 years.

    PubMed

    Akcakaya, N; Cokugras, H; Camcioglu, Y; Ozdemir, M

    2005-01-01

    For diagnosis of allergic disorders, besides history and physical examination, many in vivo and in vitro laboratory tests are used. Skin prick test (SPT) is an easily performed and valuable test in children. Our aim was to evaluate the SPT results of asthmatic children according to age and gender, in Istanbul and its neighborhood, followed for a period of 16 years. Consecutive 5080 asthmatic children, aged 1 to 18 years, admitted to Pediatric Allergy Policlinics of Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medicine Faculty from 1987 to 2003, were screened retrospectively for 10 frequently exposed allergens. 3086 cases (61 %) had SPT reactivity for one and/or for multiple allergens; the SPT reactivity percentages of the exposed allergens was 50 % (2554 cases) for house dust mites DP, 49 % (2462 cases) for house dust mites DF, 15 % (784 cases) for cat dander, 10 % (525 cases) for dog dander, 4 % (228 cases) for lamb wool, 10 % (504 cases) for wheat, 3 % (162 cases) for egg white, 6 % (345 cases) for hazelnut pollen, 6 % (318 cases) for Candida Albicans, 6 % (326 cases) for Aspergillus Fumigatus. While house dust mites were determined as the predominant allergen for each age groups in this study, allergy against cat dander was the third important allergen in sequence, as cat is a domestic pet which is frequently kept at home in Turkey.

  5. Indoor allergens, environmental avoidance, and allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Bush, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    Indoor allergen exposure to sources such as house-dust mites, pets, fungi, and insects plays a significant role in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The identification of the major allergens has led to methods that can quantitate exposure, e.g., immunoassays for Der p 1 in settled dust samples. Sensitization and the development of allergic respiratory disease result from complex genetic and environmental interactions. New paradigms that examine the role of other environmental factors, including exposure to proteases that can activate eosinophils and initiate Th2 responses, and epigenetics, are being explored. Recommendations for specific environmental allergen avoidance measures are discussed for house-dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and fungi. Specific measures to reduce indoor allergen exposure when vigorously applied may reduce the risk of sensitization and symptoms of allergic respiratory disease, although further research will be necessary to establish cost-effective approaches.

  6. Differences in the effects of Asian dust on pulmonary function between adult patients with asthma and those with asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yasuto; Mikami, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Kato, Kazuhiro; Konishi, Tatsuya; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian dust (AD) exposure exacerbates pulmonary dysfunction in patients with asthma. Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS), characterized by coexisting symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is considered a separate disease entity. Previously, we investigated the effects of AD on pulmonary function in adult patients with asthma. Here, we present the findings of our further research on the differences in the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function between patients with asthma alone and those with ACOS. Methods Between March and May 2012, we conducted a panel study wherein we monitored daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) values in 231 adult patients with asthma. These patients were divided into 190 patients with asthma alone and 41 patients with ACOS in this study. Daily AD particle levels were measured using light detection and ranging systems. Two heavy AD days (April 23 and 24) were determined according to the Japan Meteorological Agency definition. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF and AD exposure. Results Increments in the interquartile range of AD particles (0.018 km−1) led to PEF changes of −0.50 L/min (95% confidence interval, −0.98 to −0.02) in patients with asthma alone and −0.11 L/min (−0.11 to 0.85) in patients with ACOS. The PEF changes after exposure to heavy AD were −2.21 L/min (−4.28 to −0.15) in patients with asthma alone and −2.76 L/min (−6.86 to 1.35) in patients with ACOS. In patients with asthma alone, the highest decrease in PEF values was observed on the heavy AD day, with a subsequent gradual increase over time. Conclusion Our results suggest that the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function differ between patients with asthma alone and ACOS, with the former exhibiting a greater likelihood of decreased pulmonary function after AD exposure. PMID:26869784

  7. A multifaceted community-based asthma intervention in Chicago: effects of trigger reduction and self-management education on asthma morbidity.

    PubMed

    Turyk, Mary; Banda, Elizabeth; Chisum, Gay; Weems, Dolores; Liu, Yangyang; Damitz, Maureen; Williams, Rhonda; Persky, Victoria

    2013-09-01

    Home-based, multifaceted interventions have been effective in reducing asthma morbidity in children. However, identification of independent components that contribute to outcomes and delineating effectiveness by level of asthma symptoms would help to refine the intervention and target appropriate populations. A community health educator led asthma intervention implemented in a low-income African-American neighborhood included asthma management education, individually tailored low-cost asthma home trigger remediation, and referrals to social and medical agencies, when appropriate. Changes in asthma morbidity measures were assessed in relation to implementation of individual intervention components using multivariable logistic regression. Among the 218 children who completed the year-long program, there were significant reductions in measures of asthma morbidity, including symptoms, urgent care visits, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, missed school days, and missed work days for caretakers. We also found significant decreases in the prevalence of many home asthma triggers and improvements in asthma management practices. Improvement in caretaker's ability to manage the child's asthma was associated with reduction in ED visits for asthma and uncontrolled asthma. Specific home interventions, such as repair of water leaks and reduced exposure to plants, dust, clutter and stuffed toys, may be related to reduction in asthma morbidity. This program was effective in reducing asthma morbidity in low-income African-American children and identified specific interventions as possible areas to target in future projects. Furthermore, the intervention was useful in children with persistent asthma symptoms as well as those with less frequent asthma exacerbations.

  8. TRPA1 gene polymorphisms and childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Valentina; Dijk, F Nicole; Holloway, John W; Ring, Susan M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Strachan, David P; Granell, Raquel; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; den Dekker, Herman T; Duijts, Liesbeth; Henderson, A John; Shaheen, Seif O

    2017-03-01

    Animal data have suggested that the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) ion channel plays a key role in promoting airway inflammation in asthma and may mediate effects of paracetamol on asthma, yet confirmatory human data are lacking. To study associations of TRPA1 gene variants with childhood asthma and total IgE concentration, and interactions between TRPA1 and prenatal paracetamol exposure on these outcomes. We analysed associations between 31 TRPA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and total IgE concentration at 7.5 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. We sought to confirm the most significant associations with comparable outcomes in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) and Generation R birth cohorts. In ALSPAC, we explored interactions with prenatal paracetamol exposure. In ALSPAC, there was strong evidence for association between six SNPs and asthma: rs959974 and rs1384001 (per-allele odds ratio for both: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.15-1.47), p = 0.00001), rs7010969 (OR 1.28 (1.13-1.46), p = 0.00004), rs3735945 (OR 1.30 (1.09-1.55), p = 0.003), rs920829 (OR 1.30 (1.09-1.54), p = 0.004) and rs4738202 (OR 1.22 (1.07-1.39), p = 0.004). In a meta-analysis across the three cohorts, the pooled effect estimates confirmed that all six SNPs were significantly associated with asthma. In ALSPAC, TRPA1 associations with asthma were not modified by prenatal paracetamol, although associations with IgE concentration were. This study suggests that TRPA1 may play a role in the development of childhood asthma. (249 words). © 2016 The Authors Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Bee Mite ID: Bee-associated mite genera of the world

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bee Mite ID contains an interactive key, fact sheets, an image gallery, and abundant supporting information. The interactive key allows you to choose characters to obtain a list of mite genera possibly matching your specimen. Consult fact sheets to find images and information for a particular mite g...

  10. IL-23 secreted by bronchial epithelial cells contributes to allergic sensitization in asthma model: role of IL-23 secreted by bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Park, Da-Eun; Lee, Ji-Won; Chang, Yuna; Kim, Hye Young; Song, Woo-Jung; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-01-01

    IL-23 has been postulated to be a critical mediator contributing to various inflammatory diseases. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) is one of the most common inhalant allergens. However, the role of IL-23 in Der p-induced mouse asthma model is not well understood, particularly with regard to the development of allergic sensitization in the airways. The objective of this study was to evaluate roles of IL-23 in Der p sensitization and asthma development. BALB/c mice were repeatedly administered Der p intranasally to develop Der p allergic sensitization and asthma. After Der p local administration, changes in IL-23 expression were examined in lung tissues and primary epithelial cells. Anti-IL-23p19 antibody was given during the Der p sensitization period, and its effects were examined. Effects of anti-IL-23p19 antibody at bronchial epithelial levels were also examined in vitro. The expression of IL-23 at bronchial epithelial layers was increased after Der p local administration in mouse. In Der p-induced mouse models, anti-IL-23p19 antibody treatment during allergen sensitization significantly diminished Der p allergic sensitization and several features of allergic asthma including the production of Th2 cytokines and the population of type 2 innate lymphoid cells in lungs. The activation of dendritic cells in lung-draining lymph nodes was also reduced by anti-IL-23 treatment. In murine lung alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (MLE-12) cells, IL-23 blockade prevented cytokine responses to Der p stimulation, such as IL-1α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-33, and also bone marrow-derived dendritic cell activation. In conclusion, IL-23 is another important bronchial epithelial cell-driven cytokine which may contribute to the development of house dust mite allergic sensitization and asthma. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Expression, purification and characterization of Der f 27, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Li, Meng; Liu, Yulin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Anjian; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoidesfarinae (D. farina), is one of the most important indoor allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma; itscharacterization is important in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of mite allergen-relevant diseases. This study aims to characterize a novel allergen, the D. farinae-derived serpin (Der f 27). In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, and the Der f 27 gene was cloned and expressed. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 27 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western-blotting with the sera of asthma patients, and skin prick test (SPT) in allergic human subjects. A r-Der f 27 allergic asthma mouse model was established. The cloned Der f 27 gene has been presented at the Gene Bank with an accession number of KM009995. The IgE levels of r-Der f 27 in the serum from r-Der f 27 SPT positive allergic patients were 3 folds more than healthy subjects. The Der f 27 SPT positive ratewas 42.1% in 19 DM-SPT positive patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, and levels of interleukin-4 in the spleen cell culture supernatant were significantly increased in allergic asthma mice sensitized to r-Der f 27. In conclusion, Der f 27 is a new subtype of house mite allergen. PMID:26328010

  12. Integration for Airborne Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health Decision Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Nickovic, S.; Huete, A.; Budge, A.; Flowers, L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the program is to assess the feasibility of combining a dust transport model with MODIS derived phenology to study pollen transport for integration with a public health decision support system. The use of pollen information has specifically be identified as a critical need by the New Mexico State Health department for inclusion in the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) program. Material and methods: Pollen can be transported great distances. Local observations of plan phenology may be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) is an integrated modeling system designed to accurately describe the dust cycle in the atmosphere. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterization of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particles size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust. Pollen release was estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of key plan species and vegetation communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) provided information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, and pollen release. The resulting deterministic model is useful for predicting and simulating pollen emission and downwind concentration to study details of phenology and meteorology and their dependencies. The proposed linkage in this project provided critical information on the location timing and modeled transport of pollen directly to the EPHT> This information is useful to support the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC)'s National EPHT and the state of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  13. Clinical characteristics of black asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Luyt, D K; Davis, G; Dance, M; Simmank, K; Patel, D

    1995-10-01

    A prospective study of 455 black asthmatic children (277 boys) attending the Baragwanath Hospital asthma clinic was undertaken. A history was obtained by means of a standardised questionnaire and skin tests were performed. Cough was the commonest presenting symptom and upper respiratory tract infections, exercise and cold weather the commonest symptom precipitants. The relative incidences of the other precipitants reflected the environment of the study population. Associated atopic conditions were present in 75.5% of patients and a family background in 22.2%. Other respiratory diagnoses were commonly made, particularly tuberculosis, which was diagnosed in 7.4%. Fewer than one-third had no positive skin reaction. The commonest allergens were grasses, pollen and house-dust mites. The high proportion of house-dust mite sensitivity (44.2%) contradicts beliefs that they are rare at higher altitudes.

  14. Aggravation of airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness following nasal challenge with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in perennial allergic rhinitis without symptoms of asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Xian, M; Xie, Y; Zheng, J; Li, J

    2016-03-01

    House dust mites are the most prevalent allergen causing sensitizations in patients with rhinitis and asthma in China. We aimed to investigate the changes in both upper and lower airway inflammation and responsiveness following Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der-p) nasal provocation test (NPT) in rhinitis patients. Study subjects included 15 nonasthmatic Der-p-sensitized rhinitis (AR) patients with airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) (AR+AHR+), 15 AR patients without AHR (AR+AHR-), 15 healthy controls (HCs) with Der-p sensitization (HC+DP+), and 15 HC without Der-p sensitization (HC+DP-). All subjects underwent Der-p NPT. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of nasal symptoms, nasal lavage and nasal airway resistance (NAR) measurement, sputum induction, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) were performed. Airway responsiveness to histamine bronchoprovocation (PD20 -FEV1 ) and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was determined. NAR increased significantly in all subjects with the greatest effect seen in AR+AHR+ individuals. VAS increased in all subjects at 30 min and returned to baseline at 6 h, with significantly higher levels in AR+AHR+ and AR+AHR- subjects (P < 0.05). Eosinophils in nasal lavage fluid and sputum increased significantly after NPT in AR+AHR+ and AR+AHR- subjects (P < 0.001). FEV1 % and PD20 -FEV1 decreased and FeNO increased significantly after NPT only in AR+AHR+ subjects (P < 0.05). Nasal lavage eosinophil count was positively correlated with sputum eosinophil count and the level of FeNO and negatively correlated with FEV1 and PD20 . House dust mite nasal provocation test induces and aggravates both upper and lower airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis without asthmatic symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of a Household Environmental Intervention Delivered by Lay Health Workers on Asthma Symptom Control in Urban, Disadvantaged Children With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Cizely; Guo, Rong; Zhao, Hauqing

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether a home-based educational and environmental intervention delivered by lay health educators would improve asthma symptom control in inner-city children with asthma. Methods. Children 2 to 16 years of age with diagnosed asthma and at least 1 asthma-related hospitalization or 2 emergency visits in the prior year were randomly assigned into 2 groups (immediate and delayed intervention) in a crossover study. Each group participated in the active phase (intervention) and the inactive phase. Outcomes included asthma symptoms, albuterol use, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and trigger reduction. Results. A total of 264 primarily Black (94%) children were enrolled. The mean number of emergency visits decreased by 30% and inpatient visits decreased by 53% (P < .001) after the intervention. Reductions were seen in pests, presence of carpets in bedrooms, and dust. Nighttime wheezing was significantly reduced after the intervention in both groups (P < .001). Conclusions. Lay health educators effectively reduced asthma triggers and increased caregiver asthma knowledge, which resulted in reduced emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and asthma symptoms. The relationships formed between the caregivers and the lay health educators appeared to positively impact asthma outcomes in this disadvantaged population. PMID:19890172

  16. Linking Endotoxins, African Dust PM10 and Asthma in an Urban and Rural Environment of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Ortiz-Rivera, Mónica A.; Pluguez-Turull, Cedric W.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.

    2015-01-01

    African Dust Events (ADE) are a seasonal phenomenon that has been suggested to exacerbate respiratory and proinflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico (PR). Increases in PM10 concentration and the effects of biological endotoxins (ENX) are critical factors to consider during these storms. ENX promote proinflammatory responses in lungs of susceptible individuals through activation of the Toll-like receptors (TLR2/4) signaling pathways. The objective of the study was to evaluate the toxicological and proinflammatory responses stimulated by ADE PM10 ENX reaching PR using human bronchial epithelial cells. PM10 organic extracts from a rural and urban site in PR (March 2004) were obtained from ADE and non-ADE and compared. A retrospective data analysis (PM10 concentration, aerosol images, and pediatric asthma claims) was performed from 2000 to 2012 with particular emphasis in 2004 to classify PM samples. Urban extracts were highly toxic, proinflammatory (IL-6/IL-8 secretion), and induced higher TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation compared to rural extracts. ENX were found to contribute to cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses provoked by urban ADE PM10 exposure suggesting a synergistic potency of local and natural ENX incoming from ADE. The contribution of ADE PM10 ENX is valuable in order to understand interactions and action mechanisms of airborne pollutants as asthma triggers in PR. PMID:26681839

  17. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalyticallymore » inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.« less

  18. Therapeutic interventions in severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Senna, Gianenrico; Mitchell, Patrick D; O'Byrne, Paul M; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Varricchi, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    The present paper addresses severe asthma which is limited to 5-10% of the overall population of asthmatics. However, it accounts for 50% or more of socials costs of the disease, as it is responsible for hospitalizations and Emergency Department accesses as well as expensive treatments. The recent identification of different endotypes of asthma, based on the inflammatory pattern, has led to the development of tailored treatments that target different inflammatory mediators. These are major achievements in the perspective of Precision Medicine: a leading approach to the modern treatment strategy. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, has been the only biologic treatment available on the market for severe asthma during the last decade. It prevents the linkage of the IgE and the receptors, thereby inhibiting mast cell degranulation. In clinical practice omalizumab significantly reduced the asthma exacerbations as well as the concomitant use of oral glucocorticoids. In the "Th2-high asthma" phenotype, the hallmarks are increased levels of eosinophils and other markers (such as periostin). Because anti-IL-5 in this condition plays a crucial role in driving eosinophil inflammation, this cytokine or its receptors on the eosinophil surface has been studied as a potential target for therapy. Two different anti-IL-5 humanized monoclonal antibodies, mepolizumab and reslizumab, have been proven effective in this phenotype of asthma (recently they both came on the market in the United States), as well as an anti-IL-5 receptor alpha (IL5Rα), benralizumab. Other monoclonal antibodies, targeting different cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-17 and TSLP) are still under evaluation, though the preliminary results are encouraging. Finally, AIT, Allergen Immunotherapy, a prototype of Precision Medicine, is considered, also in light of the recent evidences of Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet efficacy and safety in mite allergic asthma patients. Given the high costs of these therapies

  19. Occupational exposures associated with severe exacerbation of asthma.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, P K; Liang, X; Lillienberg, L; Dahlman-Höglund, A; Torén, K; Andersson, E

    2015-02-01

    The exacerbation of asthma by workplace conditions is common, but little is known about which agents pose a risk. We used data from an existing survey of adults with asthma to identify occupational exposures associated with severe exacerbation of asthma. Questionnaires were completed by 557 working adults with asthma. Severe exacerbation of asthma in the past 12 months was defined as asthma-related hospitalization, or reports of both unplanned asthma care and treatment with a short course of oral corticosteroids. Occupational exposures for the same time period were assessed using an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. We modeled severe exacerbation to yield prevalence ratios (PRs) for exposures while controlling for potential confounders. A total of 164 participants (29%) were positive for severe exacerbation, and 227 (40.8%) were assessed as being exposed to asthma agents at work. Elevated PRs were observed for several specific agents, notably the irritant subcategories of environmental tobacco smoke (PR 1.84, 95%CI 1.34-2.51) among all participants, inorganic dusts (PR 2.53, 95%CI 1.37-4.67) among men, and the low molecular weight subcategory of other highly reactive agents (PR 1.97, 95%CI 1.08-3.60) among women. Among working adults with asthma, severe exacerbation was associated with several occupational agents.

  20. House dust mite (Der p 10) and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; van Broekhoven, Sarah; den Hartog-Jager, Constance F; Gaspari, Marco; de Jong, Govardus A H; Wichers, Harry J; van Hoffen, Els; Houben, Geert F; Knulst, André C

    2014-03-01

    Due to the imminent growth of the world population, shortage of protein sources for human consumption will arise in the near future. Alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects) are being explored for the production of food and feed. In this project, the safety of Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) for human consumption was tested using approaches as advised by the European Food Safety Authority for allergenicity risk assessment. Different Yellow mealworm protein fractions were prepared, characterised, and tested for cross-reactivity using sera from patients with an inhalation or food allergy to biologically related species (House dust mite (HDM) and crustaceans) by immunoblotting and basophil activation. Furthermore, the stability was investigated using an in vitro pepsin digestion test. IgE from HDM- and crustacean allergic patients cross-reacted with Yellow mealworm proteins. This cross-reactivity was functional, as shown by the induction of basophil activation. The major cross-reactive proteins were identified as tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are well known allergens in arthropods. These proteins were moderately stable in the pepsin stability test. Based on these cross-reactivity studies, there is a realistic possibility that HDM- and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The value and safety of specific nasal provocation in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in mild persistent asthma under inhaled steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Tuskan, Tansu Cengiz; Gemicioglu, Bilun; Ikitimur, Hande; Yilmaz, Nail; Tuskan, Kemal; Oz, Ferhan; Can, Gunay

    2010-01-01

    Although specific nasal provocation is an objective diagnostic test for allergic rhinitis, it can also increase the lower airway responsiveness in asthmatic patients. Our goal was to determine the value and safety of specific nasal provocation test for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in mild persistent asthmatic patients under low-dose inhaled steroid therapy. The study was performed on 32 mild persistent, stable, mite-sensitive allergic asthmatics (group 1), 9 mild persistent nonallergic asthmatics (group 2) and 9 healthy non-smokers (group 3). Nasal symptoms were noted, paranasal sinus computerized tomography (PNCT) and rhinoscopic evaluations were performed. Cases with pathologic-anatomic changes in PNCT and rhinoscopy were excluded. Symptom scoring, flow-volume, peak expiratory flow (PEF), serum and nasal lavage eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and nasal lavage eosinophil counts were performed before mite specific nasal provocation test and at the 0th, 4th and 24th hours following the test. No adverse effects were observed in all diagnostic procedures. Total diagnostic value of nasal symptoms were found to be at 92%, while being 70% for rhinoscopy and 88% for specific nasal provocation test respectively in the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in group 1. Statistically significant differences were found between basal nasal lavage eosinophil values (p < 0.001) and ECP levels (p < 0.05) when group 1 was compared with both group 2 and group 3. In the remaining measured values between three groups, no statistically significant differences were found. Specific nasal provocation test is a safe method for mild house dust mite allergic asthma cases under low-dose inhaled steroid therapy, but history of rhinitis might be sufficient for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis.

  2. Allergens in indoor air: environmental assessment and health effects.

    PubMed

    Carrer, P; Maroni, M; Alcini, D; Cavallo, D

    2001-04-10

    It has been suggested that the increase in morbidity and mortality for asthma and allergies, may also be due to an increase in exposure to allergens in the modern indoor environment. Indoor allergen exposure is recognised as the most important risk factor for asthma in children. House dust mites, pets, insects, plants, moulds and chemical agents in the indoor environment are important causes of allergic diseases. House dust mites and their debris and excrements that contain the allergens are normally found in the home in beds, mattresses, pillows, carpets and furniture stuffing, but they have also been found in office environments. Domestic animals such as cats, dogs, birds and rodents may cause allergic asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis. The exposure usually occurs in homes, but also in schools and kindergartens where domestic animals are kept as pets or for education; moreover, cat and dog owners can bring allergens to public areas in their clothes. Allergy to natural rubber latex has become an important occupational health concern in recent years, particularly among healthcare workers; when powdered gloves are worn or changed, latex particles get into the air and workers are exposed to latex aerosolised antigens. To assess the environmental risk to allergen exposure or to verify if there is a causal relationship between the immunologic findings in a patient and his/her environmental exposure, sampling from the suspected environment may be necessary.

  3. A preliminary study to evaluate a patient-centred asthma education programme on parental control of home environment and asthma signs and symptoms in children with moderate-to-severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Li-Fen; Chiang, Li-Chi; Hsueh, Kai-Chung; Ma, Wei-Fen; Fu, Lin-Shien

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-led patient-centred asthma education programme on home environmental control behaviours of parents of children with moderate or severe asthma. Reducing allergic triggers is important self-management behaviour for preventing asthma attacks and patient-centred asthma education has been shown to effectively manage chronic disease. A preliminary quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group design was used. Dyads (n = 75) of parents and their children with moderate or severe asthma (ages 6-14 years) were purposively recruited from the asthma clinics of two hospitals in central Taiwan. The experimental group of 38 children/parents from one hospital received patient-centred asthma education. The comparison group of 37 children/parents from the other hospital received routine individual education. At pretest and at the end of the three-month patient-centred asthma education programme, we measured parents' control of home environmental triggers, children's asthma signs/symptoms and children's pulmonary function. Data were analysed by the general linear model for repeat measures. The level of improvement in dust and cleaning methods was significantly greater among parents in the experimental group than among those in the comparison group (p < 0.05). Children with moderate or severe asthma in the experimental group had fewer signs/symptoms of asthma and better lung function than children in the comparison group. Our patient-centred asthma education programme improved parents' home environmental control and children's asthma sign/symptoms and lung function. Nurses can play primary roles as patient educators in asthma clinics. Well-trained patient educators can continuously monitor self-management behaviours to improve patients' compliance with home environmental control, thus leading to better physical outcomes in children with asthma than routine individual asthma education alone.

  4. Nanoparticle conjugation enhances the immunomodulatory effects of intranasally delivered CpG in house dust mite-allergic mice

    DOE PAGES

    Ballester, Marie; Jeanbart, Laura; de Titta, Alexandre; ...

    2015-09-21

    An emerging strategy in preventing and treating airway allergy consists of modulating the immune response induced against allergens in the lungs. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides have been investigated in airway allergy studies, but even if promising, efficacy requires further substantiation. We investigated the effect of pulmonary delivery of nanoparticle (NP)-conjugated CpG on lung immunity and found that NP-CpG led to enhanced recruitment of activated dendritic cells and to Th1 immunity compared to free CpG. We then evaluated if pulmonary delivery of NP-CpG could prevent and treat house dust mite-induced allergy by modulating immunity directly in lungs. When CpG was administered as immunomodulatorymore » therapy prior to allergen sensitization, we found that NP-CpG significantly reduced eosinophilia, IgE levels, mucus production and Th2 cytokines, while free CpG had only a moderate effect on these parameters. In a therapeutic setting where CpG was administered after allergen sensitization, we found that although both free CpG and NP-CpG reduced eosinophilia and IgE levels to the same extent, NP conjugation of CpG significantly enhanced reduction of Th2 cytokines in lungs of allergic mice. Taken together, these data highlight benefits of NP conjugation and the relevance of NP-CpG as allergen-free therapy to modulate lung immunity and treat airway allergy.« less

  5. RELATIVE POTENCY OF MOLD AND HOUSE DUST MITE EXTRACTS IN INDUCING ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Mold has been associated with the exacerbation of allergic asthma. However, its role in induction of allergic asthma is not clear. Using a previously developed mouse model for allergic asthma, we compared potencies of two fungal extracts (Metarhizium anisop...

  6. Surveillance of work-related asthma in new york state.

    PubMed

    Tice, Cori J; Cummings, Karen R; Gelberg, Kitty H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the percent of adults with asthma attributable to work and describe characteristics of the work-related asthma population in New York State. Sociodemographic and control characteristics of those with and without work-related asthma are compared. Data from three population-based surveys and one case-based surveillance system were analyzed. Work-relatedness of asthma was determined by self-report for the population-based surveys and by physician report for the case-based system. Self-reported sociodemographic and control characteristics were analyzed for the population-based surveys by work-relatedness. The percent of work-relatedness among adults with current asthma in New York State ranged from 10.6% to 44.5%. Significantly more adults with work-related asthma had poorly controlled asthma than those without work-related asthma. More adults with work-related asthma also tended to be employed in the manufacturing, educational services, and public administration industries than the general population. The most frequently reported exposure was dust. Adults with work-related asthma have decreased control and adverse socioeconomic impacts compared to those with asthma that is not work-related. Increased recognition and physician reporting is necessary to further prevent the impact of work-related exposures.

  7. Occupational asthma in the developing and industrialised world: a review.

    PubMed

    Jeebhay, M F; Quirce, S

    2007-02-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common occupational lung disease in industrialised countries, and the second most common occupational lung disease reported after pneumoconioses in developing countries. The median proportion of adult cases of asthma attributable to occupational exposure is between 10% and 15%. The population attributable fraction appears to be similar in industrialised and developing countries characterised by rapid industrialisation (13-15%), but lower in less industrialised developing countries (6%). The high-risk occupations and industries associated with the development of occupational asthma vary depending on the dominant industrial sectors in a particular country. High-risk exposure to cleaning agents and pesticide exposure in developing countries appear to be as important as exposure to isocyanates, cereal flour/grain dust, welding fumes, wood dust and, more recently, hairdressing chemicals, commonly reported in industrialised countries. The reported mean annual incidence of occupational asthma in developing countries is less than 2 per 100 000 population, compared to very high rates of up to 18/100 000 in Scandinavian countries. While occupational asthma remains under-recognised, especially in developing countries, it remains poorly diagnosed and managed and inadequately compensated worldwide. Primary and secondary preventive strategies should be directed at controlling workplace exposures, accompanied by intense educational and managerial improvements. Appropriate treatment remains early removal from exposure to ensure that the worker has no further exposure to the causal agent, with preservation of income. However, up to one third of workers with occupational asthma continue to remain exposed to the causative agent or suffer prolonged work disruption, discrimination and risk of unemployment.

  8. Sensitization to food and inhalant allergens in relation to age and wheeze among children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, J A; Agrawal, R; Minnicozzi, S; Xin, W; Patrie, J; Heymann, P W; Workman, L; Platts-Mills, T A; Song, T W; Moloney, M; Woodfolk, J A

    2013-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is common in children; however, persistence of AD with or without asthma is less common. Longitudinal studies remain limited in their ability to characterize how IgE antibody responses evolve in AD, and their relationship with asthma. To use a cross-sectional study design of children with active AD to analyse age-related differences in IgE antibodies and relation to wheeze. IgE antibodies to food and inhalant allergens were measured in children with active AD (5 months to 15 years of age, n = 66), with and without history of wheeze. Whereas IgE antibodies to foods persisted at a similar prevalence and titre throughout childhood, IgE antibodies to all aeroallergens rose sharply into adolescence. From birth, the chance of sensitization for any aeroallergen increased for each 12-month increment in age (OR ≥ 1.21, P < 0.01), with the largest effect observed for dust mite (OR = 1.56, P < 0.001). A steeper age-related rise in IgE antibody titre to dust mite, but no other allergen was associated with more severe disease. Despite this, sensitization to cat was more strongly associated with wheeze (OR = 4.5, P < 0.01), and linked to Fel d 1 and Fel d 4, but not Fel d 2. Comparison of cat allergic children with AD to those without, revealed higher IgE levels to Fel d 2 and Fel d 4 (P < 0.05), but not Fel d 1. Differences in sensitization to cat and dust mite among young children with AD may aid in identifying those at increased risk for disease progression and development of asthma. Early sensitization to cat and risk for wheeze among children with AD may be linked to an increased risk for sensitization to a broader spectrum of allergen components from early life. Collectively, our findings argue for early intervention strategies designed to mitigate skin inflammation in children with AD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sensitization to Food and Inhalant Allergens in Relation to Age and Wheeze Among Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Julia; Agrawal, Rachana; Minnicozzi, Samantha; Xin, Wenjun; Patrie, James; Heymann, Peter; Workman, Lisa; Platts-Mills, Thomas; Song, Tae Won; Moloney, Marla; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is common in children; however, persistence of AD with or without asthma, is less common. Longitudinal studies remain limited in their ability to characterize how IgE antibody responses evolve in AD, and their relationship to asthma. Objective To use a cross-sectional study design of children with active AD to analyze age-related differences in IgE antibodies and relation to wheeze. Methods IgE antibodies to food and inhalant allergens were measured in children with active AD (5 months to 15 years of age, n=66), with and without history of wheeze. Results Whereas IgE antibodies to foods persisted at a similar prevalence and titer throughout childhood, IgE antibodies to all aeroallergens rose sharply into adolescence. From birth, the chance of sensitization for any aeroallergen increased for each 12-month increment in age (OR≥1.21, p≤0.01), with the largest effect observed for dust mite (OR=1.56, p<0.001). A steeper age-related rise in IgE antibody titer to dust mite, but no other allergen, was associated with more severe disease. Despite this, sensitization to cat was more strongly associated with wheeze (OR=4.5, p<0.01), and linked to Fel d 1 and Fel d 4, but not Fel d 2. Comparison of cat allergic children with AD to those without, revealed higher titers to Fel d 2 and Fel d 4 (p<0.05), but not Fel d 1. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Differences in sensitization to cat and dust mite among young children with AD may aid in identifying those at increased risk for disease progression and development of asthma. Early sensitization to cat and risk for wheeze among children with AD may be linked to an increased risk for sensitization to a broader spectrum of allergen components from early life. Collectively, our findings argue for early intervention strategies designed to mitigate skin inflammation in children with AD. PMID:24074334

  10. Risk factors for acute asthma in tropical America: a case-control study in the City of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ardura-Garcia, Cristina; Vaca, Maritza; Oviedo, Gisela; Sandoval, Carlos; Workman, Lisa; Schuyler, Alexander J; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Cooper, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Despite the high asthma rates described in Latin America, asthma risk factors in poor urban settings are not well established. We investigated risk factors for acute asthma among Ecuadorian children. A matched case-control study was carried out in a public hospital serving a coastal city. Children with acute asthma were age- and sex-matched to non-asthmatics. A questionnaire was administered, and blood, as well as stool, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected. Sixty cases and 119 controls aged 5-15 were evaluated. High proportions of cases were atopic with population-attributable fractions for atopy of 68.5% for sIgE and 57.2% for SPT. Acute asthma risk increased with greater titers of mite IgE (3.51-50 kU/l vs. <0.70kU/l - OR 4.56, 95% CI 1.48-14.06, p = 0.008; >50kU/l vs. <0.70kU/l - OR 41.98, 95% CI: 8.97-196.39, p < 0.001). Asthma risk was significantly independently associated with bronchiolitis (adj. OR: 38.9, 95% CI 3.26-465), parental educational level (adj. OR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.08-1.46), and presence of sIgE (adj. OR: 36.7, 95% CI: 4.00-337), while a reduced risk was associated with current contact with pets (adj. OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.56). Rhinovirus infection was more frequent in cases (cases 35.6% vs. controls 7.8%, p = 0.002). None of the cases were on maintenance therapy with inhaled corticosteroids and most relied on emergency department for control. A high proportion of children presenting to a public hospital with acute asthma were allergic to mite, particularly at high IgE titer. Poor asthma control resulted in overuse of emergency care. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart): a novel gene arrangement among arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Dermauw, Wannes; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vanholme, Bartel; Tirry, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Background The apparent scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). This subclass encompasses over 48,000 species and forms the largest group within the Arachnida. Although mitochondrial genomes are widely utilised for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, only 20 mitochondrial genomes of Acari have been determined, of which only one belongs to the diverse order of the Sarcoptiformes. In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the most important member of this largely neglected group. Results The mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus is a circular DNA molecule of 14,203 bp. It contains the complete set of 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes), usually present in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial gene order differs considerably from that of other Acari mitochondrial genomes. Compared to the mitochondrial genome of Limulus polyphemus, considered as the ancestral arthropod pattern, only 11 of the 38 gene boundaries are conserved. The majority strand has a 72.6% AT-content but a GC-skew of 0.194. This skew is the reverse of that normally observed for typical animal mitochondrial genomes. A microsatellite was detected in a large non-coding region (286 bp), which probably functions as the control region. Almost all tRNA genes lack a T-arm, provoking the formation of canonical cloverleaf tRNA-structures, and both rRNA genes are considerably reduced in size. Finally, the genomic sequence was used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis clustered D. pteronyssinus with Steganacarus magnus, forming a sistergroup of the Trombidiformes. Conclusion Although the mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus shares different features with previously characterised Acari mitochondrial genomes, it is unique in many ways. Gene order is extremely rearranged

  12. Mite avoidance can reduce air trapping and airway inflammation in allergic asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Peroni, D G; Piacentini, G L; Costella, S; Pietrobelli, A; Bodini, A; Loiacono, A; Aralla, R; Boner, A L

    2002-06-01

    We investigated the effects of prolonged allergen avoidance in 18 house dust mite-sensitized asthmatic children during a prolonged residential period at a high altitude, allergen-free environment. Evaluations of residual volume (RV) and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) were performed (i) at admission to the residential house in September, (ii) in December after 3 months of stay, (iii) in January after 15 days at home, exposed to allergens, and (iv) in June after 9 months of stay. During the study period RV showed a significant decrease in December (from 117.5 +/- 7.7% to 96.5 +/- 3.2%) (P < 0.02) and a following increase in January (126.2 +/- 17.2%), after allergen re-exposure (P < 0.03). RV decreased again in June at the end of the study period (91.1 +/- 6.0%) (P = 0.001). FEV(1), FEF(25-75) and VC values did not present significant variations. ENO showed a significant decrease in December after 3 months at high altitude (from 21.3 +/- 3.9 p.p.b. to 11.9 +/- 1.7 p.p.b.) (P = 0.03), but no further significant change. No correlation was found between lung volumes and eNO, probably reflecting different aspects of asthma. Results suggest that RV may be more sensitive than other respiratory function parameters in identifying children with air trapping, being influenced significantly as the inflammatory indices by effective allergen avoidance/exposure regimen.

  13. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust in relation to wood dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms in the furniture industry.

    PubMed

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Kespohl, Sabine; Jacobsen, Gitte; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2011-03-01

    Wood dust exposure may cause Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases. Our objectives were to estimate pine and beech dust sensitization rates among woodworkers and a reference group, explore the association between exposure and sensitization and between sensitization and respiratory symptoms, and finally investigate the impact of proteinogenic specific IgE (sIgE) epitopes on respiratory symptoms. In a Danish study among 52 furniture factories and 2 reference factories, we evaluated the workers' asthma and rhinitis status using questionnaires and blood samples collected from 1506 woodworkers and 195 references. Workers with asthma symptoms (N=298), a random study sample (N=399) and a random rhinitis sample (N=100) were evaluated for IgE-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust. The prevalence of pine and beech sensitization among current woodworkers was 1.7 and 3.1%, respectively. No differences in sensitization rates were found between woodworkers and references, but the prevalence of wood dust sensitization was dose-dependently associated with the current level of wood dust exposure. No relation was observed between wood dust sensitization per se and respiratory symptoms. Only symptomatic subjects had proteinogenic IgE epitopes to pine. Increased odds ratios for sIgE based on proteinogenic epitopes to beech and respiratory symptoms were found, although they were not statistically significant. Sensitization rates to pine and beech were the same for woodworkers and references but dependent on the current wood dust exposure level. The importance of beech and pine wood sensitization is limited, but may be of clinical significance for a few workers if the IgE epitopes are proteinogenic.

  14. Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, G T; Gold, D R

    1999-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has implicated allergens derived from cockroaches as an important environmental factor that may aggravate asthma in sensitized persons. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with asthma and a cockroach allergy. Allergy skin testing confirmed hypersensitivity to cockroach extract, and a home visit revealed visual evidence of infestation and the presence of Bla g 1 German cockroach allergen in vacuumed dust. As is typical of patients with a cockroach allergy and asthma, multiple factors in addition to cockroach allergen appeared to aggravate the patient's asthma. A multimodality therapeutic regimen, which included medications as well as cleaning of the home, integrated pest management, and professional application of chemical controls, resulted in substantial clinical improvement. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of cockroach-allergic asthma are reviewed, and an approach to diagnosis and management is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10064555

  15. Higher environmental relative moldiness index values measured in homes of adults with asthma, rhinitis, or both conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Higher values of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI), a DNA-based method for quantifying indoor molds, have been associated with asthma in children. In this study, settled dust samples were collected from the homes of adults with asthma and rhinitis (n=202 homes) i...

  16. Allergen sensitisation among chronic respiratory diseases in urban and rural areas of the south of Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Chu, H T; Godin, I; Phuong, N T; Nguyen, L H; Hiep, T T M; Michel, O

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for allergen sensitisation among patients with chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in southern Viet Nam. An environmental questionnaire and skin prick tests for airborne and food allergens were administered to patients with CRD, defined as individuals with respiratory symptoms and lung function defects. Of 610 CRD patients, 56% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 31% were asthma patients; 80% were males. The most frequent sensitisers were dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae 22%, Blomia tropicalis 19%, D. pteronyssinus 18%) and cockroach droppings (13%). Among study participants, 37% were from rural settings and 36% from urban areas, whereas 27% had migrated from rural to urban areas. Compared with people from rural areas, being born in an urban area was a risk factor for sensitisation to mites (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11-2.20, P < 0.02). In multivariate analysis, place of birth remained a risk factor for mite sensitisation. Compared with the native urban population, the risk of mite sensitisation was not significantly different among patients born in rural areas and those migrating to urban areas. Dust mites and cockroach droppings were the most frequent allergens among people with CRD in the south of Viet Nam. Compared with the urban population, being native to a rural area was protective against mite sensitisation, but this effect ceased to be significant after migration from rural to urban areas.

  17. Asthma and other allergic diseases among Saudi schoolchildren in Najran: the need for a comprehensive intervention program.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Jobran M

    2016-01-01

    In the last three decades, an increasing incidence of allergic diseases has been associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with allergic diseases among Saudi schoolchildren in the southwestern Saudi region of Najran, and to determine the sensitization of patients to a set of allergens. Cross-sectional observational study. Primary, intermediate and secondary schools, Najran, Saudi Arabia. All participants completed the Arabic version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed, using a panel of standardized allergenic extracts. Prevalence and risk factors associated with pediatric allergic diseases. The study included 1700 Saudi schoolchildren. The overall prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis was 27.5%, 6.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27), fast food consumption (aOR, 1.53), trucks passing near houses (aOR, 1.86), and having a dog or cat at home (aOR, 1.85) were significant risk factors. A total of 722 (42.5%) children had a positive SPT result to at least one allergen. The most prevalent allergens were grass pollens (60%), cat fur (41.6%), and house dust mites (25%). The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for developing an effective interven- tion program including several components working in harmony to control and reduce the burden of allergic diseases. These results may not be generalizable to the rest of Saudi Arabia.

  18. Dermatoses associated with mites other than Sarcoptes.

    PubMed

    Ken, Kimberly M; Shockman, Solomon C; Sirichotiratana, Melissa; Lent, Megan P; Wilson, Morgan L

    2014-09-01

    Mites are arthropods of the subclass Acari (Acarina). Although Sarcoptes is the mite most commonly recognized as a cause of human skin disease in the United States, numerous other mite-associated dermatoses have been described, and merit familiarity on the part of physicians treating skin disease. This review discusses several non-scabies mites and their associated diseases, including Demodex, chiggers, Cheyletiella, bird mites, grain itch, oak leaf itch, grocer's itch, tropical rat mite, snake mite, and Psoroptes.

  19. What's eating you? Cheyletiella mites.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, H Harris; Elston, Dirk M

    2017-05-01

    Cheyletiella are nonburrowing mites commonly found on rabbits, dogs, and cats. The mites have been known to cause disease in humans, ranging from mild dermatitis to more severe illness with systemic symptoms. Because these mites do not complete any part of their life cycle in humans, diagnosis can be challenging. Herein, we review various clinical presentations associated with Cheyletiella mites as well as diagnostic techniques and treatment options for both humans and animals.

  20. Regulatory cells, cytokine pattern and clinical risk factors for asthma in infants and young children with recurrent wheeze.

    PubMed

    Borrego, L M; Arroz, M J; Videira, P; Martins, C; Guimarães, H; Nunes, G; Papoila, A L; Trindade, H

    2009-08-01

    Several risk factors for asthma have been identified in infants and young children with recurrent wheeze. However, published literature has reported contradictory findings regarding the underlying immunological mechanisms. This study was designed to assess and compare the immunological status during the first 2 years in steroid-naive young children with >or= three episodes of physician-confirmed wheeze (n=50), with and without clinical risk factors for developing subsequent asthma (i.e. parental asthma or a personal history of eczema and/or two of the following: wheezing without colds, a personal history of allergic rhinitis and peripheral blood eosinophilia >4%), with age-matched healthy controls (n=30). Peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(high) T cells and their cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), GITR and Foxp3 expression were analysed by flow cytometry. Cytokine (IFN-gamma, TGF-beta and IL-10), CTLA-4 and Foxp3 mRNA expression were evaluated (real-time PCR) after peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (24 h) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts (7th day). Flow cytometry results showed a significant reduction in the absolute number of CD4(+)CD25(high) and the absolute and percentage numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)CTLA-4(+) in wheezy children compared with healthy controls. Wheezy children at a high risk of developing asthma had a significantly lower absolute number of CD4(+)CD25(+) (P=0.01) and CD4(+)CD25(high) (P=0.04), compared with those at a low risk. After PMA stimulation, CTLA-4 (P=0.03) and Foxp3 (P=0.02) expression was diminished in wheezy children compared with the healthy children. After HDM stimulation, CTLA-4 (P=0.03) and IFN-gamma (P=0.04) expression was diminished in wheezy children compared with healthy children. High-risk children had lower expression of IFN-gamma (P=0.03) compared with low-risk and healthy children and lower expression of CTLA-4 (P=0.01) compared with healthy

  1. Mitochondrial genome evolution and tRNA truncation in Acariformes mites: new evidence from eriophyoid mites

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Dong, Yan; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-01

    The subclass Acari (mites and ticks) comprises two super-orders: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Most species of the Parasitiformes known retained the ancestral pattern of mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement of arthropods, and their mt tRNAs have the typical cloverleaf structure. All of the species of the Acariformes known, however, have rearranged mt genomes and truncated mt tRNAs. We sequenced the mt genomes of two species of Eriophyoidea: Phyllocoptes taishanensis and Epitrimerus sabinae. The mt genomes of P. taishanensis and E. sabinae are 13,475 bp and 13,531 bp, respectively, are circular and contain the 37 genes typical of animals; most mt tRNAs are highly truncated in both mites. On the other hand, these two eriophyoid mites have the least rearranged mt genomes seen in the Acariformes. Comparison between eriophyoid mites and other Aacariformes mites showed that: 1) the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites retained the ancestral pattern of mt gene arrangement of arthropods with slight modifications; 2) truncation of tRNAs for cysteine, phenylalanine and histidine occurred once in the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites whereas truncation of other tRNAs occurred multiple times; and 3) the placement of eriophyoid mites in the order Trombidiformes needs to be reviewed. PMID:26732998

  2. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phthalate esters and childhood asthma: A systematic review and congener-specific meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) has been associated with childhood asthma, but the congener-specific effects of PAEs on childhood asthma were unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze observational studies on the associations between specific effects of PAEs and the risk of childhood asthma. Relevant studies were identified by searching three databases up to October 20, 2016. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. We included observational studies that reported risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between phthalate exposure and the risk of childhood asthma. Fixed-effects models were generally applied to calculate pooled risk estimates. When heterogeneity was present, random-effects models were applied. A total of nine studies featuring 43 data points were included in our final meta-analyses. Results indicated that the benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) exposure had a significant association with the risk of childhood asthma. The Odd Ratios (ORs) were from 1.39 to 1.41 for different combination strategies. Subgroup analyses by different exposure period or samples used showed that prenatal exposure to BBzP had a stronger association with the risk of childhood asthma (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09-1.75), compared to those with postnatal exposure. Besides, the association was evident when the phthalate exposure was measured from dust samples. The OR for the associations between di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in dust and childhood asthma was 2.71 (95% CI = 1.39-5.28), and 2.08 (95% CI = 1.10-3.92) for BBzP. Our study suggested a positive association between DEHP and BBzP exposure and childhood asthma. Future studies are warranted to identify the underlying mechanisms of the association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The effect of air pollution on the prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren from Krakow].

    PubMed

    Lis, G; Pietrzyk, J J

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between asthma, wheezing prevalence and the rate of air pollution in Kraków. In the survey of 6696 schoolchildren aged 12-14 year, ISAAC questionnaires were performed. According to the distribution of the mean annual concentration of dust particles (PM10) and sulfur dioxide, four classes of these compounds were established. In the similar way, the lead concentration in garden soil and lettuce was categorized into three classes, which were surrogates of the automobile exhaust. Children's passive smoking was established by questionnaire. The study revealed a significant association and a positive correlation between the prevalence of asthma diagnosis and the soil and lettuce lead concentrations. Wheezing history (past and current) was significantly correlated with soil lead classes and the classes of dust particles (PM10). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with the asthma diagnosis and past or current wheezing. A significant relationship was found between paternal smoking and wheezing during and/or post exercise.

  5. Ectoparasitic mites and their Drosophila hosts.

    PubMed

    Perez-Leanos, Alejandra; Loustalot-Laclette, Mariana Ramirez; Nazario-Yepiz, Nestor; Markow, Therese Ann

    2017-01-02

    Only two parasite interactions are known for Drosophila to date: Allantonematid nematodes associated with mycophagous Drosophilids and the ectoparasitic mite Macrocheles subbadius with the Sonoran Desert endemic Drosophila nigrospiracula. Unlike the nematode-Drosophila association, breadth of mite parasitism on Drosophila species is unknown. As M. subbadius is a generalist, parasitism of additional Drosophilids is expected. We determined the extent and distribution of mite parasitism in nature Drosophilids collected in Mexico and southern California. Thirteen additional species of Drosophilids were infested. Interestingly, 10 belong to the repleta species group of the subgenus Drosophila, despite the fact that the majority of flies collected were of the subgenus Sophophora. In all cases but 2, the associated mites were M. subbadius. Drosophila hexastigma was found to have not only M. subbadius, but another Mesostigmatid mite, Paragarmania bakeri, as well. One D. hydei was also found to have a mite from genus Lasioseius attached. In both choice and no-choice experiments, mites were more attracted to repleta group species than to Sophophoran. The extent of mite parasitism clearly is much broader than previously reported and suggests a host bias mediated either by mite preference and/or some mechanism of resistance in particular Drosophilid lineages.

  6. Microbial secondary metabolites in homes in association with moisture damage and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kirjavainen, P V; Täubel, M; Karvonen, A M; Sulyok, M; Tiittanen, P; Krska, R; Hyvärinen, A; Pekkanen, J

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize the presence of microbial secondary metabolites in homes and their association with moisture damage, mold, and asthma development. Living room floor dust was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for 333 secondary metabolites from 93 homes of 1-year-old children. Moisture damage was present in 15 living rooms. At 6 years, 8 children had active and 15 lifetime doctor-diagnosed asthma. The median number of different metabolites per house was 17 (range 8-29) and median sum load 65 (4-865) ng/m(2) . Overall 42 different metabolites were detected. The number of metabolites present tended to be higher in homes with mold odor or moisture damage. The higher sum loads and number of metabolites with loads over 10 ng/m(2) were associated with lower prevalence of active asthma at 6 years (aOR 0.06 (95% CI <0.001-0.96) and 0.05 (<0.001-0.56), respectively). None of the individual metabolites, which presence tended (P < 0.2) to be increased by moisture damage or mold, were associated with increased risk of asthma. Microbial secondary metabolites are ubiquitously present in home floor dust. Moisture damage and mold tend to increase their numbers and amount. There was no evidence indicating that the secondary metabolites determined would explain the association between moisture damage, mold, and the development of asthma. © 2015 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization in children with asthma and mite allergy: a double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Cantani, A; Ragno, V; Monteleone, M A; Lucenti, P; Businco, L

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of enzyme-potentiated desensitization (EPD) in children with asthma. Twenty asthmatic children (14 males and 6 females; median age: 8.5 years) were included in the study. They had positive skin tests to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt), no history of other allergy and had suffered from asthma for at least two years. The children were examined before starting the trial, at the first EPD dose, after 8 weeks, at the second EPD dose and 3 months after the second EPD dose. Blood samples for PRIST and RAST were drawn before the first and at the second EPD dose, and at the last follow-up. Conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) and skin test endpoint determinations were performed with dilutions of a freeze-dried Dpt extract (10-100,000 SQ-U/ml) at the start of the trial and at the last follow-up. Parents kept a diary record of the days with asthma and daily drug usage. The children were randomized to receive either two intradermal placebo injections or the active material with an 8-week interval (November 1991 and January 1992). Ten children received EPD and 10 children placebo. The intradermal injection of EPD (0.05 ml) contained 0.01 ml of beta-glucuronidase (40 Fishman units) and 0.04 ml of a mixture of inhalant allergens (1 Noon unit). The placebo injection consisted of buffer solution only. The EPD-treated children had significantly fewer days with asthma (p = 0.00000). In addition, the EPD-treated c