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Sample records for astrid haljas romi

  1. On the Astrid asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.

    2016-09-01

    Among asteroid families, the Astrid family is peculiar because of its unusual inclination distribution. Objects at a ≃ 2.764 au are quite dispersed in this orbital element, giving the family a `crab-like' appearance. Recent works showed that this feature is caused by the interaction of the family with the s - sC nodal secular resonance with Ceres, that spreads the inclination of asteroids near its separatrix. As a consequence, the currently observed distribution of the vW component of terminal ejection velocities obtained from inverting Gauss equation is quite leptokurtic, since this parameter mostly depends on the asteroids inclination. The peculiar orbital configuration of the Astrid family can be used to set constraints on key parameters describing the strength of the Yarkovsky force, such as the bulk and surface density and the thermal conductivity of surface material. By simulating various fictitious families with different values of these parameters, and by demanding that the current value of the kurtosis of the distribution in vW be reached over the estimated lifetime of the family, we obtained that the thermal conductivity of Astrid family members should be ≃0.001 W m-1 K-1, and that the surface and bulk density should be higher than 1000 kg m-3. Monte Carlo methods simulating Yarkovsky and stochastic Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) evolution of the Astrid family show its age to be T = 140 ± 30 Myr old, in good agreement with estimates from other groups. Its terminal ejection velocity parameter is in the range V_{EJ}= 5^{+17}_{-5} m s-1. Values of VEJ larger than 25 m s-1 are excluded from constraints from the current inclination distribution.

  2. My Personal Writing Lesson from Astrid Lindgren.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammon, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Describes the evolution of the author's children's picture book, "An Amish Christmas." Notes how he refers to "Christmas in Noisy Village" (1964) by Astrid Lindgren, a praised children's Christmas book. Describes how he used Lindgren's economical use of words and book format as a guide. (SG)

  3. ROMY - The First Large 3D Ring Laser Structure for Seismology and Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Igel, Heiner; Wassermann, Joachim; Lin, Chin-Jen; Gebauer, André; Wells, Jon-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Large ring laser gyroscopes have matured to the point that they can routinely observe rotational motions from geophysical processes that can be used in geodesy and seismology. The ring lasers used for this purpose enclose areas between 16 and 800 square meters and have in common that they can only measure rotations around the vertical axis because the structures are horizontally placed on the floor. With the ROMY project we have embarked on the construction of a full 3-dimensional rotation sensor. The actual apparatus consists of four individual triangular ring lasers arranged in the shape of a tetrahedron with 12 m of length on each side. At each corner of the tetrahedron three of the ring lasers are rigidly tied together to the same mechanical reference. The overall size of the installation provides a promising compromise between sensor stability on one side and sensor resolution on the other side. This talk introduces the technical concept of the ROMY ring laser installation and will also briefly outline the requirements for applications in space geodesy.

  4. ASTRiDE: Automated Streak Detection for Astronomical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Won

    2016-05-01

    ASTRiDE detects streaks in astronomical images using a "border" of each object (i.e. "boundary-tracing" or "contour-tracing") and their morphological parameters. Fast moving objects such as meteors, satellites, near-Earth objects (NEOs), or even cosmic rays can leave streak-like traces in the images; ASTRiDE can detect not only long streaks but also relatively short or curved streaks.

  5. Aerodynamic, structural, and trajectory analysis of ASTRID-1 vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, L.S.; Iwaskiw, A.P.; Oursler, M.A.; Perini, L.L.; Schaefer, E.D.

    1994-02-10

    The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, JHU/API, in support of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL, is conducting aerodynamic, trajectory, and structural analysis of the Advanced Single Stage Technology Rapid Insertion Demonstration (ASTRID) vehicle, being launched out of Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in February 1994. The launch is designated ASTRID-1 and is the first in a series of three that will be launched out of VAFB. Launch dates for the next two flights have not been identified, but they are scheduled for the 1994-1995 time frame. The primary goal of the ASTRID-1 flight is to test the LLNL light weight thrust on demand bi-propellant pumped divert propulsion system. The system is employed as the main thrusters for the ASTRID-1 vehicle and uses hydrazine as the mono-propellant. The major conclusions are: (1) The vehicle is very stable throughout flight (stability margin = 17 to 24 inches); (2) The aerodynamic frequency and the roll rate are such that pitch-roll interactions will be small; (3) The high stability margin combined with the high launcher elevation angle makes the vehicle flight path highly sensitive to perturbations during the initial phase of flight, i.e., during the first second of flight after leaving the rail; (4) The major impact dispersions for the test flight are due to winds. The wind impact dispersions are 90% dictated by the low altitude, 0 to 1000 ft., wind conditions; and (5) In order to minimize wind dispersions, head wind conditions are favored for the launch as November VAFB mean tail winds result in land impacts. The ballistic wind methodology can be employed to assess the impact points of winds at the launch site.

  6. Generation IV reactors and the ASTRID prototype: Lessons from the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauché, François

    2012-05-01

    In France, the ASTRID prototype is a sodium-cooled fast neutron industrial demonstrator, fulfilling the criteria for Generation IV reactors. ASTRID will meet safety requirements as stringent as for 3rd generation reactors, and take into account lessons from the Fukushima accident. The objectives are to reinforce the robustness of the safety demonstration for all safety functions. ASTRID will feature an innovative core with a negative sodium void coefficient, take advantage of the large thermal inertia of SFRs for decay heat removal, and provide for a design either eliminating the sodium-water reaction, or guaranteeing no consequences for safety in case such reaction would take place.

  7. Pre-conceptual design study of ASTRID core

    SciTech Connect

    Varaine, F.; Marsault, P.; Chenaud, M. S.; Bernardin, B.; Conti, A.; Sciora, P.; Venard, C.; Fontaine, B.; Devictor, N.; Martin, L.; Scholer, A. C.; Verrier, D.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the ASTRID project at CEA, core design studies are performed at CEA with the AREVA and EDF support. At the stage of the project, pre-conceptual design studies are conducted in accordance with GEN IV reactors criteria, in particularly for safety improvements. An improved safety for a sodium cooled reactor requires revisiting many aspects of the design and is a rather lengthy process in current design approach. Two types of cores are under evaluation, one classical derived from the SFR V2B and one more challenging called CFV (low void effect core) with a large gain on the sodium void effect. The SFR V2b core have the following specifications: a very low burn-up reactivity swing (due to a small cycle reactivity loss) and a reduced sodium void effect with regard to past designs such as the EFR (around 2$ minus). Its performances are an average burn-up of 100 GWd/t, and an internal conversion ratio equal to one given a very good behavior of this core during a control rod withdrawal transient). The CFV with its specific design offers a negative sodium void worth while maintaining core performances. In accordance of ASTRID needs for demonstration those cores are 1500 MWth power (600 MWe). This paper will focus on the CFV pre-conceptual design of the core and S/A, and the performances in terms of safety will be evaluated on different transient scenario like ULOF, in order to assess its intrinsic behavior compared to a more classical design like V2B core. The gap in term of margin to a severe accident due to a loss of flow initiator underlines the potential capability of this type of core to enhance prevention of severe accident in accordance to safety demonstration. (authors)

  8. Innovative power conversion system for the French SFR prototype, ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Cachon, L.; Biscarrat, C.; Morin, F.; Haubensack, D.; Rigal, E.; Moro, I.; Baque, F.; Madeleine, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Laffont, G.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, the prototype ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), foreseen in operation by the 20's, will have to demonstrate not only the minor actinide transmutation capability, but also the progress made in Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technology on an industrial scale, by qualifying innovative options. Some of these options still require improvements, especially in the field of operability and safety. In fact, one of the main issues with the standard steam/water Power Conversion System (PCS) of SFR is the fast and energetic chemical reaction between water and sodium, which could occur in steam generators in case of tube failure. To manage the sodium/water reaction, one way consists in minimizing the impact of such event: hence studies are carried out on steam generator design, improvement of the physical knowledge of this phenomenon, development of numerical simulation to predict the reaction onset and consequences, and associated detection improvement. On the other hand, the other way consists in eliminating sodium/water reaction. In this frame, the CEA contribution to the feasibility evaluation of an alternative innovative PCS (replacing steam/water by 180 bar pressurised nitrogen) is focused on the following main topics: - The parametric study leading to nitrogen selection: the thermodynamic cycle efficiency optimisation on Brayton cycles is performed with several gases at different pressures. - The design of innovative compact heat exchangers for the gas loop: here the key points are the nuclear codification associated with inspection capability, the innovative welding process and the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanic optimisations. After a general introduction of the ASTRID project, this paper presents in detail these different feasibility studies being led on the innovative gas PCS for an SFR. (authors)

  9. Use of simplified PSA studies in support of the ASTRID design process

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthe, P.; Curnier, F.; Bertrand, F.; Vincon, L.; Jouve, S.; Balmain, M.; Rychkov, V.; Banchieri, Y.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, a GEN IV and actinides incineration demonstration prototype is to be commissioned in the 2020 decade. In this objective a prototype called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) is proposed to demonstrate the progress made in SFR technology at an industrial scale by qualifying innovative options, some of which still remain open in the areas requiring improvements, especially safety and operability. More specifically, we aim for a level of safety that is at least equivalent to that of the EPR (third generation), with improvements made in SFR-specific fields. The integration of safety issues in the early phase of the design of ASTRID is necessarily expected. For this purpose, CEA and its partners AREVA and EDF have planned to perform a level-1 PSA to support and orientate the preliminary design of ASTRID reactor. This paper presents the PSA approach and current studies for the assessment of safety systems and the future work to be done for the 2012-2014 period. The preliminary preparation of PSA studies is presented: objectives and scope of the early design phase PSA, definition of core damage states, selection and grouping of initiating events, assessment of safety functions and related systems. Work under progress is also presented: modelling of event trees, construction of fault trees of safety systems, transient calculations of accident sequences with the CATHARE2 code and reliability data assessment. Main objectives of a level-1 PSA performed at conceptual design stage are an early assessment of the safety architecture of the reactor and findings about the most effective areas for improvement, but also the identification of dominant accident sequences and comparison with alternative designs. After the elaboration of a simplified level-1 PSA model for nominal state and main internal initiators, various design alternatives will be

  10. ASTRID sodium cooled fast reactor: Program for improving in service inspection and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Jadot, F.; De Dinechin, G.; Augem, J. M.; Sibilo, J.

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the CEA, EDF, AREVA coordinated research program for the development of Generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), the ASTRID project was launched in 2010. For the future prototype, the improvement of in-service inspection and repair (ISI and R) capabilities was identified as a major issue. Following the pluri-annual SFR research program, the ISI and R main R and D axes remain: i) improvement of the primary system conceptual design, ii) development of measurement and inspection techniques (continuous monitoring instrumentation and periodic inspection tools), iii) accessibility and associated robotics, and iv) development and validation of repair processes. Associated ISI and R needs are being defined through an iterative method between designers and instrumentation specialists: adaptation of the Design to ISI and R requirements, fission chamber development, validation of the ultrasonic and chemical transducers, of ultrasonic non destructive simulation, of acoustic surveillance, of laser repair intervention processes, of connected robotic equipment. Moreover, CEA, as leader of the ASTRID Project, is willing to find new contributors, partners or suppliers, in order to get innovative, diversified, exhaustive and efficient solutions. (authors)

  11. Energetic Neutral Atom Imager on the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid. Paper 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barabash, S.; Norberg, O.; Roelof, E. C.; Lundin, R.; Olsen, S.; Lundin, K.; Brandt, Pontus C:son; Chase, C. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Koskinen, H.; Ryno, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Swedish microsatellite ASTRID was launched by a Russian Cosmos rocket on January 24, 1995 into a 1000 km circular orbit with 83 deg inclination. Besides the main objective of technological demonstration, imaging of energetic neutral atoms (ENAS) was attempted. The imager detected ENA in the energy range 0.1 - 140 keV utilizing two different techniques. Neutrals of the energy 13 - 140 keV were recorded by 14 solid state detectors with the total field of view 5 deg x 322 deg. For half a spin (approx. 1.5 s) of the ASTRID spacecraft, almost all of space was covered with an angular resolution 2.5 deg x 25 deg. Less energetic neutrals of approx. 0.1 - 70 keV were converted on a graphite target into secondary particles which then were detected by a microchannel plate with 32 anodes. A fraction of primary neutrals was directly reflected towards the sensor. This technique provided the total ENA flux with an angular resolution 4.6 deg x 11.5 deg. The instrument weight is 3.13 kg. Successful operation of the instrument during the first 5 weeks of the mission provided the first ENA images of the ring current at low altitudes.

  12. The pre-conceptual design of the nuclear island of ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Saez, M.

    2012-07-01

    The CEA is involved in a substantial effort on the ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) pre-conceptual design in cooperation with EDF, as experienced Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) operator, AREVA, as experienced SFR Nuclear Island engineering company and components designer, ALSTOM POWER as energy conversion system designer and COMEX NUCLEAIRE as mechanical systems designer. The CEA is looking for other partnerships, in France and abroad. The ASTRID preliminary design is based on a sodium-cooled pool reactor of 1500 MWth generating about 600 MWe, which is required to guarantee the representativeness of the reactor core and the main components with regard to future commercial reactors. ASTRID lifetime target is 60 years. Two Energy Conversion Systems are studied in parallel until the end of 2012: Rankine steam cycle or Brayton gas based energy conversion cycle. ASTRID design is guided by the following major objectives: improved safety, simplification of structures, improved In Service Inspection and Repair (ISIR), improved manufacturing conditions for cost reduction and increased quality, reduction of risks related to sodium fires and water/sodium reaction, and improved robustness against external hazards. The core is supported by a diagrid, which lay on a strong back to transfer the weight to the main vessel. AREVA is involved in a substantial effort in order to improve the core support structure in particular regarding the ISIR and the connection to primary pump. In the preliminary design, the primary system is formed by the main vessel and the upper closure comprising the reactor roof, two rotating plugs - used for fuel handling - and the components plugs located in the roof penetrations. The Above Core Structure deflects the sodium flow in the hot pool and provides support to core instrumentation and guidance of the control rod drive mechanisms. The number of the major components in the main vessel, primary pumps

  13. ASTRID: A 3D Eulerian software for subcooled boiling modelling - comparison with experimental results in tubes and annuli

    SciTech Connect

    Briere, E.; Larrauri, D.; Olive, J.

    1995-09-01

    For about four years, Electricite de France has been developing a 3-D computer code for the Eulerian simulation of two-phase flows. This code, named ASTRID, is based on the six-equation two-fluid model. Boiling water flows, such as those encountered in nuclear reactors, are among the main applications of ASTRID. In order to provide ASTRID with closure laws and boundary conditions suitable for boiling flows, a boiling model has been developed by EDF and the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse. In the fluid, the heat and mass transfer between a bubble and the liquid is being modelled. At the heating wall, the incipient boiling point is determined according to Hsu`s criterion and the boiling heat flux is split into three additive terms: a convective term, a quenching term and a vaporisation term. This model uses several correlations. EDF`s program in boiling two-phase flows also includes experimental studies, some of which are performed in collaboration with other laboratories. Refrigerant subcooled boiling both in tubular (DEBORA experiment, CEN Grenoble) and in annular geometry (Arizona State University Experiment) have been computed with ASTRID. The simulations show the satisfactory results already obtained on void fraction and liquid temperature. Ways of improvement of the model are drawn especially on the dynamical part.

  14. Probabilistic margin evaluation on accidental transients for the ASTRID reactor project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquès, Michel

    2014-06-01

    ASTRID is a technological demonstrator of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) under development. The conceptual design studies are being conducted in accordance with the Generation IV reactor objectives, particularly in terms of improving safety. For the hypothetical events, belonging to the accidental category "severe accident prevention situations" having a very low frequency of occurrence, the safety demonstration is no more based on a deterministic demonstration with conservative assumptions on models and parameters but on a "Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty" (BEPU) approach. This BEPU approach ispresented in this paper for an Unprotected Loss-of-Flow (ULOF) event. The Best-Estimate (BE) analysis of this ULOFt ransient is performed with the CATHARE2 code, which is the French reference system code for SFR applications. The objective of the BEPU analysis is twofold: first evaluate the safety margin to sodium boiling in taking into account the uncertainties on the input parameters of the CATHARE2 code (twenty-two uncertain input parameters have been identified, which can be classified into five groups: reactor power, accident management, pumps characteristics, reactivity coefficients, thermal parameters and head losses); secondly quantify the contribution of each input uncertainty to the overall uncertainty of the safety margins, in order to refocusing R&D efforts on the most influential factors. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects of the evaluation of the safety margin. At least for the preliminary phase of the project (conceptual design), a probabilistic criterion has been fixed in the context of this BEPU analysis; this criterion is the value of the margin to sodium boiling, which has a probability 95% to be exceeded, obtained with a confidence level of 95% (i.e. the M5,95percentile of the margin distribution). This paper presents two methods used to assess this percentile: the Wilks method and the Bootstrap method ; the effectiveness of the two methods

  15. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging at Low Altitudes from the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid: Extraction of the Equatorial Ion Distribution. Paper 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Pontus C:son; Barabash, Stas; Roelof, Edmond C.; Chase, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Energetic neutral atom (ENA) images obtained by the ENA imager on- board the Astrid satellite in the polar cap at 1000 km during a moderate magnetic storm (Dst greater than or equal to 80 nT) on 8 February 1995 are simulated using a parameterized model of the equatorial ion distribution and a six-component Chamberlain exo-sphere with parameters from the MSISE-90 model. By changing the ion parameters until a matching ENA image is obtained one can extract the equatorial ion distribution. Four consecutive images from different view points several of minutes apart are simulated assuming H(+) and O(+), respectively, as parent ions. The optimal set of parameters is extracted by minimizing the chi(exp 2) difference between simulated and observed ENA image using Powell's minimization algorithm. The optimal equatorial model ion distribution consists of O(+) peaked in around dusk. The lower intensity of fluxes obtained from vantage points closer to the pole is an effect of the loss cone of the parent ion distribution being empty.

  16. Two Types of Transpolar Arc Development, Event Studies with Data Set of ASTRID-2, DMSP, FAST, and SuperDARN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narita, Yasuhito; Maezawa, Kiyoshi; Toshinori, Mukai; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Marklund, G.; Frederick, R.; Carlson, C. W.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Aurorae which appear in the polar cap are called transpolar arcs, polar cap arcs, sun-aligned arcs, or occasionally Theta-aurora because of its spatial distribution resembling Greek character 'Theta.' Morphology, IMF (Interplanetary Magnetic Field) relationship, and ionospheric convection patterns were studied in quest of mechanisms of transpolar arcs. Four events were analyzed: 1999/Jan/22/19:00 - 23/01:30 (1 event: a) 1999/Jan/24/06:00 - 10:00 (1 event: b) 1999/Feb/1 1/20:00 - 12/02:00 (2 events: c, d), with data set of ExB drift velocity data obtained by electric field measurements of ASTRID-2 and FAST, DMSP ion driftmeter data, and line-of-sight velocity data of SuperDARN. POLAR-UVI image data were used for spatial and temporal variations of transpolar arcs and ACE data set were used for investigation of IMF relationship. IMF-Bz was strongly positive (Bz from +8nT to +20 nT) during periods of all four transpolar arcs. In events (a),(b),(c), transpolar arcs appeared immediately after the direction of IMF turned northward, though IMF was fluctuating in event (b). A sudden increase of IMF-By, from +3nT to +18nT, was observed in event (d). Two different types of transpolar arc development were observed in POLAR-UVI: one which begins as a split from dawn or dusk sector of auroral oval and shifts poleward in event (a),(c),(d), and another which is initially a patch of auroral oval disturbed by substorm but develops as a transpolar arc, forming a growing finger-like shape from midnight sector (event b). Sunward flow, associated with positive IMF-Bz, were observed within newly-created polar caps in event (a),(c),(d). Not clear ionospheric convection pattern was seen across the polar cap arc in event (b) die to limitation of data set. In event (c), O+ with energy more than 1 keV were observed by FAST within a transpolar arc, suggesting that their origin be from plasma sheet. Transpolar arcs are thought to be projection of plasma sheet bifurcation into lobe regime. There

  17. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging at Low Altitudes from the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid: Images and Spectral Analysis. Paper 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Pontus C:son; Barabash, Stas; Norberg, Olle; Lundin, Rickard; Roelof, Rdmond C.; Chase, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in the energy range 26- 52 keV are reported from four occasions during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The data were acquired by the ENA imager flown on the Swedish microsatellite Astrid in a 1000 km circular orbit with 83 deg inclination. The ENA imager separates charged particles from neutrals through an electrostatic deflection system in the energy range between 0.1 and 114 keV. ENA images obtained from vantage points in the polar cap and in the afternoon magnetic local time (MLT) hours looking into the antisunward hemisphere show intense ENA fluxes (approx. 10(exp 4)/sq cm sr s over 26-37 keV) coming from the dusk region and low altitudes (approx. 300 km). The morphology shows no relation to local magnetic field excluding the possibility of charged particle detection. It is concluded that the source of these ENAs are precipitating/mirroring ions from the ring current/trapped radiation interacting with the exobase on auroral L-shells and in the dusk region. The observed ENA fluxes show a relation with Kp and Dst geomagnetic indices. The observed ENA spectrum from a geomagnetic storm on February 8, 1995, is investigated in more detail and compared to the parent ion spectrum obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Project (DMSP) satellite, Fl2, during the same period on L = 6 +/- 2 around dusk. The observed ENA spectral slope is used to derive the parent ion spectral temperature. The derived ion temperatures range is 3.0 - 6.0 keV for H and 4.5 - 8.5 keV for O. The higher of these ion temperatures comes closest in agreement to the extrapolated DMSP spectrum leading us to favor O over H as the species of the detected ENAS. It is shown that the detected ENAs must have been produced at L greater than or equal to 6 to reach the detector without atmospheric attenuation and that the main energy dependence of the ENA spectrum, apart from the parent ion spectrum, is governed by the energy dependence of the charge

  18. Two Types of Transpolar Arc Development, Event Studies With Data Set of Astrid-2, Dmsp, Fast, and Superdarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Y.; Maezawa, K.; Kullen, A.; Ivchenko, N.; Marklund, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Spann, J. F.; Parks, G. K.; Superdarn Team

    Auroras which appear in the polar cap are called transpolar arcs, polar cap arcs, sun- aligned arcs, or occasionally Theta-aurora because of its spatial distribution resem- bling Greek character 'Theta.' Morphology, IMF(Interplanetary Magnetic Field) rela- tionship, and ionospheric convection patterns were studied in quest of mechanisms of transpolar arcs. Four events were analyzed: 1999/Jan/22/19:00 - 23/01:30 (1 event: a) 1999/Jan/24/06:00 - 10:00 (1 event: b) 1999/Feb/11/20:00 - 12/02:00 (2 events: c, d) , with data set of ExB drift velocity data obtained by electric field measurements of ASTRID-2 and FAST, DMSP ion driftmeter data, and line-of- sight velocity data of SuperDARN. POLAR-UVI image data were used for spatial and temporal variations of transpolar arcs and ACE data set were used for investigation of IMF relationship. IMF-Bz was strongly positive (Bz from +8nT to +20 nT) during periods of all four transpolar arcs. In events (a),(b),(c), transpolar arcs appeared immediately after the direction of IMF turned northward, though IMF was fluctuating in event (b). A sudden increase of IMF-By, from +3nT to +18nT, was observed in event (d). Two different types of transpolar arc development were observed by POLAR-UVI: one which begins as a split from dawn or dusk sector of auroral oval and shifts poleward in events (c),(d); another which is initially a patch of auroral oval disturbed by substorm but develops as a transpolar arc, forming a growing finger-like shape from midnight sector in event (b). Sunward flow, associated with positive IMF-Bz, were observed within newly-created polar caps in events (a),(c),(d). Not clear ionospheric convection pattern was seen across the transpolar arc in event (b) due to limitation of data set. Isotropic ions with energy more than 1 keV were observed within transpolar arcs. From these 1 observations it is concluded that the origin of transpolar arcs is from the plasma sheet. This is consistent with the view that transpolar

  19. Astride a Long-Dead Horse: Mainstream Outdoor Education Theory and the Central Curriculum Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    In 1859 Herbert Spencer recognised that the key curriculum issue was not what to include but what to leave out. What to leave out marked a shift in curriculum discourse from a search for universal approaches and absolute principles towards curriculum questions understood as only resolvable relative to particular social contexts. Yet outdoor…

  20. From pluripotency to forebrain patterning: an in vitro journey astride embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Bertacchi, Michele; Carucci, Nicoletta; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Biagioni, Stefano; Cremisi, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used extensively as in vitro models of neural development and disease, with special efforts towards their conversion into forebrain progenitors and neurons. The forebrain is the most complex brain region, giving rise to several fundamental structures, such as the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the retina. Due to the multiplicity of signaling pathways playing different roles at distinct times of embryonic development, the specification and patterning of forebrain has been difficult to study in vivo. Research performed on ESCs in vitro has provided a large body of evidence to complement work in model organisms, but these studies have often been focused more on cell type production than on cell fate regulation. In this review, we systematically reassess the current literature in the field of forebrain development in mouse and human ESCs with a focus on the molecular mechanisms of early cell fate decisions, taking into consideration the specific culture conditions, exogenous and endogenous molecular cues as described in the original studies. The resulting model of early forebrain induction and patterning provides a useful framework for further studies aimed at reconstructing forebrain development in vitro for basic research or therapy. PMID:24643740

  1. From pluripotency to forebrain patterning: an in vitro journey astride embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Bertacchi, Michele; Carucci, Nicoletta; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Biagioni, Stefano; Cremisi, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used extensively as in vitro models of neural development and disease, with special efforts towards their conversion into forebrain progenitors and neurons. The forebrain is the most complex brain region, giving rise to several fundamental structures, such as the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the retina. Due to the multiplicity of signaling pathways playing different roles at distinct times of embryonic development, the specification and patterning of forebrain has been difficult to study in vivo. Research performed on ESCs in vitro has provided a large body of evidence to complement work in model organisms, but these studies have often been focused more on cell type production than on cell fate regulation. In this review, we systematically reassess the current literature in the field of forebrain development in mouse and human ESCs with a focus on the molecular mechanisms of early cell fate decisions, taking into consideration the specific culture conditions, exogenous and endogenous molecular cues as described in the original studies. The resulting model of early forebrain induction and patterning provides a useful framework for further studies aimed at reconstructing forebrain development in vitro for basic research or therapy.

  2. Theoretical reaction kinetics astride the transition between moderate and deep tunneling regimes: the F + HD case.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, S; Aquilanti, V; Mundim, K C; De Fazio, D

    2014-08-21

    For the reaction between F and HD, giving HF + D and DF + H, the rate constants, obtained from rigorous quantum scattering calculations at temperatures ranging from 350 K down to 100 K, show deviations from the Arrhenius behavior that have been interpreted in terms of tunneling of either H or D atoms through a potential energy barrier. The interval of temperature investigated extends from above to below a crossover value Tc, a transition temperature separating the moderate and deep quantum tunneling regimes. Below Tc, the rate of the H or D exchange reaction is controlled by the prevalence of tunneling over the thermal activation mechanism. In this temperature range, Bell's early treatment of quantum tunneling, based on a semiclassical approximation for the barrier permeability, provides a reliable tool to quantitatively account for the contribution of the tunneling effect. This treatment is here applied for extracting from rate constants properties of the effective tunneling path, such as the activation barrier height and width. We show that this is a way of parametrizing the dependence of the apparent activation energy on temperature useful for both calculated and experimental rate constants in an ample interval of temperature, from above to below Tc, relevant for modelization of astrophysical and in general very low-temperature environments.

  3. Geothermal potential of Caledonian granites underlying Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary basins astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschle, Tobias; Daly, J. Stephen; Whitehouse, Martin J.; McConnell, Brian; Buhre, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary basins in Ireland overlie crystalline rocks within the Caledonian Iapetus Suture Zone. Beneath these basins, Lower Palaeozoic rocks, formed and deformed during the Caledonian orogenic cycle, were intruded by c. 420-390 Ma late-tectonic granites at various tectonic levels. These include the subsurface Kentstown and Glenamaddy granites discovered by mineral exploration drilling. While these granites comprise actual targets for Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) exploration, several others likely exist based on geophysical considerations. In order to test the regional geothermal potential, the buried granites as well as analogue exposed rocks are being investigated geochemically. The geothermal potential of the intrusives depends on their heat production rate (HPR), which is calculated using rock density and concentrations of the heat producing elements (HPE) uranium, thorium and potassium. In spite of their close spacing and similar ages, the whole-rock geochemistry of the granites varies significantly, but with no obvious geographical control (Fritschle et al., 2013; 2014). The granite HPR values range from 1.4 μW/m3 for the Dhoon Granite (Isle of Man) to 4.9 μW/m3 for the Drogheda Granite (Ireland). This compares with the average HPR for a 'typical' granite of 2.7 μW/m3 (Goldstein et al., 2009). It is demonstrated that an elevated HPR of a granite can be related to enrichment in one of the HPE alone (e.g., uranium-enrichment in the Foxdale Granite (Isle of Man), or thorium-enrichment in the Drogheda Granite). Enrichment in HPE in a granite may occur due to different reasons including hydrothermal (re-) distribution of uranium, or the assimilation of thorium-rich wall-rocks. Hence, the distribution of the HPE in particular minerals, veins and source lithologies, along with the petrophysical characteristics of the sedimentary basins and the granites' petrogenesis, are currently being investigated as possible mechanisms controlling their heat production budget. Fritschle, T., Daly, J.S., Whitehouse, M.J., McConnell, B., Buhre, S., 2013. U-Pb Zircon Ages from Granites in the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland and the Isle of Man. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(5): 1115. Fritschle, T., Daly, J.S., Whitehouse, M.J., McConnell, B., Buhre, S., 2014. Zircon geochronology and Hf-O isotope geochemistry from granites in the Iapetus Suture Zone in Ireland and the Isle of Man. This issue. Goldstein, B.A., Hill, A.J., Long, A., Budd, A.R., Ayling, B., Malavazos, M., 2009. Hot rocks down under - evolution of a new energy industry. Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 33: 185-198.

  4. Seismic hazards astride the boundary between the eastern Snake River Plain and northern Basin and Range Province Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Sawyer, T.L. ); Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R. ); Smith, R.P.; Jackson, S.M.; Hackett, W.R. ); Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.M. ); Knuepfer, P.L.K. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Bruhn, R.L.; Wu, D. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The occurrence of the damaging 1983 M[sub w] 6.8 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake, which ruptured a central segment of the Lost River fault, has increased the awareness of seismic hazards in this portion of the Northern Basin and Range Province (NBR). As a result, comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were performed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which is located within the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) but adjacent to the NBR. In this region, the most significant seismic sources are three late-Quaternary NBR normal faults, the Lost River, Lemhi and Beaverhead faults, and ESRP volcanic zones. For each source, the maximum earthquake, source geometry, recurrence and their uncertainties were estimated and incorporated into the probabilistic analysis through the use of logic trees. Recent paleoseismic trenching of the Lost River and Lemhi faults and volcanic mapping in the ESRP provided much of the data necessary to characterize the most significant seismic sources. Issues such as fault segmentation, temporal clustering, the nature of fault termination, and the maximum magnitude and recurrence of volcanic zone earthquakes were evaluated in the hazard analyses. Deterministic and probabilistic ground motions were computed using both empirical and stochastic approaches. In the deterministic analysis, the southern segments of the Lemhi fault controlled the hazard at the INEL due to their proximity and potential to generate M[sub w] [approximately]7 earthquakes. In the estimation of deterministic ground motions, potential rupture scenarios were evaluated for a Lemhi earthquake. In the probabilistic analysis, the hazard is dominated by the ESRP random earthquake, and the Lemhi and Lost River faults. The difference in the results of the two analyses points out the uncertainties in assessing seismic hazards due to random earthquakes and in regions of large but infrequent earthquakes.

  5. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador: Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.; Emslie, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    We report Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mid-Proterozoic anorthosites and related rocks (1.45-1.65 Ga) and of younger olivine diabase dikes (1.4 Ga) from two complexes on either side of the Grenville Front in Labrador. Anorthositic or diabasic samples from the Mealy Mountains (Grenville Province) and Harp Lake (Nain-Churchill Provinces) complexes have very similar major, minor and trace element compositions, but distinctly different isotopic signatures. All Mealy Mountains samples have ISr = 0.7025-0.7033, ??{lunate}Nd = +0.6 to +5.6 and Pb isotopic compositions consistent with derivation from a mantle source depleted with respect to Nd/Sm and Rb/Sr. Pb isotopic compositions for the Mealy Mountains samples are slightly more radiogenic than model mantle compositions. All Harp Lake samples have ISr = 0.7032-0.7066, ??{lunate}Nd = -0.3 to -4.4 and variable, but generally unradiogenic 207Pb 204Pb and 206Pb 204Pb compared to model mantle, suggesting mixing between a mantle-derived component and a U-depleted crustal contaminant. Crustal contaminants are probably a variety of Archean high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneisses with low U/Pb ratios and include a component that must be isotopically similar to the early Archean (>3.6 Ga) Uivak gneisses of Labrador or the Amitsoq gneisses of west Greenland. This would imply that the ancient gneiss complex of coastal Labrador and Greenland is larger than indicated by present surface exposure and may extend in the subsurface as far west as the Labrador Trough. If Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains samples were subjected to the same degree of contamination, as suggested by their chemical similarities, then the Mealy contaminants must be much younger, probably early or middle Proterozoic in age. The Labrador segment of the Grenville Front, therefore, appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture. ?? 1986.

  6. How does lean work in emergency care? A case study of a lean-inspired intervention at the Astrid Lindgren Children's hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in applying lean thinking in healthcare, yet, there is still limited knowledge of how and why lean interventions succeed (or fail). To address this gap, this in-depth case study examines a lean-inspired intervention in a Swedish pediatric Accident and Emergency department. Methods We used a mixed methods explanatory single case study design. Hospital performance data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical process control techniques to assess changes in performance one year before and two years after the intervention. We collected qualitative data through non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and internal documents to describe the process and content of the lean intervention. We then analyzed empirical findings using four theoretical lean principles (Spear and Bowen 1999) to understand how and why the intervention worked in its local context as well as to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Results Improvements in waiting and lead times (19-24%) were achieved and sustained in the two years following lean-inspired changes to employee roles, staffing and scheduling, communication and coordination, expertise, workspace layout, and problem solving. These changes resulted in improvement because they: (a) standardized work and reduced ambiguity, (b) connected people who were dependent on one another, (c) enhanced seamless, uninterrupted flow through the process, and (d) empowered staff to investigate problems and to develop countermeasures using a "scientific method". Contextual factors that may explain why not even greater improvement was achieved included: a mismatch between job tasks, licensing constraints, and competence; a perception of being monitored, and discomfort with inter-professional collaboration. Conclusions Drawing on Spear and Bowen's theoretical propositions, this study explains how a package of lean-like changes translated into better care process management. It adds new knowledge regarding how lean principles can be beneficially applied in healthcare and identifies changes to professional roles as a potential challenge when introducing lean thinking there. This knowledge may enable health care organizations and managers in other settings to configure their own lean program and to better understand the reasons behind lean's success (or failure). PMID:22296919

  7. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador - Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Trace element and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of anorthosites and related rocks, and of younger mafic dikes from Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains in Labrador, Canada are estimated and compared. The effects of crustal component contaminants on the isotopic compositions of the dikes are investigated. The correlation between the isotopic data and the crustal contamination model is studied. It is observed that for Harp Lake the initial Sr ratios are higher and the Nd values are lower than Mealy samples, and the data do not correspond to the crustal contamination model; however, the Pb isotope data favor a crustal contamination model. It is noted that the Labrador segment of the Grenville Front appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton, and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture.

  8. Literacy in the Modern World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Geoff

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the following books: "The Politics of Writing," (Romy Clark, Roz Ivanic); "Literacy in Society," (Ruqaiya Hasan, Geoff Williams); "Text, Role, and Context: Developing Academic Literacies" (Ann M. Johns); "Changing Literacies" by (Colin Lankshear with James Paul Gee, Michele Knobel, Chris Searle); and "Vernacular Literacy: A Re-evaluation"…

  9. Differences in Expression of Key DNA Damage Repair Genes after Epigenetic-Induced BRCAness Dictate Synthetic Lethality with PARP1 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wiegmans, Adrian P; Yap, Pei-Yi; Ward, Ambber; Lim, Yi Chieh; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2015-10-01

    The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype represents a cancer that is highly aggressive with poor patient outcome. Current preclinical success has been gained through synthetic lethality, targeting genome instability with PARP inhibition in breast cancer cells that harbor silencing of the homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a class of drugs that mediate epigenetic changes in expression of HR pathway genes. Here, we compare the activity of the pan-HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), the class I/IIa HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), and the HDAC1/2-specific inhibitor romidepsin (ROMI) for their capability to regulate DNA damage repair gene expression and in sensitizing TNBC to PARPi. We found that two of the HDACis tested, SAHA and ROMI, but not VPA, indeed inhibit HR repair and that RAD51, BARD1, and FANCD2 represent key proteins whose inhibition is required for HDACi-mediated therapy with PARP inhibition in TNBC. We also observed that restoration of BRCA1 function stabilizes the genome compared with mutant BRCA1 that results in enhanced polyploid population after combination treatment with HDACi and PARPi. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of the key HR protein RAD51 represents a mechanism for this resistance, promoting aberrant repair and the enhanced polyploidy observed. These findings highlight the key components of HR in guiding synthetic lethality with PARP inhibition and support the rationale for utilizing the novel combination of HDACi and PARPi against TNBC in the clinical setting. PMID:26294743

  10. Beyond Death: Children's Books and the Hereafter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Eric A.

    1980-01-01

    Considers concepts of death and the afterlife presented in children's literature of previous centuries and in several recent books for children, including "The Farthest Shore" by Ursula Le Guin, "The Brothers Lionheart" by Astrid Lindgren, and "Song of the Pearl" by Ruth Nichols. (GT)

  11. Demystifying the Professoriate in Visual Art and Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Amber

    2014-01-01

    In the "Studies" article "Multiple Interruptions: Creative Encounters in Public Art and Public Pedagogy, A North--South Dialogue," Danny Wildemeersch and Astrid von Kotze write about the productive force of blurring institutional boundaries. They state: "As we negotiated our different relations of engagement with theory…

  12. The Lights Pre-Project: Implementation of the Project Approach with Children under 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzegorzewska, Katarzyna; Konieczna-Blicharz, Jagoda

    2011-01-01

    A group of children 18 months to 3 years old and their parents studied lights in a preschool program at the Astrid Lindgren Institute for Early Childhood Development in Poland. The goal of the preschool program is to help children gain positive social experience through safe and interesting contact with a new group of children and adults in the…

  13. Drawing of American ASTP crewmen searching for Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The American Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen search the skies for the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft in this humorous artwork by Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov. Astronauts Vance D. Brand, Donald K. Slayton and Thomas P. Stafford (left to right) sit astride the Apollo spacecraft and Docking Module ready to lasso Soyuz. Leonov, an accomplished artist, specializes in painting on space subjects.

  14. Is "Gender-Sensitive Education" a Useful Concept for Educational Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article responds to Astrid Sinnes and Marianne Løken's article "Gendered education in a gendered world: Looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science" by exploring the idea of "gender-sensitive" education and its usefulness in educational policy. It draws on theoretical discussions of the concept of…

  15. "Pippi Longstocking" and the Subversive Affirmation of Comedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the character of Pippi Longstocking, created in the 1940s by Swedish author Astrid Lindgren. Argues that Pippi is a kind of clown-magician, courageous, exuberant, and unflappable. Shows how, by living life on her own terms, Pippi's comedy both subverts the trappings of adult society and affirms the possibility of a better world. (SR)

  16. Chesapeake Bay, Potomac River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The nation's capital lies astride the Potomac River (38.5N, 77.5W) at the head of the Potomac Estuary. Baltimore, MD, also in the scene, is connected to Washington by the Baltimore-Washington Parkway. The suburbs of both cities tend to cluster around the Washington and Baltimore Beltways. Most of the countryside in the eastern two-thirds of this scene is either heavily forested or is in farming, dairy operations or poultry production.

  17. Is `gender-sensitive education' a useful concept for educational policy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forde, Christine

    2014-06-01

    This article responds to Astrid Sinnes and Marianne Løken's article `Gendered education in a gendered world: Looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science' by exploring the idea of `gender-sensitive' education and its usefulness in educational policy. It draws on theoretical discussions of the concept of gender and of difference to consider ways in which `gender-sensitive' education might serve the task of promoting equality and justice.

  18. Acoustic streaming jets: A scaling and dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botton, V. Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Ben-Hadid, H.; Garandet, J. P.

    2015-10-28

    We present our work on acoustic streaming free jets driven by ultrasonic beams in liquids. These jets are steady flows generated far from walls by progressive acoustic waves. As can be seen on figure 1, our set-up, denominated AStrID for Acoustic Streaming Investigation Device, is made of a water tank in which a 29 mm plane source emits continuous ultrasonic waves at typically 2 MHz. Our approach combines an experimental characterization of both the acoustic pressure field (hydrophone) and the obtained acoustic streaming velocity field (PIV visualization) on one hand, with CFD using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on the other hand.

  19. Southern California landslides-an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Southern California lies astride a major tectonic plate boundary defined by the San Andreas Fault and numerous related faults that are spread across a broad region. This dynamic tectonic environment has created a spectacular landscape of rugged mountains and steep-walled valleys that compose much of the region’s scenic beauty. Unfortunately, this extraordinary landscape also presents serious geologic hazards. Just as tectonic forces are steadily pushing the landscape upward, gravity is relentlessly tugging it downward. When gravity prevails, landslides can occur.

  20. Solid rocket booster thermal radiation model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, G. H.; Lee, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    A solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal radiation model, capable of defining the influence of the plume flowfield structure on the magnitude and distribution of thermal radiation leaving the plume, was prepared and documented. Radiant heating rates may be calculated for a single SRB plume or for the dual SRB plumes astride the space shuttle. The plumes may be gimbaled in the yaw and pitch planes. Space shuttle surface geometries are simulated with combinations of quadric surfaces. The effect of surface shading is included. The computer program also has the capability to calculate view factors between the SRB plumes and space shuttle surfaces as well as surface-to-surface view factors.

  1. Strong coupling between adenine nucleobases in DNA single strands revealed by circular dichroism using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadhane, Umesh; Holm, Anne I. S.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2008-02-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) experiments on DNA single strands (dAn) at the ASTRID synchrotron radiation facility reveal that eight adenine (A) bases electronically couple upon 190nm excitation. After n=8 , the CD signal increases linearly with n with a slope equal to the sum of the coupling terms. Nearest neighbor interactions account for only 24% of the CD signal whereas electronic communication is limited to nearest neighbors for two other exciton bands observed at 218 and 251nm (i.e., dimer excited states). Electronic coupling between bases in DNA is important for nonradiative deexcitation of electronically excited states since the hazardous energy is spread over a larger spatial region.

  2. Exotic minerals in 3,500 million year old rocks: Evidence for large meteorite impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byerly, G. R.; Lowe, D. R.; Asaro, F.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively small area of mountainous terrain in southern Africa provides scientists from all over the world a look at what the surface of the earth was like three and a half billion years ago. The Barberton Mountains lie astride the borders of the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Swaziland. The discovery of several widely distributed deposits that were likely formed by major terrestrial impacts of large extraterrestrial bodies during this early period of earth's history is reported. The Barberton impact deposits are being studied by electron microscopy. The impact deposits were examined for minerals that show the effects of shock metamorphism or compositions unusual in terrestrial rocks.

  3. Sex Differences in Severity, Social Functioning, Adherence to Treatment, and Cognition of Adolescents with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have reported sex differences in the clinical presentation and outcome of adult patients with schizophrenia; the aim of present study was to compare the clinical characteristics, social functioning, adherence to treatment, and cognition of adolescents with this diagnosis in a six-month followup. Methods. A total of 87 adolescents with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), the Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), and the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI). Results. Both groups showed a similar improvement in all PANSS factors and in the PSP scores during the followup. Males better adhered to treatment. Females displayed better results in the area of social cognition (F = 6.3, df = 2,52, and p = 0.003) and attention/vigilance (F = 8.3, df = 2,51, and p = 0.001). Conclusions. Male and female adolescents showed similar clinical presentation and functioning but a different pattern of cognitive improvement and adherence to treatment. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov II3/02/0811.‏ PMID:27703813

  4. Crustal Magnetization Model of Maud Rise in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; vanFrese, Ralph R. B.; Golynsky, Alexander V.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2004-01-01

    We modeled the crustal magnetization for the Maud Rise in the south-west Indian Ocean off the coast of East Antarctica using magnetic observations from the Oersted satellite and near-surface surveys complied by the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP). A new inversion modeling scheme of the multi-altitude anomaly fields suggests that the magnetic effects due to crustal thickness variations and remanence involving the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) become increasingly dominant with altitude. The magnetic crustal thickness effects were modeled in the Oersted data using crustal thickness variations derived from satellite altitude gravity data. Remanent magnetization modeling of the residual Oersted and near-surface magnetic anomalies supports extending the KQZ eastwards to the Astrid Ridge. The remaining near-surface anomalies involve crustal features with relatively high frequency effects that are strongly attenuated at satellite altitudes. The crustal modeling can be extended by the satellite magnetic anomalies across the Indian Ocean Ridge for insight on the crustal properties of the conjugate Agulhas Plateau. The modeling supports the Jurassic reconstruction of Gondwana when the African Limpopo-Zambezi and East Antarctic Princess Astrid coasts were connected as part of a relatively demagnetized crustal block.

  5. Swedish small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, K.; von Scheele, F.

    2004-11-01

    In 1986 the first Swedish small satellite VIKING was launched on the Ariane 1 rocket together with the French remote sensing satellite SPOT-1. This paper describes the development of Swedish small satellites in an international framework. The satellites have delivered excellent scientific data to a low cost by using e.g. streamlined project organisations, competitive procurement programs and piggy-back launch opportunities. The first micro satellite Astrid-1 was launched in January 1995 and was followed by the launch of Astrid-2 in December 1998. The capable Odin small satellite was launched in February 2001. SSC was also contracted for ESA's SMART-1 probe destined to the Moon. SMART-1, launched in September 2003, is used for both research and as a technology demonstrator for future projects. Future proposed projects include micro and small satellites for climate research as the Atmosphere and Climate Explorer Plus (ACE+), the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange And climate Monitor (STEAM) and PRISMA, a technology demonstrator for formation flying, new propulsion system and commercial development methods.

  6. Ways of improvement for the materials of sodium cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, E.

    2012-07-01

    The French sodium cooled prototype reactor ASTRID will take into account 'Generation IV' requirements, especially a long operational life-time (60 years) and a high efficiency. The good behavior of austenitic steel AISI316L(N), should be confirmed for a use, in moderately irradiated and unirradiated parts of ASTRID. Parts recovered from dismantled French sodium-cooled reactors will be characterized. Further experiments must be carried out concerning ageing of these components. Other materials will be chosen for fuel wrapping and cladding, in order to reduce creep and swelling under irradiation, (either conventional, or oxide-dispersed strengthened steels (ODSS). Corrosion of ODSS in the presence of sodium needs a serious assessment The lifetime of primary pumps components made of Duplex steels should also be assessed. The disruptions in steam generator tubes should be minimized and controlled; therefore, optimised designs and geometries must be established before defining the corresponding materials. Either Modified 9Cr1Mo or Incoloy 800H, might be candidates;it will be necessary to check whether austenitic steels are compatible with Modified 9Cr1Mo or Incoloy 800H in the same circuit. For all materials, the best manufacturing processes must be combined with thermal, mechanical treatments; calculations of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) might be used to optimise both treatments and chemical compositions. (authors)

  7. Investigation of Nuclear Data Libraries with TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo Code for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.-K.; Brun, E.

    2014-04-01

    The Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor ASTRID is currently under design and development in France. Traditional ECCO/ERANOS fast reactor code system used for ASTRID core design calculations relies on multi-group JEFF-3.1.1 data library. To gauge the use of ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data libraries in the fast reactor applications, two recent OECD/NEA computational benchmarks specified by Argonne National Laboratory were calculated. Using the continuous-energy TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo transport code, both ABR-1000 MWth MOX core and metallic (U-Pu) core were investigated. Under two different fast neutron spectra and two data libraries, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1.1, reactivity impact studies were performed. Using JEFF-3.1.1 library under the BOEC (Beginning of equilibrium cycle) condition, high reactivity effects of 808 ± 17 pcm and 1208 ± 17 pcm were observed for ABR-1000 MOX core and metallic core respectively. To analyze the causes of these differences in reactivity, several TRIPOLI-4 runs using mixed data libraries feature allow us to identify the nuclides and the nuclear data accounting for the major part of the observed reactivity discrepancies.

  8. Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Mowlavi, N.; Alvarez, R.; Luri, X.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used to calibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of Long Period Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25 luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronic form. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galactic populations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations ranging from the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limit of the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A difference of 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch is found between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming its dependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelope are distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The level of attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usual classifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) is examined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRID database (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

  9. Portable sensor technology for rotational ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Guattari, Frédéric; Igel, Heiner

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution we present performance characteristics of a single component interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope (IFOG). The prototype sensor is provided by iXBlue, France. It is tested in the framework of the European Research Council Project, ROMY (Rotational motions - a new observable for seismology), on its applicability as a portable and field-deployable sensor for rotational ground motions. To fully explore the benefits of this new seismic observable especially in the fields of vulcanology, ocean generated noise and geophysical exploration, such a sensor has to fulfill certain requirements regarding portability, power consumption, time stamping stability and dynamic range. With GPS-synchronized time stamping and miniseed output format, data acquisition is customized for the use in seismology. Testing time stamping accuracy yields a time shift of less than 0.0001 s and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 in comparison to a commonly used data acquisition system, Reftek 120. Sensor self-noise is below 5.0 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2 for a frequency band from 0.001 Hz to 5.0 Hz. Analysis of Allan deviation shows an angle random walk of 3.5 ṡ 10-8 rads-1Hz-1/2. Additionally, the operating range diagram is shown and ambient noise analysis is performed. The sensitivity of sensor self-noise to variations in surrounding temperature and magnetic field is tested in laboratory experiments. With a power consumption of less than 10 W, the whole system (single component sensor + data acquisition) is appropriate for field use with autonomous power supply.

  10. Coincidence or not? Interconnected gas/fluid migration and ocean-atmosphere oscillations in the Levant Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Michael; Lang, Guy; Schattner, Uri

    2016-08-01

    A growing number of studies on shallow marine gas/fluid systems from across the globe indicate their abundance throughout geological epochs. However, these episodic events have not been fully integrated into the fundamental concepts of continental margin development, which are thought to be dictated by three elements: tectonics, sedimentation and eustasy. The current study focuses on the passive sector of the Levant Basin on the eastern Mediterranean continental margin where these elements are well constrained, in order to isolate the contribution of gas/fluid systems. Single-channel, multichannel and 3D seismic reflection data are interpreted in terms of variance, chaos, envelope and sweetness attributes. Correlation with the Romi-1 borehole and sequence boundaries constrains interpretation of seismic stratigraphy. Results show a variety of fluid- or gas-related features such as seafloor and subsurface pockmarks, volumes of acoustic blanking, bright spots, conic pinnacle mounds, gas chimneys and high sweetness zones that represent possible secondary reservoirs. It is suggested that gas/fluid migrate upwards along lithological conduits such as falling-stage systems tracts and sequence boundaries during both highstands and lowstands. In all, 13 mid-late Pleistocene sequence boundaries are accompanied by independent evidence of 13 eustatic sea-level drops. Whether this connection is coincidental or not requires further research. These findings fill gaps between previously reported sporadic appearances throughout the Levant Basin and margin and throughout geological time from the Messinian until the present day, and create a unified framework for understanding the system as a whole. Repetitive appearance of these features suggests that their role in the morphodynamics of continental margins is more important than previously thought and thus may constitute one of the key elements of continental margin development.

  11. The Crustal Dichotomy Boundary West of Tempe Terra: Speculation on Where it Lies Beneath Alba Patera Based on Mola Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Roark, J.; Sakimoto, S.; McGovern, P.

    1999-01-01

    MOLA gridded data based on profiles collected during the Aerobraking Hiatus and Science Phasing Operations suggest the crustal dichotomy boundary west of Tempe continues beneath Alba volcanics, at least to 105 W at about 50 N. A broad shelf-like region in the Alba units is continuous with a similar region of Tempe in which Hesperian volcanics overlie Noachian cratered terrain. Perspective views show significant changes in the sloping character of the flanks of Alba east and west of 105W, with much more continuous steep topography to the west. We suggest that Alba sits astride the ancient crustal dichotomy boundary, not adjacent to it, and that its eastern half lies on old cratered terrain. If true, this would significantly affect the estimate of Alba volcanics volumes, and might also explain some of the observed asymmetries in the structure and the distribution of faults associated with this immense feature.

  12. In-drop capillary spooling of spider capture thread inspires hybrid fibers with mixed solid–liquid mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Elettro, Hervé; Neukirch, Sébastien; Vollrath, Fritz; Antkowiak, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    An essential element in the web-trap architecture, the capture silk spun by ecribellate orb spiders consists of glue droplets sitting astride a silk filament. Mechanically this thread presents a mixed solid–liquid behavior unknown to date. Under extension, capture silk behaves as a particularly stretchy solid, owing to its molecular nanosprings, but it totally switches behavior in compression to now become liquid-like: It shrinks with no apparent limit while exerting a constant tension. Here, we unravel the physics underpinning the unique behavior of this ”liquid wire” and demonstrate that its mechanical response originates in the shape-switching of the silk filament induced by buckling within the droplets. Learning from this natural example of geometry and mechanics, we manufactured programmable liquid wires that present previously unidentified pathways for the design of new hybrid solid–liquid materials. PMID:27185930

  13. Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît; Baronian, Vahan

    2014-02-18

    To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  14. Bladder Neck Rupture Following Perineal Bull Horn Injury: A Surgical Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Fernandez, B.; Diaz-Alferez, F.J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.A.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Velasquez-Saldarriaga, J.F.; Lorenzo-Gomez, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic-abdominal injuries caused by goring are serious lesions which require rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment in the context of a polytraumatized patient. The simultaneous rupture of both the bladder and the prostatic-membranous urethra occurs in 10%–29% of males with pelvic fractures but bladder neck injuries in adults are rarer. Unstable pelvic fractures, bilateral fractures of the ischiopubic branches (also referred to as fractures from falling astride) and the diastasis of the pubic symphysis are those that have the greatest likelihood of injuring both the posterior urethra and the bladder. We present a case of perineal bull horn injury with muscle laceration, bone fractures, scrotal avulsion and rupture of the bladder neck involving the right ureter which required two operations to be repaired. PMID:23066348

  15. Global ENA Imaging of Earth's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Pontus

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between singly charged ions of Earth's magnetosphere and its neutral exosphere and upper atmosphere gives rise to Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs). This has enabled several missions to remotely image the global injection dynamics of the ring current and plasma sheet, the outflow of ions from Earth's polar regions, and the location of the sub-solar magnetopause. In this presentation we review ENA observations by the Astrid, IMAGE, TWINS and IBEX missions. We focus on results from the IMAGE/HENA Camera including observations of proton and oxygen ion injections in to the ring current and their impact on the force-balance and ionospheric coupling in the inner magnetosphere. We report also on the status of inversion techniques for retrieving the ion spatial and pitch-angle distributions from ENA images. The presentation concludes with a discussion of future next steps in ENA instrumentation and analysis capabilities required to deliver the science as recommended by the Heliophysics Decadal Survey.

  16. Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2015-02-01

    The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants.

  17. Feshbach resonances in inner-shell photodetachment: The case of Te{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldsen, H.; Folkmann, F.; Jacobsen, T.S.; West, J.B.

    2004-05-01

    Bound 4d inner-shell excited states have been observed as 4d{sup 10}5s{sup 2}5p{sup 5}{yields}4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2}5p{sup 6} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2,3/2} Feshbach resonances in the photodetachment spectrum of Te{sup -} utilizing the merged-beam technique at the storage ring ASTRID. The strong binding of these core-excited levels, 2.95 and 1.47 eV respectively, is attributed to the extra stability of the full 5p shell. The role of the present data as a prototype spectrum for negative ions having an outer shell with a single vacancy in the initial state is discussed.

  18. Laser-cooled continuous ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A collaboration with a group in Arhus, Denmark, using their storage ring ASTRID, brought about better understanding of ion beams cooled to very low temperatures. The longitudinal Schottky fluctuation noise signals from a cooled beam were studied. The fluctuation signals are distorted by the effects of space charge as was observed in earlier measurements at other facilities. However, the signal also exhibits previously unobserved coherent components. The ions` velocity distribution, measured by a laser fluorescence technique suggests that the coherence is due to suppression of Landau damping. The observed behavior has important implications for the eventual attainment of a crystalline ion beam in a storage ring. A significant issue is the transverse temperature of the beam -- where no direct diagnostics are available and where molecular dynamics simulations raise interesting questions about equilibrium.

  19. Development and application of modeling tools for sodium fast reactor inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît; Baronian, Vahan

    2014-02-01

    To support the development of in-service inspection methods for the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project led by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), several tools that allow situations specific to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) to be modeled have been implemented in the CIVA software and exploited. This paper details specific applications and results obtained. For instance, a new specular reflection model allows the calculation of complex echoes from scattering structures inside the reactor vessel. EMAT transducer simulation models have been implemented to develop new transducers for sodium visualization and imaging. Guided wave analysis tools have been developed to permit defect detection in the vessel shell. Application examples and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  20. R and D program for French sodium fast reactor: On the description and detection of sodium boiling phenomena during sub-assembly blockages

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhaegen, M.; Paumel, K.; Seiler, J. M.; Tourin, A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Rodriguez, G.

    2011-07-01

    In support of the French ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) reactor program, which aims to demonstrate the industrial applicability of sodium fast reactors with an increased level of safety demonstration and availability compared to the past French sodium fast reactors, emphasis is placed on reactor instrumentation. It is in this framework that CEA studies continuous core monitoring to detect as early as possible the onset of sodium boiling. Such a detection system is of particular interest due to the rapid progress and the consequences of a Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB) at a subassembly inlet, where sodium boiling intervenes in an early phase. In this paper, the authors describe all the particularities which intervene during the different boiling stages and explore possibilities for their detection. (authors)

  1. In vessel detection of delayed neutron emitters from clad failure in sodium cooled nuclear reactors: An estimation of the signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.; Chapoutier, N.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Jadot, F.; Batail, R.; Verrier, D.

    2014-04-01

    The detection of clad failures is mandatory in sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors in compliance with the "clean sodium" concept. An in-vessel detection system, sensitive to delayed neutrons from fission products released into the primary coolant by failures, partially tested in SUPERPHENIX, is foreseen in current SFR projects in order to reduce significantly the delay before an alarm is issued. In this paper, an estimation of the signal received by such a system in case of a failure is derived, taking the French project ASTRID as a working example. This failure induced signal is compared to that of the contribution of the neutrons from the core itself. The sensitivity of the system is defined in terms of minimal detectable surface of clad failure. Possible solutions to improve this sensitivity are discussed, involving either the sensor itself, or the hydraulic design of the vessel in the early stage of the reactor conception.

  2. In-drop capillary spooling of spider capture thread inspires hybrid fibers with mixed solid–liquid mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elettro, Hervé; Neukirch, Sébastien; Vollrath, Fritz; Antkowiak, Arnaud

    2016-05-01

    An essential element in the web-trap architecture, the capture silk spun by ecribellate orb spiders consists of glue droplets sitting astride a silk filament. Mechanically this thread presents a mixed solid–liquid behavior unknown to date. Under extension, capture silk behaves as a particularly stretchy solid, owing to its molecular nanosprings, but it totally switches behavior in compression to now become liquid-like: It shrinks with no apparent limit while exerting a constant tension. Here, we unravel the physics underpinning the unique behavior of this ”liquid wire” and demonstrate that its mechanical response originates in the shape-switching of the silk filament induced by buckling within the droplets. Learning from this natural example of geometry and mechanics, we manufactured programmable liquid wires that present previously unidentified pathways for the design of new hybrid solid–liquid materials.

  3. In-drop capillary spooling of spider capture thread inspires hybrid fibers with mixed solid-liquid mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elettro, Hervé; Neukirch, Sébastien; Vollrath, Fritz; Antkowiak, Arnaud

    2016-05-01

    An essential element in the web-trap architecture, the capture silk spun by ecribellate orb spiders consists of glue droplets sitting astride a silk filament. Mechanically this thread presents a mixed solid-liquid behavior unknown to date. Under extension, capture silk behaves as a particularly stretchy solid, owing to its molecular nanosprings, but it totally switches behavior in compression to now become liquid-like: It shrinks with no apparent limit while exerting a constant tension. Here, we unravel the physics underpinning the unique behavior of this ”liquid wire” and demonstrate that its mechanical response originates in the shape-switching of the silk filament induced by buckling within the droplets. Learning from this natural example of geometry and mechanics, we manufactured programmable liquid wires that present previously unidentified pathways for the design of new hybrid solid-liquid materials.

  4. Analysis of Nickel Based Hardfacing Materials Manufactured by Laser Cladding for Sodium Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, P.; Blanc, C.; Demirci, I.; Dal, M.; Malot, T.; Maskrot, H.

    For improving the operational capacity, the maintenance and the decommissioning of the future French Sodium Fast Reactor ASTRID which is under study, it is asked to find or develop a cobalt free hardfacing alloy and the associated manufacturing process that will give satisfying wear performances. This article presents recent results obtained on some selected nickel-based hardfacing alloys manufactured by laser cladding, particularly on Tribaloy 700 alloy. A process parameter search is made and associated the microstructural analysis of the resulting clads. A particular attention is made on the solidification of the main precipitates (chromium carbides, boron carbides, Laves phases,…) that will mainly contribute to the wear properties of the material. Finally, the wear resistance of some samples is evaluated in simple wear conditions evidencing promising results on tribology behavior of Tribaloy 700.

  5. Disgusting bodies, disgusting religion: the biology of Tantra.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    Hard-core Tantric practice is disgusting, a point several scholars make. Scholarly interpretations of Tantric disgustingness, however, tend to follow the lead of Mary Douglas in suggesting that what disgusts is ultimately a reflection of social–historical concerns with borders and boundaries. Such interpretations fail to take seriously the Tantric consumption of feces, menstrual blood, urine, semen, and phlegm. Likewise, they fail to take seriously the particular sexual act involved, that is, intercourse with a menstruating, riding-astride, out-of-caste, mother-substitute. Consulting contemporary disgust research, I suggest that hard-core Tantra is literally disgusting because it is literally maladaptive. Disgust was naturally selected to deter the ingestion of bio-toxic pathogens as well as the practice of suboptimal sexual intercourse. Disgust maintains the species' viability. Tantra confounds disgust and thus disgusts. Tantra engages antibiological behaviors in its characteristically religious war against the body. As a disgusting religion, Tantra may be a perfected religion.

  6. Methodology and tools for source term assessment in case of emergency.

    PubMed

    Herviou, Karine; Calmtorp, Christer

    2004-01-01

    By looking at the power plant state of fission product barriers and critical safety systems, the magnitude of a potential radioactive release could be predicted in a timely manner to allow emergency response to be executed even before the occurrence of a release. This is the perspective in which the development of ASTRID methodology and tool is performed. The methodology maps out, for several reactor types as well as reactor containments, relevant process parameters and indicators, what and how to calculate and a structured way to summarise and conclude on potential source term and likely time projections. A computer tool is proposed to support the methodology, to suite different user situations, both on-site and off-site as well as size of staff, priority and work order. The output from such an assessment is intended to, first, give bases for decisions on necessary urgent protective actions pre-release, and, second, an input for the sophisticated dispersion calculation codes. PMID:15238656

  7. Observations of A Young Agulhas Ring, During Mare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veldhoven, A. K.; van Aken, H. M.; Veth, C.

    The MARE (Mixing of Agulhas Rings Experiment) project studies the effects of inter- ocean exchange between the Indian and Atlantic Ocean, via Agulhas rings, on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This presentation is about the field pro- gramme of MARE which concentrates on the study of the decay and modification of a single Agulhas ring named Astrid, formed in January 2000. The ring was first iden- tified by an analysis of satellite altimetry data. During a detailed survey of this two months old ring in March 2000 it appeared that the ring had a significant barotropic component, additional to the baroclinic flow around its warm centre. The influence of the present topography, the Agulhas Ridge, on this ring may therefore be important. The observed fine-structure near its boundary suggested that exchange of water with its surroundings already had started. During this presentation some highlights of the results will be presented.

  8. Does Aponomma varanensis (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) occur on the Taiwanese mainland?

    PubMed

    Robbins, R G

    1996-08-01

    On 15 July 1976, teams from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, Taipei, Taiwan, made 3 collections of ticks from beneath the dorsal scales of the Taiwan stink snake, Elaphe carinata, at Makung in the Penghu Islands, which lie astride the Tropic of Cancer in the Taiwan Strait between southern mainland China and Taiwan proper. These ticks were later determined to be Aponomma varanensis (Supino, 1897), but this discovery was never published, and no member of the genus Aponomma has heretofore been reported from Taiwan or any of its outlying islets. Because suitable hosts, including E. carinata, are abundant on Taiwan and because A. varanensis is widely distributed in tropical Asia, it is argued that this or a related species of Aponomma will one day be found on the Taiwanese mainland.

  9. Coronal disturbances and their terrestrial effects /Tutorial Lecture/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is undertaken of recent approaches to the prediction of the interplanetary consequences of coronal disturbances, with attention to the relationships of shocks and energetic particles to coronal transients, of proton events to gamma-ray and microwave bursts, of geomagnetic storms to filament eruptions, and of solar wind increases to the flare site magnetic field direction. A discussion is given concerning the novel phenomenon of transient coronal holes, which appear astride the long decay enhancements of 2-50 A X-ray emission following H-alpha filament eruptions. These voids in the corona are similar to long-lived coronal holes, which are the sources of high speed solar wind streams. The transient coronal holes may also be associated with transient solar wind speed increases.

  10. Venus: Preliminary topographic and surface imaging results from the Pioneer orbiter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Masursky, H.; Eliason, E.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Three large Venus surface features, identified previously in images obtained from Earth-based radar observations, are shown by the Pioneer Venus radar mapper to be elevateds to 10 kilometers above the surrounding terrain. Two of these features, one bright and the other dark, lie adjacent to each other astride the 65??N parallel between longitudes 310??E and 10??E. The combined region forms a huge tectonically uplifted plateau, surmounted by radar-bright ridges that may have either a volcanic or tectonic origin. The third feature, located at 30??N, 283??E, is radar-bright and may consist of volcanic material extruded along a fault zone. A first radar-scattering image, compiled from data obtained by the mapper in its imaging mode, shows a region north of the equator; several circular depressions seen in this area may result from meteoritic impact.

  11. In-drop capillary spooling of spider capture thread inspires hybrid fibers with mixed solid-liquid mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Elettro, Hervé; Neukirch, Sébastien; Vollrath, Fritz; Antkowiak, Arnaud

    2016-05-31

    An essential element in the web-trap architecture, the capture silk spun by ecribellate orb spiders consists of glue droplets sitting astride a silk filament. Mechanically this thread presents a mixed solid-liquid behavior unknown to date. Under extension, capture silk behaves as a particularly stretchy solid, owing to its molecular nanosprings, but it totally switches behavior in compression to now become liquid-like: It shrinks with no apparent limit while exerting a constant tension. Here, we unravel the physics underpinning the unique behavior of this "liquid wire" and demonstrate that its mechanical response originates in the shape-switching of the silk filament induced by buckling within the droplets. Learning from this natural example of geometry and mechanics, we manufactured programmable liquid wires that present previously unidentified pathways for the design of new hybrid solid-liquid materials.

  12. Neogene basins of the northern Rio Grande rift: Partitioning and asymmetry inherited from Laramide and older uplifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Three asymmetric Neogene basins in the northern Rio Grande rift of New Mexico and Colorado - the San Luis basin, the upper Arkansas River graben, and the Blue River graben - are tilted toward large flanking normal faults and lie astride the similarly asymmetric Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary (Laramide) San Juan-San Luis, Sawatch, and Front Range-Gore Range uplifts, respectively. The steep, thrust-faulted side of each uplift is on the same side as the down-rotated side of each of the Neogene basins. In addition, the direction of stratal tilt changes northward across the Villa Grove accommodation zone from east in the San Luis basin to west in the upper Arkansas River graben. This accommodation zone coincides approximately with the northward change from the east-directed San Juan-San Luis uplift to the west-directed Sawatch uplift. These observations, supported by seismic-reflection studies across the San Luis basin and studies of several other superimposed pairs of rift basins and Laramide uplifts, suggest that the basin-bounding normal faults are listric and merge at depth with the older thrusts, which are also listric and root into the crust at about 15-16 km. The Blue River graben is complicated by lack of basin fill and a thrust history along the west side of the Gore Range that is at least as old as late Paleozoic. Nonetheless, the Neogene valley is demonstrably tilted west and lies astride an overall west-directed thrust system, similar to other thrust-and-basin relationships in the northern Rio Grande rift.

  13. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  14. On the vW leptokurtic asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, Valerio; Nesvorny, David; Cassia Domingos, Rita; Aljbaae, Safwan; Espinoza Huaman, Mariela

    2016-10-01

    vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field v W is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, i.e., they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. This may be caused by the fact that i) the family did not alter significantly its originally leptokurtic inclination distribution since its formation, as it seems to be the case for the Koronis family or ii) some of the family members interacted with a strong node secular resonances, as it is the case for the Astrid (interaction with the s-sC resonance with Ceres) and Gallia (interaction with the s-sV resonance with Vesta) families.In this work, we investigate the families that were affected by strong secular resonances with massive asteroids. By obtaining the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt we were able to i) assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, ii) obtain independent constraints on the family ages, and iii) for the case of the Astrid family set limitations on values of key parameters of the Yarkovsky force such as the surface thermal conductivity and the mean density of members. Overall, the use of the γ2(vW) parameter could provide useful hints on the original ejection velocity field and dynamical evolution of leptokurtic vW asteroid families.

  15. Presentation of FP7 matter project: general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbe, T.; Marie, S.; Agostini, Pietro; Fazio, Concetta; Gavrilov, Serguei

    2012-07-01

    The 2010-2012 implementation plan of the European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII), prepared in the frame of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP), establishes a very tight time schedule for the start of construction of the European Gen IV prototypes; namely the construction of the LFR ETPP (European Technology Pilot Plant) MYRRHA will start in 2014 and that of the SFR Prototype ASTRID will start in 2017. The GEN IV reactors pose new challenges to the designers and scientists in terms of higher operating temperature, higher fuel burn-up, and in some cases more corrosive environment with respect to the present technologies and which impacts the materials performance. In this frame, the MATTER (Materials Testing and Rules) Project starts well targeted R and D activities to perform careful materials studies in GEN IV operational conditions and to find out criteria for the correct use of these materials in relevant reactor applications. Aim of the MATTER Project (that involved 27 partners and will end in 2015) is to complement the materials researches, in the frame of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) guidelines, with the implementation of pre-normative rules. The MATTER Project is divided in 3 technical Domains (called DM): DM1 - Development of test and evaluation guidelines for structural materials: to develop/establish best practice guidelines for testing and evaluation procedures, which are aimed to screen and characterize nuclear materials for innovative nuclear systems. DM2 - Pre-normative R and D for Codes and Standards: Pre-normative activities are performed, comprehensive of experiments, to revise and update the design rules (with an EU level consensus) in order to answer to some short term needs of the two projects ASTRID and MYRRHA with respect to the design and the construction of structural components. DM3 - Joint Program Scheme, implementation and Priorities: to optimise the effectiveness and efficiency of

  16. High resolution dating of moraines on Kodiak Island, Alaska links Atlantic and North Pacific climatic changes during the late glacial

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.H. . Alaska Quaternary Center)

    1992-01-01

    Much less is known about the paleoclimate and paleoceanography of the North Pacific than the North Atlantic despite the North Pacific's important role in the global ocean-climate system. Kodiak Island lies in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska astride the eastern end of the Aleutian Low. On southwestern Kodiak Island, coastal bluffs section a series of moraines, kettle ponds, and bogs formed between 15 and 9 ka BP. Distinctive tephras from volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula provide time-lines within the stratigraphy. Deformation events recorded in sediment stacks from basins within glaciotectonic landforms allows precise dating of glacial events. An ice cap occupied the Kodiak archipelago during the last glaciation. Three glacial advances of the southwestern margin of this ice cap occurred after 15 ka BP. At 13.4 ka, piedmont ice lobes formed large push moraines extending into Shelikof Strait during the Low Cape Advance. The less-extensive Tundra Advance culminated between 12 and 11.7 ka BP followed by glacier retreat then readvance to form the prominent Olga Moraine system between 11 and 10 ka BP. The timing of the Tundra and Olga Advances correlates closely with that of the Older and Younger Dryas cold episodes in northwestern Europe suggesting that these climatic oscillations were synchronous throughout the northern hemisphere.

  17. Techniques for hazard analysis and their use at CERN.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, C; Schönbacher, H

    2001-01-01

    CERN, The European Organisation for Nuclear Research is situated near Geneva and has its accelerators and experimental facilities astride the Swiss and French frontiers attracting physicists from all over the world to this unique laboratory. The main accelerator is situated in a 27 km underground ring and the experiments take place in huge underground caverns in order to detect the fragments resulting from the collision of subatomic particles at speeds approaching that of light. These detectors contain many hundreds of tons of flammable materials, mainly plastics in cables and structural components, flammable gases in the detectors themselves, and cryogenic fluids such as helium and argon. The experiments consume high amounts of electrical power, thus the dangers involved have necessitated the use of analytical techniques to identify the hazards and quantify the risks to personnel and the infrastructure. The techniques described in the paper have been developed in the process industries where they have been to be of great value. They have been successfully applied to CERN industrial and experimental installations and, in some cases, have been instrumental in changing the philosophy of the experimentalists and their detectors.

  18. [The urologic work of Doctor Alejandro Settier (1858-1915). (II). The consolidation of the urology specialty in Spain].

    PubMed

    Maganto Pavón, E

    1996-06-01

    By the end of the 19th Century, and after the creation in 1896 of the French Society of Urology, the specialty on genitourinary organs disorders began to take shape in Spain, and its particular idiosyncrasy, recognized both within the hospital and private practices, becomes irreversible. Aside political support, certain writings published astride the last century and this one, will prove to be decisive to consolidate the urological specialty in our country. Such is the case with those written by Rafael Mollá y Rodrigo and Angel Pulido Martin, where the creation of the new discipline is postulated and defended, linking the related pathologies, outlining their competence and assembling the surgical procedures to be followed in order to resolve them. The Academies of Medicine and Surgery, in Madrid, also played a significant role in this task of promotion and diffusion of these specialties, in particular Urology; it is quite likely that the seed of new vocations would have germinated during their institutional meetings. At any rate, it is easy to demonstrate documentally how, since mid 19th Century, the nation's capital was witness of the attention given to the urinary tract which began to occupy a preferential position in the work of the most renowned general surgeons from the School of Madrid, such as Diego de Argumosa, Alejandro San Martin, Federico Rubio y Gali and Jesus Creus y Mansó.

  19. A Mars Pathfinder landing on a recently drained ephemeral sea: Cerberus Plains, 6 deg N, 188 deg W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1994-01-01

    Along a 500 km-wide belt extending between 202 deg and 180 deg W and lying astride the martian equator, moderately low-albedo, uncratered smooth plains exhibit low thermal inertia and potentially favorable conditions for the preservation of near-surface ice. The Cerberus Plains occupy a topographic trough as much as 2 km below the planetary datum, and the denser atmosphere at these altitudes would also favor long residence times for near-surface ice once emplaced. The plains have previously been interpreted as the result of young (late Amazonian) low viscosity lava flows or similarly youthful fluvial deposition. However, the plains are also included in maps of possibly extensive martian paleoseas or paleolakes. Ice emplaced as such seas dissipated could still be preserved under thin (a few tens of centimeters) sedimentary cover. In any case, and if a sea once existed, aqueous-born interstitial cementation, probably including hydrated iron oxides and sulfate minerals, would have been favored and is now susceptible to investigation by the Pathfinder alpha proton x-ray spectrometer and multispectral imager.

  20. Optimization of a heterogeneous fast breeder reactor core with improved behavior during unprotected transients

    SciTech Connect

    Poumerouly, S.; Schmitt, D.; Massara, S.; Maliverney, B.

    2012-07-01

    Innovative Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) are currently being investigated by CEA, AREVA and EDF in the framework of a joint French collaboration, and the construction of a GEN IV prototype, ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technical Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), is scheduled in the years 2020. Significant improvements are expected so as to improve the reactor safety: the goal is to achieve a robust safety demonstration of the mastering of the consequences of a Core Disruptive Accident (CDA), whether by means of prevention or mitigation features. In this framework, an innovative design was proposed by CEA in 2010. It aims at strongly reducing the sodium void effect, thereby improving the core behavior during unprotected loss of coolant transients. This design is strongly heterogeneous and includes, amongst others, a fertile plate, a sodium plenum associated with a B{sub 4}C upper blanket and a stepwise modulation of the fissile height of the core (onwards referred to as the 'diabolo shape'). In this paper, studies which were entirely carried out at EDF are presented: the full potential of this heterogeneous concept is thoroughly investigated using the SDDS methodology. (authors)

  1. Anomalous folds associated with the east-central part of the Garlock Fault, southeast California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The east-central part of the left-lateral Garlock Fault, in southeast California, is associated with three broad folds that trend and plunge northeast. The folds, which lie north, south, and astride the fault, postdate deposition of alluvial gravels that at one time formed a continuous northwest-sloping fan. Corrected tilting rates vary from about 2.5?? to 4.7??/m.y.; the total shortening of about 7.5 m developed at a minimum rate of 12.5 m/m.y. The orientations of these folds imply northwest-southeast compression, which is anomalous when viewed in the context of regional tectonics. These anomalous features are interpreted as evidence that episodes of NW-SE compression along the Garlock Fault do occur, and although oriented about 90?? from the average of conventional - and presently observed - compression directions, they have occurred during much (most?) of the Cenozoic Era, including the past 0.6 m.y. -from Author

  2. Techniques for hazard analysis and their use at CERN.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, C; Schönbacher, H

    2001-01-01

    CERN, The European Organisation for Nuclear Research is situated near Geneva and has its accelerators and experimental facilities astride the Swiss and French frontiers attracting physicists from all over the world to this unique laboratory. The main accelerator is situated in a 27 km underground ring and the experiments take place in huge underground caverns in order to detect the fragments resulting from the collision of subatomic particles at speeds approaching that of light. These detectors contain many hundreds of tons of flammable materials, mainly plastics in cables and structural components, flammable gases in the detectors themselves, and cryogenic fluids such as helium and argon. The experiments consume high amounts of electrical power, thus the dangers involved have necessitated the use of analytical techniques to identify the hazards and quantify the risks to personnel and the infrastructure. The techniques described in the paper have been developed in the process industries where they have been to be of great value. They have been successfully applied to CERN industrial and experimental installations and, in some cases, have been instrumental in changing the philosophy of the experimentalists and their detectors. PMID:11840707

  3. Potential release of aluminum and other metals by food-grade aluminum foil used for skin allograft cryo preservation.

    PubMed

    Verbeken, Gilbert; Schoeters, Dirck; Verween, Gunther; De Vos, Daniel; Pascual, Bruno; De Corte, Peter; Geukens, Kris; De Coninck, Arlette; Roseeuw, Diane; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2011-08-01

    Since 1991, the skin bank of the Queen Astrid Military Hospital uses food-grade aluminum foil as a primary support for storing cryo preserved human donor skin (511 donors). The possible release of heavy metals into the cryo preservation media (30% (v/v) glycerol in physiological water) and the possible impact this release could have on the quality of the cryo preserved donor skin was evaluated. Aluminum was the principal detection target. Possible contaminants of the aluminum foil as such (arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead) were also investigated. The evaluation was set up after a Belgian Competent Authority inspection remark. Aluminum was detected at a concentration of 1.4 mg/l, arsenic and lead were not detected, while cadmium and chromium were detected in trace element quantities. An histological analysis revealed no differences between cryo preserved and fresh donor skin. No adverse reactions in patients, related to the presence of aluminum or heavy metal traces, were reported since the introduction of the cryo preserved donor skin in our burn wound centre.

  4. Modelling aftershock migration and afterslip of the San Juan Bautista, California, earthquake of October 3, 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The San Juan Bautista earthquake of October 3, 1972 (ML = 4.8), located along the San Andreas fault in central California, initiated an aftershock sequence characterized by a subtle, but perceptible, tendency for aftershocks to spread to the northwest and southeast along the fault zone. The apparent dimension of the aftershock zone along strike increased from about 7-10 km within a few days of the earthquake, to about 20 km eight months later. In addition, the mainshock initiated a period of accelerated fault creep, which was observed at 2 creep meters situated astride the trace of the San Andreas fault within about 15 km of the epicenter of the mainshock. The creep rate gradually returned to the preearthquake rate after about 3 yrs. Both the spreading of the aftershocks and the rapid surface creep are interpreted as reflecting a period of rapid creep in the fault zone representing the readjustment of stress and displacement following the failure of a "stuck" patch or asperity during the San Juan Bautista earthquake. Numerical calculations suggest that the behavior of the fault zone is consistent with that of a material characterized by a viscosity of about 3.6??1014 P, although the real rheology is likely to be more complicated. In this model, the mainshock represents the failure of an asperity that slips only during earthquakes. Aftershocks represent the failure of second-order asperities which are dragged along by the creeping fault zone. ?? 1987.

  5. Surface mount component jig

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  6. Laser-cooled bunched ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    In collaboration with the Arhus group, the laser cooling of a beam bunched by an rf electrode was investigated at the ASTRID storage ring. A single laser is used for unidirectional cooling, since the longitudinal velocity of the beam will undergo {open_quotes}synchrotron oscillations{close_quotes} and the ions are trapped in velocity space. As the cooling proceeds the velocity spread of the beam, as well as the bunch length is measured. The bunch length decreases to the point where it is limited only by the Coulomb repulsion between ions. The measured length is slightly (20-30%) smaller than the calculated limit for a cold beam. This may be the accuracy of the measurement, or may indicate that the beam still has a large transverse temperature so that the longitudinal repulsion is less than would be expected from an absolutely cold beam. Simulations suggest that the coupling between transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom is strong -- but this issue will have to be resolved by further measurements.

  7. Screening-Constant-by-Unit-Nuclear-Charge method investigations of high lying ({sup 1}D{sub 2},{sup 1}S{sub 0}) ns, nd Rydberg series in the photoionization spectra of the halogen-like ion Kr{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Sakho, I.

    2014-01-15

    Energy positions and quantum defects of the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4} ({sup 1}D{sub 2},{sup 1}S{sub 0}) ns, nd Rydberg series originating from the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 52}P{sub 3/2}{sup ∘} ground state and from the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 52}P{sub 1/2}{sup ∘} metastable state of Kr{sup +} are reported. Calculations are performed using the Screening Constant by Unit Nuclear Charge (SCUNC) method. The results obtained are in suitable agreement with recent experimental data from the combined ASTRID merged-beam set up and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance device (Bizau et al., 2011), ALS measurements (Hinojosa et al., 2012), and multi-channel R-matrix eigenphase derivative calculations (McLaughlin and Balance, 2012). In addition, analysis of the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}({sup 1}D{sub 2})nd and the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 4}({sup 1}S{sub 0})nd resonances is given via the SCUNC procedure. The excellent results obtained from our work point out that the SCUNC formalism may be used to confirm the results of the analysis from the standard quantum-defect expansion formulas. Eventual errors occurring in the analysis can then be automatically detected and corrected via the SCUNC procedure.

  8. Structure of the Pliocene Camp dels Ninots maar-diatreme (Catalan Volcanic Zone, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oms, O.; Bolós, X.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Martí, J.; Casas, A.; Lovera, R.; Himi, M.; Gómez de Soler, B.; Campeny Vall-Llosera, G.; Pedrazzi, D.; Agustí, J.

    2015-11-01

    Maar volcanoes expose shallower or deeper levels of their internal structure as a function of the degree of erosion. In El Camp dels Ninots maar-diatreme (Catalan Volcanic Zone, Spain), the tephra ring has been largely eroded, and the remaining volcanic deposits infilling the diatreme are hidden under a lacustrine sedimentary infill of the crater. The volcano shows hardly any exposure, so its study needs the application of direct (e.g., boreholes) and indirect (shallow geophysics) subsurface exploration techniques. Additionally, this maar-diatreme was built astride two different substrates (i.e., mixed setting) as a result of its location in a normal fault separating Neogene sediments from Paleozoic granites. In order to characterize the internal structure and post-eruption stratigraphy of the maar-diatreme, we did geological studies (mapping, continuous core logging, and description of the tephra ring outcrops) and near-surface geophysics, including nine transects of electric resistivity tomography and a gravity survey. Results show that the deeper part of the diatreme is excavated into granites and is relatively steep and symmetrical. The uppermost diatreme is asymmetrical because of mechanical contrast between granites and Pliocene sands. The maar crater contained a lake permanently isolated from the surrounding relief and was deep enough to host anoxic bottom waters while its margins had shallower waters. These lake conditions preserved the remarkable Pliocene fossil record found in the lacustrine sediments.

  9. Experimental phage therapy of burn wound infection: difficult first steps

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Thomas; Verbeken, Gilbert; Vos, Daniel De; Merabishvili, Maya; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Lavigne, Rob; Jennes, Serge; Zizi, Martin; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem and the antibiotics pipeline is running dry. Bacteriophages (phages) may offer an ‘innovative’ means of infection treatment, which can be combined or alternated with antibiotic therapy and may enhance our abilities to treat bacterial infections successfully. Today, in the Queen Astrid Military Hospital, phage therapy is increasingly considered as part of a salvage therapy for patients in therapeutic dead end, particularly those with multidrug resistant infections. We describe the application of a well-defined and quality controlled phage cocktail, active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, on colonized burn wounds within a modest clinical trial (nine patients, 10 applications), which was approved by a leading Belgian Medical Ethical Committee. No adverse events, clinical abnormalities or changes in laboratory test results that could be related to the application of phages were observed. Unfortunately, this very prudent ‘clinical trial’ did not allow for an adequate evaluation of the efficacy of the phage cocktail. Nevertheless, this first ‘baby step’ revealed several pitfalls and lessons for future experimental phage therapy and helped overcome the psychological hurdles that existed to the use of viruses in the treatment of patients in our burn unit. PMID:25356373

  10. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  11. Microwave-driven plasmas in Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. L.; Leroy, O.; Boisse-Laporte, C.; Leprince, P.; Debord, B.; Gerome, F.; Jamier, R.; Benabid, F.

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports on a novel solution to ignite and maintain micro-plasmas in gas-filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fibres (HC-PCFs), using CW microwave excitation (2.45 GHz). The original concept is based on a surfatron, generating argon micro-plasmas of few centimetres in length within a 100 μm core-diameter Kagome HC-PCF, at ~1 mbar on-gap gas-pressure using low powers (< 50 W). Diagnostics of the coupled power evidence high ionization degrees (~10-2) , for moderate gas temperatures (~1300 K at the centre of the fibre, estimated by OES), with no damage to the host structure. This counter intuitive result is studied using a 1D-radial fluid model that describes the charged particle and the electron energy transport, the electromagnetic excitation and the gas heating. We analyze the modification of the plasma and the gas heating mechanisms with changes in the work conditions (core diameter, pressure and electron density). Work supported by ANR and DGA (ASTRID-2011-UVfactor) and by FCT (Pest-OE/SADG/LA0010/2011).

  12. Antarctic slush-ice algal accumulation not quantified through conventional satellite imagery: Beware the ice of March

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieser, J. L.; Curran, M. A. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Davidson, A. T.; Doust, S. J.; Fraser, A. D.; Galton-Fenzi, B. K.; Massom, R. A.; Meiners, K. M.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Reid, P. A.; Strutton, P. G.; Vance, T. R.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Westwood, K. J.; Wright, S. W.

    2015-11-01

    Our current knowledge of broad-scale patterns of primary production in the Southern Ocean is derived from satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the open ocean, typically in spring-summer. Here, we provide evidence that large-scale intra-ice phytoplankton surface aggregation occur off the coast of Antarctica during austral autumn, and that these "blooms" are largely undetected in satellite ocean-colour time series (which mask the ice-covered ocean). We present an analysis of (i) true-colour (visible) satellite imagery in combination with (ii) conventional ocean-colour data, and (iii) direct sampling from a research vessel, to identify and characterise a large-scale intra-ice algal occurrence off the coast of East Antarctica in early autumn (March) 2012. We also present evidence of these autumn "blooms" in other regions (for example, Princess Astrid Coast in 2012) and other years (for example, Terra Nova Bay in 2015) implying regular and widespread occurrence of these phenomena. The occurrence of such undetected algal accumulations implies that the magnitude of primary production in the Southern Ocean is currently underestimated.

  13. Disgusting bodies, disgusting religion: the biology of Tantra.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    Hard-core Tantric practice is disgusting, a point several scholars make. Scholarly interpretations of Tantric disgustingness, however, tend to follow the lead of Mary Douglas in suggesting that what disgusts is ultimately a reflection of social–historical concerns with borders and boundaries. Such interpretations fail to take seriously the Tantric consumption of feces, menstrual blood, urine, semen, and phlegm. Likewise, they fail to take seriously the particular sexual act involved, that is, intercourse with a menstruating, riding-astride, out-of-caste, mother-substitute. Consulting contemporary disgust research, I suggest that hard-core Tantra is literally disgusting because it is literally maladaptive. Disgust was naturally selected to deter the ingestion of bio-toxic pathogens as well as the practice of suboptimal sexual intercourse. Disgust maintains the species' viability. Tantra confounds disgust and thus disgusts. Tantra engages antibiological behaviors in its characteristically religious war against the body. As a disgusting religion, Tantra may be a perfected religion. PMID:22180926

  14. Contributions of cretaceus quiet zone natural remanent magnetization to Magsat anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, Lawrence G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Roark, James H.; Thomas, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The Magsat magnetic anomalies over the Southwest Indian Ocean are modeled using a combination of induced plus viscous remanent magnetization (IM/VRM) and natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Two broad, roughly parallel, SW to NE trending triple-peaked positive anomalies dominate the region, one lying south of Africa and the other north of Antarctica. Although these anomaly peaks generally correspond with the Agulhas Plateau/Maud Rise, Mozambique Plateau/Astrid Ridge, and Madagascar Ridge/Conrad Rise conjugate pairs, the IM/VRM contribution from structural characteristics (i.e., crustal thickness) accounts for only about 20% of the anomaly amplitudes. A spatially variable but observationally constrained NRM contribution in Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) crust is required to account for the location, shape, and amplitude contrast of these anomalies. Many crustal features in the Southwest Indian Ocean near Antarctica have little geophysical data to constrain their structure but do hagve tectonic conjugates near Africa for which much more geophysical data are generally available. Using geophysical and geological constraints from one member to model the magnetization structure of its conjugate reproduces the observed Magsat reduced-to-pole anomalies over both structures very well. This suggests that no significant alteration in their magnetization structure has occurred since the features split. Models of these conjugate structures show that IM/VRM reproduces the Magsat anomalies associated with non-KQZ crust but that both IM/VRM and a dominant NRM component are required to explain the anomalies associated with KQZ crust.

  15. Innovative use of an automated horse walker when breaking in young horses.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    There is an inherent element of risk associated with "backing" and riding the previously unbroken horse. If training proceeds too quickly, conflict behaviors may result from the simultaneous application of too many cues. Automated horse walkers (AHW) facilitate the exercising of several horses concurrently at walk or trot for warm-up, cool-down, fitness programs, and rehabilitation purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate if backing the horse within the AHW was an appropriate training method. Ten horses (3-year-olds) took part in this study. They began training within the AHW with a simple bridle and protective boots. A handler subsequently long-reined the horses within the AHW when they wore rollers, side reins, and a saddle. When considered appropriate, the handler went from jumping beside the horse to lying over the saddle to sitting astride the horse within the AHW. The horses habituated to this innovative approach quickly without evidence of conflict behavior. The handler rode the horses from the AHW after approximately 4 riding episodes of this innovative training system.

  16. The True Cusp, a Unique Signature at Low- and Mid-Altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, W. R.; Winningham, J. D.; Parks, G. K.

    2001-12-01

    Recent observations have been made at low- and mid-altitudes of highly localized "true cusp" crossings made by the current DMSP F-series spacecraft and Cluster-II. These signatures are remarkably similar to the low-altitude measurements of DE-2, Astrid-2, UARS, and DMSP F-10 reported previously in Keith et. al. (2001). These new observations support the idea of a unique "true" or magnetic cusp that is a mapping of the magnetopause current layer to low altitudes. This is consistent with a narrow, wedge-shaped cusp that follows from antiparallel merging (Crooker, 1988). Mid- and exterior cusp data from the set of Cluster-II spacecraft show that this feature remains coherent out to several Re, greatly expanding the region available for the study of these signatures. Keith, W. R., J. D. Winningham and O. Norberg, A New, Unique Signature of the True Cusp, Ann. Geophys., V. 19, 611, June, 2001. Crooker, N. U., Mapping the Merging Potential From the Magnetopause to the Ionosphere Through the Dayside Cusp, J. Geophys. Res., V. 93, 7,338, 1988. >http://cluster.space.swri.edu/~waynek/agu.html

  17. RADIS: analysis of RAD-seq data for interspecific phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Cruaud, Astrid; Gautier, Mathieu; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Gouzy, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to make the processing of RAD-seq data easier and allow rapid and automated exploration of parameters/data for phylogenetic inference, we introduce the perl pipeline RADIS. Users of RADIS can let their raw Illumina data be processed up to phylogenetic tree inference, or stop (and restart) the process at some point. Different values for key parameters can be explored in a single analysis (e.g. loci building, sample/loci selection), making possible a thorough exploration of data. RADIS relies on Stacks for demultiplexing of data, removing PCR duplicates and building individual and catalog loci. Scripts have been specifically written for trimming of reads and loci/sample selection. Finally, RAxML is used for phylogenetic inferences, though other software may be utilized. Availability and implementation: RADIS is written in perl, designed to run on Linux and Unix platforms. RADIS and its manual are freely available from http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/CBGP/software/RADIS/. Contact: astrid.cruaud@supagro.inra.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27312412

  18. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.A. ); Golonka, J. ); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. )

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  19. [Transylvanian refugees and the plague in 1708-1709].

    PubMed

    Kis, D

    1993-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming military power of the Habsburg forces Transylvanian sympathizers fled twice to Hungary during the Rákóczi uprising (1704-1711): first in 1704-1706 and then in 1707-1711. In the autumn of 1707 they numbered as much as ten thousand people, and according to the decrees of the diet at Kisvárda, they were settled down in smaller units in around Szabolcs, Szatmár, Bereg, Ung, Ugocsa and Máramaros counties. Though always short of money, the leaders of the ukprising created a system that satisfied the basic needs of these refugees. By the end of the rebellion, nevertheless, as the territory controlled by Rákóczi's armies decreased considerably, the refugees were forced to move on and on, which certainly led to a corruption of their food supplies, accommodation and hygienic conditions. The worst among all came with the plague. The author examines the effects of the epidemic and the counter-measures taken by the individual and the authorities of the uprising. Kis has consulted the main Hungarian books of that age that referred to black death (among others Anna Zay's Herbarium [1719], Samuel Köleséri's Pestis Daicae, György Komáromi Csipkés's Pestis pestise, Ferenc Pápai Páriz's Pax Corporis and A [estos betegség etc., and Máté Tsanaki's A Döghalálról, etc.), as well as many archival papers (the correspondence of Count Sándor Károlyi with his wife Krisztina Barkóczy, thos of General Bercsényi to his wife and Prince Rákóczi, and some doctors' reports, etc.). His main source, however, is Zsigmond Szaniszló's diary. Szaniszló was a former fobiró (chief-sheriff) of the Transsylvanian Torda city, an Anti-Trinitarian stronghold, and remained a leader of his people during the emigration. According to his notes, which the author has compared with the data given by the others, there were hardly any measures taken against plague in this community. Although Szaniszló gives detailed descriptions about the everyday life of the

  20. [Transylvanian refugees and the plague in 1708-1709].

    PubMed

    Kis, D

    1993-01-01

    Owing to the overwhelming military power of the Habsburg forces Transylvanian sympathizers fled twice to Hungary during the Rákóczi uprising (1704-1711): first in 1704-1706 and then in 1707-1711. In the autumn of 1707 they numbered as much as ten thousand people, and according to the decrees of the diet at Kisvárda, they were settled down in smaller units in around Szabolcs, Szatmár, Bereg, Ung, Ugocsa and Máramaros counties. Though always short of money, the leaders of the ukprising created a system that satisfied the basic needs of these refugees. By the end of the rebellion, nevertheless, as the territory controlled by Rákóczi's armies decreased considerably, the refugees were forced to move on and on, which certainly led to a corruption of their food supplies, accommodation and hygienic conditions. The worst among all came with the plague. The author examines the effects of the epidemic and the counter-measures taken by the individual and the authorities of the uprising. Kis has consulted the main Hungarian books of that age that referred to black death (among others Anna Zay's Herbarium [1719], Samuel Köleséri's Pestis Daicae, György Komáromi Csipkés's Pestis pestise, Ferenc Pápai Páriz's Pax Corporis and A [estos betegség etc., and Máté Tsanaki's A Döghalálról, etc.), as well as many archival papers (the correspondence of Count Sándor Károlyi with his wife Krisztina Barkóczy, thos of General Bercsényi to his wife and Prince Rákóczi, and some doctors' reports, etc.). His main source, however, is Zsigmond Szaniszló's diary. Szaniszló was a former fobiró (chief-sheriff) of the Transsylvanian Torda city, an Anti-Trinitarian stronghold, and remained a leader of his people during the emigration. According to his notes, which the author has compared with the data given by the others, there were hardly any measures taken against plague in this community. Although Szaniszló gives detailed descriptions about the everyday life of the

  1. Walking the tightrope: trends in African freshwater systematic ichthyology.

    PubMed

    Skelton, P H; Swartz, E R

    2011-12-01

    Africa is blessed with an abundance and rich diversity of freshwater fishes, reflecting its Gondwanan history and geographical position astride the equator. Africa is, however, relatively poorly serviced scientifically, in this respect presenting a challenge to the tension between conserving biodiversity and sustainable development. Biosystematics has experienced several paradigm shifts in the past half century, including the rise of cladistics and more recently the adoption of molecular DNA applications to taxonomy and phylogeny and the assembly and manipulation of large data sets in an era of major development of bioinformatics. The richness of African biodiversity is a magnet to the global systematic community that, to a degree, offsets the disadvantage of an impoverished indigenous scientific capacity. Conservation biology, however, is rooted more closely to the local situation and therefore requires indigenous taxonomic services that are inevitably scarce. Balancing this network of tensions between scientific knowledge generation and application is like walking a tightrope for existing African scientific resources, and to cope it is essential to embrace modern innovative approaches such as barcoding to identify organisms. This paper considers the historical development of African freshwater ichthyology, presents a suite of recent examples illustrating trends in systematic ichthyology in Africa and draws conclusions to suggest that both traditional and new-age approaches to taxonomy are necessary for a complete understanding and appreciation of African freshwater fish diversity and its conservation. The chosen examples also suggest that the tensions between the approaches can be effectively managed provided exponents work collaboratively. The emerging evidence indicates that the combined skills and insight of complex scientific teams including systematists, ecologists, molecular biologists and earth scientists are needed to resolve the deep complexity of

  2. Is the Anegada Passage a sealed structure related to a past tectonic phase? A tectono-structure study of the Northern Lesser Antilles margin based on the Antithesis-1 cruise geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurencin, M.; Graindorge, D.; Marcaillou, B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Evain, M.; Jean-Frederic, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Anegada Passage is a deep NE-SW-trending valley across the arcuate volcanic arc at the transition between the Greater and the Lesser Antilles. The passage includes a set of faults and basins connecting the Virgin Island Basin to the Sombrero Basin. The geodynamic causes, the tectono-sedimentary evolution and the eastward extent of the Anegada passage are still unclear. Various models for the formation of the passage were published: (1) pure extension, (2) dextral or (3) sinsitral transtension. During the geophysical cruise ANTITHESIS-1 (Nov.2013-Jan.2014), we acquired deep penetration multichannel seismic and wide-angle seismic data, high resolution seismic (3.5 khz) data and multibeam swath bathymetry in this poorly-investigated margin segment. These data shed new light on the extent and structure of the Anegada system as well as on its past and current tectonic activity. The crustal thickness and velocity (Vp) structure are consistent with a previously-proposed oceanic origin under hotspot influence. The crustal Vp structure does not significantly vary astride the Anegada Passage suggesting similar nature of the rocks. Thus, the Anegada Passage does not correspond to a possible boundary between differing-origin basements in Greater and Lesser Antilles. The Anegada system extends NE of the Sombrero Basin with a set of newly-observed basins and faults that all together draw an en echelon structure. This fault system widens eastward, with numerous short and shallow E-W-trending faults suggesting an anastomosing system near the accretionary prism. Within the Sombrero Basin, the shallowest undeformed sedimentary unit overlays deformed and fan-shaped deeper units indicating a recently-sealed tectonic activity consistent with the seismic and geodetic records. This low current seismic and tectonic activity indicates that the Anegada Passage formed during a past tectonic phase possibly related to the Bahamas Platform docking against the Greater Antilles subduction

  3. IRETHERM: Developing a Strategic and Holistic Understanding of Ireland's Geothermal Energy Potential through Integrated Modelling of New and Existing Geophysical, Geochemical and Geological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Daly, Stephen; Vozar, Jan; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Blake, Sarah; Delhaye, Robert; Fritschle, Tobias; Willmot Noller, Nicola; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The Science Foundation Ireland funded academia-government-industry collaborative IRETHERM project (www.iretherm.ie), initiated in 2011, is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's (all-island) deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical, geochemical and geological data. Potential applications include both low enthalpy district space heating of large urban centres and electricity generation from intermediate-temperature waters. IRETHERM comprises three broad geothermal target types; 1) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's radiogenic granites (EGS), (2) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's deep sedimentary basins (HSA), and, (3) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of warm springs. The geophysical subsurface imaging techniques of choice are controlled-source (CSEM) and natural-source (magnetotellurics, MT) electromagnetic methods. Electrical conductivity, being a transport property, is a proxy for permeability, and appropriate porosity-permeability relations are being developed. To date, MT measurements have been made at 466 sites over sedimentary basins (190 sites), granites (156 sites) and warm springs (120 sites), with CSEM across one warm spring. An ongoing continuous geochemical (temperature and electrical conductivity every 15 mins) and time-lapse seasonal hydrochemical sampling programmes are in progress at six warm spring sites. A database on heat production in Irish rocks has been compiled, of more than 3,300 geochemical sample measurements, with 3,000 retrieved from various archives and over 300 new analyses. Geochemistry, geochronology and isotopic analyses have been conducted on subsurface granites and exposed analogues astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in order to understand the underlying reasons for their radiogenic heat production. Finally, thermal conductivity measurements have been made on borehole samples from representative lithologies

  4. Preliminary assessment of the geologic setting, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Hueco Tanks geothermal area, Texas and New Mexico. Geological Circular 81-1

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.D.; Gluck, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Hueco Tanks geothermal area contains five known but now inactive hot wells (50/sup 0/ to 71/sup 0/C). The area trends north-south along the east side of Tularosa-Hueco Bolson astride the Texas-New Mexico border approximately 40 km northeast of El Paso. Because of its proximity to El Paso, geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area could be a significant resource. Hueco Bolson is an asymmetric graben. Greatest displacement along boundary faults is on the west side adjacent to the Franklin Mountains. Faults, probably with less displacement, also form an irregular boundary on the east side of the bolson. Several probable faults may allow the rise of thermal waters from depth. Ground water in the central part of Hueco Bolson flows southward to the Rio Grande. However, four of the five hot wells occur in a ground-water trough along the eastern margin of the bolson. The trough may be bounded by one of the postulated faults serving as a barrier to ground-water flow. Data on permeability of potential reservoir rocks, including basin fill and fractured bedrock, suggest that they may be sufficiently permeable for development of geothermal water. The concentration of dissolved solids in the geothermal waters varies from 1100 to at least 12,500 mg/L, but most waters show high concentrations. They are Na-Cl-(SO/sub 4/) waters similar in composition to nonthermal waters in basin fill. The composition probably results from contact with evaporite deposits either in basin fill or in Paleozoic bedrock. Shallow reservoirs reach maximum temperatures of about 80/sup 0/ to 110/sup 0/C. Available data are too limited to evaluate adequately the resource potential of geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area.

  5. Preliminary assessment of the geologic setting, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Hueco Tanks geothermal area, Texas and New Mexico. Geological Circular 81-1

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.D.; Gluck, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Hueco Tanks geothermal area contains five known but now inactive hot wells (50/sup 0/ to 71/sup 0/C). The area trends north-south along the east side of Tularosa-Hueco Bolson astride the Texas-New Mexico border approximately 40 km northeast of El Paso. Because of its proximity to El Paso, geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area could be a significant resource. Hueco Bolson is an asymmetric graben. Greatest displacement along boundary faults is on the west side adjacent to the Franklin Mountains. Faults, probably with less displacement, also form an irregular boundary on the east side of the bolson. Several probable faults may allow the rise of thermal waters from depth. Ground water in the central part of Hueco Bolson flows southward to the Rio Grande. However, four of the five hot wells occur in a ground-water trough along the eastern margin of the bolson. The trough may be bounded by one of the postulated faults serving as a barrier to ground-water flow. Data on permeability of potential reservoir rocks, including basin fill and fractured bedrock, suggest that they may be sufficiently permeable for development of geothermal water. The concentration of dissolved solids in the geothermal waters varies from 1100 to at least 12,500 mg/L, but most waters show high concentrations. They are Na-Cl-(SO/sub 4/) waters similar in composition to nonthermal waters in basin fill. The composition probably results from contact with evaporite deposits either in basin fill or in Paleozoic bedrock. Shallow reservoirs reach maximum temperatures of about 80/sup 0/ to 110/sup 0/C. Available data are too limited to evaluate adequately the resource potential of geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area. A complete exploration program, including geological, hydrological, and geochemical investigation, is recommended.

  6. Geology of the Round Bay quadrangle, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, with a section on Dinoflagellate-acritarch palynology, and a section on Cretaceous pollen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minard, James Pierson; May, Fred E.; Christopher, Raymond A.

    1980-01-01

    Six Coastal Plain formations and one group crop out in the Round Bay quadrangle near the inner edge of the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The quadrangle lies astride the Severn River, in Anne Arundel County, near Annapolis, Md. The seven stratigraphic units aggregate as much as 128 m in outcrop. In ascending order, the units are: the upper part of the Potomac Group and the Magothy, Matawan, and Severn Formations, all of Cretaceous age; the Brightseat and Aquia Formations of Paleocene age and the Calvert Formation of Miocene age. Quaternary deposits are thin and cover only small areas; they are all mapped under one unit. Several small, thin deposits of Tertiary alluvium are mapped separately. The largely unconsolidated Cretaceous and Tertiary formations consist chiefly of quartz, glauconite, clays, muscovite, chlorite, lignite, feldspar, and pyrite. Quaternary sediments are mostly locally derived sands, silts, and clays with some gravel and, in the finer sediments, considerable amounts of organic matter. The Cretaceous and Tertiary units strike generally northeast; the younger the formation, the more easterly it strikes. Dips are gentle, 3.6 to 15 m per kilometer toward the southeast, and decrease upward through the section. The Round Bay quadrangle is near the southern limit of several formations that thin progressively toward the southwest from New Jersey. Some pinch out between Betterton, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay, and Round Bay, on the western shore, whereas others are present only as thin remnants 1-2 m thick. Resources of the quadrangle include abundant ground water, sand, and high land values near water.

  7. RTOPO-1: A consistent dataset for Antarctic ice shelf topography and global ocean bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Sub-ice shelf circulation and freezing/melting rates depend critically on an accurate and consistent representation of cavity geometry (i.e. ice-shelf draft and ocean bathymetry). Existing global or pan-Antarctic data sets have turned out to contain various inconsistencies and inaccuracies. The goal of this work is to compile independent regional fields into a global data set. We use the S-2004 global 1-minute bathymetry as the backbone and add an improved version of the BEDMAP topography for an area that roughly coincides with the Antarctic continental shelf. Locations of the merging line have been carefully adjusted in order to get the best out of each data set. High-resolution gridded data for the Amery, Fimbul, Filchner-Ronne, Larsen C and George VI Ice Shelves and for Pine Island Glacier have been carefully merged into the ambient ice and ocean topographies. Multibeam ship survey data for bathymetry in the former Larsen B cavity and the southeastern Bellingshausen Sea have been obtained from the data centers of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO), gridded, and again carefully merged into the existing bathymetry map. The resulting global 1-minute data set contains consistent masks for open ocean, grounded ice, floating ice, and bare land surface. The Ice Shelf Cavern Geometry Team: Anne Le Brocq, Tara Deen, Eugene Domack, Pierre Dutrieux, Ben Galton-Fenzi, Dorothea Graffe, Hartmut Hellmer, Angelika Humbert, Daniela Jansen, Adrian Jenkins, Astrid Lambrecht, Keith Makinson, Fred Niederjasper, Frank Nitsche, Ole Anders Nøst, Lars Henrik Smedsrud, and Walter Smith

  8. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modu, B.; Herbert, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9% falls in Chad republic. Since its formation, the basin continues to experienced water shortage due to the activities of Dams combination, increase in irrigations and general reduction in rainfall. Chad basin needs an external water source for it to be function at sustainable level, hence needs for exploitation of higher east African river basin called Congo basin; which covers an area of 3.7 million square km lies in an astride the equator in west-central Africa-world second largest river basin after Amazon. The Congo River almost pans around republic of Congo, the democratic republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, western Zambia, northern Angola, part of Cameroun, and Tanzania. The remotely sensed imagery analysis and observation revealed that Congo basin is on the elevation of 275 to 460 meters and the Chad basin is on elevation of 240 meters. This implies that water can be drained from Congo basin via headrace down to the Chad basin for the water sustainability.

  9. Hydrogeology of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Thamke, J.N.; Craigg, S.D. )

    1993-04-01

    The Fort Peck Indian Reservation, which encompasses about 3,300 square miles in northeastern Montana, is characterized by three major types of terrain: Missouri River bottom lands, badlands, and topographically higher benchlands. The reservation lies on the western flank of the Williston Basin, a large, petroleum-rich structural depression in Montana, North and South Dakota, and Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Structurally, the area is not complex, although the Poplar Anticline trends northwest through the central part of the reservation. The East Poplar Oil Field lies astride this structure and produces from the mississippian Madison Group. Geologic units that crop out in the reservation are the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Shale, Fox Hills Sandstone, and Hell Creek Formation; the Tertiary Fort Union and Flaxville Formations; and Quaternary glacial and alluvial deposits. Most ground water is produced from alluvial deposits, glacial deposits, Flaxville Formation, Fort Union Formation, Hell Creek Formation, and Fox Hills Sandstone. Well depths range from about 15 to 300 feet below land surface; depth to water ranges from about 5 to 160 feet. Units deeper than the Fox Hills Sandstone are not important aquifers because of the underlying, thick Bearpaw Shale, and because the water is too mineralized for most uses. Background dissolved-solids concentrations of water from major aquifers is in the range of about 300 to 3,000 milligrams per liter. However, in the East Poplar Oil Field, water in the alluvial and glacial deposits has been contaminated near brine-disposal facilities; dissolved-solids concentration of water is as much as 114,000 milligrams per liter.

  10. On the highly inclined vW leptokurtic asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Domingos, R. C.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M.

    2016-11-01

    vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field vW is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, i.e. they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. Among these, three are highly inclined asteroid families, the Hansa, Barcelona, and Gallia families. As observed for the case of the Astrid family, the leptokurtic inclination distribution seems to be caused by the interaction of these families with node secular resonances. In particular, the Hansa and Gallia family are crossed by the s - sV resonance with Vesta, that significantly alters the inclination of some of their members. In this work we use the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of all planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt to assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, and to obtain independent constraints on the family ages. While secular resonances with massive bodies in the main belt do not significantly affect the dynamical evolution of the Barcelona family, they significantly increase the γ2(vW) values of the simulated Hansa and Gallia families. Current values of the γ2(vW) for the Gallia family are reached over the estimated family age only if secular resonances with Vesta are accounted for.

  11. Active upper plate thrust faulting in regions of low plate interface coupling, repeated slow slip events, and coastal uplift: Example from the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, Joshu J.; Barnes, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Contractional fore-arc faulting and deformation is a characteristic feature of many subduction systems. Definition of the three-dimensional geometry and displacement rates of active, upper plate, out-of-sequence thrust faults along ˜250 km of the upper Hikurangi Margin enables us to examine the relationship between fore-arc deformation and the subduction interface in light of interseismic coupling estimates and distribution of slow slip events, both modeled from GPS measurements. These mid-fore-arc structures include the seaward vergent, outer shelf Lachlan and Ariel faults, with vertical separation rates up to 5 mm/yr, and several other major inner shelf faults with rates that are up to 3.8 mm/yr and comparable with Holocene coastal uplift rates. Seismic reflection imaging and geometric projection of these faults at depth indicate that they splay from the region of the plate interface where geodetic inversions for interseismic coupling and slow slip events suggest that the plate boundary undergoes aseismic slip. This observation may indicate either (1) that frictional properties and interseismic coupling on the plate interface are independent and unrelated to the active splay fault deformation in the inner-middle fore arc or (2) that the active splay faulting reflects long-term mechanical coupling related to higher shear stress, or the relative yield strength of the plate interface to the overriding plate, and that the current pattern of interseismic coupling may not be persistent over geological time scales of 20 ka. We compare structure and processes on the northern Hikurangi and Costa Rican margins and find similarities and significant differences astride these subduction systems.

  12. Intracardiac Echocardiography Evaluation in Secundum Atrial Septal Defect Transcatheter Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Zanchetta, Mario; Pedon, Luigi; Rigatelli, Gianluca; Carrozza, Antonio; Zennaro, Marco; Di Martino, Roberta; Onorato, Eustaquio; Maiolino, Pietro

    2003-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the balloon sizing maneuvers and deployment of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO). In addition, intraprocedural balloon sizing was compared with off-line intracardiac echocardiographic measurements. Methods: The intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) measurements were: maximum transverse and longitudinal atrial septal defect (ASD) diameters in the aortic valve and four-chamber planes;area of the ASD and its equivalent circle diameter. Thirteen consecutive patients underwent transcatheter implantation of an ASO device using ICE guidance under local anesthesia. The device matching the balloon sizing diameter of the defect was implanted. Qualitative ICE assessment of the ASO devices implanted was performed off line. Results: The mean equivalent circle diameter predicted by ICE was 24.40 {+-} 5.61 mm and was significantly higher(p 0.027) than the ASD measured by balloonsizing (21.38 {+-} 5.28 mm). Unlike previous studies we did not find any correlation between the two measurements (correlation coefficient = 0.47). Only four of the 13 patients had optimal device positioning as shown by the qualitative ICE evaluation, whereas the remaining nine patients had inadequate device placement. This resulted in a waist diameter that was an average 26.1% undersized in seven patients and 12.7% oversized in two patients. Five of the seven patients with an undersized device had ASO-atrial septum misalignment with leftward device deviation. Conclusion: The ICE images allowed careful measurement of the dimensions of the ASD and accurately displayed the spatial relations of the ASO astride the ASD.Moreover, use of the ICE measurement led to selection of a different size of device in comparison with those of balloon sizing. The clinical benefit of this new approach needs to be rigorously tested.

  13. Crystal Structure and Characterization of CsH 5(AsO 4) 2: A New Cesium Pentahydrogen Arsenate, and Comparison with CsH 5(PO 4) 2 and RbH 5(AsO 4) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naı̈li, H.; Mhiri, T.; Jaud, J.

    2001-10-01

    Chemical preparation and X-ray single-crystal, vibrational, and calorimetric studies of CsH5(AsO4)2 are described. The new compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system P21/c with cell parameters a=10.983(1) Å, b=7.943(1) Å, c=9.844(1) Å, β=96.15(1)°, V=853.82(6) Å3, Z=4, and ρcal=3.235 g cm-3. The refinement of data leads to R1=0.0396 and WR2=0.0809 for 2377 observed reflections (I>2σ (I)) refined with 122 parameters. The structure is different from RbH5(AsO4)2 (orthorhombic) and similar to CsH5(PO4)2 (monoclinic). The atomic arrangement can be described as layered organization of isolated arsenate tetrahedra; interleaved cesium cations ensure the cohesion of the structure. As in all atomic arrangements, we can observe the formation of an infinite network of anions connected by strong H bonds (2.436(4)-2.597(5) Å). The hydrogen atoms were located from difference maps and the short contact (2.436(4) Å), which is not astride any symmetry element, is of the type O-H···O asymmetrical. The Raman and infrared spectra of CsH5(AsO4)2 recorded at room temperature in the frequency ranges 10-1000 cm-1 and 250-4000 cm-1, respectively, confirm the presence of two independent AsO3-4 groups in the crystal. An assignment of all the bands is given. Differential scanning calorimetry shows that the title compound does not exhibit any phase transition in the range 123-473 K.

  14. Is photocleavage of DNA by YOYO-1 using a synchrotron radiation light source sequence dependent?

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Emma L; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C; Rodger, Alison

    2011-10-01

    The photocleavage of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA by the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 was investigated in real time by using the synchrotron radiation light source ASTRID (ISA, Denmark) both to initiate the reaction and to monitor its progress using Couette flow linear dichroism (LD) throughout the irradiation period. The dependence of LD signals on DNA sequences and on time in the intense light beam was explored and quantified for single-stranded poly(dA), poly[(dA-dT)(2)], calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and Micrococcus luteus DNA (mlDNA). The DNA and ligand regions of the spectrum showed different LD kinetic behaviors, and there was significant sequence dependence of the kinetics. However, in contrast to expectations from the literature, we found that poly(dA), mlDNA, low salt ctDNA and low salt poly[(dA-dT)(2)] all had significant populations of groove-bound YOYO. It seems that this mode was predominantly responsible for the catalysis of DNA cleavage. In homopolymeric DNAs, intercalated YOYO was unable to cleave DNA. In mixed-sequence DNAs the data suggest that YOYO in some but not all intercalated binding sites can cause cleavage. It is also likely that cleavage occurs at transient single-stranded regions. The reaction rates for a 100 mA beam current of 0.5-μW power varied from 0.6 h(-1) for single-stranded poly(dA) to essentially zero for low salt poly[(dG-dC)(2)] and high salt poly[(dA-dT)(2)]. At the conclusion of the experiments with each kind of DNA, uncleaved DNA with intercalated YOYO remained. PMID:21931957

  15. Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    This discussion of Afghanistan covers: the people, geography, history (European influence, reform and reaction, Daoud's Republic and the April 1978 coup, and the Soviet invasion), government and political conditions, the economy (agriculture, trade and industry, transportation, economic development), foreign relations, and relations between the US and Afghanistan. In 1985, the population was estimated to be 11 million (plus about 2.7 million refugees in Pakistan and 1 million refugees in Iran and the west). The annual growth rate is negative because of the war. In 1971 the UN estimate of infant mortality was 181.6/1000 live births with life expectancy 36.6 for men and 37.3 for women. Afghanistan's ethnically and linguistically mixed population reflects its location astride historic trade and invasion routes leading from central Asia into South and Southwest Asia. The dominant ethnic group, the Pukhtuns, make up about 40% of the population. Afghanistan has had a turbulent history. All of Afghanistan's rulers until the Marxist coup of 1978 were from Durani's tribe, and, since 1818, all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan. Afghanistan is primarily an agricultural country, despite the fact that only 15% of its total land area is viable. This sector employs 3/4 of the working population and accounts for more than half of the gross domestic product. The Afghan economy remains tightly tied to that of the Soviet Union, its largest trading partner. Although Afghan has no railways or navigable rivers, the Amu Darya (Oxus) River on the Soviet-Afghan border does carry barge traffic. The Soviets pledged more than $300 million in new aid in 1984 and disbursed more than $400 million in commodities and new project aid. They signed a further agreement granting additional credits in February 1985. Since the December 1979 Soviet invasion, Afghanistan's foreign policy has mirrored that of the Soviet Union. The US has never recognized the Kabul regime and strongly opposes the

  16. Hydrocarbon generation and migration routes in the east Texas basin

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, W.; Hood, W.C. )

    1994-02-01

    The East Texas basin is a prolific, mature hydrocarbon province, producing oil and gas from several reservoirs and a variety of trap types. Many of the liquid hydrocarbons discovered in the basin are trapped in structures related to movement of the underlying Louann Salt. By determining the structural evolution of the basin, we constructed a framework to model the generation of hydrocarbons in the basin. Geochemical data indicate three major oil types: Jurassic oil, Lower Cretaceous oil, and Upper Cretaceous oil. The Jurassic source is mature throughout the basin and began to expel oil at approximately 88 Ma. The distribution of Jurassic oil in Cretaceous reservoirs shows that vertical migration routes predominated. Prospective Lower Cretaceous source rocks are only mature in the deep, central portion of the basin where expulsion began about 47 Ma. Distribution of this oil type suggests that Lower Cretaceous source rocks occur only in localized areas of the East Texas basin. Organic-rich Upper Cretaceous shales are immature in the main part of the basin, but are mature south of the Angelina-Caldwell flexure where they reached peak generation at approximately 20 Ma. Long-distance, lateral migration routes are necessary to explain the distribution of this oil type. Migration routes to the giant East Texas field may be 100 km or more. Modeling of this basin suggests an exploration approach, in mature basins, of defining migration pathways and seeking traps astride them. Traps in this position have a better probability of being filled and, all else being equal, are likely to be better fields than traps located away from the major migration routes. 42 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. C.; Hall, S. A.; Ball, P.; Bird, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana. Previously proposed reconstruction models often contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate margin of Antarctica near the Riiser Larsen Sea. New satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones in the study area. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Information on crustal thickness along with the identification of fracture zones reveal the COBs that are located significantly closer to the coasts of Africa and Antarctica than previously recognized. Correlation of both fracture zone azimuths and the identified COBs over the conjugate margins suggest Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. Of several scenarios examined, the Beira High is most likely oceanic and may be a conjugate feature of the southern Astrid Ridge. An areal-balancing method that involves restoring the crust to a uniform pre-rift thickness has been used to perform the non-rigid reconstruction for both non-volcanic and volcanic margin with magmatic underplating. Based on the results, Africa underwent extension of 65-105 km while Antarctic crust was stretched by 90-190 km. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica underwent a counter-clockwise rotation with respect to Africa between 186-171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  18. On the highly inclined vW leptokurtic asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruba, V.; Domingos, R. C.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M.

    2016-08-01

    vW leptokurtic asteroid families are families for which the distribution of the normal component of the terminal ejection velocity field vW is characterized by a positive value of the γ2 Pearson kurtosis, i.e., they have a distribution with a more concentrated peak and larger tails than the Gaussian one. Currently, eight families are known to have γ2(vW) > 0.25. Among these, three are highly inclined asteroid families, the Hansa, Barcelona, and Gallia families. As observed for the case of the Astrid family, the leptokurtic inclination distribution seems to be caused by the interaction of these families with node secular resonances. In particular, the Hansa and Gallia family are crossed by the s - sV resonance with Vesta, that significantly alters the inclination of some of their members. In this work we use the time evolution of γ2(vW) for simulated families under the gravitational influence of all planets and the three most massive bodies in the main belt to assess the dynamical importance (or lack of) node secular resonances with Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas for the considered families, and to obtain independent constraints on the family ages. While secular resonances with massive bodies in the main belt do not significantly affect the dynamical evolution of the Barcelona family, they significantly increase the γ2(vW) values of the simulated Hansa and Gallia families. Current values of the γ2(vW) for the Gallia family are reached over the estimated family age only if secular resonances with Vesta are accounted for.

  19. Geologic Map of the Tower Peak Quadrangle, Central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahrhaftig, Clyde

    2000-01-01

    Introduction The Tower Peak quadrangle, which includes northernmost Yosemite National Park, is located astride the glaciated crest of the central Sierra Nevada and covers an exceptionally well-exposed part of the Sierra Nevada batholith. Granitic plutonic rocks of the batholith dominate the geology of the Tower Peak quadrangle, and at least 18 separate pre-Tertiary intrusive events have been identified. Pre-Cretaceous metamorphic rocks crop out in the quadrangle in isolated roof pendants and septa. Tertiary volcanic rocks cover granitic rocks in the northern part of the quadrangle, but are not considered in this brief summary. Potassium-argon (K-Ar) age determinations for plutonic rocks in the quadrangle range from 83 to 96 million years (Ma), including one of 86 Ma for the granodiorite of Lake Harriet (Robinson and Kistler, 1986). However, a rubidium-strontium whole-rock isochron age of 129 Ma has been obtained for the Lake Harriet pluton (Robinson and Kistler, 1986), which field evidence indicates is the oldest plutonic body within the quadrangle. This suggests that some of the K-Ar ages record an episode of resetting during later thermal events and are too young. The evidence indicates that all the plutonic rocks are of Cretaceous age, with the youngest being the Cathedral Peak Granodiorite at about 83 Ma. The pre-Tertiary rocks of the Tower Peak quadrangle fall into two groups: (1) an L-shaped area of older plutonic and metamorphic rocks, 3 to 10 km wide, that extends diagonally both northeast and southeast from near the center of the quadrangle; and (2) a younger group of large, probably composite intrusions that cover large areas in adjacent quadrangles and extend into the Tower Peak quadrangle from the east, north, and southwest.

  20. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.

    1982-07-01

    The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) selected the San Bernardino area for detailed geothermal resource investigation because the area was known to contain promising geothermal resource sites, the area contained a large population center, and the City of San Bernardino had expressed serious interest in developing the area's geothermal resource. Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs, South San Bernardino, and Harlem Hot Springs--in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the South San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the South San Bernardino geothermal area was 56 C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal areas was 49.5 C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well.

  1. On Perturbation Components Correspondence between Diffusion and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    G. Palmiotti

    2012-11-01

    We have established a correspondence between perturbation components in diffusion and transport theory. In particular we have established the correspondence between the leakage perturbation component of the diffusion theory to that of the group self scattering in transport theory. This has been confirmed by practical applications on sodium void reactivity calculations of fast reactors. Why this is important for current investigations? Recently, there has been a renewed interest in designing fast reactors where the sodium void reactivity coefficient is minimized. In particular the ASTRID8,9 reactor concept has been optimized with this goal in mind. The correspondence on the leakage term that has been established here has a twofold implication for the design of this kind of reactors. First, this type of reactor has a radial reflector; therefore, as shown before, the sodium void reactivity coefficient calculation requires the use of transport theory. The minimization of the sodium reactivity coefficient is normally done by increasing the leakage component that has a negative sign. The correspondence established in this paper allows to directly look at this component in transport theory. The second implication is related to the uncertainty evaluation on sodium void reactivity. As it has shown before, the total sodium void reactivity effect is the result of a large compensation (opposite sign) between the scattering (called often spectral) component and the leakage one. Consequently, one has to evaluate separately the uncertainty on each separate component and then combine them statistically. If one wants to compute the cross section sensitivity coefficients of the two different components, the formulation established in this paper allows to achieve this goal by playing on the contribution to the sodium void reactivity coming from the group self scattering of the sodium cross section.

  2. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in a Belgian Burn Wound Center.

    PubMed

    De Vos, Daniel; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert; Rose, Thomas; Keersebilck, Elkana; Bosmans, Petra; Pieters, Thierry; Hing, Mony; Heuninckx, Walter; De Pauw, Frank; Soentjens, Patrick; Merabishvili, Maia; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Bogaerts, Pierre; Glupczynski, Youri; Pot, Bruno; van der Reijden, Tanny J; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its closely related species A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, all members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, are a major cause of hospital acquired infection. In the burn wound center of the Queen Astrid military hospital in Brussels, 48 patients were colonized or infected with Acb complex over a 52-month period. We report the molecular epidemiology of these organisms, their clinical impact and infection control measures taken. A representative set of 157 Acb complex isolates was analyzed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab) and a multiplex PCR targeting OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like genes. We identified 31 rep-PCR genotypes (strains). Representatives of each rep-type were identified to species by rpoB sequence analysis: 13 types to A. baumannii, 10 to A. pittii, and 3 to A. nosocomialis. It was assumed that isolates that belonged to the same rep-type also belonged to the same species. Thus, 83.4% of all isolates were identified to A. baumannii, 9.6% to A. pittii and 4.5% to A. nosocomialis. We observed 12 extensively drug resistant Acb strains (10 A. baumannii and 2 A. nosocomialis), all carbapenem-non-susceptible/colistin-susceptible and imported into the burn wound center through patients injured in North Africa. The two most prevalent rep-types 12 and 13 harbored an OXA-23-like gene. Multilocus sequence typing allocated them to clonal complex 1 corresponding to EU (international) clone I. Both strains caused consecutive outbreaks, interspersed with periods of apparent eradication. Patients infected with carbapenem resistant A. baumannii were successfully treated with colistin/rifampicin. Extensive infection control measures were required to eradicate the organisms. Acinetobacter infection and colonization was not associated with increased attributable mortality.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in a Belgian Burn Wound Center

    PubMed Central

    Bilocq, Florence; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert; Rose, Thomas; Keersebilck, Elkana; Bosmans, Petra; Pieters, Thierry; Hing, Mony; Heuninckx, Walter; De Pauw, Frank; Soentjens, Patrick; Merabishvili, Maia; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Bogaerts, Pierre; Glupczynski, Youri; Pot, Bruno; van der Reijden, Tanny J.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its closely related species A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, all members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, are a major cause of hospital acquired infection. In the burn wound center of the Queen Astrid military hospital in Brussels, 48 patients were colonized or infected with Acb complex over a 52-month period. We report the molecular epidemiology of these organisms, their clinical impact and infection control measures taken. A representative set of 157 Acb complex isolates was analyzed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab) and a multiplex PCR targeting OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like genes. We identified 31 rep-PCR genotypes (strains). Representatives of each rep-type were identified to species by rpoB sequence analysis: 13 types to A. baumannii, 10 to A. pittii, and 3 to A. nosocomialis. It was assumed that isolates that belonged to the same rep-type also belonged to the same species. Thus, 83.4% of all isolates were identified to A. baumannii, 9.6% to A. pittii and 4.5% to A. nosocomialis. We observed 12 extensively drug resistant Acb strains (10 A. baumannii and 2 A. nosocomialis), all carbapenem-non-susceptible/colistin-susceptible and imported into the burn wound center through patients injured in North Africa. The two most prevalent rep-types 12 and 13 harbored an OXA-23-like gene. Multilocus sequence typing allocated them to clonal complex 1 corresponding to EU (international) clone I. Both strains caused consecutive outbreaks, interspersed with periods of apparent eradication. Patients infected with carbapenem resistant A. baumannii were successfully treated with colistin/rifampicin. Extensive infection control measures were required to eradicate the organisms. Acinetobacter infection and colonization was not associated with increased attributable mortality. PMID:27223476

  4. Austria.

    PubMed

    1983-08-01

    This discussion of Austria focuses on the following: geography, people, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Austria. As of July 1982, the population of Austria totaled 7.6 million with an annual growth rate of 0.1%. The infant mortality rate is 16/1000, and life expectancy is 73 years. Austria is primarily mountainous, and the climate is moderate. 99% of Austria's population are native German speakers. The only 2 significant minority groups are about 20,000 Slovenes in Carinthia and about 25,000 Croatians in Burgenland. The Austro-Hungarian Empire played a decisive role in central European history, partly because of its strategic position astride the southeast approaches to western Europe and the north-south routes between Germany and Italy. The president of Austria is directly elected to a 6-year term and may not serve more than 2 successive terms. As chief of state, the president's functions are largely representational. The chancellor (head of government) is either the leader of the party that wins the majority of seats in parliamentary elections and therefore can form a government or a coalition, or the leader of the party having the support of the president in the formation of a minority government. The chancellor selects the cabinet and, with its assistance, weilds actual power and is responsible to the Federal Assembly. The Federal Assembly (parliament) is composed of 2 houses--the National Council, or lower house, and the Federal Council, or upper house. Virtually all legislative authority is concentrated in the National Council. Since World War 2 Austria has enjoyed politcal stability. The 2 major parties that formed during the 1945-66 period have the support of about 90% of the electorate. Austria has a free enterprise economy in which the government plays an important role. More than half of the gross domestic product (GDP) comes from manufacturing and services. Austrian farms are small

  5. Geologic map of the Tetilla Peak Quadrangle, Santa Fe and Sandoval counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sawyer, D.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Minor, S.A.; Thompson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    This digital geologic map summarizes all available geologic information for the Tetilla Peak quadrangle located immediately southwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico. The geologic map consists of new polygon (geologic map units) and line (contact, fault, fold axis, dike, flow contact, hachure) data, as well as point data (locations for structural measurements, geochemical and geochronologic data, geophysical soundings, and water wells). The map database has been generated at 1:24,000 scale, and provides significant new geologic information for an area of the southern Cerros del Rio volcanic field, which sits astride the boundary of the Espanola and Santo Domingo basins of the Rio Grande rift. The quadrangle includes the west part of the village of La Cienega along its eastern border and includes the southeasternmost part of the Cochiti Pueblo reservation along its northwest side. The central part of the quadrangle consists of Santa Fe National Forest and Bureau of Land Management lands, and parts of several Spanish-era land grants. Interstate 25 cuts through the southern half of the quadrangle between Santa Fe and Santo Domingo Pueblo. Canada de Santa Fe, a major river tributary to the Rio Grande, cuts through the quadrangle, but there is no dirt or paved road along the canyon bottom. A small abandoned uranium mine (the La Bajada mine) is found in the bottom of the Canada de Santa Fe about 3 km east of the La Bajada fault zone; it has been partially reclaimed. The surface geology of the Tetilla Peak quadrangle consists predominantly of a thin (1-2 m generally, locally as thick as 10? m) layer of windblown surficial deposits that has been reworked colluvially. Locally, landslide, fluvial, and pediment deposits are also important. These colluvial deposits mantle the principal bedrocks units, which are (from most to least common): (1) basalts, basanites, andesite, and trachyte of the Pliocene (2.7-2.2 Ma) Cerros del Rio volcanic field; (2) unconsolidated deposits of the Santa

  6. Precambrian crystalline basement map of Idaho-an interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Lund, Karen; Anderson, E.

    2005-01-01

    Idaho lies within the northern sector of the U.S. Cordillera astride the boundary between the Proterozoic continent (Laurentia) to the east and the Permian to Jurassic accreted terranes to the west. The continental basement is mostly covered by relatively undeformed Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and intruded or covered by Phanerozoic igneous rocks; accordingly, knowledge of the basement geology is poorly constrained. Incremental knowledge gained since the pioneering studies by W. Lindgren, C.P. Ross, A.L. Anderson, A. Hietanen, and others during the early- and mid-1900's has greatly advanced our understanding of the general geology of Idaho. However, knowledge of the basement geology remains relatively poor, partly because of the remoteness of much of the region plus the lack of a stimulus to decipher the complex assemblage of high-grade gneisses and migmatite of central Idaho. The availability of an updated aeromagnetic anomaly map of Idaho (North American Magnetic Anomaly Group, 2002) provides a means to determine the regional Precambrian geologic framework of the State. The combined geologic and aeromagnetic data permit identification of previously unrecognized crystalline basement terranes, assigned to Archean and Paleoproterozoic ages, and the delineation of major shear zones, which are expressed in the aeromagnetic data as linear negative anomalies (Finn and Sims, 2004). Limited geochronologic data on exposed crystalline basement aided by isotopic studies of zircon inheritance, particularly Bickford and others (1981) and Mueller and others (1995), provide much of the geologic background for our interpretation of the basement geology. In northwestern United States, inhomogeneities in the basement inherited from Precambrian tectogenesis controlled many large-scale tectonic features that developed during the Phanerozoic. Two basement structures, in particular, provided zones of weakness that were repeatedly rejuvenated: (1) northeast-trending ductile

  7. Photo excitation and laser detachment of C60- anions in a storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Støchkel, K.; Andersen, J. U.

    2013-10-01

    We have studied the photo physics of C60- anions in the electrostatic storage ring ELISA with ions produced in a plasma source and cooled and bunched in a He filled ion trap. A previous study using delayed electron detachment as a signal of resonance-enhanced multiphoton electron detachment (REMPED) has been repeated both at room temperature and with the trap cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. However, wavelength dependence of the overlap of the strongly focused laser beam with the ion beam introduces distortions of the absorption spectrum. We have therefore applied a new method, combining the IR light with a slightly delayed, powerful UV pulse (266 nm). After absorption of three UV photons, the ions decay by delayed (thermal) electron emission, and time spectra are recorded for varying wavelength. The fraction of ions heated by absorption of a single IR photon is then extracted from a principal component analysis of these spectra. In good agreement with the earlier REMPED experiment, an origin band for transitions between the two lowest electronic levels of the anion, with t1u and t1g symmetry, is observed at 9380 cm-1, with strong sidebands from excitation of the two Ag and eight Hg vibrations. As before, a hot band is observed at about 9150 cm-1 and assigned to a transition from an excited vibronic Jahn-Teller state. However, an earlier observed band at higher energy, interpreted as a transition from this excited state to an excited vibronic state in the t1g electronic level, is much weaker in the new measurements and could be an Hg vibrational sideband. Also earlier studies of direct laser detachment from C60- in the storage ring ASTRID have been revisited, with ions cooled by liquid nitrogen in the ion trap. We confirm the previous measurement with a determination of the threshold for s-wave detachment at 2.664 ± 0.005 eV, slightly lower than a recent value of the electron binding, 2.683 ± 0.008 eV, obtained from the energy spectrum of photo electrons

  8. Water quality in an abandoned gold mining belt, Beatrice, Sanyati Valley, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravengai, Seedwel; Love, David; Mabvira-Meck, Maideyi; Musiwa, Kudzai; Moyce, William

    The Beatrice Gold Belt, located 65 km south of Harare, lies astride the Mupfure River, a tributary of the Sanyati River, Zambezi Basin. The belt has been mined for gold since 1900, but was abandoned towards the year 2000. The Mupfure River provides water for commercial agriculture in the local farming areas and smallholder farming in Mhondoro Communal Lands, as well as other users downstream in Chegutu and Kadoma Districts. There were four mines in the belt: Beatrice, Joyce, Argyle and Roma. They are all closed, and rehabilitation has only taken place at Beatrice mine. Each mine is located under 5 km from the Mupfure River, and so run-off from the mines and their dumps can easily reach the main river system. The dominant sulphides are arsenopyrite (FeAsS), pyrite (FeS 2), galena (PbS) and stibnite (Sb 2S 3). Gold is generally locked up in sulphides or occurs in close contact to the sulphides, so processing is associated with release of acid, arsenic and metals into streams that flow into the Mupfure River. This study was thus carried out to assess the potential impact of these abandoned mines on the water quality of the Mupfure river and its tributaries. Water samples were collected along the tributaries that drain the mining area, as well as from the mine-shafts. Parameters tested include pH, iron, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, antimony, and arsenic. Chemical results obtained show that the surface water is slightly contaminated with respect to Pb, Zn and Ni. Such contamination is attributed to the mine dumps. However, the near-neutral pH and only slight contamination show that the impact on water quality of the Beatrice mines is largely localised probably due to likely low run-off volumes from the mining sites compared to the rest of the catchment. The slight contamination could also indicate that acid mine drainage is proceeding at a slow rate or the fact that it is in its initial stages. Long term environmental management should therefore focus on controlling the

  9. Earthquake probabilities in the San Francisco Bay Region: 2000 to 2030 - a summary of findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region sits astride a dangerous “earthquake machine,” the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates. The region has experienced major and destructive earthquakes in 1838, 1868, 1906, and 1989, and future large earthquakes are a certainty. The ability to prepare for large earthquakes is critical to saving lives and reducing damage to property and infrastructure. An increased understanding of the timing, size, location, and effects of these likely earthquakes is a necessary component in any effective program of preparedness. This study reports on the probabilities of occurrence of major earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR) for the three decades 2000 to 2030. The SFBR extends from Healdsberg on the northwest to Salinas on the southeast and encloses the entire metropolitan area, including its most rapidly expanding urban and suburban areas. In this study a “major” earthquake is defined as one with M≥6.7 (where M is moment magnitude). As experience from the Northridge, California (M6.7, 1994) and Kobe, Japan (M6.9, 1995) earthquakes has shown us, earthquakes of this size can have a disastrous impact on the social and economic fabric of densely urbanized areas. To reevaluate the probability of large earthquakes striking the SFBR, the U.S. Geological Survey solicited data, interpretations, and analyses from dozens of scientists representing a wide crosssection of the Earth-science community (Appendix A). The primary approach of this new Working Group (WG99) was to develop a comprehensive, regional model for the long-term occurrence of earthquakes, founded on geologic and geophysical observations and constrained by plate tectonics. The model considers a broad range of observations and their possible interpretations. Using this model, we estimate the rates of occurrence of earthquakes and 30-year earthquake probabilities. Our study considers a range of magnitudes for earthquakes on the major faults in the

  10. Late-Cretaceous allochthons and post-Cretaceous strike-slip displacement along the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic Fault, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas H.; Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Sandstrom, Melissa A.

    1985-08-01

    The disposition of allochthonous masses, emplaced in late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary time, along the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic strike-slip fault zone in western Guatemala, constrains the amount of Tertiary displacement. The absence of major disruption of the allochthons argues against lateral displacements of hundreds of kilometers during the Tertiary. In westernmost Guatemala, along the flank of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic fault, granite, volcaniclastic and volcanic rocks, minor carbonate and phyllite comprise a sequence of south-dipping allochthons. These tilted slabs lie against almost horizontal Jurassic and Cretaceous beds to the north. Field relations indicate that the slides were emplaced across the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic fault from south to north probably during late Cretaceous or early Tertiary time. Other fault-bounded masses, which crop out tens of kilometers eastward, near San Sebastián Huehuetenango, probably were emplaced contemporaneously with those to the west. Locally, these allochthons lie astride the active trace of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic fault along which offset streams record about 1 km of left-lateral motion. Total displacement recorded by the apparent offset of allochthonous sheets is no more than several kilometers. Farther east, along much of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic fault zone, a throughgoing strike-slip trace has not been identified. We postulate that the pre-Tertiary tectonic record is obscured by an extensive series of allochthons composed of regional stratigraphic suites emplaced during late Cretaceous time. In western Guatemala stratigraphic relationships between serpentinized peridotite and carbonate beds of late Cretaceous age indicate Turonian as a maximum age for initial emplacement of allochthonous material. Regional relationships indicate that deformation culminated during latest Cretaceous - earliest Tertiary time. The emplacement of thrust sheets along the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic fault is a likely product of

  11. A fresh look at the Sun, from core to corona, illuminated by new insight on the physics of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2013-09-01

    The Sun is a testing ground for many kinds of physical understanding but an understanding of the physical mechanism of gravitation, the driver of all its machinery, has been lacking. Newton's work on gravitation astride the end of the 17th century concentrated on the behaviour of the force, not upon its origin. But he already endorsed the idea of an ubiquitously intervening aether to convey the force and, as Huygens had already reasoned, also to transmit light waves. Then, in the 1860s, Maxwell [1] and Thompson (Kelvin) [2] started to think of fundamental particles as being aether in a vortex-like motion which would, by mutual attraction, provide their mass property and gravitation. In such a set-up, not only will particles and the aether around them not be dynamically independent, as the Michelson-Morley experiment actually demonstrated 20 years later, but the aether will be in a related degree of random motion. Importantly, that motion will cause the scattering of transmitted radiation. But, in setting up Relativity (1905-1916), Einstein made further enquiry impossible. General Relativity treats particles as infinitesimal entities, and supposes, evasively, that the mass is 'intrinsic' to that specific infinitesimal point in space. This denies them any volume in which to develop their individual external mass property and has discouraged any attempt at physical understanding of its development. Nevertheless, there is now firm evidence that electrons, positrons and protons do have finite size. So, building on the original thinking of Maxwell and Thompson, supported later by [3], my inquiry as to the nature of the physical mechanism by which gravitational force is developed has led me to the surprising finding that the Newtonian potential is inevitably always accompanied by a corresponding positive-body-repelling radial electric field. I have called this the Gravity-Electric (G-E) field and have adduced evidence for its action at many astronomical scales [4 - 7]. So

  12. ASEAN.

    PubMed

    1986-04-01

    Focus in this discussion of the 6 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) is on the following: georgraphy; the people; history; institutions (foreign ministers' meetings, economic ministers' meetings, the ASEAN Secretariat, and the Task Force on the Future of ASEAN cooperation): the economy; defense; external relations; and relations between the US and the ASEAN nations. In mid-1985 the population totaled 289.5 million with an average (unweighted) annual growth rate of 2.2%. Located on the Southeast Asian peninsula and the islands to the south and east in the South China Sea, the 6 ASEAN states guard some of the most important sealanes in the world. The ASEAN states lie astride the Equator and extend from roughly 1600 km north to 804 km south. 1 of the most striking characteristics of ASEAN is its wide diversity in race, language, culture, and religion; many ethnic groups coexist. Malayo-Polyneian make up the majority in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia (and thus in ASEAN), although Malaysia and Indonesia have significant numbers of other groups. Thailand is 75% Thai. Ethnic Chinese make up 77% of the population of Singapore, and sizable Chinese minorities are found in each of the other ASEAN nations. ASEAN founded officially on August 8, 1967, was created to strengthen regional cohesion and self-reliance through economic, social, and cultural cooperation. The organization developed slowly during its 1st decade, due in part to differing economic interests, varied historical experience, and the initially fragile political ties among the 5 original states. The Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, starting in December 1978, was a further stimulus to collaboration. The ASEAN nations successfully managed passage of UN resolutions condemning Vietnam and were the chief sponsors in the July 1981 International Conference on Kampuchea. Although ASEAN was established with primarily economic and

  13. Tsunami Hazard Assessment in New Zealand Ports and Harbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, J. C.; Wotherspoon, L.; Power, W. L.; Goring, D.; Barberopoulou, A.; Melville, B.; Shamseldin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Zealand Ministry of Science and Innovation (MSI) has sponsored a 3-year collaborative project involving industry, government and university research groups to better assess and prepare for tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. As an island nation, New Zealand is highly dependent on its maritime infrastructure for commercial and recreational interests. The recent tsunamis of 2009, 2010 and 2011 (Samoa, Chile and Japan) highlighted the vulnerability of New Zealand's marine infrastructure to strong currents generated by such far field events. These events also illustrated the extended duration of the effects from such tsunamis, with some of the strongest currents and highest water levels occurring many hours, if not days after the tsunami first arrival. In addition, New Zealand also sits astride the Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, which given the events of recent years, cannot be underestimated as a major near field hazard. This presentation will discuss the modeling and research strategy that will be used to mitigate tsunami hazards in New Zealand ports and harbors. This will include a detailed time-series analysis (including Fourier and discrete Wavelet techniques) of water levels recorded throughout New Zealand form recent tsunami events (2009 Samoa, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan). The information learned from these studies will guide detailed numerical modeling of tsunami induced currents at key New Zealand ports. The model results will then be used to guide a structural analysis of the relevant port structures in terms of hydrodynamic loads as well as mooring and impact loads due to vessel and/or debris. Ultimately the project will lead to an improvement in New Zealand's tsunami response plans by providing a decision making flow chart, targeted for marine facilities, to be used by emergency management officials during future tsunami events.Tsunami effects at Port Charles, New Zealand: (top) inundation into a neighborhood and (bottom left and right

  14. ADRIANA project: Identification of research infrastructures for the SFR, within the frame of European industrial initiative for sustainable nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C.; Gastaldi, O.; Vala, L.; Gerbeth, G.; Homann, C.; Benoit, P.; Papin, J.; Girault, N.; Roelofs, F.; Bucenieks, I.; Paffumi, E.; Ciampichetti, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast neutron reactors have a large potential as sustainable energy source. In particular, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) with a closed fuel cycle and potential for minor actinide burning may allow minimization of volume and heat load of high level waste and provide improved use of natural resources (as compared to only 1% energy recovery in the current once-through fuel cycle, with Thermal Reactors, such as EPR). The coordinating action ADRIANA (Advanced Reactor Initiative And Network Arrangement) has been initiated to set up a network dedicated to the construction and operation of research infrastructures in support of developments for the European Industrial Initiative for sustainable nuclear fission. The Project sets these objectives for the following reactor systems and related technologies: Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), Lead Fast Reactor (LFR), Gas Fast Reactor (GFR, including very high temperature technologies), Instrumentation, diagnostics and experimental devices, Irradiation facilities and hot laboratories, Zero power reactors. Among the fast reactor systems, the sodium cooled reactor has the most comprehensive technological basis as result of the experience gained from worldwide operation of several experimental, prototype and commercial size reactors, since the forties (see Appendix I). This concept is currently considered as the reference, within the European strategy. Innovations are needed to further enhance safety, reduce capital cost and improve efficiency reliability and operability, making the Generation IV SFR an attractive option for electricity production. Currently, in France, a moderate (500 to 600 MWe) power demonstrator named ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) has been proposed and endorsed by EU. Presently, the reference configuration is a pool concept. General R and D needs have been identified and experimental facilities required to satisfy these needs have been listed for the following domains: material and

  15. Geology of the Ugashik-Mount Peulik Volcanic Center, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    The Ugashik-Mount Peulik volcanic center, 550 km southwest of Anchorage on the Alaska Peninsula, consists of the late Quaternary 5-km-wide Ugashik caldera and the stratovolcano Mount Peulik built on the north flank of Ugashik. The center has been the site of explosive volcanism including a caldera-forming eruption and post-caldera dome-destructive activity. Mount Peulik has been formed entirely in Holocene time and erupted in 1814 and 1845. A large lava dome occupies the summit crater, which is breached to the west. A smaller dome is perched high on the southeast flank of the cone. Pyroclastic-flow deposits form aprons below both domes. One or more sector-collapse events occurred early in the formation of Mount Peulik volcano resulting in a large area of debris-avalanche deposits on the volcano's northwest flank. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik center is a calcalkaline suite of basalt, andesite, dacite, and rhyolite, ranging in SiO2 content from 51 to 72 percent. The Ugashik-Mount Peulik magmas appear to be co-genetic in a broad sense and their compositional variation has probably resulted from a combination of fractional crystallization and magma-mixing. The most likely scenario for a future eruption is that one or more of the summit domes on Mount Peulik are destroyed as new magma rises to the surface. Debris avalanches and pyroclastic flows may then move down the west and, less likely, east flanks of the volcano for distances of 10 km or more. A new lava dome or series of domes would be expected to form either during or within some few years after the explosive disruption of the previous dome. This cycle of dome disruption, pyroclastic flow generation, and new dome formation could be repeated several times in a single eruption. The volcano poses little direct threat to human population as the area is sparsely populated. The most serious hazard is the effect of airborne volcanic ash on aircraft since Mount Peulik sits astride heavily traveled air routes connecting the U

  16. Was the Palaeo-Tethys Responsible for Ending the Palaeozoic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengor, A. C.; Atayman, S.

    2008-12-01

    When Pangaea was assembled during the course of the late Palaeozoic, a triangular oceanic space was left between Laurasia and Gondwana-Land. This space has been called the Palaeo-Tethys and long believed to have always been a giant gulf of the Panthalassa. However, stratigraphical/structural, palaeontological and palaeomagnetic data clearly show that the Palaeo-Tethys was separated by a land bridge, called the Cathaysian Bridge, from the Panthalassa. By later medial to late Permian time no deep-water connexion had remained between the two oceans and the Palaeo-Tethys acquired the character of an inland sea of Pangaea. This restriction, its location astride the Permian equator, the endorheic drainage of Pangaea towards it and the increasing aridity of the Permian world, led to the development of anoxic conditions in the Palaeo-Tethys. This anoxia occupied the abyssal areas by the Guadalupian, reached the lower shelves by the Wuchiapingian and occupied the entire Palaeo-Tethys by the end of the Changhsingian. This led to widespread decimation of the benthic organisms in these areas and in that order. Evidence of gas-release- caused submarine erosion surfaces, anomalous increase in chemical weathering onland and a 2000-km-wide halo of fungal spikes indicating the presence of abundant dead organic matter surrounding the Palaeo- Tethys suggest that it may have erupted toxic gases to kill the terrestrial organisms in its vicinity, including the airborn insects. This was the only time in the Phanerozoic that the insects experienced significant extinction. The Permian extinction was not global but was confined to the Palaeo-Tethys, its surroundings, and other marine areas it could pollute. Since these areas constituted some 90% by biodiversity of the niches in the Permian, decimation of their inhabitants created an impression of universal extinction. In boreal and austral areas (except around the Gulf of Malagasy penetrating deep into Gondwana-Land from the Palaeo

  17. Surficial Geologic Map of the Roanoke Rapids 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Lewis, William C.; Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    The Roanoke Rapids 1:100,000 map sheet is located in northeastern North Carolina. Most of the area is flat to gently rolling, though steep slopes occur occasionally along some of the larger streams. Total relief in the area is slightly less than 400 feet (ft), with elevations ranging from sea level east of Murfreesboro in the far northeastern corner of the map to 384 ft near the northwestern map border near Littleton. The principal streams are the Roanoke River and Fishing Creek, which on average flow from northwest to southeast in the map area. The principal north-south roads are Interstate Route 95, U.S. Route 258, and U.S. Route 301. Two lines of the CSX railroad also cross the area in a north-south and northeast-southwest direction. This part of North Carolina is primarily rural and agricultural. The only large community in the area is Roanoke Rapids. The map lies astride the Tidewater Fall Line, a prominent physiographic feature marked by rapids and waterfalls that separate the rocky streams of the eastern Piedmont physiographic province from the sandy and alluviated streams of the western Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province. The energy from the Roanoke River descending the Tidewater Fall Line has been harnessed by dams to produce hydroelectric power, and this source of energy was a major factor in the growth and development of Roanoke Rapids. The Piedmont in the western part of the map area is underlain by Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks that are intruded by granite in some areas. In the central and eastern part of the map area, the folded and faulted igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Piedmont, as well as tilted sedimentary rocks in a buried Triassic basin, are all overlain with profound unconformity by generally unlithified and only slightly eastward-tilted Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Coastal Plain sediments lap westward onto the eastern Piedmont along the high

  18. The urban heat island of a tropical coastal city: the case of Muscat, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charabi, Yassine

    2010-05-01

    Muscat, the capital of the Sultanate of Oman (23° 25'N and 57°00 E), it extended along a coastline that runs around 200 km along the Gulf of Oman. By virtue of its position astride the Tropic of Cancer, Muscat city is located in an arid environment with scanty rainfall, and a dry, hot climate with high evaporation rate. The study area is exposed regularly to sea breeze circulation during day time, while very weak land breeze turning to calm conditions at night. The city is situated in complex and varying topography; the Mountains and hills of the eastern Hajar chain border the city from the south and west and, sometimes, they join the sea in the form of rough slopes and coarse cliffs particularly alongside the eastern coastal fringe. Muscat city witnessed a spectacular socioeconomic development since 1970, stimulated by oil exploration and production. The primacy given to the capital triggered an unprecedented demographic rush. The new developments led to the growth of population size from 56 to 236 thousand in one decade (1970-1980) with an enormous annual growth rate of 12.3 %. This sustained growth raised the population of Muscat to more than 549 thousand in 1993 to 796 thousand in 2007 constituting, thus, 27 % of the total population in Oman. Most of Muscat built-up area is characterized by a high sky-view factor, even in the city centre, except for the CDB area of Riwi, where some of the buildings are over ten stories high. The old city of Muscat and Mutrah is extremely compact with very low sky-view factor. The buildings are two to three stories high. The streets are narrow and cut deep canyons through the old city. The street net work is irregular which increases the mutual shading by buildings. The specific attributes of Muscat, has motivated the elaboration of a multidisciplinary research in sultan Qaboos University (Sultanate of Oman), about the urban climate and air pollution in Muscat city: Multi-scale approach. This paper presents the results of the

  19. Seismicity caused by dyke propagation in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, NE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Greenfield, Tim; Green, Robert G.; White, Robert S.; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; Steinthórsson, Sveinbjörn; Woods, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    The Bárðarbunga volcanic system lies in the Eastern Volcanic Zone in central Iceland close to the centre of the Iceland mantle plume. Iceland is situated astride the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the geology characterized by the interaction of the ridge and the underlying hotspot. The Bárðarbunga volcanic system consists of a central volcano and a fissure swarm extending 115 km to the SW and 55 km to the NNE. The volcanic system is known to have experienced eruptions both in the SW and NNE part of its fissure swarm (e.g. Veiðivötn 1477, Holuhraun c. 1797 and Tröllahraun 1862-1864). The Gjálp 1996 subglacial eruption between the central volcanoes Grimsvötn and Bárðarbunga was likely triggered by the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. The most recent eruption within the Bárðarbunga central volcano is believed to be in 1910. Seismic activity in Bárðarbunga has increased steadily since 2005. On 16th August 2014 an intense seismic swarm started at the Bárðarbunga central volcano with an emplacement of a radial dyke, which propagated to the SE. After the dyke left the caldera it turned to the NE and propagated 45 km in 14 days to the NNE to where it erupted in Holuhraun, reoccupying the old craters from the eighteenth century. The dyke propagated at depth in sequences of rapid advance with intervening periods of little or no movement. A dense seismic network surrounding Askja and Vatnajökull and operated by the University of Cambridge has recorded the propagation of the dyke in great detail. The network consists of over 75 broadband seismometers providing good coverage of the volcanic and seismically active area. We use an automated detection and location algorithm to calculate the locations of over 30,000 seismic events recorded during the period of the dyke propagation, including the onset of both eruptions at Holuhraun. During the propagation of the dyke only the tip was active and once a pathway had been made there was very little activity, indicating that

  20. Efficacy of baby-CIMT: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on infants below age 12 months, with clinical signs of unilateral CP

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants with unilateral brain lesions are at high risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Given the great plasticity of the young brain, possible interventions for infants at risk of unilateral CP deserve exploration. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is known to be effective for older children with unilateral CP but is not systematically used for infants. The development of CIMT for infants (baby-CIMT) is described here, as is the methodology of an RCT comparing the effects on manual ability development of baby-CIMT versus baby-massage. The main hypothesis is that infants receiving baby-CIMT will develop manual ability in the involved hand faster than will infants receiving baby-massage in the first year of life. Method and design The study will be a randomised, controlled, prospective parallel-group trial. Invited infants will be to be randomised to either the baby-CIMT or the baby-massage group if they: 1) are at risk of developing unilateral CP due to a known neonatal event affecting the brain or 2) have been referred to Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital due to asymmetric hand function. The inclusion criteria are age 3–8 months and established asymmetric hand use. Infants in both groups will receive two 6-weeks training periods separated by a 6-week pause, for 12 weeks in total of treatment. The primary outcome measure will be the new Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) for evaluating manual ability. In addition, the Parenting Sense of Competence scale and Alberta Infant Motor Scale will be used. Clinical neuroimaging will be utilized to characterise the brain lesion type. To compare outcomes between treatment groups generalised linear models will be used. Discussion The model of early intensive intervention for hand function, baby-CIMT evaluated by the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) will have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of how early intervention of upper limb function in infants at risk of

  1. Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, Shaded Relief with Height as Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Shenandoah National Park lies astride part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which form the southeastern range of the greater Appalachian Mountains in Virginia. The park is well framed by this one-degree of latitude (38-39 north) by one-degree of longitude (78-79 west) cell of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and it appears here as the most prominent ridge trending diagonally across the scene. Skyline Drive, a 169-kilometer (105-mile) road that winds along the crest of the mountains through the length the park, provides vistas of the surrounding landscape. The Shenandoah River flows through the valley to the west, with Massanutten Mountain standing between the river's north and south forks. Unusually pronounced meanders of both river forks are very evident near the top center of this scene. Massanutten Mountain itself is an unusually distinctive landform also, consisting of highly elongated looping folds of sedimentary rock. The rolling Piedmont country lies to the southeast of the park, with Charlottesville located at the bottom center of the scene.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to bluish-white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers

  2. Photo excitation and laser detachment of C60(-) anions in a storage ring.

    PubMed

    Støchkel, K; Andersen, J U

    2013-10-28

    We have studied the photo physics of C60(-) anions in the electrostatic storage ring ELISA with ions produced in a plasma source and cooled and bunched in a He filled ion trap. A previous study using delayed electron detachment as a signal of resonance-enhanced multiphoton electron detachment (REMPED) has been repeated both at room temperature and with the trap cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. However, wavelength dependence of the overlap of the strongly focused laser beam with the ion beam introduces distortions of the absorption spectrum. We have therefore applied a new method, combining the IR light with a slightly delayed, powerful UV pulse (266 nm). After absorption of three UV photons, the ions decay by delayed (thermal) electron emission, and time spectra are recorded for varying wavelength. The fraction of ions heated by absorption of a single IR photon is then extracted from a principal component analysis of these spectra. In good agreement with the earlier REMPED experiment, an origin band for transitions between the two lowest electronic levels of the anion, with t1u and t1g symmetry, is observed at 9380 cm(-1), with strong sidebands from excitation of the two A(g) and eight H(g) vibrations. As before, a hot band is observed at about 9150 cm(-1) and assigned to a transition from an excited vibronic Jahn-Teller state. However, an earlier observed band at higher energy, interpreted as a transition from this excited state to an excited vibronic state in the t1g electronic level, is much weaker in the new measurements and could be an H(g) vibrational sideband. Also earlier studies of direct laser detachment from C60(-) in the storage ring ASTRID have been revisited, with ions cooled by liquid nitrogen in the ion trap. We confirm the previous measurement with a determination of the threshold for s-wave detachment at 2.664 ± 0.005 eV, slightly lower than a recent value of the electron binding, 2.683 ± 0.008 eV, obtained from the energy spectrum of

  3. Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River basin, northeastern California, and streamflow predictability, water years 1971-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koczot, Kathryn M.; Jeton, Anne E.; McGurk, Bruce; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation-runoff processes in the Feather River Basin of northern California determine short- and long-term streamflow variations that are of considerable local, State, and Federal concern. The river is an important source of water and power for the region. The basin forms the headwaters of the California State Water Project. Lake Oroville, at the outlet of the basin, plays an important role in flood management, water quality, and the health of fisheries as far downstream as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Existing models of the river simulate streamflow in hourly, daily, weekly, and seasonal time steps, but cannot adequately describe responses to climate and land-use variations in the basin. New spatially detailed precipitation-runoff models of the basin have been developed to simulate responses to climate and land-use variations at a higher spatial resolution than was available previously. This report characterizes daily rainfall, snowpack evolution, runoff, water and energy balances, and streamflow variations from, and within, the basin above Lake Oroville. The new model's ability to predict streamflow is assessed. The Feather River Basin sits astride geologic, topographic, and climatic divides that establish a hydrologic character that is relatively unusual among the basins of the Sierra Nevada. It straddles a north-south geologic transition in the Sierra Nevada between the granitic bedrock that underlies and forms most of the central and southern Sierra Nevada and volcanic bedrock that underlies the northernmost parts of the range (and basin). Because volcanic bedrock generally is more permeable than granitic, the northern, volcanic parts of the basin contribute larger fractions of ground-water flow to streams than do the southern, granitic parts of the basin. The Sierra Nevada topographic divide forms a high altitude ridgeline running northwest to southeast through the middle of the basin. The topography east of this ridgeline is more like the rain

  4. Late Cenozoic sedimentation in Pilot Knob Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittase, W. M.; Walker, J. D.; Kirby, E.; Andrew, J.; Wan, E.

    2012-12-01

    In Pilot Knob Valley (PKV), active inversion of a Pliocene-mid Pleistocene basin presents the opportunity to understand the spatial and temporal development of an enigmatic basin astride a major transform boundary in California. Here, a ~1000-m-thick package of exposed Late Cenozoic strata has been uplifted and tilted to the northeast. Based on new age and provenance data, we adopt the name Pilot Knob formation (PKfm) to describe much of these exposed rocks north of the Garlock fault (GF) and east of Christmas Canyon gate. Post-Miocene development of PKV is strongly influenced by the sinistral GF, the newly identified Marine Gate fault (MGF) and dextral Eastern California shear zone. The PKfm consists of three lithofacies members, from base to top: (1) rocks derived from Eagle Crags to the south; (2) Randsburg Wash lacustrine rocks; and (3) an upper member derived from the Slate Range. Tephrochronologic data from four PKfm ash samples brackets deposition of lacustrine Randsburg Wash Member rocks between 3.7-3.1 Ma and lacustrine rocks of the Slate Range Member between 1.2-0.6 Ma. A fifth tephrochronologic sample from lacustrine-distal alluvial sediments south of the GF near Christmas Canyon brackets deposition of a possible PKfm facies at ~3.1 Ma. A 3-stage tectonic model for northern PKV explains changing provenance patterns. Prior to ~3.1 Ma, the western PKV paleo-low lay north of the current GF adjacent to the southern Slate Range and connected to Searles Valley. The MGF cuts adjacent to the southern face of the Slate Range and southern Searles Valley with up to 7.5 km of sinistral oblique-normal slip between ~5-2.5 Ma. Eagle Crags fanglomerate deposition may continue after 3.7 Ma west of the Randsburg Wash-Searles Valley spillway, but these rocks have been eroded away. By ~3.7 Ma, northward progradation of Eagle Crags fanglomerate waned and lacustrine sediments were deposited north of the GF and east of the Randsburg Wash-Searles Valley spillway. At ~3.1 Ma

  5. Unraveling the geodynamic evolution and tectonic history of the Guatemala Suture Zone: a world-class natural laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, K. E.; Brocard, G. Y.; Harlow, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Guatemala Suture Zone (GSZ) is the fault-bound region in central Guatemala that contains the present North American-Caribbean plate boundary. It is bounded by the Maya Block to the north and by the Chortís Block to the south. This major composite geotectonic unit contains a variety of ophiolites, serpentinite mélanges, and metavolcano-sedimentary sequences along with high-grade schist, gneisses, low-grade metasediments and metagranites thrusted north and south of the active Motagua fault system (MFS). This modern plate boundary has accommodated at least ~1100 km of left-lateral strike-slip motion over the Cenozoic and brings into contact the geological provinces described above. Classically, the GSZ has been interpreted as the result of a single progressive collision of a Chortís Block-related island arc with the passive margin of the Maya Block. This model was based on geochemical signatures of basaltic rocks in oceanic crust sequences both north and south of the MFS. However, results from our research challenge this single collision hypothesis. Oceanic and continental high-pressure-low-temperature (HP-LT) rocks astride the MFS have recorded multiple tectonic events revealed by their multiple metamorphic ages (Sm-Nd, U-Pb and Ar-Ar) and distinct PT paths. These tectonic events differ in age north and south of the MFS. Moreover, the continental and oceanic sequences across the MFS are geochemically and stratigraphically distinct, suggesting different tectonic origins. The southern margin of the Maya Block and the northern section of the GSZ can be clearly interpreted as a Cretaceous-Paleocene flexural passive margin tectonically overridden by ultramafic rocks and a Cretaceous island arc sequence. In contrast, the southern section of the GSZ is composed of a Carboniferous-Jurassic active margin tectonically imbricated with ultramafic rocks and a circum-Pacific Jurassic MORB and IAT metavolcano-sedimentary sequence. Thus, based on these results, we identify at

  6. Surface faults in the gulf coastal plain between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verbeek, E.R.

    1979-01-01

    Displacement of the land surface by faulting is widespread in the Houston-Galveston region, an area which has undergone moderate to severe land subsidence associated with fluid withdrawal (principally water, and to a lesser extent, oil and gas). A causative link between subsidence and fluid extraction has been convincingly reported in the published literature. However, the degree to which fluid withdrawal affects fault movement in the Texas Gulf Coast, and the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are as yet unclear. Faults that offset the ground surface are not confined to the large (>6000-km2) subsidence "bowl" centered on Houston, but rather are common and characteristic features of Gulf Coast geology. Current observations and conclusions concerning surface faults mapped in a 35,000-km2 area between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas (which area includes the Houston subsidence bowl) may be summarized as follows: 1. (1) Hundreds of faults cutting the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments exposed in the coastal plain have been mapped. Many faults lie well outside the Houston-Galveston region; of these, more than 10% are active, as shown by such features as displaced, fractured, and patched road surfaces, structural failure of buildings astride faults, and deformed railroad tracks. 2. (2) Complex patterns of surface faults are common above salt domes. Both radial patterns (for example, in High Island, Blue Ridge, Clam Lake, and Clinton domes) and crestal grabens (for example, in the South Houston and Friendswood-Webster domes) have been recognized. Elongate grabens connecting several known and suspected salt domes, such as the fault zone connecting Mykawa, Friendswood-Webster, and Clear Lake domes, suggest fault development above rising salt ridges. 3. (3) Surface faults associated with salt domes tend to be short (10 km), occur singly or in simple grabens, have gently sinuous traces, and tend to lie roughly parallel to the ENE-NE "coastwise" trend common to regional growth

  7. Imaging the SE Caribbean Accretionary Boundary: Results from the BOLIVAR Seismic Reflection and Refraction data at 65W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, M.; Zelt, C. A.; Sawyer, D.; Levander, A.

    2005-12-01

    We describe a N-S, ~550 km long onshore-offshore profile at approximately 65oW., which is one of the principal seismic reflection and refraction transects acquired in 2004 as part of the Broadband Ocean and Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region (BOLIVAR) experiment. Goals of BOLIVAR are to understand the complex history of the progressive oblique collision between the Leeward Antilles arc and South America that has taken place since the late Cretaceous, and to unravel the mechanisms responsible for continental growth of the South American continent through arc accretion. The transect starts ~330 km offshore northern Venezuela, in the Venezuela Basin, crosses the South America/Caribbean incipient subduction zone, the Los Roques canyon, the ABC ridge, the Tuy-Cariaco Trough (bounded by the El Pilar-Moron dextral strike-slip system), and crosses the coast east of Barcelona, Ve., continues south 175 km through the Espino Graben, and the Eastern Venezuela Basin. Multi-channel seismic reflection data were acquired by the R/V Ewing along the offshore portion of the profile, while 7 ocean bottoms seismometers (offshore) and 485 Reftek Texans (onland) recorded the Ewing airgun shots. In addition two large land shots (600 kg and 1000 kg of pentanol) were recorded by the land stations, providing reversed refraction coverage. The profile is located in a unique position along the South America/Caribbean plate boundary as it lies astride a transfer zone between the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt, where the Caribbean plate is subducting beneath South America, and the eastern Venezuela strike-slip boundary and modern Antilles volcanic arc, where the South American plate subducts beneath the Caribbean. The structure and motion across this apparent transfer zone are unknown. The seismic data show that this area is characterized by a basement high, with little sediment coverage and velocities as high as 6.5-6.7 km/s at a depth of 8-10 km. North of the coast

  8. Through the Eye of the Needle: The Separator and its Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Mozer, F. S.; Maynard, N. C.; Russell, C. T.

    2001-05-01

    The observed properties of the electromagnetic field and the plasma at and around a magnetic separator observed on May 29, 1996 with the ISTP GGS Polar satellite will be discussed. The electron pressure ridge will be illustrated astride the current layer, and the ion flow will be shown to impinge on the separator with MA ~= 0.1 and leave along the pressure ridge with MA ~= 1.1 33 traversals of rotational shear layers have been documented in this interval using the electron form of the Walen test. The electron fluid velocity is shown to have strong parallel Mach number enhancements along the separatrices, with peak parallel Alfven mach numbers of 4.5 that are probably limited by plasma time resolution (4.3s). These are similar in location to those in two fluid, hybrid, and particle - particle simulations of collisionless reconnection. The direct detection of the parallel electric field in the vicinity of the separator is shown in all cases to be limited by the so called Vasyliunas limit, $ E∥ <= O(1)√ {{{kTe}/{2m_ic2}}}| B|, that corresponds to the scale length of the pressure gradient being limited by the scale \\rho_s = \\beta_e^{1\\over2}{c\\over {\\omegapi}} seen to be important in the multi-species analysis of collisionless reconnection. In turn, the electron gas is shown at times not to drift at the E \\times B drift speed, but have substantial drifts perpendicular to B of a sense implied by the pressure divergences that cause the parallel electric field. Two techniques have been introduced to demonstrate the spectacular enhancement of the departures from cylindrical symmetry exhibited by the electrons as the separator null field region is traversed. Using totally separate arguments, the thermal electrons are shown to be clearly unmagnetized within the {c\\over{\\omegape}}$ scales about the separator, with the thermal gyroradius 10-30 times the scale length of B in this vicinity. At the moment level this demagnetization shows up as the loss of gyrotropy

  9. Silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas and in the system K2O-FeO-AI2O3-SiO2: an example of serendipity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of silicate liquid immiscibility was invoked early in the history of petrology to explain certain pairs of compositionally divergent rocks, but. as a result of papers by Greig (Am. J. Sci. 13, 1-44, 133-154) and Bowen (The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks), it fell into disfavor for many years. The discovery of immiscibility in geologically reasonable temperature ranges and compositions in experimental work on the system K2O-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2, and of evidence for immiscibility in a variety of lunar and terrestrial rocks, has reinstated the process. Phase equilibria in the high-silica corner of the tetrahedron representing the system K2O- FeO-Al2O3-SiO2 are presented, in the form of constant FeO sections through the tetrahedron, at 10% increments. Those sections, showing the tentative relationships of the primary phase volumes, are based on 5631 quenching runs on 519 compositions, made in metallic iron containers in pure nitrogen. Thirteen crystalline compounds are involved, of which at least six show two or more crystal modifica-tions. Two separate phase volumes, in each of which two immiscible liquids, one iron-rich and the other iron-poor, are present at the liquidus. One of these volumes is entirely within the quaternary system, astride the 1:1 K2O:Al2O3 plane. No quaternary compounds as such have been found, but evidence does point toward at least partial quaternary solid solution, with rapidly lowering liquidus temperatures, from K2O??Al2O3?? 2SiO2 ('potash nepheline', kalsilite. kaliophilite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??3SiO2, and from K2O??Al2O3??4SiO2 (leucite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??5SiO2, Both of these series apparently involve substitution, in tetrahedral coordination. of a ferrous iron and a silicon ion for two aluminum ions. Some of the 'impurities' found in analyses of the natural phases may reflect these substitutions. As a result of the geometry of the immiscibility volume located entirely within the quaternary

  10. Removal of daytime thermal deformations in the GBT active surface via out-of-focus holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. R.; Mello, M.; Nikolic, B.; Mason, B. S.; Schwab, F. R.; Ghigo, F. D.; Dicker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    The 100-m diameter Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built with an active surface of 2209 actuators in order to achieve and maintain an accurate paraboloidal shape. While much of the large-scale gravitational deformation of the surface can be described by a finite element model, a significant uncompensated gravitational deformation exists. In recent years, the elevation-dependence of this residual deformation has been successfully measured during benign nighttime conditions using the out-of-focus (OOF) holography technique (Nikolic et al, 2007, A&A 465, 685). Parametrized by a set of Zernike polynomials, the OOF model correction was implemented into the active surface and has been applied during all high frequency observations since Fall 2006, yielding a consistent gain curve that is constant with elevation. However, large-scale thermal deformation of the surface has remained a problem for daytime high-frequency observations. OOF holography maps taken throughout a clear winter day indicate that surface deformations become significant whenever the Sun is above 10 degrees elevation, but that they change slowly while tracking a single source. In this paper, we describe a further improvement to the GBT active surface that allows an observer to measure and compensate for the thermal surface deformation using the OOF technique. In order to support high-frequency observers, "AutoOOF" is a new GBT Astrid procedure that acquires a quick set of in-focus and out-of-focus on-the-fly continuum maps on a quasar using the currently active receiver. Upon completion of the maps, the data analysis software is launched automatically which produces and displays the surface map along with a set of Zernike coefficients. These coefficients are then sent to the active surface manager which combines them with the existing gravitational Zernike terms and FEM in order to compute the total active surface correction. The end-to-end functionality has been tested on the sky at Q-Band and Ka

  11. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  12. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  13. Partners in Chemical Education: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industry - Education Initiatives in Chemistry edited by J. N. Lazonby and D. J. Waddington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Hal

    1997-06-01

    What is the place of industrial chemistry in the curriculum? Since virtually every kind of chemistry is used to produce commercial products, what is the difference between industrial and any other type? Most of the chemists that we educate will work in one of the chemical industries, and the nonmajors in our classes also should understand some of the practical chemistry that makes possible the world in which they live. The chemical industry would like to be respected (or at least not feared) for its essential role in modern societies. All of these threads met at a conference at University of York, whose proceedings were recently published. Every even-numbered year, the IUPAC sponsors a big International Conference on Chemical Education that encompasses the whole gamut of issues and developments in the field. The conference of which this volume is the Proceedings occurred in late summer, 1995, an off year for the big conference, and was designed to attract a smaller audience to a more specific topic. Given the current interest from both the academic and industrial sides of the subject of joint efforts, it is not surprising that the organizers at University of York were able to attract a sizable number of participants and a page full of industrial donors to what appears to have been a very successful five-day meeting. The Proceedings are organized into Plenary Lectures, Symposia, Workshops, and Poster Papers, but the conference itself included displays, industrial visits, informal events, and other activities that could not be captured on paper. The Plenary Lectures included contributions from both the industry and academic speakers, as well as three lectures describing Chemistry and Industry Centers, which are enhanced science museums that emphasize the role of the chemical industry. Joost Douma and Astrid van de Graaf (Prototyping for the 21st Century) described plans for such an enterprise (IMPULS), to open in April 1997 in Amsterdam. T. M. Alagiri Swamy Raju

  14. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

    2007-08-01

    ElectroMechanical Systems MEMS, Micro- Opto-ElectroMechanical Systems MOEMS and new materials to achieve low mass at high performance. Thereby it will profit from Swedish developments and heritage in small- / microsatellites like Astrid-2, SMART-1 or the upcoming rendezvous and formation flying demonstration mission PRISMA.

  15. Earthquake precursors in the ionosphere: electrical linkage provided by the fundamental physics of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles

    2013-04-01

    For more than a decade, evidence has been mounting that major earthquakes may be preceded, days to weeks later, by the appearance of local changes in electron density-gradient in the Earth's ionosphere above that area. Such linkage, albeit co-seismic, has been observed even when the earthquake was deep below electrically conducting seawater [1]. This appears to rule out many of the kinds of linkage that have been proposed. My inquiry as to the nature of the physical mechanism by which gravitational force is developed has led me to the surprising finding that the Newtonian potential is inevitably always accompanied by a corresponding positive-body-repelling radial electric field. I have called this the Gravity-Electric (G-E) field and have adduced evidence for its action at many astronomical scales [2 -4]. After outlining the reasoning that has led me to this result I will refer to observations which suggest that the G-E field is indeed the precursor link that we seek. Time permitting, I will show briefly how the likelihood of an ionospheric precursor will, in this case, depend on the plate dynamical mechanism and nature of the pre-quake deformation. Historical background. Newton's work on gravitation astride the end of the 17th century concentrated on the behaviour of the force, not upon its origin.. But he already endorsed the idea of an ubiquitously intervening aether tp convey the force and, as Huygens had already reasoned, also to transmit light waves. Then, in the 1860s, people [5, 6] started to think of fundamental particles as being aether in a vortex-like motion which would, by mutual attraction, provide their mass property and gravitation. In such a set-up, particles and the aether around them would not be dynamically independent, so the Michelson-Morley experiment, 20 years later [7], could equally have been interpreted as supporting that situation, not as disproving the existence of the aether. But, in setting up Relativity (1905-1916), Einstein took the

  16. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    appreciated non-astronomical session on Tuesday afternoon; Sigbritt Ernald provided a rich source of suggestions for suitable interesting persons to invite for the stimulating and highly enjoyable oral and musical presentations. While the responsibilities of the SOC are quite pleasant and frankly not particularly demanding, the heavy burden with organizing a conference falls squarely with the Local Organizing Committee, which has to deal with a seemingly never-ending stream of practicalities and more mundane chores. The main reason the Stellar Journey conference was such an astounding success and ran so smoothly is the tireless work by the whole LOC. All of us owe a great deal of gratitude to Paul Barklem, Nils Bergvall, Norbert Christlieb, Bengt Edvardsson (Chair), Kjell Eriksson, Ulrike Heiter, Susanne Höfner, Andreas Korn, Nikolai Piskunov, Bertrand Plez and Astrid Wachter for their extensive efforts. I'd like to also extend a special acknowledgement to all of the Uppsala students who helped out during the reception, registration and various sessions. Last but not the least, I'd like to thank all of the conference participants for giving such excellent talks and for providing stimulating discussions throughout the week. It is telling that essentially everyone invited to participate in the conference almost immediately accepted while the very few who declined did so only reluctantly due to other prior commitments. Bengt is a highly regarded colleague and friend, whom we all wished to celebrate this special occasion with. This conference represented merely one brief stop on a marvellous and truly stellar journey. I dare say that without exception we are all deeply thankful for having been able to join Bengt Gustafsson on at least some of his many cosmic adventures during the past decades. We trust that this exciting odyssey will continue for many years.

  17. Earthquake precursors in the ionosphere: electrical linkage provided by the fundamental physics of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles

    2013-04-01

    For more than a decade, evidence has been mounting that major earthquakes may be preceded, days to weeks later, by the appearance of local changes in electron density-gradient in the Earth's ionosphere above that area. Such linkage, albeit co-seismic, has been observed even when the earthquake was deep below electrically conducting seawater [1]. This appears to rule out many of the kinds of linkage that have been proposed. My inquiry as to the nature of the physical mechanism by which gravitational force is developed has led me to the surprising finding that the Newtonian potential is inevitably always accompanied by a corresponding positive-body-repelling radial electric field. I have called this the Gravity-Electric (G-E) field and have adduced evidence for its action at many astronomical scales [2 -4]. After outlining the reasoning that has led me to this result I will refer to observations which suggest that the G-E field is indeed the precursor link that we seek. Time permitting, I will show briefly how the likelihood of an ionospheric precursor will, in this case, depend on the plate dynamical mechanism and nature of the pre-quake deformation. Historical background. Newton's work on gravitation astride the end of the 17th century concentrated on the behaviour of the force, not upon its origin.. But he already endorsed the idea of an ubiquitously intervening aether tp convey the force and, as Huygens had already reasoned, also to transmit light waves. Then, in the 1860s, people [5, 6] started to think of fundamental particles as being aether in a vortex-like motion which would, by mutual attraction, provide their mass property and gravitation. In such a set-up, particles and the aether around them would not be dynamically independent, so the Michelson-Morley experiment, 20 years later [7], could equally have been interpreted as supporting that situation, not as disproving the existence of the aether. But, in setting up Relativity (1905-1916), Einstein took the