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Sample records for astrid haljas romi

  1. ASTRID rocket flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.C.; Pittenger, L.C.; Colella, N.J.

    1994-07-01

    On February 4, 1994, we successfully flight tested the ASTRID rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The technology for this rocket originated in the Brilliant Pebbles program and represents a five-year development effort. This rocket demonstrated how our new pumped-propulsion technology-which reduced the total effective engine mass by more than one half and cut the tank mass to one fifth previous requirements-would perform in atmospheric flight. This demonstration paves the way for potential cost-effective uses of the new propulsion system in commercial aerospace vehicles, exploration of the planets, and defense applications.

  2. Validation of the ROMI-RIP rough mill simulator

    Treesearch

    Edward R. Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2002-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's ROMI-RIP rough mill rip-first simulation program is a popular tool for analyzing rough mill conditions, determining more efficient rough mill practices, and finding optimal lumber board cut-up patterns. However, until now, the results generated by ROMI-RIP have not been rigorously compared to those of an actual rough mill. Validating the...

  3. On the Astrid asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.

    2016-09-01

    Among asteroid families, the Astrid family is peculiar because of its unusual inclination distribution. Objects at a ≃ 2.764 au are quite dispersed in this orbital element, giving the family a `crab-like' appearance. Recent works showed that this feature is caused by the interaction of the family with the s - sC nodal secular resonance with Ceres, that spreads the inclination of asteroids near its separatrix. As a consequence, the currently observed distribution of the vW component of terminal ejection velocities obtained from inverting Gauss equation is quite leptokurtic, since this parameter mostly depends on the asteroids inclination. The peculiar orbital configuration of the Astrid family can be used to set constraints on key parameters describing the strength of the Yarkovsky force, such as the bulk and surface density and the thermal conductivity of surface material. By simulating various fictitious families with different values of these parameters, and by demanding that the current value of the kurtosis of the distribution in vW be reached over the estimated lifetime of the family, we obtained that the thermal conductivity of Astrid family members should be ≃0.001 W m-1 K-1, and that the surface and bulk density should be higher than 1000 kg m-3. Monte Carlo methods simulating Yarkovsky and stochastic Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) evolution of the Astrid family show its age to be T = 140 ± 30 Myr old, in good agreement with estimates from other groups. Its terminal ejection velocity parameter is in the range V_{EJ}= 5^{+17}_{-5} m s-1. Values of VEJ larger than 25 m s-1 are excluded from constraints from the current inclination distribution.

  4. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator

    Treesearch

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann

    2012-01-01

    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  5. Performance review of the ROMI-RIP rough mill simulator

    Treesearch

    Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's ROMI-RIP version 2.0 (RR2) rough mill rip-first simulation program was validated in a recent study. The validation study found that when RR2 was set to search for optimum yield without considering actual rough mill strip solutions, it produced yields that were as much as 7 percent higher (71.1% versus 64.0%) than the actual rough mill....

  6. ROMI-RIP: Rough Mill RIP-first simulator user's guide

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The ROugh Mill RIP-first simulator (ROMI-RIP) is a computer software package for IBM compatible personal computers that simulates current industrial practices for gang-ripping lumber. This guide shows the user how to set and examine the results of simulations regarding current or proposed mill practices. ROMI-RIP accepts cutting bills with up to 300 different part...

  7. My Personal Writing Lesson from Astrid Lindgren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Describes the evolution of the author's children's picture book, "An Amish Christmas." Notes how he refers to "Christmas in Noisy Village" (1964) by Astrid Lindgren, a praised children's Christmas book. Describes how he used Lindgren's economical use of words and book format as a guide. (SG)

  8. ROMY: A 4-component large ring laser for geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, H.; Schreiber, K. U.; Gebauer, A.; Wassermann, J. M.; Lin, C. J.; Bernauer, F.; Simonelli, A.; Wells, J. P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Observatory-based ring lasers are currently the most sensitive technology for measurements of rotational ground motions (seismology) and variations of Earth's rotation rate. Ring laser have so far been limited to single components only (e.g., the horizontal G-ring in Wettzell, Germany, measuring the rotation around a vertical axis). Within the ROMY project (www.romy-erc.eu) funded by the European Research Council we designed and constructed the first multi-component ring laser system for geophysics. The 4-component, tetrahedral-shaped, top-down ring laser sits on a connected concrete structure embedded underground 2m below the surface at the Geophysical Observatory Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany. The 4 independent equilateral triangular-shaped He-Ne ring lasers with 12 m side length are expected to resolve rotational motions below 12 prad/s/sqrt(Hz). We will report on the design and construction process of this first-of-its-kind ring laser system, with completion expected in August 2016 by which time the optical systems are beginning to be assembled. The four rotational components are combined to the complete 3-component vector of Earth's rotation, perturbed by other geophysical signals such as earthquake induced ground motions, ocean-generated noise, Earth's free oscillations, interactions between atmosphere and solid Earth and other signals. First applications are expected in the field of seismology. We report on future plans to stabilize the ring geometry providing long-term stability for geodetic applications.

  9. ROMI-3: Rough-Mill Simulator Version 3.0: User's Guide

    Treesearch

    Joel M. Weiss; R. Edward Thomas; R. Edward Thomas

    2005-01-01

    ROMI-3 Rough-Mill Simulator is a software package that simulates current industrial practices for rip-first and chop-first lumber processing. This guide shows the user how to set up and examine the results of simulations of current or proposed mill practices. ROMI-3 accepts cutting bills with as many as 600 combined solid and/or panel part sizes. Plots of processed...

  10. ROMI 4.0: Rough mill simulator 4.0 users manual

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Timo Grueneberg; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    The Rough MIll simulator (ROMI Version 4.0) is a computer software package for personal computers (PCs) that simulates current industrial practices for rip-first, chop-first, and rip and chop-first lumber processing. This guide shows how to set up the software; design, implement, and execute simulations; and examine the results. ROMI 4.0 accepts cutting bills with as...

  11. ASTRiDE: Automated Streak Detection for Astronomical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won

    2016-05-01

    ASTRiDE detects streaks in astronomical images using a "border" of each object (i.e. "boundary-tracing" or "contour-tracing") and their morphological parameters. Fast moving objects such as meteors, satellites, near-Earth objects (NEOs), or even cosmic rays can leave streak-like traces in the images; ASTRiDE can detect not only long streaks but also relatively short or curved streaks.

  12. Design and construction of a large 4C ring laser: ROMY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, André; Schreiber, Ulrich; Igel, Heiner; Hadziioannou, Céline; Donner, Stefanie; Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Edgorf, Sven; Simonelli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    State of the art ring laser technology gives access to measure very small rotation changes in geodesy and geophysics over a wide frequency range. The interferometric observation technique use two counter-propagating laser beam, the Sagnac effect. This yields to the fact that these observation method is entirely insensitive to translational motions. Until beginning this year only one component ring laser observations was available around the vertical axis. The ROMY project will deliver 4 components in space measuring rotations redundancy for geosciences computed into the Cartesian three directions. Followings that ROMY is the first instrument able to measure the full rotation vector. The sensitivity scales with the size of the instrument and ended up in a tetrahedron shape of 12 m side length standing on a tip. A compromise between the involved parameters and the possibility of physical constructing of such a large instrument. The pure hardware construction has needed more than 1.5 years. It is outlined the design, development and construction from scratch up to receiving the proposed observation. Involved are the characterisation and the potential of ROMY now and in future.

  13. Bunched-beam measurements of very smaller currents at ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Abildskov, F.; Mo/ller, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    Stored currents in low-energy ion storage rings, like ASTRID, are often very small. Absolute current measurements are nevertheless important for absolute measurements of cross sections and also for machine operation purposes. Experimental results, using a beam charge monitor (BCM) from Bergoz, are shown for both light ions (H{sup {minus}}) and heavy ions (N{sub 2}{sup +}). The velocities are low, {beta}{approximately}0.001 to 0.05, and the detected currents are in the 0.1- to 2-{mu}A range. The storage ring ASTRID, where the measurements are made, will be described. The principle of the BCM will be briefly mentioned, and the obtained performance (resolution, stability, noise, etc.) will be given. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. In service inspection and repair of sodium cooled ASTRID prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Baque, F.; Jadot, F.; Marlier, R.; Saillant, J-F.

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of the large R and D work which is performed for the future ASTRID sodium cooled prototype, In Service Inspection and Repair (ISI and R) has been identified as a major issue to be taken into account in order to enlarge the plant safety, to consolidate its availability and to protect the associated investment. After the first part of pre-conceptual design phase (2008-2012), the running second part of pre-conceptual phase (2013-2015) allows to increase the ISI and R tool ability for immersed sodium structures of ASTRID, at about 200 deg. C, on the basis of consolidated specifications and thanks to their qualification through more and more realistic laboratory tests and simulation with CIVA code. ISI and R items are being developed and qualified during a pluri-annual program which mainly deals with the reactor block structures, the primary components and circuit, and the Power Conversion System. It ensures a strong connection between the reactor designers and inspection specialists, as the optimization of inspectability and repairability is looked at: this already induced specific rules for design, in order to shorten and ease the ISI and R operations, which have been merged into RCC-MRx rules. In the frame of increasing technology readiness level with corresponding performance demonstration, this paper presents R and D dealing with the ISI and R items: it highlights the sensor development (both ultrasonic and electromagnetic concepts, compatible with sodium at 200 deg. C), then their applications for ASTRID structure control (under sodium telemetry, imaging and NDE). Activity for repair is also presented (a single laser tool for sodium sweeping, machining and welding), and finally the effort for associated robotic (generic program for ASTRID applications, specific technological tools for sodium medium, tight immersed bell). The main results of testing and simulation are given for telemetry, vision, NDE applications, laser process repair and under sodium

  15. Aerodynamic, structural, and trajectory analysis of ASTRID-1 vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, L.S.; Iwaskiw, A.P.; Oursler, M.A.; Perini, L.L.; Schaefer, E.D.

    1994-02-10

    The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, JHU/API, in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL, is conducting aerodynamic, trajectory, and structural analysis of the Advanced Single Stage Technology Rapid Insertion Demonstration (ASTRID) vehicle, being launched out of Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in February 1994. The launch is designated ASTRID-1 and is the first in a series of three that will be launched out of VAFB. Launch dates for the next two flights have not been identified, but they are scheduled for the 1994-1995 time frame. The primary goal of the ASTRID-1 flight is to test the LLNL light weight thrust on demand bi-propellant pumped divert propulsion system. The system is employed as the main thrusters for the ASTRID-1 vehicle and uses hydrazine as the mono-propellant. The major conclusions are: (1) The vehicle is very stable throughout flight (stability margin = 17 to 24 inches); (2) The aerodynamic frequency and the roll rate are such that pitch-roll interactions will be small; (3) The high stability margin combined with the high launcher elevation angle makes the vehicle flight path highly sensitive to perturbations during the initial phase of flight, i.e., during the first second of flight after leaving the rail; (4) The major impact dispersions for the test flight are due to winds. The wind impact dispersions are 90% dictated by the low altitude, 0 to 1000 ft., wind conditions; and (5) In order to minimize wind dispersions, head wind conditions are favored for the launch as November VAFB mean tail winds result in land impacts. The ballistic wind methodology can be employed to assess the impact points of winds at the launch site.

  16. ROMY - The First Large 3D Ring Laser Structure for Seismology and Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Igel, Heiner; Wassermann, Joachim; Lin, Chin-Jen; Gebauer, André; Wells, Jon-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Large ring laser gyroscopes have matured to the point that they can routinely observe rotational motions from geophysical processes that can be used in geodesy and seismology. The ring lasers used for this purpose enclose areas between 16 and 800 square meters and have in common that they can only measure rotations around the vertical axis because the structures are horizontally placed on the floor. With the ROMY project we have embarked on the construction of a full 3-dimensional rotation sensor. The actual apparatus consists of four individual triangular ring lasers arranged in the shape of a tetrahedron with 12 m of length on each side. At each corner of the tetrahedron three of the ring lasers are rigidly tied together to the same mechanical reference. The overall size of the installation provides a promising compromise between sensor stability on one side and sensor resolution on the other side. This talk introduces the technical concept of the ROMY ring laser installation and will also briefly outline the requirements for applications in space geodesy.

  17. The design of the new IR beamline at ASTRID2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zheshen Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Rieger, Peter; Mathis, Yves-Laurent; Moss, David; Dong, Mingdong

    2016-07-27

    We report on the successful design, installation and commission of the new AU-IR beam line at ASTRID2. ASTRID2 is the new synchrotron facility running at top-up mode and at 580 MeV, which is optimized for low energies at Aarhus University, Denmark. The highlight of the beam line is that it is simple, low cost and reliable. The optics system consists of two gold-coated mirrors only and is as close as 1.367 m away from an entrance edge of a bending magnet. This allows a horizontal acceptance angle of 35 mrad and a vertical acceptance of 28 mrad. The source point is chosen to be near the leading edge of the bending magnet where the electron beam enters the dipole field. This allows us to use the strong edge radiation from the bending magnet together with the bending radiation. The beam line is equipped with a Vertex{sup TM} 70v FTIR spectrometer from Bruker{sup TM}. The beam line design and choice of the “rock-solid” optical design version of spectrometer ensure a good reliability to beam drift and vibrations. Currently, the system is running at mid-range IR. Further upgrades have been planned.

  18. Generation IV reactors and the ASTRID prototype: Lessons from the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauché, François

    2012-05-01

    In France, the ASTRID prototype is a sodium-cooled fast neutron industrial demonstrator, fulfilling the criteria for Generation IV reactors. ASTRID will meet safety requirements as stringent as for 3rd generation reactors, and take into account lessons from the Fukushima accident. The objectives are to reinforce the robustness of the safety demonstration for all safety functions. ASTRID will feature an innovative core with a negative sodium void coefficient, take advantage of the large thermal inertia of SFRs for decay heat removal, and provide for a design either eliminating the sodium-water reaction, or guaranteeing no consequences for safety in case such reaction would take place.

  19. Integration and initial operation of the multi-component large ring laser structure ROMY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Igel, Heiner; Wassermann, Joachim; Gebauer, André; Simonelli, Andrea; Bernauer, Felix; Donner, Stefanie; Hadziioannou, Celine; Egdorf, Sven; Wells, Jon-Paul

    2017-04-01

    Rotation sensing for the geosciences requires a high sensor resolution of the order of 10 pico- radians per second or even less. An optical Sagnac interferometer offers this sensitivity, provided that the scale factor can be made very large. We have designed and built a multi- component ring laser system, consisting of 4 individual large ring lasers, each covering an area of more than 62 square m. The rings are orientated in the shape of a tetrahedron, so that all 3 spatial directions are covered, allowing also for some redundancy. We report on the initial operation of the free running gyroscopes in their underground facility in order to establish a performance estimate for the ROMY ring laser structure. Preliminary results suggest that the quantum noise limit is lower than that of the G ring laser.

  20. Innovative power conversion system for the French SFR prototype, ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Cachon, L.; Biscarrat, C.; Morin, F.; Haubensack, D.; Rigal, E.; Moro, I.; Baque, F.; Madeleine, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Laffont, G.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, the prototype ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), foreseen in operation by the 20's, will have to demonstrate not only the minor actinide transmutation capability, but also the progress made in Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technology on an industrial scale, by qualifying innovative options. Some of these options still require improvements, especially in the field of operability and safety. In fact, one of the main issues with the standard steam/water Power Conversion System (PCS) of SFR is the fast and energetic chemical reaction between water and sodium, which could occur in steam generators in case of tube failure. To manage the sodium/water reaction, one way consists in minimizing the impact of such event: hence studies are carried out on steam generator design, improvement of the physical knowledge of this phenomenon, development of numerical simulation to predict the reaction onset and consequences, and associated detection improvement. On the other hand, the other way consists in eliminating sodium/water reaction. In this frame, the CEA contribution to the feasibility evaluation of an alternative innovative PCS (replacing steam/water by 180 bar pressurised nitrogen) is focused on the following main topics: - The parametric study leading to nitrogen selection: the thermodynamic cycle efficiency optimisation on Brayton cycles is performed with several gases at different pressures. - The design of innovative compact heat exchangers for the gas loop: here the key points are the nuclear codification associated with inspection capability, the innovative welding process and the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanic optimisations. After a general introduction of the ASTRID project, this paper presents in detail these different feasibility studies being led on the innovative gas PCS for an SFR. (authors)

  1. Use of simplified PSA studies in support of the ASTRID design process

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthe, P.; Curnier, F.; Bertrand, F.; Vincon, L.; Jouve, S.; Balmain, M.; Rychkov, V.; Banchieri, Y.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, a GEN IV and actinides incineration demonstration prototype is to be commissioned in the 2020 decade. In this objective a prototype called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is proposed to demonstrate the progress made in SFR technology at an industrial scale by qualifying innovative options, some of which still remain open in the areas requiring improvements, especially safety and operability. More specifically, we aim for a level of safety that is at least equivalent to that of the EPR (third generation), with improvements made in SFR-specific fields. The integration of safety issues in the early phase of the design of ASTRID is necessarily expected. For this purpose, CEA and its partners AREVA and EDF have planned to perform a level-1 PSA to support and orientate the preliminary design of ASTRID reactor. This paper presents the PSA approach and current studies for the assessment of safety systems and the future work to be done for the 2012-2014 period. The preliminary preparation of PSA studies is presented: objectives and scope of the early design phase PSA, definition of core damage states, selection and grouping of initiating events, assessment of safety functions and related systems. Work under progress is also presented: modelling of event trees, construction of fault trees of safety systems, transient calculations of accident sequences with the CATHARE2 code and reliability data assessment. Main objectives of a level-1 PSA performed at conceptual design stage are an early assessment of the safety architecture of the reactor and findings about the most effective areas for improvement, but also the identification of dominant accident sequences and comparison with alternative designs. After the elaboration of a simplified level-1 PSA model for nominal state and main internal initiators, various design alternatives will be

  2. Laser cooling of {sup 24}Mg{sup +} in the ASTRID storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, J.S.; Hangst, J.S.; Poulsen, O.; Shi, P. |; Schiffer, J.P. |; Wanner, B.

    1994-05-01

    Laser cooling of {sup 24}Mg{sup +} has now begun at the ASTRID storage ring. In contrast to {sup 7}Li{sup +}, which has been used up to now, it is now possible for the laser to interact with all of the beam. In this paper some of the results from the first beam time with {sup 24}Mg{sup +} are described. By frequency chirping a single laser, laser cooling has been performed on a coasting beam, and first evidence of sympathetic transverse cooling has been observed.

  3. Energetic Neutral Atom Imager on the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid. Paper 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barabash, S.; Norberg, O.; Roelof, E. C.; Lundin, R.; Olsen, S.; Lundin, K.; Brandt, Pontus C:son; Chase, C. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Koskinen, H.; Ryno, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Swedish microsatellite ASTRID was launched by a Russian Cosmos rocket on January 24, 1995 into a 1000 km circular orbit with 83 deg inclination. Besides the main objective of technological demonstration, imaging of energetic neutral atoms (ENAS) was attempted. The imager detected ENA in the energy range 0.1 - 140 keV utilizing two different techniques. Neutrals of the energy 13 - 140 keV were recorded by 14 solid state detectors with the total field of view 5 deg x 322 deg. For half a spin (approx. 1.5 s) of the ASTRID spacecraft, almost all of space was covered with an angular resolution 2.5 deg x 25 deg. Less energetic neutrals of approx. 0.1 - 70 keV were converted on a graphite target into secondary particles which then were detected by a microchannel plate with 32 anodes. A fraction of primary neutrals was directly reflected towards the sensor. This technique provided the total ENA flux with an angular resolution 4.6 deg x 11.5 deg. The instrument weight is 3.13 kg. Successful operation of the instrument during the first 5 weeks of the mission provided the first ENA images of the ring current at low altitudes.

  4. The pre-conceptual design of the nuclear island of ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Saez, M.

    2012-07-01

    The CEA is involved in a substantial effort on the ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) pre-conceptual design in cooperation with EDF, as experienced Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) operator, AREVA, as experienced SFR Nuclear Island engineering company and components designer, ALSTOM POWER as energy conversion system designer and COMEX NUCLEAIRE as mechanical systems designer. The CEA is looking for other partnerships, in France and abroad. The ASTRID preliminary design is based on a sodium-cooled pool reactor of 1500 MWth generating about 600 MWe, which is required to guarantee the representativeness of the reactor core and the main components with regard to future commercial reactors. ASTRID lifetime target is 60 years. Two Energy Conversion Systems are studied in parallel until the end of 2012: Rankine steam cycle or Brayton gas based energy conversion cycle. ASTRID design is guided by the following major objectives: improved safety, simplification of structures, improved In Service Inspection and Repair (ISIR), improved manufacturing conditions for cost reduction and increased quality, reduction of risks related to sodium fires and water/sodium reaction, and improved robustness against external hazards. The core is supported by a diagrid, which lay on a strong back to transfer the weight to the main vessel. AREVA is involved in a substantial effort in order to improve the core support structure in particular regarding the ISIR and the connection to primary pump. In the preliminary design, the primary system is formed by the main vessel and the upper closure comprising the reactor roof, two rotating plugs - used for fuel handling - and the components plugs located in the roof penetrations. The Above Core Structure deflects the sodium flow in the hot pool and provides support to core instrumentation and guidance of the control rod drive mechanisms. The number of the major components in the main vessel, primary pumps

  5. ASTRID: A 3D Eulerian software for subcooled boiling modelling - comparison with experimental results in tubes and annuli

    SciTech Connect

    Briere, E.; Larrauri, D.; Olive, J.

    1995-09-01

    For about four years, Electricite de France has been developing a 3-D computer code for the Eulerian simulation of two-phase flows. This code, named ASTRID, is based on the six-equation two-fluid model. Boiling water flows, such as those encountered in nuclear reactors, are among the main applications of ASTRID. In order to provide ASTRID with closure laws and boundary conditions suitable for boiling flows, a boiling model has been developed by EDF and the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse. In the fluid, the heat and mass transfer between a bubble and the liquid is being modelled. At the heating wall, the incipient boiling point is determined according to Hsu`s criterion and the boiling heat flux is split into three additive terms: a convective term, a quenching term and a vaporisation term. This model uses several correlations. EDF`s program in boiling two-phase flows also includes experimental studies, some of which are performed in collaboration with other laboratories. Refrigerant subcooled boiling both in tubular (DEBORA experiment, CEN Grenoble) and in annular geometry (Arizona State University Experiment) have been computed with ASTRID. The simulations show the satisfactory results already obtained on void fraction and liquid temperature. Ways of improvement of the model are drawn especially on the dynamical part.

  6. Atmospheric pressure ionisation - mass spectrometry for argon online monitoring in ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Doizi, D.; Roujou, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    Safety, operability, waste transmutation and mastered investment costs are key issues for the development of generation IV reactors, especially sodium cooled fast reactors. To achieve a development scheduled around 2040, the nuclear energy division of CEA, France, is studying a prototype called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) which is in its conceptual design phase. To achieve a high level of maturity, In Service Inspection and Repair is very important, in particular fuel cladding failure detection. If such a failure occurs, fission products Xenon and Krypton are released. Their fast and sensitive detection is a challenge. The use of a commercial API-MS is evaluated in this work. Detection limits below 10 ppt have been measured for Kr 84 and for Xe 132. (authors)

  7. Nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty assessment of sodium voiding reactivity coefficients of an ASTRID-like sodium fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuria, García-Herranz; Anne-Laurène, Panadero; Ana, Martinez; Sandro, Pelloni; Konstantin, Mikityuk; Andreas, Pautz

    2017-09-01

    The EU 7th Framework ESNII+ project was launched in 2013 with the strategic orientation of preparing ESNII for Horizon 2020. ESNII stands for the European Industrial Initiative on Nuclear Energy, created by the European Commission in 2010 to promote the development of a new generation of nuclear systems in order to provide a sustainable solution to cope with Europe's growing energy needs while meeting the greenhouse gas emissions reduction target. The designs selected by the ESNII+ project are technological demonstrators of Generation-IV systems. The prototype for the sodium cooled fast reactor technology is ASTRID (standing for Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), which detailed design phase is foreseen to be initiated in 2019. The ASTRID core has a peculiar design which was created in order to tackle the main neutronic challenge of sodium cooled fast reactors: the inherent overall positive reactivity feedback in case of sodium voiding occurring in the core. Indeed, the core is claimed by its designers to have an overall negative reactivity feedback in this scenario. This feature was demonstrated for an ASTRID-like core within the ESNII+ framework studies performed by nine European institutions. In order to shift the paradigm towards best-estimate plus uncertainties, the nuclear data sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation on reactivity coefficients has to be carried out. The goal of this work is to assess the impact of nuclear data uncertainties on sodium voiding reactivity feedback coefficients in order to get a more complete picture of the actual safety margins of the ASTRID low void-core design. The nuclear data sensitivity analysis is performed in parallel using SCALE TSUNAMI-3D and the newly developed GPT SERPENT 2 module. A comparison is carried out between the two methodologies. Uncertainty on the sodium reactivity feedbacks is then calculated using TSAR module of SCALE and the necessary safety margins conclusions

  8. Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquès, Michel

    2014-06-01

    ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category "severe accident prevention situations" having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a "Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty" (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach ispresented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOFt ransient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing R&D efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M5,95percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method ; the effectiveness of the two methods

  9. Ex vivo accuracy of Root ZX II, Root ZX Mini and RomiApex A-15 apex locators in extracted vital pulp teeth.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Thaís M; Alves, Flávio R F

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare, ex vivo, the accuracy of three electronic apex locators (EALs), Root ZX II, Root ZX Mini and RomiApex A-15, in detecting the apical foramen (AF). Forty extracted single-Rooted human teeth with vital pulp were used in this study. After access preparation, the Root canal length of each tooth was measured by placing a #10 file until the tip was visible at the AF under a stereomicroscope. The teeth were subsequently embedded in an alginate model. In each Root canal, all three EALs were used to determine the working length, which was defined as the zero reading or equivalent. The distance between the file tip and AF was measured to an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Chi-squared test. Root ZX II, Root ZX Mini and RomiApex A-15 were accurate within 0.5 mm, 62.5, 56.2, 50% of the time. No significant differences were found between the three EALs (p > 0.05). Considering all EALs, the mean distance from the file tip to AF was 4.49 mm. The accuracy of the three EALs evaluated in this study was not statistically significantly different. The 'Apex' or '0.0' marks of the EALs do not indicate the AF itself, but just a position coronal 0.49 mm to the AF. Using a tolerance of ± 0.5 mm from the actual lengths, the ZX II yielded the most acceptable measurements.

  10. Crystalline beam properties as predicted for the storage rings ASTRID and TSR

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.; Sessler, A.

    1995-05-01

    During recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding the formation of crystalline beams in circular accelerators and storage rings. No crystalline beam exists in a constant gradient storage ring, but in an alternating gradient (AG) ring crystalline beams exist at all densities as long as the beam energy is smaller than the transition energy of the machine. The ground-state structure depends upon the machine lattice property, the beam energy, and the beam intensity (line density). At low density, the ground state is a one-dimensional (1D) chain with particles equally spaced along the azimuthal axis. As the density increases, the ground state first becomes a 2D zig zag in the plane of weaker transverse focusing, and then becomes 3D single- and multi-shell helices. The maximum spatial density of the crystal, on the other hand, is determined only by the machine lattice property and beam energy, independent of the beam intensity. Employing a previously developed formalism, the authors have performed ground-state and melting calculations of the expected crystalline beams in ion storage rings ASTRID and TSR.

  11. EMMA - the Electric and Magnetic Monitor of the Auroraon Astrid-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, L.; Marklund, G.; Lindqvist, P.; Primdahl, F.; Brauer, P.; Bylander, L.; Cumnock, J.; Eriksson, S.; Ivchenko, N.; Karlsson, T.; Kullen, A.; Merayo, J.; Pedersen, E.; Petersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    . The Astrid-2 mission has dual primary objectives. First, it is an orbiting instrument platform for studying auroral electrodynamics. Second, it is a technology demonstration of the feasibility of using micro-satellites for innovative space plasma physics research. The EMMA instrument, which we discuss in the present paper, is designed to provide simultaneous sampling of two electric and three magnetic field components up to about 1kHz. The spin plane components of the electric field are measured by two pairs of opposing probes extended by wire booms with a separation distance of 6.7m. The probes have titanium nitride (TiN) surfaces, which has proved to be a material with excellent properties for providing good electrical contact between probe and plasma. The wire booms are of a new design in which the booms in the stowed position are wound around the exterior of the spacecraft body. The boom system was flown for the first time on this mission and worked flawlessly. The magnetic field is measured by a tri-axial fluxgate sensor located at the tip of a rigid, hinged boom extended along the spacecraft spin axis and facing away from the Sun. The new advanced-design fluxgate magnetometer uses digital signal processors for detection and feedback, thereby reducing the analogue circuitry to a minimum. The instrument characteristics as well as a brief review of the science accomplished and planned are presented.

  12. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging at Low Altitudes from the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid: Extraction of the Equatorial Ion Distribution. Paper 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Pontus C:son; Barabash, Stas; Roelof, Edmond C.; Chase, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Energetic neutral atom (ENA) images obtained by the ENA imager on- board the Astrid satellite in the polar cap at 1000 km during a moderate magnetic storm (Dst greater than or equal to 80 nT) on 8 February 1995 are simulated using a parameterized model of the equatorial ion distribution and a six-component Chamberlain exo-sphere with parameters from the MSISE-90 model. By changing the ion parameters until a matching ENA image is obtained one can extract the equatorial ion distribution. Four consecutive images from different view points several of minutes apart are simulated assuming H(+) and O(+), respectively, as parent ions. The optimal set of parameters is extracted by minimizing the chi(exp 2) difference between simulated and observed ENA image using Powell's minimization algorithm. The optimal equatorial model ion distribution consists of O(+) peaked in around dusk. The lower intensity of fluxes obtained from vantage points closer to the pole is an effect of the loss cone of the parent ion distribution being empty.

  13. Two Types of Transpolar Arc Development, Event Studies with Data Set of ASTRID-2, DMSP, FAST, and SuperDARN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narita, Yasuhito; Maezawa, Kiyoshi; Toshinori, Mukai; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Marklund, G.; Frederick, R.; Carlson, C. W.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Aurorae which appear in the polar cap are called transpolar arcs, polar cap arcs, sun-aligned arcs, or occasionally Theta-aurora because of its spatial distribution resembling Greek character 'Theta.' Morphology, IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) relationship, and ionospheric convection patterns were studied in quest of mechanisms of transpolar arcs. Four events were analyzed: 1999/Jan/22/19:00 - 23/01:30 (1 event: a) 1999/Jan/24/06:00 - 10:00 (1 event: b) 1999/Feb/1 1/20:00 - 12/02:00 (2 events: c, d), with data set of ExB drift velocity data obtained by electric field measurements of ASTRID-2 and FAST, DMSP ion driftmeter data, and line-of-sight velocity data of SuperDARN. POLAR-UVI image data were used for spatial and temporal variations of transpolar arcs and ACE data set were used for investigation of IMF relationship. IMF-Bz was strongly positive (Bz from +8nT to +20 nT) during periods of all four transpolar arcs. In events (a),(b),(c), transpolar arcs appeared immediately after the direction of IMF turned northward, though IMF was fluctuating in event (b). A sudden increase of IMF-By, from +3nT to +18nT, was observed in event (d). Two different types of transpolar arc development were observed in POLAR-UVI: one which begins as a split from dawn or dusk sector of auroral oval and shifts poleward in event (a),(c),(d), and another which is initially a patch of auroral oval disturbed by substorm but develops as a transpolar arc, forming a growing finger-like shape from midnight sector (event b). Sunward flow, associated with positive IMF-Bz, were observed within newly-created polar caps in event (a),(c),(d). Not clear ionospheric convection pattern was seen across the polar cap arc in event (b) die to limitation of data set. In event (c), O+ with energy more than 1 keV were observed by FAST within a transpolar arc, suggesting that their origin be from plasma sheet. Transpolar arcs are thought to be projection of plasma sheet bifurcation into lobe regime. There

  14. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging at Low Altitudes from the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid: Images and Spectral Analysis. Paper 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Pontus C:son; Barabash, Stas; Norberg, Olle; Lundin, Rickard; Roelof, Rdmond C.; Chase, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in the energy range 26- 52 keV are reported from four occasions during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The data were acquired by the ENA imager flown on the Swedish microsatellite Astrid in a 1000 km circular orbit with 83 deg inclination. The ENA imager separates charged particles from neutrals through an electrostatic deflection system in the energy range between 0.1 and 114 keV. ENA images obtained from vantage points in the polar cap and in the afternoon magnetic local time (MLT) hours looking into the antisunward hemisphere show intense ENA fluxes (approx. 10(exp 4)/sq cm sr s over 26-37 keV) coming from the dusk region and low altitudes (approx. 300 km). The morphology shows no relation to local magnetic field excluding the possibility of charged particle detection. It is concluded that the source of these ENAs are precipitating/mirroring ions from the ring current/trapped radiation interacting with the exobase on auroral L-shells and in the dusk region. The observed ENA fluxes show a relation with Kp and Dst geomagnetic indices. The observed ENA spectrum from a geomagnetic storm on February 8, 1995, is investigated in more detail and compared to the parent ion spectrum obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Project (DMSP) satellite, Fl2, during the same period on L = 6 +/- 2 around dusk. The observed ENA spectral slope is used to derive the parent ion spectral temperature. The derived ion temperatures range is 3.0 - 6.0 keV for H and 4.5 - 8.5 keV for O. The higher of these ion temperatures comes closest in agreement to the extrapolated DMSP spectrum leading us to favor O over H as the species of the detected ENAS. It is shown that the detected ENAs must have been produced at L greater than or equal to 6 to reach the detector without atmospheric attenuation and that the main energy dependence of the ENA spectrum, apart from the parent ion spectrum, is governed by the energy dependence of the charge

  15. Two Types of Transpolar Arc Development, Event Studies with Data Set of ASTRID-2, DMSP, FAST, and SuperDARN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narita, Yasuhito; Maezawa, Kiyoshi; Toshinori, Mukai; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Marklund, G.; Frederick, R.; Carlson, C. W.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; hide

    2002-01-01

    Aurorae which appear in the polar cap are called transpolar arcs, polar cap arcs, sun-aligned arcs, or occasionally Theta-aurora because of its spatial distribution resembling Greek character 'Theta.' Morphology, IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) relationship, and ionospheric convection patterns were studied in quest of mechanisms of transpolar arcs. Four events were analyzed: 1999/Jan/22/19:00 - 23/01:30 (1 event: a) 1999/Jan/24/06:00 - 10:00 (1 event: b) 1999/Feb/1 1/20:00 - 12/02:00 (2 events: c, d), with data set of ExB drift velocity data obtained by electric field measurements of ASTRID-2 and FAST, DMSP ion driftmeter data, and line-of-sight velocity data of SuperDARN. POLAR-UVI image data were used for spatial and temporal variations of transpolar arcs and ACE data set were used for investigation of IMF relationship. IMF-Bz was strongly positive (Bz from +8nT to +20 nT) during periods of all four transpolar arcs. In events (a),(b),(c), transpolar arcs appeared immediately after the direction of IMF turned northward, though IMF was fluctuating in event (b). A sudden increase of IMF-By, from +3nT to +18nT, was observed in event (d). Two different types of transpolar arc development were observed in POLAR-UVI: one which begins as a split from dawn or dusk sector of auroral oval and shifts poleward in event (a),(c),(d), and another which is initially a patch of auroral oval disturbed by substorm but develops as a transpolar arc, forming a growing finger-like shape from midnight sector (event b). Sunward flow, associated with positive IMF-Bz, were observed within newly-created polar caps in event (a),(c),(d). Not clear ionospheric convection pattern was seen across the polar cap arc in event (b) die to limitation of data set. In event (c), O+ with energy more than 1 keV were observed by FAST within a transpolar arc, suggesting that their origin be from plasma sheet. Transpolar arcs are thought to be projection of plasma sheet bifurcation into lobe regime. There

  16. Statistics of a parallel Poynting vector in the auroral zone as a function of altitude using Polar EFI and MFE data and Astrid-2 EMMA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, P.; Olsson, A.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Russell, C. T.; Laakso, H.; Blomberg, L. G.

    2005-07-01

    We study the wave-related (AC) and static (DC) parallel Poynting vector (Poynting energy flux) as a function of altitude in auroral field lines using Polar EFI and MFE data. The study is statistical and contains 5 years of data in the altitude range 5000 30000 km. We verify the low altitude part of the results by comparison with earlier Astrid-2 EMMA Poynting vector statistics at 1000 km altitude. The EMMA data are also used to statistically compensate the Polar results for the missing zonal electric field component. We compare the Poynting vector with previous statistical DMSP satellite data concerning the electron precipitation power. We find that the AC Poynting vector (Alfvén-wave related Poynting vector) is statistically not sufficient to power auroral electron precipitation, although it may, for Kp>2, power 25 50% of it. The statistical AC Poynting vector also has a stepwise transition at R=4 RE, so that its amplitude increases with increasing altitude. We suggest that this corresponds to Alfvén waves being in Landau resonance with electrons, so that wave-induced electron acceleration takes place at this altitude range, which was earlier named the Alfvén Resonosphere (ARS). The DC Poynting vector is ~3 times larger than electron precipitation and corresponds mainly to ionospheric Joule heating. In the morning sector (02:00 06:00 MLT) we find that the DC Poynting vector has a nontrivial altitude profile such that it decreases by a factor of ~2 when moving upward from 3 to 4 RE radial distance. In other nightside MLT sectors the altitude profile is more uniform. The morning sector nontrivial altitude profile may be due to divergence of the perpendicular Poynting vector field at R=3 4 RE. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Auroral phenomena; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions) Space plasma physics (Wave-particle interactions)

  17. RoMi: Refraction Microtremor Using Rotational Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Eimer, M. O.; Hart, D. M.; Skaggs, J.; Denning, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of a shallow shear-wave velocity study that utilized both traditional geophones and a newly developed rotational seismometer (Applied Technology Associates ARS-16). We used Refraction Microtremor (ReMi), a method developed by John N. Louie, during processing to determine both Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves using both vertical and horizontal sources. ReMi uses a distance-time (x-t) wavefield transformation technique to image the dispersion curve in slowness-frequency (p-f) space. In the course of the ReMi processing, unwanted P waves are transformed into p-f space. As rotational seismometers are insensitive to P waves, they should prove to be superior sensors for Love wave studies, as those P waves would not interfere with interpretation of the p-f wavefield. Our results show that despite having one-fifth the geophone signal-to-noise ratio in the distance-time wavefield, the ARS-16 produced superior results in the p-f wavefield. Specifically, we found increases of up to 50% in ReMi spectral ratio along the dispersion curve. This implies that as more quiet and sensitive rotational sensors are developed, deploying rotational seismometers instead of traditional sensors will yield significantly better results. This will ultimately improve shallow shear-wave velocity resolution, which is vital for calculating seismic hazard. This data was collected at Sandia National Laboratories' Facility for Analysis, Calibration, and Testing (FACT) located in Albuquerque, NM. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. ROMI 3.1 Least-cost lumber grade mix solver using open source statistical software

    Treesearch

    Rebecca A. Buck; Urs Buehlmann; R. Edward. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The least-cost lumber grade mix solution has been a topic of interest to both industry and academia for many years due to its potential to help wood processing operations reduce costs. A least-cost lumber grade mix solver is a rough mill decision support system that describes the lumber grade or grade mix needed to minimize raw material or total production cost (raw...

  19. Rapid Ovary Mass-Isolation (ROMi) to Obtain Large Quantities of Drosophila Egg Chambers for Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Jambor, Helena; Mejstrik, Pavel; Tomancak, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of large quantities of tissue from organisms is essential for many techniques such as genome-wide screens and biochemistry. However, obtaining large quantities of tissues or cells is often the rate-limiting step when working in vivo. Here, we present a rapid method that allows the isolation of intact, single egg chambers at various developmental stages from ovaries of adult female Drosophila flies. The isolated egg chambers are amenable for a variety of procedures such as fluorescent in situ hybridization, RNA isolation, extract preparation, or immunostaining. Isolation of egg chambers from adult flies can be completed in 5 min and results, depending on the input amount of flies, in several milliliters of material. The isolated egg chambers are then further processed depending on the exact requirements of the subsequent application. We describe high-throughput in situ hybridization in 96-well plates as example application for the mass-isolated egg chambers.

  20. From pluripotency to forebrain patterning: an in vitro journey astride embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Bertacchi, Michele; Carucci, Nicoletta; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Biagioni, Stefano; Cremisi, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used extensively as in vitro models of neural development and disease, with special efforts towards their conversion into forebrain progenitors and neurons. The forebrain is the most complex brain region, giving rise to several fundamental structures, such as the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the retina. Due to the multiplicity of signaling pathways playing different roles at distinct times of embryonic development, the specification and patterning of forebrain has been difficult to study in vivo. Research performed on ESCs in vitro has provided a large body of evidence to complement work in model organisms, but these studies have often been focused more on cell type production than on cell fate regulation. In this review, we systematically reassess the current literature in the field of forebrain development in mouse and human ESCs with a focus on the molecular mechanisms of early cell fate decisions, taking into consideration the specific culture conditions, exogenous and endogenous molecular cues as described in the original studies. The resulting model of early forebrain induction and patterning provides a useful framework for further studies aimed at reconstructing forebrain development in vitro for basic research or therapy.

  1. Astride a Long-Dead Horse: Mainstream Outdoor Education Theory and the Central Curriculum Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    In 1859 Herbert Spencer recognised that the key curriculum issue was not what to include but what to leave out. What to leave out marked a shift in curriculum discourse from a search for universal approaches and absolute principles towards curriculum questions understood as only resolvable relative to particular social contexts. Yet outdoor…

  2. Astride a Long-Dead Horse: Mainstream Outdoor Education Theory and the Central Curriculum Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    In 1859 Herbert Spencer recognised that the key curriculum issue was not what to include but what to leave out. What to leave out marked a shift in curriculum discourse from a search for universal approaches and absolute principles towards curriculum questions understood as only resolvable relative to particular social contexts. Yet outdoor…

  3. Theoretical reaction kinetics astride the transition between moderate and deep tunneling regimes: the F + HD case.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, S; Aquilanti, V; Mundim, K C; De Fazio, D

    2014-08-21

    For the reaction between F and HD, giving HF + D and DF + H, the rate constants, obtained from rigorous quantum scattering calculations at temperatures ranging from 350 K down to 100 K, show deviations from the Arrhenius behavior that have been interpreted in terms of tunneling of either H or D atoms through a potential energy barrier. The interval of temperature investigated extends from above to below a crossover value Tc, a transition temperature separating the moderate and deep quantum tunneling regimes. Below Tc, the rate of the H or D exchange reaction is controlled by the prevalence of tunneling over the thermal activation mechanism. In this temperature range, Bell's early treatment of quantum tunneling, based on a semiclassical approximation for the barrier permeability, provides a reliable tool to quantitatively account for the contribution of the tunneling effect. This treatment is here applied for extracting from rate constants properties of the effective tunneling path, such as the activation barrier height and width. We show that this is a way of parametrizing the dependence of the apparent activation energy on temperature useful for both calculated and experimental rate constants in an ample interval of temperature, from above to below Tc, relevant for modelization of astrophysical and in general very low-temperature environments.

  4. Seismic hazards astride the boundary between the eastern Snake River Plain and northern Basin and Range Province Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L. ); Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. ); Smith, R.P.; Jackson, S.M.; Hackett, W.R. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.M. ); Knuepfer, P.L.K. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Bruhn, R.L.; Wu, D. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The occurrence of the damaging 1983 M[sub w] 6.8 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake, which ruptured a central segment of the Lost River fault, has increased the awareness of seismic hazards in this portion of the Northern Basin and Range Province (NBR). As a result, comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were performed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which is located within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) but adjacent to the NBR. In this region, the most significant seismic sources are three late-Quaternary NBR normal faults, the Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead faults, and ESRP volcanic zones. For each source, the maximum earthquake, source geometry, recurrence and their uncertainties were estimated and incorporated into the probabilistic analysis through the use of logic trees. Recent paleoseismic trenching of the Lost River and Lemhi faults and volcanic mapping in the ESRP provided much of the data necessary to characterize the most significant seismic sources. Issues such as fault segmentation, temporal clustering, the nature of fault termination, and the maximum magnitude and recurrence of volcanic zone earthquakes were evaluated in the hazard analyses. Deterministic and probabilistic ground motions were computed using both empirical and stochastic approaches. In the deterministic analysis, the southern segments of the Lemhi fault controlled the hazard at the INEL due to their proximity and potential to generate M[sub w] [approximately]7 earthquakes. In the estimation of deterministic ground motions, potential rupture scenarios were evaluated for a Lemhi earthquake. In the probabilistic analysis, the hazard is dominated by the ESRP random earthquake, and the Lemhi and Lost River faults. The difference in the results of the two analyses points out the uncertainties in assessing seismic hazards due to random earthquakes and in regions of large but infrequent earthquakes.

  5. Geothermal potential of Caledonian granites underlying Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary basins astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschle, Tobias; Daly, J. Stephen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; McConnell, Brian; Buhre, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary basins in Ireland overlie crystalline rocks within the Caledonian Iapetus Suture Zone. Beneath these basins, Lower Palaeozoic rocks, formed and deformed during the Caledonian orogenic cycle, were intruded by c. 420-390 Ma late-tectonic granites at various tectonic levels. These include the subsurface Kentstown and Glenamaddy granites discovered by mineral exploration drilling. While these granites comprise actual targets for Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) exploration, several others likely exist based on geophysical considerations. In order to test the regional geothermal potential, the buried granites as well as analogue exposed rocks are being investigated geochemically. The geothermal potential of the intrusives depends on their heat production rate (HPR), which is calculated using rock density and concentrations of the heat producing elements (HPE) uranium, thorium and potassium. In spite of their close spacing and similar ages, the whole-rock geochemistry of the granites varies significantly, but with no obvious geographical control (Fritschle et al., 2013; 2014). The granite HPR values range from 1.4 μW/m3 for the Dhoon Granite (Isle of Man) to 4.9 μW/m3 for the Drogheda Granite (Ireland). This compares with the average HPR for a 'typical' granite of 2.7 μW/m3 (Goldstein et al., 2009). It is demonstrated that an elevated HPR of a granite can be related to enrichment in one of the HPE alone (e.g., uranium-enrichment in the Foxdale Granite (Isle of Man), or thorium-enrichment in the Drogheda Granite). Enrichment in HPE in a granite may occur due to different reasons including hydrothermal (re-) distribution of uranium, or the assimilation of thorium-rich wall-rocks. Hence, the distribution of the HPE in particular minerals, veins and source lithologies, along with the petrophysical characteristics of the sedimentary basins and the granites' petrogenesis, are currently being investigated as possible mechanisms controlling their heat production budget. Fritschle, T., Daly, J.S., Whitehouse, M.J., McConnell, B., Buhre, S., 2013. U-Pb Zircon Ages from Granites in the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland and the Isle of Man. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(5): 1115. Fritschle, T., Daly, J.S., Whitehouse, M.J., McConnell, B., Buhre, S., 2014. Zircon geochronology and Hf-O isotope geochemistry from granites in the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland and the Isle of Man. This issue. Goldstein, B.A., Hill, A.J., Long, A., Budd, A.R., Ayling, B., Malavazos, M., 2009. Hot rocks down under - evolution of a new energy industry. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 33: 185-198.

  6. Rough mill simulator version 3.0: an analysis tool for refining rough mill operations

    Treesearch

    Edward Thomas; Joel Weiss

    2006-01-01

    ROMI-3 is a rough mill computer simulation package designed to be used by both rip-first and chop-first rough mill operators and researchers. ROMI-3 allows users to model and examine the complex relationships among cutting bill, lumber grade mix, processing options, and their impact on rough mill yield and efficiency. Integrated into the ROMI-3 software is a new least-...

  7. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador: Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.; Emslie, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    We report Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mid-Proterozoic anorthosites and related rocks (1.45-1.65 Ga) and of younger olivine diabase dikes (1.4 Ga) from two complexes on either side of the Grenville Front in Labrador. Anorthositic or diabasic samples from the Mealy Mountains (Grenville Province) and Harp Lake (Nain-Churchill Provinces) complexes have very similar major, minor and trace element compositions, but distinctly different isotopic signatures. All Mealy Mountains samples have ISr = 0.7025-0.7033, ??{lunate}Nd = +0.6 to +5.6 and Pb isotopic compositions consistent with derivation from a mantle source depleted with respect to Nd/Sm and Rb/Sr. Pb isotopic compositions for the Mealy Mountains samples are slightly more radiogenic than model mantle compositions. All Harp Lake samples have ISr = 0.7032-0.7066, ??{lunate}Nd = -0.3 to -4.4 and variable, but generally unradiogenic 207Pb 204Pb and 206Pb 204Pb compared to model mantle, suggesting mixing between a mantle-derived component and a U-depleted crustal contaminant. Crustal contaminants are probably a variety of Archean high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneisses with low U/Pb ratios and include a component that must be isotopically similar to the early Archean (>3.6 Ga) Uivak gneisses of Labrador or the Amitsoq gneisses of west Greenland. This would imply that the ancient gneiss complex of coastal Labrador and Greenland is larger than indicated by present surface exposure and may extend in the subsurface as far west as the Labrador Trough. If Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains samples were subjected to the same degree of contamination, as suggested by their chemical similarities, then the Mealy contaminants must be much younger, probably early or middle Proterozoic in age. The Labrador segment of the Grenville Front, therefore, appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture. ?? 1986.

  8. How does lean work in emergency care? A case study of a lean-inspired intervention at the Astrid Lindgren Children's hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in applying lean thinking in healthcare, yet, there is still limited knowledge of how and why lean interventions succeed (or fail). To address this gap, this in-depth case study examines a lean-inspired intervention in a Swedish pediatric Accident and Emergency department. Methods We used a mixed methods explanatory single case study design. Hospital performance data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical process control techniques to assess changes in performance one year before and two years after the intervention. We collected qualitative data through non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and internal documents to describe the process and content of the lean intervention. We then analyzed empirical findings using four theoretical lean principles (Spear and Bowen 1999) to understand how and why the intervention worked in its local context as well as to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Results Improvements in waiting and lead times (19-24%) were achieved and sustained in the two years following lean-inspired changes to employee roles, staffing and scheduling, communication and coordination, expertise, workspace layout, and problem solving. These changes resulted in improvement because they: (a) standardized work and reduced ambiguity, (b) connected people who were dependent on one another, (c) enhanced seamless, uninterrupted flow through the process, and (d) empowered staff to investigate problems and to develop countermeasures using a "scientific method". Contextual factors that may explain why not even greater improvement was achieved included: a mismatch between job tasks, licensing constraints, and competence; a perception of being monitored, and discomfort with inter-professional collaboration. Conclusions Drawing on Spear and Bowen's theoretical propositions, this study explains how a package of lean-like changes translated into better care process management. It adds new knowledge regarding how lean principles can be beneficially applied in healthcare and identifies changes to professional roles as a potential challenge when introducing lean thinking there. This knowledge may enable health care organizations and managers in other settings to configure their own lean program and to better understand the reasons behind lean's success (or failure). PMID:22296919

  9. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador - Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Trace element and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of anorthosites and related rocks, and of younger mafic dikes from Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains in Labrador, Canada are estimated and compared. The effects of crustal component contaminants on the isotopic compositions of the dikes are investigated. The correlation between the isotopic data and the crustal contamination model is studied. It is observed that for Harp Lake the initial Sr ratios are higher and the Nd values are lower than Mealy samples, and the data do not correspond to the crustal contamination model; however, the Pb isotope data favor a crustal contamination model. It is noted that the Labrador segment of the Grenville Front appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton, and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture.

  10. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador - Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Trace element and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of anorthosites and related rocks, and of younger mafic dikes from Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains in Labrador, Canada are estimated and compared. The effects of crustal component contaminants on the isotopic compositions of the dikes are investigated. The correlation between the isotopic data and the crustal contamination model is studied. It is observed that for Harp Lake the initial Sr ratios are higher and the Nd values are lower than Mealy samples, and the data do not correspond to the crustal contamination model; however, the Pb isotope data favor a crustal contamination model. It is noted that the Labrador segment of the Grenville Front appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton, and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture.

  11. How does lean work in emergency care? A case study of a lean-inspired intervention at the Astrid Lindgren Children's hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Holden, Richard J; Brommels, Mats; Aronsson, Håkan; Bäckman, Ulrika; Elg, Mattias; Thor, Johan

    2012-02-01

    There is growing interest in applying lean thinking in healthcare, yet, there is still limited knowledge of how and why lean interventions succeed (or fail). To address this gap, this in-depth case study examines a lean-inspired intervention in a Swedish pediatric Accident and Emergency department. We used a mixed methods explanatory single case study design. Hospital performance data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical process control techniques to assess changes in performance one year before and two years after the intervention. We collected qualitative data through non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and internal documents to describe the process and content of the lean intervention. We then analyzed empirical findings using four theoretical lean principles (Spear and Bowen 1999) to understand how and why the intervention worked in its local context as well as to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Improvements in waiting and lead times (19-24%) were achieved and sustained in the two years following lean-inspired changes to employee roles, staffing and scheduling, communication and coordination, expertise, workspace layout, and problem solving. These changes resulted in improvement because they: (a) standardized work and reduced ambiguity, (b) connected people who were dependent on one another, (c) enhanced seamless, uninterrupted flow through the process, and (d) empowered staff to investigate problems and to develop countermeasures using a "scientific method". Contextual factors that may explain why not even greater improvement was achieved included: a mismatch between job tasks, licensing constraints, and competence; a perception of being monitored, and discomfort with inter-professional collaboration. Drawing on Spear and Bowen's theoretical propositions, this study explains how a package of lean-like changes translated into better care process management. It adds new knowledge regarding how lean principles can be beneficially applied in healthcare and identifies changes to professional roles as a potential challenge when introducing lean thinking there. This knowledge may enable health care organizations and managers in other settings to configure their own lean program and to better understand the reasons behind lean's success (or failure).

  12. Laser cooling of a stored ion beam: A first step towards crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hangst, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses: a brief introduction to storage rings; crystalline beams; laser cooling of ion beams; description of astrid-the experimental setup; first experiments with lithium 7 ion beam; experiments with erbium 166 ion beams; further experiments with lithium 7 ion beams; beam dynamics, laser cooling,and crystalline beams in astrid; possibilities for further study in astrid.

  13. Molecular Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) lesteri from the Republic of South Korea and its Genetic Identity with An. (Ano.) anthropophagus from China (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-08

    genus Anopheles (Beebe et al. 1999; Fritz 1998; Marinucci et al. 1999; Paskewitz et al. 1993; Wilkerson et al. In press). Morphological...Control Association, 16, 189- 198. Marinucci , M., Romi, R., Mancini, P., Di, L.M. & Severini, C. (1999) Phylogenetic relationships of seven

  14. Romani Women and Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ainhoa; Oliver, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The Romani community has traditionally been excluded from many spaces of participation, in many cases within the labour market and education. In this article, the authors analyse the situation of the Romani community, focusing especially on the reality of Romi who have been the catalysts of profound change for themselves as women and their…

  15. Literacy in the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Geoff

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the following books: "The Politics of Writing," (Romy Clark, Roz Ivanic); "Literacy in Society," (Ruqaiya Hasan, Geoff Williams); "Text, Role, and Context: Developing Academic Literacies" (Ann M. Johns); "Changing Literacies" by (Colin Lankshear with James Paul Gee, Michele Knobel, Chris Searle); and…

  16. 76 FR 7560 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... Conformity Determinations for Federally Funded and Approved Transportation Plans, Programs and Projects.../epahome/dockets.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Astrid Larsen, State Measures and Conformity Group...: Transportation Conformity Determinations for Federally Funded and Approved Transportation Plans, Programs...

  17. 76 FR 63575 - Transportation Conformity Rule: MOVES Regional Grace Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... CONTACT: Meg Patulski, State Measures and Conformity Group, Transportation and Regional Programs Division...; fax number: (734) 214-4052; e- mail address: patulski.meg@epa.gov ; or Astrid Larsen, State...

  18. 77 FR 11394 - Transportation Conformity Rule: MOVES Regional Grace Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... number for the Air and Radiation Docket is (202) 566-1742. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Meg Patulski...: (734) 214-4052; email address: patulski.meg@epa.gov ; or Astrid Larsen, State Measures...

  19. 76 FR 63554 - Transportation Conformity Rule: MOVES Regional Grace Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Meg Patulski, State Measures and Conformity Group, Transportation and Regional Programs...: (734) 214-4842; fax number: (734) 214-4052; e- mail address: patulski.meg@epa.gov ; or Astrid...

  20. The Interpretation and Application of Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models; and Computerized Testing in the Instructional Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    MIRT included the definition of descriptive statistics for items that require more than an ability for successful completion, the evaluation of...Psychologisch Onderzoek University of Florida Rekruterings -En Selectiecentrum Gainesville, FL 32605 Kwartier Koningen Astrid Bruijnstraat Dr. Erling B

  1. Swedish Small Satellites Investigate the Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Göran; André, Mats; Lundin, Rickard

    2004-04-01

    The Swedish small satellite program-which began in the mid-1980s-has been recognized internationally as cost-efficient and scientifically successful, and the results have contributed significantly to the progress in auroral research. The program comprises six research satellites to date, five of which were auroral or space plasma missions. Viking and Freja made substantial and sometimes pioneering contributions to the understanding of the aurora. The smaller satellites Astrid, Astrid-2, and Munin proved powerful both for testing new space technologies and instruments and for providing high-quality scientific data.

  2. Negative impact of self-stigmatization on attitude toward medication adherence in patients with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Christina; Kaehler, Janis; Harris, Margret S H; Unser, Julia; Arolt, Volker; Lencer, Rebekka

    2014-09-01

    Up to 75% of patients suffering from schizophrenia do not take their antipsychotic medication in the way it is prescribed. Nonadherence has been shown to be associated with poorer therapy outcomes, higher hospitalization rates, and increased costs for health care systems. One important contributing factor to negative attitudes toward medication adherence may be self-stigmatization. 23 inpatients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, all receiving antipsychotic treatment, were assessed for attitude toward medication adherence (using the Rating of Medication Influences [ROMI] scale), subjective well-being under medication (using the Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptics Scale), and self-stigmatization (using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Inventory). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to predict attitude toward medication adherence from demographic and clinical data and level of self-stigmatization. Patients' gender and their level of self-stigmatization explained 29% of the variance in total attitude toward medication. Inclusion of the self-stigmatization subscore for alienation resulted in an increase of explained variance to 36%. Follow-up analyses of the ROMI pro-adherence subscale scores revealed no correlations with any assessed variables. In contrast, 70% of the variance in the ROMI nonadherence subscale scores was explained by greater alienation, higher number of experienced side effects, less subjective well-being under medication, and female gender. Our findings imply that reducing the extent of self-stigmatization, especially the feeling of being alienated from society, could improve a negative attitude toward medication adherence in psychosis patients. Cognitive-behavioral therapy offers a variety of therapeutic strategies that could support patients in developing a more positive self-image and in more readily accepting antipsychotic medication as a tool for reaching personal life goals.

  3. Accuracy of five electronic foramen locators with different operating systems: an ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    de VASCONCELOS, Bruno Carvalho; BUENO, Michelli de Medeiros; LUNA-CRUZ, Suyane Maria; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; FERNANDES, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, ex vivo, the precision of five electronic root canal length measurement devices (ERCLMDs) with different operating systems: the Root ZX, Mini Apex Locator, Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15, and the possible influence of the positioning of the instrument tips short of the apical foramen. Material and Methods: Forty-two mandibular bicuspids had their real canal lengths (RL) previously determined. Electronic measurements were performed 1.0 mm short of the apical foramen (-1.0), followed by measurements at the apical foramen (0.0). The data resulting from the comparison of the ERCLMD measurements and the RL were evaluated by the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests at a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering the measurements performed at 0.0 and -1.0, the precision rates for the ERCLMDs were: 73.5% and 47.1% (Root ZX), 73.5% and 55.9% (Mini Apex Locator), 67.6% and 41.1% (Propex II), 61.7% and 44.1% (iPex), and 79.4% and 44.1% (RomiApex A-15), respectively, considering ±0.5 mm of tolerance. Regarding the mean discrepancies, no differences were observed at 0.0; however, in the measurements at -1.0, the iPex, a multi-frequency ERCLMD, had significantly more discrepant readings short of the apical foramen than the other devices, except for the Propex II, which had intermediate results. When the ERCLMDs measurements at -1.0 were compared with those at 0.0, the Propex II, iPex and RomiApex A-15 presented significantly higher discrepancies in their readings. Conclusions: Under the conditions of the present study, all the ERCLMDs provided acceptable measurements at the 0.0 position. However, at the -1.0 position, the ERCLMDs had a lower precision, with statistically significant differences for the Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15. PMID:23739852

  4. Is "Gender-Sensitive Education" a Useful Concept for Educational Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article responds to Astrid Sinnes and Marianne Løken's article "Gendered education in a gendered world: Looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science" by exploring the idea of "gender-sensitive" education and its usefulness in educational policy. It draws on theoretical discussions of the concept of…

  5. Training and Organization for COIN Conflicts: A Historic Perspective With Contemporary Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    the Seti Kandow Pass of Paktya; the pass sits astride the only road capable of mechanized transit between Gardez and Khost. In early 1979, the...training/certification, but were sporadically available to service a conventional Cavalry unit. Finally, Paktya is isolated due to geography; the Seti

  6. STS-58 crewmembers participate in baseline data collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-09-29

    S93-45371 (29 Sept 1993) --- Astride the bicycle ergometer, Martin J. (Marty) Fettman, DVM, breathes quietly into the cardiovascular re-breathing unit during the resting phase of an experiment. The payload specialist for the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-2) mission was participating with six NASA astronauts, also assigned to STS-58, for data collection and training.

  7. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  9. Nutrient and sediment transport in streams of the Lake Tahoe basin: a 30-year retrospective

    Treesearch

    Robert Coats

    2004-01-01

    Lake Tahoe, widely renowned for its astounding clarity and deep blue color, lies at an elevation of 1,898 meters (m) in the central Sierra Nevada, astride the California-Nevada border. The volume of the lake is 156 cubic kilometers (km3), and its surface area is 501 square kilometers (km2), 38 percent of the total basin...

  10. Guidon-Watch: A Graphic Interface for Viewing a Knowledge-Based System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    numbers are far from precise and should be interpreted as falling in several categories: definite , strongly suggestive, suggestive, weakly suggestive or...Davida Charney Technicl Drecor, A Rekrutering - Selectiecentru Department of Psychology 51 Eisenhowr Avenue Kwrtier Koningen Astrid Carnegie-Mellon

  11. Conjunctive Item Response Theory Kernels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    weighted-sum sufficient statistics of the form (24) by replacing Vw with a nondiagonal positive definite matrix. Finally, estima- tion and hypothesis... Rekruterings -En Selectiecentrum Studiestraede 6 Kwartier Koningen Astrid 1455 Copenhagen Bruijnstraat DENMARK 1120 Brussels, BELGIUM Dr. Phipps Arabie

  12. Comparative Accuracy of Five Indices of Dimensionality of Binary Items.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    variates. The model in this section is converted to binary measures. (Each individual has a measure (score) on each 0o 7 of the k dimensions.) Definitions ...Resources Lab Cdt. Arnold Bohrer AFHRL/MPD Sectie Psychologisch Onderzoek Brooks AFB, TX 78235 Rekruterings -En Selectiecentrum Kwartier Koningen Astrid Dr

  13. Earth Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-05

    ISS032-E-015055 (5 Aug. 2012) --- One of the Expedition 32 crew members aboard the International Space Station recorded this nighttime image of Portugal featuring Porto (left) and Vila Nova de Gaia (right) astride the Douro River on the northwestern coast. For orientation purposes, the top is almost due east.

  14. Is "Gender-Sensitive Education" a Useful Concept for Educational Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article responds to Astrid Sinnes and Marianne Løken's article "Gendered education in a gendered world: Looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science" by exploring the idea of "gender-sensitive" education and its usefulness in educational policy. It draws on theoretical discussions of the concept of…

  15. ARC-2007-ACD07-0145-023

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-01

    NASA Officials gather at Ames Research Center to discuss Spaceship development progress. Constellation is developing the Orion spacecraft and Ares rockets to support an American return to the moon by 2020. (with front right, Eric James, NASA-EX on camera, Ed Schilling, NASA video producer in distance with Astrid Olson, NASA Ames PAO)

  16. "Pippi Longstocking" and the Subversive Affirmation of Comedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the character of Pippi Longstocking, created in the 1940s by Swedish author Astrid Lindgren. Argues that Pippi is a kind of clown-magician, courageous, exuberant, and unflappable. Shows how, by living life on her own terms, Pippi's comedy both subverts the trappings of adult society and affirms the possibility of a better world. (SR)

  17. 78 FR 12356 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ..., BOLIVIA; Caribbean Knowledge & Learning Network (CKLN), St George's, GRENADA; ClickSoftware, Inc..., UNITED ARAB EMIRATES; Digicel Fiji, Suva, FIJI; George Mason University, Fairfax, VA; i Engineering Group...: Istanbul Bilgi University, Istanbul, TURKEY; 3Consulting, Lagos, NIGERIA; A.S.T.R.I.D. SA/NV,...

  18. The Jurassic history of the Africa-Antarctica corridor — new constraints from magnetic data on the conjugate continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinweber, Volker Thor; Jokat, Wilfried

    2012-03-01

    Finding the best fit for East- and West-Gondwana requires a detailed knowledge of the initial Jurassic movements between Africa and Antarctica. This study presents results of systematic and densely spaced aeromagnetic measurements, which have been conducted in 2009/2010 across the Astrid Ridge (Antarctica) and in the western Riiser-Larsen Sea to provide constraints for the early seafloor spreading history between both continents. The data reveal different magnetic signatures of the northern and southern parts of the Astrid Ridge, which are separated by the Astrid Fracture Zone. The southern part is weakly magnetised, corresponding to the low amplitude anomaly field of the southwestern Riiser-Larsen Sea. In contrast, the northern Astrid Ridge bears strong anomalies of positive value. Furthermore, several sets of trends are visible in the data. In the Mozambique Channel, we extended the existing magnetic spreading anomaly identifications. Combined with the spreading anomalies in the conjugate Riiser-Larsen Sea, they were used to establish a new model of the relative movements of Africa and Antarctica after the breakup of Gondwana in Jurassic times. A detailed model for the emplacement of the Mozambique Ridge is now incorporated. The model postulates a tight fit between Africa and Antarctica and two stages of breakup, the first of which lasting until ~ 159 Ma (M33n). During this stage, Antarctica rotated anticlockwise with respect to Africa. The Grunehogna Craton cleared the Coastal Plains of Mozambique to a position east of the Mozambique Fracture Zone. The southern Astrid Ridge is interpreted to consist of oceanic crust, also formed during this first stage, prior to the Riiser-Larsen Sea. During the second stage, Antarctica moved southward with respect to Africa forming the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate Riiser-Larsen Sea. The Mozambique Ridge and the Northern Natal Valley were formed at different spreading centres being active subsequently.

  19. Pulsed neutron fields measurements around a synchrotron storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, Marco; Ballerini, Marcello; Ulfbeck, David Garf; Hertel, Niels; Manessi, Giacomo Paolo; Søgaard, Carsten

    2017-09-01

    A measurement campaign was performed for characterizing the neutron ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), in selected positions at ISA, Aarhus, Denmark, around the ASTRID and ASTRID2 storage rings. The neutron stray radiation field is characterized here by very intense radiation bursts with a low repetition rate, which result in a comparatively low average H*(10) rate. As a consequence, devices specifically conceived for operating in pulsed neutron fields must be employed for efficiently measuring in this radiation environment, in order to avoid severe underestimations of the H*(10) rate. The measurements were performed with the ELSE NUCLEAR LUPIN 5401 BF3-NP rem counter, a detector characterized by an innovative working principle that is not affected by dead time losses. This allowed characterizing both the H*(10) and the time structure of the radiation field in the pre-selected positions.

  20. Outstanding student papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olle Norberg was honored for his presentation of “The Astrid Microsatellite Mission—An Attempt at Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging.” Norberg received a M.Sc. (1988) in engineering physics from the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. He is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in space plasma physics at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden, where he is a research assistant. His research interests include the study of magnetospheric plasmas, and space plasma instrumentation. He has been studying the hot plasma data from the Phobos-2 Mars mission and the Freja mission. Norberg was a principal investigator on the Swedish Astrid-1 mission, launched in January 1995 to study neutral atoms generated in the ring current.

  1. Error-free command link for sounding rockets and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringstrand, Hans

    2003-08-01

    The Swedish Space Corporation has developed an error-free command uplink system for sounding rockets and satellites. The system architecture allows for safe command transmission without any time penalties during normal operation, and it recovers fast and wholly transparent from transmission errors without any user or operator interaction. The implementation is partly based on the CCSDS recommendations regarding satellite uplinks, but modified to better suit the PCM-based downlink systems, normally used for sounding rockets systems and small satellites. The system has proven extremely efficient and reliable during several small- and micro satellite projects such as ODIN, TeleFoton and Astrid-2. This paper presents the system architecture and shows the details for the implementations used in the Swedish scientific satellites ODIN and Astrid-2.

  2. Land Ownership and Migration: Impact on the Muslim Secessionist Conflict in the Southern Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    History and Political Organization,” in The Muslim Filipinos, ed. Peter G. Gowing and Robert D. McAmis,(Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House, 1974), 11...in the Philippines: An Historical Perspectives,” in The Muslim Filipinos, ed. Peter G. Gowing and Robert D. McAmis, (Manila: Solidaridad Publishing...Immovable Objects” in The Muslim Filipinos ed. Peter G. Gowing and Robert D. McAmis, (Manila: Solidaridad Publishing House, 1974), ix. 38 Astrid S

  3. European Science Notes Information Bulletin. Reports on Current European and Middle Eastern Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    the Marine Physics Branch, Marine Geosciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory KEYWORDS: Reykjanes Ridge ; mid-ocean ridge (s); ground-truth...manner. The way, and the structure of the seafloor is interpreted Reykjanes Ridge is located astride the robust Ice- from compiled maps and images...MAR) (- 11 percent of the total ocean floor) to unsurveyed mm/year half-rate at 600 N). 1 The Reykjanes is areas. not a typical spreading ridge . 2

  4. Ultrareliable PACS: design and clinical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goble, John C.; Kronander, Torbjorn; Wilske, Nils-Olof; Yngvesson, Jonas T.; Ejderholm, Henrik; Ekstrom, Marie

    1999-07-01

    We describe our experience in the design, installation and clinical evaluation o fan ultra-reliable PACS - a system in which the fundamental design constraint was system availability. This syste has ben constructed using commercial, off-the-shelf hardware and software, using an open system, standards-based approach. The system is deployed in the film-free Department of Pediatric Radiology at the Astrid Lindgren Barnsjukhus a nit of the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden.

  5. Is `gender-sensitive education' a useful concept for educational policy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forde, Christine

    2014-06-01

    This article responds to Astrid Sinnes and Marianne Løken's article `Gendered education in a gendered world: Looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science' by exploring the idea of `gender-sensitive' education and its usefulness in educational policy. It draws on theoretical discussions of the concept of gender and of difference to consider ways in which `gender-sensitive' education might serve the task of promoting equality and justice.

  6. Off-Road Mobility Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-09-01

    similitude sense, but only to possess the same general vehicle/terrain interaction mechanism, as characterized by the mathematical equations under...ground and no dry season. It lies astride the equator , going farther poleward on the east sides of continents. It also occurs on western -63- VJ-2330-G...34•30G linlinary p(SXP) estimiates. The proposed equation satisfies the assumed bounda rv condit ions to th o following extent- 0. 9L) for /1 Z 17, 000

  7. Chesapeake Bay, Potomac River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The nation's capital lies astride the Potomac River (38.5N, 77.5W) at the head of the Potomac Estuary. Baltimore, MD, also in the scene, is connected to Washington by the Baltimore-Washington Parkway. The suburbs of both cities tend to cluster around the Washington and Baltimore Beltways. Most of the countryside in the eastern two-thirds of this scene is either heavily forested or is in farming, dairy operations or poultry production.

  8. Colored-noise-induced discontinuous transitions in symbiotic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankin, Romi; Sauga, Ako; Ainsaar, Ain; Haljas, Astrid; Paunel, Kristiina

    2004-06-01

    A symbiotic ecosystem is studied by means of the Lotka-Volterra stochastic model, using the generalized Verhulst self-regulation. The effect of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity of a population is taken into account as dichotomous noise. The study is a follow-up of our investigation of symbiotic ecosystems subjected to three-level (trichotomous) noise [

    R. Mankin, A. Ainsaar, A. Haljas, and E. Reiter, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051108 (2002)
    ]. Relying on the mean-field theory, an exact self-consistency equation for stationary states is derived. In some cases the mean field exhibits hysteresis as a function of noise parameters. It is established that random interactions with the environment can cause discontinuous transitions. The dependence of the critical coupling strengths on the noise parameters is found and illustrated by phase diagrams. Predictions from the mean-field theory are compared with the results of numerical simulations. Our results provide a possible scenario for catastrophic shifts of population sizes observed in nature.

  9. Improvements in muscle symmetry in children with cerebral palsy after equine-assisted therapy (hippotherapy).

    PubMed

    Benda, William; McGibbon, Nancy H; Grant, Kathryn L

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of hippotherapy (physical therapy utilizing the movement of a horse) on muscle activity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Pretest/post-test control group. Therapeutic Riding of Tucson (TROT), Tucson, AZ. Fifteen (15) children ranging from 4 to 12 years of age diagnosed with spastic cerebral palsy. Children meeting inclusion criteria were randomized to either 8 minutes of hippotherapy or 8 minutes astride a stationary barrel. Remote surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscle activity of the trunk and upper legs during sitting, standing, and walking tasks before and after each intervention. After hippotherapy, significant improvement in symmetry of muscle activity was noted in those muscle groups displaying the highest asymmetry prior to hippotherapy. No significant change was noted after sitting astride a barrel. Eight minutes of hippotherapy, but not stationary sitting astride a barrel, resulted in improved symmetry in muscle activity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These results suggest that the movement of the horse rather than passive stretching accounts for the measured improvements.

  10. A Structural Weight Estimation Program (SWEEP) for Aircraft. Volume VI - Wing and Empennage Module. Appendix E: Program Listings, Overlays (8,0), (14, 0), (15,0), (16,0), and (17,0)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    c c c c c ••4DC AIWOh. CCIPTIC"NIS tO WlllllltrG M[A••• ••Ill ... IMIM:MROCX•• •1_, tcJIIICIGNI C4 .C...m•••-nrrn• nrrcat•nrrc~•nna._tnncet nrrcllt .. nrrce•..m~ __ , ____ _ ....... -to_,. e>-•D lfG IUS STAIICIO C4 .C u:. " _I .. c:ao.rs. IR...rttt mi m« m» m* niT m« nif nrHian Mmm MriNtM nruiM« nrui«« MTMM nruiH« nniiMC nruiiN nrHina romi i is nrwnt nrwiit WHIIM muio

  11. Reasons for adherence and nonadherence: a pilot study comparing first- and multi-episode schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Mamta; Weiden, Peter J; Schooler, Nina R; Sunakawa-McMillan, Ayako; Uzenoff, Sarah; Burkholder, Page

    2014-01-01

    Most first-episode schizophrenia patients will stop their medication after their acute symptoms improve. Understanding the salient motivations and attitudes that drive adherence--as well as nonadherence--is an important part of developing strategies to prevent or delay nonadherence during the early phases of the illness. Self-reported reasons for adherence and nonadherence among first-episode and multi-episode patients with schizophrenia were obtained from cross-sectional adherence interviews from two prospective adherence studies: one composed of a first-episode sample (n=33) and the other with recently relapsing multi-episode patients (n=16). Both groups received the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI) Scale at approximately 16 to 20 weeks after an acute psychotic episode. The specific ROMI items were ranked in order of percentage (%) strong, and were compared both within each patient group for rank order of importance, and also compared between groups to determine the differences in specific adherence and nonadherence influences. The doctor-patient relationship was more likely to be endorsed as a strong adherence influence in the first-episode sample (74%) than in the multi-episode sample (13%, X²=18.07, p<.01). Change in physical appearance attributed to medication was a more commonly endorsed nonadherence influence for the multi-episode sample (25%) relative to the first-episode sample (0%, X²=9.2, p<.01). The doctor-patient relationship stands out as being the major reason for ongoing adherence for first-episode schizophrenia patients. Our post hoc interpretation is that lack of prior experience with medication and treatment elevates the importance of the relationship with the treating clinician for first-episode patients.

  12. Southern California landslides-an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Southern California lies astride a major tectonic plate boundary defined by the San Andreas Fault and numerous related faults that are spread across a broad region. This dynamic tectonic environment has created a spectacular landscape of rugged mountains and steep-walled valleys that compose much of the region’s scenic beauty. Unfortunately, this extraordinary landscape also presents serious geologic hazards. Just as tectonic forces are steadily pushing the landscape upward, gravity is relentlessly tugging it downward. When gravity prevails, landslides can occur.

  13. [Echocardiography in acute pulmonary embolism. Not a routine method but useful in the diagnosis of simultaneous hemodynamic disorders].

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, A

    1998-08-19

    Echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism as illustrated by three case reports is discussed in the article. Acute pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by demonstration of right heart strain in one case, of long vermiform thrombi floating in the right atrium in another, and in the third case by demonstration of a long thrombus lodged in the foramen ovale, astride the atrial septum, and with its ends floating in either atrium. Thus, as echocardiography enables pulmonary embolism to be diagnosed by demonstration either of right heart strain or of intracardial thrombi, it is a useful diagnostic tool in cases of haemodynamic compromise, though it does not detect minor pulmonary embolism.

  14. Photoionization Cross Section of Xe{sup +} Ion in the Pure 5p{sup 5} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} Ground Level

    SciTech Connect

    Thissen, R.; Bizau, J. M.; Blancard, C.; Coreno, M.; Franceschi, P.; Giuliani, A.; Nicolas, C.

    2008-06-06

    Coupling an ion trap with synchrotron radiation is shown here to be a powerful approach to measure photoionization cross sections on ionic species relaxed in their ground state. The photoionization efficiency curve of Xe{sup +} ions stored in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance ion trap was recorded at ELETTRA in the 20-23 eV photon energy range. Absolute cross sections were derived by comparison of the photoionization yield of Xe{sup +} with measurements from the ASTRID merged-beam experiment. Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations were performed for the interpretation of these new data.

  15. Acoustic streaming jets: A scaling and dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botton, V. Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Ben-Hadid, H.; Garandet, J. P.

    2015-10-28

    We present our work on acoustic streaming free jets driven by ultrasonic beams in liquids. These jets are steady flows generated far from walls by progressive acoustic waves. As can be seen on figure 1, our set-up, denominated AStrID for Acoustic Streaming Investigation Device, is made of a water tank in which a 29 mm plane source emits continuous ultrasonic waves at typically 2 MHz. Our approach combines an experimental characterization of both the acoustic pressure field (hydrophone) and the obtained acoustic streaming velocity field (PIV visualization) on one hand, with CFD using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on the other hand.

  16. Propulsion of water striders: capillarity and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Feng, James

    2009-11-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the propulsion of water striders. The flow produced by the stroke of the leg is modeled as that around a hydrophobic circular cylinder astride the interface. We use a diffuse-interface model to compute the moving contact line and the interfacial deformation, and to probe the origin of the propulsive force acting on the leg. The movement of the leg produces a significant deformation of the interface: The upstream meniscus is curved by the dynamic pressure, while the downstream meniscus is flattened by the low-pressure wake associated with vortex shedding. Due to this asymmetry, the force produced by interfacial tension dominates the propulsion.

  17. Liquid sodium testing of in-house phased array EMAT transducer for L-wave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bourdais, F.; Le Polles, T.; Baque, F.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an in-house phased array EMAT transducer for longitudinal wave inspection in liquid sodium. The work presented herein is part of an undergoing project aimed at improving in-service inspection techniques for the ASTRID reactor project. The design process of the phased array EMAT probe is briefly explained and followed by a review of experimental test results. We first present test results obtained in the laboratory while the last part of the paper describes the liquid sodium testing and the produced ultrasound images. (authors)

  18. Greenwich, time and 'the line'.

    PubMed

    Higgitt, Rebekah; Dolan, Graham

    2010-03-01

    Ask most visitors to the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, why they have come and they will tell you that they want to stand on 'the line'. Press them further and they might add something about standing astride longitude zero, one foot in the eastern hemisphere and one in the west. Few know how the Prime Meridian of the world comes to pass through Greenwich, or even realise that the line is there because of the observatory, rather than vice versa. But the line, of course, has a history, as does the public's response to it. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid rocket booster thermal radiation model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, G. H.; Lee, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    A solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal radiation model, capable of defining the influence of the plume flowfield structure on the magnitude and distribution of thermal radiation leaving the plume, was prepared and documented. Radiant heating rates may be calculated for a single SRB plume or for the dual SRB plumes astride the space shuttle. The plumes may be gimbaled in the yaw and pitch planes. Space shuttle surface geometries are simulated with combinations of quadric surfaces. The effect of surface shading is included. The computer program also has the capability to calculate view factors between the SRB plumes and space shuttle surfaces as well as surface-to-surface view factors.

  20. Chesapeake Bay, Potomac River

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-393 (22 June 1973) --- The nation's capital lies astride the Potomac River (38.5N, 77.5W) at the head of the Potomac Estuary. Baltimore, MD, also in the scene, is connected to Washington by the Baltimore-Washington Parkway. The suburbs of both cities tend to cluster around the Washington and Baltimore Beltways. Most of the countryside in the eastern two-thirds of this scene is either heavily forested or is in farming, dairy operations or poultry production. Photo credit: NASA

  1. A technique of direct tracing for recording digital range of motion.

    PubMed

    Macionis, Valdas

    2008-04-01

    This report describes a technique for recording range of motion of digital joints. The technique involves tracing digital outlines with an angled marker on a sheet of paper attached to a special interray pad. A complete dorsal silhouette of the entire ray can be obtained by mounting the pad and the paper astride the palm parallel to the ray of the digit being evaluated. Fabrication and use of the equipment is described. This silhouetting system could be an alternative to wire tracing in visualizing tendencies of dynamics of digital range of motion.

  2. Exotic minerals in 3,500 million year old rocks: Evidence for large meteorite impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byerly, G. R.; Lowe, D. R.; Asaro, F.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively small area of mountainous terrain in southern Africa provides scientists from all over the world a look at what the surface of the earth was like three and a half billion years ago. The Barberton Mountains lie astride the borders of the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Swaziland. The discovery of several widely distributed deposits that were likely formed by major terrestrial impacts of large extraterrestrial bodies during this early period of earth's history is reported. The Barberton impact deposits are being studied by electron microscopy. The impact deposits were examined for minerals that show the effects of shock metamorphism or compositions unusual in terrestrial rocks.

  3. Acoustic streaming jets: A scaling and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botton, V.; Moudjed, B.; Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Ben-Hadid, H.; Garandet, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    We present our work on acoustic streaming free jets driven by ultrasonic beams in liquids. These jets are steady flows generated far from walls by progressive acoustic waves. As can be seen on figure 1, our set-up, denominated AStrID for Acoustic Streaming Investigation Device, is made of a water tank in which a 29 mm plane source emits continuous ultrasonic waves at typically 2 MHz. Our approach combines an experimental characterization of both the acoustic pressure field (hydrophone) and the obtained acoustic streaming velocity field (PIV visualization) on one hand, with CFD using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on the other hand.

  4. Investigation of Nuclear Data Libraries with TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo Code for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.-K.; Brun, E.

    2014-04-01

    The Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor ASTRID is currently under design and development in France. Traditional ECCO/ERANOS fast reactor code system used for ASTRID core design calculations relies on multi-group JEFF-3.1.1 data library. To gauge the use of ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data libraries in the fast reactor applications, two recent OECD/NEA computational benchmarks specified by Argonne National Laboratory were calculated. Using the continuous-energy TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo transport code, both ABR-1000 MWth MOX core and metallic (U-Pu) core were investigated. Under two different fast neutron spectra and two data libraries, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1, reactivity impact studies were performed. Using JEFF-3.1.1 library under the BOEC (Beginning of equilibrium cycle) condition, high reactivity effects of 808 ± 17 pcm and 1208 ± 17 pcm were observed for ABR-1000 MOX core and metallic core respectively. To analyze the causes of these differences in reactivity, several TRIPOLI-4 runs using mixed data libraries feature allow us to identify the nuclides and the nuclear data accounting for the major part of the observed reactivity discrepancies.

  5. Crustal Magnetization Model of Maud Rise in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; vanFrese, Ralph R. B.; Golynsky, Alexander V.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2004-01-01

    We modeled the crustal magnetization for the Maud Rise in the south-west Indian Ocean off the coast of East Antarctica using magnetic observations from the Oersted satellite and near-surface surveys complied by the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP). A new inversion modeling scheme of the multi-altitude anomaly fields suggests that the magnetic effects due to crustal thickness variations and remanence involving the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) become increasingly dominant with altitude. The magnetic crustal thickness effects were modeled in the Oersted data using crustal thickness variations derived from satellite altitude gravity data. Remanent magnetization modeling of the residual Oersted and near-surface magnetic anomalies supports extending the KQZ eastwards to the Astrid Ridge. The remaining near-surface anomalies involve crustal features with relatively high frequency effects that are strongly attenuated at satellite altitudes. The crustal modeling can be extended by the satellite magnetic anomalies across the Indian Ocean Ridge for insight on the crustal properties of the conjugate Agulhas Plateau. The modeling supports the Jurassic reconstruction of Gondwana when the African Limpopo-Zambezi and East Antarctic Princess Astrid coasts were connected as part of a relatively demagnetized crustal block.

  6. Ways of improvement for the materials of sodium cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, E.

    2012-07-01

    The French sodium cooled prototype reactor ASTRID will take into account 'Generation IV' requirements, especially a long operational life-time (60 years) and a high efficiency. The good behavior of austenitic steel AISI316L(N), should be confirmed for a use, in moderately irradiated and unirradiated parts of ASTRID. Parts recovered from dismantled French sodium-cooled reactors will be characterized. Further experiments must be carried out concerning ageing of these components. Other materials will be chosen for fuel wrapping and cladding, in order to reduce creep and swelling under irradiation, (either conventional, or oxide-dispersed strengthened steels (ODSS). Corrosion of ODSS in the presence of sodium needs a serious assessment The lifetime of primary pumps components made of Duplex steels should also be assessed. The disruptions in steam generator tubes should be minimized and controlled; therefore, optimised designs and geometries must be established before defining the corresponding materials. Either Modified 9Cr1Mo or Incoloy 800H, might be candidates;it will be necessary to check whether austenitic steels are compatible with Modified 9Cr1Mo or Incoloy 800H in the same circuit. For all materials, the best manufacturing processes must be combined with thermal, mechanical treatments; calculations of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) might be used to optimise both treatments and chemical compositions. (authors)

  7. Swedish small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, K.; von Scheele, F.

    2004-11-01

    In 1986 the first Swedish small satellite VIKING was launched on the Ariane 1 rocket together with the French remote sensing satellite SPOT-1. This paper describes the development of Swedish small satellites in an international framework. The satellites have delivered excellent scientific data to a low cost by using e.g. streamlined project organisations, competitive procurement programs and piggy-back launch opportunities. The first micro satellite Astrid-1 was launched in January 1995 and was followed by the launch of Astrid-2 in December 1998. The capable Odin small satellite was launched in February 2001. SSC was also contracted for ESA's SMART-1 probe destined to the Moon. SMART-1, launched in September 2003, is used for both research and as a technology demonstrator for future projects. Future proposed projects include micro and small satellites for climate research as the Atmosphere and Climate Explorer Plus (ACE+), the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange And climate Monitor (STEAM) and PRISMA, a technology demonstrator for formation flying, new propulsion system and commercial development methods.

  8. Women's involvement in population and development policies.

    PubMed

    Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1980-10-01

    Too many development and family planning policymakers have regarded women as target consumers rather than as active participants in their own development. Women need more than contraceptives. They need opportunities to learn income-generating skills, to develop leadership, and to be involved in the choice of contraceptives. 2 examples of women's development are cited from Brazil. Romy Medeiros da Fonseca, lawyer and President of the National Council of Women, fights for women's rights to a full range of state-financed family planning services and liberalized abortion laws. Abortion in Brazil is available to those who can afford it. The Servicio de Orientacao da Familia (SOF) was founded in 1963 by professional women in Sao Paulo. In their pleasant clinic, women are seen by nurses, doctors, social workers, and psychologists. A monthly publication details upcoming events which include sewing, handicraft lessons, and literacy courses. In 1979 the 3,000 members used over 25,000 services from the clinic. Much of the professional staff volunteers their time. The "global approach" to women's development is endorsed by numerous women leaders of various ideological persuasions. Clients pay according to their ability. The organization receives little or no money other than from its members. In the 1980's planning, legislating, organizing and implementing programs will be done by women as agents and participants, not as passive consumers.

  9. The case for 6-component ground motion observations in planetary seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Rakshit; van Driel, Martin; Donner, Stefanie; Nunn, Ceri; Wassermann, Joachim; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    The imminent INSIGHT mission will place a single seismic station on Mars to learn more about the structure of the Martian interior. Due to cost and difficulty, only single stations are currently feasible for planetary missions. We show that future single station missions should also measure rotational ground motions, in addition to the classic 3 components of translational motion. The joint, collocated, 6 component (6C) observations offer access to additional information that can otherwise only be obtained through seismic array measurements or are associated with large uncertainties. An example is the access to local phase velocity information from measurements of amplitude ratios of translations and rotations. When surface waves are available, this implies (in principle) that 1D velocity models can be estimated from Love wave dispersion curves. In addition, rotational ground motion observations can distinguish between Love and Rayleigh waves as well as S and P type motions. Wave propagation directions can be estimated by maximizing (or minimizing) coherence between translational and rotational motions. In combination with velocity-depth estimates, locations of seismic sources can be determined from a single station with little or no prior knowledge of the velocity structure. We demonstrate these points with both theoretical and real data examples using the vertical component of motion from ring laser recordings at Wettzell and all components of motion from the ROMY ring near Munich. Finally, we present the current state of technology concerning portable rotation sensors and discuss the relevance to planetary seismology.

  10. ELISA: a unified, multidimensional view of the protein domain universe.

    PubMed

    Shakhnovich, Boris E; Harvey, John Max; Delisi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    ELISA (http://romi.bu.edu/elisa/) is a database that was designed for flexibility in defining interesting queries about protein domain evolution. We have defined and included both the inherent characteristics of the domains such as structure and function and comparisons of these characteristics between domains. Thus, the database is useful in defining structural and functional links between related protein domains and by extension sequences that encode them. In this database we introduce and employ a novel method of functional annotation and comparison. For each protein domain we create a probabilistic functional annotation tree using GO. We have designed an algorithm that accurately compares these trees and thus provides a measure of "functional distance" between two protein domains. Along with functional annotation, we have also included structural comparison between protein domains and best sequence comparisons to all known genomes. The latter enables researchers to dynamically do searches for domains sharing similar phylogenetic profiles. This combination of data and tools enables the researcher to design complex queries to carry out research in the areas of protein domain evolution, structure prediction and functional annotation of novel sequences.

  11. Sex Differences in Severity, Social Functioning, Adherence to Treatment, and Cognition of Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have reported sex differences in the clinical presentation and outcome of adult patients with schizophrenia; the aim of present study was to compare the clinical characteristics, social functioning, adherence to treatment, and cognition of adolescents with this diagnosis in a six-month followup. Methods. A total of 87 adolescents with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), and the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI). Results. Both groups showed a similar improvement in all PANSS factors and in the PSP scores during the followup. Males better adhered to treatment. Females displayed better results in the area of social cognition (F = 6.3, df = 2,52, and p = 0.003) and attention/vigilance (F = 8.3, df = 2,51, and p = 0.001). Conclusions. Male and female adolescents showed similar clinical presentation and functioning but a different pattern of cognitive improvement and adherence to treatment. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov II3/02/0811.‏ PMID:27703813

  12. Sex Differences in Severity, Social Functioning, Adherence to Treatment, and Cognition of Adolescents with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garza, Rodolfo; Victoria-Figueroa, Gamaliel; Ulloa-Flores, Rosa Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have reported sex differences in the clinical presentation and outcome of adult patients with schizophrenia; the aim of present study was to compare the clinical characteristics, social functioning, adherence to treatment, and cognition of adolescents with this diagnosis in a six-month followup. Methods. A total of 87 adolescents with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), and the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI). Results. Both groups showed a similar improvement in all PANSS factors and in the PSP scores during the followup. Males better adhered to treatment. Females displayed better results in the area of social cognition (F = 6.3, df = 2,52, and p = 0.003) and attention/vigilance (F = 8.3, df = 2,51, and p = 0.001). Conclusions. Male and female adolescents showed similar clinical presentation and functioning but a different pattern of cognitive improvement and adherence to treatment. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov II3/02/0811.‏.

  13. The fiber optic gyroscope - a portable rotational ground motion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassermann, J. M.; Bernauer, F.; Guattari, F.; Igel, H.

    2016-12-01

    It was already shown that a portable broadband rotational ground motion sensor will have large impact on several fields of seismological research such as volcanology, marine geophysics, seismic tomography and planetary seismology. Here, we present results of tests and experiments with one of the first broadband rotational motion sensors available. BlueSeis-3A, is a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) especially designed for the needs of seismology, developed by iXBlue, France, in close collaboration with researchers financed by the European Research council project ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology). We first present the instrument characteristics which were estimated by different standard laboratory tests, e.g. self noise using operational range diagrams or Allan deviation. Next we present the results of a field experiment which was designed to demonstrate the value of a 6C measurement (3 components of translation and 3 components of rotation). This field test took place at Mt. Stromboli volcano, Italy, and is accompanied by seismic array installation to proof the FOG output against more commonly known array derived rotation. As already shown with synthetic data an additional direct measurement of three components of rotation can reduce the ambiguity in source mechanism estimation and can be taken to correct for dynamic tilt of the translational sensors (i.e. seismometers). We can therefore demonstrate that the deployment of a weak motion broadband rotational motion sensor is in fact producing superior results by a reduction of the number of deployed instruments.

  14. BlueSeis3A - full characterization of a 3C broadband rotational ground motion sensor for seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Frenois, Arnaud; Krissou, Rahma; Bigueur, Alexandre; Gaillot, Arnaud; de Toldi, Elliot; Ponceau, Damien; Guattari, Frederic; Igel, Heiner

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution we present a full characterization of the first three component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG) especially designed for the needs of seismology. The sensor is called BlueSeis3A and is manufactured by iXBlue, France. It is developed in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology). To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of volcanology, ocean bottom seismology and geophysical exploration, a portable rotational motion sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding dynamic range, portability, power consumption and sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature and magnetic field. For BlueSeis3A, power consumption is in an acceptable range for a portable and field deployable instrument. We will quantify sensor self noise by means of operating range diagrams as well as Allan variance and show results from tests on thermal and magnetic sensitivity. Tests on orthogonality and sensitivity to linear motion complete our full characterization.

  15. Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît; Baronian, Vahan

    2014-02-18

    To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  16. Coronal disturbances and their terrestrial effects /Tutorial Lecture/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of recent approaches to the prediction of the interplanetary consequences of coronal disturbances, with attention to the relationships of shocks and energetic particles to coronal transients, of proton events to gamma-ray and microwave bursts, of geomagnetic storms to filament eruptions, and of solar wind increases to the flare site magnetic field direction. A discussion is given concerning the novel phenomenon of transient coronal holes, which appear astride the long decay enhancements of 2-50 A X-ray emission following H-alpha filament eruptions. These voids in the corona are similar to long-lived coronal holes, which are the sources of high speed solar wind streams. The transient coronal holes may also be associated with transient solar wind speed increases.

  17. A study of utilization of photovoltaics for rural electrification in the Republic of Kiribati

    SciTech Connect

    Tani, Takayuki; Takahashi, Masahide; Semba, Hideo; Kashizaki, Kenji; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Wade, H.; Kamiyacho, Shuwa

    1994-12-31

    Kiribati consists of 33 islands in three main groups located in the mid-Pacific, astride both the equator and the International Date Line. The total land area, which amounts to only 725 square km. is distributed over approximately 3.5 million square km. In 1989, the Government of Kiribati had requested the Japanese government for technical assistance for a feasibility study of rural electrification by photovoltaics. According to this request, JICA had sent two preliminary study teams in 1989 and 1991. Then in 1992 JICA decided to implement this study. The paper describes results from the implementation phase which consisted of a preliminary verification of the desire of villages for electrification and the installation and operation of a pilot photovoltaic plant. Performance of the pilot plant is described and recommendations are made.

  18. Thermal radiation model for solid rocket booster plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, G. H.; Lee, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is used to model the thermal radiation field of the plumes for the dual solid rocket boosters astride the Space Shuttle launch configuration. The model accounts for axial and radial variations in radiative properties of the plumes. The plumes are considered to be composed of a dispersion of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles immersed in the gaseous products of combustion. The principal emitting gases are taken to be CO, CO2, H2O, and HCl. The thermal model is based on local thermodynamic equilibrium. Scattering of radiant energy by Al2O3 particles may be treated as isotropic or anisotropic. Sample radiant heating rates to the base region of the Space Shuttle are shown. Space Shuttle geometries are simulated as combinations of quadric surfaces.

  19. In-drop capillary spooling of spider capture thread inspires hybrid fibers with mixed solid–liquid mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Elettro, Hervé; Neukirch, Sébastien; Vollrath, Fritz; Antkowiak, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    An essential element in the web-trap architecture, the capture silk spun by ecribellate orb spiders consists of glue droplets sitting astride a silk filament. Mechanically this thread presents a mixed solid–liquid behavior unknown to date. Under extension, capture silk behaves as a particularly stretchy solid, owing to its molecular nanosprings, but it totally switches behavior in compression to now become liquid-like: It shrinks with no apparent limit while exerting a constant tension. Here, we unravel the physics underpinning the unique behavior of this ”liquid wire” and demonstrate that its mechanical response originates in the shape-switching of the silk filament induced by buckling within the droplets. Learning from this natural example of geometry and mechanics, we manufactured programmable liquid wires that present previously unidentified pathways for the design of new hybrid solid–liquid materials. PMID:27185930

  20. Global ENA Imaging of Earth's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between singly charged ions of Earth's magnetosphere and its neutral exosphere and upper atmosphere gives rise to Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs). This has enabled several missions to remotely image the global injection dynamics of the ring current and plasma sheet, the outflow of ions from Earth's polar regions, and the location of the sub-solar magnetopause. In this presentation we review ENA observations by the Astrid, IMAGE, TWINS and IBEX missions. We focus on results from the IMAGE/HENA Camera including observations of proton and oxygen ion injections in to the ring current and their impact on the force-balance and ionospheric coupling in the inner magnetosphere. We report also on the status of inversion techniques for retrieving the ion spatial and pitch-angle distributions from ENA images. The presentation concludes with a discussion of future next steps in ENA instrumentation and analysis capabilities required to deliver the science as recommended by the Heliophysics Decadal Survey.

  1. In-drop capillary spooling of spider capture thread inspires hybrid fibers with mixed solid-liquid mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elettro, Hervé; Neukirch, Sébastien; Vollrath, Fritz; Antkowiak, Arnaud

    2016-05-01

    An essential element in the web-trap architecture, the capture silk spun by ecribellate orb spiders consists of glue droplets sitting astride a silk filament. Mechanically this thread presents a mixed solid-liquid behavior unknown to date. Under extension, capture silk behaves as a particularly stretchy solid, owing to its molecular nanosprings, but it totally switches behavior in compression to now become liquid-like: It shrinks with no apparent limit while exerting a constant tension. Here, we unravel the physics underpinning the unique behavior of this ”liquid wire” and demonstrate that its mechanical response originates in the shape-switching of the silk filament induced by buckling within the droplets. Learning from this natural example of geometry and mechanics, we manufactured programmable liquid wires that present previously unidentified pathways for the design of new hybrid solid-liquid materials.

  2. Reflexion measurements for inverse characterization of steel diffusion bond mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Cachon, Lionel; Rigal, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes a non-destructive testing method aimed at securing high manufacturing quality of the innovative compact heat exchanger developed under the framework of the CEA R&D program dedicated to the Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID). The heat exchanger assembly procedure currently proposed involves high temperature and high pressure diffusion welding of stainless steel plates. The aim of the non-destructive method presented herein is to characterize the quality of the welds obtained through this assembly process. Based on a low-frequency model developed by Baik and Thompson [1], pulse-echo normal incidence measurements are calibrated according to a specific procedure and allow the determination of the welding interface stiffness using a nonlinear fitting procedure in the frequency domain. Performing the characterization of plates after diffusion welding using this method allows a useful assessment of the material state as a function of the diffusion bonding process.

  3. Disgusting bodies, disgusting religion: the biology of Tantra.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    Hard-core Tantric practice is disgusting, a point several scholars make. Scholarly interpretations of Tantric disgustingness, however, tend to follow the lead of Mary Douglas in suggesting that what disgusts is ultimately a reflection of social–historical concerns with borders and boundaries. Such interpretations fail to take seriously the Tantric consumption of feces, menstrual blood, urine, semen, and phlegm. Likewise, they fail to take seriously the particular sexual act involved, that is, intercourse with a menstruating, riding-astride, out-of-caste, mother-substitute. Consulting contemporary disgust research, I suggest that hard-core Tantra is literally disgusting because it is literally maladaptive. Disgust was naturally selected to deter the ingestion of bio-toxic pathogens as well as the practice of suboptimal sexual intercourse. Disgust maintains the species' viability. Tantra confounds disgust and thus disgusts. Tantra engages antibiological behaviors in its characteristically religious war against the body. As a disgusting religion, Tantra may be a perfected religion.

  4. Laser-cooled continuous ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A collaboration with a group in Arhus, Denmark, using their storage ring ASTRID, brought about better understanding of ion beams cooled to very low temperatures. The longitudinal Schottky fluctuation noise signals from a cooled beam were studied. The fluctuation signals are distorted by the effects of space charge as was observed in earlier measurements at other facilities. However, the signal also exhibits previously unobserved coherent components. The ions` velocity distribution, measured by a laser fluorescence technique suggests that the coherence is due to suppression of Landau damping. The observed behavior has important implications for the eventual attainment of a crystalline ion beam in a storage ring. A significant issue is the transverse temperature of the beam -- where no direct diagnostics are available and where molecular dynamics simulations raise interesting questions about equilibrium.

  5. Electric field structures in thin films: formation and properties.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Andrew; Plekan, Oksana; Balog, Richard; Dunger, Jack; Field, David; Jones, Nykola C

    2014-08-21

    A newly discovered class of molecular materials, so-called "spontelectrics", display spontaneous electric fields. Here we show that the novel properties of spontelectrics can be used to create composite spontelectrics, illustrating how electric fields in solid films may be structured on the nanoscale by combining layers of different spontelectric materials. This is demonstrated using the spontelectric materials nitrous oxide, toluene, isoprene, isopentane, and CF2Cl2. These yield a variety of tailored electric field structures, with individual layers harboring fields between 10(7) and 10(8) V/m. Fields may be of the same sign or of opposite sign, the latter enabling the creation of nanoscale potential wells. The formation of fields is followed using an established electron beam technique, employing the ASTRID synchrotron storage ring. The influence of temperature on heterolayer structures, displaying new Curie effects, and the nature of the interfacial region between different spontelectrics are also discussed.

  6. Crew Earth Observations (CEO) taken during Expedition 8

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-03

    ISS008-E-09603 (20 December 2003) --- The village of Argudan near the north slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains in Russia is featured in this photo taken by an Expedition 8 crewmember onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The striking land use pattern, seen through a high magnification lens and highlighted by winter snow and low sun angles, produces this unique view. This rural, agricultural community sits astride the main highway about 15 kilometers east-southeast of the city of Nalchik. Shadows from a line of trees planted as a windbreak near the highway give the road a ragged appearance. A small stream flowing northeastward exits heavily forested foothills through the village and fields of intensely cultivated croplands on the plains. Snow falls through the vegetation, making the woodlands appear extremely dark compared to the snow-covered fields.

  7. Reflector and Protections in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor: Modelling and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, David; Fontaine, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The ASTRID project (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is a Generation IV nuclear reactor concept under development in France [1]. In this frame, studies are underway to optimize radial reflectors and protections. Considering radial protections made in natural boron carbide, this study is conducted to assess the neutronic performances of the MgO as the reference choice for reflector material, in comparison with other possible materials including a more conventional stainless steel. The analysis is based upon a simplified 1-D and 2-D deterministic modelling of the reactor, providing simplified interfaces between core, reflector and protections. Such models allow examining detailed reaction rate distributions; they also provide physical insights into local spectral effects occurring at the Core-Reflector and at the Reflector-Protection interfaces.

  8. STS-40 Mission Specialist (MS) Seddon on ergometer conducts Exp. No. 066

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Astride the bicycle ergometer, STS-40 Mission Specialist (MS) M. Rhea Seddon breathes into the cardiovascular rebreathing unit (CRU) during the exercise phase of Experiment No. 066, Inflight Study of Cardiovascular Deconditioning. It focuses on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using noninvasive techniques of prolonged expiration and rebreathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. Measurements are made both while crewmembers are resting and while they pedal the ergometer. Shirtless, MS James P. Bagian conducts a second experiment in the background.

  9. Geology and ground-water resources of the Walla Walla River basin Washington-Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, R.C.

    1965-01-01

    The Walla Walla River, whose drainage basin of about 1,330 square miles lies astride the Washington-Oregon boundary, drains westward to empty into the Columbia River. The basin slopes from the 5,000-foot crest of the Blue Mountains through a structural and topographic basin to the terraced lands adjoining the Columbia River at an altitude of about 340 feet. The main unit of the topographic basin is the valley plain, commonly called the Walla Walla Valley, which descends from about 1,500 feet at the foot of the mountain slopes to about 500 feet in altitude where the river cuts through the bedrock ridge near Divide. In the Blue Mountains the streams flow in rockbound canyons. Beyond the canyons, near Milton-Freewater and Walla Walla, they pass onto the broad alluvial fans and the terrace lands of the valley.

  10. Analysis of Nickel Based Hardfacing Materials Manufactured by Laser Cladding for Sodium Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, P.; Blanc, C.; Demirci, I.; Dal, M.; Malot, T.; Maskrot, H.

    For improving the operational capacity, the maintenance and the decommissioning of the future French Sodium Fast Reactor ASTRID which is under study, it is asked to find or develop a cobalt free hardfacing alloy and the associated manufacturing process that will give satisfying wear performances. This article presents recent results obtained on some selected nickel-based hardfacing alloys manufactured by laser cladding, particularly on Tribaloy 700 alloy. A process parameter search is made and associated the microstructural analysis of the resulting clads. A particular attention is made on the solidification of the main precipitates (chromium carbides, boron carbides, Laves phases,…) that will mainly contribute to the wear properties of the material. Finally, the wear resistance of some samples is evaluated in simple wear conditions evidencing promising results on tribology behavior of Tribaloy 700.

  11. The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

    1999-01-01

    MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

  12. The Recent Results from CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Jeong

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN sitting astride the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva has accumulated the proton and proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of around 5 fb-1 at the center of mass energy 7 TeV in 2011 and around 20 fb-1 at 8 TeV in 2012 with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. The CMS detector is designed to investigate the wide range of particle physics including testing perturbative QCD and searching for Brout-Englert-Higgs (BEH) boson as well as new physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model. Observation of a new boson has moved the phase from hunting for the SM BEH boson to evaluating the consistency of this new particle with the SM expectation. The latest results from the CMS collaboration will be presented.

  13. R and D program for French sodium fast reactor: On the description and detection of sodium boiling phenomena during sub-assembly blockages

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhaegen, M.; Paumel, K.; Seiler, J. M.; Tourin, A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Rodriguez, G.

    2011-07-01

    In support of the French ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) reactor program, which aims to demonstrate the industrial applicability of sodium fast reactors with an increased level of safety demonstration and availability compared to the past French sodium fast reactors, emphasis is placed on reactor instrumentation. It is in this framework that CEA studies continuous core monitoring to detect as early as possible the onset of sodium boiling. Such a detection system is of particular interest due to the rapid progress and the consequences of a Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB) at a subassembly inlet, where sodium boiling intervenes in an early phase. In this paper, the authors describe all the particularities which intervene during the different boiling stages and explore possibilities for their detection. (authors)

  14. Doppler tuning vuv spectroscopy of D{sup -} over an extended photon-energy range around the n=2 threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, P.; Raarup, M. K.; Elstroem, U. V.; Martinussen, R.; Petrunin, V. V.; Andersen, T.

    2007-10-15

    The giant (or shape) resonance in the photodetachment cross section of D{sup -} above the n=2 threshold has been subjected to high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy performed by Doppler tuning of ions stored in the ASTRID storage ring. In order to prevent changes in the overlap between laser and ion beams over the large kinetic-energy range employed in the experiment, a new ion-beam-positioning method based on a quadrupole-shunt technique was applied. The study presents an accurate measurement of parameters for the resonance, which is also denoted {sub 2}(0){sub 2}{sup +} {sup 1}P{sup o}. The resonance has a width of 26(2) meV while the asymmetry parameter q of the Fano profile is 3.2(0.4), which is at variance with the most recent theoretical calculations.

  15. In vessel detection of delayed neutron emitters from clad failure in sodium cooled nuclear reactors: An estimation of the signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.; Chapoutier, N.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Jadot, F.; Batail, R.; Verrier, D.

    2014-04-01

    The detection of clad failures is mandatory in sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors in compliance with the "clean sodium" concept. An in-vessel detection system, sensitive to delayed neutrons from fission products released into the primary coolant by failures, partially tested in SUPERPHENIX, is foreseen in current SFR projects in order to reduce significantly the delay before an alarm is issued. In this paper, an estimation of the signal received by such a system in case of a failure is derived, taking the French project ASTRID as a working example. This failure induced signal is compared to that of the contribution of the neutrons from the core itself. The sensitivity of the system is defined in terms of minimal detectable surface of clad failure. Possible solutions to improve this sensitivity are discussed, involving either the sensor itself, or the hydraulic design of the vessel in the early stage of the reactor conception.

  16. New JEFF-3.2 Sodium Neutron Induced Cross-sections Evaluation for Neutron Fast Reactors Applications: from 0 to 20 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archier, P.; Noguère, G.; De Saint Jean, C.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rouki, C.

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the ASTRID project, a new 23Na evaluation, containing re-evaluated nuclear data and associated covariances, has been prepared to be submitted for the future JEFF-3.2 library. This work has been motivated mainly because the current JEFF-3.1.1 sodium evaluation showed large differences with microscopic measurements and does not have covariances data. Recent experimental data from IRMM and high resolution measurements from Larson have been simultaneously analyzed with the data assimilation code CONRAD and a good agreement with the evaluated cross-sections has been achieved. Experimental systematic uncertainties have been propagated to the nuclear reaction model parameters in order to produce a coherent set of covariance data. Several figures are provided in this paper to illustrate the new features of this evaluation.

  17. Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît; Baronian, Vahan

    2014-02-01

    To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  18. Coronal disturbances and their terrestrial effects /Tutorial Lecture/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of recent approaches to the prediction of the interplanetary consequences of coronal disturbances, with attention to the relationships of shocks and energetic particles to coronal transients, of proton events to gamma-ray and microwave bursts, of geomagnetic storms to filament eruptions, and of solar wind increases to the flare site magnetic field direction. A discussion is given concerning the novel phenomenon of transient coronal holes, which appear astride the long decay enhancements of 2-50 A X-ray emission following H-alpha filament eruptions. These voids in the corona are similar to long-lived coronal holes, which are the sources of high speed solar wind streams. The transient coronal holes may also be associated with transient solar wind speed increases.

  19. APOLLO-SOYUZ TEST PROJECT (ASTP) - ART CONCEPT (LEONOV DRAWING)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-07-17

    S75-28504 (17 July 1975) --- The American ASTP crewmen search the skies for the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in this humorous artwork by cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov. Astronauts Vance D. Brand, Donald K. Slayton and Thomas P. Stafford (left to right) sit astride the Apollo spacecraft and Docking Module ready to lasso Soyuz. The cartoon humorously depicts the approaching historic event of an American spacecraft rendezvousing and docking in Earth orbit with a USSR spacecraft, scheduled today (July 17, 1975). Aboard Soyuz are Leonov, crew commander, and his fellow cosmonaut, Valeriy N. Kubasov. Stafford is the Apollo crew commander. The U.S. and USSR crewmen will visit each other's spacecraft while the Apollo and Soyuz are docked in Earth orbit for two days. Leonov, an accomplished artist, specializes in paintings on space subjects. He has a number of paintings on public exhibit in his native land.

  20. Venus: Preliminary topographic and surface imaging results from the Pioneer orbiter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Masursky, H.; Eliason, E.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Three large Venus surface features, identified previously in images obtained from Earth-based radar observations, are shown by the Pioneer Venus radar mapper to be elevateds to 10 kilometers above the surrounding terrain. Two of these features, one bright and the other dark, lie adjacent to each other astride the 65??N parallel between longitudes 310??E and 10??E. The combined region forms a huge tectonically uplifted plateau, surmounted by radar-bright ridges that may have either a volcanic or tectonic origin. The third feature, located at 30??N, 283??E, is radar-bright and may consist of volcanic material extruded along a fault zone. A first radar-scattering image, compiled from data obtained by the mapper in its imaging mode, shows a region north of the equator; several circular depressions seen in this area may result from meteoritic impact.

  1. Evolution of Ionospheric Convection during a Double Transpolar Arc Phenomenon on February 11, 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narita, Y.; Maezawa, K.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; Marklund, G. T.; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Greenwald, R. A.; Sato, N.; Yamagishi, H.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An evolution of ionospheric convection was studied for a double transpolar arc phenomenon on February 11, 1999. While one transpolar arc split from the auroral oval in the morning sector and drifted duskward, another arc appeared in the evening sector. The convection was investigated with three velocity data sets: E B drift velocities from the ASTRID-2 satellite; Ion Driftmeter data from the DMSP satellites; and Doppler-shift data from the Super-DARN radars. We inferred convection cells from these data sets and found that the number of convection cells changed from three to four as the dominance of IMF changed from a negative By to a positive Bz. Our result suggests that the ionospheric convection that has been so far discussed for various conditions of IMF may be applied even to the cases accompanied by transpolar arcs.

  2. Nursing researchers' modifications of Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Singsuriya, Pagorn

    2015-12-01

    Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology has proved to be very helpful in guiding nursing researchers' qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. Modifying Ricoeur's philosophy, a number of nursing researchers have developed their own interpretive methods and shared them, along with their experience, with research community. Major contributors who published papers directly presenting their modifications of Ricoeur's theory include Rene Geanellos (2000), Lena Wiklund, Lisbet Lindholm and Unni Å. Lindström (2002), Anders Lindseth and Astrid Norberg (2004) and Pia Sander Dreyer and Birthe D Pedersen (2009). The aim of this article was to delineate differences among these methods. Descriptive presentation of each method side by side makes clear the differences among them. In addition, Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory is portrayed and compared with the modifications. It is believed that differences that are found can stimulate further thoughts on how to apply Ricoeur's theory in qualitative research in nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Bladder Neck Rupture Following Perineal Bull Horn Injury: A Surgical Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Fernandez, B.; Diaz-Alferez, F.J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.A.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Velasquez-Saldarriaga, J.F.; Lorenzo-Gomez, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic-abdominal injuries caused by goring are serious lesions which require rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment in the context of a polytraumatized patient. The simultaneous rupture of both the bladder and the prostatic-membranous urethra occurs in 10%–29% of males with pelvic fractures but bladder neck injuries in adults are rarer. Unstable pelvic fractures, bilateral fractures of the ischiopubic branches (also referred to as fractures from falling astride) and the diastasis of the pubic symphysis are those that have the greatest likelihood of injuring both the posterior urethra and the bladder. We present a case of perineal bull horn injury with muscle laceration, bone fractures, scrotal avulsion and rupture of the bladder neck involving the right ureter which required two operations to be repaired. PMID:23066348

  4. Secular evolution of asteroid families: the role of Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Marò, Stefano; Đošović, Vladimir; Maurel, Clara

    2016-01-01

    We consider the role of the dwarf planet Ceres on the secular dynamics of the asteroid main belt. Specifically, we examine the post impact evolution of asteroid families due to the interaction of their members with the linear nodal secular resonance with Ceres. First, we find the location of this resonance and identify which asteroid families are crossed by its path. Next, we summarize our results for three asteroid families, namely (1726) Hoffmeister, (1128) Astrid and (1521) Seinajoki which have irregular distributions of their members in the proper elements space, indicative of the effect of the resonance. We confirm this by performing a set of numerical simulations, showcasing that the perturbing action of Ceres through its linear nodal secular resonance is essential to reproduce the actual shape of the families.

  5. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  6. On the vW leptokurtic asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, Valerio; Nesvorny, David; Cassia Domingos, Rita; Aljbaae, Safwan; Espinoza Huaman, Mariela

    2016-10-01

    vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field v W is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, i.e., they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. This may be caused by the fact that i) the family did not alter significantly its originally leptokurtic inclination distribution since its formation, as it seems to be the case for the Koronis family or ii) some of the family members interacted with a strong node secular resonances, as it is the case for the Astrid (interaction with the s-sC resonance with Ceres) and Gallia (interaction with the s-sV resonance with Vesta) families.In this work, we investigate the families that were affected by strong secular resonances with massive asteroids. By obtaining the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt we were able to i) assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, ii) obtain independent constraints on the family ages, and iii) for the case of the Astrid family set limitations on values of key parameters of the Yarkovsky force such as the surface thermal conductivity and the mean density of members. Overall, the use of the γ2(vW) parameter could provide useful hints on the original ejection velocity field and dynamical evolution of leptokurtic vW asteroid families.

  7. Mars Orbiting Plasma Surveyor (MOPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, S.; Andre, M.; Blomberg, L. G.; Lundin, R.; Marklund, G. T.; Rathsman, P.; von Scheele, F.; Wahlund, J.-E.

    Mars Orbiting Plasma Surveyor (MOPS) S. Barabash (1), M. André (2), L. G. Blomberg (3), R. Lundin (1),G. T. Marklund (3), P. Rathsman (4), F. von Schéele (4), J.-E. Wahlund (2) (1) Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden (stas@irf.se) (2) Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden (3) Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Space and Plasma Physics , Stockholm, Sweden (4) Swedish Space Corporation, Solna, Sweden Mars Orbiting Plasma Surveyor (MOPS) is a microsatellite mission focused on studies of the near - Mars environment and the planet - solar wind interaction. The recent findings by the ESA Mars Express mission further highlighted the complexity of the processes taking place at the planet resulting from the solar wind interaction that strongly affect the planet's atmosphere. However, despite many previous Martian missions carrying different types of space plasma experiments, a comprehensive investigation including simultaneous measurements of particles, fields, and waves has never been performed. We propose a spinning spacecraft of a mass of 50-80 kg with a 10 kg payload which can "hitchhike" on another platform until Mars orbit insertion and then be released into a suitable orbit. The spacecraft design is based on the experience gained in very successful Swedish space plasma missions, Viking, Freja, Astrid -1, and Astrid - 2. In the present mission design, the MOPS spacecraft is equipped with its own 1m high gain antenna for direct communication with the Earth. The payload includes a wave experiment with wire booms, magnetometer with a rigid boom, electron and ion energy spectrometers and an ion mass analyser. An energetic neutral atom imager and an UV photometer may complete the core payload.

  8. Neogene basins of the northern Rio Grande rift: Partitioning and asymmetry inherited from Laramide and older uplifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Three asymmetric Neogene basins in the northern Rio Grande rift of New Mexico and Colorado - the San Luis basin, the upper Arkansas River graben, and the Blue River graben - are tilted toward large flanking normal faults and lie astride the similarly asymmetric Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary (Laramide) San Juan-San Luis, Sawatch, and Front Range-Gore Range uplifts, respectively. The steep, thrust-faulted side of each uplift is on the same side as the down-rotated side of each of the Neogene basins. In addition, the direction of stratal tilt changes northward across the Villa Grove accommodation zone from east in the San Luis basin to west in the upper Arkansas River graben. This accommodation zone coincides approximately with the northward change from the east-directed San Juan-San Luis uplift to the west-directed Sawatch uplift. These observations, supported by seismic-reflection studies across the San Luis basin and studies of several other superimposed pairs of rift basins and Laramide uplifts, suggest that the basin-bounding normal faults are listric and merge at depth with the older thrusts, which are also listric and root into the crust at about 15-16 km. The Blue River graben is complicated by lack of basin fill and a thrust history along the west side of the Gore Range that is at least as old as late Paleozoic. Nonetheless, the Neogene valley is demonstrably tilted west and lies astride an overall west-directed thrust system, similar to other thrust-and-basin relationships in the northern Rio Grande rift.

  9. Portable sensor technology for rotational ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Guattari, Frédéric; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present performance characteristics of a single component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG). The prototype sensor is provided by iXBlue, France. It is tested in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology), on its applicability as a portable and field-deployable sensor for rotational ground motions. To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of vulcanology, ocean generated noise and geophysical exploration, such a sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding portability, power consumption, time stamping stability and dynamic range. With GPS-synchronized time stamping and miniseed output format, data acquisition is customized for the use in seismology. Testing time stamping accuracy yields a time shift of less than 0.0001 s and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 in comparison to a commonly used data acquisition system, Reftek 120. Sensor self-noise is below 5.0 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2 for a frequency band from 0.001 Hz to 5.0 Hz. Analysis of Allan deviation shows an angle random walk of 3.5 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2. Additionally, the operating range diagram is shown and ambient noise analysis is performed. The sensitivity of sensor self-noise to variations in surrounding temperature and magnetic field is tested in laboratory experiments. With a power consumption of less than 10 W, the whole system (single component sensor + data acquisition) is appropriate for field use with autonomous power supply.

  10. Coincidence or not? Interconnected gas/fluid migration and ocean-atmosphere oscillations in the Levant Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Michael; Lang, Guy; Schattner, Uri

    2016-08-01

    A growing number of studies on shallow marine gas/fluid systems from across the globe indicate their abundance throughout geological epochs. However, these episodic events have not been fully integrated into the fundamental concepts of continental margin development, which are thought to be dictated by three elements: tectonics, sedimentation and eustasy. The current study focuses on the passive sector of the Levant Basin on the eastern Mediterranean continental margin where these elements are well constrained, in order to isolate the contribution of gas/fluid systems. Single-channel, multichannel and 3D seismic reflection data are interpreted in terms of variance, chaos, envelope and sweetness attributes. Correlation with the Romi-1 borehole and sequence boundaries constrains interpretation of seismic stratigraphy. Results show a variety of fluid- or gas-related features such as seafloor and subsurface pockmarks, volumes of acoustic blanking, bright spots, conic pinnacle mounds, gas chimneys and high sweetness zones that represent possible secondary reservoirs. It is suggested that gas/fluid migrate upwards along lithological conduits such as falling-stage systems tracts and sequence boundaries during both highstands and lowstands. In all, 13 mid-late Pleistocene sequence boundaries are accompanied by independent evidence of 13 eustatic sea-level drops. Whether this connection is coincidental or not requires further research. These findings fill gaps between previously reported sporadic appearances throughout the Levant Basin and margin and throughout geological time from the Messinian until the present day, and create a unified framework for understanding the system as a whole. Repetitive appearance of these features suggests that their role in the morphodynamics of continental margins is more important than previously thought and thus may constitute one of the key elements of continental margin development.

  11. Acute Effects of Stretching on Passive Properties of Human Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit: Analysis of Differences Between Hold-Relax and Static Stretching.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ikezoe, Tome; Tokugawa, Takahiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2015-08-01

    Hold-relax stretching (HRS) and static stretching (SS) are commonly used to increase joint range of motion (ROM) and decrease muscle stiffness. However, whether there are differences between acute effects of HRS and SS on end ROM, passive torque, and muscle stiffness is unclear. In addition, any differences between the mechanisms by which HRS and SS lead to an increase in end ROM are unclear. To compare the acute effects of HRS and SS on the passive properties of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit (MTU), end ROM, passive torque, and muscle stiffness in vivo and to investigate the factors involved in increasing end ROM. Crossover experimental design. 30 healthy men (21.7 ± 1.2 y) with no history of neuromuscular disease or musculoskeletal injury involving the lower limbs. Both HRS and SS of 30 s were repeated 4 times, lasting a total of 2 min. End ROM, passive torque, and muscle stiffness were measured during passive ankle dorsiflexion using a dynamometer and ultrasonography before and immediately after HRS and SS. The results showed that end ROM and passive torque at end ROM significantly increased immediately after both HRS and SS, whereas muscle stiffness significantly decreased. In addition, the percentage change in passive torque at end ROM on use of the HRS technique was significantly higher than that after use of the SS technique. However, the percentage change in muscle stiffness after SS was significantly higher than that with HRS. These results suggest that both HRS and SS can effectively decrease muscle stiffness of the gastrocnemius MTU and that HRS induces a change in the passive torque at end ROM--i.e., sensory perception--rather than changing muscle stiffness.

  12. Geothermal potential of Caledonian granites in Ireland and the Isle of Man: Implications from hydrothermal alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschle, Tobias; Daly, J. Stephen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Buhre, Stephan; McConnell, Brian; The Iretherm Team

    2015-04-01

    Ordovician to Devonian (Caledonian) granites are common in the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ) in Ireland and Britain. Some of these, e.g., the buried Kentstown and Glenamaddy granites, are situated beneath Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary basins, and hence are potential geothermal targets. Numerous granites of similar age and related origin (Fritschle et al., 2014) are exposed astride the ISZ. They are considered to be analogous to the buried ones, and their geochemical characteristics are used as a proxy for the buried granites as samples from deep drilling are naturally limited. The whole-rock geochemistry of nine granite intrusions (71 samples, including both hydrothermally altered and unaltered samples) varies significantly, but with no obvious geographical control. The granites are S- and I-Types with ASI (Aluminium Saturation Index) between 0.7 - 1.4. Average heat production rates range from 1.4 μW/m³ for the Leinster Granite to 4.9 μW/m³ for the Drogheda Granite (Fritschle et al., 2015). The heat-producing elements uranium (U), thorium (Th) and potassium (K) and calculated heat production rates generally correlate positively with niobium and rubidium concentrations. However, S-Type compared to I-Type granites show elevated abundances in rubidium (>130 ppm) and usually have a lower Th/U ratio. Altered samples tend to have a higher Th/U ratio compared to unaltered ones. Within individual plutons trends of decreasing heat production rates with increasing Th/U ratios were observed. This trend is attributed to the hydrothermal redistribution of the mobile heat-producing element uranium. This is also implied by uranium-enrichment in hydrothermally generated Ca and Si-veinlets. Metasomatic processes such as hydrothermal alteration appear capable of significantly redistributing mobile elements such as uranium. Hence, these processes may act as a major mechanism controlling the granite's heat production budget, often shaping a pluton's geothermal exploitation potential

  13. Simulation Models of Misclassification Error for Single Thresholds of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I Due to Assay Bias and Imprecision.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Andrew W; Kavsak, Peter A; Lyon, Oliver A S; Worster, Andrew; Lyon, Martha E

    2017-02-01

    Clinical outcome studies for cardiac troponins (cTn) are expensive and difficult to design owing to variation in patients, in the assays, and in the incidence of different types of myocardial infarction (MI). To overcome these difficulties, simulation models were used to estimate the rate of misclassification error for MI and risk prediction resulting from assay bias and imprecision. Finite mixture analysis of Abbott high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI) results at time 0 h in patients presenting early with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) symptoms to the emergency department (ED) [n = 145, Reducing the Time Interval for Identifying New Guideline (RING) study] allowed derivation of a simulation data set (n = 10000). hs-cTnI concentrations were modified by addition of bias or imprecision error. The percentage of all 10000 modified hs-cTnI results that were misclassified for MI at thresholds of 2, 5, 26.2, and 52 ng/L was determined by Monte Carlo simulation. Analyses were replicated with an all-comer emergency department (ED) population (n = 1137) ROMI (Optimum Troponin Cutoffs for ACS in the ED) study. In the RING study, simulation at 26.2-ng/L (99th percentile) and 52-ng/L thresholds were affected by both bias ±2 ng/L and imprecision (10%-20%) and had misclassification rates of 0.4% to 0.6%. Simulations at the 2-ng/L and 5-ng/L thresholds were only affected by bias. Misclassification rates at bias of ±1 ng/L were 10% for the 2-ng/L threshold, and 5% for the 5-ng/L threshold. Simulation models predicted that hs-cTnI results are seldom misclassified (<1% of patients) when interpretative thresholds are near or exceed the overall 99th percentile. However, simulation models also predicted that low hs-cTnI results, as recommended in guidelines, are prone to misclassification of 5%-10% of patients. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  14. Software development strategies for parallel computer architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Ralf; Cooper, W. Anthony; Beniston, Martin; Gengler, Marc; Merazzi, Silvio

    1991-09-01

    As pragmatic users of high performance supercomputers, we believe that nowadays parallel computer architectures with disturbed memories are not yet mature to be used by a wide range of application engineers. A big effort should be made to bring these very promising computers closer to the users. One major flaw of massively parallel machines is that the programmer has to take care himself of the data flow which is often different on different parallel computers. To overcome this problem, we propose that data structures be standardized. The data base then can become an integrated part of the system and the data flow for a given algorithm can be easily prescribed. Fixing data structures forces the computer manufacturer to rather adapt his machine to user's demands and not, as it happens now, the user has to adapt to the innovative computer science approach of the computer manufacturer. In this paper, we present data standards chosen for our ASTRID programming platform for research scientist and engineers, as well as a plasma physics application which won the Cray Gigaflop Performance Awards 1989 and 1990 and which was succesfully ported on an INTEL iPSC/2 hypercube.

  15. On the feasibility to perform integral transmission experiments in the GELINA target hall at IRMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Pierre; Jean, Cyrille De Saint; Geslot, Benoit; Plompen, Arjan; Belloni, Francesca; Nyman, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Shielding experiments are relevant to validate elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections in the fast energy range. In this paper, we are focusing on the possibility to use the pulsed white neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA to perform this kind of measurement. Several issues need to be addressed: neutron source intensity, room return effect, distance of the materials to be irradiated from the source, and the sensitivity of various reaction rate distributions through the material to different input cross sections. MCNP6 and TRIPOLI4 calculations of the outgoing neutron spectrum are compared, based on electron/positron/gamma/neutron simulations. A first guess of an integral transmission experiment through a 238U slab is considered. It shows that a 10 cm thickness of uranium is sufficient to reach a high sensitivity to the 238U inelastic scattering cross section in the [2-5 MeV] energy range, with small contributions from elastic and fission cross sections. This experiment would contribute to reduce the uncertainty on this nuclear data, which has a significant impact on the power distribution in large commercial reactors. Other materials that would be relevant for the ASTRID 4th generation prototype reactor are also tested, showing that a sufficient sensitivity to nuclear data would be obtained by using a 50 to 100cm thick slab of side 60x60cm. This study concludes on the feasibility and interest of such experiments in the target hall of the GELINA facility.

  16. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of basalts from the Juan De Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Liias, R.A.; Rhodes, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The geochemistry of >200 fresh, glassy, zero-age basalts dredged from along the 500 km long Juan de Fuca Ridge (JDFR) illustrates the unique and complex behavior of this active spreading center located on the northern end of the East Pacific Rise. The Cobb-Eickelberg Seamount chain, the trace of the Cobb hot spot, intersects the JDFR at 46/sup 0/N, where a young, volcanically active seamount, astride the ridge, gives clear evidence for continuing hot spot activity. In contrast with other well-documented mantle plume-ridge intersections, there are no systematic geochemical gradients away from the center of maximum volcanism. Petrographic and major element evidence indicates that most JDFR basalts are normal depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). However, unlike the vast majority of MORB, the trace element ratios along the JDFR, although highly variable on the scale of single dredge hauls, are predominantly transitional between depleted MORB and enriched oceanic island (or plume) basalts. North of the Cobb Fracture Zone at 48/sup 0/N, the Endeavor segment is chemically distinct form the rest of the JDFR with uniformly enriched trace and rare earth element ratios. Geochemical variability observed along the JDFR requires a heterogeneous mantle source for JDFR basalts. Transitional trace element ratios can be explained by regionally extensive mixing of enriched and normal MORB magmas. Highly evolved basalts, resulting from extensive crystal fractionation requires this mixing be sporadic.

  17. Spatial cross-correlation of Antarctic Sea ice and seabed topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deveaux, Richard D.; Phelan, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    A time series of derived sea ice concentrations as observed about Antarctica by the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) satellite in 1983 is considered. The degree of spatial cross correlation between these data and seabed topography is quantified. The approach is to implement a statistical image processing filter designed to extract local patterns of spatial cross correlation over the entire sea ice field as it undergoes daily changes. Throughout the sea ice, it was found that large scale variations in sea ice concentration correlate systematically with variations in the topography of the seabed. Generally speaking, high concentrations of sea ice occur over deep ocean, whereas areas of encavement, early dissipation and polynya formation develop over topographic features of high elevation. The latter was studied in detail with respect to the features Maud Rise, Astrid Ridge and the continental shelf in the Cosmonaut and Ross Seas. In each case, it is shown that an encavement in sea ice, a polynya, or both develops in the vicinity of the feature in question. As these results are quantified in terms of spatial cross correlation, a potential role is inferred for seabed topography in such fluctuations in the sea ice about Antarctica.

  18. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.A. ); Golonka, J. ); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. )

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  19. Diverse topics in crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie; Draeseke, A.; Sessler, A.M.; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1995-11-27

    Equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in storage rings. These equations are employed in the molecular dynamics simulations to study the properties of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. The transition from ID to 2D, and from 2D to 3D is explored, and the scaling behavior of the heating rates is discussed especially in the high temperature limit. The effectiveness of various cooling techniques in achieving crystalline states has been investigated. Crystalline beams made of two different species of ions via sympathetic cooling are presented, as well as circulating ``crystal balls`` bunched in all directions by magnetic focusing and rf field. By numerically reconstructing the original experimental conditions of the NAP-M ring, it is found that only at extremely low beam intensities, outside of the range of the original measurement, proton particles can form occasionally-passing disks. The proposed New ASTRID ring is shown to be suitable for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams of all dimensions.

  20. The True Cusp, a Unique Signature at Low- and Mid-Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, W. R.; Winningham, J. D.; Parks, G. K.

    2001-12-01

    Recent observations have been made at low- and mid-altitudes of highly localized "true cusp" crossings made by the current DMSP F-series spacecraft and Cluster-II. These signatures are remarkably similar to the low-altitude measurements of DE-2, Astrid-2, UARS, and DMSP F-10 reported previously in Keith et. al. (2001). These new observations support the idea of a unique "true" or magnetic cusp that is a mapping of the magnetopause current layer to low altitudes. This is consistent with a narrow, wedge-shaped cusp that follows from antiparallel merging (Crooker, 1988). Mid- and exterior cusp data from the set of Cluster-II spacecraft show that this feature remains coherent out to several Re, greatly expanding the region available for the study of these signatures. Keith, W. R., J. D. Winningham and O. Norberg, A New, Unique Signature of the True Cusp, Ann. Geophys., V. 19, 611, June, 2001. Crooker, N. U., Mapping the Merging Potential From the Magnetopause to the Ionosphere Through the Dayside Cusp, J. Geophys. Res., V. 93, 7,338, 1988. >http://cluster.space.swri.edu/~waynek/agu.html

  1. High resolution dating of moraines on Kodiak Island, Alaska links Atlantic and North Pacific climatic changes during the late glacial

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.H. . Alaska Quaternary Center)

    1992-01-01

    Much less is known about the paleoclimate and paleoceanography of the North Pacific than the North Atlantic despite the North Pacific's important role in the global ocean-climate system. Kodiak Island lies in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska astride the eastern end of the Aleutian Low. On southwestern Kodiak Island, coastal bluffs section a series of moraines, kettle ponds, and bogs formed between 15 and 9 ka BP. Distinctive tephras from volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula provide time-lines within the stratigraphy. Deformation events recorded in sediment stacks from basins within glaciotectonic landforms allows precise dating of glacial events. An ice cap occupied the Kodiak archipelago during the last glaciation. Three glacial advances of the southwestern margin of this ice cap occurred after 15 ka BP. At 13.4 ka, piedmont ice lobes formed large push moraines extending into Shelikof Strait during the Low Cape Advance. The less-extensive Tundra Advance culminated between 12 and 11.7 ka BP followed by glacier retreat then readvance to form the prominent Olga Moraine system between 11 and 10 ka BP. The timing of the Tundra and Olga Advances correlates closely with that of the Older and Younger Dryas cold episodes in northwestern Europe suggesting that these climatic oscillations were synchronous throughout the northern hemisphere.

  2. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  3. Screening-Constant-by-Unit-Nuclear-Charge method investigations of high lying ({sup 1}D{sub 2},{sup 1}S{sub 0}) ns, nd Rydberg series in the photoionization spectra of the halogen-like ion Kr{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Sakho, I.

    2014-01-15

    Energy positions and quantum defects of the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4} ({sup 1}D{sub 2},{sup 1}S{sub 0}) ns, nd Rydberg series originating from the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 52}P{sub 3/2}{sup ∘} ground state and from the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 52}P{sub 1/2}{sup ∘} metastable state of Kr{sup +} are reported. Calculations are performed using the Screening Constant by Unit Nuclear Charge (SCUNC) method. The results obtained are in suitable agreement with recent experimental data from the combined ASTRID merged-beam set up and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance device (Bizau et al., 2011), ALS measurements (Hinojosa et al., 2012), and multi-channel R-matrix eigenphase derivative calculations (McLaughlin and Balance, 2012). In addition, analysis of the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}({sup 1}D{sub 2})nd and the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}({sup 1}S{sub 0})nd resonances is given via the SCUNC procedure. The excellent results obtained from our work point out that the SCUNC formalism may be used to confirm the results of the analysis from the standard quantum-defect expansion formulas. Eventual errors occurring in the analysis can then be automatically detected and corrected via the SCUNC procedure.

  4. Feeder layer- and animal product-free culture of neonatal foreskin keratinocytes: improved performance, usability, quality and safety.

    PubMed

    De Corte, Peter; Verween, Gunther; Verbeken, Gilbert; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; De Coninck, Arlette; Roseeuw, Diane; Vanderkelen, Alain; Kets, Eric; Haddow, David; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2012-03-01

    Since 1987, keratinocytes have been cultured at the Queen Astrid Military Hospital. These keratinocytes have been used routinely as auto and allografts on more than 1,000 patients, primarily to accelerate the healing of burns and chronic wounds. Initially the method of Rheinwald and Green was used to prepare cultured epithelial autografts, starting from skin samples from burn patients and using animal-derived feeder layers and media containing animal-derived products. More recently we systematically optimised our production system to accommodate scientific advances and legal changes. An important step was the removal of the mouse fibroblast feeder layer from the cell culture system. Thereafter we introduced neonatal foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) as source of cultured epithelial allografts, which significantly increased the consistency and the reliability of our cell production. NFK master and working cell banks were established, which were extensively screened and characterised. An ISO 9001 certified Quality Management System (QMS) governs all aspects of testing, validation and traceability. Finally, as far as possible, animal components were systematically removed from the cell culture environment. Today, quality controlled allograft production batches are routine and, due to efficient cryopreservation, stocks are created for off-the-shelf use. These optimisations have significantly increased the performance, usability, quality and safety of our allografts. This paper describes, in detail, our current cryopreserved allograft production process.

  5. Surface mount component jig

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  6. Specifications for a coupled neutronics thermal-hydraulics SFR test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassone, A.; Smirnov, A. D.; Tikhomirov, G. V.

    2017-01-01

    Coupling neutronics/thermal-hydraulics calculations for the design of nuclear reactors are a growing trend in the scientific community. This approach allows to properly represent the mutual feedbacks between the neutronic distribution and the thermal-hydraulics properties of the materials composing the reactor, details which are often lost when separate analysis are performed. In this work, a test case for a generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), based on the ASTRID concept developed by CEA, is proposed. Two sub-assemblies (SA) characterized by different fuel enrichment and layout are considered. Specifications for the test case are provided including geometrical data, material compositions, thermo-physical properties and coupling scheme details. Serpent and ANSYS-CFX are used as reference in the description of suitable inputs for the performing of the benchmark, but the use of other code combinations for the purpose of validation of the results is encouraged. The expected outcome of the test case are the axial distribution of volumetric power generation term (q‴), density and temperature for the fuel, the cladding and the coolant.

  7. A summary of sodium-cooled fast reactor development

    SciTech Connect

    Aoto, Kazumi; Dufour, Philippe; Hongyi, Yang; Glatz, Jean Paul; Kim, Yeong-il; Ashurko, Yury; Hill, Robert; Uto, Nariaki

    2014-11-01

    Much of the basic technology for the Sodium-cooled fast Reactor (SFR) has been established through long term development experience with former fast reactor programs, and is being confirmed by the Phénix end-of-life tests in France, the restart of Monju in Japan, the lifetime extension of BN-600 in Russia, and the startup of the China Experimental Fast Reactor in China. Planned startup in 2014 for new SFRs: BN-800 in Russia and PFBR in India, will further enhance the confirmation of the SFR basic technology. Nowadays, the SFR development has advanced to aiming at establishment of the Generation-IV system which is dedicated to sustainable energy generation and actinide management, and several advanced SFR concepts are under development such as PRISM, JSFR, ASTRID, PGSFR, BN-1200, and CFR-600. Generation-IV International Forum is an international collaboration framework where various R&D activities are progressing on design of system and component, safety and operation, advanced fuel, and actinide cycle for the Generation-IV SFR development, and will play a beneficial role of promoting them thorough providing an opportunity to share the past experience and the latest data of design and R&D among countries developing SFR.

  8. Laser-cooled bunched ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    In collaboration with the Arhus group, the laser cooling of a beam bunched by an rf electrode was investigated at the ASTRID storage ring. A single laser is used for unidirectional cooling, since the longitudinal velocity of the beam will undergo {open_quotes}synchrotron oscillations{close_quotes} and the ions are trapped in velocity space. As the cooling proceeds the velocity spread of the beam, as well as the bunch length is measured. The bunch length decreases to the point where it is limited only by the Coulomb repulsion between ions. The measured length is slightly (20-30%) smaller than the calculated limit for a cold beam. This may be the accuracy of the measurement, or may indicate that the beam still has a large transverse temperature so that the longitudinal repulsion is less than would be expected from an absolutely cold beam. Simulations suggest that the coupling between transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom is strong -- but this issue will have to be resolved by further measurements.

  9. In situ coating makes it easier for children to swallow and tolerate tablets and capsules.

    PubMed

    El Edelbi, R; Eksborg, S; Lindemalm, S

    2015-09-01

    Getting children to swallow tablets and capsules is a challenge, and factors that influence their ability to swallow include taste, smell and texture. The aim of this study was to explore how well paediatric patients tolerated and accepted the MedCoat(®) in situ coating for tablets and capsules. A nonrandomised intervention study was performed at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. We identified 78 paediatric patients, 43 females and 35 males, who had problems swallowing tablets and capsules and evaluated their abilities with questionnaires. The median age of the patients was nine years old, and the range was two to 17 years old. Swallowing ability and palatability was improved by in situ coating. The results showed that 66 of 77 paediatric patients (86%, 95% confidence interval: 76-93%) were able to take the drugs they had been prescribed after in situ coating. Swallowing improved in 87% of cases, and palatability improved in 85% of cases. A study of 77 paediatric patients with a median age of nine years, and a range of two to 17 years, found that 86% were able to take the tablets and capsules they had been prescribed after they were coated with the MedCoat. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  10. Quality-Controlled Small-Scale Production of a Well-Defined Bacteriophage Cocktail for Use in Human Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Merabishvili, Maya; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Verbeken, Gilbert; Chanishvili, Nina; Tediashvili, Marina; Lashkhi, Nino; Glonti, Thea; Krylov, Victor; Mast, Jan; Van Parys, Luc; Lavigne, Rob; Volckaert, Guido; Mattheus, Wesley; Verween, Gunther; De Corte, Peter; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Zizi, Martin; De Vos, Daniel; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2009-01-01

    We describe the small-scale, laboratory-based, production and quality control of a cocktail, consisting of exclusively lytic bacteriophages, designed for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus infections in burn wound patients. Based on succesive selection rounds three bacteriophages were retained from an initial pool of 82 P. aeruginosa and 8 S. aureus bacteriophages, specific for prevalent P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains in the Burn Centre of the Queen Astrid Military Hospital in Brussels, Belgium. This cocktail, consisting of P. aeruginosa phages 14/1 (Myoviridae) and PNM (Podoviridae) and S. aureus phage ISP (Myoviridae) was produced and purified of endotoxin. Quality control included Stability (shelf life), determination of pyrogenicity, sterility and cytotoxicity, confirmation of the absence of temperate bacteriophages and transmission electron microscopy-based confirmation of the presence of the expected virion morphologic particles as well as of their specific interaction with the target bacteria. Bacteriophage genome and proteome analysis confirmed the lytic nature of the bacteriophages, the absence of toxin-coding genes and showed that the selected phages 14/1, PNM and ISP are close relatives of respectively F8, φKMV and phage G1. The bacteriophage cocktail is currently being evaluated in a pilot clinical study cleared by a leading Medical Ethical Committee. PMID:19300511

  11. The New Zealand Tsunami Database: historical and modern records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Downes, G. L.; Cochran, U. A.; Clark, K.; Scheele, F.

    2016-12-01

    A database of historical (pre-instrumental) and modern (instrumentally recorded)tsunamis that have impacted or been observed in New Zealand has been compiled andpublished online. New Zealand's tectonic setting, astride an obliquely convergenttectonic boundary on the Pacific Rim, means that it is vulnerable to local, regional andcircum-Pacific tsunamis. Despite New Zealand's comparatively short written historicalrecord of c. 200 years there is a wealth of information about the impact of past tsunamis.The New Zealand Tsunami Database currently has 800+ entries that describe >50 highvaliditytsunamis. Sources of historical information include witness reports recorded indiaries, notes, newspapers, books, and photographs. Information on recent events comesfrom tide gauges and other instrumental recordings such as DART® buoys, and media ofgreater variety, for example, video and online surveys. The New Zealand TsunamiDatabase is an ongoing project with information added as further historical records cometo light. Modern tsunamis are also added to the database once the relevant data for anevent has been collated and edited. This paper briefly overviews the procedures and toolsused in the recording and analysis of New Zealand's historical tsunamis, with emphasison database content.

  12. Optimization of a heterogeneous fast breeder reactor core with improved behavior during unprotected transients

    SciTech Connect

    Poumerouly, S.; Schmitt, D.; Massara, S.; Maliverney, B.

    2012-07-01

    Innovative Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) are currently being investigated by CEA, AREVA and EDF in the framework of a joint French collaboration, and the construction of a GEN IV prototype, ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technical Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), is scheduled in the years 2020. Significant improvements are expected so as to improve the reactor safety: the goal is to achieve a robust safety demonstration of the mastering of the consequences of a Core Disruptive Accident (CDA), whether by means of prevention or mitigation features. In this framework, an innovative design was proposed by CEA in 2010. It aims at strongly reducing the sodium void effect, thereby improving the core behavior during unprotected loss of coolant transients. This design is strongly heterogeneous and includes, amongst others, a fertile plate, a sodium plenum associated with a B{sub 4}C upper blanket and a stepwise modulation of the fissile height of the core (onwards referred to as the 'diabolo shape'). In this paper, studies which were entirely carried out at EDF are presented: the full potential of this heterogeneous concept is thoroughly investigated using the SDDS methodology. (authors)

  13. Meeting report for Odd Pols 2016: Ann Arbor 2.0.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2017-05-15

    The Tenth International Conference on Transcription by RNA Polymerases I, III, IV and V (the 'Odd Pols') was held June 24-28, 2016 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA and organized by David Engelke, Deborah Johnson, Richard Maraia, Lawrence Rothblum, David Schneider, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. The organizers are grateful for the support from the Rackham Graduate School of the University of Michigan for providing the meeting venue. The environment provided a great background with unexpected encounters with fireflies, free live music and a festive fireworks display. The meeting was composed of eleven oral sessions and a poster session. The keynote speaker, Dave Engelke, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "A personal history of pol III transcription - how we got here from the 'good old days'." The meeting drew attendees from sixteen countries that shared their research discoveries. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling aftershock migration and afterslip of the San Juan Bautista, California, earthquake of October 3, 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The San Juan Bautista earthquake of October 3, 1972 (ML = 4.8), located along the San Andreas fault in central California, initiated an aftershock sequence characterized by a subtle, but perceptible, tendency for aftershocks to spread to the northwest and southeast along the fault zone. The apparent dimension of the aftershock zone along strike increased from about 7-10 km within a few days of the earthquake, to about 20 km eight months later. In addition, the mainshock initiated a period of accelerated fault creep, which was observed at 2 creep meters situated astride the trace of the San Andreas fault within about 15 km of the epicenter of the mainshock. The creep rate gradually returned to the preearthquake rate after about 3 yrs. Both the spreading of the aftershocks and the rapid surface creep are interpreted as reflecting a period of rapid creep in the fault zone representing the readjustment of stress and displacement following the failure of a "stuck" patch or asperity during the San Juan Bautista earthquake. Numerical calculations suggest that the behavior of the fault zone is consistent with that of a material characterized by a viscosity of about 3.6??1014 P, although the real rheology is likely to be more complicated. In this model, the mainshock represents the failure of an asperity that slips only during earthquakes. Aftershocks represent the failure of second-order asperities which are dragged along by the creeping fault zone. ?? 1987.

  15. Techniques for hazard analysis and their use at CERN.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, C; Schönbacher, H

    2001-01-01

    CERN, The European Organisation for Nuclear Research is situated near Geneva and has its accelerators and experimental facilities astride the Swiss and French frontiers attracting physicists from all over the world to this unique laboratory. The main accelerator is situated in a 27 km underground ring and the experiments take place in huge underground caverns in order to detect the fragments resulting from the collision of subatomic particles at speeds approaching that of light. These detectors contain many hundreds of tons of flammable materials, mainly plastics in cables and structural components, flammable gases in the detectors themselves, and cryogenic fluids such as helium and argon. The experiments consume high amounts of electrical power, thus the dangers involved have necessitated the use of analytical techniques to identify the hazards and quantify the risks to personnel and the infrastructure. The techniques described in the paper have been developed in the process industries where they have been to be of great value. They have been successfully applied to CERN industrial and experimental installations and, in some cases, have been instrumental in changing the philosophy of the experimentalists and their detectors.

  16. Magnetotelluric study of a plio-quaternary tectonic depression: the Vilariça basin (NE Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Almeida, Eugénio P.; Mateus, António; Matias, Hugo C.; Matos, Liliana; Mendes-Victor, Luís. A.

    2000-04-01

    The Vilariça basin, located northeast Portugal astride a major late-Variscan NNE-SSW reactivated strike-slip fault, is an excellent example of interplate neotectonic activity whose development has been mainly interpreted as a result of left-lateral displacement. Thirty magnetotelluric soundings were carried out in the Sta Comba da Vilariça/Sampaio region (northern of the tectonic basin) in order to investigate the internal structure of the basin and its relationship with the main tectonic faults. Distortions of the impedance tensors were studied using Groom-Bailey decomposition technique. The predominant regional strike (N26E) is in good accordance with exposed geology and can be explained for the reactivation of previous structures. Using two-dimensional inversion, three resistivity cross sections were obtained at north, center and south of the studied area. The graben is revealed as a low resistivity (20-100 Ω m) structure due to the sedimentary filling. The increasing electrical resistivity (from 400 to 4000 Ω m) at depths greater than 2 km is related to the Hesperian basement rocks. The main faults, which controlled the formation and evolution of the basin, are revealed by resistivity gradients within the upper crust.

  17. STS-40 Mission Specialist (MS) Seddon on ergometer conducts Exp. No. 066

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-211-019 (5-14 June 1991) --- Astride the bicycle ergometer, astronaut Rhea Seddon, mission specialist, breathes into the cardiovascular re-breathing unit during the exercise phase of an experiment. The investigation, In-flight Study of Cardiovascular Deconditioning (Experiment 066), was developed by Dr. Leon E. Farhi of the State University of New York in Buffalo. It focuses on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using non-invasive techniques of prolonged expiration and re-breathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. Measurements are made both while crew members are resting and while they pedal the exercise bicycle, as Dr. Seddon is doing here. This scene was photographed with a 35mm camera.

  18. Kinematics of the asal rift (djibouti) determined from the deformation of fieale volcano.

    PubMed

    De Chabalier, J B; Avouac, J P

    1994-09-16

    Because of its subaerial exposure the Asal rift segment provides an exceptional opportunity to quantify the deformation field of an active rift and assess the contribution of tectonics and volcanism to rifting processes. The present topography of the Asal rift results from the tectonic dismemberment during the last 100,000 years of a large central volcanic edifice that formed astride the rift zone 300,000 to 100,000 years ago. Three-dimensional deformation of this volcano has been quantified from the combined analysis of the topography and geology. The analysis indicates that spreading at 17 to 29 millimeters per year in a N40 degrees +/- 5 degrees E direction accounts for most of the separation between Arabia and Somalia. The small topographic subsidence relative to extension suggests that tectonic thinning of the crust has been balanced by injection and underplating of magmatic material of near crustal density. The methodology developed in this study could also be applied to quantify deformation in relatively inaccessible areas where the main available information is topography or bathymetry.

  19. A review of recent progress in understanding the spontelectric state of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plekan, Oksana; Rosu-Finsen, Alexander; Cassidy, Andrew M.; Lasne, Jérôme; McCoustra, Martin R. S.; Field, David

    2017-06-01

    The spontelectric state of matter is exemplified by the presence of static, spontaneous electric fields extending throughout thin films of dipolar solids. The spontelectric state was discovered using a low energy electron beam technique, using the ASTRID storage ring at Aarhus University. Following a resume of the characteristics and of a model for the spontelectric effect, a description is given of the counter-intuitive behaviour of fields in films of methyl formate as a function of deposition temperature, T. It is found that films for T ≤ 77.5 K show the expected decrease in the field with increasing T but, for T ≥ 77.5 K, an increase in the field for higher T is revealed. Analysis of these results illustrates the non-linear and non-local characteristics of the spontelectric state. Recently it has been shown that Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (RAIRS) provides a new and independent technique for the detection of the spontelectric effect, through the observation of vibrational Stark shifts in spectra of films. Stark shifts for nitrous oxide are demonstrated to be in harmony with electric fields measured using the electron beam technique. The method is then applied to carbon monoxide, showing that this material displays the spontelectric effect between deposition temperatures of 20 K and 26 K. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Dynamics of Systems at the Nanoscale", edited by Andrey Solov'yov and Andrei Korol.

  20. A model of plate kinematics in Gondwana breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Graeme; König, Matthias

    2008-05-01

    An accurate model of relative plate motions in Gondwana breakup is based on visual fitting of seafloor isochrons and fracture zones (FZ) from the Riiser-Larsen Sea and Mozambique Basin. Used predictively, the model precisely locates kinematic markers in the West Somali Basin, which allows the conclusion that the spreading centres in the West Somali and Mozambique basins and the Riiser-Larsen Sea formed parts of the boundary between the same two plates. The locations of FZ and less well-defined isochrons from neighbouring regions are also consistent with their formation on other lengths of this same boundary and with its relocation from the West Somali Basin and northern Natal Valley to the West Enderby Basin and Lazarev Sea during chron M10n. Small independently moving plates thus played no role in the breakup of this core part of Gondwana. In an inversion procedure, the data from these areas yield more precise finite rotations that describe the history of the two plates' separation. Breakup is most simply interpreted to have occurred in coincidence with Karoo volcanism, and a reconstruction based on the rotations shows the Lebombo and Mateke-Sabi monoclines and the Mozambique and Astrid ridges as two sets of conjugate volcanic margins. Madagascar's pre-drift position can be used as a constraint to reassess the positions of India and Sri Lanka in the supercontinent.

  1. Analogous Intruder Behavior Near Ni, Sn, and Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Liddick, S. N.; Walters, W. B.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Abromeit, B.; Ayres, A.; Bey, A.; Bingham, C. R.; Carpenter, M. P.; Cartegni, L.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kondev, F. G.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.

    2015-08-25

    Near shell closures, the presence of unexpected states at lowenergies provides a critical test of our understanding of the atomic nucleus. New measurements for the N = 42 isotones Co-69(27) and Cu-71(29), along with recent data and calculations in the Ni isotopes, establish a full set of complementary, deformed, intruder states astride the closed-shell Ni-28 isotopes. Nuclei with a one-proton hole or one-proton particle adjacent to Z = 28 were populated in beta-decay experiments and in multinucleon transfer reactions. A beta-decaying isomer, with a 750(250)-ms half-life, has been identified in Co-69(27)42. It likely has low spin and accompanies the previously established 7/2(-) state. Complementary data for the levels of isotonic Cu-71(29)42 support the presence of a deformed, Delta J = 1 band built on the proton intruder 7/2(-) level at 981 keV. These data, together with recent studies of lower-mass Co and Cu isotopes and extensive work near Ni-68, support the view that intruder states based on particle-hole excitations accompany all closed proton shells with Z >= 28.

  2. Study of guided wave transmission through complex junction in sodium cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Elie, Q.; Le Bourdais, F.; Jezzine, K.; Baronian, V.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the inspection of welded structures within sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), as the long range propagation of guided waves without amplitude attenuation can overcome the accessibility problem due to the liquid sodium. In the context of the development of the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID), the French Atomic Commission (CEA) investigates non-destructive testing techniques based on guided wave propagation. In this work, guided wave NDT methods are applied to control the integrity of welds located in a junction-type structure welded to the main vessel. The method presented in this paper is based on the analysis of scattering matrices peculiar to each expected defect, and takes advantage of the multi-modal and dispersive characteristics of guided wave generation. In a simulation study, an algorithm developed using the CIVA software is presented. It permits selecting appropriate incident modes to optimize detection and identification of expected flawed configurations. In the second part of this paper, experimental results corresponding to a first validation step of the simulation results are presented. The goal of the experiments is to estimate the effectiveness of the incident mode selection in plates. The results show good agreement between experience and simulation. (authors)

  3. Earthquake probabilities for the Wassatch front region in Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Ivan G.; Lund, William R.; Duross, Christopher; Thomas, Patricia; Arabasz, Walter; Crone, Anthony J.; Hylland, Michael D.; Luco, Nicolas; Olig, Susan S.; Pechmann, James; Personius, Stephen; Petersen, Mark D.; Schwartz, David P.; Smith, Robert B.; Rowman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In a letter to The Salt Lake Daily Tribune in September 1883, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geologist G.K. Gilbert warned local residents about the implications of observable fault scarps along the western base of the Wasatch Range. The scarps were evidence that large surface-rupturing earthquakes had occurred in the past and more would likely occur in the future. The main actor in this drama is the 350-km-long Wasatch fault zone (WFZ), which extends from central Utah to southernmost Idaho. The modern Wasatch Front urban corridor, which follows the valleys on the WFZ’s hanging wall between Brigham City and Nephi, is home to nearly 80% of Utah’s population of 3 million. Adding to this circumstance of “lots of eggs in one basket,” more than 75% of Utah’s economy is concentrated along the Wasatch Front in Utah’s four largest counties, literally astride the five central and most active segments of the WFZ.

  4. A Mars Pathfinder landing on a recently drained ephemeral sea: Cerberus Plains, 6 deg N, 188 deg W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1994-01-01

    Along a 500 km-wide belt extending between 202 deg and 180 deg W and lying astride the martian equator, moderately low-albedo, uncratered smooth plains exhibit low thermal inertia and potentially favorable conditions for the preservation of near-surface ice. The Cerberus Plains occupy a topographic trough as much as 2 km below the planetary datum, and the denser atmosphere at these altitudes would also favor long residence times for near-surface ice once emplaced. The plains have previously been interpreted as the result of young (late Amazonian) low viscosity lava flows or similarly youthful fluvial deposition. However, the plains are also included in maps of possibly extensive martian paleoseas or paleolakes. Ice emplaced as such seas dissipated could still be preserved under thin (a few tens of centimeters) sedimentary cover. In any case, and if a sea once existed, aqueous-born interstitial cementation, probably including hydrated iron oxides and sulfate minerals, would have been favored and is now susceptible to investigation by the Pathfinder alpha proton x-ray spectrometer and multispectral imager.

  5. pwOmics: an R package for pathway-based integration of time-series omics data using public database knowledge.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Astrid; Beißbarth, Tim

    2015-09-15

    Characterization of biological processes is progressively enabled with the increased generation of omics data on different signaling levels. Here we present a straightforward approach for the integrative analysis of data from different high-throughput technologies based on pathway and interaction models from public databases. pwOmics performs pathway-based level-specific data comparison of coupled human proteomic and genomic/transcriptomic datasets based on their log fold changes. Separate downstream and upstream analyses results on the functional levels of pathways, transcription factors and genes/transcripts are performed in the cross-platform consensus analysis. These provide a basis for the combined interpretation of regulatory effects over time. Via network reconstruction and inference methods (Steiner tree, dynamic Bayesian network inference) consensus graphical networks can be generated for further analyses and visualization. The R package pwOmics is freely available on Bioconductor (http://www.bioconductor.org/). astrid.wachter@med.uni-goettingen.de. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Enhanced wave absorption through irregular interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Félix, S.; Sapoval, B.; Filoche, M.; Asch, M.

    2009-01-01

    The diffraction and absorption of waves by a system with both absorbing properties and irregular geometry is an open physical problem. A more reachable and closely related question is the understanding of wave oscillations in confined systems containing an absorbing material with an irregular shape. This has to be solved to understand why anechoic chambers (electromagnetic or acoustic) do work better with irregular absorbing walls. The answer to this question could also be used in other fields such as light or microwave absorption, or also to improve the performances of break-waters in order to damp sea-waves. It is found here that, in resonators containing an irregular shaped absorbent material, there appears a new type of mode localization. This phenomemon, that we call "astride" localization, describes the fact that these modes exist in both the lossless and the lossy regions. It is these modes that are particularly efficient in dissipating the energy of waves excited in the non-absorbing region.

  7. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    This discussion of Afghanistan covers: the people, geography, history (European influence, reform and reaction, Daoud's Republic and the April 1978 coup, and the Soviet invasion), government and political conditions, the economy (agriculture, trade and industry, transportation, economic development), foreign relations, and relations between the US and Afghanistan. In 1985, the population was estimated to be 11 million (plus about 2.7 million refugees in Pakistan and 1 million refugees in Iran and the west). The annual growth rate is negative because of the war. In 1971 the UN estimate of infant mortality was 181.6/1000 live births with life expectancy 36.6 for men and 37.3 for women. Afghanistan's ethnically and linguistically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading from central Asia into South and Southwest Asia. The dominant ethnic group, the Pukhtuns, make up about 40% of the population. Afghanistan has had a turbulent history. All of Afghanistan's rulers until the Marxist coup of 1978 were from Durani's tribe, and, since 1818, all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan. Afghanistan is primarily an agricultural country, despite the fact that only 15% of its total land area is viable. This sector employs 3/4 of the working population and accounts for more than half of the gross domestic product. The Afghan economy remains tightly tied to that of the Soviet Union, its largest trading partner. Although Afghan has no railways or navigable rivers, the Amu Darya (Oxus) River on the Soviet-Afghan border does carry barge traffic. The Soviets pledged more than $300 million in new aid in 1984 and disbursed more than $400 million in commodities and new project aid. They signed a further agreement granting additional credits in February 1985. Since the December 1979 Soviet invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy has mirrored that of the Soviet Union. The US has never recognized the Kabul regime and strongly opposes the

  8. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Saline Valley and Lower Saline Wilderness Study Areas, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wrucke, C.T.; Marsh, S.P.; Raines, G.L.; Werschky, R.S.; Blakely, R.J.; Hoover, D.B.; McHugh, E.L.; Rumsey, C.M.; Gaps, R.S.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area, California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area were studied in 1981-83 using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical surveys and the examination of mines and prospects to evaluate mineral resources and the potential for mineral resources. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area has a high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in two areas. One area, largely outside the study area, is in the vicinity of the Crater mine in the Last Chance Range, and it has potential for the occurrence of gold in a disseminated deposit in an epithermal environment. The other area is in Marble Canyon in the western part of the study area, and it has high potential for the occurrence of gold placer deposits. Marble Canyon also has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits downstream from the area of high potential. Seven areas, scattered from the Inyo Mountains to the Last Chance Range, have a low potential for the occurrence of gold in disseminated deposits, and one area that lies astride the border of Death Valley National Monument has a low potential for the occurrence of gold in vein deposits. The southern end of Eureka Valley has a low potential for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits beneath the valley floor. Demonstrated resources of native sulfur exist at the Crater mine but no resource potential was identified nearby in adtacent parts of the study area. 3 figs. (ACR)

  9. The Rafita asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljbaae, S.; Carruba, V.; Masiero, J. R.; Domingos, R. C.; Huaman, M.

    2017-05-01

    The Rafita asteroid family is an S-type group located in the middle main belt, on the right-hand side of the 3J:-1A mean-motion resonance. The proximity of this resonance to the family left-hand side in the semimajor axis caused many former family members to be lost. As a consequence, the family shape in the (a, 1/D) domain is quite asymmetrical, with a preponderance of objects on the right-hand side of the distribution. The Rafita family is also characterized by a leptokurtic distribution in inclination, which allows the use of methods of family age estimation recently introduced for other leptokurtic families such as Astrid, Hansa, Gallia and Barcelona. In this work, we propose a new method based on the behaviour of an asymmetry coefficient function of the distribution in the (a, 1/D) plane to date incomplete asteroid families such as Rafita. By monitoring the time behaviour of this coefficient for asteroids simulating the initial conditions at the time of the family formation, we were able to estimate that the Rafita family should have an age of 490 ± 200 Myr, in good agreement with results from independent methods such as Monte Carlo simulations of Yarkovsky and YORP dynamical induced evolution and the time behaviour of the kurtosis of the sin (i) distribution. Asteroids from the Rafita family can reach orbits similar to 8 per cent of the currently known near-Earth objects. During the final 10 Myr of the simulation, ≃1 per cent of the simulated objects are present in NEO space, and thus would be comparable to objects in the present-day NEO population.

  10. On Perturbation Components Correspondence between Diffusion and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    G. Palmiotti

    2012-11-01

    We have established a correspondence between perturbation components in diffusion and transport theory. In particular we have established the correspondence between the leakage perturbation component of the diffusion theory to that of the group self scattering in transport theory. This has been confirmed by practical applications on sodium void reactivity calculations of fast reactors. Why this is important for current investigations? Recently, there has been a renewed interest in designing fast reactors where the sodium void reactivity coefficient is minimized. In particular the ASTRID8,9 reactor concept has been optimized with this goal in mind. The correspondence on the leakage term that has been established here has a twofold implication for the design of this kind of reactors. First, this type of reactor has a radial reflector; therefore, as shown before, the sodium void reactivity coefficient calculation requires the use of transport theory. The minimization of the sodium reactivity coefficient is normally done by increasing the leakage component that has a negative sign. The correspondence established in this paper allows to directly look at this component in transport theory. The second implication is related to the uncertainty evaluation on sodium void reactivity. As it has shown before, the total sodium void reactivity effect is the result of a large compensation (opposite sign) between the scattering (called often spectral) component and the leakage one. Consequently, one has to evaluate separately the uncertainty on each separate component and then combine them statistically. If one wants to compute the cross section sensitivity coefficients of the two different components, the formulation established in this paper allows to achieve this goal by playing on the contribution to the sodium void reactivity coming from the group self scattering of the sodium cross section.

  11. RTOPO-1: A consistent dataset for Antarctic ice shelf topography and global ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry (i.e. ice-shelf draft and ocean bathymetry). Existing global or pan-Antarctic data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional fields into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-minute bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. Locations of the merging line have been carefully adjusted in order to get the best out of each data set. High-resolution gridded data for the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves and for Pine Island Glacier have been carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam ship survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), gridded, and again carefully merged into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-minute data set contains consistent masks for open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, and bare land surface. The Ice Shelf Cavern Geometry Team: Anne Le Brocq, Tara Deen, Eugene Domack, Pierre Dutrieux, Ben Galton-Fenzi, Dorothea Graffe, Hartmut Hellmer, Angelika Humbert, Daniela Jansen, Adrian Jenkins, Astrid Lambrecht, Keith Makinson, Fred Niederjasper, Frank Nitsche, Ole Anders Nøst, Lars Henrik Smedsrud, and Walter Smith

  12. Validation of CFC-12 measurements from the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) with the version 6.0 retrieval algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosrawi, F.; Müller, R.; Irie, H.; Engel, A.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Traub, W. A.; Jucks, K. W.; Johnson, D. G.; Oelhaf, H.; Wetzel, G.; Sugita, T.; Kanzawa, H.; Yokota, T.; Nakajima, H.; Sasano, Y.

    2004-03-01

    Measurements of CFC-12 were made by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) between 57°N and 72°N in the Northern Hemisphere and between 64°S and 89°S in the Southern Hemisphere. ILAS was launched on 17 August 1996 on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS). The ILAS validation balloon campaigns were carried out from Kiruna, Sweden (68°N, 21°E), in February and March 1997 and from Fairbanks, Alaska (65°N, 148°W), in April and May 1997. During these validation balloon campaigns, CFC-12 was measured with the in situ instruments ASTRID, BONBON, and SAKURA and the remote sensing spectrometers MIPAS-B, FIRS-2, and MkIV. ILAS version 6.0 CFC-12 profiles obtained at the nearest location to the validation balloon measurement are compared with these validation balloon measurements. The quality of ILAS CFC-12 data processed with the version 6.0 algorithm improved significantly compared to previous versions. Low relative differences between ILAS CFC-12 and the correlative measurements of about 10% were found between 13 and 20 km. The comparison of vertical profiles shows that ILAS CFC-12 data are useful below about 20-22 km inside the vortex and below about 25 km outside the vortex. However, at greater altitudes the relative percentage difference increases very strongly with increasing altitude. Further, correlations of CFC-12 with N2O show a good agreement with the correlative measurements for N2O values of N2O > 150 ppbv. In summary, ILAS CFC-12 data are now suitable for scientific studies in the lower stratosphere.

  13. Low-Altitude Emission of Energetic Neutral Atoms: A New Diagnostic of the Energetics of Ion Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.; Nair, H.

    2010-12-01

    We describe a new theoretical understanding of the emission of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) generated by the precipitation of energetic magnetospheric ions into the Earth’s monatomic oxygen (O) exosphere (200-800 km). This low altitude emission (LAE) is the brightest ENA source in images obtained from Astrid-1/PIPPI, IMAGE/MENA/HENA, and TWINS1/2. The upward ENA “albedo” from the precipitating protons in the energy range 1-100 keV can approach 50% of the incident proton intensity. Unlike FUV imaging, ENA imaging of the LAE allows us to extract the detailed (not integrated) energy spectrum of the precipitating protons. We have verified this claim by comparing ENA images from TWINS 1/2 with in situ ion spectra measured by DMSP spacecraft (~825 km altitude) flying simultaneously under the ENA LAE regions (Bazell et al., J. Geophys. Res., in press 2010, and also this Conference). Quantitative extraction of proton spectra from the ENA images requires a “thick-target” theory that treats properly the multiple atomic collisions (charge exchange of protons, stripping ENA H-atoms) and associated energy losses (including ionization and excitation). Analytic solutions to the coupled proton/H-atom transport equations have been obtained, and they provide quantitative insight into the strong dependence of the ENA LAE upon the pitch angle and the energy of the precipitating protons. Since global ENA images of LAE can be obtained with exposure times of a minute or so during large geomagnetic storms, the distribution in magnetic latitude and local time of their evolving spectra contain critical diagnostics of the physics of not only the precipitation process, but also of the acceleration of the energetic ions themselves. Simulated 24 keV ENA low altitude emission viewed from TWINS-2 generated by precipitating protons below a DMSP pass (Bazell et al., JGR, in press, 2010).

  14. Two-dimensional wide-band-gap II-V semiconductors with a dilated graphene-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Jing; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2016-12-01

    Since the advent of graphene, two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very attractive and there is growing interest in exploring new 2D materials beyond graphene. Here, through density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we predict 2D wide-band-gap II-V semiconductor materials of M3X2 (M = Zn, Cd and X = N, P, As) with a dilated graphene-like honeycomb structure. In this structure the group-V X atoms form two X-atomic planes symmetrically astride the centering group-IIB M atomic plane. Our DFT calculation shows that 2D Zn3N2, Zn3P2 and Zn3As2 have direct band gaps of 2.87, 3.81 and 3.55 eV, respectively, and 2D Cd3N2, Cd3P2 and Cd3As2 exhibit indirect band gaps of 2.74, 3.51 and 3.29 eV, respectively. Each of the six 2D materials is shown to have effective carrier (either hole or electron) masses down to 0.03m 0-0.05m 0. The structural stability and feasibility of experimental realization of these 2D materials has been shown in terms of DFT phonon spectra and total energy comparison with related existing bulk materials. On the experimental side, there already are many similar two-coordinate structures of Zn and other transition metals in various organic materials. Therefore, these 2D semiconductors can enrich the family of 2D electronic materials and may have promising potential for achieving novel transistors and optoelectronic devices.

  15. Hydrocarbon generation and migration routes in the east Texas basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, W.; Hood, W.C. )

    1994-02-01

    The East Texas basin is a prolific, mature hydrocarbon province, producing oil and gas from several reservoirs and a variety of trap types. Many of the liquid hydrocarbons discovered in the basin are trapped in structures related to movement of the underlying Louann Salt. By determining the structural evolution of the basin, we constructed a framework to model the generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Geochemical data indicate three major oil types: Jurassic oil, Lower Cretaceous oil, and Upper Cretaceous oil. The Jurassic source is mature throughout the basin and began to expel oil at approximately 88 Ma. The distribution of Jurassic oil in Cretaceous reservoirs shows that vertical migration routes predominated. Prospective Lower Cretaceous source rocks are only mature in the deep, central portion of the basin where expulsion began about 47 Ma. Distribution of this oil type suggests that Lower Cretaceous source rocks occur only in localized areas of the East Texas basin. Organic-rich Upper Cretaceous shales are immature in the main part of the basin, but are mature south of the Angelina-Caldwell flexure where they reached peak generation at approximately 20 Ma. Long-distance, lateral migration routes are necessary to explain the distribution of this oil type. Migration routes to the giant East Texas field may be 100 km or more. Modeling of this basin suggests an exploration approach, in mature basins, of defining migration pathways and seeking traps astride them. Traps in this position have a better probability of being filled and, all else being equal, are likely to be better fields than traps located away from the major migration routes. 42 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Geologic Map of the Tower Peak Quadrangle, Central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahrhaftig, Clyde

    2000-01-01

    Introduction The Tower Peak quadrangle, which includes northernmost Yosemite National Park, is located astride the glaciated crest of the central Sierra Nevada and covers an exceptionally well-exposed part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Granitic plutonic rocks of the batholith dominate the geology of the Tower Peak quadrangle, and at least 18 separate pre-Tertiary intrusive events have been identified. Pre-Cretaceous metamorphic rocks crop out in the quadrangle in isolated roof pendants and septa. Tertiary volcanic rocks cover granitic rocks in the northern part of the quadrangle, but are not considered in this brief summary. Potassium-argon (K-Ar) age determinations for plutonic rocks in the quadrangle range from 83 to 96 million years (Ma), including one of 86 Ma for the granodiorite of Lake Harriet (Robinson and Kistler, 1986). However, a rubidium-strontium whole-rock isochron age of 129 Ma has been obtained for the Lake Harriet pluton (Robinson and Kistler, 1986), which field evidence indicates is the oldest plutonic body within the quadrangle. This suggests that some of the K-Ar ages record an episode of resetting during later thermal events and are too young. The evidence indicates that all the plutonic rocks are of Cretaceous age, with the youngest being the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite at about 83 Ma. The pre-Tertiary rocks of the Tower Peak quadrangle fall into two groups: (1) an L-shaped area of older plutonic and metamorphic rocks, 3 to 10 km wide, that extends diagonally both northeast and southeast from near the center of the quadrangle; and (2) a younger group of large, probably composite intrusions that cover large areas in adjacent quadrangles and extend into the Tower Peak quadrangle from the east, north, and southwest.

  17. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.

    1982-07-01

    The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) selected the San Bernardino area for detailed geothermal resource investigation because the area was known to contain promising geothermal resource sites, the area contained a large population center, and the City of San Bernardino had expressed serious interest in developing the area's geothermal resource. Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs, South San Bernardino, and Harlem Hot Springs--in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the South San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the South San Bernardino geothermal area was 56 C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal areas was 49.5 C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well.

  18. Geology of the Round Bay quadrangle, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, with a section on Dinoflagellate-acritarch palynology, and a section on Cretaceous pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minard, James Pierson; May, Fred E.; Christopher, Raymond A.

    1980-01-01

    Six Coastal Plain formations and one group crop out in the Round Bay quadrangle near the inner edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The quadrangle lies astride the Severn River, in Anne Arundel County, near Annapolis, Md. The seven stratigraphic units aggregate as much as 128 m in outcrop. In ascending order, the units are: the upper part of the Potomac Group and the Magothy, Matawan, and Severn Formations, all of Cretaceous age; the Brightseat and Aquia Formations of Paleocene age and the Calvert Formation of Miocene age. Quaternary deposits are thin and cover only small areas; they are all mapped under one unit. Several small, thin deposits of Tertiary alluvium are mapped separately. The largely unconsolidated Cretaceous and Tertiary formations consist chiefly of quartz, glauconite, clays, muscovite, chlorite, lignite, feldspar, and pyrite. Quaternary sediments are mostly locally derived sands, silts, and clays with some gravel and, in the finer sediments, considerable amounts of organic matter. The Cretaceous and Tertiary units strike generally northeast; the younger the formation, the more easterly it strikes. Dips are gentle, 3.6 to 15 m per kilometer toward the southeast, and decrease upward through the section. The Round Bay quadrangle is near the southern limit of several formations that thin progressively toward the southwest from New Jersey. Some pinch out between Betterton, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, and Round Bay, on the western shore, whereas others are present only as thin remnants 1-2 m thick. Resources of the quadrangle include abundant ground water, sand, and high land values near water.

  19. ENA Observations from the IMAGE Mission: Global Evolution and Validation of the Ring Current Ion Distribution and Future Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. C.; Hsieh, S. Y. W.; Demajistre, R.; Sitnov, M. I.; Stephens, G. K.; Gkioulidou, M.

    2016-12-01

    Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging is the only technique that can capture the instantaneous state of the ring current ion distribution, which can vary globally on <10 min timescales. Therefore, it is also enables the only method to validate global ring current physics models. However, this requires a detailed understanding for how ENAs are produced from the ring current and inversion techniques that are thoroughly validated against in-situ measurements. To date, several missions have carried out ENA imaging of the ring current including POLAR, Astrid-1, Double Star, TWINS and IMAGE. Because of their path-finding successes, a future science-mission concept, MEDICI, has been defined in the Heliophysics Decadal Survey. In this presentation we provide an overview of the global storm-time ring current ion evolution in the 10-200 keV range for several storms during the 2000-2005 era using ENA observations from the IMAGE mission obtained by the HENA Camera. A constrained linear inversion technique has proven to be one of the more effective and convenient techniques to retrieve the spatial and pitch-angle distributions (PAD) of the ring current. We briefly describe the technique and focus on how to ensure that the unique and best solution has been found by using both simulations using synthetic data and validations against the simultaneous in-situ measurements from the Cluster mission for several geomagnetic storms. Results of the global evolution of the ring current is summarized in terms of build-up and decay, and symmetrization timescales, degree of spatial asymmetry, temporal variability due to injections and spatial variability of PADs. We present comparisons with empirical ring current distributions retrieved from the global magnetic field model TS07d and Van Allen Probes in-situ measurements for similar driving conditions. Lastly, we discuss the lessons learned and implications for the second-generation of imaging missions such as MEDICI.

  20. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modu, B.; Herbert, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9% falls in Chad republic. Since its formation, the basin continues to experienced water shortage due to the activities of Dams combination, increase in irrigations and general reduction in rainfall. Chad basin needs an external water source for it to be function at sustainable level, hence needs for exploitation of higher east African river basin called Congo basin; which covers an area of 3.7 million square km lies in an astride the equator in west-central Africa-world second largest river basin after Amazon. The Congo River almost pans around republic of Congo, the democratic republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, western Zambia, northern Angola, part of Cameroun, and Tanzania. The remotely sensed imagery analysis and observation revealed that Congo basin is on the elevation of 275 to 460 meters and the Chad basin is on elevation of 240 meters. This implies that water can be drained from Congo basin via headrace down to the Chad basin for the water sustainability.

  1. On the highly inclined vW leptokurtic asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Domingos, R. C.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M.

    2016-11-01

    vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field vW is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, i.e. they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. Among these, three are highly inclined asteroid families, the Hansa, Barcelona, and Gallia families. As observed for the case of the Astrid family, the leptokurtic inclination distribution seems to be caused by the interaction of these families with node secular resonances. In particular, the Hansa and Gallia family are crossed by the s - sV resonance with Vesta, that significantly alters the inclination of some of their members. In this work we use the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of all planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt to assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, and to obtain independent constraints on the family ages. While secular resonances with massive bodies in the main belt do not significantly affect the dynamical evolution of the Barcelona family, they significantly increase the γ2(vW) values of the simulated Hansa and Gallia families. Current values of the γ2(vW) for the Gallia family are reached over the estimated family age only if secular resonances with Vesta are accounted for.

  2. Intracardiac Echocardiography Evaluation in Secundum Atrial Septal Defect Transcatheter Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Zanchetta, Mario; Pedon, Luigi; Rigatelli, Gianluca; Carrozza, Antonio; Zennaro, Marco; Di Martino, Roberta; Onorato, Eustaquio; Maiolino, Pietro

    2003-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the balloon sizing maneuvers and deployment of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO). In addition, intraprocedural balloon sizing was compared with off-line intracardiac echocardiographic measurements. Methods: The intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) measurements were: maximum transverse and longitudinal atrial septal defect (ASD) diameters in the aortic valve and four-chamber planes;area of the ASD and its equivalent circle diameter. Thirteen consecutive patients underwent transcatheter implantation of an ASO device using ICE guidance under local anesthesia. The device matching the balloon sizing diameter of the defect was implanted. Qualitative ICE assessment of the ASO devices implanted was performed off line. Results: The mean equivalent circle diameter predicted by ICE was 24.40 {+-} 5.61 mm and was significantly higher(p 0.027) than the ASD measured by balloonsizing (21.38 {+-} 5.28 mm). Unlike previous studies we did not find any correlation between the two measurements (correlation coefficient = 0.47). Only four of the 13 patients had optimal device positioning as shown by the qualitative ICE evaluation, whereas the remaining nine patients had inadequate device placement. This resulted in a waist diameter that was an average 26.1% undersized in seven patients and 12.7% oversized in two patients. Five of the seven patients with an undersized device had ASO-atrial septum misalignment with leftward device deviation. Conclusion: The ICE images allowed careful measurement of the dimensions of the ASD and accurately displayed the spatial relations of the ASO astride the ASD.Moreover, use of the ICE measurement led to selection of a different size of device in comparison with those of balloon sizing. The clinical benefit of this new approach needs to be rigorously tested.

  3. Walking the tightrope: trends in African freshwater systematic ichthyology.

    PubMed

    Skelton, P H; Swartz, E R

    2011-12-01

    Africa is blessed with an abundance and rich diversity of freshwater fishes, reflecting its Gondwanan history and geographical position astride the equator. Africa is, however, relatively poorly serviced scientifically, in this respect presenting a challenge to the tension between conserving biodiversity and sustainable development. Biosystematics has experienced several paradigm shifts in the past half century, including the rise of cladistics and more recently the adoption of molecular DNA applications to taxonomy and phylogeny and the assembly and manipulation of large data sets in an era of major development of bioinformatics. The richness of African biodiversity is a magnet to the global systematic community that, to a degree, offsets the disadvantage of an impoverished indigenous scientific capacity. Conservation biology, however, is rooted more closely to the local situation and therefore requires indigenous taxonomic services that are inevitably scarce. Balancing this network of tensions between scientific knowledge generation and application is like walking a tightrope for existing African scientific resources, and to cope it is essential to embrace modern innovative approaches such as barcoding to identify organisms. This paper considers the historical development of African freshwater ichthyology, presents a suite of recent examples illustrating trends in systematic ichthyology in Africa and draws conclusions to suggest that both traditional and new-age approaches to taxonomy are necessary for a complete understanding and appreciation of African freshwater fish diversity and its conservation. The chosen examples also suggest that the tensions between the approaches can be effectively managed provided exponents work collaboratively. The emerging evidence indicates that the combined skills and insight of complex scientific teams including systematists, ecologists, molecular biologists and earth scientists are needed to resolve the deep complexity of

  4. Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea and the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico&solCaribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pindell, James; Dewey, John F.

    1982-04-01

    A Permo-Triassic reconstruction of western Pangea (North America, South America, Africa) is proposed that is characterized by (1) definition of the North Atlantic fit by matching of marginal offsets (fracture zones) along the opposing margins, (2) a South Atlantic fit that is tighter than the BuIlard fit and that is achieved by treating Africa as two plates astride the Benue Trough and related structures during the Cretaceous, (3) complete closure of the Proto-Atlantic Ocean between North and South America, accomplished by placing the Yucatan block between the Ouachita Mountains and Venezuela, (4) a proposed Hercynian suture zone that separates zones of foreland thrusting from zones of arc-related magmatic activity; to the northwest of this suture lie the Chortis block and Mexico and most of North America, and to the southeast lie South America, the Yucatan Block, Florida and Africa, and (5) satisfaction of paleomagmatic data from North America, South America, and Africa. Beginning with the proposed reconstruction, the relative motion history of South America with respect of North America is defined by using the finite difference method. Within the framework provided by the proposed relative motion history, an evolutionary model for the development of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region is outlined in a series of 13 plate boundary reconstructions at time intervals from the Jurassic to the present. The model includes (1) formation of the Gulf of Mexico by 140 Ma, (2) Pacific provenance of the Caribbean plate through the North America-South America gap during Cretaceous time, (3) Paleocene-Early Eocene back arc spreading origin for the Yucatan Basin, whereby Cuba is the frontal arc and the Nicaragua Rise-Jamaica-Southern Hispaniola is the remnant arc, and (4) 1200 km of post-Eocene cumulative offset along both the Northern and Southern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zones, allowing large-scale eastward migration of the Caribbean plate with respect to the North and

  5. Preliminary assessment of the geologic setting, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Hueco Tanks geothermal area, Texas and New Mexico. Geological Circular 81-1

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.D.; Gluck, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Hueco Tanks geothermal area contains five known but now inactive hot wells (50/sup 0/ to 71/sup 0/C). The area trends north-south along the east side of Tularosa-Hueco Bolson astride the Texas-New Mexico border approximately 40 km northeast of El Paso. Because of its proximity to El Paso, geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area could be a significant resource. Hueco Bolson is an asymmetric graben. Greatest displacement along boundary faults is on the west side adjacent to the Franklin Mountains. Faults, probably with less displacement, also form an irregular boundary on the east side of the bolson. Several probable faults may allow the rise of thermal waters from depth. Ground water in the central part of Hueco Bolson flows southward to the Rio Grande. However, four of the five hot wells occur in a ground-water trough along the eastern margin of the bolson. The trough may be bounded by one of the postulated faults serving as a barrier to ground-water flow. Data on permeability of potential reservoir rocks, including basin fill and fractured bedrock, suggest that they may be sufficiently permeable for development of geothermal water. The concentration of dissolved solids in the geothermal waters varies from 1100 to at least 12,500 mg/L, but most waters show high concentrations. They are Na-Cl-(SO/sub 4/) waters similar in composition to nonthermal waters in basin fill. The composition probably results from contact with evaporite deposits either in basin fill or in Paleozoic bedrock. Shallow reservoirs reach maximum temperatures of about 80/sup 0/ to 110/sup 0/C. Available data are too limited to evaluate adequately the resource potential of geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area.

  6. The Rafita asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljbaae, S.; Carruba, V.; Masiero, J. R.; Domingos, R. C.; Huaman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Rafita asteroid family is an S-type group located in the middle main belt, on the right side of the 3J:-1A mean-motion resonance. The proximity of this resonance to the family left side in semi-major axis caused many former family members to be lost. As a consequence, the family shape in the (a, 1/D) domain is quite asymmetrical, with a preponderance of objects on the right side of the distribution. The Rafita family is also characterized by a leptokurtic distribution in inclination, which allows the use of methods of family age estimation recently introduced for other leptokurtic families such as Astrid, Hansa, Gallia, and Barcelona. In this work we propose a new method based on the behavior of an asymmetry coefficient function of the distribution in the (a, 1/D) plane to date incomplete asteroid families such as Rafita. By monitoring the time behavior of this coefficient for asteroids simulating the initial conditions at the time of the family formation, we were able to estimate that the Rafita family should have an age of 490 ± 200 Myr, in good agreement with results from independent methods such as Monte Carlo simulations of Yarkovsky and Yorp dynamical induced evolution and the time behaviour of the kurtosis of the sin (i) distribution. Asteroids from the Rafita family can reach orbits similar to 8% of the currently known near Earth objects. ≃1% of the simulated objects are present in NEO-space during the final 10 Myr of the simulation, and thus would be comparable to objects in the present-day NEO population.

  7. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. C.; Hall, S. A.; Ball, P.; Bird, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana. Previously proposed reconstruction models often contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate margin of Antarctica near the Riiser Larsen Sea. New satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones in the study area. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Information on crustal thickness along with the identification of fracture zones reveal the COBs that are located significantly closer to the coasts of Africa and Antarctica than previously recognized. Correlation of both fracture zone azimuths and the identified COBs over the conjugate margins suggest Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. Of several scenarios examined, the Beira High is most likely oceanic and may be a conjugate feature of the southern Astrid Ridge. An areal-balancing method that involves restoring the crust to a uniform pre-rift thickness has been used to perform the non-rigid reconstruction for both non-volcanic and volcanic margin with magmatic underplating. Based on the results, Africa underwent extension of 65-105 km while Antarctic crust was stretched by 90-190 km. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica underwent a counter-clockwise rotation with respect to Africa between 186-171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  8. Terminology and global standardization of endoscopic information: Minimal Standard Terminology (MST).

    PubMed

    Fujino, Masayuki A; Bito, Shigeru; Takei, Kazuko; Mizuno, Shigeto; Yokoi, Hideto

    2006-01-01

    Since 1994, following the leading efforts by the European Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Organisation Mondiale d'Endoscopie Digestive (OMED) has succeeded in compiling minimal number of terms required for computer generation of digestive endoscopy reports nicknamed MST (Minimal Standard Terminology). Though with some insufficiencies, and though developed only for digestive endoscopy, MST has been the only available terminology that is globally standardized in medicine. By utilizing the merits of a unified, structured terminology that can be used in multiple languages we can utilize the data stored in different languages as a common database. For this purpose, a standing, terminology-managing organization that manages and maintains and, when required, expands the terminology on a global level, is absolutely necessary. Unfortunately, however, the organization that performs version control of MST (OMED terminology, standardization and data processing committee) is currently suspending its activity. Medical practice of the world demands more and more specialization, with resultant needs for information exchange among specialized territories. As the cooperation between endoscopy and pathology has become currently the most important problem in the Endoscopy Working Group of Integrating Healthcare Enterprise-Japan (IHE-J,) the cooperation among different specialties is essential. There are DICOM or HL7 standards as the protocols for storage, and exchange (communication) of the data, but there is yet no organization that manages the terminology itself astride different specialties. We hereby propose to establish, within IEEE, for example, a system that promotes standardization of the terminology that can transversely describe a patient, and that can control different societies and groups, as far as the terminology is concerned.

  9. Tuberculosis infection and disease in the 2015 cohort of unaccompanied minors seeking asylum in Northern Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Rutger; Eriksson, Margareta

    2017-07-01

    Minors with a stated age <18 years unaccompanied by a responsible adult form an increasing part of refugees to Europe. They are older than other asylum-seeking children and many come from countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) incidence. During the 2015 refugee crisis, 35,369 of 162,877 refugees (22%) seeking asylum in Sweden were unaccompanied minors, which gave us the opportunity to study their burden of TB infection and disease. Of the unaccompanied minors seeking asylum in Sweden during 2015, 2936 (8.3%) were allocated to northern Stockholm. Of these, 2422 were from countries with an incidence of TB exceeding 100/10(5), and were screened for TB infection with a Mantoux tuberculin skin test or a QuantiFERON-TB Gold®. Those from countries with a lower TB incidence were screened only if they had other risk factors for TB exposure. Of those screened, 349 had a positive test and were referred to the northern paediatric TB clinic at Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital. Of these, 16 had TB disease and 278 latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), while we considered 53 uninfected. In addition, eight sought medical attention with symptomatic TB outside the screening system. Cohort rates were 6.8% of LTBI and 0.5% of TB in minors from Afghanistan and 26-32% of LTBI and 3.4-3.5% of TB among those from Eritrea, Ethiopia or Somalia. We conclude that TB infection and disease is common among asylum-seeking unaccompanied minors, especially among those from the Horn of Africa.

  10. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in a Belgian Burn Wound Center

    PubMed Central

    Bilocq, Florence; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert; Rose, Thomas; Keersebilck, Elkana; Bosmans, Petra; Pieters, Thierry; Hing, Mony; Heuninckx, Walter; De Pauw, Frank; Soentjens, Patrick; Merabishvili, Maia; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Bogaerts, Pierre; Glupczynski, Youri; Pot, Bruno; van der Reijden, Tanny J.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its closely related species A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, all members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, are a major cause of hospital acquired infection. In the burn wound center of the Queen Astrid military hospital in Brussels, 48 patients were colonized or infected with Acb complex over a 52-month period. We report the molecular epidemiology of these organisms, their clinical impact and infection control measures taken. A representative set of 157 Acb complex isolates was analyzed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab) and a multiplex PCR targeting OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like genes. We identified 31 rep-PCR genotypes (strains). Representatives of each rep-type were identified to species by rpoB sequence analysis: 13 types to A. baumannii, 10 to A. pittii, and 3 to A. nosocomialis. It was assumed that isolates that belonged to the same rep-type also belonged to the same species. Thus, 83.4% of all isolates were identified to A. baumannii, 9.6% to A. pittii and 4.5% to A. nosocomialis. We observed 12 extensively drug resistant Acb strains (10 A. baumannii and 2 A. nosocomialis), all carbapenem-non-susceptible/colistin-susceptible and imported into the burn wound center through patients injured in North Africa. The two most prevalent rep-types 12 and 13 harbored an OXA-23-like gene. Multilocus sequence typing allocated them to clonal complex 1 corresponding to EU (international) clone I. Both strains caused consecutive outbreaks, interspersed with periods of apparent eradication. Patients infected with carbapenem resistant A. baumannii were successfully treated with colistin/rifampicin. Extensive infection control measures were required to eradicate the organisms. Acinetobacter infection and colonization was not associated with increased attributable mortality. PMID:27223476

  11. Site amplification in Wellington city, New Zealand, determined from analysis of recent earthquake sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, A. E.; Francois-Holden, C.; Benites, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    New Zealand's capital city of Wellington lies astride the Pacific-Australian plate boundary in an area of high seismic hazard. Several large crustal faults capable of generating earthquakes of magnitude >7 cut through the region, and the subduction interface lies at relatively shallow depths ( 25 km) below. The central city is situated on an alluvial basin with variable bedrock depth capable of generating complex 3D site amplification. Furthermore, much of the rest of the city is spread across high topographic relief with the potential for significant local topographic and basin edge effects. In 2013, the Cook Strait earthquake sequence produced the highest ground shaking experienced in the region in recent decades, and included two earthquakes of Mw 6.6 situated approximately 50km from Wellington. Peak ground accelerations recorded during the sequence ranged up to 0.2g during both major events and spectral accelerations recorded in the central city ranged up to approximately 20-30% of the current building design level. Ground motions during the Cook Strait sequence in Wellington were highly variable and strongly dependent on the local site conditions. We use this new data to present an analysis of local ground motion effects in terms of amplification and polarization using horizontal-to-vertical and site-to-reference spectral ratios calculated for a range of Wellington stations spanning rock to deep soil conditions. We also investigate horizontal and vertical site amplification using a spectral inversion technique to separate source, path and site influences on ground motion. Our results are generally in good agreement with existing microzonation maps, however, some differences may result from the complex role of 3D bedrock and surface topography in the region.

  12. Is the Anegada Passage a sealed structure related to a past tectonic phase? A tectono-structure study of the Northern Lesser Antilles margin based on the Antithesis-1 cruise geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurencin, M.; Graindorge, D.; Marcaillou, B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Evain, M.; Jean-Frederic, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Anegada Passage is a deep NE-SW-trending valley across the arcuate volcanic arc at the transition between the Greater and the Lesser Antilles. The passage includes a set of faults and basins connecting the Virgin Island Basin to the Sombrero Basin. The geodynamic causes, the tectono-sedimentary evolution and the eastward extent of the Anegada passage are still unclear. Various models for the formation of the passage were published: (1) pure extension, (2) dextral or (3) sinsitral transtension. During the geophysical cruise ANTITHESIS-1 (Nov.2013-Jan.2014), we acquired deep penetration multichannel seismic and wide-angle seismic data, high resolution seismic (3.5 khz) data and multibeam swath bathymetry in this poorly-investigated margin segment. These data shed new light on the extent and structure of the Anegada system as well as on its past and current tectonic activity. The crustal thickness and velocity (Vp) structure are consistent with a previously-proposed oceanic origin under hotspot influence. The crustal Vp structure does not significantly vary astride the Anegada Passage suggesting similar nature of the rocks. Thus, the Anegada Passage does not correspond to a possible boundary between differing-origin basements in Greater and Lesser Antilles. The Anegada system extends NE of the Sombrero Basin with a set of newly-observed basins and faults that all together draw an en echelon structure. This fault system widens eastward, with numerous short and shallow E-W-trending faults suggesting an anastomosing system near the accretionary prism. Within the Sombrero Basin, the shallowest undeformed sedimentary unit overlays deformed and fan-shaped deeper units indicating a recently-sealed tectonic activity consistent with the seismic and geodetic records. This low current seismic and tectonic activity indicates that the Anegada Passage formed during a past tectonic phase possibly related to the Bahamas Platform docking against the Greater Antilles subduction

  13. PubMed

    Frisén, Louise; Söder, Olle; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2017-02-22

    Dramatic increase of gender dysphoria in youth In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the number of young people with gender dysphoria seeking help for gender-confirming medical interventions. From a situation of no more than a few patients annually, there were almost 200 referrals of gender dysphoria to the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital in 2016. This child and adolescent psychiatric unit has the whole country as a catchment area for patients <16 years. Gender-confirming medical interventions are regulated by a special law that sets a minimum age for legal and surgical gender reassignment to 18 years. The law, which is under revision, does not prevent medical investigations, hormonal therapy, and some surgical procedures before the age of 18. Gender dysphoria is defined as a persistent desire to live and be accepted as the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a perceived inconsistency with the sex assigned at birth and a desire to change the body in accordance with the perceived sex. The cause is unknown despite attempts of etiological mapping including genetic analyses, hormonal studies and modern brain imaging techniques. Repeated studies have shown that only a minority (about 20 %) of prepubertal children with gender dysphoria will have a persistent desire for later gender-confirming medical interventions, while the majority of those whose gender dysphoria is reinforced during puberty will later meet the diagnostic criteria for gender dysphoria (DSM-5) and transsexualism (ICD-10) (so called persisters). Persisters can be offered treatment with puberty stopping hormones to avoid the development of undesirable secondary sexual characteristics. Gender-confirming medical interventions are the only recommended treatment for gender dysphoria, and early treatment facilitates the ability to successfully pass in the desired sex, which is associated with a significantly better prognosis.

  14. Hydrogeology of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D. )

    1993-04-01

    The Fort Peck Indian Reservation, which encompasses about 3,300 square miles in northeastern Montana, is characterized by three major types of terrain: Missouri River bottom lands, badlands, and topographically higher benchlands. The reservation lies on the western flank of the Williston Basin, a large, petroleum-rich structural depression in Montana, North and South Dakota, and Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Structurally, the area is not complex, although the Poplar Anticline trends northwest through the central part of the reservation. The East Poplar Oil Field lies astride this structure and produces from the mississippian Madison Group. Geologic units that crop out in the reservation are the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Shale, Fox Hills Sandstone, and Hell Creek Formation; the Tertiary Fort Union and Flaxville Formations; and Quaternary glacial and alluvial deposits. Most ground water is produced from alluvial deposits, glacial deposits, Flaxville Formation, Fort Union Formation, Hell Creek Formation, and Fox Hills Sandstone. Well depths range from about 15 to 300 feet below land surface; depth to water ranges from about 5 to 160 feet. Units deeper than the Fox Hills Sandstone are not important aquifers because of the underlying, thick Bearpaw Shale, and because the water is too mineralized for most uses. Background dissolved-solids concentrations of water from major aquifers is in the range of about 300 to 3,000 milligrams per liter. However, in the East Poplar Oil Field, water in the alluvial and glacial deposits has been contaminated near brine-disposal facilities; dissolved-solids concentration of water is as much as 114,000 milligrams per liter.

  15. IRETHERM: Developing a Strategic and Holistic Understanding of Ireland's Geothermal Energy Potential through Integrated Modelling of New and Existing Geophysical, Geochemical and Geological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Daly, Stephen; Vozar, Jan; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Blake, Sarah; Delhaye, Robert; Fritschle, Tobias; Willmot Noller, Nicola; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The Science Foundation Ireland funded academia-government-industry collaborative IRETHERM project (www.iretherm.ie), initiated in 2011, is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's (all-island) deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical, geochemical and geological data. Potential applications include both low enthalpy district space heating of large urban centres and electricity generation from intermediate-temperature waters. IRETHERM comprises three broad geothermal target types; 1) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's radiogenic granites (EGS), (2) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's deep sedimentary basins (HSA), and, (3) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of warm springs. The geophysical subsurface imaging techniques of choice are controlled-source (CSEM) and natural-source (magnetotellurics, MT) electromagnetic methods. Electrical conductivity, being a transport property, is a proxy for permeability, and appropriate porosity-permeability relations are being developed. To date, MT measurements have been made at 466 sites over sedimentary basins (190 sites), granites (156 sites) and warm springs (120 sites), with CSEM across one warm spring. An ongoing continuous geochemical (temperature and electrical conductivity every 15 mins) and time-lapse seasonal hydrochemical sampling programmes are in progress at six warm spring sites. A database on heat production in Irish rocks has been compiled, of more than 3,300 geochemical sample measurements, with 3,000 retrieved from various archives and over 300 new analyses. Geochemistry, geochronology and isotopic analyses have been conducted on subsurface granites and exposed analogues astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in order to understand the underlying reasons for their radiogenic heat production. Finally, thermal conductivity measurements have been made on borehole samples from representative lithologies

  16. Distribution and mechanism of Neogene to present-day vertical axis rotations, Pacific-Australian Plate Boundary Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    1997-01-01

    Remarkably little knowledge exists about mechanisms of vertical axis rotation in continental crust. Steeply dipping basement rocks in South Island, New Zealand, provide an opportunity to map the distribution of rotations across the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone, and to delineate boundaries of rotated blocks in unusual detail. We synthesize new structural data with new and existing paleomagnetic data, with geodetic data, and with patterns of Neogene-Quaternary faulting in the strike-slip Marlborough fault system. For the past 20 m.y., vertical axis rotations have been hinged about two crustal-scale boundaries near the east coast. The NE hinge accommodated ˜50° of early-middle Miocene clockwise rotation, which caused deformation of the eastern ends of the Alpine-Wairau and Clarence strike-slip faults. The SW hinge has accommodated a further 30°-50° of finite clockwise rotation since ˜4 Ma and deflects active fault traces. The locus of rotation has shifted southwestward astride a subduction margin that is lengthening in that direction. Rotating rocks are pinned to the south against a locked collision zone where the continental Chatham Rise impinges against the margin. Slip on inland strike-slip faults is transformed seaward across a zone of fault termination into rigid body rotation of a large continental block that has been thrust eastward over the downgoing subducted slab of the Pacific plate. The rotation mechanism is a "migrating hinge," which resembles a flexed telephone book. Strike-slip faults are translated through a brecciated hinge region that does not coincide with a fixed material line in the rock.

  17. [Transylvanian refugees and the plague in 1708-1709].

    PubMed

    Kis, D

    1993-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming military power of the Habsburg forces Transylvanian sympathizers fled twice to Hungary during the Rákóczi uprising (1704-1711): first in 1704-1706 and then in 1707-1711. In the autumn of 1707 they numbered as much as ten thousand people, and according to the decrees of the diet at Kisvárda, they were settled down in smaller units in around Szabolcs, Szatmár, Bereg, Ung, Ugocsa and Máramaros counties. Though always short of money, the leaders of the ukprising created a system that satisfied the basic needs of these refugees. By the end of the rebellion, nevertheless, as the territory controlled by Rákóczi's armies decreased considerably, the refugees were forced to move on and on, which certainly led to a corruption of their food supplies, accommodation and hygienic conditions. The worst among all came with the plague. The author examines the effects of the epidemic and the counter-measures taken by the individual and the authorities of the uprising. Kis has consulted the main Hungarian books of that age that referred to black death (among others Anna Zay's Herbarium [1719], Samuel Köleséri's Pestis Daicae, György Komáromi Csipkés's Pestis pestise, Ferenc Pápai Páriz's Pax Corporis and A [estos betegség etc., and Máté Tsanaki's A Döghalálról, etc.), as well as many archival papers (the correspondence of Count Sándor Károlyi with his wife Krisztina Barkóczy, thos of General Bercsényi to his wife and Prince Rákóczi, and some doctors' reports, etc.). His main source, however, is Zsigmond Szaniszló's diary. Szaniszló was a former fobiró (chief-sheriff) of the Transsylvanian Torda city, an Anti-Trinitarian stronghold, and remained a leader of his people during the emigration. According to his notes, which the author has compared with the data given by the others, there were hardly any measures taken against plague in this community. Although Szaniszló gives detailed descriptions about the everyday life of the

  18. Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Shaded Relief with Height as Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Shenandoah National Park lies astride part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which form the southeastern range of the greater Appalachian Mountains in Virginia. The park is well framed by this one-degree of latitude (38-39 north) by one-degree of longitude (78-79 west) cell of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and it appears here as the most prominent ridge trending diagonally across the scene. Skyline Drive, a 169-kilometer (105-mile) road that winds along the crest of the mountains through the length the park, provides vistas of the surrounding landscape. The Shenandoah River flows through the valley to the west, with Massanutten Mountain standing between the river's north and south forks. Unusually pronounced meanders of both river forks are very evident near the top center of this scene. Massanutten Mountain itself is an unusually distinctive landform also, consisting of highly elongated looping folds of sedimentary rock. The rolling Piedmont country lies to the southeast of the park, with Charlottesville located at the bottom center of the scene.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to bluish-white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers

  19. Geology of the Ugashik-Mount Peulik Volcanic Center, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    The Ugashik-Mount Peulik volcanic center, 550 km southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, consists of the late Quaternary 5-km-wide Ugashik caldera and the stratovolcano Mount Peulik built on the north flank of Ugashik. The center has been the site of explosive volcanism including a caldera-forming eruption and post-caldera dome-destructive activity. Mount Peulik has been formed entirely in Holocene time and erupted in 1814 and 1845. A large lava dome occupies the summit crater, which is breached to the west. A smaller dome is perched high on the southeast flank of the cone. Pyroclastic-flow deposits form aprons below both domes. One or more sector-collapse events occurred early in the formation of Mount Peulik volcano resulting in a large area of debris-avalanche deposits on the volcano's northwest flank. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik center is a calcalkaline suite of basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite, ranging in SiO2 content from 51 to 72 percent. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik magmas appear to be co-genetic in a broad sense and their compositional variation has probably resulted from a combination of fractional crystallization and magma-mixing. The most likely scenario for a future eruption is that one or more of the summit domes on Mount Peulik are destroyed as new magma rises to the surface. Debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows may then move down the west and, less likely, east flanks of the volcano for distances of 10 km or more. A new lava dome or series of domes would be expected to form either during or within some few years after the explosive disruption of the previous dome. This cycle of dome disruption, pyroclastic flow generation, and new dome formation could be repeated several times in a single eruption. The volcano poses little direct threat to human population as the area is sparsely populated. The most serious hazard is the effect of airborne volcanic ash on aircraft since Mount Peulik sits astride heavily traveled air routes connecting the U

  20. Surficial Geologic Map of the Roanoke Rapids 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    The Roanoke Rapids 1:100,000 map sheet is located in northeastern North Carolina. Most of the area is flat to gently rolling, though steep slopes occur occasionally along some of the larger streams. Total relief in the area is slightly less than 400 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from sea level east of Murfreesboro in the far northeastern corner of the map to 384 ft near the northwestern map border near Littleton. The principal streams are the Roanoke River and Fishing Creek, which on average flow from northwest to southeast in the map area. The principal north-south roads are Interstate Route 95, U.S. Route 258, and U.S. Route 301. Two lines of the CSX railroad also cross the area in a north-south and northeast-southwest direction. This part of North Carolina is primarily rural and agricultural. The only large community in the area is Roanoke Rapids. The map lies astride the Tidewater Fall Line, a prominent physiographic feature marked by rapids and waterfalls that separate the rocky streams of the eastern Piedmont physiographic province from the sandy and alluviated streams of the western Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The energy from the Roanoke River descending the Tidewater Fall Line has been harnessed by dams to produce hydroelectric power, and this source of energy was a major factor in the growth and development of Roanoke Rapids. The Piedmont in the western part of the map area is underlain by Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks that are intruded by granite in some areas. In the central and eastern part of the map area, the folded and faulted igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont, as well as tilted sedimentary rocks in a buried Triassic basin, are all overlain with profound unconformity by generally unlithified and only slightly eastward-tilted Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Coastal Plain sediments lap westward onto the eastern Piedmont along the high

  1. Geologic map of the Tetilla Peak Quadrangle, Santa Fe and Sandoval counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, D.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Minor, S.A.; Thompson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    This digital geologic map summarizes all available geologic information for the Tetilla Peak quadrangle located immediately southwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico. The geologic map consists of new polygon (geologic map units) and line (contact, fault, fold axis, dike, flow contact, hachure) data, as well as point data (locations for structural measurements, geochemical and geochronologic data, geophysical soundings, and water wells). The map database has been generated at 1:24,000 scale, and provides significant new geologic information for an area of the southern Cerros del Rio volcanic field, which sits astride the boundary of the Espanola and Santo Domingo basins of the Rio Grande rift. The quadrangle includes the west part of the village of La Cienega along its eastern border and includes the southeasternmost part of the Cochiti Pueblo reservation along its northwest side. The central part of the quadrangle consists of Santa Fe National Forest and Bureau of Land Management lands, and parts of several Spanish-era land grants. Interstate 25 cuts through the southern half of the quadrangle between Santa Fe and Santo Domingo Pueblo. Canada de Santa Fe, a major river tributary to the Rio Grande, cuts through the quadrangle, but there is no dirt or paved road along the canyon bottom. A small abandoned uranium mine (the La Bajada mine) is found in the bottom of the Canada de Santa Fe about 3 km east of the La Bajada fault zone; it has been partially reclaimed. The surface geology of the Tetilla Peak quadrangle consists predominantly of a thin (1-2 m generally, locally as thick as 10? m) layer of windblown surficial deposits that has been reworked colluvially. Locally, landslide, fluvial, and pediment deposits are also important. These colluvial deposits mantle the principal bedrocks units, which are (from most to least common): (1) basalts, basanites, andesite, and trachyte of the Pliocene (2.7-2.2 Ma) Cerros del Rio volcanic field; (2) unconsolidated deposits of the Santa

  2. Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Shaded Relief with Height as Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Shenandoah National Park lies astride part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which form the southeastern range of the greater Appalachian Mountains in Virginia. The park is well framed by this one-degree of latitude (38-39 north) by one-degree of longitude (78-79 west) cell of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and it appears here as the most prominent ridge trending diagonally across the scene. Skyline Drive, a 169-kilometer (105-mile) road that winds along the crest of the mountains through the length the park, provides vistas of the surrounding landscape. The Shenandoah River flows through the valley to the west, with Massanutten Mountain standing between the river's north and south forks. Unusually pronounced meanders of both river forks are very evident near the top center of this scene. Massanutten Mountain itself is an unusually distinctive landform also, consisting of highly elongated looping folds of sedimentary rock. The rolling Piedmont country lies to the southeast of the park, with Charlottesville located at the bottom center of the scene.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to bluish-white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers

  3. The Black Hills: a Keystone of North American Continental Evolution for over 2.6 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, M. S.; Dahl, P. S.; Duke, G.; Duke, E. F.; Nabelek, P. I.

    2006-12-01

    The Black Hills region provides an excellent field laboratory to study numerous aspects of the continental evolution of North America from the Neoarchean to the Recent. The Neoarchean basement consists of 2.60- 2.56 Ga gneissic granitoids that formed during an early episode of convergent thermotectonism. In the Paleoproterozoic the region experienced rifting at 2.48-1.98 Ga and renewed convergence at 1.75-1.71 Ga associated with early breakup and final reassembly of the Wyoming and Superior cratons, respectively. The product of this cratonic reconfiguration was a broad deformation zone known as the Trans-Hudson Orogen. Thermotectonic activity within the Dakota segment of this zone occurred at ~1820-1680 Ma compared to ~1860-1790 Ma in the Canadian segment. South of the Black Hills region the Yavapai (Central Plains) province was also accreted during the Precambrian. An extensive sequence of Cambrian through Cretaceous marine and continental sediments were laid down before the Black Hills were uplifted during the Laramide orogeny, which exposed the Precambrian crystalline core and its structures that record evidence for the major episodes of compressional deformation and intervening rifting events noted above. Laramide deformation may have actually localized along the Precambrian structures. Alkalic extrusive and intrusive activity occurred during late Laramide stages (~58 Ma) and continued up until ~46 Ma. Aeromagnetic evidence indicates that these mantle-derived magmas intruded along a N70°W trending fault with 50 km of left-lateral offset on the Precambrian surface. The Black Hills also sits astride the transition from the Rocky Mountain region to the northern Great Plains. South of the Black Hills there is evidence from fission track and stream deposition /erosion that the transition has been uplifting during the past 5 Ma. Other geophysical anomalies exist in the region including the North American Central Plains conductivity anomaly within the Trans Hudson

  4. Efficacy of the small step program in a randomised controlled trial for infants below age 12 months with clinical signs of CP; a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Holmström, Linda; Aarne, Päivikki; Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia; Weiland, Ann-Louise; Sjöstrand, Lena; Forssberg, Hans; Tedroff, Kristina; Löwing, Kristina

    2016-11-03

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have life-long motor disorders, and they are typically subjected to extensive treatment throughout their childhood. Despite this, there is a lack of evidence supporting the effectiveness of early interventions aiming at improving motor function, activity, and participation in daily life. The study will evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed Small Step Program, which is introduced to children at risk of developing CP during their first year of life. The intervention is based upon theories of early learning-induced brain plasticity and comprises important components of evidence-based intervention approaches used with older children with CP. A two-group randomised control trial will be conducted. Invited infants at risk of developing CP due to a neonatal event affecting the brain will be randomised to either the Small Step Program or to usual care. They will be recruited from Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital at regular check-up and included at age 3-8 months. The Small Step Program was designed to provide individualized, goal directed, and intensive intervention focusing on hand use, mobility, and communication in the child's own home environment and carried out by their parents who have been trained and coached by therapists. The primary endpoint will be approximately 35 weeks after the start of the intervention, and the secondary endpoint will be at 2 years of age. The primary outcome measure will be the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (second edition). Secondary assessments will measure and describe the children's general and specific development and brain pathology. In addition, the parents' perspective of the program will be evaluated. General linear models will be used to compare outcomes between groups. This paper presents the background and rationale for developing the Small-Step Program and the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial. The aim of the Small Step Program is to influence development

  5. Active simultaneous uplift and margin-normal extension in a forearc high, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, S. F.; Wegmann, K. W.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Brandon, M. T.; Fassoulas, C.

    2014-07-01

    The island of Crete occupies a forearc high in the central Hellenic subduction zone and is characterized by sustained exhumation, surface uplift and extension. The processes governing orogenesis and topographic development here remain poorly understood. Dramatic topographic relief (2-6 km) astride the southern coastline of Crete is associated with large margin-parallel faults responsible for deep bathymetric depressions known as the Hellenic troughs. These structures have been interpreted as both active and inactive with either contractional, strike-slip, or extensional movement histories. Distinguishing between these different structural styles and kinematic histories here allows us to explore more general models for improving our global understanding of the tectonic and geodynamic processes of syn-convergent extension. We present new observations from the south-central coastline of Crete that clarifies the role of these faults in the late Cenozoic evolution of the central Hellenic margin and the processes controlling Quaternary surface uplift. Pleistocene marine terraces are used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminesce dating and correlation to the Quaternary eustatic curve to document coastal uplift and identify active faults. Two south-dipping normal faults are observed, which extend offshore, offset these marine terrace deposits and indicate active N-S (margin-normal) extension. Further, marine terraces preserved in the footwall and hanging wall of both faults demonstrate that regional net uplift of Crete is occurring despite active extension. Field mapping and geometric reconstructions of an active onshore normal fault reveal that the subaqueous range-front fault of south-central Crete is synthetic to the south-dipping normal faults on shore. These findings are inconsistent with models of active horizontal shortening in the upper crust of the Hellenic forearc. Rather, they are consistent with topographic growth of the forearc in a viscous orogenic

  6. Low-productivity Hawaiian volcanism between Kaua‘i and O‘ahu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Andrew R.; Garcia, Michael O.; Weis, Dominique; Ito, Garrett; Kuga, Maia; Robinson, Joel; Yamasaki, Seiko

    2010-11-01

    The longest distance between subaerial shield volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands is between the islands of Kaua`i and O`ahu, where a field of submarine volcanic cones formed astride the axis of the Hawaiian chain during a period of low magma productivity. The submarine volcanoes lie ˜25-30 km west of Ka`ena Ridge that extends ˜80 km from western O`ahu. These volcanoes were sampled by three Jason2 dives. The cones are flat topped, <400 m high and 0.4-2 km in diameter at water depths between ˜2700 and 4300 m, and consist predominantly of pillowed flows. Ar-Ar and K-Ar ages of 11 tholeiitic lavas are between 4.9 and 3.6 Ma. These ages overlap with shield volcanism on Kaua`i (5.1-4.0 Ma) and Wai`anae shield basalts (3.9-3.1 Ma) on O`ahu. Young alkalic lavas (circa 0.37 Ma) sampled southwest of Ka`ena Ridge are a form of offshore secondary volcanism. Half of the volcanic cones contain high-SiO2 basalts (51.0-53.5 wt % SiO2). The trends of isotopic compositions of West Ka`ena tholeiitic lavas diverge from the main Ko`olau-Kea shield binary mixing trend in isotope diagrams and extend to lower 208Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb than any Hawaiian tholeiitic lava. West Ka`ena tholeiitic lavas have geochemical and isotopic characteristics similar to volcanoes of the Loa trend. Hence, our results show that the Loa-type volcanism has persisted for at least 4.9 Myr, beginning prior to the development of the dual, subparallel chain of volcanoes. Several West Ka`ena samples are similar to higher SiO2, Loa trend lavas of Ko`olau Makapu`u stage, Lāna`i, and Kaho`olawe; these lavas may have been derived from a pyroxenite source in the mantle. The high Ni contents of olivines in West Ka`ena lavas also indicate contribution from pyroxenite-derived melting. Average compositions of Hawaiian shield volcanoes show a clear relation between 206Pb/204Pb and SiO2 within Loa trend volcanoes, which supports a prominent but variable influence of pyroxenite in the Hawaiian plume source. In addition

  7. Tsunami Hazard Assessment in New Zealand Ports and Harbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, J. C.; Wotherspoon, L.; Power, W. L.; Goring, D.; Barberopoulou, A.; Melville, B.; Shamseldin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI) has sponsored a 3-year collaborative project involving industry, government and university research groups to better assess and prepare for tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. As an island nation, New Zealand is highly dependent on its maritime infrastructure for commercial and recreational interests. The recent tsunamis of 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samoa, Chile and Japan) highlighted the vulnerability of New Zealand's marine infrastructure to strong currents generated by such far field events. These events also illustrated the extended duration of the effects from such tsunamis, with some of the strongest currents and highest water levels occurring many hours, if not days after the tsunami first arrival. In addition, New Zealand also sits astride the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, which given the events of recent years, cannot be underestimated as a major near field hazard. This presentation will discuss the modeling and research strategy that will be used to mitigate tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. This will include a detailed time-series analysis (including Fourier and discrete Wavelet techniques) of water levels recorded throughout New Zealand form recent tsunami events (2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan). The information learned from these studies will guide detailed numerical modeling of tsunami induced currents at key New Zealand ports. The model results will then be used to guide a structural analysis of the relevant port structures in terms of hydrodynamic loads as well as mooring and impact loads due to vessel and/or debris. Ultimately the project will lead to an improvement in New Zealand's tsunami response plans by providing a decision making flow chart, targeted for marine facilities, to be used by emergency management officials during future tsunami events.Tsunami effects at Port Charles, New Zealand: (top) inundation into a neighborhood and (bottom left and right

  8. Continental Assembly and Anisotropy Beneath the CANOE Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtier, A. M.; Gaherty, J. B.; Revenaugh, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Canadian Northwest Experiment (CANOE) is an array of nearly sixty broadband seismometers reaching from the Slave Craton in the Northwest Territories (NWT), across a series of Proterozoic orogens and the Canadian Rockies in the NWT, northern British Columbia, and southern Yukon, and across the Churchill Province south to Edmonton, Alberta. The array traverses a wide variety of continental settings, allowing the study of mantle variability associated with the formation of continental cratons and continental assembly over a time span of nearly 4 Ga. The close spacing of instruments in the CANOE array provides a detailed view of the mantle and lithosphere across these transitions. We examine splitting of the shear phases SKS, SKKS, and sSKS to study anisotropy beneath the region. The dataset consists of ~~70 teleseismic events of either magnitude > 5.6 and depth > 500 km or magnitude > 6.4 with depth < 500 km. All earthquakes were recorded at CANOE or nearby Canadian National Seismic Network stations between May 2003 and September 2005. Splitting times derived from multi-event station averages average ~1.4 s, and fast directions are coherent yet suggestive of strong variability of mantle anisotropy across the region. Stations on the craton show a dominant NE-SW fast direction that is roughly consistent with mantle flow dominated by plate motion. At the Cordillera boundary, fast directions flip abruptly to NW-SE, and continuing west across the Cordillera the fast directions rotate from NW-SE to roughly E-W before returning to NW-SE near the edge of the continent. These patterns are suggestive of dominant transpressional deformation through the lithosphere during continental accretion. Within the craton, there is an anomalous cluster of stations with N-S fast directions; these stations sit astride an apparent ancient suture zone (subducted slab?) detected through previous scattered-wave and seismic reflection studies. We will explore the possible

  9. ASEAN.

    PubMed

    1986-04-01

    Focus in this discussion of the 6 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) is on the following: georgraphy; the people; history; institutions (foreign ministers' meetings, economic ministers' meetings, the ASEAN Secretariat, and the Task Force on the Future of ASEAN cooperation): the economy; defense; external relations; and relations between the US and the ASEAN nations. In mid-1985 the population totaled 289.5 million with an average (unweighted) annual growth rate of 2.2%. Located on the Southeast Asian peninsula and the islands to the south and east in the South China Sea, the 6 ASEAN states guard some of the most important sealanes in the world. The ASEAN states lie astride the Equator and extend from roughly 1600 km north to 804 km south. 1 of the most striking characteristics of ASEAN is its wide diversity in race, language, culture, and religion; many ethnic groups coexist. Malayo-Polyneian make up the majority in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia (and thus in ASEAN), although Malaysia and Indonesia have significant numbers of other groups. Thailand is 75% Thai. Ethnic Chinese make up 77% of the population of Singapore, and sizable Chinese minorities are found in each of the other ASEAN nations. ASEAN founded officially on August 8, 1967, was created to strengthen regional cohesion and self-reliance through economic, social, and cultural cooperation. The organization developed slowly during its 1st decade, due in part to differing economic interests, varied historical experience, and the initially fragile political ties among the 5 original states. The Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, starting in December 1978, was a further stimulus to collaboration. The ASEAN nations successfully managed passage of UN resolutions condemning Vietnam and were the chief sponsors in the July 1981 International Conference on Kampuchea. Although ASEAN was established with primarily economic and

  10. Efficacy of baby-CIMT: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on infants below age 12 months, with clinical signs of unilateral CP.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Sjöstrand, Lena; Ek, Linda; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Tedroff, Kristina

    2014-06-05

    Infants with unilateral brain lesions are at high risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Given the great plasticity of the young brain, possible interventions for infants at risk of unilateral CP deserve exploration. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is known to be effective for older children with unilateral CP but is not systematically used for infants. The development of CIMT for infants (baby-CIMT) is described here, as is the methodology of an RCT comparing the effects on manual ability development of baby-CIMT versus baby-massage. The main hypothesis is that infants receiving baby-CIMT will develop manual ability in the involved hand faster than will infants receiving baby-massage in the first year of life. The study will be a randomised, controlled, prospective parallel-group trial. Invited infants will be to be randomised to either the baby-CIMT or the baby-massage group if they: 1) are at risk of developing unilateral CP due to a known neonatal event affecting the brain or 2) have been referred to Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital due to asymmetric hand function. The inclusion criteria are age 3-8 months and established asymmetric hand use. Infants in both groups will receive two 6-weeks training periods separated by a 6-week pause, for 12 weeks in total of treatment. The primary outcome measure will be the new Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) for evaluating manual ability. In addition, the Parenting Sense of Competence scale and Alberta Infant Motor Scale will be used. Clinical neuroimaging will be utilized to characterise the brain lesion type. To compare outcomes between treatment groups generalised linear models will be used. The model of early intensive intervention for hand function, baby-CIMT evaluated by the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) will have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of how early intervention of upper limb function in infants at risk of developing unilateral CP can be performed and

  11. Precambrian crystalline basement map of Idaho-an interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Lund, Karen; Anderson, E.

    2005-01-01

    Idaho lies within the northern sector of the U.S. Cordillera astride the boundary between the Proterozoic continent (Laurentia) to the east and the Permian to Jurassic accreted terranes to the west. The continental basement is mostly covered by relatively undeformed Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and intruded or covered by Phanerozoic igneous rocks; accordingly, knowledge of the basement geology is poorly constrained. Incremental knowledge gained since the pioneering studies by W. Lindgren, C.P. Ross, A.L. Anderson, A. Hietanen, and others during the early- and mid-1900's has greatly advanced our understanding of the general geology of Idaho. However, knowledge of the basement geology remains relatively poor, partly because of the remoteness of much of the region plus the lack of a stimulus to decipher the complex assemblage of high-grade gneisses and migmatite of central Idaho. The availability of an updated aeromagnetic anomaly map of Idaho (North American Magnetic Anomaly Group, 2002) provides a means to determine the regional Precambrian geologic framework of the State. The combined geologic and aeromagnetic data permit identification of previously unrecognized crystalline basement terranes, assigned to Archean and Paleoproterozoic ages, and the delineation of major shear zones, which are expressed in the aeromagnetic data as linear negative anomalies (Finn and Sims, 2004). Limited geochronologic data on exposed crystalline basement aided by isotopic studies of zircon inheritance, particularly Bickford and others (1981) and Mueller and others (1995), provide much of the geologic background for our interpretation of the basement geology. In northwestern United States, inhomogeneities in the basement inherited from Precambrian tectogenesis controlled many large-scale tectonic features that developed during the Phanerozoic. Two basement structures, in particular, provided zones of weakness that were repeatedly rejuvenated: (1) northeast-trending ductile

  12. Austria.

    PubMed

    1983-08-01

    This discussion of Austria focuses on the following: geography, people, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Austria. As of July 1982, the population of Austria totaled 7.6 million with an annual growth rate of 0.1%. The infant mortality rate is 16/1000, and life expectancy is 73 years. Austria is primarily mountainous, and the climate is moderate. 99% of Austria's population are native German speakers. The only 2 significant minority groups are about 20,000 Slovenes in Carinthia and about 25,000 Croatians in Burgenland. The Austro-Hungarian Empire played a decisive role in central European history, partly because of its strategic position astride the southeast approaches to western Europe and the north-south routes between Germany and Italy. The president of Austria is directly elected to a 6-year term and may not serve more than 2 successive terms. As chief of state, the president's functions are largely representational. The chancellor (head of government) is either the leader of the party that wins the majority of seats in parliamentary elections and therefore can form a government or a coalition, or the leader of the party having the support of the president in the formation of a minority government. The chancellor selects the cabinet and, with its assistance, weilds actual power and is responsible to the Federal Assembly. The Federal Assembly (parliament) is composed of 2 houses--the National Council, or lower house, and the Federal Council, or upper house. Virtually all legislative authority is concentrated in the National Council. Since World War 2 Austria has enjoyed politcal stability. The 2 major parties that formed during the 1945-66 period have the support of about 90% of the electorate. Austria has a free enterprise economy in which the government plays an important role. More than half of the gross domestic product (GDP) comes from manufacturing and services. Austrian farms are small

  13. Earthquake probabilities in the San Francisco Bay Region: 2000 to 2030 - a summary of findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region sits astride a dangerous “earthquake machine,” the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates. The region has experienced major and destructive earthquakes in 1838, 1868, 1906, and 1989, and future large earthquakes are a certainty. The ability to prepare for large earthquakes is critical to saving lives and reducing damage to property and infrastructure. An increased understanding of the timing, size, location, and effects of these likely earthquakes is a necessary component in any effective program of preparedness. This study reports on the probabilities of occurrence of major earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR) for the three decades 2000 to 2030. The SFBR extends from Healdsberg on the northwest to Salinas on the southeast and encloses the entire metropolitan area, including its most rapidly expanding urban and suburban areas. In this study a “major” earthquake is defined as one with M≥6.7 (where M is moment magnitude). As experience from the Northridge, California (M6.7, 1994) and Kobe, Japan (M6.9, 1995) earthquakes has shown us, earthquakes of this size can have a disastrous impact on the social and economic fabric of densely urbanized areas. To reevaluate the probability of large earthquakes striking the SFBR, the U.S. Geological Survey solicited data, interpretations, and analyses from dozens of scientists representing a wide crosssection of the Earth-science community (Appendix A). The primary approach of this new Working Group (WG99) was to develop a comprehensive, regional model for the long-term occurrence of earthquakes, founded on geologic and geophysical observations and constrained by plate tectonics. The model considers a broad range of observations and their possible interpretations. Using this model, we estimate the rates of occurrence of earthquakes and 30-year earthquake probabilities. Our study considers a range of magnitudes for earthquakes on the major faults in the

  14. The urban heat island of a tropical coastal city: the case of Muscat, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charabi, Yassine

    2010-05-01

    Muscat, the capital of the Sultanate of Oman (23° 25'N and 57°00 E), it extended along a coastline that runs around 200 km along the Gulf of Oman. By virtue of its position astride the Tropic of Cancer, Muscat city is located in an arid environment with scanty rainfall, and a dry, hot climate with high evaporation rate. The study area is exposed regularly to sea breeze circulation during day time, while very weak land breeze turning to calm conditions at night. The city is situated in complex and varying topography; the Mountains and hills of the eastern Hajar chain border the city from the south and west and, sometimes, they join the sea in the form of rough slopes and coarse cliffs particularly alongside the eastern coastal fringe. Muscat city witnessed a spectacular socioeconomic development since 1970, stimulated by oil exploration and production. The primacy given to the capital triggered an unprecedented demographic rush. The new developments led to the growth of population size from 56 to 236 thousand in one decade (1970-1980) with an enormous annual growth rate of 12.3 %. This sustained growth raised the population of Muscat to more than 549 thousand in 1993 to 796 thousand in 2007 constituting, thus, 27 % of the total population in Oman. Most of Muscat built-up area is characterized by a high sky-view factor, even in the city centre, except for the CDB area of Riwi, where some of the buildings are over ten stories high. The old city of Muscat and Mutrah is extremely compact with very low sky-view factor. The buildings are two to three stories high. The streets are narrow and cut deep canyons through the old city. The street net work is irregular which increases the mutual shading by buildings. The specific attributes of Muscat, has motivated the elaboration of a multidisciplinary research in sultan Qaboos University (Sultanate of Oman), about the urban climate and air pollution in Muscat city: Multi-scale approach. This paper presents the results of the

  15. Photo excitation and laser detachment of C60(-) anions in a storage ring.

    PubMed

    Støchkel, K; Andersen, J U

    2013-10-28

    We have studied the photo physics of C60(-) anions in the electrostatic storage ring ELISA with ions produced in a plasma source and cooled and bunched in a He filled ion trap. A previous study using delayed electron detachment as a signal of resonance-enhanced multiphoton electron detachment (REMPED) has been repeated both at room temperature and with the trap cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. However, wavelength dependence of the overlap of the strongly focused laser beam with the ion beam introduces distortions of the absorption spectrum. We have therefore applied a new method, combining the IR light with a slightly delayed, powerful UV pulse (266 nm). After absorption of three UV photons, the ions decay by delayed (thermal) electron emission, and time spectra are recorded for varying wavelength. The fraction of ions heated by absorption of a single IR photon is then extracted from a principal component analysis of these spectra. In good agreement with the earlier REMPED experiment, an origin band for transitions between the two lowest electronic levels of the anion, with t1u and t1g symmetry, is observed at 9380 cm(-1), with strong sidebands from excitation of the two A(g) and eight H(g) vibrations. As before, a hot band is observed at about 9150 cm(-1) and assigned to a transition from an excited vibronic Jahn-Teller state. However, an earlier observed band at higher energy, interpreted as a transition from this excited state to an excited vibronic state in the t1g electronic level, is much weaker in the new measurements and could be an H(g) vibrational sideband. Also earlier studies of direct laser detachment from C60(-) in the storage ring ASTRID have been revisited, with ions cooled by liquid nitrogen in the ion trap. We confirm the previous measurement with a determination of the threshold for s-wave detachment at 2.664 ± 0.005 eV, slightly lower than a recent value of the electron binding, 2.683 ± 0.008 eV, obtained from the energy spectrum of

  16. A fresh look at the Sun, from core to corona, illuminated by new insight on the physics of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2013-09-01

    The Sun is a testing ground for many kinds of physical understanding but an understanding of the physical mechanism of gravitation, the driver of all its machinery, has been lacking. Newton's work on gravitation astride the end of the 17th century concentrated on the behaviour of the force, not upon its origin. But he already endorsed the idea of an ubiquitously intervening aether to convey the force and, as Huygens had already reasoned, also to transmit light waves. Then, in the 1860s, Maxwell [1] and Thompson (Kelvin) [2] started to think of fundamental particles as being aether in a vortex-like motion which would, by mutual attraction, provide their mass property and gravitation. In such a set-up, not only will particles and the aether around them not be dynamically independent, as the Michelson-Morley experiment actually demonstrated 20 years later, but the aether will be in a related degree of random motion. Importantly, that motion will cause the scattering of transmitted radiation. But, in setting up Relativity (1905-1916), Einstein made further enquiry impossible. General Relativity treats particles as infinitesimal entities, and supposes, evasively, that the mass is 'intrinsic' to that specific infinitesimal point in space. This denies them any volume in which to develop their individual external mass property and has discouraged any attempt at physical understanding of its development. Nevertheless, there is now firm evidence that electrons, positrons and protons do have finite size. So, building on the original thinking of Maxwell and Thompson, supported later by [3], my inquiry as to the nature of the physical mechanism by which gravitational force is developed has led me to the surprising finding that the Newtonian potential is inevitably always accompanied by a corresponding positive-body-repelling radial electric field. I have called this the Gravity-Electric (G-E) field and have adduced evidence for its action at many astronomical scales [4 - 7]. So

  17. Late Cenozoic sedimentation in Pilot Knob Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittase, W. M.; Walker, J. D.; Kirby, E.; Andrew, J.; Wan, E.

    2012-12-01

    In Pilot Knob Valley (PKV), active inversion of a Pliocene-mid Pleistocene basin presents the opportunity to understand the spatial and temporal development of an enigmatic basin astride a major transform boundary in California. Here, a ~1000-m-thick package of exposed Late Cenozoic strata has been uplifted and tilted to the northeast. Based on new age and provenance data, we adopt the name Pilot Knob formation (PKfm) to describe much of these exposed rocks north of the Garlock fault (GF) and east of Christmas Canyon gate. Post-Miocene development of PKV is strongly influenced by the sinistral GF, the newly identified Marine Gate fault (MGF) and dextral Eastern California shear zone. The PKfm consists of three lithofacies members, from base to top: (1) rocks derived from Eagle Crags to the south; (2) Randsburg Wash lacustrine rocks; and (3) an upper member derived from the Slate Range. Tephrochronologic data from four PKfm ash samples brackets deposition of lacustrine Randsburg Wash Member rocks between 3.7-3.1 Ma and lacustrine rocks of the Slate Range Member between 1.2-0.6 Ma. A fifth tephrochronologic sample from lacustrine-distal alluvial sediments south of the GF near Christmas Canyon brackets deposition of a possible PKfm facies at ~3.1 Ma. A 3-stage tectonic model for northern PKV explains changing provenance patterns. Prior to ~3.1 Ma, the western PKV paleo-low lay north of the current GF adjacent to the southern Slate Range and connected to Searles Valley. The MGF cuts adjacent to the southern face of the Slate Range and southern Searles Valley with up to 7.5 km of sinistral oblique-normal slip between ~5-2.5 Ma. Eagle Crags fanglomerate deposition may continue after 3.7 Ma west of the Randsburg Wash-Searles Valley spillway, but these rocks have been eroded away. By ~3.7 Ma, northward progradation of Eagle Crags fanglomerate waned and lacustrine sediments were deposited north of the GF and east of the Randsburg Wash-Searles Valley spillway. At ~3.1 Ma

  18. Experimental Determination of Electromagnetic Propagation and Scattering Properties of Ice-Sheets at P-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Rommen, Björn; Buck, Christopher; Casal, Tania; Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Nielsen, Ulrik; Corr, Hugh; Ginestet, Arnaud; Decerprit, Guillaume; Walker, Nick; Kristensen, Steen S.

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic (EM) propagation and scattering properties of the ice and its inclusions strongly affect radar reception signals in radio echo sounding of ice-sheets. In particular, those properties are very strongly dependent on the sensing frequency, with penetration depth rapidly decreasing with increasing frequency. Furthermore, the surface scattering signals, which mask the radar echoes from the depth, increases monotonically with frequency. In spite of those drawbacks, the recent interests in the use of P-band (435 MHz), as compared to the more established sensing frequencies at 60 and 150 MHz, are driven mainly by two reasons: (1) the use of a shorter wavelength improves the spatial selectivity of the sensor as a reasonably sized antenna system could generate narrow beams; (2) P-band is the lowest frequency band allocated for active sensing from space, potentially adequate for satellite-based sounding of ice-sheets. New datasets acquired by P-band radar sounders are becoming available, e.g. from the systems built by University of Kansas and ESA's POLARIS instrument built by Technical University of Denmark, thus opening a possibility to quantitatively compare the merits and drawback of ice sounding at P-band. This paper will report the result of the analysis carried out on the POLARIS data which were acquired over East Antarctica in Feb. 2011 in the frame of the Danish IceGrav 2011 campaign. More specifically, ice sounding measurements were performed over the areas of Dronning/Queen Maud Land and its coastal ice-shelves (e.g. Princess Astrid Coast and Fimbul ice-shelf), and Adelaide Island. Different ice types and regimes have been covered in order to build up a comprehensive catalogue of the ice electromagnetic properties. In addition to the POLARIS data, some in-situ data on the surface roughness, ice core data from EPICA and ice-shelf basal roughness data from an upward looking sonar experiment (Autosub Under Ice programme, 2005) have been gathered

  19. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  20. Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Selenga Delta Accommodation Zone, Lake Baikal Rift, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholz, C.A.; Hutchinson, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles from the Lake Baikal Rift reveal extensive details about the sediment thickness, structural geometry and history of extensional deformation and syn-rift sedimentation in this classic continental rift. The Selenga River is the largest single source of terrigenous input into Lake Baikal, and its large delta sits astride the major accommodation zone between the Central and South basins of the lake. Incorporating one of the world's largest lacustrine deltas, this depositional system is a classic example of the influence of rift basin structural segmentation on a major continental drainage. More than 3700 km of deep basin-scale multi-channel seismic reflection (MCS) data were acquired during the 1989 Russian and the 1992 Russian–American field programs. The seismic data image most of the sedimentary section, including pre-rift basement in several localities. The MCS data reveal that the broad bathymetric saddle between these two major half-graben basins is underlain by a complex of severely deformed basement blocks, and is not simply a consequence of long-term deltaic deposition. Maximum sediment thickness is estimated to be more than 9 km in some areas around the Selenga Delta. Detailed stratigraphic analyses of the Selenga area MCS data suggest that modes of deposition have shifted markedly during the history of the delta. The present mode of gravity- and mass-flow sedimentation that dominates the northern and southern parts of the modern delta, as well as the pronounced bathymetric relief in the area, are relatively recent developments in the history of the Lake Baikal Rift. Several episodes of major delta progradation, each extending far across the modern rift, can be documented in the MCS data. The stratigraphic framework defined by these prograding deltaic sequences can be used to constrain the structural as well as depositional evolution of this part of the Baikal Rift. An age model has been established for this stratigraphy, by

  1. Fingerprints of collisionless reconnection at the separator, I, Ambipolar-Hall signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Mozer, F. S.; Maynard, N. C.; Russell, C. T.

    2002-10-01

    Plasma, electric, and magnetic field data on the Polar spacecraft have been analyzed for the 29 May 1996 magnetopause traversal searching for evidence of in situ reconnection and traversal of the separator. In this paper we confine our analysis to model-free observations and intrasensor coherence of detection of the environs of the separator. (1) We illustrate the first documented penetration of the separator of collisionless magnetic reconnection in temporal proximity to successful Walén tests with opposite slopes. (2) We present the first direct measurements of E∥ at the magnetopause. (3) We make the first empirical argument that E∥ derives from the electron pressure gradient force. (4) We document the first detection of the electron pressure ridge astride the magnetic depression that extends from the separator. (5) We provide the first empirical detection of the reconnection rate at the magnetopause with the locally sub-Alfvénic ion inflow, MAi ≃ 0.1, and trans-Alfvénic exhaust at high electron pressure of MiA ≃ 1.1-5. (6) We exhibit the first empirical detection of supra-Alfvénic electron flows parallel to B in excess of 5 in narrow sheets. (7) We illustrate the detection of heat flux sheets indicative of separatrices near, but not always in superposition, with the supra-Alfvénic parallel electron bulk flows. (8) We present the first evidence that pressure gradient scales are short enough to explain the electron fluid's measured cross-field drifts not explained by E × B drift but predicted by the measured size of E∥. (9) We illustrate that the size of the observed E∥ is well organized with the limit implied by Vasyliunas's analysis of the generalized Ohm's law of scale length ?, indicative of the intermediate scale of the diffusion region. (10) We document the first detection of departure from electron gyrotropy not only at the separator crossing but also in its vicinity, an effect presaged by [1975]. (11) We make the first reports of very

  2. Surface faults in the gulf coastal plain between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verbeek, E.R.

    1979-01-01

    Displacement of the land surface by faulting is widespread in the Houston-Galveston region, an area which has undergone moderate to severe land subsidence associated with fluid withdrawal (principally water, and to a lesser extent, oil and gas). A causative link between subsidence and fluid extraction has been convincingly reported in the published literature. However, the degree to which fluid withdrawal affects fault movement in the Texas Gulf Coast, and the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are as yet unclear. Faults that offset the ground surface are not confined to the large (>6000-km2) subsidence "bowl" centered on Houston, but rather are common and characteristic features of Gulf Coast geology. Current observations and conclusions concerning surface faults mapped in a 35,000-km2 area between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas (which area includes the Houston subsidence bowl) may be summarized as follows: 1. (1) Hundreds of faults cutting the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments exposed in the coastal plain have been mapped. Many faults lie well outside the Houston-Galveston region; of these, more than 10% are active, as shown by such features as displaced, fractured, and patched road surfaces, structural failure of buildings astride faults, and deformed railroad tracks. 2. (2) Complex patterns of surface faults are common above salt domes. Both radial patterns (for example, in High Island, Blue Ridge, Clam Lake, and Clinton domes) and crestal grabens (for example, in the South Houston and Friendswood-Webster domes) have been recognized. Elongate grabens connecting several known and suspected salt domes, such as the fault zone connecting Mykawa, Friendswood-Webster, and Clear Lake domes, suggest fault development above rising salt ridges. 3. (3) Surface faults associated with salt domes tend to be short (10 km), occur singly or in simple grabens, have gently sinuous traces, and tend to lie roughly parallel to the ENE-NE "coastwise" trend common to regional growth

  3. New Russian aerogeophysical data providing compelling evidences of riftogenic crust in eastern Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, Dmitry; Golynsky, Alexander; Kiselev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    shows over 4 km deep sedimentary basins beneath central depression of the rift. Linear short-wavelength anomalies of low amplitude developed over horsts and grabens are interpreted to be responsible for the Pan-African mega-scale shear zone system of Princess Elizabeth Land. The distinguished length of this curvilinear feature exceeds 900 km, while it might be extended up to the Leopold and Astrid Coast, where similar linear anomalies with NE-SW trend are recognised. The early Paleozoic shear zone with NE-SW trend is collinear with orientation of the Gaussberg rift thereby contradicts to the idea that ca 500 Ma event is concentrated along coastal regions and attenuated inland. This idea based on extensive indications of a ca 500 Ma event in coastal areas (granitoid intrusions in Mirny Oasis and inherited zircons found in Gaussberg volcano), together with the lack of indications of this age in Mount Brown. The mega-scale Princess Elizabeth Land shear zone has fundamental implications in terms of tectonic inheritance and intraplate strain localization for later reactivation linked to development of the Lambert and Gaussberg rifts and rifting and intraplate strike-slip motion in interior of East Antarctica before and during Gondwana break-up.

  4. Using Digital Topography to Differentiate Erosionally Exhumed and Tectonically Active Mountains Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, K. L.; Pazzaglia, F. J.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain ranges in the southern Rocky Mountains have departed on unique landscape evolutionary pathways in the late Cenozoic that are directly dependent upon the degree of post-orogenic tectonic activity they have experienced. The topography of Sierra Nacimiento, a Laramide uplift in west-central New Mexico lacking an active range-front fault, is shaped primarily by erosional exhumation that is continuous, but not steady, being driven by distal base level fall from Rio Grande incision and resultant south to north knickpoint migration. In contrast, the topography of the Taos Range, a rift flank uplift in north-central New Mexico is shaped by contrasting active stream incision and aggradation astride an active range front normal fault. The distinction between exhumation-dominated and tectonically-dominated mountain fronts is best quantified by analyses of a new metric we call the drainage basin volume to drainage basin area ratio (V-A ratio) as well as the gradients of first-order streams. Drainage basin volume and area are calculated by constructing topographic envelope maps from 10 m resolution digital elevation models (DEM). The envelope maps are pinned by the watershed divide and cover the maximum elevations in each drainage basin. Subtracting the original DEM from the maximum elevation envelope map produces a topographic residual map from which area and volume data can be obtained. The erosionally exhumed Sierra Nacimiento has a mean V-A ratio of 88 m while the tectonically active Taos Range has a mean V-A ratio of 140 m. Similarly, there are systematic differences in the gradients of first order streams measured both in the range block and approximately 5 km of adjacent piedmont. Streams were defined and subsequently Strahler ordered by a flow accumulation threshold of 250 water-equivalent grid cell units. First order stream channel long profiles were extracted from the DEM at 30 meter increments and gradients were calculated by a FORTRAN program. Gradients of

  5. Partners in Chemical Education: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industry - Education Initiatives in Chemistry edited by J. N. Lazonby and D. J. Waddington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Hal

    1997-06-01

    What is the place of industrial chemistry in the curriculum? Since virtually every kind of chemistry is used to produce commercial products, what is the difference between industrial and any other type? Most of the chemists that we educate will work in one of the chemical industries, and the nonmajors in our classes also should understand some of the practical chemistry that makes possible the world in which they live. The chemical industry would like to be respected (or at least not feared) for its essential role in modern societies. All of these threads met at a conference at University of York, whose proceedings were recently published. Every even-numbered year, the IUPAC sponsors a big International Conference on Chemical Education that encompasses the whole gamut of issues and developments in the field. The conference of which this volume is the Proceedings occurred in late summer, 1995, an off year for the big conference, and was designed to attract a smaller audience to a more specific topic. Given the current interest from both the academic and industrial sides of the subject of joint efforts, it is not surprising that the organizers at University of York were able to attract a sizable number of participants and a page full of industrial donors to what appears to have been a very successful five-day meeting. The Proceedings are organized into Plenary Lectures, Symposia, Workshops, and Poster Papers, but the conference itself included displays, industrial visits, informal events, and other activities that could not be captured on paper. The Plenary Lectures included contributions from both the industry and academic speakers, as well as three lectures describing Chemistry and Industry Centers, which are enhanced science museums that emphasize the role of the chemical industry. Joost Douma and Astrid van de Graaf (Prototyping for the 21st Century) described plans for such an enterprise (IMPULS), to open in April 1997 in Amsterdam. T. M. Alagiri Swamy Raju

  6. Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River basin, northeastern California, and streamflow predictability, water years 1971-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Jeton, Anne E.; McGurk, Bruce; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River Basin of northern California determine short- and long-term streamflow variations that are of considerable local, State, and Federal concern. The river is an important source of water and power for the region. The basin forms the headwaters of the California State Water Project. Lake Oroville, at the outlet of the basin, plays an important role in flood management, water quality, and the health of fisheries as far downstream as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Existing models of the river simulate streamflow in hourly, daily, weekly, and seasonal time steps, but cannot adequately describe responses to climate and land-use variations in the basin. New spatially detailed precipitation-runoff models of the basin have been developed to simulate responses to climate and land-use variations at a higher spatial resolution than was available previously. This report characterizes daily rainfall, snowpack evolution, runoff, water and energy balances, and streamflow variations from, and within, the basin above Lake Oroville. The new model's ability to predict streamflow is assessed. The Feather River Basin sits astride geologic, topographic, and climatic divides that establish a hydrologic character that is relatively unusual among the basins of the Sierra Nevada. It straddles a north-south geologic transition in the Sierra Nevada between the granitic bedrock that underlies and forms most of the central and southern Sierra Nevada and volcanic bedrock that underlies the northernmost parts of the range (and basin). Because volcanic bedrock generally is more permeable than granitic, the northern, volcanic parts of the basin contribute larger fractions of ground-water flow to streams than do the southern, granitic parts of the basin. The Sierra Nevada topographic divide forms a high altitude ridgeline running northwest to southeast through the middle of the basin. The topography east of this ridgeline is more like the rain

  7. Unraveling the geodynamic evolution and tectonic history of the Guatemala Suture Zone: a world-class natural laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, K. E.; Brocard, G. Y.; Harlow, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Guatemala Suture Zone (GSZ) is the fault-bound region in central Guatemala that contains the present North American-Caribbean plate boundary. It is bounded by the Maya Block to the north and by the Chortís Block to the south. This major composite geotectonic unit contains a variety of ophiolites, serpentinite mélanges, and metavolcano-sedimentary sequences along with high-grade schist, gneisses, low-grade metasediments and metagranites thrusted north and south of the active Motagua fault system (MFS). This modern plate boundary has accommodated at least ~1100 km of left-lateral strike-slip motion over the Cenozoic and brings into contact the geological provinces described above. Classically, the GSZ has been interpreted as the result of a single progressive collision of a Chortís Block-related island arc with the passive margin of the Maya Block. This model was based on geochemical signatures of basaltic rocks in oceanic crust sequences both north and south of the MFS. However, results from our research challenge this single collision hypothesis. Oceanic and continental high-pressure-low-temperature (HP-LT) rocks astride the MFS have recorded multiple tectonic events revealed by their multiple metamorphic ages (Sm-Nd, U-Pb and Ar-Ar) and distinct PT paths. These tectonic events differ in age north and south of the MFS. Moreover, the continental and oceanic sequences across the MFS are geochemically and stratigraphically distinct, suggesting different tectonic origins. The southern margin of the Maya Block and the northern section of the GSZ can be clearly interpreted as a Cretaceous-Paleocene flexural passive margin tectonically overridden by ultramafic rocks and a Cretaceous island arc sequence. In contrast, the southern section of the GSZ is composed of a Carboniferous-Jurassic active margin tectonically imbricated with ultramafic rocks and a circum-Pacific Jurassic MORB and IAT metavolcano-sedimentary sequence. Thus, based on these results, we identify at

  8. Silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas and in the system K2O-FeO-AI2O3-SiO2: an example of serendipity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of silicate liquid immiscibility was invoked early in the history of petrology to explain certain pairs of compositionally divergent rocks, but. as a result of papers by Greig (Am. J. Sci. 13, 1-44, 133-154) and Bowen (The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks), it fell into disfavor for many years. The discovery of immiscibility in geologically reasonable temperature ranges and compositions in experimental work on the system K2O-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2, and of evidence for immiscibility in a variety of lunar and terrestrial rocks, has reinstated the process. Phase equilibria in the high-silica corner of the tetrahedron representing the system K2O- FeO-Al2O3-SiO2 are presented, in the form of constant FeO sections through the tetrahedron, at 10% increments. Those sections, showing the tentative relationships of the primary phase volumes, are based on 5631 quenching runs on 519 compositions, made in metallic iron containers in pure nitrogen. Thirteen crystalline compounds are involved, of which at least six show two or more crystal modifica-tions. Two separate phase volumes, in each of which two immiscible liquids, one iron-rich and the other iron-poor, are present at the liquidus. One of these volumes is entirely within the quaternary system, astride the 1:1 K2O:Al2O3 plane. No quaternary compounds as such have been found, but evidence does point toward at least partial quaternary solid solution, with rapidly lowering liquidus temperatures, from K2O??Al2O3?? 2SiO2 ('potash nepheline', kalsilite. kaliophilite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??3SiO2, and from K2O??Al2O3??4SiO2 (leucite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??5SiO2, Both of these series apparently involve substitution, in tetrahedral coordination. of a ferrous iron and a silicon ion for two aluminum ions. Some of the 'impurities' found in analyses of the natural phases may reflect these substitutions. As a result of the geometry of the immiscibility volume located entirely within the quaternary

  9. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  10. Removal of daytime thermal deformations in the GBT active surface via out-of-focus holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. R.; Mello, M.; Nikolic, B.; Mason, B.; Schwab, F.; Ghigo, F.; Dicker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The 100-m diameter Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built with an active surface of 2209 actuators in order to achieve and maintain an accurate paraboloidal shape. While much of the large-scale gravitational deformation of the surface can be described by a finite element model, a significant uncompensated gravitational deformation exists. In recent years, the elevation-dependence of this residual deformation has been successfully measured during benign nighttime conditions using the out-of-focus (OOF) holography technique (Nikolic et al, 2007, A&A 465, 685). Parametrized by a set of Zernike polynomials, the OOF model correction was implemented into the active surface and has been applied during all high-frequency observations since Fall 2006, yielding a consistent gain curve that is flat with elevation. However, large-scale thermal deformation of the surface has remained a problem for daytime high-frequency observations. OOF holography maps taken throughout a clear winter day indicate that surface deformations become significant whenever the Sun is above 10 degrees elevation, but that they change slowly while tracking a single source. In this paper, we describe a further improvement to the GBT active surface that allows an observer to measure and compensate for the thermal surface deformation using the OOF technique. In order to support high-frequency observers, "AutoOOF" is a new GBT Astrid procedure that acquires a quick set of in-focus and out-of-focus on-the-fly continuum maps on a quasar using the currently active receiver. Upon completion of the maps, the data analysis software is launched automatically which produces and displays the surface map along with a set of Zernike coefficients. These coefficients are then sent to the active surface manager which combines them with the existing gravitational Zernike terms and FEM in order to compute the total active surface correction. The end-to-end functionality has been tested on the sky at Q-Band and Ka-band during

  11. Removal of daytime thermal deformations in the GBT active surface via out-of-focus holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. R.; Mello, M.; Nikolic, B.; Mason, B. S.; Schwab, F. R.; Ghigo, F. D.; Dicker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    The 100-m diameter Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built with an active surface of 2209 actuators in order to achieve and maintain an accurate paraboloidal shape. While much of the large-scale gravitational deformation of the surface can be described by a finite element model, a significant uncompensated gravitational deformation exists. In recent years, the elevation-dependence of this residual deformation has been successfully measured during benign nighttime conditions using the out-of-focus (OOF) holography technique (Nikolic et al, 2007, A&A 465, 685). Parametrized by a set of Zernike polynomials, the OOF model correction was implemented into the active surface and has been applied during all high frequency observations since Fall 2006, yielding a consistent gain curve that is constant with elevation. However, large-scale thermal deformation of the surface has remained a problem for daytime high-frequency observations. OOF holography maps taken throughout a clear winter day indicate that surface deformations become significant whenever the Sun is above 10 degrees elevation, but that they change slowly while tracking a single source. In this paper, we describe a further improvement to the GBT active surface that allows an observer to measure and compensate for the thermal surface deformation using the OOF technique. In order to support high-frequency observers, "AutoOOF" is a new GBT Astrid procedure that acquires a quick set of in-focus and out-of-focus on-the-fly continuum maps on a quasar using the currently active receiver. Upon completion of the maps, the data analysis software is launched automatically which produces and displays the surface map along with a set of Zernike coefficients. These coefficients are then sent to the active surface manager which combines them with the existing gravitational Zernike terms and FEM in order to compute the total active surface correction. The end-to-end functionality has been tested on the sky at Q-Band and Ka

  12. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    appreciated non-astronomical session on Tuesday afternoon; Sigbritt Ernald provided a rich source of suggestions for suitable interesting persons to invite for the stimulating and highly enjoyable oral and musical presentations. While the responsibilities of the SOC are quite pleasant and frankly not particularly demanding, the heavy burden with organizing a conference falls squarely with the Local Organizing Committee, which has to deal with a seemingly never-ending stream of practicalities and more mundane chores. The main reason the Stellar Journey conference was such an astounding success and ran so smoothly is the tireless work by the whole LOC. All of us owe a great deal of gratitude to Paul Barklem, Nils Bergvall, Norbert Christlieb, Bengt Edvardsson (Chair), Kjell Eriksson, Ulrike Heiter, Susanne Höfner, Andreas Korn, Nikolai Piskunov, Bertrand Plez and Astrid Wachter for their extensive efforts. I'd like to also extend a special acknowledgement to all of the Uppsala students who helped out during the reception, registration and various sessions. Last but not the least, I'd like to thank all of the conference participants for giving such excellent talks and for providing stimulating discussions throughout the week. It is telling that essentially everyone invited to participate in the conference almost immediately accepted while the very few who declined did so only reluctantly due to other prior commitments. Bengt is a highly regarded colleague and friend, whom we all wished to celebrate this special occasion with. This conference represented merely one brief stop on a marvellous and truly stellar journey. I dare say that without exception we are all deeply thankful for having been able to join Bengt Gustafsson on at least some of his many cosmic adventures during the past decades. We trust that this exciting odyssey will continue for many years.

  13. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

    2007-08-01

    ElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Systems MOEMS and new materials to achieve low mass at high performance. Thereby it will profit from Swedish developments and heritage in small- / microsatellites like Astrid-2, SMART-1 or the upcoming rendezvous and formation flying demonstration mission PRISMA.

  14. Validation de schemas de calcul APOLLO3 pour assemblages de type RNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, Simon

    The next generation nuclear reactors are already under construction or under development in the R&D labs around the world. The 3rd and 4th generation nuclear reactors will need a neutronic calculation code able to deal with any kind of technology (FBR or PWR for example). APOLLO3, a new neutronic code developped by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, will receive the heritage of his two predecessors, APOLLO2 (PWR) and ECCO/ERANOS (FBR), and to play a major role in the design of the next nuclear reactors. Validation is an essential step along the development of a deterministic neutronic code. It comes right after implementation and verification and it gives the team in charge of the calculation models in Cadarache the necessary feedbacks on the code's behaviour in various situations. This thesis goal is to suggest a validation (without evolution) of the current APOLLO3 reference calculation route used for FBR. This validation is supposed to be as complete as possible and to cover various configurations. This work will be a preparatory work for the complete validation which will be performed by the APOLLO3 project team in Cadarache. This validation is based on a study of various configurations composed of basic elements like pincells or assemblies. To complete this task, we study different aspects : geometry, sodium void effect, AEMC-RNR-1200 energy mesh, JEFF3.2 nuclear data evaluation for Pu239. We conduct a macroscopical study (multiplication factor, reactivity, neutron flux,...) and an isotopical study (fission and capture rates for Pu239 and U238 for example). We use TRIPOLI4, a Monte-Carlo simulation code, as a reference for all of our APOLLO3 calculations. We consider an infinite lattice (no neutron leakage model keff = kinfinity). This first validation phase led us to several conclusions. First of all, we observed that the geometrical configuration defined for the single pincell used in ASTRID predefinition studies is heterogeneous enough. Indeed, void

  15. Earthquake precursors in the ionosphere: electrical linkage provided by the fundamental physics of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles

    2013-04-01

    For more than a decade, evidence has been mounting that major earthquakes may be preceded, days to weeks later, by the appearance of local changes in electron density-gradient in the Earth's ionosphere above that area. Such linkage, albeit co-seismic, has been observed even when the earthquake was deep below electrically conducting seawater [1]. This appears to rule out many of the kinds of linkage that have been proposed. My inquiry as to the nature of the physical mechanism by which gravitational force is developed has led me to the surprising finding that the Newtonian potential is inevitably always accompanied by a corresponding positive-body-repelling radial electric field. I have called this the Gravity-Electric (G-E) field and have adduced evidence for its action at many astronomical scales [2 -4]. After outlining the reasoning that has led me to this result I will refer to observations which suggest that the G-E field is indeed the precursor link that we seek. Time permitting, I will show briefly how the likelihood of an ionospheric precursor will, in this case, depend on the plate dynamical mechanism and nature of the pre-quake deformation. Historical background. Newton's work on gravitation astride the end of the 17th century concentrated on the behaviour of the force, not upon its origin.. But he already endorsed the idea of an ubiquitously intervening aether tp convey the force and, as Huygens had already reasoned, also to transmit light waves. Then, in the 1860s, people [5, 6] started to think of fundamental particles as being aether in a vortex-like motion which would, by mutual attraction, provide their mass property and gravitation. In such a set-up, particles and the aether around them would not be dynamically independent, so the Michelson-Morley experiment, 20 years later [7], could equally have been interpreted as supporting that situation, not as disproving the existence of the aether. But, in setting up Relativity (1905-1916), Einstein took the