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Sample records for astronaut extravehicular activity

  1. Astronaut Noriega During Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image, STS-97 astronaut and mission specialist Carlos I. Noriega waves at a crew member inside Endeavor's cabin during the mission's final session of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor on November 30, 2000, the STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  2. Astronaut Kathryn Thornton during second HST extravehicular activity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-06

    STS061-95-028 (6 Dec 1993) --- Astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton, on the end of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, hovers over equipment associated with servicing chores on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the second extravehicular activity (EVA) on the eleven-day mission. Astronauts Thornton and Thomas D. Akers changed out the solar array panels during this EVA.

  3. ASTRONAUT KERWIN, JOSEPH P. - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - SKYLAB (SL)-2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-01

    S73-27562 (June 1973) --- Scientist-astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the station. Kerwin is just outside the Airlock Module. Kerwin assisted astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, during the successful EVA attempt to free the stuck solar array system wing on the Orbital Workshop. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Astronaut Charles Conrad during extravehicular activity on lunar surface

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-20

    AS12-48-7149 (20 Nov. 1969) --- A close-up view of astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, photographed during the extravehicular activity (EVA) on the surface of the moon. An EVA checklist is on Conrad's left wrist. A set of tongs, an Apollo Lunar Hand Tool (ALHT), is held in his right hand. Several footprints can be seen. Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while astronauts Conrad and Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, descended in the LM to explore the moon. Note lunar soil on the suit of Conrad, especially around the knees and below.

  5. STS-61B Astronaut Spring During EASE Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  6. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  7. STS-110 Astronaut Jerry Ross Performs Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 (S-zero) truss and preparing the first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter. The 27,000 pound S0 truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver space walkers around the Station and was the first time all of a shuttle crew's space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. In this photograph, Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist, anchored on the end of the Canadarm2, moves near the newly installed S0 truss. Astronaut Lee M. E. Morin, mission specialist, (out of frame), worked in tandem with Ross during this fourth and final scheduled session of EVA for the STS-110 mission. The final major task of the space walk was the installation of a beam, the Airlock Spur, between the Quest Airlock and the S0. The spur will be used by space walkers in the future as a path from the airlock to the truss.

  8. Extravehicular Activity/Air Traffic Control (EVA/ATC) test report. [communication links to the astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaro, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), communications between the EVA astronaut and the space shuttle orbiter are maintained by means of transceiver installed in the environmental support system backpack. Onboard the orbiter, a transceiver line replaceable unit and its associated equipment performs the task of providing a communications link to the astronaut in the extravehicular activity/air traffic control (EVA/ATC) mode. Results of the acceptance tests that performed on the system designed and fabricated for EVA/ATC testing are discussed.

  9. Views of the extravehicular activity of Astronaut Stewart during STS 41-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Close up frontal view of Astronaut Robert L. Stewart, mission specialist, as he participates in a extravehicular activity (EVA), a few meters away from the cabin of the shuttle Challenger. The open payload bay is reflected in his helmet visor as he faces the camera. Stewart is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and one of the manned maneuvering units (MMU) developed for this mission.

  10. Views of the extravehicular activity of Astronaut Stewart during STS 41-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Close up frontal view of Astronaut Robert L. Stewart, mission specialist, as he participates in a extravehicular activity (EVA), a few meters away from the cabin of the shuttle Challenger. The open payload bay is reflected in his helmet visor as he faces the camera. Stewart is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and one of the manned maneuvering units (MMU) developed for this mission.

  11. Astronaut Allen during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In the JSC Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, astronaut Andrew M. Allen retrieves gear to rehearse a suit-donning exercise on the middeck. Allen's very realistic environs are provided by the shuttle crew compartment trainer (CCT).

  12. Testing and evaluation for astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) operability.

    PubMed

    Shields, N; King, L C

    1998-09-01

    Because it is the human component that defines space mission success, careful planning is required to ensure that hardware can be operated and maintained by crews on-orbit. Several methods exist to allow researchers and designers to better predict how hardware designs will behave under the harsh environment of low Earth orbit, and whether designs incorporate the necessary features for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) operability. Testing under conditions of simulated microgravity can occur during the design concept phase when verifying design operability, during mission training, or concurrently with on-orbit mission operations. The bulk of testing is focused on normal operations, but also includes evaluation of credible mission contingencies or "what would happen if" planning. The astronauts and cosmonauts who fly these space missions are well prepared and trained to survive and be productive in Earth's orbit. The engineers, designers, and training crews involved in space missions subject themselves to Earth based simulation techniques that also expose them to extreme environments. Aircraft falling ten thousand feet, alternating g-loads, underwater testing at 45 foot depth, enclosure in a vacuum chamber and subject to thermal extremes, each carries with it inherent risks to the humans preparing for space missions.

  13. Astronaut Ed White - Gemini-4 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30432 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  14. Astronaut Edward White - Gemini IV Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30429 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  15. STS-11 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-1 - Astronaut McCandless, Bruce

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-02-23

    S84-27562 (7 Feb. 1984) --- Astronaut Bruce McCandless II, one of two 41B mission specialists participating in a historical Extravehicular Activity (EVA), is a few meters away from the cabin of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger in this 70mm frame. This Extravehicular Activity (EVA) represented the first use of a nitrogen-propelled, hand-controlled device called the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), which allows for much greater mobility than that afforded previous spacewalkers who had to use restrictive tethers. Robert L. Stewart later tried out the MMU McCandless is using here, and the two of them tested another similar unit two days later. Inside the spacecraft were astronauts Vance D. Brand, commander; Robert L. Gibson, pilot; and Ronald E. McNair, mission specialist. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  17. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EXTRA-VEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - ASTRONAUT WILLIAM A. ANDERS - TRAINING - PATRICK AFB (PAFB), FL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-11

    S66-47856 (11 Aug. 1966) --- Astronaut William A. Anders, backup crew pilot of the Gemini-11 spaceflight, participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training under zero-gravity conditions aboard a KC-135 aircraft from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. He is suited, and he also wears an Extravehicular Life Support System (ELSS) chest pack. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Some psychological and engineering aspects of the extravehicular activity of astronauts.

    PubMed

    Khrunov, E V

    1973-01-01

    One of the main in-flight problems being fulfilled by astronauts is the preparation for and realization of egress into open space for the purpose of different kinds of extravehicular activity, such as, the performance of scientific experiments, repairing and dismantling operations etc. The astronaut's activity outside the space vehicle is the most difficult item of the space flight programme, which is complicated by a number of space factors affecting a man, viz. dynamic weightlessness, work in a space suit under conditions of excessive pressure, difficulties of space orientation etc. The peculiarities mentioned require special training of the cosmonaut. The physical training involves a series of exercises forming the body-control habits necessary for work in a state of weightlessness. In a new kind of training use is made of equipment simulating the state of weightlessness. From analysis of the available data and the results of my own investigations during ground training and the Soyuz 4 and 5 flights one can establish the following peculiarities of the astronaut's extravehicular activity: (1) Operator response lag in the planned algorithm; (ii) systematic appearance of some stereotype errors in the mounting and dismantling of the outer equipment and in scientific-technical experiments; (iii) a high degree of emotional strain and 30-35% decrease in in-flight working capacity of the astronaut compared with the ground training data; (iv) a positive influence of space adaptation on the cosmonaut and the efficiency of his work in open space; (v) the necessity for further engineering and psychological analysis of the astronaut's activity under conditions of the long space flight of the multi-purpose orbital station. One of the main reasons for the above peculiarities is the violation of the control-coordination functions of the astronaut in the course of the dynamical operations. The paper analyses the extravehicular activity of the astronaut and presents some

  19. An anthropomorphic hand exoskeleton to prevent astronaut hand fatigue during extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Shields, B L; Main, J A; Peterson, S W; Strauss, A M

    1997-09-01

    This correspondence presents a prototype of a powered hand exoskeleton that is designed to fit over the gloved hand of an astronaut and offset the stiffness of the pressurized space suit. This will keep the productive time spent in extravehicular activity from being constrained by hand fatigue. The exoskeleton has a three-finger design, the third and fourth fingers being combined to lighten and simplify the assembly. The motions of the hand are monitored by an array of pressure sensors mounted between the exoskeleton and the hand. Controller commands are determined by a state-of-the-art programmable microcontroller using pressure sensor input. These commands are applied to a PWM driven dc motor array which provides the motive power to move the exoskeleton fingers. The resultant motion of the exoskeleton allows the astronaut to perform both precision grasping tasks with the thumb and forefinger, as well as a power grasp with the entire hand.

  20. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-IV - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - ASTRONAUT WHITE - CREW TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-01

    S65-30428 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot on the Gemini-Titan 4 spaceflight, is shown during his egress from the spacecraft. His face is covered by a shaded visor to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun. White became the first American astronaut to walk in space. He remained outside the spacecraft for 21 minutes during the third revolution of the Gemini-4 mission. He wears a specially designed spacesuit for the extravehicular activity (EVA). In his right hand, he carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controlled his movements while in space. He was attached to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped together with gold tape to form one cord. He wears an emergency oxygen supply chest pack. Astronaut James A. McDivitt is command pilot for the Gemini-4 mission. EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  1. ASTRONAUT WHITE, EDWARD H. II - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-IV - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - CREW TRAINING

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30430 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot on the Gemini-Titan 4 spaceflight, is shown during his egress from the spacecraft. His face is covered by a shaded visor to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun. White became the first American astronaut to walk in space. He remained outside the spacecraft for 21 minutes during the third revolution of the Gemini-4 mission. He wears a specially designed spacesuit for the extravehicular activity (EVA). In his right hand, he carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controlled his movements while in space. He was attached to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped together with gold tape to form one cord. He wears an emergency oxygen supply chest pack. Astronaut James A. McDivitt is command pilot for the Gemini-4 mission. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  2. Risks due to X-ray flares during astronaut extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David S.; Scalo, John M.

    2007-06-01

    Solar hard X-ray flares can expose astronauts on lunar and deep space extravehicular activities (EVAs) to dangerous acute biological doses. We combine calculations of radiative transfer through shielding materials with subsequent transfer through tissue to show that hazardous doses, taken as >=0.1 Gy, should occur with a probability of about 10% per 100 hours of accumulated EVA inside the current spacesuit. The rapid onset and short duration of X-ray flares and the lack of viable precursor events require strategies for quick retreat, in contrast to solar proton events, which usually take hours to deliver significant fluence and can often be anticipated by flares or other light speed precursors. Our results contrast with the view that only particle radiation poses dangers for human space exploration. Heavy-element shields provide the most efficient protection from X-ray flares, since X rays produce no significant secondary radiation. We calculate doses due to X-ray flares behind aluminum shields and estimate the required shield masses to accompany EVA rovers.

  3. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  4. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  5. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L; Feiveson, Alan H

    2005-05-01

    Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  6. Dynamic analysis of astronaut motions in microgravity: Applications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of astronaut motions during extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks were performed using computational multibody dynamics methods. The application of computational dynamic simulation to EVA was prompted by the realization that physical microgravity simulators have inherent limitations: viscosity in neutral buoyancy tanks; friction in air bearing floors; short duration for parabolic aircraft; and inertia and friction in suspension mechanisms. These limitations can mask critical dynamic effects that later cause problems during actual EVA's performed in space. Methods of formulating dynamic equations of motion for multibody systems are discussed with emphasis on Kane's method, which forms the basis of the simulations presented herein. Formulation of the equations of motion for a two degree of freedom arm is presented as an explicit example. The four basic steps in creating the computational simulations were: system description, in which the geometry, mass properties, and interconnection of system bodies are input to the computer; equation formulation based on the system description; inverse kinematics, in which the angles, velocities, and accelerations of joints are calculated for prescribed motion of the endpoint (hand) of the arm; and inverse dynamics, in which joint torques are calculated for a prescribed motion. A graphical animation and data plotting program, EVADS (EVA Dynamics Simulation), was developed and used to analyze the results of the simulations that were performed on a Silicon Graphics Indigo2 computer. EVA tasks involving manipulation of the Spartan 204 free flying astronomy payload, as performed during Space Shuttle mission STS-63 (February 1995), served as the subject for two dynamic simulations. An EVA crewmember was modeled as a seven segment system with an eighth segment representing the massive payload attached to the hand. For both simulations, the initial configuration of the lower body (trunk, upper leg, and lower leg) was a neutral

  7. [Analysis of decompression safety during extravehicular activity of astronauts in the light of probability theory].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, V P; Katuntsev, V P

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of the study were comparative assessment of the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in human subjects during shirt-sleeve simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) following Russian and U.S. protocols, and analysis of causes of the difference between real and simulated EVA decompression safety. To this end, DCS risk during exposure to a sing-step decompression was estimated with an original method. According to the method, DCS incidence is determined by distribution of nucleation efficacy index (z) in the worst body tissues and its critical values (zm) as a function of initial nitrogen tension in these tissues and final ambient pressure post decompression. Gaussian distribution of z values was calculated basing on results of the DCS risk evaluation on the U.S. EVA protocol in an unsuited chamber test with various pre-breath procedures (Conkin et al., 1987). Half-time of nitrogen washout from the worst tissues was presumed to be 480 min. Calculated DCS risk during short-sleeve EVA simulation by the Russian and U.S. protocols with identical physical loading made up 19.2% and 23.4%, respectively. Effects of the working spacesuit pressure, spacesuit rigidity, metabolic rates during operations in EVA space suit, transcutaneous nitrogen exchange in the oxygen atmosphere of space suit, microgravity, analgesics, short compression due to spacesuit leak tests on the eye of EVA are discussed. Data of the study illustrate and advocate for high decompression safety of current Russian and U.S. EVA protocols.

  8. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  9. Astronauts Allen and Gemar during extravehicular activity (EVA) training in CCT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, and Andrew M. Allen participate in a training exercise at JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT), located in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility. Gemar sits inside the airlock as Allen reviews procedures for EVA.

  10. ASTRONAUT WHITE, EDWARD - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30433 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  11. EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - ASTRONAUT EDWARD H. WHITE II - MISC. - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-32924 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. (This image is black and white) Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  12. EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - ASTRONAUT EDWARD H. WHITE II - MISC. - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-32928 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his left hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. (This image is black and white) Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  13. ASTRONAUT WHITE, EDWARD H. II - GEMINI-IV - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - CREW TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-03

    S65-30431 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. Behind him is the brilliant blue Earth and its white cloud cover. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his left hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - EXTRAVEHICULAR LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM (ELSS) - ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT (AMU) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-33162 (May 1966) --- Test subject Fred Spross, Crew Systems Division, wears configured extravehicular spacesuit assembly and Extravehicular Life Support System chest pack. The spacesuit legs are covered with Chromel R, which is a cloth woven from stainless steel fibers, used to protect the suit and astronaut from the hot exhaust thrust of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit backpack. The Gemini spacesuit, backpack and chest pack comprise the AMU, a system which is essentially a miniature manned spacecraft. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan will wear the AMU during his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  15. Extravehicular activity system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouen, Michael N.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on the extravehicular activity system for space station evolution are presented. The following topics are addressed: (1) EVAS program status; (2) definition of EVAS baseline; (3) baseline functional requirements; (4) definition of evolutionary EVAS; (5) evolutionary EVAS functional requirements; and (6) technology status.

  16. Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; McBarron, James W.; Severin, Guy I.

    1995-10-01

    The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA). With an increased number of space suit systems and a higher operational frequency towards the end of this century an improved interoperability for both routine and emergency operations is of eminent importance. It is thus timely to report the current status of ongoing work on international EVA interoperability being conducted by the Committee on EVA Protocols and Operations of the International Academy of Astronautics initialed in 1991. This paper summarises the current EVA interoperability issues to be harmonised and presents quantified vehicle interface requirements for the current U.S. Shuttle EMU and Russian MIR Orlan DMA and the new European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 extravehicular systems. Major critical/incompatible interfaces for suits/mothercraft of different combinations arc discussed, and recommendations for standardisations given.

  17. Extravehicular activity space suit interoperability.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I; McBarron JW 2nd; Severin, G I

    1995-10-01

    The European Agency (ESA) and the Russian Space Agency (RKA) are jointly developing a new space suit system for improved extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities in support of the MIR Space Station Programme, the EVA Suit 2000. Recent national policy agreements between the U.S. and Russia on planned cooperations in manned space also include joint extravehicular activity (EVA). With an increased number of space suit systems and a higher operational frequency towards the end of this century an improved interoperability for both routine and emergency operations is of eminent importance. It is thus timely to report the current status of ongoing work on international EVA interoperability being conducted by the Committee on EVA Protocols and Operations of the International Academy of Astronauts initiated in 1991. This paper summarises the current EVA interoperability issues to be harmonised and presents quantified vehicle interface requirements for the current U.S. Shuttle EMU and Russian MIR Orlan DMA and the new European/Russian EVA Suit 2000 extravehicular systems. Major critical/incompatible interfaces for suits/mother-craft of different combinations are discussed, and recommendations for standardisations given.

  18. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - SUIT - EXTRAVEHICULAR LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM - ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT (AMU) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-33167 (May 1966) --- Test subject Fred Spross, Crew Systems Division, wears an Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). The Gemini spacesuit, AMU backpack, and the Extravehicular Life Support System chest pack comprises the AMU, a system which is essentially a miniature manned spacecraft. The spacesuit legs are covered with Chromel R, which is a cloth woven from stainless steel fibers, used to protect the suit and astronaut from the hot exhaust thrust of the AMU backpack. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan will wear the AMU during his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  19. Extravehicular - Astronaut Edward H. White II

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-30202 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot on the Gemini-Titan IV (GT-4) spaceflight, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. His face is covered by a shaded visor to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun. White became the first American astronaut to walk in space. He remained outside the spacecraft for 21 minutes during the third revolution of the Gemini IV mission. He wears a specially designed spacesuit for the EVA. He?s holding the Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU), with which he controlled his movements while in space, and a camera is attached to the HHSMU. He was attached to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped together with gold tape to form one cord. He wears an emergency oxygen supply check pack. Astronaut James A. McDivitt is command pilot for the GT-4 mission. The mission was a four-day, 62-revolution flight, during which McDivitt and White performed a series of scientific and engineering experiments. (This image is black and white) Photo credit: NASA EDITOR?S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy, Florida, on Jan. 27, 1967.

  20. Metabolic responses to simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Rendon, Lisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic control of the liquid cooling garment (LCG) worn by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA) would more efficiently regulate astronaut thermal comfort and improve astronaut productivity. An experiment was conducted in which subjects performed exercise profiles on a unique, supine upper body ergometer to elicit physiological and thermal responses similar to those achieved during zero-g EVAs. Results were analyzed to quantify metabolic rate, various body temperatures, and other heat balance parameters. Such data may lead to development of a microprocessor-based system to automatically maintain astronaut heat balance during extended EVAs.

  1. Metabolic responses to simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Rendon, Lisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic control of the liquid cooling garment (LCG) worn by astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA) would more efficiently regulate astronaut thermal comfort and improve astronaut productivity. An experiment was conducted in which subjects performed exercise profiles on a unique, supine upper body ergometer to elicit physiological and thermal responses similar to those achieved during zero-g EVAs. Results were analyzed to quantify metabolic rate, various body temperatures, and other heat balance parameters. Such data may lead to development of a microprocessor-based system to automatically maintain astronaut heat balance during extended EVAs.

  2. APOLLO XVII - SIMULATIONS (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA]) - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-07-17

    S72-44420 (8 June 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, prepares to remove a traverse gravimeter training mock-up from a Lunar Roving Vehicle for deployment during lunar surface extravehicular activity simulations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida.

  3. A biomedical sensor system for real-time monitoring of astronauts' physiological parameters during extra-vehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ding-Yu; Zhao, Xiaoming; Boanca, Cosmin; Hughes, Esther; Bai, Ou; Merrell, Ronald; Rafiq, Azhar

    2010-07-01

    To design and test an embedded biomedical sensor system that can monitor astronauts' comprehensive physiological parameters, and provide real-time data display during extra-vehicle activities (EVA) in the space exploration. An embedded system was developed with an array of biomedical sensors that can be integrated into the spacesuit. Wired communications were tested for physiological data acquisition and data transmission to a computer mounted on the spacesuit during task performances simulating EVA sessions. The sensor integration, data collection and communication, and the real-time data monitoring were successfully validated in the NASA field tests. The developed system may work as an embedded system for monitoring health status during long-term space mission. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extravehicular activity welding experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The In-Space Technology Experiments Program (INSTEP) provides an opportunity to explore the many critical questions which can only be answered by experimentation in space. The objective of the Extravehicular Activity Welding Experiment definition project was to define the requirements for a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the feasibility of performing manual welding tasks during EVA. Consideration was given to experiment design, work station design, welding hardware design, payload integration requirements, and human factors (including safety). The results of this effort are presented. Included are the specific objectives of the flight test, details of the tasks which will generate the required data, and a description of the equipment which will be needed to support the tasks. Work station requirements are addressed as are human factors, STS integration procedures and, most importantly, safety considerations. A preliminary estimate of the cost and the schedule for completion of the experiment through flight and postflight analysis are given.

  5. SKYLAB (SL)-3 CREWMEN - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITIES (EVA) PROCEDURES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-30

    S73-31323 (30 June 1973) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, practices procedures for extravehicular activity (EVA) in his Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit during Skylab 3 prelaunch training at Johnson Space Center. He is working with a mock-up of a trunion plug plate which is on the space station's deployment assembly. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Lunar Extravehicular Activity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heartsill, Amy Ellison

    2006-01-01

    Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has proven an invaluable tool for space exploration since the inception of the space program. There are situations in which the best means to evaluate, observe, explore and potentially troubleshoot space systems are accomplished by direct human intervention. EVA provides this unique capability. There are many aspects of the technology required to enable a "miniature spaceship" to support individuals in a hostile environment in order to accomplish these tasks. This includes not only the space suit assembly itself, but the tools, design interfaces of equipment on which EVA must work and the specific vehicles required to support transfer of humans between habitation areas and the external world. This lunar mission program will require EVA support in three primary areas. The first of these areas include Orbital stage EVA or micro-gravity EVA which includes both Low Earth Orbit (LEO), transfer and Lunar Orbit EVA. The second area is Lunar Lander EVA capability, which is lunar surface EVA and carries slightly different requirements from micro-gravity EVA. The third and final area is Lunar Habitat based surface EVA, which is the final system supporting a long-term presence on the moon.

  7. STS-64 extravehicular activity (EVA) hardware view

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-21

    S93-26920 (8 Sept. 1994) --- Scott Bleisath, an extravehicular activity (EVA) engineer, demonstrates the hand control module for the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system making its first flight on the scheduled September STS-64 mission. Astronauts Mark C. Lee and Carl J. Meade are the spacewalkers assigned to test the system in space. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  8. STS-64 extravehicular activity (EVA) hardware view

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-01-21

    S93-26918 (8 Sept. 1994) --- Scott Bleisath, an extravehicular activity (EVA) engineer, demonstrates the hand control module for the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system making its first flight on the scheduled September STS-64 mission. Astronauts Mark C. Lee and Carl J. Meade are the spacewalkers assigned to test the system in space. Unidentified technicians and engineers look on. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  9. STS-64 extravehicular activity training view

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-06-21

    S93-37899 (October 1993) --- Astronaut Jerry M. Linenger, STS-64 mission specialist, is assisted by Steve Voyles and Kari Rueter of Boeing Aerospace prior to participating in a rehearsal for a contingency extravehicular activity (EVA). Minutes later, Linenger was submerged in the 25-feet-deep pool in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  10. Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario Runco, mission specialist, prepares to participate in an underwater rehearsal of a contingency Extravehicular Activity (EVA). This type of training routinely takes place in the 25-feet deep pool of the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Center (WET-F). The training prepares at least two crew members on each flight for procedures to follow outside the spacecraft in event of failure of remote methods to perform various chores.

  11. Metabolic cost of extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The data on metabolic rates during Skylab extravehicular activities are presented and compared with prior experience during Gemini and Apollo. Difficulties experienced with Gemini extravehicular activities are reviewed. The effect of a pressure suit on metabolic rate is discussed and the life support equipment capabilities of each life support system are reviewed. The methods used to measure metabolic rate, utilizing bioinstrumentation and operational data on the life support system, are described. Metabolic rates are correlated with different activities. Metabolic rates in Skylab were found to be within the capacities of the life support systems and to be similar to the metabolic rates experienced during Apollo lunar 1/6-g extravehicular activities. They were found to range from 100 kcal/h to 500 kcal/h, during both 1/6-g and zero-g extravehicular activities. The average metabolic rates measured during long extravehicular activities were remarkably consistent and appeared to be a function of crew pacing of activity rather than to the effort involved in individual tasks.

  12. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and, as a result, crew members ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVAs, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVAs through the Apollo Program.

  13. SKYLAB (SL)-3 - TELEVISION (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA])

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-27

    S73-33161 (24 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, hooks up a 23-foot, two-inch connecting cable for the rate gyro six pack during extravehicular activity (EVA) on Aug. 24, 1973, as seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The rate gyros were mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter opposite the Apollo Telescope Mount control and display console. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity Through Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring crew health during manned space missions has always been an important factor to ensure that the astronauts can complete the missions successfully and within safe physiological limits. The necessity of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to complete EVA tasks exceeded the life support capabilities for cooling and humidity control and crewmembers (CMs) ended the EVAs fatigued and overworked. This paper discusses the importance of real-time monitoring of metabolic rate during EVA, and provides a historical look at energy expenditure during EVA through the Apollo program.

  15. CREW TRAINING (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA]) - STS-41G - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-07-06

    S84-36958 (29 June 1984) --- Astronaut Robert L. Crippen, 41-G crew commander, perches nearby an underwater simulation scene in the Johnson Space Center's weightless environment training facility (WET-F). Purpose of the rehearsal was to train two of the 41-G crew's mission specialists for a scheduled extravehicular activity (EVA). Out of frame are Astronauts Kathryn D. Sullivan, Jon A. McBride and David Leestma. Dr. Sullivan and Leestma donned extravehicular mobility units (EMU) for the simulation while Crippen and McBride monitored the activity. This photograph was taken by Otis Imboden.

  16. Robot hands and extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Beth

    1987-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is crucial to the success of both current and future space operations. As space operations have evolved in complexity so has the demand placed on the EVA crewman. In addition, some NASA requirements for human capabilities at remote or hazardous sites were identified. One of the keys to performing useful EVA tasks is the ability to manipulate objects accurately, quickly and without early or excessive fatigue. The current suit employs a glove which enables the crewman to perform grasping tasks, use tools, turn switches, and perform other tasks for short periods of time. However, the glove's bulk and resistance to motion ultimately causes fatigue. Due to this limitation it may not be possible to meet the productivity requirements that will be placed on the EVA crewman of the future with the current or developmental Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. In addition, this hardware will not meet the requirements for remote or hazardous operations. In an effort to develop ways for improving crew productivity, a contract was awarded to develop a prototype anthromorphic robotic hand (ARH) for use with an extravehicular space suit. The first step in this program was to perform a a design study which investigated the basic technology required for the development of an ARH to enhance crew performance and productivity. The design study phase of the contract and some additional development work is summarized.

  17. Extravehicular activity training and hardware design consideration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuot, P. J.; Harbaugh, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    Preparing astronauts to perform the many complex extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station will be accomplished through training simulations in a variety of facilities. The adequacy of this training is dependent on a thorough understanding of the task to be performed, the environment in which the task will be performed, high-fidelity training hardware and an awareness of the limitations of each particular training facility. Designing hardware that can be successfully operated, or assembled, by EVA astronauts in an efficient manner, requires an acute understanding of human factors and the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut. Additionally, the significant effect the microgravity environment has on the crew members' capabilities has to be carefully considered not only for each particular task, but also for all the overhead related to the task and the general overhead associated with EVA. This paper will describe various training methods and facilities that will be used to train EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance. User-friendly EVA hardware design considerations and recent EVA flight experience will also be presented.

  18. Extravehicular activity training and hardware design consideration.

    PubMed

    Thuot, P J; Harbaugh, G J

    1995-07-01

    Preparing astronauts to perform the many complex extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station will be accomplished through training simulations in a variety of facilities. The adequacy of this training is dependent on a thorough understanding of the task to be performed, the environment in which the task will be performed, high-fidelity training hardware and an awareness of the limitations of each particular training facility. Designing hardware that can be successfully operated, or assembled, by EVA astronauts in an efficient manner, requires an acute understanding of human factors and the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut. Additionally, the significant effect the microgravity environment has on the crew members' capabilities has to be carefully considered not only for each particular task, but also for all the overhead related to the task and the general overhead associated with EVA. This paper will describe various training methods and facilities that will be used to train EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance. User-friendly EVA hardware design considerations and recent EVA flight experience will also be presented.

  19. CREW TRAINING (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA]) - STS-41G - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-07-06

    S84-36956 (1 July 1984) --- Astronaut Robert L. Crippen, 41-G crew commander, prepares his SCUBA mask prior to submerging into the weightless environment training facility's 25 ft. deep pool to observe a simulation exercise for two fellow 41-G crewmembers assigned to an extravehicular activity (EVA) in space. Not pictured are Astronauts Kathryn D. Sullivan and David C. Leestma, mission specialists who will perform the EVA during the eight-day mission scheduled for October of this year.

  20. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  1. STS-121 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronaut Michael E. Fossum, STS-121 mission specialist, used a digital still camera to expose a photo of his helmet visor during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) while Space Shuttle Discovery was docked with the International Space Station (ISS). Also visible in the visor reflections are fellow space walker Piers J. Sellers, mission specialist, Earth's horizon, and a station solar array. During its 12-day mission, this utilization and logistics flight delivered a multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS with several thousand pounds of new supplies and experiments. In addition, some new orbital replacement units (ORUs) were delivered and stowed externally on the ISS on a special pallet. These ORUs are spares for critical machinery located on the outside of the ISS. During this mission the crew also carried out testing of Shuttle inspection and repair hardware, as well as evaluated operational techniques and concepts for conducting on-orbit inspection and repair.

  2. Apollo 14 Mission image - Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission, stands by the deployed U.S. flag on the lunar surface during the early moments of the first extravehicular activity (EVA-1) of the mission.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-05

    AS14-66-9233 (5 Feb. 1971) --- Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission, stands by the deployed U.S. flag on the lunar surface during the early moments of the first extravehicular activity (EVA) of the mission. He was photographed by astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., mission commander, using a 70mm modified lunar surface Hasselblad camera. While astronauts Shepard and Mitchell descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Antares" to explore the Fra Mauro region of the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Kitty Hawk" in lunar orbit.

  3. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, STS-117 Mission Specialist James Reilly works with equipment in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) as part of training for ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA). Equipment familiarization is a routine part of astronaut training and launch preparations.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-21

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Space Station Processing Facility, STS-117 Mission Specialist James Reilly works with equipment in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) as part of training for ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA). Equipment familiarization is a routine part of astronaut training and launch preparations.

  4. Apollo 15 - Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Panorama

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-02

    S71-43943 (2 Aug. 1971) --- Mosaic photographs which compose a 360-degree panoramic view of the Apollo 15 Hadley-Apennine landing site, taken near the close of the third lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) by astronauts David Scott and James Irwin. This group of photographs was designated the Rover "RIP" Pan because the Lunar Roving Vehicle was parked in its final position prior to the two crewmen returning to the Lunar Module. The astronaut taking the pan was standing 325 feet east of the Lunar Module (LM). The Rover was parked about 300 feet east of the LM. This mosaic covers a field of view from about north-northeast to about south. Visible on the horizon from left to right are: Mount Hadley; high peaks of the Apennine Mountains which are farther in the distance than either Mount Hadley or Hadley Delta Mountain; Silver Spur on the Apennine Front; and the eastern portion of Hadley Delta. Note Rover tracks in the foreground. The numbers of the other two views composing the 360-degree pan are S71-43940 and S71-43942.

  5. Apollo 15 - Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Panorama

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-02

    S71-43942 (2 Aug. 1971) --- This view is the second of a series of three mosaic photographs which compose a 360-degree panoramic view of the Apollo 15 Hadley-Apennine landing site, taken near the close of the third and final lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) by astronauts David R. Scott, commander, and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot. This group of photographs was designated the Rover "RIP" Pan because the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was parked in its final position prior to the two crew men returning to the Lunar Module (LM). The astronaut taking the pan was standing about 325 feet east of the LM. The LRV was parked about 300 feet east of the LM. This mosaic covers a field of view from about southeast to about west by northwest. Visible on the horizon from left to right are: Sliver Spur on the Apennine Front; Hadley Delta Mountain and St. George Crater; Bennett Hill; and the LM. The other two views which compose the 360-degree pan are S71-43940 and S71-43943.

  6. CREW TRAINING (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA]) - STS-41G - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-07-06

    S84-36954 (5 July 1984) --- Astronaut Kathryn D.Sullivan, 41-G mission specialist, gets some help with her extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) prior to participating in an underwater simultion of an extrvehicular activity (EVA) scheduled for her flight aboard the Columbia later this year. Dr. Sullivan and David C. Leestma (out of frame) participated in the rehearsal in NASA's weightless environment training facility (WET-F) at the Johnson Space Center.

  7. STS-64 Extravehicular activity (EVA) training view in WETF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-08-10

    S94-39762 (August 1994) --- Astronaut Carl J. Meade, STS-64 mission specialist, listens to ground monitors prior to a simulation of a spacewalk scheduled for his September mission. Meade, who shared the rehearsal in Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F) pool with crewmate astronaut Mark C. Lee (out of frame), is equipped with a training version of new extravehicular activity (EVA) hardware called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. The hardware includes a mobility-aiding back harness and a chest-mounted hand control module. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  8. STS-64 Extravehicular activity (EVA) training view in WETF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-08-10

    S94-39775 (August 1994) --- Astronaut Carl J. Meade, STS-64 mission specialist, listens to ground monitors during a simulation of a spacewalk scheduled for his September mission. Meade, who shared the rehearsal in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F) pool with crewmate astronaut Mark C. Lee, is equipped with a training version of new extravehicular activity (EVA) hardware called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. The hardware includes a mobility-aiding back harness and a chest-mounted hand control module. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  9. STS-64 Extravehicular activity (EVA) training view in WETF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-08-10

    S94-39770 (August 1994) --- Astronaut Carl J. Meade, STS-64 mission specialist, is being submerged prior to an underwater simulation of a spacewalk scheduled for his September mission. Meade, who shared the rehearsal in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F) pool with crewmate astronaut Mark C. Lee (partially visible at left), is equipped with a training version of new extravehicular activity (EVA) hardware called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  10. CREW TRAINING (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA]) - STS-41G - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-07-05

    S84-36898 (29 June 1984) --- Astronauts Robert L. Crippen (left) and Jon A. McBride, crew commander and pilot, respectively for NASA's 41-G Space Shuttle mission, await the delivery of self contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) gear prior to their going underwater to observe a simulation of an extravehicular activity (EVA) scheduled for their mission. The EVA will be performed by Astronauts Kathryn D. Sullivan and David C. Leestma, two of three mission specialists named for the seven-member crew. The underwater training took place in the Johnson Space Center's weightless environment training facility (WET-F).

  11. Television transmission at end of second extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Apollo 14 lunar module pilot, can be seen throwing a 'javelin' left handed during a television transmission near the close of the second extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro landing site. Mitchell used the staff of the Solar Wind Composition experiment as the 'javelin'. Behind Mitchell is Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander. Also visible in the picture are the erectable S-Band antenna (left foreground) and Lunar Module (left background) (20783); Shepard can be seen preparing to swing at a golf ball during television transmission at end of EVA-2 (20784).

  12. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 1 Translate and Ingress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-19

    S119-E-006688 (19 March 2009) --- Astronaut Steve Swanson, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, seven-minute spacewalk, Swanson and astronaut Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, connected bolts to permanently attach the S6 truss segment to S5. The spacewalkers plugged in power and data connectors to the truss, prepared a radiator to cool it, opened boxes containing the new solar arrays and deployed the Beta Gimbal Assemblies containing masts that support the solar arrays.

  13. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 1 Arnold in Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-19

    ISS018-E-041104 (19 March 2009) --- Astronaut Richard Arnold, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, seven-minute spacewalk, Arnold and astronaut Steve Swanson (out of frame), mission specialist, connected bolts to permanently attach the S6 truss segment to S5. The spacewalkers plugged in power and data connectors to the truss, prepared a radiator to cool it, opened boxes containing the new solar arrays and deployed the Beta Gimbal Assemblies containing masts that support the solar arrays. The blackness of space and Earth?s horizon provide the backdrop for the scene.

  14. Design of a reusable kinetic energy absorber for an astronaut safety tether to be used during extravehicular activities on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borthwick, Dawn E.; Cronch, Daniel F.; Nixon, Glen R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design a reusable safety device for a waist tether which will absorb the kinetic energy of an astronaut drifting away from the Space Station. The safety device must limit the tension of the tether line in order to prevent damage to the astronaut's space suit or to the structure of the spacecraft. The tether currently used on shuttle missions must be replaced after the safety feature has been developed. A reusable tether for the Space Station would eliminate the need for replacement tethers, conserving space and mass. This report presents background information, scope and limitations, methods of research and development, alternative designs, a final design solution and its evaluation, and recommendations for further work.

  15. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EARTH SKY - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-12

    S66-62926 (12 Nov. 1966) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot of the Gemini-12 spaceflight, is photographed with pilot's hatch of the spacecraft open. Note: J.A. Maurer camera which was used to photograph some of his extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. was the command pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  17. Television transmission at end of second extravehicular activity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-06

    S71-20784 (5 Feb. 1971) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Apollo 14 commander, can be seen preparing to swing at a golf ball during a television transmission near the close of the second Extravehicular Activity (EVA-2) at the Apollo 14 Fra Mauro landing site. Shepard is using a real golf ball and an actual six iron, attached to the end of the handle for the contingency sample return. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, looks on. Also visible in the picture is the erectable S-Band antenna (left foreground). Astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit, while Shepard and Mitchell descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  18. SIMUATION (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA]) - STS-23/51D - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-16

    S85-30878 (15 April 1985) --- Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, left, and Astronaut candidate Mark C. Lee rehearse the deployment of two specially designed flyswatter like tools on the end of the orbiter's remote manipulator system (RMS) arm. Their "dry" run of a planned Discovery STS 51-D extravehicular activity (EVA) is actually not so dry, since it is held in a 25 ft. deep pool, part of the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) weightless environment test facility (WET-F). Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman and S. David Griggs, two 51-D mission specialists, have been assigned the task of April 16's EVA. A rendezvous with the troubled Syncom IV (LEASAT) satellite has been scheduled for the day after the EVA, and an attempt will be made by the arm to trip an important lever on the troubled communications satellite.

  19. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  20. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Osipov YuYu; Spichkov, A N; Filipenkov, S N

    1998-01-01

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha' (ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  1. An extravehicular suit impact load attenuation study to improve astronaut bone fracture prediction.

    PubMed

    Sulkowski, Christina M; Gilkey, Kelly M; Lewandowski, Beth E; Samorezov, Sergey; Myers, Jerry G

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the contributions to the risk of bone fracture during spaceflight is essential for mission success. A pressurized extravehicular activity (EVA) suit analogue test bed was developed, impact load attenuation data were obtained, and the load at the hip of an astronaut who falls to the side during an EVA was characterized. Offset (representing the gap between the EVA suit and the astronaut's body), impact load magnitude, and EVA suit operating pressure were factors varied in the study. The attenuation data were incorporated into a probabilistic model of bone fracture risk during spaceflight, replacing the previous load attenuation value that was based on commercial hip protector data. Load attenuation was more dependent on offset than on pressurization or load magnitude, especially at small offset values. Load attenuation factors for offsets between 0.1-1.5 cm were 0.69 +/- 0.15, 0.49 +/- 0.22, and 0.35 +/- 0.18 for mean impact forces of 4827, 6400, and 8467 N, respectively. Load attenuation factors for offsets of 2.8-5.3 cm were 0.93 +/- 0.2, 0.94 +/- 0.1, and 0.84 +/- 0.5 for the same mean impact forces. The mean and 95th percentile bone fracture risk index predictions were each reduced by 65-83%. The mean and 95th percentile bone fracture probability predictions were both reduced approximately 20-50%. The reduction in uncertainty and improved confidence in bone fracture predictions increased the fidelity and credibility of the fracture risk model and its benefit to mission design and in-flight operational decisions.

  2. CREW TRAINING (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA]) - STS-13 - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-11-01

    S83-42893 (19 Oct 1983) ---- Astronauts George D. Nelson and James D. van Hoften, two of three STS-41C mission specialists, share an extravehicular activity (EVA) task in this simulation of a Solar Maximum Satellite (SMS) repair visit. The two are making use of the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) weightless environment training facility (WET-F). Dr. Nelson is equipped with the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) trainer and he handles the trunion pin attachment device (TPAD), a major tool to be used on the mission. The photograph was taken by Otis Imboden.

  3. Acaba during STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    ISS018-E-042502 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Joseph Acaba, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Acaba and Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  4. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Clean-Up OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007154 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Joseph Acaba, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Acaba and Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  5. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Clean-Up OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007129 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Joseph Acaba, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Acaba and Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  6. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Clean-Up OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007137 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Joseph Acaba, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Acaba and Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  7. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Clean-Up OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007128 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Joseph Acaba, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Acaba and Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  8. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Clean-Up OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007165 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Joseph Acaba, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Acaba and Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  9. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Clean-Up OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007134 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Joseph Acaba, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Acaba and Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  10. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Clean-Up OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007123 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Joseph Acaba, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Acaba and Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  11. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  12. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronaut Rex J. Walheim, accompanied by astronaut Steven L. Smith (out of frame) translates along the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS) during the third scheduled EVA session. The duo released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm. The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-Zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  13. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  14. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission astronauts Steven L. Smith (right) and Rex J. Walheim work in tandem on the third scheduled EVA session in which they released the locking bolts on the Mobile Transporter and rewired the Station's robotic arm (out of frame). Part of the Destiny laboratory and a glimpse of the Earth's horizon are seen in the lower portion of this digital image. The STS-110 mission prepared the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) Truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 truss weighing in at 27,000 pounds was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  15. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  16. STS-126 extravehicular activity (EVA) 3 Bowen in EMU

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-22

    ISS018-E-009339 (22 Nov. 2008) --- Astronaut Steve Bowen, STS-126 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 57-minute spacewalk, Bowen and astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, focused their efforts on the continued cleaning of the station's starboard solar alpha rotary joint (SARJ) and the removal and replacement of trundle bearing assemblies (TBA). Bowen and Piper also cleaned the area around the SARJ's drive lock assemblies, which help the joint to rotate and lock into place. Earth's horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  17. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  18. Extravehicular activity at geosynchronous earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William

    1988-01-01

    The basic contract to define the system requirements to support the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has three phases: EVA in geosynchronous Earth orbit; EVA in lunar base operations; and EVA in manned Mars surface exploration. The three key areas to be addressed in each phase are: environmental/biomedical requirements; crew and mission requirements; and hardware requirements. The structure of the technical tasks closely follows the structure of the Advanced EVA studies for the Space Station completed in 1986.

  19. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 101: Constellation EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Nicole C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Why do we need space suits? 2) Protection From the Environment; 3) Primary Life Support System (PLSS); 4) Thermal Control; 5) Communications; 6) Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assy; 7) Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assy; 8) Display and Controls Module (DCM); 9) Gloves; 10) Lower Torso Assembly (LTA); 11) What Size Do You Need?; 12) Boot and Sizing Insert; 13) Boot Heel Clip and Foot Restraint; 14) Advanced and Crew Escape Suit; 15) Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing; 16) Gemini Program (mid-1960s); 17) Apollo EVA on Service Module; 18) A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress; 19) EVA System Missions; 20) Configurations; 21) Reduced Gravity Program; and 22) Other Opportunities.

  20. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware & Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra; Marmolejo, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: Define Extravehicular Activity (EVA), identify the reasons for conducting an EVA, and review the role that EVA has played in the space program; Identify the types of EVAs that may be performed; Describe some of the U.S. Space Station equipment and tools that are used during an EVA, such as the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), the International Space Station (ISS) Joint Airlock and Russian Docking Compartment 1 (DC-1), and EVA Tools & Equipment; Outline the methods and procedures of EVA Preparation, EVA, and Post-EVA operations; Describe the Russian spacesuit used to perform an EVA; Provide a comparison between U.S. and Russian spacesuit hardware and EVA support; and Define the roles that different training facilities play in EVA training.

  1. The Extravehicular Suit Impact Load Attenuation Study for Use in Astronaut Bone Fracture Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Gilkey, Kelly M.; Sulkowski, Christina M.; Samorezov, Sergey; Myers, Jerry G.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fracture of the proximal femur is a traumatic injury that would likely result in loss of mission if it were to happen during spaceflight. The low gravity exposure causes decreases in bone mineral density which heightens the concern. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center have quantified bone fracture probability during spaceflight with a probabilistic model. It was assumed that a pressurized extravehicular activity (EVA) suit would attenuate load during a fall, but no supporting data was available. The suit impact load attenuation study was performed to collect analogous data. METHODS: A pressurized EVA suit analog test bed was used to study how the offset, defined as the gap between the suit and the astronaut s body, impact load magnitude and suit operating pressure affects the attenuation of impact load. The attenuation data was incorporated into the probabilistic model of bone fracture as a function of these factors, replacing a load attenuation value based on commercial hip protectors. RESULTS: Load attenuation was more dependent on offset than on pressurization or load magnitude, especially at small offsets. Load attenuation factors for offsets between 0.1 - 1.5 cm were 0.69 +/- 0.15, 0.49 +/- 0.22 and 0.35 +/- 0.18 for mean impact forces of 4827, 6400 and 8467 N, respectively. Load attenuation factors for offsets of 2.8 - 5.3 cm were 0.93 +/- 0.2, 0.94 +/- 0.1 and 0.84 +/- 0.5, for the same mean impact forces. Reductions were observed in the 95th percentile confidence interval of the bone fracture probability predictions. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in uncertainty and improved confidence in bone fracture predictions increased the fidelity and credibility of the fracture risk model and its benefit to mission design and operational decisions.

  2. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  3. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, Stephenie A.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, David G.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  4. The exercise and environmental physiology of extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Stephenie A; Stocks, Jodie M; Evans, David G; Simonson, Shawn R; Greenleaf, John E

    2002-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), i.e., exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is indispensable for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. From 1965-1996 an average of 20 h x yr(-1) were spent performing EVA. International Space Station (ISS) assembly will require 135 h x yr(-1) of EVA, and 138 h x yr(-1) is planned for post-construction maintenance. The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), used to protect astronauts during EVA, has a decreased pressure of 4.3 psi that could increase astronauts' risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Exercise in and repeated exposure to this hypobaria may increase the incidence of DCS, although weightlessness may attenuate this risk. Exercise thermoregulation within the EMU is poorly understood; the liquid cooling garment (LCG), worn next to the skin and designed to handle thermal stress, is manually controlled. Astronauts may become dehydrated (by up to 2.6% of body weight) during a 5-h EVA, further exacerbating the thermoregulatory challenge. The EVA is performed mainly with upper body muscles; but astronauts usually exercise at only 26-32% of their upper body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). For a given ground-based work task in air (as opposed to water), the submaximal VO2 is greater while VO2max and metabolic efficiency are lower during ground-based arm exercise as compared with leg exercise, and cardiovascular responses to exercise and training are also different for arms and legs. Preflight testing and training, whether conducted in air or water, must account for these differences if ground-based data are extrapolated for flight requirements. Astronauts experience deconditioning during microgravity resulting in a 10-20% loss in arm strength, a 20-30% loss in thigh strength, and decreased lower-body aerobic exercise capacity. Data from ground-based simulations of weightlessness such as bed rest induce a 6-8% decrease in upper-body strength, a 10-16% loss in thigh extensor

  5. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Breakout Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perka, Alan; Walz, Carl; Cobb, Sharon; Hanford, Anthony; Eppler, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document summarizes the workings of the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (AEVA) Breakout group in a Martian environment. The group was tasked with: identifying potential contaminants and pathways for AEVA systems with respect to forward and backward contamination; identifying plausible mitigation alternatives and obstacles for pertinent missions; identifying topics that require further research and technology development and discuss development strategies with uncertain Planetary Protection (PP) requirements; Identifying PP requirements that impose the greatest mission/development costs; Identifying PP requirements/topics that require further definition;

  6. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study. Phase 2: Extravehicular activity at a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Valerie; Shields, Nicholas, Jr.; Carr, Gerald P.; Pogue, William; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Schulze, Arthur E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus is on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) systems requirements definition for an advanced space mission: remote-from-main base EVA on the Moon. The lunar environment, biomedical considerations, appropriate hardware design criteria, hardware and interface requirements, and key technical issues for advanced lunar EVA were examined. Six remote EVA scenarios (three nominal operations and three contingency situations) were developed in considerable detail.

  7. The Exercise and Environmental Physiology of Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.

  8. The Exercise and Environmental Physiology of Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowell, S. A.; Stocks, J. M.; Evans, D. G.; Simonson, S. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Over the history of human expansion into space, extravehicular activity (EVA) has become indispensable for both daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration. The physiological factors involved in the performance of extensive EVA, necessary for construction and maintenance of the International Space Station and during future human interplanetary missions, require further examination. An understanding of the physiological aspects of exercise and thermoregulation in the EVA environment will help to insure the health, safety, and efficiency of working astronauts. To that end, this review will focus on the interaction of the exercise and environmental aspects of EVA, as well as exercise during spaceflight and ground-based simulations such as bed-rest deconditioning. It will examine inflight exercise thermoregulation, and exercise, muscular strength, supine vs. seated exercise, exercise thermoregulation, and exercise in a hypobaric environment. Due to the paucity of data from controlled human research in this area, it is clear that more scientific studies are needed to insure safe and efficient extravehicular activity.

  9. EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-29766 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) spaceflight, floats in the zero-gravity of space during the third revolution of the GT-4 spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit. His face is shaded by a gold-plated visor to protect him from unfiltered rays of the sun. In his right hand he carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) that gives him control over his movements in space. White also wears an emergency oxygen chest pack; and he carries a camera mounted on the HHSMU for taking pictures of the sky, Earth and the GT-4 spacecraft. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line. Both lines are wrapped together in gold tape to form one cord. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot, remained inside the spacecraft during the extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  10. STS-64 Mission Onboard Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee (red stripe on extravehicular activity suit) tests the new backpack called Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), a system designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is shown in the foreground. The LITE payload employs lidar, which stands for light detection and ranging, a type of optical radar using laser pulses instead of radio waves to study Earth's atmosphere. Unprecedented views were obtained of cloud structures, storm systems, dust clouds, pollutants, forest burning, and surface reflectance. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  11. Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A Russian Photo OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039241 (10 March 2009) --- Cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov, Expedition 18 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform maintenance on the International Space Station. During the 4-hour, 49-minute spacewalk, Lonchakov and astronaut Michael Fincke (out of frame), commander, reinstalled the Exposing Specimens of Organic and Biological Materials to Open Space (Expose-R) experiment on the universal science platform mounted to the exterior of the Zvezda Service Module. The spacewalkers also removed straps, or tape, from the area of the docking target on the Pirs airlock and docking compartment. The tape was removed to ensure it does not get in the way during the arrival of visiting Soyuz or Progress spacecraft.

  12. Fincke during Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-038951 (10 March 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Fincke, Expedition 18 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform maintenance on the International Space Station. During the 4-hour, 49-minute spacewalk, Fincke and cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov (out of frame) reinstalled the Exposing Specimens of Organic and Biological Materials to Open Space (Expose-R) experiment on the universal science platform mounted to the exterior of the Zvezda Service Module. The spacewalkers also removed straps, or tape, from the area of the docking target on the Pirs airlock and docking compartment. The tape was removed to ensure it does not get in the way during the arrival of visiting Soyuz or Progress spacecraft.

  13. Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A Russian Photo OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039239 (10 March 2009) --- Cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov, Expedition 18 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform maintenance on the International Space Station. During the 4-hour, 49-minute spacewalk, Lonchakov and astronaut Michael Fincke (out of frame), commander, reinstalled the Exposing Specimens of Organic and Biological Materials to Open Space (Expose-R) experiment on the universal science platform mounted to the exterior of the Zvezda Service Module. The spacewalkers also removed straps, or tape, from the area of the docking target on the Pirs airlock and docking compartment. The tape was removed to ensure it does not get in the way during the arrival of visiting Soyuz or Progress spacecraft.

  14. Advanced extravehicular activity systems requirements definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study to define the requirements for advanced extravehicular activities (AEVA) was conducted. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the EVA technology requirements and to map a pathway from existing or developing technologies to an AEVA system capable of supporting long-duration missions on the lunar surface. The parameters of an AEVA system which must sustain the crewmembers and permit productive work for long periods in the lunar environment were examined. A design reference mission (DRM) was formulated and used as a tool to develop and analyze the EVA systems technology aspects. Many operational and infrastructure design issues which have a significant influence on the EVA system are identified.

  15. Extravehicular activity translation arm (EVATA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Stammreich, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a deployable Extravehicular Activity Translation Arm (EVATA) assembly which will allow an EVA crewman to perform tasks in the vicinity of the External TNK (ET) umbilical doors and to inspect most of the underside of the shuttle spacecraft is reported. The concept chosen for the boom structure was the Astro Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which formed the main structure for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna System on the SEASAT A spacecraft. This structure is a deployable triangular truss. A comparison of the EVATA and the SEASAT A ESS is shown. The development of status of the ESS is shown. The satellite configuration, the stowed truss load path, and the envelope deployment sequence for the ESS are also shown.

  16. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  17. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2017

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA as well as industry and academia fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the preliminary Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: physiological and performance capabilities; suit design parameters; EVA human health and performance modeling; EVA tasks and concepts of operations; EVA informatics; human-suit sensors; suit

  18. Biomedical Support of U.S. Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Dervay, J. P.; Gillis, D.; McMann, H. J.; Thomas, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    The world's first extravehicular activity (EVA) was performed by A. A. Leonov on March 18, 1965 during the Russian Voskhod-2 mission. The first US EVA was executed by Gemini IV astronaut Ed White on June 3, 1965, with an umbilical tether that included communications and an oxygen supply. A hand-held maneuvering unit (HHMU) also was used to test maneuverability during the brief EVA; however the somewhat stiff umbilical limited controlled movement. That constraint, plus difficulty returning through the vehicle hatch, highlighted the need for increased thermal control and improved EVA ergonomics. Clearly, requirements for a useful EVA were interrelated with the vehicle design. The early Gemini EVAs generated requirements for suits providing micro-meteor protection, adequate visual field and eye protection from solar visual and infrared radiation, gloves optimized for dexterity while pressurized, and thermal systems capable of protecting the astronaut while rejecting metabolic heat during high workloads. Subsequent Gemini EVAs built upon this early experience and included development of a portable environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and an astronaut maneuvering unit. The ECLSS provided a pressure vessel and controller with functional control over suit pressure, oxygen flow, carbon dioxide removal, humidity, and temperature control. Gemini EVA experience also identified the usefulness of underwater neutral buoyancy and altitude chamber task training, and the importance of developing reliable task timelines. Improved thermal management and carbon dioxide control also were required for high workload tasks. With the Apollo project, EVA activity was primarily on the lunar surface; and suit durability, integrated liquid cooling garments, and low suit operating pressures (3.75 pounds per square inch absolute [psia] or 25.8 kilopascal [kPa],) were required to facilitate longer EVAs with ambulation and significant physical workloads with average metabolic

  19. Modular System to Enable Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perform extravehicular activity (EVA), both human and robotic, has been identified as a key component to space missions to support such operations as assembly and maintenance of space systems (e.g. construction and maintenance of the International Space Station), and unscheduled activities to repair an element of the transportation and habitation systems that can only be accessed externally and via unpressurized areas. In order to make human transportation beyond lower Earth orbit (LEO) practical, efficiencies must be incorporated into the integrated transportation systems to reduce system mass and operational complexity. Affordability is also a key aspect to be considered in space system development; this could be achieved through commonality, modularity and component reuse. Another key aspect identified for the EVA system was the ability to produce flight worthy hardware quickly to support early missions and near Earth technology demonstrations. This paper details a conceptual architecture for a modular EVA system that would meet these stated needs for EVA capability that is affordable, and that could be produced relatively quickly. Operational concepts were developed to elaborate on the defined needs, and to define the key capabilities, operational and design constraints, and general timelines. The operational concept lead to a high level design concept for a module that interfaces with various space transportation elements and contains the hardware and systems required to support human and telerobotic EVA; the module would not be self-propelled and would rely on an interfacing element for consumable resources. The conceptual architecture was then compared to EVA Systems used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on the International Space Station to develop high level design concepts that incorporate opportunities for cost savings through hardware reuse, and quick production through the use of existing technologies and hardware designs. An upgrade option

  20. Expedition 18 STS-126 extravehicular activity (EVA) 2 crew and equipment translation assembly (CETA) Cart Relocation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-20

    ISS018-E-009292 (20 Nov. 2008) --- Astronaut Shane Kimbrough, STS-126 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 45-minute spacewalk, Kimbrough and astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, continued the process of removing debris and applying lubrication around the starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), replaced four more of the SARJ's 12 trundle bearing assemblies, relocated two equipment carts and applied lubrication to the station's robotic Canadarm2.

  1. Expedition 18 STS-126 extravehicular activity (EVA) 2 crew and equipment translation assembly (CETA) Cart Relocation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-20

    ISS018-E-009314 (20 Nov. 2008) --- Astronaut Shane Kimbrough, STS-126 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 45-minute spacewalk, Kimbrough and astronaut Heidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper (out of frame), mission specialist, continued the process of removing debris and applying lubrication around the starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), replaced four more of the SARJ's 12 trundle bearing assemblies, relocated two equipment carts and applied lubrication to the station's robotic Canadarm2.

  2. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 1 S6 Truss Umbilical Mate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-19

    S119-E-006674 (19 March 2009) --- Astronaut Steve Swanson (center), STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, seven-minute spacewalk, Swanson and astronaut Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, connected bolts to permanently attach the S6 truss segment to S5. The spacewalkers plugged in power and data connectors to the truss, prepared a radiator to cool it, opened boxes containing the new solar arrays and deployed the Beta Gimbal Assemblies containing masts that support the solar arrays.

  3. ASTRONAUT SHEPARD - PREFLIGHT ACTIVITIES

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    S61-02794 (5 May 1961) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., shakes hands with fellow astronaut Virgil I. Grissom (on left, back to camera), prior to ingressing the capsule for his Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) spaceflight. Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. (center background in white cap) looks on along with Gunter Wendt (to the left of Glenn) and two unidentified technicians. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  4. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  5. Operational Assessment of Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew James; Claybrook, Austin; Greenlund, Suraj; Marquez, Jessica J.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the operational variability of extravehicular activity (EVA) execution is critical to help design and build future support systems to enable astronauts to monitor and manage operations in deep-space, where ground support operators will no longer be able to react instantly and manage execution deviations due to the significant communication latency. This study quantifies the operational variability exhibited during Apollo 14-17 lunar surface EVA operations to better understand the challenges and natural tendencies of timeline execution and life support system performance involved in surface operations. Each EVA (11 in total) is individually summarized as well as aggregated to provide descriptive trends exhibited throughout the Apollo missions. This work extends previous EVA task analyses by calculating deviations between planned and as-performed timelines as well as examining metabolic rate and consumables usage throughout the execution of each EVA. The intent of this work is to convey the natural variability of EVA operations and to provide operational context for coping with the variability inherent to EVA execution as a means to support future concepts of operations.

  6. Extravehicular Activity training and hardware design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuot, Pierre J.; Harbaugh, Gregory J.

    1993-01-01

    Designing hardware that can be successfully operated by EVA astronauts for EVA tasks required to assemble and maintain Space Station Freedom requires a thorough understanding of human factors and of the capabilities and limitations of the space-suited astronaut, as well as of the effect of microgravity environment on the crew member's capabilities and on the overhead associated with EVA. This paper describes various training methods and facilities that are being designed for training EVA astronauts for Space Station assembly and maintenance, taking into account the above discussed factors. Particular attention is given to the user-friendly hardware design for EVA and to recent EVA flight experience.

  7. Gemini 9 configured extravehicular spacesuit assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-31019 (May 1966) --- Test subject Fred Spross, Crew Systems Division, wears the Gemini-9 configured extravehicular spacesuit assembly. The legs are covered with Chromel R, which is a cloth woven from stainless steel fibers, used to protect the astronaut and suit from the hot exhaust thrust of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan will wear this spacesuit during his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  8. Robot free-flyers in space extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Harald J.; Alexander, Harold L.

    1992-11-01

    The Laboratory for Space Teleoperation and Robotics is developing a neutrally buoyant robot for research into the automatic and teleoperated (remote human) control of unmanned robotic vehicles for use in space. The goal of this project is to develop a remote robot with maneuverability and dexterity comparable to that of a space-suited astronaut with a manned maneuvering unit, able to assume many of the tasks currently planned for astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). Such a robot would be able to spare the great expense and hazards associated with human EVA, and make possible much less expensive scientific and industrialization exploitation of orbit. Both autonomous and teleoperated control experiments will require the vehicle to be able to automatically control its position and orientation. The laboratory has developed a real-time vision-based navigation and control system for its underwater space robot simulator, the Submersible for Telerobotic and Astronautical Research (STAR). The system, implemented with standard, inexpensive computer hardware, has excellent performance and robustness characteristics for a variety of applications, including automatic station-keeping and large controlled maneuvers. Experimental results are presented indicating the precision, accuracy, and robustness to disturbances of the vision-based control system. The study proves the feasibility of using vision-based control and navigation for remote robots and provides a foundation for developing a system for general space robot tasks. The complex vision sensing problem is reduced through linearization to a simple algorithm, fast enough to be incorporated into a real-time vehicle control system. Vision sensing is structured to detect small changes in vehicle position and orientation from a nominal positional state relative to a target scene. The system uses a constant, linear inversion matrix to measure the vehicle positional state from the locations of navigation features in an

  9. Astronaut Judith Resnik participates in WETF training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Judith Resnik participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). She is wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and is being assisted to don her gloves.

  10. Astronaut Judith Resnik participates in WETF training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Judith Resnik participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). She is wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and is being assisted to don her gloves.

  11. Extravehicular activities guidelines and design criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. E.; Dashner, T. R.; Hayes, B. C.

    1973-01-01

    A listing of astronaut EVA support systems and equipment, and the physical, operational, and performance characteristics of each major system are presented. An overview of the major ground based support operations necessary in the development and verification of orbital EVA systems is included. The performance and biomedical characteristics of man in the orbital EV environment are discussed. Major factors affecting astronaut EV work performance are identified and delineated as they relate to EV support systems design. Data concerning the medical and physiological aspects of spaceflight on man are included. The document concludes with an extensive bibliography, and a series of appendices which expand on some of the information presented in the main body.

  12. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during decompression and simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Johnson, P. C. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Blood biochemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 6 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate extravehicular activity for 6 h (subjects performed exercise while exposed to 29.6 kPa). There were no significant differences between blood samples from subjects who were susceptible (n = 11) versus those who were resistant (n = 27) to formation of venous gas emboli. Although several statistically significant (P less than 0.05) changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure (increases in white blood cell count, prothrombin time, and total bilirubin, and decreases in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen), the changes were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression schedule used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during extravehicular activity.

  13. Blood biochemical and cellular changes during decompression and simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.; Waligora, J. M.; Johnson, P. C. Jr

    1990-01-01

    Blood biochemical and cellular parameters were measured in human subjects before and after exposure to a decompression schedule involving 6 h of oxygen prebreathing. The exposure was designed to simulate extravehicular activity for 6 h (subjects performed exercise while exposed to 29.6 kPa). There were no significant differences between blood samples from subjects who were susceptible (n = 11) versus those who were resistant (n = 27) to formation of venous gas emboli. Although several statistically significant (P less than 0.05) changes in blood parameters were observed following the exposure (increases in white blood cell count, prothrombin time, and total bilirubin, and decreases in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood urea nitrogen), the changes were small in magnitude and blood factor levels remained within normal clinical ranges. Thus, the decompression schedule used in this study is not likely to result in blood changes that would pose a threat to astronauts during extravehicular activity.

  14. Apollo experience report: Assessment of metabolic expenditures. [extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Hawkins, W. R.; Humbert, G. F.; Nelson, L. J.; Vogel, S. J.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A significant effort was made to assess the metabolic expenditure for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. After evaluation of the real-time data available to the flight controller during extravehicular activity, three independent methods of metabolic assessment were chosen based on the relationship between heart rate and metabolic production, between oxygen consumption and metabolic production, and between the thermodynamics of the liquid-cooled garment and metabolic production. The metabolic assessment procedure is analyzed and discussed. Real-time use of this information by the Apollo flight surgeon is discussed. Results and analyses of the Apollo missions and comments concerning future applications are included.

  15. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Views - STS-41B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-02-12

    Astronaut Robert L. Stewart, Mission Specialist (MS), uses his hands to control his movement in space while using the nitrogen propelled Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU). He is participating in a EVA, a few meters away from the cabin of the Shuttle Challenger. MS Stewart is centered in a background of clouds and Earth in this view of his EVA. He is floating without tethers attaching him to the Shuttle.

  16. STS-64 Mission Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee floats freely as he tests the new backpack called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. SAFER is designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  17. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  18. Evaluation of cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Rossum, A C; Wood, M L; Bishop, S L; Deblock, H; Charles, J B

    1997-04-15

    This study represents the first systematic evaluation of dysrhythmias before, during, and after spaceflight including extravehicular activity (EVA). The data, based on 7 Shuttle crew members, revealed a nonsignificant decrease in ventricular and supraventricular ectopy during EVA, suggesting that the incidence of dysrhythmias is no greater during EVA than with any other phase of a mission or preflight.

  19. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007266 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (bottom) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  20. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007274 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (bottom) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  1. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007257 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Richard Arnold, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Joseph Acaba (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  2. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007323 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (right) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  3. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007259 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (left) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  4. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007298 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (left) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  5. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007237 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Richard Arnold, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Joseph Acaba (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  6. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007243 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Richard Arnold, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Joseph Acaba (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  7. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007270 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (bottom) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  8. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007311 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (bottom) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  9. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007302 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (left) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  10. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007332 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (right) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  11. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007312 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (bottom) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  12. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart 2 Relocate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007278 (23 March 2009) --- Astronauts Richard Arnold (right) and Joseph Acaba, both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Acaba helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  13. A nonventing cooling system for space environment extravehicular activity, using radiation and regenerable thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayes, Stephen A.; Trevino, Luis A.; Dinsmore, Craig E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines the selection, design, and testing of a prototype nonventing regenerable astronaut cooling system for extravehicular activity space suit applications, for mission durations of four hours or greater. The selected system consists of the following key elements: a radiator assembly which serves as the exterior shell of the portable life support subsystem backpack; a layer of phase change thermal storage material, n-hexadecane paraffin, which acts as a regenerable thermal capacitor; a thermoelectric heat pump; and an automatic temperature control system. The capability for regeneration of thermal storage capacity with and without the aid of electric power is provided.

  14. US space flight experience. Physical exertion and metabolic demand of extravehicular activity: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    A review of physical exertion and metabolic demands of extravehicular activity (EVA) on U.S. astronauts is given. Information is given on EVA during Gemini, Apollo and Skylab missions. It is noted that nominal EVA's should not be overstressful from a cardiovascular standpoint; that manual-intensive EVA's such as are planned for the construction phase of the Space Station can and will be demanding from a muscular standpoint, primarily for the upper extremities; that off-nominal unplanned EVA's can be physically demanding both from an endurance and from a muscular standpoint; and that crewmembers should be physically prepared and capable of performing these EVA's at any time during the mission.

  15. Arnold on S1 Truss during STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    ISS018-E-042546 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Richard Arnold, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Joseph Acaba (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  16. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 GAT SSRMS LEE B Snare Lubrication OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007398 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Richard Arnold, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Joseph Acaba (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  17. Acaba on S1 Truss during STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    ISS018-E-042538 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Joseph Acaba, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Acaba and Richard Arnold (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  18. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3 GAT SSRMS LEE B Snare Lubrication OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    S119-E-007469 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Richard Arnold, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Joseph Acaba (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  19. STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 1 S6 Truss Umbilical Mate OPS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-19

    S119-E-006673 (19 March 2009) --- Astronauts Steve Swanson (center) and Richard Arnold (partially obscured above Swanson), both STS-119 mission specialists, participate in the mission's first scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, seven-minute spacewalk, Swanson and Arnold connected bolts to permanently attach the S6 truss segment to S5. The spacewalkers plugged in power and data connectors to the truss, prepared a radiator to cool it, opened boxes containing the new solar arrays and deployed the Beta Gimbal Assemblies containing masts that support the solar arrays.

  20. Extravehicular Activity Technology Development Status and Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Westheimer, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of NASA s current EVA technology effort is to further develop technologies that will be used to demonstrate a robust EVA system that has application for a variety of future missions including microgravity and surface EVA. Overall the objectives will be to reduce system mass, reduce consumables and maintenance, increase EVA hardware robustness and life, increase crew member efficiency and autonomy, and enable rapid vehicle egress and ingress. Over the past several years, NASA realized a tremendous increase in EVA system development as part of the Exploration Technology Development Program and the Constellation Program. The evident demand for efficient and reliable EVA technologies, particularly regenerable technologies was apparent under these former programs and will continue to be needed as future mission opportunities arise. The technological need for EVA in space has been realized over the last several decades by the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station (ISS) programs. EVAs were critical to the success of these programs. Now with the ISS extension to 2028 in conjunction with a current forecasted need of at least eight EVAs per year, the EVA hardware life and limited availability of the Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) will eventually become a critical issue. The current EMU has successfully served EVA demands by performing critical operations to assemble the ISS and provide repairs of satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope. However, as the life of ISS and the vision for future mission opportunities are realized, a new EVA systems capability will be needed and the current architectures and technologies under development offer significant improvements over the current flight systems. In addition to ISS, potential mission applications include EVAs for missions to Near Earth Objects (NEO), Phobos, or future surface missions. Surface missions could include either exploration of the Moon or Mars. Providing an

  1. Development of the Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit Extravehicular Activity Data Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Data Recorder (SPEEDR) is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based device designed to collect high-rate EMU Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) data for download at a later time. During EVA, the existing EMU PLSS data downlink capability is one data packet every 2 minutes and is subject to bad packets or loss of signal. Higher-rate PLSS data is generated by the Enhanced Caution and Warning System but is not normally captured or distributed. Access to higher-rate data will increase the capability of EMU anomaly resolution team to pinpoint issues remotely, saving crew time by reducing required call-down Q&A and on-orbit diagnostic activities. With no Space Shuttle flights post Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11), and potentially limited down-mass capability, the ISS crew and ground support personnel will have to be capable of on-orbit operations to maintain, diagnose, repair, and return to service EMU hardware, possibly through 2028. Collecting high-rate EMU PLSS data during both intravehicular activity (IVA) and EVA operations will provide trending analysis for life extension and/or predictive performance. The SPEEDR concept has generated interest as a tool/technology that could be used for other International Space Station subsystems or future exploration-class space suits where hardware reliability/availability is critical and low/variable bandwidth may require store then forward methodology. Preliminary work in FY11 produced a functional prototype consisting of an FPGA evaluation board, custom memory/interface circuit board, and custom software. The SPEEDR concept includes a stand-alone battery that is recharged by a computer Universal Serial Bus (USB) port while data are being downloaded.

  2. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  3. Power Subsystem for Extravehicular Activities for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has the responsibility to develop the next generation space suit power subsystem to support the Vision for Space Exploration. Various technology challenges exist in achieving extended duration missions as envisioned for future lunar and Mars mission scenarios. This paper presents an overview of ongoing development efforts undertaken at the Glenn Research Center in support of power subsystem development for future extravehicular activity systems.

  4. MSFC Skylab extravehicular activity development report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    The development activities are presented in a chronological order and cover the EVA hardware design from initial concept to final flight configuration. Major concepts which were considered, and the criteria for design are identified. The reasons for the acceptance or rejection of these concepts are discussed. The report concludes that developmental protocol of interleaving analyses and simulations on an iterative basis provided a conservative, flexible and simple EVA system, which was effective not only for the nominal Skylab mission but for many contingency activities as well.

  5. Astronaut Bernard Harris on RMS during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Bernard A. Harris, Jr., payload commander, watches astronaut C. Michael Foale (out of frame), mission specialist, during the late phases of their shared extravehicular activity (EVA) in the STS-63 Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay.

  6. Astronaut Bernard Harris on RMS during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Bernard A. Harris, Jr., payload commander, standing on a foot restraint attached to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm carries astronaut C. Michael Foale, mission specialist, during their shared extravehicular activity (EVA) in the Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay.

  7. Extravehicular Activity Testing in Analog Environments: Evaluating the Effects of Center of Gravity and Environment on Human Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steve P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Center of gravity (CG) is likely to be an important variable in astronaut performance during partial gravity extravehicular activity (EVA). The Apollo Lunar EVA experience revealed challenges with suit stability and control. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance Project (EPSP) in conjunction with the Constellation EVA Systems Project Office have developed plans to systematically understand the role of suit weight, CG and suit pressure on astronaut performance in partial gravity environments. This presentation based upon CG studies seeks to understand the impact of varied CG on human performance in lunar gravity.

  8. Climbing the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Wall - Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuentes, Jose; Greene, Stacie

    2010-01-01

    The success of the EVA team, that includes the EVA project office, Crew Office, Mission Operations, Engineering and Safety, is assured by the full integration of all necessary disciplines. Safety participation in all activities from hardware development concepts, certification and crew training, provides for a strong partnership within the team. Early involvement of Safety on the EVA team has mitigated risk and produced a high degree of mission success.

  9. Astronauts Shepard and Mitchell practice using Active Seismic Experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-10-30

    S71-15273 (October 1970) --- Apollo 14 astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander (right); and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, practice using the Active Seismic Experiment (ASE) to set off explosions on the lunar surface and arm a mortar to launch four grenades after they leave. Measurements of the ensuing vibrations of the moon, radioed to Earth, will give scientists new information on the shape, structure and thickness of the outer lunar crust. ASE will be deployed during one of two Apollo 14 extravehicular activity (EVA) periods.

  10. Computational simulation of extravehicular activity dynamics during a satellite capture attempt.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, G; Newman, D J; Robinson, S K

    2000-01-01

    A more quantitative approach to the analysis of astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks is needed because of their increasing complexity, particularly in preparation for the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station. Existing useful EVA computer analyses produce either high-resolution three-dimensional computer images based on anthropometric representations or empirically derived predictions of astronaut strength based on lean body mass and the position and velocity of body joints but do not provide multibody dynamic analysis of EVA tasks. Our physics-based methodology helps fill the current gap in quantitative analysis of astronaut EVA by providing a multisegment human model and solving the equations of motion in a high-fidelity simulation of the system dynamics. The simulation work described here improves on the realism of previous efforts by including three-dimensional astronaut motion, incorporating joint stops to account for the physiological limits of range of motion, and incorporating use of constraint forces to model interaction with objects. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, the simulation is modeled on an actual EVA task, namely, the attempted capture of a spinning Intelsat VI satellite during STS-49 in May 1992. Repeated capture attempts by an EVA crewmember were unsuccessful because the capture bar could not be held in contact with the satellite long enough for the capture latches to fire and successfully retrieve the satellite.

  11. Requirements for extravehicular activities on the lunar and Martian surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Mariann F.; Schentrup, Susan M.

    1990-01-01

    Basic design reference requirements pertinent to EVA equipment on lunar and martian surfaces are provided. Environmental factors affecting surface EVA are analyzed including gravity, dust, atmospheric conditions, thermal gradients, lightning conditions, and radiation effects, and activities associated with surface EVA are outlined. Environmental and activity effects on EVA equipment are assessed, and emphasis is placed on planetary surface portable life support systems (PLSS), suit development, protection from micrometeoroids, dust, and radiation, food and water supplies, and the extravehicular mobility-unit thermal-control system. Environmental and activity impacts on PLSS design are studied, with focus on base self-sufficiency and reduction in resupply logistics.

  12. Cooling Effects of Wearer-Controlled Vaporization for Extravehicular Activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Nagao, Daiki; Okada, Kosuke; Nakamura, Koji

    2017-04-01

    The extravehicular activity suit currently used by the United States in space includes a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that controls thermal conditions. Previously, we demonstrated that self-perspiration for evaporative cooling (SPEC) garment effectively lowers skin temperature without raising humidity in the garment. However, the cooling effect is delayed until a sufficient dose of water permeates and evaporates. In the present study, we hypothesized that wearer-controlled vaporization improves the cooling effect. Six healthy subjects rode a cycle ergometer under loads of 30, 60, 90, and 120 W for durations of 3 min each. Skin temperature and humidity on the back were measured continuously. Subjects wore and tested three garments: 1) a spandex garment without any cooling device (Normal); 2) a simulated LCVG (s-LCVG) or spandex garment knitted with a vinyl tube for flowing and permeating water; and 3) a garment that allowed wearer-controlled vaporization (SPEC-W). The use of s-LCVG reduced skin temperature by 1.57 ± 0.14°C during 12 min of cooling. Wearer-controlled vaporization of the SPEC-W effectively and significantly lowered skin temperature from the start to the end of cycle exercise. This decrease was significantly larger than that achieved using s-LCVG. Humidity in the SPEC-W was significantly lower than that in s-LCVG. This preliminary study suggests that SPEC-W is effective in lowering skin temperature without raising humidity in the garment. The authors think it would be useful in improving the design of a cooling system for extravehicular activity.Tanaka K, Nagao D, Okada K, Nakamura K. Cooling effects of wearer-controlled vaporization for extravehicular activity. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):418-422.

  13. Preliminary Work Domain Analysis for Human Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Kerry; Miller, Matthew; Feigh, Karen

    2015-01-01

    A work domain analysis (WDA) of human extravehicular activity (EVA) is presented in this study. A formative methodology such as Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) offers a new perspective to the knowledge gained from the past 50 years of living and working in space for the development of future EVA support systems. EVA is a vital component of human spaceflight and provides a case study example of applying a work domain analysis (WDA) to a complex sociotechnical system. The WDA presented here illustrates how the physical characteristics of the environment, hardware, and life support systems of the domain guide the potential avenues and functional needs of future EVA decision support system development.

  14. Benefits of advanced space suits for supporting routine extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, L. R.; Bauer, E. H.; Patrick, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Technology is available to produce space suits providing a quick-reaction, safe, much more mobile extravehicular activity (EVA) capability than before. Such a capability may be needed during the shuttle era because the great variety of missions and payloads complicates the development of totally automated methods of conducting operations and maintenance and resolving contingencies. Routine EVA now promises to become a cost-effective tool as less complex, serviceable, lower-cost payload designs utilizing this capability become feasible. Adoption of certain advanced space suit technologies is encouraged for reasons of economics as well as performance.

  15. Launch Deployment Assembly Extravehicular Activity Neutral Buoyancy Development Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughead, T.

    1996-01-01

    This test evaluated the Launch Deployment Assembly (LDA) design for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) work sites (setup, igress, egress), reach and visual access, and translation required for cargo item removal. As part of the LDA design, this document describes the method and results of the LDA EVA Neutral Buoyancy Development Test to ensure that the LDA hardware support the deployment of the cargo items from the pallet. This document includes the test objectives, flight and mockup hardware description, descriptions of procedures and data collection used in the testing, and the results of the development test at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS).

  16. Skin blood flow with elastic compressive extravehicular activity space suit.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Gotoh, Taro M; Morita, Hironobu; Hargens, Alan R

    2003-10-01

    During extravehicular activity (EVA), current space suits are pressurized with 100% oxygen at approximately 222 mmHg. A tight elastic garment, or mechanical counter pressure (MCP) suit that generates pressure by compression, may have several advantages over current space suit technology. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with negative ambient pressure with an MCP sleeve. The MCP glove and sleeve generated pressures similar to the current space suit. MCP remained constant during negative pressure due to unchanged elasticity of the material. Decreased skin capillary blood flow and temperature during MCP compression was counteracted by greater negative pressure or a smaller pressure differential.

  17. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  18. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  19. A tactile display for international space station (ISS) extravehicular activity (EVA).

    PubMed

    Rochlis, J L; Newman, D J

    2000-06-01

    A tactile display to increase an astronaut's situational awareness during an extravehicular activity (EVA) has been developed and ground tested. The Tactor Locator System (TLS) is a non-intrusive, intuitive display capable of conveying position and velocity information via a vibrotactile stimulus applied to the subject's neck and torso. In the Earth's 1 G environment, perception of position and velocity is determined by the body's individual sensory systems. Under normal sensory conditions, redundant information from these sensory systems provides humans with an accurate sense of their position and motion. However, altered environments, including exposure to weightlessness, can lead to conflicting visual and vestibular cues, resulting in decreased situational awareness. The TLS was designed to provide somatosensory cues to complement the visual system during EVA operations. An EVA task was simulated on a computer graphics workstation with a display of the International Space Station (ISS) and a target astronaut at an unknown location. Subjects were required to move about the ISS and acquire the target astronaut using either an auditory cue at the outset, or the TLS. Subjects used a 6 degree of freedom input device to command translational and rotational motion. The TLS was configured to act as a position aid, providing target direction information to the subject through a localized stimulus. Results show that the TLS decreases reaction time (p = 0.001) and movement time (p = 0.001) for simulated subject (astronaut) motion around the ISS. The TLS is a useful aid in increasing an astronaut's situational awareness, and warrants further testing to explore other uses, tasks and configurations.

  20. Physiological and technological considerations for Mars mission extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, James M.; Sedej, Melaine M.

    1986-01-01

    The nature of the suit is a function of the needs of human physiology, the ambient environment outside the suit, and the type of activity to be accomplished while in the suit. The physiological requirements that must be provided for in the Martian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit will be reviewed. The influence of the Martian environment on the EVA suit and EVA capabilities is elaborated, and the Martian environment is compared with the lunar environment. The differences that may influence the EVA design are noted. The type, nature, and duration of activities to be done in transit to Mars and on the Martian surface will be evaluated and the impact of these activities on the requirements for EVA systems will be discussed. Furthermore, the interaction between Martian surface transportation systems and EVA systems will be covered. Finally, options other than EVA will be considered such as robotics, nonanthropometric suits, and vehicles with anthropometric extremities or robotic end effectors.

  1. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Tactility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Miranda, Mesloh; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to quantify finger tactility, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Subjects were fully suited in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Data was collected under three conditions: bare-handed, gloved at 0 psi, and gloved at 4.3 psi. In order to test tactility, a series of 30 tactile stimuli (bumps) were created that varied in both height and width. With the hand obscured, subjects applied pressure to each bump until detected tactilely. The amount of force needed to detect each bump was recorded using load cells located under a force-plate. The amount of force needed to detect a bump was positively related to width, but inversely related to height. In addition, as the psi of the glove increased, more force was needed to detect the bump. In terms of application, it was possible to determine the optimal width and height a bump needs to be for a specific amount of force applied for tactility.

  2. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  3. Russian Module Photography of the Service Module (SM) during Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039022 (10 March 2009) --- Astronaut Michael Fincke, Expedition 18 commander, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform maintenance on the International Space Station. During the 4-hour, 49-minute spacewalk, Fincke and cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov (out of frame) reinstalled the Exposing Specimens of Organic and Biological Materials to Open Space (Expose-R) experiment on the universal science platform mounted to the exterior of the Zvezda Service Module. The spacewalkers also removed straps, or tape, from the area of the docking target on the Pirs airlock and docking compartment. The tape was removed to ensure it does not get in the way during the arrival of visiting Soyuz or Progress spacecraft.

  4. Russian Module Photography OPS during Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039264 (10 March 2009) --- Cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov, Expedition 18 flight engineer, photographs himself during a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as he and astronaut Michael Fincke (out of frame), commander, perform maintenance on the International Space Station. During the 4-hour, 49-minute spacewalk, Lonchakov and Fincke reinstalled the Exposing Specimens of Organic and Biological Materials to Open Space (Expose-R) experiment on the universal science platform mounted to the exterior of the Zvezda Service Module. The spacewalkers also removed straps, or tape, from the area of the docking target on the Pirs airlock and docking compartment. The tape was removed to ensure it does not get in the way during the arrival of visiting Soyuz or Progress spacecraft.

  5. Lonchakov on Service Module (SM) during Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039196 (10 March 2009) --- Cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov, Expedition 18 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform maintenance on the International Space Station. During the 4-hour, 49-minute spacewalk, Lonchakov and astronaut Michael Fincke (out of frame), commander, reinstalled the Exposing Specimens of Organic and Biological Materials to Open Space (Expose-R) experiment on the universal science platform mounted to the exterior of the Zvezda Service Module. The spacewalkers also removed straps, or tape, from the area of the docking target on the Pirs airlock and docking compartment. The tape was removed to ensure it does not get in the way during the arrival of visiting Soyuz or Progress spacecraft.

  6. [A dynamic model of the extravehicular (correction of extravehicuar) activity space suit].

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Yuan, Xiu-gan

    2002-12-01

    Objective. To establish a dynamic model of the space suit base on the particular configuration of the space suit. Method. The mass of the space suit components, moment of inertia, mobility of the joints of space suit, as well as the suit-generated torques, were considered in this model. The expressions to calculate the moment of inertia were developed by simplifying the geometry of the space suit. A modified Preisach model was used to mathematically describe the hysteretic torque characteristics of joints in a pressurized space suit, and it was implemented numerically basing on the observed suit parameters. Result. A dynamic model considering mass, moment of inertia and suit-generated torques was established. Conclusion. This dynamic model provides some elements for the dynamic simulation of the astronaut extravehicular activity.

  7. Preflight Extravehicular Activity Training for STS-114 at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-28

    JSC2002-E-23138 (28 May 2002) --- Astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, is photographed as the final touches are made on the training version of his Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit prior to being submerged in the waters of the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near the Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  8. Design and Certification of the Extravehicular Activity Mobility Unit (EMU) Water Processing Jumper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Neumeyer, Derek J.; Lewis, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure due to cooling water contamination from biomass and corrosion byproducts forming solids around the EMU pump rotor. The coolant had no biocide and a low pH which induced biofilm growth and corrosion precipitates, respectively. NASA JSC was tasked with building hardware to clean the ionic, organic, and particulate load from the EMU coolant loop before and after Extravehicular Activity (EVAs). Based on a return sample of the EMU coolant loop, the chemical load was well understood, but there was not sufficient volume of the returned sample to analyze particulates. Through work with EMU specialists, chemists, (EVA) Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) representation, safety and mission assurance, astronaut crew, and team engineers, requirements were developed for the EMU Water Processing hardware (sometimes referred to as the Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery [A/L CLR] system). Those requirements ranged from the operable level of ionic, organic, and particulate load, interfaces to the EMU, maximum cycle time, operating pressure drop, flow rate, and temperature, leakage rates, and biocide levels for storage. Design work began in February 2005 and certification was completed in April 2005 to support a return to flight launch date of May 12, 2005. This paper will discuss the details of the design and certification of the EMU Water Processing hardware and its components

  9. Design and Certification of the Extravehicular Activity Mobility Unit (EMU) Water Processing Jumper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Neumeyer, Derek J.; Lewis, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure due to cooling water contamination from biomass and corrosion byproducts forming solids around the EMU pump rotor. The coolant had no biocide and a low pH which induced biofilm growth and corrosion precipitates, respectively. NASA JSC was tasked with building hardware to clean the ionic, organic, and particulate load from the EMU coolant loop before and after Extravehicular Activity (EVAs). Based on a return sample of the EMU coolant loop, the chemical load was well understood, but there was not sufficient volume of the returned sample to analyze particulates. Through work with EMU specialists, chemists, (EVA) Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) representation, safety and mission assurance, astronaut crew, and team engineers, requirements were developed for the EMU Water Processing hardware (sometimes referred to as the Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery [A/L CLR] system). Those requirements ranged from the operable level of ionic, organic, and particulate load, interfaces to the EMU, maximum cycle time, operating pressure drop, flow rate, and temperature, leakage rates, and biocide levels for storage. Design work began in February 2005 and certification was completed in April 2005 to support a return to flight launch date of May 12, 2005. This paper will discuss the details of the design and certification of the EMU Water Processing hardware and its components

  10. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Preparations in Joint Airlock Quest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    ISS018-E-042704 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Richard Arnold, STS-119 mission specialist, attired in his Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit, gives a ?thumbs-up? signal as he prepares for the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) in the Quest Airlock of the International Space Station.

  11. A simulation system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmolejo, Jose A.; Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    America's next major step into space will be the construction of a permanently manned Space Station which is currently under development and scheduled for full operation in the mid-1990's. Most of the construction of the Space Station will be performed over several flights by suited crew members during an extravehicular activity (EVA) from the Space Shuttle. Once fully operational, EVA's will be performed from the Space Station on a routine basis to provide, among other services, maintenance and repair operations of satellites currently in Earth orbit. Both voice recognition and helmet-mounted display technologies can improve the productivity of workers in space by potentially reducing the time, risk, and cost involved in performing EVA. NASA has recognized this potential and is currently developing a voice-controlled information system for Space Station EVA. Two bench-model helmet-mounted displays and an EVA simulation program have been developed to demonstrate the functionality and practicality of the system.

  12. A new preoxygenation procedure for extravehicular activity (EVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    A 10.2 psi staged-decompression schedule or a 4-hour preoxygenation at 14.7 psi is required prior to extravehicular activity (EVA) to reduce decompression sickness (DCS) risk. Results of recent research at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) showed that a 1-hour resting preoxygenation followed by a 4-hour, 4.3 psi exposure resulted in 77% DCS risk (N = 26), while the same profile beginning with 10 min of exercise at 75% of VO 2peak during preoxygenation reduced the DCS risk to 42% (P < .03; N = 26). A 4-hour preoxygenation without exercise followed by the 4.3 psi exposure resulted in 47% DCS risk (N = 30). The 1-hour preoxygenation with exercise and the 4-hour preoxygenation without exercise results were not significantly different. Elimination of either 3 hours of preoxygenation or 12 hours of staged-decompression are compelling reasons to consider incorporation of exercise-enhanced preoxygenation.

  13. Study of CO2 sorbents for extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Portable life support equipment was studied for meeting the requirements of extravehicular activities. Previous studies indicate that the most promising method for performing the CO2 removal function removal function were metallic oxides and/or metallic hydroxides. Mgo, Ag2, and Zno metallic oxides and Mg(OH)2 and Zn(OH)2 metallic hydroxides were studied, by measuring sorption and regeneration properties of each material. The hydroxides of Mg and Zn were not regenerable and the zinc oxide compounds showed no stable form. A silver oxide formulation was developed which rapidly absorbs approximately 95% of its 0.19 Kg CO2 Kg oxide and has shown no sorption or structural degeneration through 22 regenerations. It is recommended that the basic formula be further developed and tested in large-scale beds under simulated conditions.

  14. Energy Expenditure During Extravehicular Activity: Apollo Skylab Through STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of real-time metabolic rate monitoring during extravehicular activities (EVAs) came into question during the Gemini missions, when the energy expenditure required to conduct an EVA over-tasked the crewmember and exceeded the capabilities of vehicle and space suit life support systems. Energy expenditure was closely evaluated through the Apollo lunar surface EVAs, resulting in modifications to space suit design and EVA operations. After the Apollo lunar surface missions were completed, the United States shifted its focus to long duration human space flight, to study the human response to living and working in a microgravity environment. This paper summarizes the energy expenditure during EVA from Apollo Skylab through STS-135.

  15. A new preoxygenation procedure for extravehicular activity (EVA).

    PubMed

    Webb, J T; Pilmanis, A A

    1998-01-01

    A 10.2 psi staged-decompression schedule or a 4-hour preoxygenation at 14.7 psi is required prior to extravehicular activity (EVA) to reduce decompression sickness (DCS) risk. Results of recent research at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) showed that a 1-hour resting preoxygenation followed by a 4-hour, 4.3 psi exposure resulted in 77% DCS risk (N=26), while the same profile beginning with 10 min of exercise at 75% of VO2peak during preoxygenation reduced the DCS risk to 42% (P<.03; N=26). A 4-hour preoxygenation without exercise followed by the 4.3 psi exposure resulted in 47% DCS risk (N=30). The 1-hour preoxygenation with exercise and the 4-hour preoxygenation without exercise results were not significantly different. Elimination of either 3 hours of preoxygenation or 12 hours of staged-decompression are compelling reasons to consider incorporation of exercise-enhanced preoxygenation.

  16. Astronaut Charles Conrad uses lunar equipment conveyer at Lunar Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, uses the lunar equipment conveyer (LEC) at the Lunar Module during the Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot.

  17. Extravehicular Activity Operations Concepts Under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Miller, Matthew J.; Nawotniak, Shannon Kobs; Hughes, Scott; Brady, Allyson; Lim, Darlene S. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is a multi-year program dedicated to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human scientific exploration of Mars. This pa-per describes the planning, execution, and initial results from the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT-1, which consisted of a series of 10 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on volcanic flows in Idaho's Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument. The ConOps and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT-1 were based on previous NASA trade studies and analog testing. Our primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under 4 different Mars-to-Earth communication conditions: 5 and 15 min one-way light time (OWLT) communication latencies and low (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink) and high (5.0 Mb/s uplink, 10.0 Mb/s downlink) bandwidth conditions representing the lower and higher limits of technical communication capabilities currently proposed for future human exploration missions. The synthesized results of BASALT-1 with respect to the ConOps and capabilities assessment were derived from a variety of sources, including EVA task timing data, network analytic data, and subjective ratings and comments regarding the scientific and operational acceptability of the ConOp and the extent to which specific capabilities were enabling and enhancing, and are presented here. BASALT-1 established preliminary findings that baseline ConOp, software systems, and communication protocols were scientifically and operationally acceptable with minor improvements desired by the "Mars" extravehicular (EV) and intravehicular (IV) crewmembers, but unacceptable with improvements required by the "Earth" Mission Support Center. These data will provide a

  18. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S> ; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation Portable Life Support System (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen (O2) channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)/microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the initial instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments leveraging the lessons learned were desired. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU. .

  19. Arnold on P3 Truss for P3 Nadir UCCAS Deployment during STS-119 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    ISS018-E-042523 (23 March 2009) --- Astronaut Richard Arnold, STS-119 mission specialist, participates in the mission's third scheduled session of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction and maintenance continue on the International Space Station. During the six-hour, 27-minute spacewalk, Arnold and Joseph Acaba (out of frame), mission specialist, helped robotic arm operators relocate the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart from the Port 1 to Starboard 1 truss segment, installed a new coupler on the CETA cart, lubricated snares on the "B" end of the space station's robotic arm and performed a few "get ahead" tasks.

  20. Next-Generation Maneuvering System with Control-Moment Gyroscopes for Extravehicular Activities Near Low-Gravity Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Michele; Jackson, Kimberly; Cohanim, Babak; Duda, Kevin R.; Rize, Jared; Dopart, Celena; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Curiel, Pedro; Studak, Joseph; Ponica, Dina; hide

    2013-01-01

    Looking ahead to the human exploration of Mars, NASA is planning for exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the Martian moons. Performing tasks near the surface of such low-gravity objects will likely require the use of an updated version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) since the surface gravity is not high enough to allow astronauts to walk, or have sufficient resistance to counter reaction forces and torques during movements. The extravehicular activity (EVA) Jetpack device currently under development is based on the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) unit and has maneuvering capabilities to assist EVA astronauts with their tasks. This maneuvering unit has gas thrusters for attitude control and translation. When EVA astronauts are performing tasks that require ne motor control such as sample collection and equipment placement, the current control system will re thrusters to compensate for the resulting changes in center-of-mass location and moments of inertia, adversely affecting task performance. The proposed design of a next-generation maneuvering and stability system incorporates control concepts optimized to support astronaut tasks and adds control-moment gyroscopes (CMGs) to the current Jetpack system. This design aims to reduce fuel consumption, as well as improve task performance for astronauts by providing a sti er work platform. The high-level control architecture for an EVA maneuvering system using both thrusters and CMGs considers an initial assessment of tasks to be performed by an astronaut and an evaluation of the corresponding human-system dynamics. For a scenario in which the astronaut orbits an asteroid, simulation results from the current EVA maneuvering system are compared to those from a simulation of the same system augmented with CMGs, demonstrating that the forces and torques on an astronaut can be significantly reduced with the new control system actuation while conserving onboard fuel.

  1. 2014 Decompression Sickness/Extravehicular Activity Risks Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Decompression Sickness (DCS)/Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 4 - 5, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated Evidence Reports for The Risk of Decompression Sickness (from here on referred to as the 2014 DCS Evidence Report) and the Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations (from here on referred to as the 2014 EVA Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plans for these Risks. The SRP appreciated the time and effort that the DCS and EVA disciplines put into their review documents and presentations. The SRP felt that the 2014 DCS Evidence Report and the 2014 EVA Evidence Reports were very thorough and addressed the majority of the known DCS and EVA issues. The researchers at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) have the knowledge base to deal with the DCS and EVA issues. Overall, the SRP thinks the DCS and EVA research teams have compiled excellent reports which address the majority of the literature and background information.

  2. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  3. A human factors evaluation of Extravehicular Activity gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1989-01-01

    One of the major problems faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human-hand capabilities. NASA has sponsored a program to develop a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six performance domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based upon an assessment of general human-hand functioning and EVA task requirements, several tests within each performance domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand, an EVA glove without pressure, an EVA glove at operation pressure. Thus, the differential effect on performance of the glove with and without pressure was tested. Bare hand performance was used to 'calibrate' the effects. Ten subjects participated in the test setup as a repeated-measures experimental design. The paper will report the results of the test program.

  4. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  5. Space Station Freedom extravehicular activity systems evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouen, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Evaluation of Space Station Freedom (SSF) support of manned exploration is in progress to identify SSF extravehicular activity (EVA) system evolution requirements and capabilities. The output from these studies will provide data to support the preliminary design process to ensure that Space Station EVA system requirements for future missions (including the transportation node) are adequately considered and reflected in the baseline design. The study considers SSF support of future missions and the EVA system baseline to determine adequacy of EVA requirements and capabilities and to identify additional requirements, capabilities, and necessary technology upgrades. The EVA demands levied by formal requirements and indicated by evolutionary mission scenarios are high for the out-years of Space Station Freedom. An EVA system designed to meet the baseline requirements can easily evolve to meet evolution demands with few exceptions. Results to date indicate that upgrades or modifications to the EVA system may be necessary to meet the full range of EVA thermal environments associated with the transportation node. Work continues to quantify the EVA capability in this regard. Evolution mission scenarios with EVA and ground unshielded nuclear propulsion engines are inconsistent with anthropomorphic EVA capabilities.

  6. Preflight Extravehicular Activity Training for STS-114 at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-28

    JSC2002-E-23140 (28 May 2002) --- Astronaut Stephen K. Robinson and Soichi Noguchi (partially obscured), both STS-114 mission specialists, are submerged in the waters of the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Robinson and Noguchi are wearing the training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit. SCUBA-equipped divers are in the water to assist the astronauts in their rehearsal, intended to help prepare them for work on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Noguchi represents Japan’s National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  7. 2014 Decompression Sickness/Extravehicular Activity Risks Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan; Mahon, Richard; Klaus, David; Neuman, Tom; Pilmanis, Andrew; Regis, David

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Decompression Sickness (DCS)/Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on November 4 - 5, 2014. The SRP reviewed the Research Plans for The Risk of Decompression Sickness and the Risk of Injury and Compromised Performance due to EVA Operations, as well as the Evidence Reports for both of these Risks. The SRP found that the NASA DCS/EVA team did an excellent job of presenting their research plans. The SRP considers it critical that NASA proceeds with the high priority tasks identified in this report (DCS1, DCS3, DCS5). The highest priority is to determine the acceptable DCS and hypoxia risk associated with the planned human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The risk of DCS is highly dependent upon the pressure within the exploration vehicle. If slightly more hypoxia is permitted then (even with the same percentage of oxygen) the pressure within the exploration vehicle can be lowered thus further mitigating the risk of DCS. The second highest priority is to test and validate the recommended 8.2psi/34% O2 atmosphere. Development of procedures and equipment for human exploration missions are very limited until the results of this testing are completed. The SRP also suggests that DCS7 be separated into two Gaps. Gap DCS7 should deal with DCS treatment while a new Gap should be created to deal with the long-term effects of DCS. The SRP also encourages NASA to increase collaboration with other organizations and pool resources where possible. The current NASA DCS/EVA team has the extensive expertise and a wealth of knowledge in this area. The SRP suggests that increased manpower for this team would be highly productive.

  8. Mobility of an elastic glove for extravehicular activity without prebreathing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Ikeda, Mizuki; Mochizuki, Yosuke; Katafuchi, Tetsuro

    2011-09-01

    The current U.S. extravehicular activity (EVA) suit is pressurized at 0.29 atm, which is much lower than the pressures of sea level and inside a space station. Higher pressure can reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS), but mobility would be sacrificed. We have demonstrated that a glove and sleeve made of elastic material increased mobility when compared with those made of nonelastic material, such as that found in the current suit. We hypothesized that an elastic glove of 0.65 atm that has no risk of DCS also has greater mobility compared with a non-elastic glove of 0.29 atm. The right hands of 10 healthy volunteers were studied in a chamber with their bare hands at normal ambient pressure, after donning a non-elastic glove with a pressure differential of 0.29 atm, and after donning an elastic glove with a pressure differential of 0.29 and 0.65 atm. Range of motion (ROM) of the index finger and surface electromyography (EMG) amplitudes during finger flexion were measured. ROM with gloves was significantly smaller than that of bare hands, but was similar between conditions of gloves regardless of elasticity and pressure differentials. However, EMG amplitudes with the elastic glove of 0.29 and 0.65 atm were significantly smaller than those with the non-elastic glove of 0.29 atm. The results suggest that mobility of the elastic glove of 0.65 atm may be better than that of the non-elastic glove of 0.29 atm, similar to that used in the current EVA suit.

  9. The Influence of Robotic Assistance on Reducing Neuromuscular Effort and Fatigue during Extravehicular Activity Glove Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Kaci E.; Deshpande, Ashish D.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Jonathan M.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    The three-layered, pressurized space suit glove worn by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew members during missions commonly causes hand and forearm fatigue. The Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG), a Phase VI EVA space suit glove modified with robotic grasp-assist capabilities, has been developed to augment grip strength in order to improve endurance and reduce the risk of injury in astronauts. The overall goals of this study were to i) quantify the neuromuscular modulations that occur in response to wearing a conventional Phase VI space suit glove (SSG) during a fatiguing task, and ii) determine the efficacy of Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG) in reversing the adverse neuromuscular modulations and restoring altered muscular activity to barehanded levels. Six subjects performed a fatigue sequence consisting of repetitive dynamic-gripping interspersed with isometric grip-holds under three conditions: barehanded, wearing pressurized SSG, and wearing pressurized SSRG. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from six forearm muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor digitorum (ED), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)) and subjective fatigue ratings were collected during each condition. Trends in amplitude and spectral distributions of the sEMG signals were used to derive metrics quantifying neuromuscular effort and fatigue that were compared across the glove conditions. Results showed that by augmenting finger flexion, the SSRG successfully reduced the neuromuscular effort needed to close the fingers of the space suit glove in more than half of subjects during two types of tasks. However, the SSRG required more neuromuscular effort to extend the fingers compared to a conventional SSG in many subjects. Psychologically, the SSRG aided subjects in feeling less fatigued during short periods of intense work compared to the SSG. The results of this study reveal the promise of the SSRG as a

  10. Electromyographic quantification of hand performance during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranniger, Claudia Ute

    Pressure-suited humans are the most versatile work system in the space environment. Improvements in extravehicular activity (EVA) technology strive to enhance performance of manual tasks on orbit; however, methods with which to quantitatively assess these improvements are rare. This research encompasses the development of a system which can be used to quantify gloved hand performance during end-to-end EVA tasks, based both on hand motion and muscle activity. The system is unique in that it incorporates the physiological characteristics of the hand and forearm within the pressure suit glove, rather than simply evaluating the glove alone. Tracking of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the large flexor and extensor muscles of the hand, and of finger deflection within the glove, enables examination of both muscle activity levels and fatigue throughout a task. Two metrics suited to analysis of realistic, dynamic activities have been developed. A Task Intensity metric based on the amplitude distribution of the EMG signal provides a measure of the muscular effort required to complete individual activities. A mean power frequency (MPF) analysis tool derived from wavelet theory provides EMG spectral information indicative of muscle fatigue. The wavelet-based frequency analysis method is superior to traditional Fourier-based methods because it inherently provides temporal resolution of the signal, enabling decomposition of dynamic (nonstationary) and isometric (stationary) EMG signals alike. The Task Intensity and wavelet MPF analysis tools have been used to assess the gloved hand performance during representative EVA tasks completed in the suited neutral buoyancy environment, and to assess changes in muscle use during trials of a new power-assisted EVA glove. Results suggest that the metrics developed herein can be used to rank tasks based on relative muscular effort and fatigue, and that the scope of the results is naturally limited to the muscles under investigation

  11. Relationship between simulated extravehicular activity tasks and measurements of physical performance.

    PubMed

    Ade, C J; Broxterman, R M; Craig, J C; Schlup, S J; Wilcox, S L; Barstow, T J

    2014-11-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the relationships between tests of fitness and two activities that simulate components of Lunar- and Martian-based extravehicular activities (EVA). Seventy-one subjects completed two field tests: a physical abilities test and a 10km Walkback test. The relationships between test times and the following parameters were determined: running V˙O2max, gas exchange threshold (GET), speed at V˙O2max (s-V˙O2max), highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism [critical speed (CS)], and the finite distance that could be covered above CS (D'): arm cranking V˙O2peak, GET, critical power (CP), and the finite work that can be performed above CP (W'). CS, running V˙O2max, s-V˙O2max, and arm cranking V˙O2peak had the highest correlations with the physical abilities field test (r=0.66-0.82, P<0.001). For the 10km Walkback, CS, s-V˙O2max, and running V˙O2max were significant predictors (r=0.64-0.85, P<0.001). CS and to a lesser extent V˙O2max are most strongly associated with tasks that simulate aspects of EVA performance, highlighting CS as a method for evaluating astronaut physical capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Views of the extravehicular activity during STS 41-B

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-02-12

    S84-27031 (7 Feb 1984) --- Astronaut Bruce McCandless II, 41-B mission specialist, reaches a maximum distance from the Challenger before reversing direction his manned maneuvering unit (MMU) and returning to the Challenger. A fellow crewmember inside the vehicle's cabin took this photograph with a 70mm camera. The untethered EVA marked the first such experience for astronauts.

  13. Allowable exposure limits for carbon dioxide during extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seter, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent was to review the research pertaining to human exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to recommend allowable exposure limits for extravehicular activity (EVA). Respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems may be adversely affected by chronic low dose CO2 exposure. Ventilation was increased 15 percent with 1 percent CO2 and 50 percent with 2 percent CO2. Chronic exposure to less than 2 percent CO2 led to 20 day cycles of uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis. Acid-base changes were small. Histopathologic changes in guinea pig lungs have been noted with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. No changes were seen with exposure to 0.5 percent CO2. Cycling of bone calcium stores with associated changes in blood and urinary calcium levels occurs with long term CO2 exposure. Histologic changes in bone have been noted in guinea pigs exposed to 1 percent CO2. Renal calcification has been noted in guinea pigs with exposure to as low as 0.5 percent CO2. An increase in gastric acidity was noted in subjects with long term exposure to 1 percent CO2. Cardiovascular and neurologic function were largely unaffected. A decrease in the incidence of respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal disease was noted in submariners coincident with a decrease in ambient CO2 from 1.2 percent to 0.8-0.9 percent. Oxygen (O2) and CO2 stimulate respiration independently and cumulatively. The addition of CO2 to high dose O2 led to the faster onset of seizure activity in mice. Experiments evaluating the physiologic responses to intermittent, repetitive exposures to low dose CO2 and 100 percent O2 mixtures should be performed. A reduction in the current NASA standard for CO2 exposure during EVA of 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for nominal and 2 percent (15.2 mmHg) for heavy exertion to 0.5 percent (3.8 mmHg) for nominal and 1 percent (7.6 mmHg) for heavy exertion may be prudent. At a minimum, the current NASA standard should not be liberalized.

  14. Wissler Simulations of a Liquid Cooled and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesterson, Matthew; Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to provide effective cooling for astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs), a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) is used to remove heat by a series off tubes through which cooling water is circulated. To better predict the effectiveness of the LCG and determine possible modifications to improve performance, computer simulations dealing with the interaction of the cooling garment with the human body have been run using the Wissler Human Model. Simulations have been conducted to predict the heat removal rate for various liquid cooled garment configurations. The current LCVG uses 48 cooling tubes woven into a fabric with cooling water flowing through the tubes. The purpose of the current project is to decrease the overall weight of the LCVG system. In order to achieve this weight reduction, advances in the garment heat removal rates need to be obtained. Currently, increasing the fabric s thermal conductivity along with also examining an increase in the cooling tube conductivity to more efficiently remove the excess heat generated during EVA is being simulated. Initial trials varied cooling water temperature, water flow rate, garment conductivity, tube conductivity, and total number of cooling tubes in the LCVG. Results indicate that the total number of cooling tubes could be reduced to 22 and still achieve the desired heat removal rate of 361 W. Further improvements are being made to the garment network used in the model to account for temperature gradients associated with the spacing of the cooling tubes over the surface of the garment

  15. Surface extra-vehicular activity emergency scenario management: Tools, procedures, and geologically related implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zea, Luis; Diaz, Alejandro R.; Shepherd, Charles K.; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2010-07-01

    Extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) are an essential part of human space exploration, but involve inherently dangerous procedures which can put crew safety at risk during a space mission. To help mitigate this risk, astronauts' training programs spend substantial attention on preparing for surface EVA emergency scenarios. With the help of two Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) crews (61 and 65), wearing simulated spacesuits, the most important of these emergency scenarios were examined at three different types of locations that geologically and environmentally resemble lunar and Martian landscapes. These three platforms were analyzed geologically as well as topographically (utilizing a laser range finder with slope estimation capabilities and a slope determination software). Emergency scenarios were separated into four main groups: (1) suit issues, (2) general physiological, (3) attacks and (4) others. Specific tools and procedures were developed to address each scenario. The tools and processes were tested in the field under Mars-analog conditions with the suited subjects for feasibility and speed of execution.

  16. Finger heat flux/temperature as an indicator of thermal imbalance with application for extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Koscheyev, Victor S; Leon, Gloria R; Coca, Aitor

    2005-11-01

    The designation of a simple, non-invasive, and highly precise method to monitor the thermal status of astronauts is important to enhance safety during extravehicular activities (EVA) and onboard emergencies. Finger temperature (Tfing), finger heat flux, and indices of core temperature (Tc) [rectal (Tre), ear canal (Tec)] were assessed in 3 studies involving different patterns of heat removal/insertion from/to the body by a multi-compartment liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG). Under both uniform and nonuniform temperature conditions on the body surface, Tfing and finger heat flux were highly correlated with garment heat flux, and also highly correlated with each other. Tc responses did not adequately reflect changes in thermal balance during the ongoing process of heat insertion/removal from the body. Overall, Tfing/finger heat flux adequately reflected the initial destabilization of thermal balance, and therefore appears to have significant potential as a useful index for monitoring and maintaining thermal balance and comfort in extreme conditions in space as well as on Earth. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, stands in 'golden slippers' on the Lunar Module 3 porch during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. This photograph was taken from inside the Lunar Module 'Spider'. The Command/Service Module and Lunar Module were docked. Schweickart is wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU).

  18. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, stands in 'golden slippers' on the Lunar Module 3 porch during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. This photograph was taken from inside the Lunar Module 'Spider'. The Command/Service Module and Lunar Module were docked. Schweickart is wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU).

  19. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  20. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  1. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the

  2. Visor reflection self portrait during Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-12-23

    ISS018-E-014429 (23 Dec. 2008) Astronaut Michael Fincke, Expedition 18 commander, takes a picture of his own helmet visor with a digital still camera during a Dec. 23 spacewalk on the International Space Station.

  3. CREW TRAINING (EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY [EVA]) - STS-41G - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-07-06

    S84-36960 (5 July 1984) --- Astronauts Kathryn D. Sullivan, left, and David C. Leestma, Mission 41-G crewmembers, simulate the transfer of cryogenics in space during an Earth-bound underwater session in the Johnson Space Center's weightless environment training facility (WET-F). The two mission specialists will be joined by three NASA astronauts and two payload specialists for a flight aboard the Columbia later this year. The photograph was taken by Otis Imboden.

  4. Integrated Software Systems for Crew Management During Extravehicular Activity in Planetary Terrain Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence; Nguen, Dan; Jones, Jeffrey; Lee, Pascal; Merrell, Ronald; Rafiq, Azhar

    2008-01-01

    Initial planetary explorations with the Apollo program had a veritable ground support army monitoring the safety and health of the 12 astronauts who performed lunar surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). Given the distances involved, this will not be possible on Mars. A spacesuit for Mars must be smart enough to replace that army. The next generation suits can do so using 2 software systems serving as virtual companions, LEGACI (Life support, Exploration Guidance Algorithm and Consumable Interrogator) and VIOLET (Voice Initiated Operator for Life support and Exploration Tracking). The system presented in this study integrates data inputs from a suite of sensors into the MIII suit s communications, avionics and informatics hardware for distribution to remote managers and data analysis. If successful, the system has application not only for Mars but for nearer term missions to the Moon, and the next generation suits used on ISS as well. Field tests are conducted to assess capabilities for next generation spacesuits at Johnson Space Center (JSC) as well as the Mars and Lunar analog (Devon Island, Canada). LEGACI integrates data inputs from a suite of noninvasive biosensors in the suit and the astronaut (heart rate, suit inlet/outlet lcg temperature and flowrate, suit outlet gas and dewpoint temperature, pCO2, suit O2 pressure, state vector (accelerometry) and others). In the Integrated Walkback Suit Tests held at NASA-JSC and the HMP tests at Devon Island, communication and informatics capabilities were tested (including routing by satellite from the suit at Devon Island to JSC in Houston via secure servers at VCU in Richmond, VA). Results. The input from all the sensors enable LEGACI to compute multiple independent assessments of metabolic rate, from which a "best" met rate is chosen based on statistical methods. This rate can compute detailed information about the suit, crew and EVA performance using test-derived algorithms. VIOLET gives LEGACI voice activation

  5. Prebreathe Protocol for Extravehicular Activity Technical Consultation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Jerry; Duncan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the performance of EVA by that National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronauts, there exists a risk of DCS as the suit pressure is reduced to 4.3 pounds per square inch, absolute (psia) from the International Space Station (ISS) pressure of 14.7 psia. Several DCS-preventive procedures have been developed and implemented. Each of these procedures involve the use of oxygen (O2) prebreathe to effectively washout tissue nitrogen (N2).The management of the ISS Programs convened an expert independent peer review Team to conduct a review of the Decompression Sickness (DCS) risks associated with the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Campout Prebreathe (PB) protocol for its consideration for use on future missions. The major findings and recommendations of the expert panel are: There is no direct experimental data to confirm the potential DCS risks of the Campout PB protocol. However, based on model data, statistical probability, physiology, and information derived from similar PB protocols, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that the Campout PB protocol is less safe than the other NASA approved PB protocols.

  6. Astronaut Judith Resnik participates in WETF training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-05-14

    S84-33898 (21 May 1984) --- Astronaut Jon A. McBride, 41-G pilot, assists his crewmate, Astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan with the glove portion of her extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) prior to Dr. Sullivan's underwater session in the Johnson Space Center's weightless environment training facility (WET-F). Mission specialists Sullivan and David C. Leestma are scheduled for extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Columbia for NASA's 17th scheduled flight.

  7. 21st Century Extravehicular Activities: Synergizing Past and Present Training Methods for Future Spacewalking Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the the spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first space walk in June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill-set and subsequently the training methods, changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the Skylab, Space Shuttle; and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  8. 21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-10-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  9. Lonchakov on Service Module (SM) near 2AP-BKA during Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039147 (10 March 2009) --- Cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov, Expedition 18 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform maintenance on the International Space Station. During the 4-hour, 49-minute spacewalk, Lonchakov and astronaut Michael Fincke (out of frame), commander, reinstalled the Exposing Specimens of Organic and Biological Materials to Open Space (Expose-R) experiment on the universal science platform mounted to the exterior of the Zvezda Service Module. The spacewalkers also removed straps, or tape, from the area of the docking target on the Pirs airlock and docking compartment. The tape was removed to ensure it does not get in the way during the arrival of visiting Soyuz or Progress spacecraft.

  10. Lonchakov on Service Module (SM) near 2AP-BKA during Russian Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 21A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-10

    ISS018-E-039156 (10 March 2009) --- Cosmonaut Yury Lonchakov, Expedition 18 flight engineer, participates in a session of extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform maintenance on the International Space Station. During the 4-hour, 49-minute spacewalk, Lonchakov and astronaut Michael Fincke (out of frame), commander, reinstalled the Exposing Specimens of Organic and Biological Materials to Open Space (Expose-R) experiment on the universal science platform mounted to the exterior of the Zvezda Service Module. The spacewalkers also removed straps, or tape, from the area of the docking target on the Pirs airlock and docking compartment. The tape was removed to ensure it does not get in the way during the arrival of visiting Soyuz or Progress spacecraft.

  11. Integrated model of G189A and Aspen-plus for the transient modeling of extravehicular activity atmospheric control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodney, Matthew; Conger, Bruce C.

    1990-01-01

    A computerized modeling tool, under development for the transient modeling of an extravehicular activity atmospheric control subsystem is described. This subsystem includes the astronaut, temperature control, moisture control, CO2 removal, and oxygen make-up components. Trade studies evaluating competing components and subsystems to guide the selection and development of hardware for lunar and Martian missions will use this modeling tool. The integrated modeling tool uses the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) to accomplish pseudosteady-state simulations, and the general environmental thermal control and life support program (G189A) to manage overall control of the run and transient input output, as well as transient modeling computations and database functions. Flow charts and flow diagrams are included.

  12. An evaluation of three-dimensional sensors for the extravehicular activity helper/retreiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity Retriever/Helper (EVAHR) is a robotic device currently under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center that is designed to fetch objects or to assist in retrieving an astronaut who may have become inadvertently de-tethered. The EVAHR will be required to exhibit a high degree of intelligent autonomous operation and will base much of its reasoning upon information obtained from one or more three-dimensional sensors that it will carry and control. At the highest level of visual cognition and reasoning, the EVAHR will be required to detect objects, recognize them, and estimate their spatial orientation and location. The recognition phase and estimation of spatial pose will depend on the ability of the vision system to reliably extract geometric features of the objects such as whether the surface topologies observed are planar or curved and the spatial relationships between the component surfaces. In order to achieve these tasks, accurate sensing of the operational environment and objects in the environment will therefore be critical. The qualitative and quantitative results of empirical studies of three sensors that are capable of providing three-dimensional information to the EVAHR, but using completely different hardware approaches are documented. The first of these devices is a phase shift laser with an effective operating range (ambiguity interval) of approximately 15 meters. The second sensor is a laser triangulation system designed to operate at much closer range and to provide higher resolution images. The third sensor is a dual camera stereo imaging system from which range images can also be obtained. The remainder of the report characterizes the strengths and weaknesses of each of these systems relative to quality of data extracted and how different object characteristics affect sensor operation.

  13. Thermoregulation and heat exchange in a nonuniform thermal environment during simulated extended EVA. Extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Hubel, A.; Nelson, E. D.; Tranchida, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonuniform heating and cooling of the body, a possibility during extended duration extravehicular activities (EVA), was studied by means of a specially designed water circulating garment that independently heated or cooled the right and left sides of the body. The purpose was to assess whether there was a generalized reaction on the finger in extreme contradictory temperatures on the body surface, as a potential heat status controller. METHOD: Eight subjects, six men and two women, were studied while wearing a sagittally divided experimental garment with hands exposed in the following conditions: Stage 1 baseline--total body garment inlet water temperature at 33 degrees C; Stage 2--left side inlet water temperature heated to 45 degrees C; right side cooled to 8 degrees C; Stage 3--left side inlet water temperature cooled to 8 degrees C, right side heated to 45 degrees C. RESULTS: Temperatures on each side of the body surface as well as ear canal temperature (Tec) showed statistically significant Stage x Side interactions, demonstrating responsiveness to the thermal manipulations. Right and left finger temperatures (Tfing) were not significantly different across stages; their dynamic across time was similar. Rectal temperature (Tre) was not reactive to prevailing cold on the body surface, and therefore not informative. Subjective perception of heat and cold on the left and right sides of the body was consistent with actual temperature manipulations. CONCLUSIONS: Tec and Tre estimates of internal temperature do not provide accurate data for evaluating overall thermal status in nonuniform thermal conditions on the body surface. The use of Tfing has significant potential in providing more accurate information on thermal status and as a feedback method for more precise thermal regulation of the astronaut within the EVA space suit.

  14. A Pilot Study for Applying an Extravehicular Activity Exercise Prebreathe Protocol to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Kristin K.; Johnson, Anyika N.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Gernhardt, Michael; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Foster, Philip P.

    2000-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) is a serious risk to astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA). To reduce this risk, the addition of ten minutes of moderate exercise (75% VO2pk) during prebreathe has been shown to decrease the total prebreathe time from 4 to 2 hours and to decrease the incidence of DCS. The overall purpose of this pilot study was to develop an exercise protocol using flight hardware and an in-flight physical fitness cycle test to perform prebreathe exercise before an EVA. Eleven subjects volunteered to participate in this study. The first objective of this study was to compare the steady-state heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) from a submaximal arm and leg exercise (ALE) session with those predicted from a maximal ALE test. The second objective was to compare the steady-state HR and V02 from a submaximal elastic tube and leg exercise (TLE) session with those predicted from the maximal ALE test. The third objective involved a comparison of the maximal ALE test with a maximal leg-only (LE) test to conform to the in- flight fitness assessment test. The 75% VO2pk target HR from the LE test was significantly less than the target HR from the ALE test. Prescribing exercise using data from the maximal ALE test resulted in the measured submaximal values being higher than predicted VO2 and HR. The results of this pilot study suggest that elastic tubing is valid during EVA prebreathe as a method of arm exercise with the flight leg ergometer and it is recommended that prebreathe countermeasure exercise protocol incorporate this method.

  15. Thermoregulation and heat exchange in a nonuniform thermal environment during simulated extended EVA. Extravehicular activities.

    PubMed

    Koscheyev, V S; Leon, G R; Hubel, A; Nelson, E D; Tranchida, D

    2000-06-01

    Nonuniform heating and cooling of the body, a possibility during extended duration extravehicular activities (EVA), was studied by means of a specially designed water circulating garment that independently heated or cooled the right and left sides of the body. The purpose was to assess whether there was a generalized reaction on the finger in extreme contradictory temperatures on the body surface, as a potential heat status controller. Eight subjects, six men and two women, were studied while wearing a sagittally divided experimental garment with hands exposed in the following conditions: Stage 1 baseline--total body garment inlet water temperature at 33 degrees C; Stage 2--left side inlet water temperature heated to 45 degrees C; right side cooled to 8 degrees C; Stage 3--left side inlet water temperature cooled to 8 degrees C, right side heated to 45 degrees C. Temperatures on each side of the body surface as well as ear canal temperature (Tec) showed statistically significant Stage x Side interactions, demonstrating responsiveness to the thermal manipulations. Right and left finger temperatures (Tfing) were not significantly different across stages; their dynamic across time was similar. Rectal temperature (Tre) was not reactive to prevailing cold on the body surface, and therefore not informative. Subjective perception of heat and cold on the left and right sides of the body was consistent with actual temperature manipulations. Tec and Tre estimates of internal temperature do not provide accurate data for evaluating overall thermal status in nonuniform thermal conditions on the body surface. The use of Tfing has significant potential in providing more accurate information on thermal status and as a feedback method for more precise thermal regulation of the astronaut within the EVA space suit.

  16. Results from an Investigation into Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Training Related Shoulder Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Williams, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The number and complexity of extravehicular activities (EVAs) required for the completion and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) is unprecedented. The training required to successfully complete this magnitude of space walks presents a real risk of overuse musculoskeletal injuries to the EVA crew population. There was mounting evidence raised by crewmembers, trainers, and physicians at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) between 1999 and 2002 that suggested a link between training in the Neutral - Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and the several reported cases of shoulder injuries. The short- and long-term health consequences of shoulder injury to astronauts in training as well as the potential mission impact associated with surgical intervention to assigned EVA crew point to this as a critical problem that must be mitigated. Thus, a multi-directorate tiger team was formed in December of 2002 led by the EVA Office and Astronaut Office at the JSC. The primary objectives of this Tiger Team were to evaluate the prevalence of these injuries and substantiate the relationship to training in the NBL with the crew person operating in the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU). Between December 2002 and June of 2003 the team collected data, surveyed crewmembers, consulted with a variety of physicians, and performed tests. The results of this effort were combined with the vast knowledge and experience of the Tiger Team members to formulate several findings and over fifty recommendations. This paper summarizes those findings and recommendations as well as the process by which these were determined. The Tiger Team concluded that training in the NBL was directly linked to several major and minor shoulder injuries that had occurred. With the assistance of JSC flight surgeons, outside consultants, and the lead crewmember/physician on the team, the mechanisms of injury were determined. These mechanisms were then linked to specific aspects of the hardware design, operational techniques, and the

  17. [Research progress of thermal control system for extravehicular activity space suit].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Q; Shen, L P; Yuan, X G

    1999-08-01

    New research progress of thermal control system for oversea Extravehicular Activity (EVA) space suit is presented. Characteristics of several thermal control systems are analyzed in detail. Some research tendencies and problems are discussed, which are worthwhile to be specially noted. Finally, author's opinion about thermal control system in the future is put forward.

  18. [Development of special food products for cosmonaut's nutrition during extravehicular activities].

    PubMed

    Agureev, A N; Kalandarov, S; Vasil'eva, V F; Gurova, L A

    2003-01-01

    On the analysis of the factual energy expenditure by cosmonauts during extravehicular activities two choices of special rations (SR) were developed. Hygienic testing showed that all nutritional components in these SRs were present in optimal quantities. Consumption of the SR foods during any basic meal will not misbalance the latter but satisfy the body demand of the main indispensable nutritional factors.

  19. Astronaut Richard Gordon returns to hatch of spacecraft following EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, returns to the hatch of the spacecraft following extravehicular activity (EVA). This picture was taken over the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 160 nautical miles above the earth's surface.

  20. Astronauts Harris and Foale ready to egress airlock for EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronauts Bernard A. Harris, Jr., payload commander, (top) and C. Michael Foale, mission specialist, are ready to egress airlock for an extravehicular activity (EVA) during the STS-63 mission on the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean works on Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, works at the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) on the Apollo 12 Lunar Module during the mission's first extravehicular activity, EVA-1, on November 19, 1969.

  2. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses control of MMU during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC.

  3. Official portrait of Astronaut Bruce McCandless

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Official Space Shuttle portrait of Astronaut Bruce McCandless, II., attired in the Shuttle Extravehicular activity (EVA) suit with the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) attached and the American flag in the background.

  4. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-06

    AS09-20-3094 (6 March 1969) --- Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, stands in "golden slippers" on the Lunar Module porch during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. This photograph was taken from inside the Lunar Module "Spider". The Command and Service Modules were docked to the LM. Schweickart is wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Inside the "Spider" was astronaut James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 crew commander. Astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot, remained at the controls of the Command Module, "Gumdrop."

  5. Astronaut William Gregory activates Liquids Mixing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Astronaut William G. Gregory activates Liquids Mixing Apparatus (LMA) vials during STS-67. Other LMAs hang at top on the face of the middeck locker array. The experiments are sponsored under NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  6. Astronaut William Gregory activates Liquids Mixing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Astronaut William G. Gregory activates Liquids Mixing Apparatus (LMA) vials during STS-67. Other LMAs hang at top on the face of the middeck locker array. The experiments are sponsored under NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  7. Report for neutral buoyancy simulations of transfer orbit stage contingency extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The transfer orbit stage (TOS) will propel the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) from the Space Shuttle to an Earth geosynchronous transfer orbit. Two neutral buoyancy test series were conducted at MSFC to validate the extravehicular activities (EVA) contingency operations for the ACTS/TOS/mission. The results of the neutral buoyancy tests are delineated and a brief history of the TOS EVA program is given.

  8. [Several indicators of tissue oxygen during modeling of extravehicular activity of man].

    PubMed

    Lan'shina, O E; Loginov, V A; Akinfiev, A V; Kovalenko, E A

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of tissue oxygen indices during simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) of cosmonauts demonstrated that breathing pure oxygen at approximately 280 mmHg elevates oxygen tension in capillary blood, and capillary-tissue gradient during physical work. Physical work alone stimulates tissue oxygenation due to, apparently, intensification of the processes of oxidative phosphorylation. The observed shifts in oxygen status reverse significantly within the first 5 min after completion of the experiment.

  9. [The present status and development of thermal control system of spacesuits for extravehicular activity].

    PubMed

    Zhao, C Y; Sun, J B; Yuan, X G

    1999-04-01

    With the extension of extravehicular activity (EVA) duration, the need for more effective thermal control of EVA spacesuits is required. The specific schemes investigated in heat sink system for EVA are discussed, including radiator, ice storage, metal hydride heat pump, phase-change storage/radiator and sublimator. The importance and requirements of automatic thermal control for EVA are also discussed. Existed automatic thermal control for EVA are reviewed. Prospects of further developments of thermal control of spacesuits for EVA are proposed.

  10. Shoulder Injury Incidence Rates in NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the astronaut shoulder injury rates began with an operational concern at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training. An astronaut suffered a shoulder injury during an NBL training run and commented that it was possibly due to a hardware issue. During the subsequent investigation, questions arose regarding the rate of shoulder injuries in recent years and over the entire history of the astronaut corps.

  11. Task network models in the prediction of workload imposed by extravehicular activities during the Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Manuel F.; Takamoto, Neal; Woolford, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    In a joint effort with Brooks AFB, Texas, the Flight Crew Support Division at JSC has begun a computer simulation and performance modeling program directed at establishing the predictive validity of software tools for modeling human performance during spaceflight. This paper addresses the utility of task network modeling for predicting the workload that astronauts are likely to encounter in extravehicular activities (EVA) during the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) repair mission. The intent of the study was to determine whether two EVA crewmembers and one intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmember could reasonably be expected to complete HST Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WFPC) replacement in the allotted time. Ultimately, examination of the points during HST servicing that may result in excessive workload will lead to recommendations to the HST Flight Systems and Servicing Project concerning (1) expectation of degraded performance, (2) the need to change task allocation across crewmembers, (3) the need to expand the timeline, and (4) the need to increase the number of EVA's.

  12. Compilation of Trade Studies for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2009-01-01

    This compilation of trade studies performed from 2005 to 2006 addressed a number of power system design issues for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit. Spacesuits were required for spacewalks and in-space activities as well as lunar and Mars surface operations. The trades documented here considered whether solar power was feasible for spacesuits, whether spacesuit power generation should be a distributed or a centralized function, whether self-powered in-space spacesuits were better than umbilically powered ones, and whether the suit power system should be recharged in place or replaced.

  13. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murry, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This activity places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies.

  14. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  15. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  16. Tests of an alternate mobile transporter and extravehicular activity assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Watson, Judith J.; Lake, Mark S.; Bush, Harold G.; Jensen, J. Kermit; Wallsom, Richard E.; Phelps, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a ground test program of an alternate mobile transporter (MT) concept and extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) truss keel. A three-bay orthogonal tetrahedral truss beam consisting of 44 2-in-diameter struts and 16 nodes was assembled repeatedly in neutral buoyancy by pairs of pressure-suited test subjects working from astronaut positioning devices (APD's) on the MT. The truss bays were cubic with edges 15 ft long. All the truss joint hardware was found to be EVA compatible. The average unit assembly time for a single pair of experienced test subjects was 27.6 sec/strut, which is about half the time derived from other SSF truss assembly tests. A concept for integration of utility trays during truss assembly is introduced and demonstrated in the assembly tests. The concept, which requires minimal EVA handling of the trays, is shown to have little impact on overall assembly time. The results of these tests indicate that by using an MT equipped with APD's, rapid EVA assembly of a space station-size truss structure can be expected.

  17. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system.

    PubMed

    Deme, S; Apathy, I; Hejja, I; Lang, E; Feher, I

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  18. Design, development, and fabrication of extravehicular activity tools for support of the transfer orbit stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albritton, L. M.; Redmon, J. W.; Tyler, T. R.

    1993-01-01

    Seven extravehicular activity (EVA) tools and a tool carrier have been designed and developed by MSFC in order to provide a two fault tolerant system for the transfer orbit stage (TOS) shuttle mission. The TOS is an upper stage booster for delivering payloads to orbits higher than the shuttle can achieve. Payloads are required not to endanger the shuttle even after two failures have occurred. The Airborne Support Equipment (ASE), used in restraining and deploying TOS, does not meet this criteria. The seven EVA tools designed will provide the required redundancy with no impact to the TOS hardware.

  19. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  20. The use of decompression to simulate the effect of extravehicular activity on human lymphocyte transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, R. T.; Duncan, U.; Neale, L.; Waligora, J.; Taylor, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 35 subjects participating in a chamber study simulating extravehicular activity (EVA) conditions were studied. No significant differences in H3 thymidine uptake between pre chamber and post chamber response to any mitogens autologous plasma, or among circulating mononuclear cells by flow cytometry are observed. The studies could not identify the subjects who developed venous bubbles. Data from eight subjects suggests that acute stress associated with participating in the study augments in vitro lymphocyte proliferation. Results indicate EVA exposure does not greatly influence space-flight induced alterations in immune effector cell function.

  1. Use of Variable Pressure Suits, Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of variable pressure suits, intermittent recompression and Nitrox breathing mixtures to allow for multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a day. This new operational concept of multiple short EVAs requires short purge times and shorter prebreathes to assure rapid egress with a minimal loss of the vehicular air. Preliminary analysis has begun to evaluate the potential benefits of the intermittent recompression, and Nitrox breathing mixtures when used with variable pressure suits to enable reduce purges and prebreathe durations.

  2. Motion-based carriage simulation of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1992-01-01

    A research program was outlined for a series of Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) rescue studies. The general purpose is to get a better appreciation of the characteristics describing an EVA rescue scenario. Several studies have been completed in the Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation (VIEW) at NASA Ames Research Center. Similar studies are planned for a variety of simulators both to get more reliable results for the EVA rescue problem and to baseline the simulators against one another. Work is planned for a motion-based carriage to expand the validity of the previously obtained results.

  3. [Heat transfer analysis of liquid cooling garment used for extravehicular activity].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y F; Yuan, X G; Mei, Z G; Jia, S G; Ouyang, H; Ren, Z S

    2001-10-01

    Brief description was given about the construction and function of the LCG (liquid cooling garment) used for EVA (extravehicular activity). The heat convection was analyzed between ventilating gas and LCG, the heat and mass transfer process was analyzed too, then a heat and mass transfer mathematical model of LCG was developed. Thermal physiological experimental study with human body wearing LVCG (liquid cooling and ventilation garment) used for EVA was carried out to verify this mathematical model. This study provided a basis for the design of liquid-cooling and ventilation system for the space suit.

  4. Astronaut Alan Bean steps from ladder of Lunar Module for EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, steps from the ladder of the Lunar Module to join Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, in extravehicular activity on November 19, 1969. Astronaut Ricard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command/Service Modules in lunar orbit.

  5. Astronaut Alan Bean steps from ladder of Lunar Module for EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6729 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, steps from the ladder of the Lunar Module to join astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, in extravehicular activity on Nov. 19, 1969. Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules in lunar orbit.

  6. ASTRONAUT ALAN SHEPARD - PREFLIGHT ACTIVITIES - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    S61-02767 (5 May 1961) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. in flight couch for final check before insertion into capsule for his Mercury-Redstone 3 (MR-3) flight. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  7. Injury Risk Assessment of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Phase VI and Series 4000 Gloves During Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hand Manipulation Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilby, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Functional Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) with high precision gloves are essential for the success of Extravehicular Activity (EVA). Previous research done at NASA has shown that total strength capabilities and performance are reduced when wearing a pressurized EMU. The goal of this project was to characterize the human-space suit glove interaction and assess the risk of injury during common EVA hand manipulation tasks, including pushing, pinching and gripping objects. A custom third generation sensor garment was designed to incorporate a combination of sensors, including force sensitive resistors, strain gauge sensors, and shear force sensors. The combination of sensors was used to measure the forces acting on the finger nails, finger pads, finger tips, as well as the knuckle joints. In addition to measuring the forces, data was collected on the temperature, humidity, skin conductance, and blood perfusion of the hands. Testing compared both the Phase VI and Series 4000 glove against an ungloved condition. The ungloved test was performed wearing the sensor garment only. The project outcomes identified critical landmarks that experienced higher workloads and are more likely to suffer injuries. These critical landmarks varied as a function of space suit glove and task performed. The results showed that less forces were acting on the hands while wearing the Phase VI glove as compared to wearing the Series 4000 glove. Based on our findings, the engineering division can utilize these methods for optimizing the current space suit glove and designing next generation gloves to prevent injuries and optimize hand mobility and comfort.

  8. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Bruce McCandless

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Bruce McCandless. McCandless, using a one-G version of the manned maneuvering unit (MMU), is simulating an EVA.

  9. Skylab Astronaut participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    SL3-118-2182 (6 Aug. 1973) --- Skylab 3 astronaut participates in the Aug. 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which the twin pole solar shield was deployed to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Photo credit: NASA

  10. Astronauts Scott and Irwin shown on Lunar Roving Vehicle at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronauts David R. Scott (right), commander, and James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, are shown on the Lunar Roving Vehicle at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity simlations.

  11. Astronaut Richard Gordon practices attaching camera to film EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, practices attaching to a Gemini boilerplate a camera which will film his extravehicular activity (EVA) outside the spacecraft. The training exercise is being conducted in the Astronaut Training Building, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  12. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  13. Astronaut Carl Walz during EVA in Discovery's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Carl E. Walz reaches for equipment from the provisional stowage assembly (PSA) in Discvoery's cargo bay during a lengthy period of extravehicular activity (EVA). The hatch to Discovery's airlock is open nearby. Sun glare is evident above the orbiter. The picture was taken with a 35mm camera by astronaut James H. Newman, who shared EVA duties with Walz.

  14. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  15. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt retrieving lunar samples during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, with his adjustable sampling scoop, heads for a selected rock on the lunar surface to retrieve the sample for study. The action was photographed by Apollo 17 crew commander, Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan on the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 (Camelot Crater) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site.

  16. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander.

  17. Astronaut Richard Gordon practices attaching camera to film EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, practices attaching to a Gemini boilerplate a camera which will film his extravehicular activity (EVA) outside the spacecraft. The training exercise is being conducted in the Astronaut Training Building, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  18. Astronaut Crippen prepares to join crew in training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-09-04

    41D-3186 (4 Sept 1984) --- Astronaut Robert L. Crippen, 41-G crew commander, prepares to join his six fellow crewmembers for some training in the mockup and integration laboratory at the Johnson Space Center. Astronaut David C. Leestma, 41-G mission specialist, left, will participate in a scheduled extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Challenger's next mission. Today's training is for launch phase procedures.

  19. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  20. Astronaut Leestma during an EVA in the aft cargo hold

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    41G-101-014 (13 October 1984) --- Astronaut David C. Leestma, in a 35mm frame exposed by fellow mission specialist, Astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan, participates in extravehicular activity of Oct. 11 in the Challenger's aft cargo bay. Leestma's right hand (out of frame) was inside a special work station called the orbital refueling system (ORS).

  1. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  2. Astronaut Charles Duke works at front of Lunar Roving Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, works at front of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) parked in this rock field at a North Ray crater geological site during the Mission's third extravehicular activity (EVA-3) on April 23, 1972. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, took this picture with a 70mm Hasselblad camera.

  3. Lunar Roving Vehicle gets speed workout by Astronaut John Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) gets a speed workout by Astronaut John W. Young in the 'Grand Prix' run during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera held by Astronaut Charels M. Duke Jr.

  4. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity. The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design. PMID:28491008

  5. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity. The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  6. Morphing Compression Garments for Space Medicine and Extravehicular Activity Using Active Materials.

    PubMed

    Holschuh, Bradley T; Newman, Dava J

    2016-02-01

    Compression garments tend to be difficult to don/doff, due to their intentional function of squeezing the wearer. This is especially true for compression garments used for space medicine and for extravehicular activity (EVA). We present an innovative solution to this problem by integrating shape changing materials-NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) coil actuators formed into modular, 3D-printed cartridges-into compression garments to produce garments capable of constricting on command. A parameterized, 2-spring analytic counterpressure model based on 12 garment and material inputs was developed to inform garment design. A methodology was developed for producing novel SMA cartridge systems to enable active compression garment construction. Five active compression sleeve prototypes were manufactured and tested: each sleeve was placed on a rigid cylindrical object and counterpressure was measured as a function of spatial location and time before, during, and after the application of a step voltage input. Controllable active counterpressures were measured up to 34.3 kPa, exceeding the requirement for EVA life support (29.6 kPa). Prototypes which incorporated fabrics with linear properties closely matched analytic model predictions (4.1%/-10.5% error in passive/active pressure predictions); prototypes using nonlinear fabrics did not match model predictions (errors >100%). Pressure non-uniformities were observed due to friction and the rigid SMA cartridge structure. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of controllable compression technology incorporating active materials, a novel contribution to the field of compression garment design. This technology could lead to easy-to-don compression garments with widespread space and terrestrial applications.

  7. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged to a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is aided by technicians in donning the gloves for his extravehicular mobility unit (EMU).

  8. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

  9. Refinement of Optimal Work Envelope for Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Suit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, Marcos A.; Angermiller, Bonnie L.; Morency, Richard M.; Rajululu, Sudhakar L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Work Envelope study is to determine and revise the work envelope defined in NSTS 07700 "System Description and Design Data - Extravehicular Activities" [1], arising from an action item as a result of the Shoulder Injury Tiger Team findings. The aim of this study is to determine a common work envelope that will encompass a majority of the crew population while minimizing the possibility of shoulder and upper arm injuries. There will be approximately two phases of testing: arm sweep analysis to be performed in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF), and torso lean testing to be performed on the Precision Air Bearing Facility (PABF). NSTS 07700 defines the preferred work envelope arm reach in terms of maximum reach, and defines the preferred work envelope torso flexibility of a crewmember to be a net 45 degree backwards lean [1]. This test served two functions: to investigate the validity of the standard discussed in NSTS 07700, and to provide recommendations to update this standard if necessary.

  10. Astronauts Weitz and Conrad suit up during prelaunch activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, prime crew pilot of the first manned Skylab mission, is suited up in bldg 5 at JSC during prelaunch training activity. He is assisted by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., prime crew commander. The man in the left background is wearing a face mask to insure that Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Weitz are not exposed to disease prior to launch.

  11. Neutral buoyancy test evaluation of hardware and extravehicular activity procedures for on-orbit assembly of a 14 meter precision reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure that enables astronauts in extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform efficient on-orbit assembly of large paraboloidal precision reflectors is presented. The procedure and associated hardware are verified in simulated Og (neutral buoyancy) assembly tests of a 14 m diameter precision reflector mockup. The test article represents a precision reflector having a reflective surface which is segmented into 37 individual panels. The panels are supported on a doubly curved tetrahedral truss consisting of 315 struts. The entire truss and seven reflector panels were assembled in three hours and seven minutes by two pressure-suited test subjects. The average time to attach a panel was two minutes and three seconds. These efficient assembly times were achieved because all hardware and assembly procedures were designed to be compatible with EVA assembly capabilities.

  12. Neutral buoyancy test evaluation of hardware and extravehicular activity procedures for on-orbit assembly of a 14 meter precision reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.

    1993-02-01

    A procedure that enables astronauts in extravehicular activity (EVA) to perform efficient on-orbit assembly of large paraboloidal precision reflectors is presented. The procedure and associated hardware are verified in simulated Og (neutral buoyancy) assembly tests of a 14 m diameter precision reflector mockup. The test article represents a precision reflector having a reflective surface which is segmented into 37 individual panels. The panels are supported on a doubly curved tetrahedral truss consisting of 315 struts. The entire truss and seven reflector panels were assembled in three hours and seven minutes by two pressure-suited test subjects. The average time to attach a panel was two minutes and three seconds. These efficient assembly times were achieved because all hardware and assembly procedures were designed to be compatible with EVA assembly capabilities.

  13. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The exploration activities associated with NASA?s goals to return to the Moon, travel to Mars, or explore Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will involve the need for human-supported space and surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). The technology development and human element associated with these exploration missions provide fantastic content to promote science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). As NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden remarked on December 9, 2009, "We....need to provide the educational and experiential stepping-stones to inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and leaders in STEM fields." The EVA Systems Project actively supports this initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for these missions. This paper summarizes these education and public efforts.

  14. Astronaut Thomas Mattingly performs EVA during Apollo 16 transearth coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 16 transearth coast. mattingly is assisted by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Mattingly inspected the SIM bay of the Service Module, and retrieved film from the Mapping and Panoramic cameras. Mattingly is wearing the helmet of Astronaut John W. Young, commander. The helmet's lunar extravehicular visor assembly helped protect Mattingly's eyes frmo the bright sun. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera.

  15. Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit Intravehicular Activity Suit for Extravehicular Activity Mobility Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of an intravehicular activity (IVA) suit for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) was evaluated for mobility and usability in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) environment at the Sonny Carter Training Facility near NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit was modified to integrate with the Orion spacecraft. The first several missions of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle will not have mass available to carry an EVA-specific suit; therefore, any EVA required will have to be performed by the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES). Since the MACES was not designed with EVA in mind, it was unknown what mobility the suit would be able to provide for an EVA or whether a person could perform useful tasks for an extended time inside the pressurized suit. The suit was evaluated in multiple NBL runs by a variety of subjects, including crewmembers with significant EVA experience. Various functional mobility tasks performed included: translation, body positioning, tool carrying, body stabilization, equipment handling, and tool usage. Hardware configurations included with and without Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, suit with IVA gloves and suit with EVA gloves. Most tasks were completed on International Space Station mock-ups with existing EVA tools. Some limited tasks were completed with prototype tools on a simulated rocky surface. Major findings include: demonstrating the ability to weigh-out the suit, understanding the need to have subjects perform multiple runs prior to getting feedback, determining critical sizing factors, and need for adjusting suit work envelope. Early testing demonstrated the feasibility of EVA's limited duration and limited scope. Further testing is required with more flight-like tasking and constraints to validate these early results. If the suit is used for EVA, it will require mission-specific modifications for umbilical management or Primary Life Support System integration

  16. Extravehicular activity compatibility evaluation of developmental hardware for assembly and repair of precision reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.; Bush, Harold G.; Jensen, J. Kermit; Phelps, James E.; Wallsom, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results of tests performed in neutral buoyancy by two pressure-suited test subjects to simulate Extravehicular Activity (EVA) tasks associated with the on-orbit construction and repair of a precision reflector spacecraft. Two complete neutral buoyancy assemblies of the test article (tetrahedral truss with three attached reflector panels) were performed. Truss joint hardware, two different panel attachment hardware concepts, and a panel replacement tool were evaluated. The test subjects found the operation and size of the truss joint hardware to be acceptable. Both panel attachment concepts were found to be EVA compatible, although one concept was judged by the test subjects to be considerably easier to operate. The average time to install a panel from a position within arm's reach of the test subjects was 1 min 14 sec. The panel replacement tool was used successfully to demonstrate the removal and replacement of a damaged reflector panel in 10 min 25 sec.

  17. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  18. Design of high pressure oxygen filter for extravehicular activity life support system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    The experience of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with extravehicular activity life support emergency oxygen supply subsystems has shown a large number of problems associated with particulate contamination. These problems have resulted in failures of high pressure oxygen component sealing surfaces. A high pressure oxygen filter was designed which would (a) control the particulate contamination level in the oxygen system to a five-micron glass bead rating, ten-micron absolute condition (b) withstand the dynamic shock condition resulting from the sudden opening of 8000 psi oxygen system shutoff valve. Results of the following program tasks are reported: (1) contaminant source identification tests, (2) dynamic system tests, (3) high pressure oxygen filter concept evaluation, (4) design, (5) fabrication, (6) test, and (7) application demonstration.

  19. The role of manned extravehicular activity in reducing the cost of space payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, L. R.; Patrick, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Substantial cost savings and performance improvement will result by the use of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) to supplement or replace automation. Taking an all-pallet version of Langley Research Center's Advanced Technology Laboratory payload as an example, $54.5 million should be saved by EVA over automation, considering deployment and stowing only. Additional savings should accrue when reduced-reliability equipment (where permitted) is substituted for high reliability equipment and EVA is used for repairs. More comprehensively, launch and operation costs could also be reduced by elimination of the need to return to the ground for repairs; and production spending might be reduced when an entire vehicle was saved by manned EVA repair not feasible via automation. Potential disadvantages include increased cost due to development and manufacture of EVA equipment, payload provisions to enable EVA interfaces, training, orbiter modification, and prevention of EVA-caused contamination. Possible applications to the Space Shuttle missions are discussed.

  20. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

  1. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  2. Extravehicular activity compatibility evaluation of developmental hardware for assembly and repair of precision reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Lake, Mark S.; Bush, Harold G.; Jensen, J. Kermit; Phelps, James E.; Wallsom, Richard E.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents results of tests performed in neutral buoyancy by two pressure-suited test subjects to simulate Extravehicular Activity (EVA) tasks associated with the on-orbit construction and repair of a precision reflector spacecraft. Two complete neutral buoyancy assemblies of the test article (tetrahedral truss with three attached reflector panels) were performed. Truss joint hardware, two different panel attachment hardware concepts, and a panel replacement tool were evaluated. The test subjects found the operation and size of the truss joint hardware to be acceptable. Both panel attachment concepts were found to be EVA compatible, although one concept was judged by the test subjects to be considerably easier to operate. The average time to install a panel from a position within arm's reach of the test subjects was 1 min 14 sec. The panel replacement tool was used successfully to demonstrate the removal and replacement of a damaged reflector panel in 10 min 25 sec.

  3. Modeling Oxygen Prebreathe Protocols for Exploration Extravehicular Activities Using Variable Pressure Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration missions are expected to use variable pressure extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits as well as a spacecraft "exploration atmosphere" of 56.5 kPa (8.2 psia), 34% O2, both of which provide the possibility of reducing the oxygen prebreathe times necessary to reduce decompression sickness (DCS) risk. Previous modeling work predicted 8.4% DCS risk for an EVA beginning at the exploration atmosphere, followed by 15 minutes of in-suit O2 prebreathe, and 6 hours of EVA at 29.6 kPa (4.3 psia). In this study we model notional prebreathe protocols for a variable pressure suit where the exploration atmosphere is unavailable.

  4. [Heart rate and energy expenditure during extravehicular activity in different time of day].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, S I; Katuntsev, V P; Osipov, Iu Iu; Galichiĭ, V A

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the comparative heart rate (HR) characteristics associated with day and night extravehicular activities (EVA). HR was commonly higher in the night but not in the daytime. Presumably, the reason is psychological and physiological challenges of the night work on the background of natural performance decrement. These circumstances could lead to elevation of psychic tension and, consequently, increase of heartbeats to a greater extent as compared with daytime EVA. According to the correlation analysis data, the pattern of HR relation to physical loads evaluated by energy expenditure in the daytime was other than at night, i.e. it was positive unlike the nighttime correlation. We cannot exclude it that in the daytime increase in cardiac output (CO) in response to physical work was largely due to increase in HR, whereas it was stroke volume that dominated during night work; at least, it could support CO fully in the periods of low loading.

  5. [Theoretical evaluation of the risk of decompression illness during simulated extravehicular activity].

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, V P

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of the risk of decompression illness (DI) during extravehicular activity following the Russian and NASA decompression protocols (D-R and D-US, respectively) was performed. In contrast to the tradition approach to decompression stress evaluation by the factor of tissue supersaturation with nitrogen, our probabilistic theory of decompression safety provides a completely reasoned evaluation and comparison of the levels of hazard of these decompression protocols. According to this theory, the function of cumulative DI risk is equal to the sum of functions of cumulative risk of lesion of all body tissues by gas bubbles and their supersaturation by solute gases. Based on modeling of dynamics of these functions, growth of the DI cumulative risk in the course of D-R and D-US follows essentially similar trajectories within the time-frame of up to 330 minutes. However, further extension of D-US but not D-R raises the risk of DI drastically.

  6. Prevention of decompression sickness during extravehicular activity in space: a review.

    PubMed

    Tokumaru, O

    1997-12-01

    Extended and more frequent extravehicular activity (EVA) is planned in NASA's future space programs. The more EVAs are conducted, the higher the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) that is anticipated. Since Japan is also promoting the Space Station Freedom project with NASA, DCS during EVA will be an inevitable complication. The author reviewed the pathophysiology of DCS and detailed four possible ways of preventing decompression sickness during EVA in space: (1) higher pressure suit technology; (2) preoxygenation/prebreathing; (3) staged decompression; and (4) habitat or vehicle pressurization. Among these measures, development of zero-prebreathe higher pressure suit technology seems most ideal, but because of economic and technical reasons and in cases of emergency, other methods must also be improved. Unsolved problems like repeated decompression or oxygen toxicity were also listed.

  7. Polar-Auroral Charging of the Space Shuttle and EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Astronaut

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    were mado at room Jremparatur* and with liquid nitroger cooling. The glow appears brighter at 100 degrees Xal~i- z , cioa2e~. to laborptory arabient...EVA equipment musceptitility to arc discharge geerated ENI must be resolved since EVA may bec’s necessary on any Shuttle flight&, at least on a

  8. A Multi-Purpose Modular Electronics Integration Node for Exploration Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, Edward; Papale, William; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David; Hawes, Kevin; Stankiewicz, Tom

    2013-01-01

    As NASA works to develop an effective integrated portable life support system design for exploration Extravehicular activity (EVA), alternatives to the current system s electrical power and control architecture are needed to support new requirements for flexibility, maintainability, reliability, and reduced mass and volume. Experience with the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has demonstrated that the current architecture, based in a central power supply, monitoring and control unit, with dedicated analog wiring harness connections to active components in the system has a significant impact on system packaging and seriously constrains design flexibility in adapting to component obsolescence and changing system needs over time. An alternative architecture based in the use of a digital data bus offers possible wiring harness and system power savings, but risks significant penalties in component complexity and cost. A hybrid architecture that relies on a set of electronic and power interface nodes serving functional models within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is proposed to minimize both packaging and component level penalties. A common interface node hardware design can further reduce penalties by reducing the nonrecurring development costs, making miniaturization more practical, maximizing opportunities for maturation and reliability growth, providing enhanced fault tolerance, and providing stable design interfaces for system components and a central control. Adaptation to varying specific module requirements can be achieved with modest changes in firmware code within the module. A preliminary design effort has developed a common set of hardware interface requirements and functional capabilities for such a node based on anticipated modules comprising an exploration PLSS, and a prototype node has been designed assembled, programmed, and tested. One instance of such a node has been adapted to support testing the swingbed carbon dioxide and humidity

  9. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  10. Astronaut James van Hoften working with Syncom IV-3 satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-01

    51I-44-014 (31 Aug-1 Sept. 1985) --- This photograph is one of a series of six covering extravehicular activity (EVA) which were released by NASA on Sept. 4, 1985. Here, astronaut James D. van Hoften, dwarfed by the large satellite, moves in for initial contact. Astronaut John M. (Mike) Lounge, out of frame inside cabin, maneuvers the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm to assist astronauts van Hoften and William F. Fisher. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Astronaut Gene Cernan poses in front of Gemini Mission Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-09

    S66-32698 (17 June 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan discusses his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity before a gathering of news media representatives in the MSC auditorium. In the background is an Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) mock-up mounted in a mock-up of a Gemini spacecraft adapter equipment section. Astronauts Cernan and Thomas P. Stafford completed their three-day mission in space on June 6, 1966. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Astronaut Sam Gemar, wearing EMU, prepares for training in WETF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1987-03-01

    S87-26630 (March 1987) --- Astronaut Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, prepares to be emersed in the 25-ft. deep waters of the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Once underwater, Gemar was able to achieve a neutrally buoyant state and to simulate the floating type activities of an astronaut in microgravity. Gemar began training as an astronaut candidate in the summer of 1985.

  13. View of Astronaut Neil Armstrong in Lunar Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-20

    AS11-37-5528 (20 July 1969) --- This photograph of astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, was taken inside the Lunar Module (LM) while the LM rested on the lunar surface. Astronauts Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, had already completed their historic extravehicular activity (EVA) when this picture was made. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin explored the moon's surface.

  14. Optimization of radiation exposures during extravehicular activity using the effect of the West-East asymmetry of the fluxes of trapped protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, D. A.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Kolomenskii, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the protective properties of a space suit against cosmic radiation the dose rates were calculated for extravehicular activity in the ISS orbit for a number of representative points of critical organs of the human body. The screening functions of the Orlan-M space suit obtained by the authors earlier are used in the calculations. In addition, the effect of East-West asymmetry of the fluxes of high-energy protons trapped by the geomagnetic field is taken into account. It is shown that during passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly, choosing the optimal orientation of astronauts in relation to the cardinal directions, one can achieve for the most critical body organs a dose rate reduction by a factor of ˜1.5-1.8 (in the maximum of solar activity) and by a factor of ˜2-2.5 (in the solar activity minimum). The obtained results can serve for obtaining more accurate estimation of radiation risk for astronauts working in the Orlan-M space suit in the near-terrestrial orbits and for elaborating practical recommendations to reduce their radiation exposures.

  15. Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

  16. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, is photographed from the Command Module 'Gumdrop' during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Command and Service Modules are docked with the Lunar Module.

  17. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner works to deploy a large stinger device designed for locking onto the orbiting satellites via entering a spent engine's nozzle.

  18. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner handles a stinger device to make initial contact with one of the two satellites they will be working with.

  19. Astronaut Dale Gardner rehearses during EVA practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, 51-A mission specialist, rehearses control of manned maneuvering unit (MMU) during a practice for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Gardner is in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. Gardner handles a stinger device to make initial contact with one of the two satellites they will be working with.

  20. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, is photographed from the Command Module 'Gumdrop' during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Command and Service Modules are docked with the Lunar Module.

  1. Optical Breath Gas Extravehicular Activity Sensor for the Advanced Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity (EVA) in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires highly accurate CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Further, that accuracy needs to be provided over the full operating pressure range of the suit (3 to 25 psia). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode (LD) sensor based on infrared absorption spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Version 1.0 prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The prototypes were upgraded with more sophisticated communications and faster response times to version 2.0 and delivered to JSC in July 2012. The sensors incorporate a laser diode based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement. The prototypes are controlled digitally with an field-programmable gate array microcontroller architecture. Based on the results of the iterative instrument development, further prototype development and testing of instruments were performed leveraging the lessons learned where feasible. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware for the advanced PLSS 2.5 prototypes for testing at JSC. The prototypes provide significantly enhanced accuracy for water vapor measurement and eliminate wavelength drift affecting the earlier versions. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are currently being advanced including the companion development of engineering development units that will ultimately be capable of radiation tolerance. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength

  2. Astronaut Linda Godwin Trains in Weightless Environment Facility (WET-F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut and mission specialist, Linda Godwin, makes a final check of her respiration system before submersion into a 25 ft deep pool at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). Wearing a high fidelity training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, Godwin simulated STS-76 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) chores in the pool. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis in March of 1996, STS-76 marked the third U.S. Shuttle-Mir docking during which Godwin, along with astronaut and mission specialist Michael R. (Rich) Clifford, performed the first Extravehicular Activity (EVA) during Mir-Shuttle docked operations.

  3. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Tribal Elder Lee Frazier leads the dedication to the astronauts of STS-113 during the Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  4. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Tribal Elder Lee Frazier leads the dedication to the astronauts of STS-113 during the Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  5. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. The lunar rover, which transported Schmitt and Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, to this extravehicular station from their Lunar Module, is seen in the background. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. The mosaic is made from two frames from Apollo 17 Hasselblad magaine 140.

  6. STS-76 astronauts Godwin and Clifford training in the WETF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-12-04

    S95-21281 (September 1995) --- Astronaut Linda M. Godwin, mission specialist, makes a final check of her respiration system before being submerged in a 25-feet deep pool at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). Wearing high fidelity training versions of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit, both Godwin and Michael R. (Rich) Clifford were later simulating Extravehicular Activity (EVA) chores in the pool. Launch aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for March of 1996.

  7. PLRP-3: Operational Perspectives of Conducting Science-Driven Extravehicular Activity with Communications Latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Brady, Allyson; Cardman, Zena; Bell, Ernest; Garry, Brent; Reid, Donnie; Chappell, Steve; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) is a unique platform where the combination of scientific research and human space exploration concepts can be tested in an underwater spaceflight analog environment. The 2015 PLRP field season was performed at Pavilion Lake, Canada, where science-driven exploration techniques focusing on microbialite characterization and acquisition were evaluated within the context of crew and robotic extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. The primary objectives of this analog study were to detail the capabilities, decision-making process, and operational concepts required to meet non-simulated scientific objectives during 5-minute one-way communication latency utilizing crew and robotic assets. Furthermore, this field study served as an opportunity build upon previous tests at PLRP, NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) to characterize the functional roles and responsibilities of the personnel involved in the distributed flight control team and identify operational constraints imposed by science-driven EVA operations. The relationship and interaction between ground and flight crew was found to be dependent on the specific scientific activities being addressed. Furthermore, the addition of a second intravehicular operator was found to be highly enabling when conducting science-driven EVAs. Future human spaceflight activities will need to cope with the added complexity of dynamic and rapid execution of scientific priorities both during and between EVA execution to ensure scientific objectives are achieved.

  8. PLRP-3: Operational Perspectives of Conducting Science-Driven Extravehicular Activity with Communications Latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Brady, Allyson; Cardman, Zena; Bell, Ernest; Garry, Brent; Reid, Donnie; Chappell, Steve; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) is a unique platform where the combination of scientific research and human space exploration concepts can be tested in an underwater spaceflight analog environment. The 2015 PLRP field season was performed at Pavilion Lake, Canada, where science-driven exploration techniques focusing on microbialite characterization and acquisition were evaluated within the context of crew and robotic extravehicular activity (EVA) operations. The primary objectives of this analog study were to detail the capabilities, decision-making process, and operational concepts required to meet non-simulated scientific objectives during 5-minute one-way communication latency utilizing crew and robotic assets. Furthermore, this field study served as an opportunity build upon previous tests at PLRP, NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS), and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) to characterize the functional roles and responsibilities of the personnel involved in the distributed flight control team and identify operational constraints imposed by science-driven EVA operations. The relationship and interaction between ground and flight crew was found to be dependent on the specific scientific activities being addressed. Furthermore, the addition of a second intravehicular operator was found to be highly enabling when conducting science-driven EVAs. Future human spaceflight activities will need to cope with the added complexity of dynamic and rapid execution of scientific priorities both during and between EVA execution to ensure scientific objectives are achieved.

  9. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publication, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the Contingency

  10. Advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    New technologies are identified and recommended for developing a regenerative portable life support system that provides protection for extravehicular human activities during long duration missions on orbiting space stations, potential lunar bases, and possible Mars landings. Parametric subsystems analyses consider: thermal control, carbon dioxide control, oxygen supply, power supply, contaminant control, humidity control, prime movers, and automatic temperature control.

  11. Venous gas emboli and exhaled nitric oxide with simulated and actual extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Lars L; Blogg, S Lesley; Lindholm, Peter; Gennser, Mikael; Hemmingsson, Tryggve; Linnarsson, Dag

    2009-10-01

    The decompression experienced due to the change in pressure from a space vehicle (1013hPa) to that in a suit for extravehicular activity (EVA) (386hPa) was simulated using a hypobaric chamber. Previous ground-based research has indicated around a 50% occurrence of both venous gas emboli (VGE) and symptoms of decompression illness (DCI) after similar decompressions. In contrast, no DCI symptoms have been reported from past or current space activities. Twenty subjects were studied using Doppler ultrasound to detect any VGE during decompression to 386hPa, where they remained for up to 6h. Subjects were supine to simulate weightlessness. A large number of VGE were found in one subject at rest, who had a recent arm fracture; a small number of VGE were found in another subject during provocation with calf contractions. No changes in exhaled nitric oxide were found that can be related to either simulated EVA or actual EVA (studied in a parallel study on four cosmonauts). We conclude that weightlessness appears to be protective against DCI and that exhaled NO is not likely to be useful to monitor VGE.

  12. Introduction to Radiation Issues for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Saganti, P. B.; Miller, J.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides significant challenges for radiation protection of the crew due to a combination of circumstances including: the extended duration of missions for many crewmembers, the exceptionally dynamic nature of the radiation environment in ISS orbit, and the necessity for numerous planned extravehicular activities (EVA) for station construction and maintenance. Radiation protection requires accurate radiation dose measurements and precise risk modeling of the transmission of high fluxes of energetic electrons and protons through the relatively thin shielding provided by the space suits worn during EVA. Experiments and analyses have been performed due to the necessity to assure complete radiation safety for the EVA crew and thereby ensure mission success. The detailed characterization described of the material and topological properties of the ISS space suits can be used as a basis for design of space suits used in future exploration missions. In radiation protection practices, risk from exposure to ionizing radiation is determined analytically by the level of exposure, the detrimental quality of the radiation field, the inherent radiosensitivity of the tissues or organs irradiated, and the age and gender of the person at the time of exposure. During low Earth orbit (LEO) EVA, the relatively high fluxes of low-energy electrons and protons lead to large variations in exposure of the skin, lens of the eye, and tissues in other shallow anatomical locations. The technical papers in this publication describe a number of ground-based experiments that precisely measure the thickness of the NASA extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and Russian Zvezda Orlan-M suits using medical computerized tomography (CT) X-ray analysis, and particle accelerator experiments that measure the minimum kinetic energy required by electrons and photons to penetrate major components of the suits. These studies provide information necessary for improving the

  13. Payload bay activity during second EVA of STS-72 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-16

    STS072-393-008 (17 Jan. 1996) --- Astronaut Leroy Chiao gives a thumbs up signal, marking the success of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) in three days. Chiao was joined by astronaut Winston E. Scott on this EVA.

  14. Decompression sickness during simulated extravehicular activity: ambulation vs. non-ambulation.

    PubMed

    Webb, James T; Beckstrand, Devin P; Pilmanis, Andrew A; Balldin, Ulf I

    2005-08-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is required from the International Space Station on a regular basis. Because of the weightless environment during EVA, physical activity is performed using mostly upper-body movements since the lower body is anchored for stability. The adynamic model (restricted lower-body activity; non-ambulation) was designed to simulate this environment during earthbound studies of decompression sickness (DCS) risk. DCS symptoms during ambulatory (walking) and non-ambulatory high altitude exposure activity were compared. The objective was to determine if symptom incidences during ambulatory and non-ambulatory exposures are comparable and provide analogous estimates of risk under otherwise identical conditions. A retrospective analysis was accomplished on DCS symptoms from 2010 ambulatory and 330 non-ambulatory exposures. There was no significant difference between the overall incidence of DCS or joint-pain DCS in the ambulatory (49% and 40%) vs. the non-ambulatory exposures (53% and 36%; p > 0.1). DCS involving joint pain only in the lower body was higher during ambulatory exposures (28%) than non-ambulatory exposures (18%; p < 0.01). Non-ambulatory exposures terminated more frequently with non-joint-pain DCS (17%) or upper-body-only joint pain (18%) as compared with ambulatory exposures, 9% and 11% (p < 0.01), respectively. These findings show that lower-body, weight-bearing activity shifts the incidence of joint-pain DCS from the upper body to the lower body without altering the total incidence of DCS or joint-pain DCS. Use of data from previous and future subject exposures involving ambulatory activity while decompressed appears to be a valid analogue of non-ambulatory activity in determining DCS risk during simulated EVA studies.

  15. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  16. Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

  17. Efficacy of doppler utrasound for screening symptoms of decompression sickness during simulated extravehicular activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Waligora, J. M.

    Doppler ultrasound is frequently used for monitoring circulating microbubbles during decompression to assess the symptoms of Decompression Sickness (DCS). This analysis was carried out to evaluate its effectiveness for screening symptoms of DCS during simulated extravehicular activities (EVA). The information from various hypobaric chamber studies carried out at the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX was used in this analysis ( n = 516). The circulating microbubbles were detected in the precordial area in 42% ( 218/516), and symptoms were reported in 16% ( 81/516) of these exposures. The accuracy of Doppler-detectable bubbles (Spencer grades) on all symptoms of DCS was examined by calculating measures of sensitivity and specificity. The efficacy of Doppler as a screening device was examined by calculating their positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). The results of these analyses indicated that the sensitivity of Doppler decreased, and the PPV increased with higher Spencer grades. However, the likelihood of detecting true negative cases (NPV) was consistently higher with all bubble grades. Due to the high false-positive rate and low prior probabilities of the risk of DCS, Doppler was found to be more useful to identify those who did not develop DCS, than to detect positive cases of DCS in the simulated EVA exposures.

  18. 802.16e System Profile for NASA Extra-Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Chelmins, David T.; Nguyen, Hung D.; Downey, Joseph A.; Finn, Gregory G.; Cagley, Richard E.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies an 802.16e system profile that is applicable to a lunar surface wireless network, and specifically for meeting extra-vehicular activity (EVA) data flow requirements. EVA suit communication needs are addressed. Design-driving operational scenarios are considered. These scenarios are then used to identify a configuration of the 802.16e system (system profile) that meets EVA requirements, but also aim to make the radio realizable within EVA constraints. Limitations of this system configuration are highlighted. An overview and development status is presented by Toyon Research Corporation concerning the development of an 802.16e compatible modem under NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. This modem is based on the recommended system profile developed as part of this report. Last, a path forward is outlined that presents an evolvable solution for the EVA radio system and lunar surface radio networks. This solution is based on a custom link layer, and 802.16e compliant physical layer compliant to the identified system profile, and a later progression to a fully interoperable 802.16e system.

  19. Design and control of a hand exoskeleton for use in extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, B.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1993-01-01

    To counter problems inherent in extravehicular activities (EVA) and complex space operations, an exoskeleton, a unique adaptive structure, has been designed. The exoskeleton fits on the hand and powers the proximal and middle phalanges of the index finger, the middle finger, and the combined ring and little finger. A kinematic analysis of the exoskeleton joints was performed using the loop-closure method. This analysis determined the angular displacement and velocity relationships of the exoskeleton joints. This information was used to determine the output power of the exoskeleton. Three small DC motors (one for each finger) are used to power the exoskeleton. The motors are mounted on the forearm. Power is transferred to the exoskeleton using lead screws. The control system for the exoskeleton measures the contact force between the operator and the exoskeleton. This information is used as the input to drive the actuation system. The control system allows the motor to rotate in both directions so that the operator may close or open the exoskeleton.

  20. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new concept of operations will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Boeing Delta IV Heavy (DIV-H). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  1. Design and control of a hand exoskeleton for use in extravehicular activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, B.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1993-01-01

    To counter problems inherent in extravehicular activities (EVA) and complex space operations, an exoskeleton, a unique adaptive structure, has been designed. The exoskeleton fits on the hand and powers the proximal and middle phalanges of the index finger, the middle finger, and the combined ring and little finger. A kinematic analysis of the exoskeleton joints was performed using the loop-closure method. This analysis determined the angular displacement and velocity relationships of the exoskeleton joints. This information was used to determine the output power of the exoskeleton. Three small DC motors (one for each finger) are used to power the exoskeleton. The motors are mounted on the forearm. Power is transferred to the exoskeleton using lead screws. The control system for the exoskeleton measures the contact force between the operator and the exoskeleton. This information is used as the input to drive the actuation system. The control system allows the motor to rotate in both directions so that the operator may close or open the exoskeleton.

  2. Stress, workload and physiology demand during extravehicular activity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

    2012-06-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA), such as exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is essential for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration like long Mars mission. The study was planned stress, workload, and physiological demands of simulated Mars exploration. In this study, the six-person crew lived (24 hours) for 14 days during a short-term stay at the Mars Desert Research Station. The heart rates, salivary cortisol, workload, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity of the crew are measured before, during and after an EVA. Data for heart rate showed the same trend as peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity, with a maximal increase to 85% of peak. The rating of subscale showed a significant increase in EVA as compared to run. Salivary cortisol levels and heart rates were increased in both groups, although significant increased of cortisol levels and heart rates more in EVA as compared to hill running crew members. Further study is required on large scale taken into account of limitations of this study and including other physiological and psychological parameters in Mars analog environment.

  3. Stress, Workload and Physiology Demand During Extravehicular Activity: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Foing, Bernard H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extravehicular activity (EVA), such as exercise performed under unique environmental conditions, is essential for supporting daily living in weightlessness and for further space exploration like long Mars mission. Aim: The study was planned stress, workload, and physiological demands of simulated Mars exploration. Materials and Methods: In this study, the six-person crew lived (24 hours) for 14 days during a short-term stay at the Mars Desert Research Station. The heart rates, salivary cortisol, workload, peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity of the crew are measured before, during and after an EVA. Results: Data for heart rate showed the same trend as peak oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity, with a maximal increase to 85% of peak. The rating of subscale showed a significant increase in EVA as compared to run. Salivary cortisol levels and heart rates were increased in both groups, although significant increased of cortisol levels and heart rates more in EVA as compared to hill running crew members. Conclusion: Further study is required on large scale taken into account of limitations of this study and including other physiological and psychological parameters in Mars analog environment. PMID:22754877

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-19

    S66-27376 (19 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, practices with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit during tests in Chamber B, Environmental Test Laboratory, Building 32. The AMU consists of a chest pack and a backpack. It is scheduled for use during Gemini-9 extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  5. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys ALSEP during first Apollo 12 EVA on moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Apollo 12 lunar module pilot, deploys components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. The photo was made by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Apollo 12 commander, using a 70mm handheld Haselblad camera modified for lunar surface usage.

  6. Astronauts Ross and Helms at CAPCOM station during STS-61 simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Jerry L. Ross and Susan J. Helms are pictured at the Spacecraft Communicators console during joint integrated simulations for the STS-61 mission. Astronauts assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were simultaneously rehearsing in a neutral buoyancy tank at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama.

  7. Astronaut Owen Garriott participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronaut Jack Lousma, Skylab pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the solar shield in Garriett's helmet visor.

  8. Astronaut Owen Garriott participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    SL3-117-2109 (6 Aug. 1973) --- Scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participates in the Aug. 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and astronaut Jack Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the solar shield in Garriott's helmet visor. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronauts Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the reflection of the Apollo Telescope Mount and the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  10. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the August 6, 1973 extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the striking reflection of the Earth in Lousma's helmet visor.

  11. Astronauts Ross and Helms at CAPCOM station during STS-61 simulations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-09-01

    S93-43752 (1 Sept 1993) --- Astronauts Jerry L. Ross and Susan J. Helms are pictured at the Spacecraft Communicators Console during joint integrated simulations for the STS-61 mission. Astronauts assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were simultaneously rehearsing in a Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) tank at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama.

  12. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys ALSEP during first Apollo 12 EVA on moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-47-6919 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. The photo was made by astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, using a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera modified for lunar surface usage.

  13. Astronaut James Irwin works at Lunar Roving Vehicle during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, works at the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the first Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Hadley-Apennine landing site. The shadow of the Lunar Module 'Falcon' is in the foreground. This view is looking northeast, with Mount Hadley in the background. This photograph was taken by Astronaut David R. Scott, commander.

  14. Astronaut David Scott on slope of Hadley Delta during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, mission commander, with tongs and gnomon in hand, studies a boulder on the slope of Hadley Delta during the Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity. The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) or Rover is in right foreground. View is looking slightly south of west. 'Bennett Hill' is at extreme right. Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, took this photograph.

  15. Astronaut David Scott on slope of Hadley Delta during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott, mission commander, performs a task at the Lunar Roving Vehicle parked on the edge of Hadley Rille during the first Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1). This photograph was taken by Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, from the flank of St. George Crater. The view is looking north along the rille.

  16. Astronauts Mitchell and Shepard during first Apollo 14 EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-05

    S71-19509 (5 Feb. 1971) --- Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, operates the Active Seismic Experiment's (ASE) thumper during the first Apollo 14 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, walks near deployed components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) in the background. This photograph was taken by an automatic 16mm camera mounted on the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier aboard the Modularized Equipment Transporter (MET). While astronauts Shepard and Mitchell descended in the LM to explore the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  17. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-06

    AS09-19-2994 (6 March 1969) --- Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, is photographed from the Command Module (CM) "Gumdrop" during his extravehicular activity (EVA) on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. He holds, in his right hand, a thermal sample which he is retrieving from the Lunar Module (LM) exterior. The Command and Service Modules (CSM) and LM "Spider" are docked. Schweickart, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), is standing in "golden slippers" on the LM porch. Visible on his back are the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Oxygen Purge System (OPS). Astronaut James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 commander, was inside the "Spider". Astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot, remained at the controls in the CM "Gumdrop".

  18. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-06

    AS09-19-2983 (6 March 1969) --- Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, operates a 70mm Hasselblad camera during his extravehicular activity (EVA) on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 Earth-orbital mission. The Command and Service Modules (CSM) and Lunar Module (LM) "Spider" are docked. This view was taken from the Command Module (CM) "Gumdrop". Schweickart, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), is standing in "golden slippers" on the LM porch. On his back, partially visible, are a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and an Oxygen Purge System (OPS). Astronaut James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 commander, was inside the "Spider". Astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot, remained at the controls in the CM.

  19. Apollo 12 Mission image - Dark view of Astronaut Alan L. Bean climbing down the ladder of the Lunar Module (LM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6726 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 mission, starts down the ladder of the Lunar Module (LM) to join astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., mission commander, in extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Conrad and Bean descended in the LM "Intrepid" to explore the Ocean of Storms region of the moon, astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Yankee Clipper" in lunar orbit.

  20. A vision system planner for increasing the autonomy of the Extravehicular Activity Helper/Retriever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity Retriever (EVAR) is a robotic device currently being developed by the Automation and Robotics Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to support activities in the neighborhood of the Space Shuttle or Space Station Freedom. As the name implies, the Retriever's primary function will be to provide the capability to retrieve tools and equipment or other objects which have become detached from the spacecraft, but it will also be able to rescue a crew member who may have become inadvertently de-tethered. Later goals will include cooperative operations between a crew member and the Retriever such as fetching a tool that is required for servicing or maintenance operations. This paper documents a preliminary design for a Vision System Planner (VSP) for the EVAR that is capable of achieving visual objectives provided to it by a high level task planner. Typical commands which the task planner might issue to the VSP relate to object recognition, object location determination, and obstacle detection. Upon receiving a command from the task planner, the VSP then plans a sequence of actions to achieve the specified objective using a model-based reasoning approach. This sequence may involve choosing an appropriate sensor, selecting an algorithm to process the data, reorienting the sensor, adjusting the effective resolution of the image using lens zooming capability, and/or requesting the task planner to reposition the EVAR to obtain a different view of the object. An initial version of the Vision System Planner which realizes the above capabilities using simulated images has been implemented and tested. The remaining sections describe the architecture and capabilities of the VSP and its relationship to the high level task planner. In addition, typical plans that are generated to achieve visual goals for various scenarios are discussed. Specific topics to be addressed will include object search strategies, repositioning of the EVAR to improve the

  1. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  2. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Chickasaw Dance Troupe performs an Honor Dance for John Herrington's parents during the Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  3. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Chickasaw Dance Troupe performs an Honor Dance during the Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  4. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a pre-launch Native American ceremony, Radmilla Cody, the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, sings the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  5. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a pre-launch Native American ceremony, Radmilla Cody, the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, sings the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  6. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  7. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  8. Miniature Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter dosimeter for active personal radiation monitoring of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson Huber, Aubrey

    The accurate measurement of spaceflight crew radiation exposure is of utmost importance. If onboard instrumentation shows that the pre-determined limit for radiation exposure has been met or exceeded during a mission, that mission can be greatly affected by the implementation of precautionary measures, or, in more extreme cases, the crew's health being negatively affected. Large active regional monitors determine real-time radiation risks of the crew during spaceflight, while small passive personal badges detect individual astronaut total exposure levels upon their return to Earth. At present, there are no personal active radiation dosimeters that can assess the continuous radiation risk to individual astronauts during spaceflight. Personal active radiation devices would be ideal for current operations in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as upcoming extravehicular activities on the Moon, Mars, or other planetary bodies. This project focused on the miniaturization of the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs) presently being utilized on the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle, enabling them to become personal crew dosimeters. The miniaturized TEPC prototype design has dimensions of 7.6 x 10.1 x 2.54 cm (3 x 4 x 1 in). It is composed of a 3 x 4 array of 1.27 cm (0.5 in) spherical detectors for measurements equivalent to a 4.39 cm (1.73 in) spherical detector, with an additional standalone sphere of diameter 1.27 cm (0.5 in) for taking measurements in high-flux environments. The detector simulates a tissue-equivalent diameter of 2 microns, is sensitive to lineal energies of 0.3 -- 1000 keV/micron, and can measure charged particles and neutrons ranging from 0.01 -- 100 mGy/hr.

  9. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, operates a 70mm Hasselblad camera during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Command/Service Module and the Lunar Module 3 'Spider' are docked. This view was taken form the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. Schweickart, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), is standing in 'golden slippers' on the Lunar Module porch. On his back, partially visible, are a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and an Oxygen Purge System (OPS).

  10. Astronaut Russell Schweickart photographed during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot, operates a 70mm Hasselblad camera during his extravehicular activity on the fourth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Command/Service Module and the Lunar Module 3 'Spider' are docked. This view was taken form the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. Schweickart, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), is standing in 'golden slippers' on the Lunar Module porch. On his back, partially visible, are a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and an Oxygen Purge System (OPS).

  11. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  12. Continued Advancement of Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    The development of a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has historically performed very well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Therefore, the size and weight of the unit would have to be increased to extend EVA times. Consequently, new CO2 control technologies must be developed in order to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA; however, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A much simpler approach is to employ a membrane that vents CO2 to space and retains oxygen (O2). A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no limit on capacity, it requires no consumables, and it does not need any hardware to switch beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have the needed selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over O2. In a recently completed Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems, Inc. achieved the required CO2 permeance and selectivity with an SLM in a flat sheet configuration. This paper describes work to convert the SLM into a more compact form and to scale it up to handle more representative process flow rates.

  13. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for CO2 Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Developing a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is currently a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has worked well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Consequently, the unit would have to be larger and heavier to extend EVA times. Therefore, new CO2 control technologies must be developed to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Although recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A simpler approach is to use a membrane that selectively vents CO2 to space. A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no theoretical capacity limit, it requires no consumables, and it requires no hardware for switching beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a micro porous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over oxygen (O2). In a current Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems has developed a new reactive liquid, which has effectively zero vapor pressure making it an ideal candidate for use in an SLM. The SLM function has been demonstrated with representative pressures of CO2, O2, and water (H2O). In addition to being effective for CO2 control, the SLM also vents moisture to space. Therefore, this project has demonstrated the feasibility of using an SLM to control CO2 in an EVA application.

  14. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for CO2 Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Developing a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is currently a high priority for NASA in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. Although the Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has worked well, it has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity. Consequently, the unit would have to be larger and heavier to extend EVA times. Therefore, new CO2 control technologies must be developed to meet mission objectives without increasing the size of the PLSS. Although recent work has centered on sorbents that can be regenerated during the EVA, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A simpler approach is to use a membrane that selectively vents CO2 to space. A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no theoretical capacity limit, it requires no consumables, and it requires no hardware for switching beds between absorption and regeneration. Unfortunately, conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate selectivity for use in the PLSS. However, the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a micro porous material filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over oxygen (O2). In a current Phase II SBIR project, Reaction Systems has developed a new reactive liquid, which has effectively zero vapor pressure making it an ideal candidate for use in an SLM. The SLM function has been demonstrated with representative pressures of CO2, O2, and water (H2O). In addition to being effective for CO2 control, the SLM also vents moisture to space. Therefore, this project has demonstrated the feasibility of using an SLM to control CO2 in an EVA application. 1 President

  15. Method of Separating Oxygen From Spacecraft Cabin Air to Enable Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Extravehicular activities (EVAs) require high-pressure, high-purity oxygen. Shuttle EVAs use oxygen that is stored and transported as a cryogenic fluid. EVAs on the International Space Station (ISS) presently use the Shuttle cryo O2, which is transported to the ISS using a transfer hose. The fluid is compressed to elevated pressures and stored as a high-pressure gas. With the retirement of the shuttle, NASA has been searching for ways to deliver oxygen to fill the highpressure oxygen tanks on the ISS. A method was developed using low-pressure oxygen generated onboard the ISS and released into ISS cabin air, filtering the oxygen from ISS cabin air using a pressure swing absorber to generate a low-pressure (high-purity) oxygen stream, compressing the oxygen with a mechanical compressor, and transferring the high-pressure, high-purity oxygen to ISS storage tanks. The pressure swing absorber (PSA) can be either a two-stage device, or a single-stage device, depending on the type of sorbent used. The key is to produce a stream with oxygen purity greater than 99.5 percent. The separator can be a PSA device, or a VPSA device (that uses both vacuum and pressure for the gas separation). The compressor is a multi-stage mechanical compressor. If the gas flow rates are on the order of 5 to 10 lb (.2.3 to 4.6 kg) per day, the compressor can be relatively small [3 16 16 in. (.8 41 41 cm)]. Any spacecraft system, or other remote location that has a supply of lowpressure oxygen, a method of separating oxygen from cabin air, and a method of compressing the enriched oxygen stream, has the possibility of having a regenerable supply of highpressure, high-purity oxygen that is compact, simple, and safe. If cabin air is modified so there is very little argon, the separator can be smaller, simpler, and use less power.

  16. Pulmonary gas exchange is not impaired 24 h after extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G Kim; Fine, Janelle M; Cooper, Trevor K; West, John B

    2005-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) during spaceflight involves a significant decompression stress. Previous studies have shown an increase in the inhomogeneity of ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) after some underwater dives, presumably through the embolic effects of venous gas microemboli in the lung. Ground-based chamber studies simulating EVA have shown that venous gas microemboli occur in a large percentage of the subjects undergoing decompression, despite the use of prebreathe protocols to reduce dissolved N(2) in the tissues. We studied eight crewmembers (7 male, 1 female) of the International Space Station who performed 15 EVAs (initial cabin pressure 748 mmHg, final suit pressure either approximately 295 or approximately 220 mmHg depending on the suit used) and who followed the denitrogenation procedures approved for EVA from the International Space Station. The intrabreath VA/Q slope was calculated from the alveolar Po(2) and Pco(2) in a prolonged exhalation maneuver on the day after EVA and compared with measurements made in microgravity on days well separated from the EVA. There were no significant changes in intrabreath VA/Q slope as a result of EVA, although there was a slight increase in metabolic rate and ventilation (approximately 9%) on the day after EVA. Vital capacity and other measures of pulmonary function were largely unaltered by EVA. Because measurements could only be performed on the day after EVA because of logistical constraints, we were unable to determine an acute effect of EVA on VA/Q inequality. The results suggest that current denitrogenation protocols do not result in any major lasting alteration to gas exchange in the lung.

  17. Development and evaluation of gas-pressurized elastic sleeves for extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Tohnan, Momoka; Abe, Chikara; Iwata, Chihiro; Yamagata, Kenji; Tanaka, Masao; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Morita, Hironobu

    2010-07-01

    In space, mobility of the current extravehicular activity space suit is limited due to the pressure differential between the inside and outside of the suit. We have previously demonstrated that an elastic glove increased mobility when compared with a non-elastic glove such as that found in the current suit. Extending this work, we hypothesized that an elastic sleeve would also have more mobility compared to a non-elastic sleeve, but a partially elastic sleeve, consisting of elastic joints sewn to non-elastic parts in low mobility areas, might generate similar mobility to a wholly elastic sleeve. The right arms of 10 volunteers were studied with wholly elastic, partially elastic, and non-elastic sleeves in a chamber pressure of -220 mmHg. Range of motion (ROM) of the wrist and electromyography (EMG) of the flexor carpi radialis muscle and the biceps brachii muscle during wrist and elbow flexion were measured. ROM of the wrist was similar among all the sleeves. However, EMG amplitudes during wrist flexion with both elastic sleeves were significantly smaller than that with the non-elastic sleeve. EMG amplitudes during 90 degrees of elbow flexion were also significantly smaller in both elastic sleeves. However, no significant difference in EMG amplitudes was observed between the two elastic sleeves (0.53 +/- 0.06, 0.56 +/- 0.07, 1.14 +/- 0.10 V for wholly elastic, partially elastic, and non-elastic sleeves, respectively). The mobility of elastic sleeves is better than that of a non-elastic sleeve. Elasticity over the joints is important; however the elasticity of the other parts does not appear to affect mobility.

  18. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity.

    PubMed

    Skedina, M A; Katuntsev, V P; Buravkova, L B; Naidina, V P

    1998-01-01

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p<0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  19. Astronaut Dunbar, in EMU, is lowered into JSC's WETF pool for EVA simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Astronaut Bonnie J. Dunbar, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), stands on platform as it is lowered into JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. Astronaut Guion S. Bluford is on the opposite side of the platform. Once underwater the astronaut team will rehearse planned and contingency extravehicular activities (EVAs). Two SCUBA-equipped divers assist in the training exercise. NOTE: Since this photograph was taken, Dunbar has been named as the payload commander (PLC) for STS-50 United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1) mission aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  20. Astronauts Jerry Ross and Sherwood Spring assemble ACCESS components

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-12-01

    Astronauts Jerry L. Ross (left) and Sherwood C. (Woody) Spring are photographed as they assemble pieces of the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activities (EASE) device in the open payload bay. The Canadian-built remote manipulator system (RMS) arm (partially obscured in the right portion of the frame) is in position to allow television cameras to record the activity.

  1. Astronaut Russell Schweickart inside simulator for EVA training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 9 (Spacecraft 104/Lunar Module 3/Saturn 504) space mission, is seen inside Chamber 'A', Space Environment Simulation Laboratory, bldg 32, participating in dry run activity in preparpation for extravehicular activity.

  2. Astronaut Russell Schweickart inside simulator for EVA training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 9 (Spacecraft 104/Lunar Module 3/Saturn 504) space mission, is seen inside Chamber 'A', Space Environment Simulation Laboratory, bldg 32, participating in dry run activity in preparpation for extravehicular activity.

  3. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  4. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  5. Astronaut Eugene Cernan walks toward LRV during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-13

    AS17-140-21388 (7-19 Dec. 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, mission commander, walks toward the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) during extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site of NASA's sixth and final Apollo lunar landing mission. The photograph was taken by astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot. While astronauts Cernan and Schmitt descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Challenger" to explore the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon, astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "America" in lunar orbit.

  6. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-04-21

    AS16-114-18423 (21 April 1972) --- Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed collecting lunar samples at Station No. 1, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA), at the Descartes landing site. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum Crater. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) can be seen in the left background. While astronauts Young and Duke descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Orion" to explore the Descartes highlands region of the moon, astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Casper" in lunar orbit.

  7. Apollo 11 Mission image - Astronaut Edwin Aldrin descends the Lu

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-20

    AS11-40-5866 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, egresses the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" and begins to descend the steps of the LM ladder as he prepares to walk on the moon. This photograph was taken by astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM "Eagle" to explore the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-13

    AS17-146-22294 (13 Dec. 1972) --- Scientist-astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed working beside a huge boulder at Station 6 (base of North Massif) during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The front portion of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is visible on the left. This picture was taken by astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. While astronauts Cernan and Schmitt descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Challenger" to explore the moon, astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot, remained with the Apollo 17 Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  9. Astronaut Alan Shepard with Modular Equipment Transporter aboard KC-135

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-11-04

    S70-53479 (4 Nov. 1970) -- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Apollo 14 commander, pulls the modular equipment transporter (MET) under weightless conditions aboard an Air Force KC-135 out of Patrick Air Force Base. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, Apollo 14 lunar module pilot, is behind the MET. The KC-135 aircraft, flying a parabolic curve, creates a weightless environment providing a training exercise in preparation for the astronauts' extravehicular activities (EVA) on the lunar surface. This training simulates the 1/6 gravity the astronauts will encounter on the moon.

  10. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture to where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publicatoin5, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra- Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the

  11. Astronauts Musgrave and Hoffman during servicing of HST

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-09

    STS061-98-050 (9 Dec 1993) --- Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, anchored on the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, prepares to be elevated to the top of the towering Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to install protective covers on magnetometers. Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman (bottom of frame) assisted Musgrave with final servicing tasks on the telescope, wrapping up five days of extravehicular activities (EVA).

  12. Apollo 11 Mission image - Astronaut Edwin Aldrin stands beside t

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-20

    AS11-40-5873 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. In the right background is the lunar module. On Aldrin's right is the Solar Wind Composition (SWC) experiment, already deployed. This photograph was taken by astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  13. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt standing next to boulder during third EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed standing next to a huge, split boulder at Station 6 (base of North Massif) during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. Notice the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) in the left foreground. Schmitt is the Apollo 17 lunar module pilot. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander.

  14. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participated in the EVA with Lousma. During the EVA the two crewmen deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop.

  15. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave pose in aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Two of Endeavour's busy team of astronauts share a rare moment of leisure in the aft flight deck captured by an Electronic Still Camera (ESC). Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman, left, and F. Story Musgrave also are sharing three of the mission's five planned sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA). Electronic still photography is a technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  16. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin deploying Solar Wind Composition experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-20

    AS11-40-5964 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. He is driving one of two core tubes into the lunar soil. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm lunar surface camera. Aldrin stands near the Solar Wind Composition (SWC) experiment, a component of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP, deployed earlier). The SWC is in the center background.

  17. Lunar Roving Vehicle gets speed workout by Astronaut John Young

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) gets a speed workout by Astronaut John W. Young in the 'Grand Prix' run during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Note the front wheels of the LRV are off the ground. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera held by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr.

  18. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt seated in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA-3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-13

    AS17-134-20454 (13 Dec. 1972) --- Scientist-astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt is photographed seated in the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) at Station 9 (Van Serg Crater) during the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This photograph was taken by astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander. Schmitt, lunar module pilot, and Cernan explored the moon while astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules in lunar orbit.

  19. View of the Laser Ranging Retro Reflector deployed by Apollo 14 astronauts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-05

    AS14-67-9386 (5 Feb. 1971) --- A close-up view of the laser ranging retro reflector (LR3) which the Apollo 14 astronauts deployed on the moon during their lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  20. Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman on RMS during third of five HST EVAs

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-07

    STS061-105-026 (7 Dec. 1993) --- Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman signals directions to European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Claude Nicollier, as the latter controls the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm during the third of five Extravehicular Activities (EVA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission. Astronauts Hoffman and F. Story Musgrave earlier changed out the Wide Field\\Planetary Camera (WF\\PC).

  1. Astronaut Alan Shepard stands beside large boulder found by Apollo 14 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-06

    AS14-68-9414 (6 Feb. 1971) --- Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Apollo 14 commander, stands beside a large boulder on the lunar surface during the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA), on Feb. 6, 1971. Note the lunar dust clinging to Shepard's space suit. Astronauts Shepard and Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, explored the lunar surface while astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, orbited the moon in the Command and Service Modules (CSM).

  2. Continued Advancement of Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T.; Gleason, Kevin J.; Engel, Jeffrey R.; Cowley, Scott W.; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    The Development of a new, robust, portable life support system (PLSS) is currently a high NASA priority in order to support longer and safer extravehicular activity (EVA) missions that will be necessary as space travel extends to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. One of the critical PLSS functions is maintaining the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the suit at acceptable levels. The Metal Oxide (MetOx) canister has a finite CO2 adsorption capacity and therefore in order to extend mission times, the unit would have to be larger and heavier, which is undesirable; therefore new CO2 control technologies must be developed. While recent work has centered on the use of alternating sorbent beds that can be regenerated during the EVA, this strategy increases the system complexity and power consumption. A simpler approach is to use a membrane that vents CO2 to space but retains oxygen(O2). A membrane has many advantages over current technology: it is a continuous system with no theoretical capacity limit, it requires no consumables, and it requires no hardware for switching beds between absorption and regeneration. Conventional gas separation membranes do not have adequate selectivity for use in the PLSS, but the required performance could be obtained with a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which consists of a microporous film filled with a liquid that selectively reacts with CO2 over oxygen (O2). In a recently completed Phase II Small Business Innovative Research project, Reaction Systems developed a new reactive liquid that has effectively zero vapor pressure, making it an ideal candidate for use in an SLM. Results obtained with the SLM in a flat sheet configuration with representative pressures of CO2, O2, and water (H2O) have shown that the CO2 permeation rate and CO2/O2 selectivity requirements have been met. In addition, the SLM vents moisture to space very effectively. The SLM has also been prepared and tested in a hollow fiber form, which will be

  3. Li-Ion Battery and Supercapacitor Hybrid Design for Long Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    With the need for long periods of extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the Moon or Mars or a near-asteroid, the need for long-performance batteries has increased significantly. The energy requirements for the EVA suit, as well as surface systems such as rovers, have increased significantly due to the number of applications they need to power at the same time. However, even with the best state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries, it is not possible to power the suit or the rovers for the extended period of performance. Carrying a charging system along with the batteries makes it cumbersome and requires a self-contained power source for the charging system that is usually not possible. An innovative method to charge and use the Li-ion batteries for long periods seems to be necessary and hence, with the advent of the Li-ion supercapacitors, a method has been developed to extend the performance period of the Li-ion power system for future exploration applications. The Li-ion supercapacitors have a working voltage range of 3.8 to 2.5 V, and are different from a traditional supercapacitor that typically has a working voltage of 1 V. The innovation is to use this Li-ion supercapacitor to charge Liion battery systems on an as-needed basis. The supercapacitors are charged using solar arrays and have battery systems of low capacity in parallel to be able to charge any one battery system while they provide power to the application. Supercapacitors can safely take up fast charge since the electrochemical process involved is still based on charge separation rather than the intercalation process seen in Li-ion batteries, thus preventing lithium metal deposition on the anodes. The lack of intercalation and eliminating wear of the supercapacitors allows for them to be charged and discharged safely for a few tens of thousands of cycles. The Li-ion supercapacitors can be charged from the solar cells during the day during an extended EVA. The Liion battery used can be half the capacity

  4. Use of Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Abercromby, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's plans for lunar surface exploration include pressurized suitport rovers that are quickly ingressed and egressed with minimal consumables losses. This capability enables crewmembers to perform multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a single day versus a single 8-hr EVA. Modeling work and empirical human and animal data indicate that intermittent recompressions between EVA suit pressure and cabin pressure reduce decompression stress. Savings in crew time and gas losses may also be achieved if the N2 purge is shortened to 2 minutes, achieving 80% O2 (vs. 8 minutes, 95% O2). METHODS: A validated Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model was used to predict decompression stress using 80% and 95% O2 breathing mixtures during 3 x 2-hr EVAs (4.3 PSIA) with 1hr recompressions back to 8.0 PSIA (32% O2) versus a single 8-hr EVA. 15 minutes was spent at 6.0 PSIA before depressurizations to 4.3 PSIA; initial EVA tasks could be performed during this time. Model validation was based on significant prediction (p<0.001) and goodness of fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 altitude exposures (McFadden s rho-squared=0.214). RESULTS: A 2.2% predicted increase in DCS risk due to the shortened purge is more than compensated for by a predicted 2.5% reduction in DCS risk due to intermittent recompression. 15 minutes at 80% O2, 6.0 PSIA prior to a 4.3 PSIA EVA prevents supersaturation in the brain and spinal cord (5-10 minute half-time compartments) and reduces tissue tensions in 40 min compartments, where most of the body s inert gas is located, to approximately the same levels (4.39 vs 4.00 PSIA) as achieved during a 40 min 95% O2 prebreathe at 10.2 PSIA. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent recompressions between lunar EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements, decompression stress, and/or suit operating pressures.

  5. Use of Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Abercromby, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's plans for lunar surface exploration include pressurized suitport rovers that are quickly ingressed and egressed with minimal consumables losses. This capability enables crewmembers to perform multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a single day versus a single 8-hr EVA. Modeling work and empirical human and animal data indicate that intermittent recompressions between EVA suit pressure and cabin pressure reduce decompression stress. Savings in crew time and gas losses may also be achieved if the N2 purge is shortened to 2 minutes, achieving 80% O2 (vs. 8 minutes, 95% O2). METHODS: A validated Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model was used to predict decompression stress using 80% and 95% O2 breathing mixtures during 3 x 2-hr EVAs (4.3 PSIA) with 1hr recompressions back to 8.0 PSIA (32% O2) versus a single 8-hr EVA. 15 minutes was spent at 6.0 PSIA before depressurizations to 4.3 PSIA; initial EVA tasks could be performed during this time. Model validation was based on significant prediction (p<0.001) and goodness of fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 altitude exposures (McFadden s rho-squared=0.214). RESULTS: A 2.2% predicted increase in DCS risk due to the shortened purge is more than compensated for by a predicted 2.5% reduction in DCS risk due to intermittent recompression. 15 minutes at 80% O2, 6.0 PSIA prior to a 4.3 PSIA EVA prevents supersaturation in the brain and spinal cord (5-10 minute half-time compartments) and reduces tissue tensions in 40 min compartments, where most of the body s inert gas is located, to approximately the same levels (4.39 vs 4.00 PSIA) as achieved during a 40 min 95% O2 prebreathe at 10.2 PSIA. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent recompressions between lunar EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements, decompression stress, and/or suit operating pressures.

  6. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An elder of her Navaho tribe, Dorothy Cody shares the stage with her granddaughter Radmilla Cody (not shown), the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, who is singing the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language during a pre-launch Native American ceremony. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  7. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Indian princesses seen here contributed to a pre-launch Native American ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex by leading a prayer. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  8. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a pre-launch Native American ceremony, Radmilla Cody (right) , the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, sings the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language. With her is her grandmother. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  9. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An elder of her Navaho tribe, Dorothy Cody shares the stage with her granddaughter Radmilla Cody (not shown), the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, who is singing the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language during a pre-launch Native American ceremony. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  10. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Singer Buffy Sainte-Marie sings during a pre-launch Native American ceremony in the Rocket Garden of the KSC Visitor Complex. She herself is a Cree. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  11. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Indian princesses pose with folk singer Buffy Saint- Marie (center) during a Native American ceremony held in the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. Several days of activities were held at KSC and in Orlando commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  12. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Chickasaw Indian princesses 'sign' the Lord's Prayer during a Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The princesses are Crystal Underwood, Julie Underwood and Tamela Alexander. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  13. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Indian princesses pose with folk singer Buffy Saint- Marie (center) during a Native American ceremony held in the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. Several days of activities were held at KSC and in Orlando commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  14. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Singer Buffy Sainte-Marie sings during a pre-launch Native American ceremony in the Rocket Garden of the KSC Visitor Complex. She herself is a Cree. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  15. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a pre-launch Native American ceremony, Radmilla Cody (right) , the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, sings the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language. With her is her grandmother. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  16. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Indian princesses seen here contributed to a pre-launch Native American ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex by leading a prayer. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  17. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Chickasaw Indian princesses 'sign' the Lord's Prayer during a Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The princesses are Crystal Underwood, Julie Underwood and Tamela Alexander. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  18. Astronaut James Newman with latch hook for tether device

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-09-19

    STS051-26-002 (12-22 Sept 1993) --- Astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist, shows off a latch hook for a tether device used during the STS-51 extravehicular activity (EVA) on September 16, 1993. Newman, on Discovery's middeck, appears surrounded by sleep restraints.

  19. Gemini 9 spacecraft during EVA as seen Astronaut Eugene Cernan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38068 (5 June 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan took this view of the Gemini-9A spacecraft and his umbilical cord (right) over California, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, during his extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9A mission. Taken during the 32nd revolution of the flight. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  2. Astronaut Leestma during an EVA in the aft cargo hold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut David C. Leestma during an extravehicular activity (EVA) in the Challenger's aft cargo hold. He appears to be working on the orbital refueling system (ORS). Behind him can be seen the Get Away Special canisters and part of a cradle for satellites.

  3. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt participates in simulation aboard KC-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, simulates preparing to deploy the Surface Electrical Properties Experiment during lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation training under one-sixth gravity conditions aboard a U.S. Air Force KC-135 aircraft.

  4. Television transmission of Astronaut Harrison Schmitt falling during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt loses his balance and heads for a fall during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot.

  5. View of STS-121 Astronauts shadows during EVA 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-08

    ISS013-E-49681 (8 July 2006) --- The shadows of astronauts Piers J. Sellers and Michael E. Fossum, STS-121 mission specialists, who are anchored to the Space Shuttle Discovery's Remote Manipulator System/Orbiter Boom Sensor System (RMS/OBSS) foot restraint, are visible against a shuttle's payload bay door during today's session of extravehicular activity (EVA).

  6. Astronaut James Irwin uses scoop during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, uses a scoop in making a trench in the lunar soil during Apollo 15 extravehicular activity (EVA). Mount Hadley rises approximately 14,765 feet (about 4,500 meters) above the plain in the background.

  7. Astronauts James Lovell uses scoop from ALHT during simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-12-01

    S70-20272 (December 1969) --- Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., commander of the upcoming Apollo 13 lunar landing mission, uses a scoop from the Apollo Lunar Hand Tools (ALHT) during a simulated lunar surface traverse at the Kapoho, Hawaii training site. While at the Hawaii training sites, Lovell and Haise are participating in thorough rehearsals of their extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  8. Astronauts Cernan and Rossa participate in simulation aboard KC-135

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-09-30

    S72-50270 (September 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface extravehicular activity simulation training under one-sixth gravity conditions aboard a U. S. Air Force KC-135 aircraft. Here, Cernan simulates removing an experiment package from the aft end of a Lunar Roving Vehicle.

  9. Gemini 9 spacecraft during EVA as seen Astronaut Eugene Cernan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan took this view of the Gemini 9 spacecraft and his umbilical cord (right) over California, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, during his extravehicular activity on the Gemini 9 mission. Taken during the 32nd revolution of the flight.

  10. Astronauts Thornton and Parazynski during quality safety inspection at WETF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-19

    S95-08375 (August 1995) --- Astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton, payload commander for the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) mission, prepares to go underwater in the Johnson Space Center?s (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F) pool. Thornton was about to rehearse contingency space walk tasks; there is no Extravehicular Activity (EVA) planned for the STS-73 mission.

  11. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6807 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two sub packages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  12. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  13. Astronaut David Scott practicing for Gemini 8 EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-02-01

    S66-19284 (1 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut David R. Scott practicing for Gemini-8 extravehicular activity (EVA) in building 4 of the Manned Spacecraft Center on the air bearing floor. He is wearing the Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit which he will use during the EVA. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  15. Development of a prototype movement assistance system for extravehicular activity gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Tyler N.

    Spacesuits utilized a rubberized layer of material to contain a pressurized atmosphere to facilitate respiration and maintain the physiologic functions of the astronaut residing within. However, the elasticity of the material makes it resistant to deformation increasing the amount of work required during movement. This becomes particularly fatiguing for the muscle groups controlling the motion of the hands and fingers. To mitigate this a robotic system was proposed and developed. The system built upon previous concepts and prototypes discovered through research efforts. It utilized electric motors to pull the index, ring, and middle fingers of the right hand closed, ideally overcoming the resistive force posed by the pressurized elastic material. The effect of the system was determined by comparing qualitative and quantitative data obtained during activities conducted with and without it within a glove box. It was found that the system was able to offload some of this elastic force though several characteristics of the design limited the full potential this device offered. None the less, the project was met with success and provides a solid platform for continued research and development.

  16. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged ito a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is displaying the flexibility of his training version of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) by lifting his arms above his head (31701); Wolf waves to the camera before he is submerged in the WETF (31702).

  17. Astronaut David Wolf participates in training for contingency EVA in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf participates in training for contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-58 mission. The mission specialist was about to be submerged ito a point of neutral buoyancy in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). In this view, Wolf is displaying the flexibility of his training version of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) by lifting his arms above his head (31701); Wolf waves to the camera before he is submerged in the WETF (31702).

  18. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Seminole Native American Veterans serve as color guard during a pre-launch Native American ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. David Nunez, U.S. Navy, carries the State of Florida Flag; David Stephen Bowers, U.S. Army, carries the Flag of the United States of America; Charles Billie Hiers, U.S. Marine Corps., carries the Seminole Tribe of Florida Flag. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  19. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Seminole Native American Veterans serve as color guard during a pre-launch Native American ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. David Nunez, U.S. Navy, carries the State of Florida Flag; David Stephen Bowers, U.S. Army, carries the Flag of the United States of America; Charles Billie Hiers, U.S. Marine Corps., carries the Seminole Tribe of Florida Flag. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  20. Extravehicular Mobility Unit Training Suit Symptom Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the symptoms and injuries experienced by NASA astronauts during extravehicular activity (space walk) spacesuit training at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory at Ellington Field, Houston, Texas. We identified the frequency and incidence rates of symptoms by each general body location and characterized mechanisms of injury and effective countermeasures. Based on these findings a comprehensive list of recommendations was made to improve training, test preparation, and current spacesuit components, and to design the next -generation spacesuit. At completion of each test event a comprehensive questionnaire was produced that documented suit symptom comments, identified mechanisms of injury, and recommended countermeasures. As we completed our study we found that most extravehicular mobility unit suit symptoms were mild, self-limited, and controlled by available countermeasures. Some symptoms represented the potential for significant injury with short- and long-term consequences regarding astronaut health and interference with mission objectives. The location of symptoms and injuries that were most clinically significant was in the hands, shoulders, and feet. Correction of suit symptoms issues will require a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, early medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  1. [An experimental study of effects of active-heating-system for extravehicular spacesuit gloves on working performance].

    PubMed

    Ding, Li; Han, Long-zhu; Yang, Chun-xin; Yang, Feng; Yuan, Xiu-gan

    2005-02-01

    To observe the effects of active heating system for spacesuit gloves on extravehicular working performance. After analyzing the factors with gloves influence on the working performance, the effects of active heating system for gloves were studied experimentally with aspects to fatigue, hand strength, dexterity and tactile sensing. 1) Heating-system had not influence to grip; 2) Heating-system had 17% influence to fatigue except specific person; 3) Nut assembly and nipping pin showed that heating-system had little influence to dexterity; 4) Apperceiving shape of object and two-point distance showed heating-system had little influence to tactility. The active heating method is rational and has little influence on working performance.

  2. Apollo 12 Mission image - Dark view of Astronaut Alan L. Bean climbing down the ladder of the Lunar Module (LM)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6728 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 mission, is about to step off the ladder of the Lunar Module to join astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., mission commander, in extravehicular activity (EVA). Conrad and Bean descended in the Apollo 12 LM to explore the moon while astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules in lunar orbit.

  3. Apollo 14 Mission image - View of Astronaut Mitchell and the Modular Equipment Transporter with the Lunar Module in background.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-02-06

    AS14-64-9140 (6 Feb. 1971) --- Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, participates in the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA). He is standing near the modularized equipment transporter (MET). While astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, and Mitchell descended in the Apollo 14 LM to explore the moon, astronaut Stuart A. Roosa, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  4. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives in Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Lamberth, Erika Guillory

    2011-01-01

    NASA's goals to send humans beyond low Earth orbit will involve the need for a strong engineering workforce. Research indicates that student interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) areas is on the decline. According to the Department of Education, the United States President has mandated that 100,000 educators be trained in STEM over the next decade to reduce this trend. NASA has aligned its Education and Public Outreach (EPO) initiatives to include emphasis in promoting STEM. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems Project Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center actively supports this NASA initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for exploration missions. This paper summarizes the EVA Systems EPO efforts and metrics from fiscal year 2011.

  5. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives in Fiscal Year 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Jennings, Mallory A.; Lamberth, Erika Guillory

    2012-01-01

    NASA's goals to send humans beyond low Earth orbit will involve the need for a strong engineering workforce. Research indicates that student interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) areas is on the decline. According to the Department of Education, the United States President has mandated that 100,000 educators be trained in STEM over the next decade to reduce this trend. NASA has aligned its Education and Public Outreach (EPO) initiatives to include emphasis in promoting STEM. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems Project Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center actively supports this NASA initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for exploration missions. This paper summarizes the EVA Systems EPO efforts and metrics from fiscal year 2011.

  6. Astronaut in EMU in the payload bay

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-25

    41G-101-013 (14 Oct 1984) --- Astronaut David C. Leestma works at the Orbital Refueling System (ORS) on the Mission Peculiar Support Structure (MPESS) in the aft end of the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Challenger. Astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan, America's first woman to perform an extravehicular activity (EVA) with the logging of this busy day, exposed this frame witha 35mm camera. The crew consisted of astronauts Robert L. Crippen, commander; Jon A. McBride, pilot; mission specialist's Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride, and David D. Leestma; Canadian astronaut Marc Garneau; and Paul D. Scully-Power, payload specialist. EDITOR'S NOTE: The STS-41G mission had the first American female EVA (Sullivan); first seven-person crew; first orbital fuel transfer; and the first Canadian (Garneau).

  7. Advanced Supported Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Control in Extravehicular Activity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David T. (Inventor); Gleason, Kevin J. (Inventor); Cowley, Scott W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    There is disclosed a portable life support system with a component for removal of at least one selected gas. In an embodiment, the system includes a supported liquid membrane having a first side and a second side in opposition to one another, the first side configured for disposition toward an astronaut and the second side configured for disposition toward a vacuum atmosphere. The system further includes an ionic liquid disposed between the first side and the second side of the supported liquid membrane, the ionic liquid configured for removal of at least one selected gas from a region housing the astronaut adjacent the first side of the supported liquid membrane to the vacuum atmosphere adjacent the second side of the supported liquid membrane. Other embodiments are also disclosed.

  8. The Effects of Terrain and Navigation on Human Extravehicular Activity Walkback Performance on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Stroud, Leah C.; Schaffner, Grant; Glass, Brian J.; Lee, Pascal C.; Jones, Jeff A.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Results of the EVA Walkback Test showed that 6 male astronauts were able to ambulate 10 km on a level treadmill while wearing a prototype EVA suit in simulated lunar gravity. However, the effects of lunar terrain, topography, and real-time navigation on ambulation performance are unknown. Primary objective: To characterize the effect of lunar-like terrain and navigation on VO2 and distance traveled during an unsuited 10 km (straight-line distance) ambulatory return in earth gravity.

  9. A fusible heat sink concept for extravehicular activity /EVA/ thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary design and analysis of a heat sink system, utilizing a phase change slurry material, to be used for astronaut and equipment cooling during manned space missions. During normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a regenerable fusible heat sink. Recharge is accomplished by disconnecting the heat sink from the liquid cooling garment and placing it in an onboard freezer for simultaneous slurry refreeze and power supply recharge.

  10. Astronaut James Irwin uses scoop during Apollo 15 EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1971-08-02

    AS15-92-12424 (31 July-2 Aug. 1971) --- Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, uses a scoop in making a trench in the lunar soil during Apollo 15 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. Mount Hadley, which rises approximately 14,765 feet (about 4,500 meters) above the plain, is in the background. Its base is some 14 kilometers (about 8.4 miles) away. The gnomon is at left. While astronauts Irwin, and David R. Scott, commander, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) to explore the moon, astronaut Alfred M. Worden, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  11. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-20

    AS12-49-7278 (19-20 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean, lunar module pilot, participated. Conrad, who took this picture, is reflected in Bean's helmet visor. Conrad and Bean descended in the Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM) to explore the lunar surface while astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-20

    S69-39563 (20 July 1969) --- Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (left), commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, are seen standing by the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" ladder in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA). This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking station at Goldstone, California. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

  13. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave monitor Neutral Buoyancy Simulator training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-06-15

    Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (far left) and F. Story Musgrave (second left) monitor a training session from consoles in the control room for the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Seen underwater in the NBS on the big screen and the monitors at the consoles is astronaut Thomas D. Akers. The three mission specialists, along with astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton, are scheduled to be involved in a total of five sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in orbit during the STS-61 mission, scheduled for December 1993.

  14. Close-up view of astronauts footprint in lunar soil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-20

    AS11-40-5878 (20 July 1969) --- A close-up view of an astronaut's bootprint in the lunar soil, photographed with a 70mm lunar surface camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. While astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

  15. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave monitor Neutral Buoyancy Simulator training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (far left) and F. Story Musgrave (second left) monitor a training session from consoles in the control room for the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Seen underwater in the NBS on the big screen and the monitors at the consoles is astronaut Thomas D. Akers. The three mission specialists, along with astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton, are scheduled to be involved in a total of five sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in orbit during the STS-61 mission, scheduled for December 1993.

  16. Apollo 16 astronauts in Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). In the right background is Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. They are inside the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator (31046); Mattingly (right foreground) and Duke (right backgroung) in the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator for EVA simulation and training. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen in the left background (31047).

  17. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave monitor Neutral Buoyancy Simulator training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (far left) and F. Story Musgrave (second left) monitor a training session from consoles in the control room for the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Seen underwater in the NBS on the big screen and the monitors at the consoles is astronaut Thomas D. Akers. The three mission specialists, along with astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton, are scheduled to be involved in a total of five sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in orbit during the STS-61 mission, scheduled for December 1993.

  18. Astronaut Alan Bean works on Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6749 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, works at the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) on the Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM) during the mission's first extravehicular activity, (EVA) on Nov. 19, 1969. Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean descended in the Apollo 12 LM to explore the moon while astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  19. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - TRAINING - WEIGHTLESSNESS - ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT (AMU) - ZERO-GRAVITY - FL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-03

    S66-31665 (3 May 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, participates in extravehicular training under zero-gravity conditions aboard a KC-135 aircraft. Here, he is donning the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) backpack after egressing a Gemini mock-up. The AMU backpack is mounted in the adapter equipment section of the mock-up. Cernan wears an extravehicular activity (EVA) life support system chest pack. Cernan will use the AMU during his scheduled EVA on the Gemini-9 mission. The KC-135 flew a parabolic curve to create the weightlessness condition for training purposes. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Non-invasive UWB sensing of astronauts' breathing activity.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Marco; Cerri, Graziano; Chiaraluce, Franco; Eusebi, Lorenzo; Russo, Paola

    2014-12-30

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed.

  1. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts' Breathing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Marco; Cerri, Graziano; Chiaraluce, Franco; Eusebi, Lorenzo; Russo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed. PMID:25558995

  2. Astronaut Mario Runco in EMU during training in WETF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-07-26

    S95-15847 (26 July 1995) --- Wearing a training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, astronaut Mario Runco Jr., mission specialist, prepares to participate in an underwater rehearsal of a contingency Extravehicular Activity (EVA). This type of training routinely takes place in the 25-feet deep pool of the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Center (WET-F). The training prepares at least two crew members on each flight for procedures to follow outside the spacecraft in event of failure of remote methods to perform various chores.

  3. Astronaut Russell Schweickart wears EMU and PLSS for countdown test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 9 prime crew, wears the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) which he will use during his scheduled Apollo 9 extravehicular activity. In addition to the space suit and bubble helmet, the EMU also includes a portable life support system (PLSS) back pack, an Oxygen Purge System (seen atop the PLSS), and a Remote Control Unit on his chest. When this photograph was taken, Schweickart was suited up to participate in an Apollo 9 Countdown Demonstration Test.

  4. Astronaut Russell Schweickart wears EMU and PLSS for countdown test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 9 prime crew, wears the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) which he will use during his scheduled Apollo 9 extravehicular activity. In addition to the space suit and bubble helmet, the EMU also includes a portable life support system (PLSS) back pack, an Oxygen Purge System (seen atop the PLSS), and a Remote Control Unit on his chest. When this photograph was taken, Schweickart was suited up to participate in an Apollo 9 Countdown Demonstration Test.

  5. Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman with WF/PC during third STS-61 EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-07

    STS061-77-078 (7 Dec 1993) --- Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman, anchored on the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, is pictured with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC I) during the third of five extravehicular activity?s (EVA). Astronauts Hoffman and F. Story Musgrave, seen near the stowage area for the WF/PC, had earlier installed the new camera (note white rectangle) on lower portion of telescope.

  6. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-19

    S66-27375 (19 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, has his suit adjusted by NASA suit technician Al Rochford during preparations for tests with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). The tests were conducted in Chamber B, Environmental Test Laboratory, Building 32. The AMU, which consists of a chest pack and backpack, will be used for extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9 mission. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Astronaut Eugene Cernan inside the lunar module on lunar surface after EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-12

    AS17-145-22224 (12 Dec. 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 commander, is photographed inside the lunar module on the lunar surface following the second extravehicular activity (EVA) of his mission. Note lunar dust on his suit. The photograph was taken by astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot, using a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera and S0-368 film.

  8. Astronaut Eugene Cernan drives the Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-10

    AS17-147-22527 (11 Dec. 1972) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 mission commander, makes a short checkout of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the early part of the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The Lunar Module is in the background. This photograph was taken by scientist-astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt, lunar module pilot.

  9. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-19

    S66-27377 (19 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, is suited up in preparation for tests with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). The tests are conducted in Chamber B, Environmental Test Laboratory, Building 32. The AMU, which consists of a chest pack and a backpack, will be used for extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9 mission. Photo credit: NASA

  10. View of Astronaut Nelson using MMU to examine Solar Maximum Mission Satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-08

    41C-22-885 (8 April 1984) --- The 35mm camera was used to photograph this scene of Astronaut George D. Nelson, STS-41C mission specialist, as he uses the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) to make an excursion to the plagued Solar Maximum, Mission Satellite (SMMS)._Astronaut James D. van Hoften remained in the Challenger's cargo bay during the April 8 extravehicular activity (EVA).

  11. Astronauts Akers and Thornton install COSTAR during EVA for HST repair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-08

    STS061-94-050 (8 Dec 1993) --- Astronaut Thomas D. Akers maneuvers inside the bay which will house the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) while assisting astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton with the installation of the 640-pound instrument. Thornton, anchored on the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, is partially visible as she prepares to install the COSTAR, during their extravehicular activity (EVA).

  12. Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman with WF/PC during third STS-61 EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-07

    STS061-77-094 (7 Dec 1993) --- Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman, anchored to the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, prepares to stow the Wide Field\\Planetary Camera (WF\\PC I) for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), during their extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, stationed at the stowage area at bottom of frame, assists. WF/PC II is in place on the HST.

  13. Astronaut John Young drives Lunar Roving Vehicle to final parking place

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, drives the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left.

  14. Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in EVA to deploy twin pole solar shield

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-06

    SL3-115-1833 (6 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, participates in the Aug. 6, 1973, extravehicular activity (EVA) during which he and astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop (OWS). Note the striking reflection of the Earth in Lousma?s helmet visor. This photograph was taken with a 70mm hand-held Hasselblad camera. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin during EVA at Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the station. Kerwin is just outside the Airlock Module. Kerwin assisted Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, during the successful EVA attempt to free the stuck solar array system wing on the Orbital Workshop.

  16. Astronaut John Young leaps from lunar surface as he salutes U.S. flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. flag during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) on the Moon, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, is standing in the background.

  17. Astronaut John Young at LRV prior to deployment of ALSEP during first EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of Apollo 16, is at the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), just prior to deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) during the first extravehicular activity (EVA-1), on April 21, 1972. Note Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrometer at right of Lunar Module (LM) ladder. Also note pile of protective/thermal foil under the U.S. flag on the LM which the astronauts pulled away to get to the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) bay.

  18. Astronaut John Young reaches for tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, reaches for tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. This view is looking south from the base of Stone Mountain.

  19. Astronaut John Young replaces tools in Lunar Roving Vehicle during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, replaces tools in the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier at the aft end of the Lunar Roving Vehicle during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2) at the Descartes landing site. This photograph was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Smoky Mountain, with the large Ravine crater on its flank, is in the left background. This view is looking northeast.

  20. Artist concept of astronaut attempting to free solar array on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An artist's concept showing astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, attempting to free the solar array system wing on the Orbital Workshop during extravehicular activity at the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in earth orbit. The astronaut in the background is Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot. Here, Conrad is pushing up on the Beam Erection Tether (BET) to raise the stuck solar panel.

  1. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin prepares to deploy EASEP on surface of moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-20

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, moves toward a position to deploy two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. The Passive Seismic Experiments Package (PSEP) is in his left hand; and in his right hand is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR3). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  2. Proton and Electron Threshold Energy Measurements for Extravehicular Activity Space Suits. Chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. D.; Saganti, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Construction of ISS will require more than 1000 hours of EVA. Outside of ISS during EVA, astronauts and cosmonauts are likely to be exposed to a large fluence of electrons and protons. Development of radiation protection guidelines requires the determination of the minimum energy of electrons and protons that penetrate the suits at various locations. Measurements of the water-equivalent thickness of both US. and Russian EVA suits were obtained by performing CT scans. Specific regions of interest of the suits were further evaluated using a differential range shift technique. This technique involved measuring thickness ionization curves for 6-MeV electron and 155-MeV proton beams with ionization chambers using a constant source-to-detector distance. The thicknesses were obtained by stacking polystyrene slabs immediately upstream of the detector. The thicknesses of the 50% ionizations relative to the maximum ionizations were determined. The detectors were then placed within the suit and the stack thickness adjusted until the 50% ionization was reestablished. The difference in thickness between the 50% thicknesses was then used with standard range-energy tables to determine the threshold energy for penetration. This report provides a detailed description of the experimental arrangement and results.

  3. Apollo 11 Mission image - Astronaut Edwin Aldrin poses beside th

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-21

    AS11-40-5874 (20 July 1969) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot of the first lunar landing mission, poses for a photograph beside the deployed United States flag during Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. The Lunar Module (LM) is on the left, and the footprints of the astronauts are clearly visible in the soil of the moon. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm Hasselblad lunar surface camera. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the LM the "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit.

  4. Astronaut hazard during free-flight polar EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. N.

    1985-01-01

    Extravehicular Activity (EVA) during Shuttle flights planned for the late 1980's includes several factors which together may constitute an astronaut hazard. Free-flight EVA is planned whereas prior United States Earth orbit EVA has used umbilical tethers carrying communications, coolant, and oxygen. EVA associated with missions like LANDSAT Retrieval will be in orbits through the auroral oval where charging of spacecraft may occur. The astronaut performing free flight EVA constitutes an independent spacecraft. The astronaut and the Shuttle make up a system of electrically isolated spacecraft with a wide disparity in size. Unique situations, such as the astronaut being in the wake of the Shuttle while traversing an auroral disturbance, could result in significant astronaut and Shuttle charging. Charging and subsequent arc discharge are important because they have been associated with operating upsets and even satellite failure at geosynchronous orbit. Spacecraft charging theory and experiments are examined to evaluate charging for Shuttle size spacecraft in the polar ionosphere.

  5. Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Informatics Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    This is a description of the software design for the 2013 edition of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Informatics computer assembly. The Informatics system is an optional part of the space suit assembly. It adds a graphical interface for displaying suit status, timelines, procedures, and caution and warning information. In the future it will display maps with GPS position data, and video and still images captured by the astronaut.

  6. View of Lunar Roving Vehicle parked at Station 6 by Apollo 16 astronauts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-12-13

    AS17-140-21494 (13 Dec. 1972) --- This view shows the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) parked by an outcrop of rocks by astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt during their visit to extravehicular activity Station 6 (Henry Crater).

  7. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Robert L. Stewart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Stewart is simulating a planned EVA using the mobile foot restraint device and a one-G version of the Canadian-built remote manipulator system.

  8. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt next to deployed U.S. flag on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, is photographed next to the U.S. flag during extravehicular activity (EVA) of NASA's final lunar landing mission in the Apollo series. The photo was taken at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The highest part of the flag appears to point toward our planet earth in the distant background.

  9. Astronauts Newman and Walz evaluate tools for use on HST servicing mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-09-16

    With the Caribbean Sea and part of the Bahama Islands chain as a backdrop, two STS-51 crewmembers evaluate procedures and gear to be used on the upcoming Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-servicing mission. Sharing the lengthy extravehicular activity in and around Discovery's cargo bay were astronauts James H. Newman (left), and Carl E. Walz, mission specialists.

  10. Skylab 2 Astronaut during EVA at Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-11

    S73-27734 (11 June 1973) --- Skylab 2 astronaut performs extravehicular activity (EVA) at the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the station. Kerwin is just outside the Airlock Module. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Robert L. Stewart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Stewart is simulating a planned EVA using the mobile foot restraint device and a one-G version of the Canadian-built remote manipulator system.

  12. Underwater EVA training in the WETF with astronaut Robert L. Stewart

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-11-01

    Underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) training in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) with astronaut Robert L. Stewart. Stewart is simulating a planned EVA using the mobile foot restraint device and a one-G version of the Canadian-built remote manipulator system.

  13. Astronauts Joseph Allen rides cherry picker over stowage area/work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph P. Allen rides a cherry picker over to a stowage area/work station to wrap up extravehicular activity (EVA) duties above Earth. The cherry picker is a union of the mobile foot restraint and the remote manipulator system (RMS), controlled from inside Discovery's cabin. The Westar VI/PAM-D satellite is pictured secured in Discovery's cargo bay.

  14. Challenges in the development of the shuttle extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmann, H. J.; Mcbarron, J. W., II

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) has required significant technology advances in the design of the astronaut life support system and space-suit assembly. The life support system and space-suit assemblies are integrated into a single system and optimized for the primary function of supporting astronaut extravehicular operations. Rather than accommodating a limited, male-only astronaut population, the EMU must satisfy size requirements for both males and females with a minimum of sized parts. In addition, the Shuttle EMU has been designed to implement Space Shuttle Program philosophy of long operating life and mission reuse capability to minimize program lifetime cost. The advancement in life support system and space-suit technology achieved by the development of the Shuttle extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) is illustrated by comparison with the requirements for and the design features of the Apollo EMU.

  15. Human performance profiles for planetary analog extra-vehicular activities: 120 day and 30 day analog missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarmer, Tiffany M.

    Understanding performance factors for future planetary missions is critical for ensuring safe and successful planetary extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). The goal of this study was to gain operational knowledge of analog EVAs and develop biometric profiles for specific EVA types. Data was collected for a 120 and 30 day analog planetary exploration simulation focusing on EVA type, pre and post EVA conditions, and performance ratings. From this five main types of EVAs were performed: maintenance, science, survey/exploratory, public relations, and emergency. Each EVA type has unique characteristics and performance ratings showing specific factors in chronological components, environmental conditions, and EVA systems that have an impact on performance. Pre and post biometrics were collected to heart rate, blood pressure, and SpO2. Additional data about issues and specific EVA difficulties provide some EVA trends illustrating how tasks and suit comfort can negatively affect performance ratings. Performance decreases were noted for 1st quarter and 3rd quarter EVAs, survey/exploratory type EVAs, and EVAs requiring increased fine and gross motor function. Stress during the simulation is typically higher before the EVA and decreases once the crew has returned to the habitat. Stress also decreases as the simulation nears the end with the 3rd and 4th quarters showing a decrease in stress levels. Operational components and studies have numerous variable and components that effect overall performance, by increasing the knowledge available we may be able to better prepare future crews for the extreme environments and exploration of another planet.

  16. Activity during first EVA of STS-72 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-15

    STS072-305-034 (15 Jan. 1996) --- Astronaut Daniel T. Barry, mission specialist, works in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Endeavour during the first of two extravehicular activities (EVA). Barry was joined by astronaut Leroy Chiao for the EVA. The two joined four other NASA astronauts for a week and a half aboard Endeavour.

  17. Documentation of preparations for WETF EVA training exercise by ESA Astronaut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1987-09-25

    S87-44061 (25 Sept 1987) --- Dr. Claude Nicollier, equipped with a pressurized extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), is in the process of being submerged in the 25-ft. deep pool of JSC's weightless environment training facility (WET-F) for a familiarization session. Dr. Nicollier's suit is weighted to facilitate a neutrally buoyant condition. He is assisted by two SCUBA-equipped divers. Dr. Nicollier, a Swiss scientist assigned to the STS-46 mission as a payload specialist, first came to the Johnson Space Center in July 1980. Along with Dr. Wubbo Ockels, another European Scientist, Dr. Nicollier underwent survival training and other basic astronaut-type training alongside the 1980 class of astronaut candidates. Some photos in this series show Dr. Nicollier in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). This is for familiarization purposes only as the scientist is not scheduled for any extravehicular activity.

  18. ASTRONAUT ACTIVITY - APOLLO-SOYUZ TEST PROJECT (ASTP) - SOFTWARE - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-02-08

    S75-24108 (8-10 Feb. 1975) --- A group of Apollo-Soyuz Test Project crewmen inspects an Apollo spacesuit during a three-day tour of NASA's Kennedy Space Center. They were at KSC to look over ASTP launch facilities and flight hardware. The six men wearing white caps are, left to right, cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, interpreter K.S. Samofal (far end of table), astronaut Vance D. Brand, cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, cosmonaut Vladimir A. Shatalov and astronaut Donald K. Slayton.

  19. Astronaut Russell Schweickart inside simulator for EVA training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-12-11

    S68-55391 (11 Dec. 1968) --- Astronaut Russell L. Schweickart, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 9 (Spacecraft 104/Lunar Module 3/Saturn 504) space mission, is seen inside Chamber "A," Space Environment Simulation Laboratory, Building 32, participating in dry run activity in preparation for extravehicular activity which is scheduled in Chamber "A." The purpose of the scheduled training is to familiarize the crewmen with the operation of EVA equipment in a simulated space environment. In addition, metabolic and workload profiles will be simulated on each crewman. Astronauts Schweickart and Alan L. Bean, backup lunar module pilot, are scheduled to receive thermal-vacuum training simulating Earth-orbital EVA.

  20. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.