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Sample records for astronautas del gemini

  1. Gemini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Rear view of rendezvous docking simulator. Francis B. Smith wrote: 'The rendezvous and docking operation of the Gemini spacecraft with the Agena and of the Apollo Command Module with the Lunar Excursion Module have been the subject of simulator studies for several years. [This figure] illustrates the Gemini-Agena rendezvous docking simulator at Langley. The Gemini spacecraft was supported in a gimbal system by an overhead crane and gantry arrangement which provided 6 degrees of freedom - roll, pitch, yaw, and translation in any direction - all controllable by the astronaut in the spacecraft. Here again the controls fed into a computer which in turn provided an input to the servos driving the spacecraft so that it responded to control motions in a manner which accurately simulated the Gemini spacecraft.'

  2. Gemini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Gemini Rendezvous Docking Simulator suspended from the roof of the Langley Research Center's aircraft hanger closing in on its Agena target. Francis B. Smith wrote in his paper 'Simulators for Manned Space Research,' 'The rendezvous and docking operation of the Gemini spacecraft with the Agena and of the Apollo Command Module with the Lunar Excursion Module have been the subject of simulator studies for several years. [This figure] illustrates the Gemini-Agena rendezvous docking simulator at Langley. The Gemini spacecraft was supported in a gimbal system by an overhead crane and gantry arrangement which provided 6 degrees of freedom - roll, pitch, yaw, and translation in any direction - all controllable by the astronaut in the spacecraft. Here again the controls fed into a computer which in turn provided an input to the servos driving the spacecraft so that it responded to control motions in a manner which accurately simulated the Gemini spacecraft.' This is a photograph of 'the Gemini spacecraft approaching the Agena target in a final docking maneuver.'

  3. Gemini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Multiple exposure of Gemini rendezvous docking simulator. Francis B. Smith wrote in his paper 'Simulators for Manned Space Research,' 'The rendezvous and docking operation of the Gemini spacecraft with the Agena and of the Apollo Command Module with the Lunar Excursion Module have been the subject of simulator studies for several years. [This figure] illustrates the Gemini-Agena rendezvous docking simulator at Langley. The Gemini spacecraft was supported in a gimbal system by an overhead crane and gantry arrangement which provided 6 degrees of freedom - roll, pitch, yaw, and translation in any direction - all controllable by the astronaut in the spacecraft. Here again the controls fed into a computer which in turn provided an input to the servos driving the spacecraft so that it responded to control motions in a manner which accurately simulated the Gemini spacecraft.' A.W. Vogeley further described the simulator in his paper 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators For Space Research,' 'Docking operations are considered to start when the pilot first can discern vehicle target size and aspect and terminate, of course, when soft contact is made. ... This facility enables simulation of the docking operation from a distance of 200 feet to actual contact with the target. A full-scale mock-up of the target vehicle is suspended near one end of the track. ... On [the Agena target] we have mounted the actual Agena docking mechanism and also various types of visual aids. We have been able to devise visual aids which have made it possible to accomplish nighttime docking with as much success as daytime docking.'

  4. Formación estelar en NGC 6357: viendo a través del polvo con Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, G.; Morrell, N.; Barbá, R.

    Presentamos aquí los primeros resultados de fotometría JHKs obtenidos con Flamingos I en el telescopio Gemini Sur. El mosaico comprendido por tres posiciones adyacentes tomadas a lo largo de varios semestres nos permite caracterizar la población estelar en la zona que presenta una interacción más importante entre las estrellas masivas y la nube molecular que les dió origen. Los diagramas color-magnitud nos permiten identificar numerosas fuentes con exceso infrarrojo, la mayoría de ellas imposible de detectarse en el rango óptico debido a la fuerte absorción del polvo presente en la región. Es altamente probable que la mayoría de estas fuentes con exceso sean protoestrellas, aunque es necesario realizar espectroscopía infrarroja de las mismas para confirmar su naturaleza.

  5. El Observatorio Gemini - Status actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.

    Se hace una breve descripción de la situación actual del Observatorio Gemini y de las últimas decisiones del Board para incrementar la eficiencia operativa. Se hace también una breve referencia al uso argentino del observatorio.

  6. Gemini 6 patch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    The Gemini 6 patch is hexagonal in shape, reflecting the mission number; and the spacecraft trajectory also traces out the number "6". The Gemini 6 spacecraft is shown superimposed on the "twin stars" Castor and Pollux, for "Gemini".

  7. Gemini Space Program emblem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The insignia of the Gemini space program is a disc of dark blue as a background for a gold Zodiac Gemini symbol. A white star on each of the two vertical curves of the Gemini symbol represent the Gemini twins, Pollux and Castor.

  8. Advancing the Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Levenson, Nancy A.

    2012-11-01

    Gemini Science and User Meeting; San Francisco, California, 17-20 July 2012 More than 100 astronomers gathered in San Francisco to discuss results from the Gemini Observatory and to plan for its future. The Gemini Observatory consists of twin 8.1 meter diameter optical/infrared telescopes located on mountaintops in Hawai'i and Chile. Gemini was built and is operated by an international partnership that currently includes the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Chile, Australia, Brazil, and Argentina.

  9. Gemini Program Mission Report: Gemini IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The second manned mission of the Gemini Program, Gemini IV, was launched from Complex 19 at Cape Kennedy, Florida, at 10:16 a.m. e.s.t. on June 3, 1965. The mission was successfully concluded on June 7, 1965, with the recovery of the spacecraft by the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, at 27 deg 44' N. latitude, 74 deg 11' W. longitude at 2:28 p.m. e.s.t. This manned long-duration flight was accomplished 10 weeks after the three-orbit manned flight which qualified the Gemini spacecraft and systems for orbital flight. The spacecraft was manned by Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot, and Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot. The flight crew completed the 4-day mission in excellent physical condition, and demonstrated full control of the spacecraft and competent management of all aspects of the mission.

  10. Instrumentation at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, S. J.; Boccas, Maxime; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Gomez, Percy; Murowinski, Rick; Chené, André-Nicolas; Henderson, David

    2014-07-01

    Gemini South's instrument suite has been completely transformed since our last biennial update. We commissioned the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and its associated Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) as well as Flamingos-2, our long-slit and multi-object infrared imager and spectrograph, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). We upgraded the CCDs in GMOS-S, our multi-object optical imager and spectrograph, with the GMOS-N CCD upgrade scheduled for 2015. Our next instrument, the Gemini High-resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) is in its preliminary design stage and we are making plans for the instrument to follow:Gen4#3.

  11. Gemini Rendezvous Docking Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Gemini Rendezvous Docking Simulator suspended from the roof of the Langley Research Center's aircraft hanger. Francis B. Smith wrote: 'The rendezvous and docking operation of the Gemini spacecraft with the Agena and of the Apollo Command Module with the Lunar Excursion Module have been the subject of simulator studies for several years. [This figure] illustrates the Gemini-Agena rendezvous docking simulator at Langley. The Gemini spacecraft was supported in a gimbal system by an overhead crane and gantry arrangement which provided 6 degrees of freedom - roll, pitch, yaw, and translation in any direction - all controllable by the astronaut in the spacecraft. Here again the controls fed into a computer which in turn provided an input to the servos driving the spacecraft so that it responded to control motions in a manner which accurately simulated the Gemini spacecraft.'

  12. Gemini IRAF: Data reduction software for the Gemini telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemini Observatory; AURA

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini IRAF package processes observational data obtained with the Gemini telescopes. It is an external package layered upon IRAF and supports data from numerous instruments, including FLAMINGOS-2, GMOS-N, GMOS-S, GNIRS, GSAOI, NIFS, and NIRI. The Gemini IRAF package is organized into sub-packages; it contains a generic tools package, "gemtools", along with instrument-specific packages. The raw data from the Gemini facility instruments are stored as Multi-Extension FITS (MEF) files. Therefore, all the tasks in the Gemini IRAF package, intended for processing data from the Gemini facility instruments, are capable of handling MEF files.

  13. View of the Gemini 6 and Gemini 7 rendezvous

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-15

    S65-63198 (15 Dec. 1965) --- The Gemini-7 spacecraft as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during their rendezvous mission in space. They are approximately 39 feet apart. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  14. Recent advances in gemini surfactants: oleic Acid-based gemini surfactants and polymerizable gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Gemini surfactants recently developed by our research group are introduced from the standpoints of their syntheses, aqueous solution properties, and potential applications. Two series of gemini surfactants are introduced in this short review, the first of which is the oleic acid-based gemini surfactants, and the second is the polymerizable gemini surfactants. These gemini surfactants have been developed not only as environmentally friendly materials (the use of gemini surfactants enables the reduction of the total consumption of surfactants in chemical products owing to their excellent adsorption and micellization capabilities at low concentrations) but also as functional organic materials.

  15. Gemini telescope structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybould, Keith; Gillett, Paul E.; Hatton, Peter; Pentland, Gordon; Sheehan, Mike; Warner, Mark

    1994-06-01

    The Gemini project is an international collaboration to design, fabricate, and assemble two 8 M telescopes, one on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the other on Cerro Pachon in Chile. The telescopes will be national facilities designed to meet the Gemini Science Requirements (GSR), a document developed by the Gemini Science Committee (GSC) and the national project scientists. The Gemini telescope group, based on Tucson, has developed a telescope structure to meet the GSR. This paper describes the science requirements that have technically driven the design, and the features that have been incorporated to meet these requirements. This is followed by a brief description of the telescope design. Finally, analyses that have been performed and development programs that have been undertaken are described briefly. Only the designs that have been performed by the Gemini Telescope Structure, Building and Enclosure Group are presented here; control, optical systems, acquisition and guiding, active and adaptive optics, Cassegrain rotator and instrumentation issues are designed and managed by others and will not be discussed here, except for a brief description of the telescope configurations to aid subsequent discussions.

  16. GEMINI- INSIGNIA - SPACE PROGRAM - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-30

    S65-54354 (30 Aug. 1965) --- The insignia of the Gemini Space Program is a disc of dark blue as a background for a gold Zodiac Gemini symbol. A white star on each of the two vertical curves of the Gemini symbol represent the Gemini twins, Pollux and Castor. The NASA insignia design for Gemini flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  17. GEMINI-6 - RECOVERY - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-61824 (16 Dec. 1965) --- A helicopter hovers over the Gemini-6 spacecraft after it splashed down 12 miles from the aircraft carrier USS Wasp in the western Atlantic recovery area at 10:29 a.m. Dec. 16, 1965. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  18. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  19. ROUNDUP - GEMINI XII - RECOVERY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-01

    S66-59940 (15 Nov. 1966) --- Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (right), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, are welcomed aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp after their Gemini-12 spacecraft splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean recovery area at 2:21 p.m. (EST), Nov. 15, 1966, to conclude a four-day mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Gemini Scout Control Software

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton Hobart, Justin Garretson

    2010-11-23

    The Gemini Scout Control Software consists of two Windows applications that allow the Gemini Scout vehicle to be controlled by an operator. The Embedded application runs on the vehicle's Gemini Scout Control Software onboard computer and controls the vehicle's various motors and sensors. This application reports the vehicle's status and receives vehicle commands overthe local-area-network. The Embedded applicationalso allows the user to control the vehicle using a USB game-pad connected directly to the vehicle. The Operator Control Unit (OCU) application runs on an external PC and communicates with the vehicle via an Ethernet connection. The OCU application sends commands to and receives data from the Embedded application running on the vehicle. The OCU application also communicates directly with the digital video encoders and radios in order to display video from the vehicle's cameras and the status of the radio link. The OCU application has a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the vehicle's status and allows the user to change various vehicle settings. Finally, the OCU application receives input from a USB game-pad connected to the PC in order to control the vehicle's functions.

  1. GEMINI-9 - EARTH SKY - ATDA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-37972 (3 June 1966) ?-- The Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) is photographed from the Gemini-9 spacecraft during one of three rendezvous occasions in space. The ATDA and Gemini-9 spacecraft are 35.5 feet apart in this view. Failure of the docking adapter protective cover on the ATDA to fully separate prevented the docking of the two spacecraft. The ATDA was described by the Gemini-9 crew members as an ?angry alligator.? Photo credit: NASA

  2. GEMINI-9 - EARTH SKY - ATDA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-37943 (3 June 1966) --- The Augmented Target Docking Adapter is photographed against the background of the blackness of space from the Gemini-9 spacecraft during one of their three rendezvous in space. The ATDA and Gemini-9 spacecraft are 71.5 feet apart. Failure of the docking adapter protective cover to fully separate on the ATDA prevented the docking of the two spacecraft. The ATDA was described by the Gemini-9 crew as an ?Angry Alligator.? Photo credit: NASA

  3. Gemini 11 prime crew prepare to enter Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-10

    S66-57967 (10 Sept. 1966) --- Gemini-11 prime crew, astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (right), command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon Jr. (left), pilot, prepare to enter the Gemini-11 spacecraft in the White Room atop Pad 19. Photo credit: NASA

  4. View of the Gemini 6 and Gemini 7 rendezvous

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-15

    S65-63113 (15 Dec. 1965) --- This photograph of the Gemini-7 spacecraft was taken from the hatch window of the Gemini-6 spacecraft during rendezvous and station keeping maneuvers at an altitude of approximately 160 miles on Dec. 15, 1965. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  5. GEMINI-9 - EARTH SKY - EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38050 (5 June 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan took this close-up view of the Gemini-9A spacecraft during his extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9A mission. Taken during the 32nd revolution of the 72-hour, 21-minute spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  6. The Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    The next major frontier in the study of extrasolar planets is direct imaging detection of the planets themselves. With high-order adaptive optics, careful system design, and advanced coronagraphy, it is possible for an AO system on a 8-m class telescope to achieve contrast levels of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}, sufficient to detect warm self-luminous Jovian planets in the solar neighborhood. Such direct detection is sensitive to planets inaccessible to current radial-velocity surveys and allows spectral characterization of the planets, shedding light on planet formation and the structure of other solar systems. We have begun the construction of such a system for the Gemini Observatory. Dubbed the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), this instrument should be deployed in 2010 on the Gemini South telescope. It combines a 2000-actuator MEMS-based AO system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision infrared interferometer for real-time wavefront calibration at the nanometer level, and a infrared integral field spectrograph for detection and characterization of the target planets. GPI will be able to achieve Strehl ratios > 0.9 at 1.65 microns and to observe a broad sample of science targets with I band magnitudes less than 8. In addition to planet detection, GPI will also be capable of polarimetric imaging of circumstellar dust disks, studies of evolved stars, and high-Strehl imaging spectroscopy of bright targets. We present here an overview of the GPI instrument design, an error budget highlighting key technological challenges, and models of the system performance.

  7. Gemini experiment S026

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medved, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the reduction and analysis of data obtained from the S026 experiment from Gemini 10 and 11 flights are presented. The electron and ion sensors were continuously operative throughout both missions from shroud removal (about 6 minutes after Agena liftoff to power-down conditions one week later). Data on ion and electron currents, electron temperature, and vehicle potential were obtained at a sample rate of 32 times per second on positive ions for each of two ion sensors and once every 1.067 seconds for the electron sensor. Only the data reduction of the Gemini plasma wake measurements comprising roughly twenty minutes of data for six maneuvers programed for wake measurements are considered. The intermediate depletion zone, between 1 and 10 vehicle radii downstream from the object, is emphasized. The smallest characteristic radius of interest is 1.34 feet and the largest is 5 feet. This implies a separation span extending from approximately 1.5 feet at the closest approach to at least 50 feet into the far field.

  8. Project Gemini online digital archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    An archive containing the first high-resolution digital scans of the original flight films from Project Gemini, the second U.S. human spaceflight program, was unveiled by the NASA Johnson Space Center and Arizona State University's (ASU) School of Earth and Space Exploration on 6 January. The archive includes images from 10 flights. Project Gemini, which ran from 1964 to 1966, followed Project Mercury and preceded the Apollo spacecraft. Mercury and Apollo imagery are also available through ASU. For more information, see http://tothemoon.ser.asu.edu/gallery/gemini and http://apollo.sese.asu.edu/index.html.

  9. Gemini VI Mission Image - Rendezvous with Gemini VII

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-17

    S65-63189 (15 Dec. 1965) --- The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Gemini-7 spacecraft as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during their rendezvous mission in space. The two spacecraft are approximately 43 feet apart. This image was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  10. Janus and Gemini Nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhengdong; Mejia, Andres; Chang, Ya-Wen; He, Peng; Diaz, Agustin; Clearfield, Abraham

    2011-03-01

    Janus particles were used to make stable Pickering emulsions (emulsions stabilized by particles). Here we demonstrated a novel method to produce high aspect ratio Janus plates with atomic thickness. Gemini plates with only the edges functionalized are also fabricated. These novel nanoplates are observed to have super surface activity. Most importantly, these particles overcome the two opposite effects in the stabilization of Pickering emulsions using spherical particles: stabilization requires particles as small as possible; but smaller particles are easy to escape the interface due to Brownian motion since the adsorption energy to the oil-water interface is proportional to the diameter of the spheres. Our nanoplates have a large aspect ratio due to the extremely thin thickness, which offers extraordinary stability to the liquid film between two emulsions to prevent coalescence. In the meantime, their large lateral surface area offers strong adsorption energy at the oil-water interface.

  11. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  12. GEMINI-4 - SPACE FOOD - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-01

    Food packages for use on the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) flight. Packages include beef and gravy, peaches, strawberry cereal cubes and beef sandwiches. A water gun is used to reconstitute the dehydrated food. MSC, HOUSTON, TX CN

  13. Portrait - Gemini 11 - Prime Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-58504 (4 Nov. 1965) --- Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., (right) prime crew command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot, for the Gemini-Titan XI (GT-11) Earth-orbital mission. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  15. Gemini VIII Mission Image - Agena

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-16

    S66-25779 (16 March 1966) --? The Agena Target Docking Vehicle seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s Gemini-8 spacecraft during rendezvous in space. The Agena is approximately 210 feet away from the nose of the spacecraft (lower left). Crewmen for the Gemini-8 mission were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  16. The Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James R.; Macintosh, Bruce; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marois, Christian; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam Seth; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; De Rosa, Robert John J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Kathleen M.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Norton, Andew; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Palmer, David; Patience, Jenny; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemeyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew W.; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wang, Jason; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schulyer; Gpi/Gpies Team

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of GPI has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. GPI has undergone a year of commissioning, verification, and calibration work. We have achieved an estimated H-band contrast (5-sigma) of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds in spectral mode, and suppression of unpolarized starlight by a factor of 800 in imaging polarimetry mode. Early science observations include study of the spectra of β Pic b and HR 8799, orbital investigations of β Pic b and PZ Tel, and observations of the debris disk systems associated with β Pic, AU Mic, and HR 4796A. An 890-hour exoplanet survey with GPI is scheduled to begin in late 2014. A status report for the campaign will be presented.

  17. Gemini 12 spacecraft seen during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63011 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot of the Gemini-12 spaceflight, took this picture of the Gemini-12 spacecraft during standup extravehicular activity (EVA) with the hatch open. Photo credit: NASA

  18. View of the Gemini 6 and Gemini 7 rendezvous

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-15

    S65-63220 (15 Dec. 1965) --- This photograph of the Gemini-Titan 7 (GT-7) spacecraft was taken from the Gemini-Titan 6 (GT-6) spacecraft during the historic rendezvous of the two spacecraft on Dec. 15, 1965. The two spacecraft are some 37 feet apart here. Earth can be seen below. Astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr., command pilot; and Thomas P. Stafford, pilot, were inside the GT-6 spacecraft, while crewmen for the GT-7 mission were astronauts Frank Borman, command pilot, and James A. Lovell Jr., pilot. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  19. RECOVERY - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-07

    S65-33490 (7 June 1965) --- A United States Navy frogman team participates in the recovery of the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) spacecraft. The USS Wasp was the prime recovery ship for the Gemini-4 mission. The crew of the Gemini-4 spaceflight was astronauts James A. McDivitt, command pilot, and Edward H. White II, pilot.

  20. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  1. Index maps for Gemini earth photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Index maps for the Gemini missions are presented; these are for the Gemini 3 through Gemini 12 missions. The maps are divided into four sections: the whole earth; the Western Hemisphere and eastern Pacific Ocean; Africa, India, and the Near East; and Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Ocean.

  2. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  3. Structure-function study of gemini derivatives with two different side chains at C-20, Gemini-0072 and Gemini-0097.

    PubMed

    Huet, Tiphaine; Maehr, Hubert; Lee, Hong Jin; Uskokovic, Milan R; Suh, Nanjoo; Moras, Dino; Rochel, Natacha

    2011-01-01

    Derivatives of vitamin D(3) containing a second side-chain emanating at C-20 are known as gemini and act as vitamin D receptor agonists. Recently, two of these, namely Gemini-0072 and the epimeric Gemini-0097, were selected for further studies in view of their high biological activities and lack of hypercalcemic effects. We now show that the two analogs recruit coactivator SRC-1 better than the parental gemini and act as VDR superagonists. The crystal structures of complexes of zVDR with Gemini-0072 and Gemini-0097 indicate that these ligands induce an extra cavity within the ligand-binding pocket similar to gemini and that their superagonistic activity is due to an increased stabilization of helix H12.

  4. Press Conference - First Gemini Astronauts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-04-13

    S64-19466 (13 April 1964) --- A press conference was held in the Bldg. 1 auditorium at the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center to announce the first Gemini astronaut selections. Shown left to right are Paul Haney, MSC Public Affairs Officer (standing); astronauts Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford; Dr. Robert Gilruth, director of MSC; astronauts Virgil Grissom and John Young; and Donald K. Slayton, assistant director of Flight Crew Operations at MSC.

  5. GEMINI-TITAN-8 - PRELAUNCH ACTIVITY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-16

    S66-24439 (16 March 1966) --- The Gemini-8 prime crew, along with several fellow astronauts, have a hearty breakfast of steak and eggs on the morning of the Gemini-8 launch. Seated clockwise around the table, starting at lower left, are Donald K. Slayton, Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC) Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations; astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Gemini-8 command pilot; scientist-astronaut F. Curtis Michel; astronaut R. Walter Cunningham; astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. (face obscured), Chief, MSC Astronaut Office; astronaut David R. Scott, Gemini-8 pilot; and astronaut Roger B. Chaffee. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Gemini Program Mission Report for Gemini-Titan 1 (GT-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The Gemini-Titan 1 (GT-1) space vehicle was comprised of the Gemini spacecraft and the Gemini launch vehicle. The Gemini launch vehicle is a two-stage modified Titan II ICBM. The major modifications are the addition of a malfunction detection system and a secondary flight controls system. The Gemini spacecraft, designed to carry a crew of two men on earth orbital and rendezvous missions, was unmanned for the flight reported herein (GT-1). There were no complete Gemini flight systems on board; however, the C-band transponder and telemetry transmitters were Gemini flight subsystems. Dummy equipment, having a mass and moment of inertia equal to flight system equipment, was installed in the spacecraft. The Spacecraft was instrumented to obtain data on spacecraft heating, structural loading, vibration, sound pressure levels, and temperature and pressure during the launch phase.

  7. Liftoff of Gemini-Titan 3 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-14150 (23 March 1965) --- Launch view of the Gemini-Titan 3 mission. The GT-3 liftoff was at 9:24 a.m. (EST) on March 23, 1965. The Gemini-3 spacecraft "Molly Brown" carried astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot, and John W. Young, pilot, on three orbits of Earth.

  8. Portrait - Gemini 12 - Prime and Backup Crews

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-01

    S66-46955 (September 1966) --- The Gemini-12 prime crew (in front) is astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (right), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. (left), pilot. In the rear is the Gemini-12 backup crew, astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr., (right), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Gemini 12 spacecraft seen during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63007 (12 Nov. 1966) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot of the Gemini-12 spaceflight, took this picture of the Gemini-12 spacecraft during standup extravehicular activity (EVA) with the hatch open. This is a view looking forward showing the adapter section. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Gemini 12 spacecraft seen during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-62920 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot of the Gemini-12 spaceflight, took this picture of the Gemini-12 spacecraft during standup extravehicular activity (EVA) with the hatch open. This is a view to the rear showing the adapter section. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Astronaut Collins - Gemini 10 - Young - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46477 (18 July 1966) --- Close-up of astronaut Michael Collins, Gemini-10 pilot, making final adjustments and checks in the Gemini spacecraft during prelaunch countdown. In right background is astronaut John W. Young, command pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  12. EQUIPMENT - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-6

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-07

    S65-61777 (8 Dec. 1965) --- Close-up view of a laser transmitter unit which is being used for the Gemini-7 Optical Communication (MSC-4) experiment. Astronauts Frank Borman, command pilot; and James A. Lovell Jr., pilot, are now orbiting Earth in NASA's Gemini-7 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA

  13. The Actual Gemini 9 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9 backup crew members are, Commander, Thomas P. Stafford and pilot Eugene A. Cernan. The back-up crew became the prime crew when on February 28, 1966 the prime crew for the Gemini 9 mission were killed when their twin seat T- 38 trainer jet aircraft crashed into a building during a landing approach in bad weather.

  14. Science operations at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, René; Adamson, Andy; Leggett, Sandy

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory operates two 8m telescopes, one on Cerro Pachón in Chile and one on Maunakea Hawaíi, on behalf of an international partnership. The telescopes, their software and supporting infrastructure (and some of the instrumentation) are identical at the two sites. We describe the operation of the observatory, present some key performance indicators, and discuss the outcomes in terms of publications and program completion rates. We describe how recent initiatives have been introduced into the operation in parallel with accommodating a significant budget reduction and changes in the partnership.

  15. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - INSIGNIA - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-28075 (May 1966) --- Insignia of the Gemini IX spaceflight. Roman numeral indicates ninth flight in the Gemini series. Two spacecraft symbolize rendezvous and docking of Gemini with an Agena. Astronaut and umbilical (tether) line denote planned extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, are members of the Gemini IX prime crew. The NASA insignia design for Gemini flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Gemini Observatory Multi-continental Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, James R.

    2002-11-01

    The Gemini Observatory operates two 8-meter IR/optical telescopes: one in Hawaii and the other in Chile. High-speed network connections among all of the mountain telescopes, their sea-level bases, and a support facility in Tucson are essential to their operation, providing video and audio communications, administrative computing systems, remote telescope operation, scientific data management, and many other applications. All the sites have recently been connected via the Abilene network, through collaborations with more than a dozen astronomy facilities near of the various Gemini sites, with Florida International University's AMPATH program, with various providers, and with grant support for the National Science Foundation. While the bandwidth levels required will change over time, Gemini's current objective is a minimum 10 Mbps presence on Internet2 to and from its principal sites. The Gemini North, Gemini South, and Tucson sites are at this level or better. Gemini North has been upgraded to a burst capability up to 155 Mbps to the US Mainland Internet2. Gemini South has burst capability to 10 Mbps, with 6 Mbps guarantied to the US Mainland Internet2.

  17. Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Twins; abbrev. Gem, gen. Geminorum; area 514 sq. deg.) A northern zodiacal constellation which lies between Auriga and Canis Minor, and culminates at midnight in early January. It represents Castor and Pollux, the twin sons of Leda, Queen of Sparta, in Greek mythology, whose brotherly love was rewarded by a place among the stars. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) ...

  18. Fellow astronauts join Gemini 7 crew for preflight breakfast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Fellow astronauts join the Gemini 7 prime crew for breakfeast in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building, Merritt Island, on the day of the Gemini 7 launch. Clockwise around table, starting lower left, are Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., Gemini 7 prime crew pilot; Walter M. Schirra Jr., Donald K. Slayton, MSC Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations; Richard F. Gordon Jr., Gemini 8 backup crew pilot; Virgil I. Grissom, Charles Conrad Jr., and Frank Borman, Gemini 7 prime crew command pilot.

  19. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed.

  20. MISSION PATCH - GEMINI-5 SPACE FLIGHT - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-01

    S66-59530 (August 1965) --- This is the insignia of the Gemini-Titan 5 (GT-5) spaceflight. The Gemini-5 prime crew members are astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr., command pilot; and Charles Conrad Jr., pilot. The covered wagon symbolizes pioneer spirit of space exploration. The NASA insignia design for Gemini flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  1. Gemini 7 backup crew seen in white room during Gemini 7 simulation activity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-11-27

    S65-61837 (27 Nov. 1965) --- The Gemini-7 backup crew seen in the White Room atop Pad 19 during Gemini-7 simulation flight activity. McDonnell Aircraft Corporation technicians assist in the exercise. Astronaut Edward H. White II (in foreground) is the Gemini-7 backup crew command pilot; and astronaut Michael Collins (right background) is the backup crew pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  2. GEMINI 7 - INSIGNIA - EMBLEM - PATCH - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-11-01

    S65-54129 (November 1965) --- Design for the emblem of the Gemini VII spaceflight. At left of hand-held torch is a Gemini spacecraft. Roman numeral indicates the seventh flight in the Gemini series. Prime crew men for the mission are astronauts Frank Borman, command pilot, and James A. Lovell Jr., pilot. The NASA insignia design for Gemini flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  3. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-7 - RECOVERY - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-18

    S65-61834 (18 Dec. 1965) --- Astronauts Frank Borman (left), Gemini-7 command pilot, and James A. Lovell Jr., pilot, take time out during their welcoming ceremonies aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp to autograph a life preserver. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft splashed down in the western Atlantic recovery area at 9:05 a.m. (EST), Dec. 18, 1965, to conclude a highly successful 14-day mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  4. The Gemini Observatory fast turnaround program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. E.; Côté, S.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Levenson, N. A.; Adamson, A.; Emmanuel, C.; Crabtree, D.

    2014-08-01

    Gemini's Fast Turnaround program is intended to greatly decrease the time from having an idea to acquiring the supporting data. The scheme will offer monthly proposal submission opportunities, and proposals will be reviewed by the principal investigators or co-investigators of other proposals submitted during the same round. Here, we set out the design of the system and outline the plan for its implementation, leading to the launch of a pilot program at Gemini North in January 2015.

  5. Schirra, Stafford and Gemini on Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Walter H. Schirra Jr. (on right), Command pilot, climbs from his Gemini VI spacecraft as he and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (not in view) arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. They are assisted by various McDonell Douglas technicians. The Gemini VI spacecraft splashed down in the western Atlantic recover area at 10:29 a.m. (EST) December 16, 1965, after a successful 25 hr. 52 minute mission in space.

  6. Gemini 9 configured extravehicular spacesuit assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-31019 (May 1966) --- Test subject Fred Spross, Crew Systems Division, wears the Gemini-9 configured extravehicular spacesuit assembly. The legs are covered with Chromel R, which is a cloth woven from stainless steel fibers, used to protect the astronaut and suit from the hot exhaust thrust of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan will wear this spacesuit during his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  7. Gemini 6 and Gemini 7 capsules aboard the recovery carrier USS Wasp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-20

    S65-65948 (20 Dec. 1965) --- Gemini-7 (left) and Gemini-6 spacecraft meet up once again, this time at Mayport Naval Station near Jacksonville (Fla.) after unloading Dec. 20, 1965, from the carrier USS Wasp. The two spacecraft accomplished a rendezvous and station keeping exercise in space on Dec. 15. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Gemini 11 prime and back-up crews at Gemini Mission Simulator at Cape Kennedy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-08

    S66-50769 (8 Sept. 1966) --- Gemini-11 prime and backup crews are pictured at the Gemini Mission Simulator at Cape Kennedy, Florida. Left to right are astronauts William A. Anders, backup crew pilot; Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot; Charles Conrad Jr. (foot on desk), prime crew command pilot; and Neil A. Armstrong, backup crew command pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Structure–function study of gemini derivatives with two different side chains at C-20, Gemini-0072 and Gemini-0097†‡

    PubMed Central

    Huet, Tiphaine; Maehr, Hubert; Lee, Hong Jin; Uskokovic, Milan R.; Suh, Nanjoo; Moras, Dino

    2011-01-01

    Derivatives of vitamin D3 containing a second side-chain emanating at C-20 are known as gemini and act as vitamin D receptor agonists. Recently, two of these, namely Gemini-0072 and the epimeric Gemini-0097, were selected for further studies in view of their high biological activities and lack of hypercalcemic effects. We now show that the two analogs recruit coactivator SRC-1 better than the parental gemini and act as VDR superagonists. The crystal structures of complexes of zVDR with Gemini-0072 and Gemini-0097 indicate that these ligands induce an extra cavity within the ligand-binding pocket similar to gemini and that their superagonistic activity is due to an increased stabilization of helix H12. PMID:22180837

  10. Women Astronomers at Gemini: A Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Jorgensen, I.; Barker, N.; Edwards, M.; Trancho, G.

    2010-01-01

    Gemini Observatory has been very successful at attracting, hiring and retaining female Scientists. We present data on the growth of the scientific staff since the start of the Observatory, and science fellow recruiting from 2006-2008. At Gemini 31% of the Science Staff holding PhDs are female compared with 13.9% within the United States. The Science Management is 75% female, as is 50% of the Gemini Directorate. This critical mass of female representation within the science staff and management appears to have had a positive effect on female recruitment and hiring. The science fellow recruitment during the past 3 years has attracted 21-38% female applicants and 57% of new hires during this period have been female scientists. Perhaps even more significant, the retention rate of female science staff at Gemini is 88%, compared to 64% for male science staff. There are likely many factors that contribute to this success, but the conclusion is that Gemini has earned a reputation in the scientific community as a place where female scientists are valued and can be successful.

  11. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  12. Antifungal activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Obłąk, Ewa; Piecuch, Agata; Krasowska, Anna; Luczyński, Jacek

    2013-12-14

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium chlorides and bromides with various alkyl chain and spacer lengths was synthesized. The most active compounds against fungi were chlorides with 10 carbon atoms within the hydrophobic chain. Among these compounds were few with no hemolytic activity at minimal inhibitory concentrations. None of the tested compounds were cytotoxic and mutagenic. Cationic gemini surfactants poorly reduced the adhesion of microorganisms to the polystyrene plate, but inhibited the filamentation of Candida albicans. One of the tested compounds eradicated C. albicans and Rodotorula mucilaginosa biofilm, what could be important in overcoming catheter-associated infections. It was also shown that gemini surfactants enhanced the sensitivity of C. albicans to azoles and polyenes, thus they might be potentially used in combined therapy against fungi. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. The Original Gemini 9 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The original Gemini 9 prime crew, astronauts Elliot M. See Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles A. Bassett II, pilot, in space suits with their helmets on the table in front of them. On February 28, 1966 the prime crew for the Gemini 9 mission were killed when their twin seat T-38 trainer jet aircraft crashed into a building in which the Gemini spacecraft were being manufactured. They were on final approach to Lambert-Saint Louis Municipal Airport when bad weather conditions hampered pilot See's ability to make a good visual contact with the runway. Noticing the building at the last second as he came out of the low cloud cover, See went to full afterburner and attempted to nose-up the aircraft in an attempt to miss the building. He clipped it and his plane crashed.

  14. Gemini-Titan (GT)-9 Test - Training - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-10

    S66-33406 (10 May 1966) --- Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (on left), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, in Gemini-9 spacecraft in the white room at Pad 19 during a Gemini-9/Agena simultaneous launch demonstration. This test is a coordinated dountdown of the Atlas-Agena and the Gemini-Titan vehicles. Photo credit: NASA

  15. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9A - EARTH SKY - ONBOARD

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-03

    S66-38080 (3 June 1966) --- Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, command pilot of the Gemini-9A spaceflight, is photographed during the Gemini-9A mission inside the spacecraft by astronaut Eugene Cernan, Gemini-9A pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  16. RECOVERY - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-IV - FROGMAN - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-07

    S65-33491 (7 June 1965) --- A United States Navy frogman team participates in the recovery of the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) spacecraft. The USS Wasp was the prime recovery ship for the Gemini-4 mission. The crew of the Gemini-4 spaceflight was astronauts James A. McDivitt, command pilot, and Edward H. White II, pilot.

  17. Astronauts Grissom and Young in Gemini Mission Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-05-22

    S64-25295 (March 1964) --- Astronauts Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom (right) and John W. Young, prime crew for the first manned Gemini mission (GT-3), are shown inside a Gemini mission simulator at McDonnell Aircraft Corp., St. Louis, MO. The simulator will provide Gemini astronauts and ground crews with realistic mission simulation during intensive training prior to actual launch.

  18. Astronaut John Young assisted into Gemini spacecraft in white room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-20604 (23 March 1965) --- Astronaut John W. Young, the pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three-orbit mission, is assisted by a McDonnell Aircraft Corp. engineer as he enters the Gemini spacecraft in the white room atop the Gemini launch vehicle.

  19. Innovation without Boundaries: The Gemini. Assistive Technology. Associate Editor's Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Tamarah M.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes Gemini, an augmentative and alternative communication device that is also a full-featured Macintosh computer. The Gemini is designed to help individuals of all ages with learning, communication, or computer access difficulties to lead more independent lives. The benefits of Gemini are highlighted, including its weight of…

  20. Innovation without Boundaries: The Gemini. Assistive Technology. Associate Editor's Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Tamarah M.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes Gemini, an augmentative and alternative communication device that is also a full-featured Macintosh computer. The Gemini is designed to help individuals of all ages with learning, communication, or computer access difficulties to lead more independent lives. The benefits of Gemini are highlighted, including its weight of…

  1. Live from Gemini: Expanding the Walls of the Classroom Globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Michaud, P.; Valcourt, R.

    2011-09-01

    Live from Gemini has been designed to share Gemini Observatory's resources with a diverse range of learners and expand the walls of the classroom globally. The program is inquiry-based and adaptable to a wide range of learners who participate in a live one-on-one videoconference with an expert astronomer/educator host from one of the Gemini observatory control rooms.

  2. PRESS CONFERENCE - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-01

    S66-39895 (1 Aug. 1966) --- Panel members of the Gemini-10 news conference held in the Building 1 auditorium were (from left) Dr. Robert C. Seamans Jr., NASA Deputy Administrator; astronaut John W. Young, Gemini-10 command pilot; astronaut Michael Collins, Gemini-10 pilot; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director. Photo credit: NASA

  3. The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibon, Pascale; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hardie, Kayla

    2015-01-01

    The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies (GIFS) project is part of a program that will provide a number of community-created science-driven instrumentation design study reports and presentations to the observatory, conforming to a number of desired principles.By the time of the AAS, Gemini will have received a number of proposals and will be evaluating them shortly afterwards with the expectation of placing 3 or more feasibility study contracts based on a facility instrument costing between USD 8,000,000 and USD 12,000,000. These instrument studies will provide synergies with new capabilities coming online (e.g. LSST, JWST, ALMA, etc)Following the project, Gemini together with the Gemini Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) and input from the wider community will decide on the top-level instrument requirements for the next facility instrument (Gen4#3) and launch a targeted Request for Proposals to design, build, test and deliver a suitable instrument. Gemini expects to release an RfP for Gen4#3 in Q4 2015.Each feasibility study will include fully developed science case(s), optical, mechanical, electronic and software design elements at the conceptual level as needed to demonstrate the technical viability. In particular, each design study will thoroughly identify and mitigate key risks.Each study team will present a status summary presentation at the 2015 Meeting on the Science and Future of Gemini held in Toronto in June 2015. The final GIFS reports and presentations are expected in Sept 2015.We will discuss the status of GIFS and the currently plans for Gen4#3.

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-7 - RECOVERY - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-18

    S65-61823 (18 Dec. 1965) --- Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini-7 pilot, and Frank Borman (right), command pilot, slice into a huge cake which was part of their warm welcome after arriving aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft splashed down in the Western Atlantic recovery area at 9:05 a.m. (EST), Dec. 18, 1965, to conclude a highly successful 14-day mission in space. Sailors gather around close to watch the cake cutting. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  6. Experimentos submarinos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NEEMO se lleva a cabo en un laboratorio submarino llamado Aquarius. De la mano del astronauta de la NASA José Hernández conoce alguno de los experimentos que los astronautas (o acuanautas) hacen mi...

  7. Gemini-Titan (GT)-6 - Gemini 6 of 7 - Space Photography - Outer Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-17

    S65-63194 (15 Dec. 1965) --- This photograph of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Gemini-7 spacecraft was taken through the hatch window of the Gemini-6 spacecraft during rendezvous and station keeping maneuvers at an altitude of approximately 160 miles on Dec. 15, 1965. The photograph was taken with a Hasselblad camera using Kodak SO 217 film with an ASA of 1964. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  8. Gemini-Titan (GT)-7 - Recovery - Atlantic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-18

    S65-63646 (18 Dec. 1965) --- The crew of the Gemini-7 spaceflight, astronauts Frank Borman, command pilot, and James A. Lovell Jr., pilot, arrive aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. The astronauts were picked up from the ocean, following successful splashdown, by recovery helicopter and flown to the carrier to begin postflight medical and technical debriefings. Photo credit: NASA

  9. GEMINI-TITAN-IV - SUITED (CLOSEUP) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-31

    S65-19528 (1 June 1965) --- Astronauts Edward H. White II (left), Gemini-Titan 4 pilot; and James A. McDivitt, command pilot. EDITOR?S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo 1/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  10. Dietician prepares Gemini 7 crew preflight breakfast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-04

    S65-56311 (2 Dec. 1965) --- Kennedy Space Center food specialists prepare an Earth-bound meal for Gemini-7 astronauts. Astronauts' diet is strictly controlled before and during spaceflights to avoid interfering with planned medical experiments. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Adsorption of Gemini surfactants onto clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Salako, O; Lo, C; Couzis, A; Somasundaran, P; Lee, J W

    2013-12-15

    This work addresses the adsorption of two Gemini surfactants at the cyclopentane (CP) hydrate-water interface. The Gemini surfactants investigated here are Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 that have two anionic head groups and one hydrophobic tail group. The adsorption of these surfactants was quantified using adsorption isotherms and the adsorption isotherms were determined using liquid-liquid titrations. Even if the Gemini surfactant adsorption isotherms show multi-layer adsorption, they possess the first Langmuir layer with the second adsorption layer only evident in the 2A1 adsorption isotherm. Zeta potentials of CP hydrate particles in the surfactant solution of various concentrations of Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were measured to further explain their adsorption behavior at the CP hydrate-water interface. Zeta potentials of alumina particles as a model particle system in different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were also measured to confirm the configuration of all the surfactants at the interface. The determination of the isotherms and zeta-potentials provides an understanding framework for the adsorption behavior of the two Gemini surfactants at the hydrate-water interface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Doveton, John H.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-03-06

    The program, for development and methodologies, was a 3-year interdisciplinary effort to develop an interactive, integrated Internet Website named GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) that would build real-time geo-engineering reservoir models for the Internet using the latest technology in Web applications.

  13. GEMINI-TITAN-8 - TRAINING - WATER EGRESS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-15

    S66-17253 (15 Jan. 1966) --- Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (center), command pilot, and David R. Scott (right), pilot of the Gemini-8 prime crew, are suited up for water egress training aboard the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever in the Gulf of Mexico. At left is Dr. Kenneth N. Beers, M.D., Flight Medicine Branch, Center Medical Office. Photo credit: NASA

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - EARTH - SKY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-01

    S66-46054 (18 July 1966) --- Venezuela, British Guyana, Surinam and Trinidad, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. On the left is the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. Mouth of Essequibo River in British Guyana is in right center. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Gemini-4 prime crew after press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-11

    S65-33352 (11 June 1965) --- The Gemini-4 prime crew pose with two NASA officials after a press conference in the MSC auditorium. Left to right, are Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC director; Dr. Robert C. Seamans Jr., associate administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini-4 flight; and astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the mission. The two astronauts had just returned to Houston following their debriefings at Cape Kennedy. The Gt-4 liftoff was at 10:16 a.m. (EST) on June 3, 1965. Time of splashdown ending the four-day, 62-revolution mission was at 12:12 p.m. on June 7, 1965.

  16. Portrait - Gemini 11 - Prime and Backup Crews

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-01

    S66-50772 (7 Sept. 1966) --- The Gemini-Titan XI (GT-11) prime and backup crews pose for a group portrait. Seated is the prime crew, astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (right), command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon Jr. (left), pilot. The backup crew (standing) is astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (right), command pilot, and William A. Anders (left), pilot. The two crews were suited up for a simulation test at the Kennedy Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Portrait - Gemini 9 Prime and Backup Crews

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-01

    S66-15622 (January 1966) --- Portrait of the Gemini 9 prime and backup crews. Seated are the Prime crew consisting of Astronauts Elliot M. See Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles A. Bassett II, pilot. Standing are the backup crew consisting of Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot. Both crews are in space suits with their helmets on the table in front of them.

  18. The Gemini online data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Shane; Gillies, Kim; Brighton, Allan

    2004-09-01

    Processing astronomical images is an inherently resource intensive procedure that is typically time consuming as well. At the same time, first order reductions are particularly important during the observing process since they can provide key quality assessment information. To resolve this conflict, the Online Data Processing (OLDP) system being commissioned at the Gemini Observatory automatically maps reduction sequences onto a cluster of servers during observing, taking advantage of available concurrency where possible. The user constructs a visual representation of the sequence for an observation using the Gemini Observing Tool. No constraints are placed upon the series of steps that comprise the sequence. At runtime, the OLDP reads the reduction sequence from the Observing Database and splits it into smaller pieces for simultaneous execution on the cluster. Recipe steps can be implemented in IRAF, shell scripts, or Java, and other types can be plugged into the architecture without modifying the core of the code base. This paper will introduce the Gemini OLDP and demonstrate how it utilizes modern infrastructure technology like Jini and JavaSpaces to achieve its goals.

  19. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - RECOVERY - TOUCHDOWN - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-34117 (6 June 1966) --- The 72-hour, 21-minute Gemini-9A spaceflight is concluded as the Gemini spacecraft, with astronaut Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan aboard, touches down in the Atlantic Ocean only 3.5 miles from the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. Gemini-9 splashed down 345 miles east of Cape Kennedy at 9 a.m. (EST), June 6, 1966. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Splashdown - Gemini-Titan (GT-12) Spacecraft - Mission Close - Atlantic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-15

    S66-59986 (15 Nov. 1966) --- The Gemini spaceflight program concludes as the Gemini-12 spacecraft, with astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, aboard, nears touchdown in the Atlantic Ocean 2.5 nautical miles from the prime recovery ship, USS Wasp. Gemini-12 splashed down at 2:21 p.m. (EST), Nov. 11, 1966, to conclude the four-day mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Gemini 10 prime crew during post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    At podium during Gemini 10 press conference are (l-r) Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (39895); Wide angle view of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) News Center during the Gemini 10 prime crew post flight press conference (38786); Astronaut Young draws diagram on chalk board of tethered extravehicular activity accomplished during Gemini 10 flight (39897).

  2. Docking - Gemini-Titan (GT)-11 - Outer Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54555 (14 Sept. 1966) --- The Gemini-11 spacecraft is docked to the Agena Target Vehicle in this photograph taken by astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot, as he stood in the open hatch of the Gemini-11 spacecraft during his extravehicular activity (EVA). Note Agena's L-band antenna. Taken during Gemini-11's 29th revolution of Earth, using a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, with Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Gemini 10 prime crew during post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    At podium during Gemini 10 press conference are (l-r) Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (39895); Wide angle view of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) News Center during the Gemini 10 prime crew post flight press conference (38786); Astronaut Young draws diagram on chalk board of tethered extravehicular activity accomplished during Gemini 10 flight (39897).

  4. The Transformation of Observatory Newsletters - A Gemini Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-01

    Astronomical observatories publish newsletters to communicate the observatory’s new discoveries and activities with its user communities, funding agencies, and general public. Gemini Observatory started publishing the newsletter in March 1992. Over the years, it transformed from a no-frills black and white publication to a full-color magazine type newsletter with a special name “GeminiFocus”. Since 2012, the contents of GeminiFocus moved from print to digital with an additional print issue of the Year in Review. The newsletter transformation is in sync with the rapid development of the internet technologies. We discuss here the evolvement of Gemini newsletter and the lessons learned.

  5. Gemini 9 spacecraft during EVA as seen Astronaut Eugene Cernan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38068 (5 June 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan took this view of the Gemini-9A spacecraft and his umbilical cord (right) over California, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, during his extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9A mission. Taken during the 32nd revolution of the flight. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Astronaut Eugene Cernan sits in Gemini boilerplate during water egress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-04-09

    S66-29559 (9 April 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, prime crew pilot of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s Gemini-9 spaceflight, sits in Gemini Boiler-plate during water egress training activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Photo credit: NASA

  7. PRESS CONFERENCE - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-01

    S66-39897 (1 Aug. 1966) --- Astronaut John W. Young, Gemini-10 command pilot, uses a chalk drawing on a blackboard to illustrate how astronaut Michael Collins, Gemini-10 pilot, looked when he inspected the Agena Target Docking Vehicle during his extravehicular activity. Young was discussing the mission before a gathering of news media representatives in the Building 1 auditorium. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Agena Target Docking vehicle seen from Gemini 8 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-16

    S66-25784 (16 March 1966) --? The Agena Target Docking Vehicle seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s Gemini adapter of the Agena is approximately two feet from the nose of the spacecraft (lower left). Crewmen for the Gemini-8 mission were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Gemini 10 prime crew in White Room preparing for insertion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-42737 (18 July 1966) --- In the White Room atop the Gemini launch vehicle, astronauts Michael Collins (left), pilot, and John W. Young (right), command pilot, prepare to enter the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Engineers and technicians stand by to assist in the insertion. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Gemini 12 equipment jettison during rendezvous mission in space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-62999 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Jettison of the extravehicular life support system (ELSS) and other equipment from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its rendezvous mission in space. The nose of the Gemini-12 spacecraft is clearly visible at right edge of photo. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Solution properties and electrospinning of phosphonium gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Sean T; Hudson, Amanda G; Allen, Michael H; Pole, Sandeep S; Moore, Robert B; Long, Timothy E

    2014-06-14

    Bis(diphenylphosphino)alkanes quantitatively react with excess 1-bromododecane to prepare novel phosphonium gemini surfactants with spacer lengths ranging from 2 to 4 methylenes (12-2/3/4-12P). Dodecyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DTPP), a monomeric surfactant analog, was readily water soluble, however, in sharp contrast, phosphonium gemini surfactants were poorly soluble in water due to two hydrophobic tails and relatively hydrophobic cationic head groups containing phenyl substituents. Isothermal titration calorimetry did not reveal a measurable critical micelle concentration for the 12-2-12P phosphonium gemini surfactant in water at 25 °C. Subsequent studies in 50/50 v/v water-methanol at 25 °C showed a CMC of 1.0 mM for 12-2-12P. All phosphonium gemini surfactants effectively complexed nucleic acids, but failed to deliver nucleic acids in vitro to HeLa cells. The solution behavior of phosphonium gemini surfactants was investigated in chloroform, which is an organic solvent where reverse micellar structures are favored. Solution rheology in chloroform explored the solution behavior of the phosphonium gemini surfactants compared to DTPP. The 12-2-12P and 12-3-12P gemini surfactants were successfully electrospun from chloroform to generate uniform fibers while 12-4-12P gemini surfactant and DTPP only electrosprayed to form droplets.

  12. Personnel discussing Gemini 11 space flight in Mission Control

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-12

    S66-52157 (12 Sept. 1966) --- Discussing the Gemini-11 spaceflight in the Mission Control Center are: (left to right) Christopher C. Kraft Jr., (wearing glasses), Director of Flight Operations; Charles W. Mathews (holding phone), Manager, Gemini Program Office; Dr. Donald K. Slayton (center, checked coat), Director of Flight Crew Operations; astronaut William A. Anders, and astronaut John W. Young. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Astronaut Frank Borman looks over the Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Frank Borman, command pilot of the Gemini 7 prime crew, looks over the Gemini 7 spacecraft during weight and balance tests. The tests are conducted in the Pyrotechnic Installation Building, Merritt Island, Kennedy Space Center as part of preflight preparation.

  14. Current and future facility instruments at the Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Joseph B.; Kleinman, Scot J.; Simons, Douglas A.; Lazo, Manuel; Rigaut, François; White, John K.

    2008-07-01

    At the present time, several new Gemini instruments are being delivered and commissioned. The Near-Infrared Coronagraph has been extensively tested and commissioned on the Gemini-South telescope, and will soon begin a large survey to discover extrasolar planets. The FLAMINGOS-2 near-IR multi-object spectrograph is nearing completion at the University of Florida, and is expected to be delivered to Gemini-South by the end of 2008. Gemini's Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics bench has been successfully integrated and tested in the lab, and now awaits integration with the laser system and the Gemini-South AO Imager on the telescope. We also describe our efforts to repair thermal damage to the Gemini Near-IR Spectrograph that occurred last year. Since the last update, progress has been made on several of Gemini's next generation of ambitious "Aspen" instruments. The Gemini Planet Imager is now in the final design phase, and construction is scheduled to begin shortly. Two competitive conceptual design studies for the Wide-Field Fiber Multi-Object Spectrometer have now started. The Mauna Kea ground layer monitoring campaign has collected data for well over a year in support of the planning process for a future Ground Layer Adaptive Optics system.

  15. Gemini 9 spacecraft during EVA as seen Astronaut Eugene Cernan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan took this view of the Gemini 9 spacecraft and his umbilical cord (right) over California, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, during his extravehicular activity on the Gemini 9 mission. Taken during the 32nd revolution of the flight.

  16. Gemini-Titan 3 water landing recovery in Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Navy swimmers are shown attaching a flotation collar to the Gemini 3 spacecraft during recovery operations following the successful Gemini-Titan 3 flight. A helicopter hovers in the background. Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young are still in the spacecraft.

  17. MISC. (BREAKFAST)(GEMINI-TITAN [GT]-11) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-12

    S66-50723 (12 Sept. 1966) --- The Gemini-11 prime crew enjoys a breakfast of steak and eggs with astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. (right), Chief, MSC Astronaut Office, on the morning of the scheduled Gemini-11 launch. On left is astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., command pilot. Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr. (center) is the pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Gemini-IFU Spectroscopy of HH 111

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Raga, A. C.; Feitosa, J.; Plana, H.

    2015-03-01

    We present new optical observations of the Herbig-Haro (HH) 111 jet using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph in its Integral Field Unit mode. Eight fields of 5\\prime\\prime × 3\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5 have been positioned along and across the HH 111 jet, covering the spatial region from knot E to L in HH 111 (namely, knots E, F, G, H, J, K, and L). We present images and velocity channel maps for the [O i] 6300+6360, Hα, [N ii] 6548+6583, and [S ii] 6716+6730 lines, as well as for the [S ii] 6716/6730 line ratio. We find that the HH 111 jet has an inner region with lower excitation and higher radial velocity, surrounded by a broader region of higher excitation and lower radial velocity. Also, we find higher electron densities at lower radial velocities. These results imply that the HH 111 jet has a fast, axial region with lower velocity shocks surrounded by a lower velocity sheath with higher velocity shocks. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  19. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of Sirius from Gemini 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, G. G.; Kondo, Y.; Henize, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution of Sirius between 2500 and 3700 A at a resolution of 7 A is obtained from plates taken on Gemini 12. The agreement with other observations and the most recent line-blanketed model atmospheres is good. The equivalent width of the Mg II doublet near 2800 A is 6.0 A, if the continuum level is represented by regions near 2650 and 2910 A. This is consistent with expectations for a hot Am star and implies line blocking of up to 15% in this wavelength region.

  20. TRAINING - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-5 - TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-18

    S65-35563 (18 June 1965) --- Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (left), command pilot; and Charles Conrad Jr., pilot, the prime crew of the Gemini-5 spaceflight, prepare their cameras while aboard a C-130 aircraft flying near Laredo, Texas. The two astronauts are taking part in a series of visual acuity experiments to aid them in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions. Knowledge gained from these experiments will have later application for space pilots identifying terrestrial features from space. Dr. John Billingham, chief, Environmental Physiology Branch, Crew Systems Division, is in charge of the Visual Acuity Experiments.

  1. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry of Sirius from Gemini 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, G. G.; Kondo, Y.; Henize, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution of Sirius between 2500 and 3700 A at a resolution of 7 A is obtained from plates taken on Gemini 12. The agreement with other observations and the most recent line-blanketed model atmospheres is good. The equivalent width of the Mg II doublet near 2800 A is 6.0 A, if the continuum level is represented by regions near 2650 and 2910 A. This is consistent with expectations for a hot Am star and implies line blocking of up to 15% in this wavelength region.

  2. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EARTH SKY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-34659 (3-7 June 1965) --- Among the many photographs taken from the Gemini-4 spacecraft during its orbital flight around Earth was this view of the Hahramaut Plateau on the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. The Wadi Hahramaut is in the foreground; with the Gulf of Aden (dark blue). This photograph was made with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman color film, ASA 64, at a lens setting of 250th of a second at f/11.

  3. Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

  4. Gemini-Titan (GT)-6 - Prelaunch Activity - Cape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-12

    S65-61789 (12 Dec. 1965) --- Astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr. (right), Gemini-6 command pilot; and Thomas P. Stafford (center), pilot, enjoy a prelaunch breakfast on the morning of the proposed launch of NASA's two-day Gemini-6 spaceflight. At left is astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., command pilot of the Gemini-5 space mission. An attempt was made to launch Gemini-6 from Pad 19 at 9:54 a.m. (EST) on Dec. 12, 1965. However, seconds after ignition, the first stage engine of the Gemini-6 launch vehicle shut down due to a faulty release of a liftoff umbilical plug. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  5. ROUNDUP - EMBLEM - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-01

    S66-44308 (September 1966) --- Insignia of the Gemini-Titan XI (GT-11) spaceflight. Roman numeral indicates eleventh flight in the Gemini series. Two spacecraft symbolize rendezvous and docking of Gemini with an Agena. Astronaut and umbilical (tether) line denotes planned extravehicular activity. Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot, are members of the Gemini-11 prime crew. The NASA insignia design for Gemini flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  6. First light of the Gemini Planet imager.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B R; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-09-02

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 10(6) at 0.75 arcseconds and 10(5) at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of [Formula: see text] near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.

  7. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Stone; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-05-12

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0+0.8–0.4 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. In conclusion, the observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.

  8. Gemini Planet Imager Coronagraph Testbed Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaranmakrishnan, A.; Carr, G.; Soummer, R.; Oppenheimer, B.R.; Mey, J.L.; Brenner, D.; Mandeville, C.W.; Zimmerman, N. Macintosh, B.A.; Graham, J.R.; Saddlemyer, L.; Bauman, B.; Carlotti, A.; Pueyo, L.; Tuthill, P.G.; Dorrer, C.; Roberts, R.; Greenbaum, A.

    2010-12-08

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an extreme AO coronagraphic integral field unit YJHK spectrograph destined for first light on the 8m Gemini South telescope in 2011. GPI fields a 1500 channel AO system feeding an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph, and a nIR non-common-path slow wavefront sensor. It targets detection and characterizion of relatively young (<2GYr), self luminous planets up to 10 million times as faint as their primary star. We present the coronagraph subsystem's in-lab performance, and describe the studies required to specify and fabricate the coronagraph. Coronagraphic pupil apodization is implemented with metallic half-tone screens on glass, and the focal plane occulters are deep reactive ion etched holes in optically polished silicon mirrors. Our JH testbed achieves H-band contrast below a million at separations above 5 resolution elements, without using an AO system. We present an overview of the coronagraphic masks and our testbed coronagraphic data. We also demonstrate the performance of an astrometric and photometric grid that enables coronagraphic astrometry relative to the primary star in every exposure, a proven technique that has yielded on-sky precision of the order of a milliarsecond.

  9. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    DOE PAGES

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; ...

    2014-05-12

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a singlemore » 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0+0.8–0.4 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. In conclusion, the observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.« less

  10. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0−0.4+0.8 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017. PMID:24821792

  11. Gemini Planet Imager coronagraph testbed results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Mey, Jacob L.; Brenner, Doug; Mandeville, Charles W.; Zimmerman, Neil; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Graham, James R.; Saddlemyer, Les; Bauman, Brian; Carlotti, Alexis; Pueyo, Laurent; Tuthill, Peter G.; Dorrer, Christophe; Roberts, Robin; Greenbaum, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an extreme AO coronagraphic integral field unit YJHK spectrograph destined for first light on the 8m Gemini South telescope in 2011. GPI fields a 1500 channel AO system feeding an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph, and a nIR non-common-path slow wavefront sensor. It targets detection and characterizion of relatively young (<2GYr), self luminous planets up to 10 million times as faint as their primary star. We present the coronagraph subsystem's in-lab performance, and describe the studies required to specify and fabricate the coronagraph. Coronagraphic pupil apodization is implemented with metallic half-tone screens on glass, and the focal plane occulters are deep reactive ion etched holes in optically polished silicon mirrors. Our JH testbed achieves H-band contrast below a million at separations above 5 resolution elements, without using an AO system. We present an overview of the coronagraphic masks and our testbed coronagraphic data. We also demonstrate the performance of an astrometric and photometric grid that enables coronagraphic astrometry relative to the primary star in every exposure, a proven technique that has yielded on-sky precision of the order of a milliarsecond.

  12. The Gemini Planet Imager coronagraph testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Rémi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Roberts, Robin; Brenner, Douglas; Carlotti, Alexis; Pueyo, Laurent; Macintosh, Bruce; Bauman, Brian; Saddlemyer, Les; Palmer, David; Erickson, Darren; Dorrer, Christophe; Caputa, Kris; Marois, Christian; Wallace, Kent; Griffiths, Emily; Mey, Jacob

    2009-08-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new facility instrument to be commissioned at the 8-m Gemini South telescope in early 2011. It combines of several subsystems including a 1500 subaperture Extreme Adaptive Optics system, an Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph, a near-infrared high-accuracy interferometric wavefront sensor, and an Integral Field Unit Spectrograph, which serves as the science instrument. GPI's main scientific goal is to detect and characterize relatively young (<2GYr), self luminous planets with planet-star brightness ratios of <= 10-7 in the near infrared. Here we present an overview of the coronagraph subsystem, which includes a pupil apodization, a hard-edged focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. We discuss designs optimization, masks fabrication and testing. We describe a near infrared testbed, which achieved broadband contrast (H-band) below 10-6 at separations > 5λ/D, without active wavefront control (no deformable mirror). We use Fresnel propagation modeling to analyze the testbed results.

  13. Tumbling and spaceflight: the Gemini VIII experience.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R; Nicogossian, A E; McCormack, P D; Mohler, S R

    1990-01-01

    A malfunctioning orbital flight attitude thruster during the flight of Gemini VIII led to acceleration forces on astronauts Neil Armstrong (commander) and David Scott (pilot) that created the potential for derogation of oculo-vestibular and eye-hand coordination effects. The spacecraft attained an axial tumbling rotation of 50 rpm and would have exceeded this had not the commander accurately diagnosed the problem and taken immediate corrective action. By the time counter-measure controls were applied, both astronauts were experiencing vertigo and the physiological effects of the tumbling acceleration. Data from the recorders reveal that one astronaut experienced -Gy of 0.92 G-units, and the other +Gy of 0.92 for approximately 46 s. Both received a -Gz of 0.89 G-units from the waist up with a +Gz of 0.05 from the waist down. A substantial increase of time and/or an increase in rpm would ultimately have produced incapacitation of both astronauts. NASA corrected the Gemini thruster problem by changing the ignition system wiring. Future space-craft undertaking long-term missions could be equipped with unambiguous thruster fault displays and could have computer-controlled automatic cutoffs to control excessive thruster burns.

  14. Astrometric Calibration of the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Debby; Konopacky, Quinn M.; GPIES Team

    2017-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), housed on the 8-meter Gemini South telescope in Chile, is an instrument designed to detect Jupiter-like extrasolar planets by direct imaging. It relies on adaptive optics to correct the effects of atmospheric turbulence, along with an advanced coronagraph and calibration system. One of the scientific goals of GPI is to measure the orbital properties of the planets it discovers. Because these orbits have long periods, precise measurements of the relative position between the star and the planet (relative astrometry) are required. In this poster, I will present the astrometric calibration of GPI. We constrain the plate scale and orientation of the camera by observing different binary star systems with both GPI and another well-calibrated instrument, NIRC2, at the Keck telescope in Hawaii. We measure their separations with both instruments and use that information to calibrate the plate scale. By taking these calibration measurements over the course of one year, we have measured the plate scale to 0.05% and shown that it is stable across multiple epochs. We also examined the effects of the point spread function on the positions of the binaries as well as their separations, the results of which I will discuss.

  15. Mechanically selflocked chiral gemini-catenanes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Heng-Yi; Xu, Xiufang; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically interlocked and entangled molecular architectures represent one of the elaborate topological superstructures engineered at a molecular resolution. Here we report a methodology for fabricating mechanically selflocked molecules (MSMs) through highly efficient one-step amidation of a pseudorotaxane derived from dual functionalized pillar[5]arene (P[5]A) threaded by α,ω-diaminoalkane (DA-n; n=3–12). The monomeric and dimeric pseudo[1]catenanes thus obtained, which are inherently chiral due to the topology of P[5]A used, were isolated and fully characterized by NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations. Of particular interest, the dimeric pseudo[1]catenane, named ‘gemini-catenane', contained stereoisomeric meso-erythro and dl-threo isomers, in which two P[5]A moieties are threaded by two DA-n chains in topologically different patterns. This access to chiral pseudo[1]catenanes and gemini-catenanes will greatly promote the practical use of such sophisticated chiral architectures in supramolecular and materials science and technology. PMID:26126502

  16. Gemini Observatory Operations and Software for the 2020s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bryan W.; Stephens, Andrew W.; Nunez, Arturo; Schirmer, Mischa

    2017-01-01

    Gemini Observatory is planning several major software upgrades to improve usability and maintenance and to help prepare Gemini for the LSST, ELT, and JWST era. Gemini is currently a leader in target-of-opportunity (ToO) observing (e.g. SNe and GRB follow-up, solar system objects, eclipses, occultations) due to the dominant queue mode of observing. In the era of large transient surveys (e.g. iPTF, Catalina, Pan-STARRS, and especially LSST) and other transient surveys we expect that the follow-up of faint transient sources will become a very significant, if not dominant, use of Gemini. The next Gemini instrument, Gen4#3, is being designed for transient follow-up. However, much of Gemini's software infrastructure is now more than 15 years old is not sufficiently user-friendly, scalable, or maintainable. Therefore, we are embarking on a series of upgrade projects with the goals of making Gemini easier to use, making the system more scalable and flexible, and ensuring that the system is maintainable for the next 15 years. This poster will describe the ongoing projects and future plans to upgrade the real-time control systems, develop a new Observatory Control System (including a potential rewrite of the Observing Tool and an automated scheduling capability), and integrate into future ToO networks. Feedback on requirements for new user software, in particular, is requested.

  17. Photometric Calibration of the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Sarah Anne; Rodrigo Carrasco Damele, Eleazar; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is an instrument available on the Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, utilizing the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). In order to allow users to easily perform photometry with this instrument and to monitor any changes in the instrument in the future, we seek to set up a process for performing photometric calibration with standard star observations taken across the time of the instrument’s operation. We construct a Python-based pipeline that includes IRAF wrappers for reduction and combines the AstroPy photutils package and original Python scripts with the IRAF apphot and photcal packages to carry out photometry and linear regression fitting. Using the pipeline, we examine standard star observations made with GSAOI on 68 nights between 2013 and 2015 in order to determine the nightly photometric zero points in the J, H, Kshort, and K bands. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, processed using the Gemini IRAF and gemini_python packages, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  18. Gemini-Titan (GT)-7 of GT-6 Space Photography - Outer Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-04

    S65-64040 (15 Dec. 1965) --- Nose-on view of the Gemini-6 spacecraft against the blackness of space as seen from Gemini-7 spacecraft. The two spacecraft were approximately 38 feet apart. Astronauts Walter M. Schirra and Thomas P. Stafford were onboard the Gemini-6 spacecraft. Astronauts Frank Borman and James A. Lovell Jr. were aboard the Gemini-7 spacecraft. A "Beat Army" sign can be seen in the Gemini-6 window. Photo credit: NASA

  19. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-8 - INSIGNIA - COLOR DESIGN - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-01

    S66-23978 (March 1966) --- Color design for the emblem of the Gemini-8 spaceflight. Roman numeral indicates the eighth flight in the Gemini series. Prime crewmen for the mission are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot; and David R. Scott, pilot. The NASA insignia design for Gemini flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Geological interpretation of a Gemini photo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill, William R.; Danilchik, Walter

    1968-01-01

    Study of the Gemini V photograph of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, West Pakistan, indicates that small-scale orbital photographs permit recognition of the regional continuity of some geologic features, particularly faults and folds that could he easily overlooked on conventional air photographs of larger scale. Some stratigraphic relationships can also be recognized on the orbital photograph, but with only minimal previous geologic knowledge of the area, these interpretations are less conclusive or reliable than the interpretation of structure. It is suggested that improved atmospheric penetration could be achieved through the use of color infrared film. Photographic expression of topography could also be improved by deliberately photographing some areas during periods of low sun angle.

  1. Maintaining the Telescope Bibliography at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.

    2010-10-01

    The library profession benefits tremendously from ever-changing web technologies. In maintaining a telescope bibliography, web-publishing revolutionized the way librarians track relevant publications. Thanks to the search abilities provided by the NASA Astrophysics Data System, arXiv, publishers, as well as Google Scholar, and other such resources, online searching for Gemini-based publications has replaced the tedious perusing of print journals. However, we should keep in mind that online searching is neither flawless nor simple — different content providers require different search strategies. Sometimes the retrievals are not as complete as one expects. Information providers should be constantly improving their searching abilities in order to make the task of electronic publication tracking more reliable and efficient.

  2. Gemini: A long-range cargo transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed Gemini, a long-range cargo transport, is designed as a high capacity, dedicated cargo transporter of 8'x8'x20' inter-modal containers, and long-range design. These requirements will result in a design that is larger than any existing aircraft. Due to the size, a conventional configuration would result in an aircraft unable to operate economically at existing airports. It is necessary to design for a minimum possible empty weight, wingspan, and landing gear track. After considering both a single fuselage biplane and a double fuselage biplane configuration, the design team choose the double fuselage biplane configuration. Both of these configuration choices result in a reduced wing root bending moment and subsequently in substantial savings in the wing weight. An overall decrease in the weight of the airplane, its systems, and fuel will be a direct result of the wing weight savings.

  3. Response to major earthquakes affecting Gemini twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoeven, Michiel; Rogers, Rolando; Rippa, Mathew; Perez, Gabriel; Montes, Vanessa; Moreno, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Both Gemini telescopes, in Hawaii and Chile, are located in highly seismic active areas. That means that the seismic protection is included in the structural design of the telescope, instruments and auxiliary structure. We will describe the specific design features to reduce permanent damage in case of major earthquakes. At this moment both telescopes have been affected by big earthquakes in 2006 and 2015 respectively. There is an opportunity to compare the original design to the effects that are caused by these earthquakes and analyze their effectiveness. The paper describes the way the telescopes responded to these events, the damage that was caused, how we recovered from it, the modifications we have done to avoid some of this damage in future occasions, and lessons learned to face this type of events. Finally we will cover on how we pretend to upgrade the limited monitoring tools we currently have in place to measure the impact of earthquakes.

  4. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraph constructed for the Gemini Observatory. GPI will see first light this fall. It will be the most advanced planet-imaging system in operation - an order of magnitude more sensitive than any current instrument, capable of detecting and spectroscopically characterizing young Jovian planets 107 times fainter than their parent star at separations of 0.2 arcseconds. GPI was built from the beginning as a facility-class survey instrument, and the observatory will employ it that way. Our team has been selected by Gemini Observatory to carry out an 890-hour program - the GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) campaign from 2014-2017. We will observe 600 stars spanning spectral types A-M. We will use published young association catalogs and a proprietary list in preparation that adds several hundred new young (<100 Myr, <75 pc) and adolescent (<300 Myr, <35 pc) stars. The range of separations studied by GPI is completely inaccessible to Doppler and transit techniques (even with Kepler or TESS)— GPI offers a new window into planet formation. We will use GPI to produce the first-ever robust census of giant planet populations in the 5-50 AU range, allowing us to: 1) illuminate the formation pathways of Jovian planets; 2) reconstruct the early dynamical evolution of systems, including migration mechanisms and the interaction with disks and belts of debris; and 3) bridge the gap between Jupiter and the brown dwarfs with the first examples of cool low- gravity planetary atmospheres. Simulations predict this survey will discover approximately 50 exoplanets, increasing the number of exoplanet images by an order of magnitude, enough for statistical investigation. This Origins of Solar Systems proposal will support the execution of the GPI Exoplanet Survey campaign. We will develop tools needed to execute the survey efficiently. We will refine the existing GPI data pipeline to a final version that robustly removes residual speckle

  5. Wavefront control for the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J; Dillon, D; Severson, S; Macintosh, B

    2006-04-14

    The wavefront control strategy for the proposed Gemini Planet Imager, an extreme adaptive optics coronagraph for planet detection, is presented. Two key parts of this strategy are experimentally verified in a testbed at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics, which features a 32 x 32 MEMS device. Detailed analytic models and algorithms for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor alignment and calibration are presented. It is demonstrated that with these procedures, the spatially filtered WFS and the Fourier Transform reconstructor can be used to flatten to the MEMS to 1 nm RMS in the controllable band. Performance is further improved using the technique of modifying the reference slopes using a measurement of the static wavefront error in the science leg.

  6. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Watney, W. Lynn; Doveton, John H.; Victorine, John R.; Bohling, Goeffrey C.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Byers, Alan P.; Carr, Timothy R.; Dubois, Martin K.; Gagnon, Glen; Guy, Willard J.; Look, Kurt; Magnuson, Mike; Moore, Melissa; Olea, Ricardo; Pakalapadi, Jayprakash; Stalder, Ken; Collins, David R.

    2002-06-25

    GEMINI will resolve reservoir parameters that control well performance; characterize subtle reservoir properties important in understanding and modeling hydrocarbon pore volume and fluid flow; expedite recognition of bypassed, subtle, and complex oil and gas reservoirs at regional and local scale; differentiate commingled reservoirs; build integrated geologic and engineering model based on real-time, iterate solutions to evaluate reservoir management options for improved recovery; provide practical tools to assist the geoscientist, engineer, and petroleum operator in making their tasks more efficient and effective; enable evaluations to be made at different scales, ranging from individual well, through lease, field, to play and region (scalable information infrastructure); and provide training and technology transfer to evaluate capabilities of the client.

  7. Algeria- Gemini 7, Earth-Sky View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-05

    S65-63830 (5 Dec. 1965) --- Algeria, south-southeast of the Colomb Bechar area, as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft. Sand dunes are 200 to 300 feet high in the Grand Erg Occidental area. The Quod Sacura River can be seen in the upper left corner. The white spot in the middle of the picture is the Sebcha el Malah salt beds. It should be noted that the area had just experienced very heavy rains (first in many years) and the stream and salt flat are inundated. This photograph was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, with Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  8. The Gemini 8-m Telescopes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmer, P. S.

    1992-05-01

    The Gemini Project is an international collaboration of Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States to construct and operate twin 8-m telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. The principal goal of the Gemini project is to give astronomers access to the whole sky with an unprecedented combination of superb image quality and high light gathering power over the entire range of optical and infrared wavelengths observable from the ground. Main features of the draft science requirements include: 1) Image quality of 0.1 arcsec in the near infrared over a 1 arcmin field, through the use of active optics and wavefront-tilt correction; 2) Wavelength coverage with high throughput over the range 0.3 to at least 30 microns (which will require capability for different mirror coatings); 3) An IR-optimized configuration with emissivity in the 2 - 4 \\ covering a 45 arcmin diameter field; 5) An optical/UV Nasmyth configuration to provide direct beam feeding of instruments requiring a gravity stable location; 6) Observing modes that will support the astronomer at the telescope and also provide for service observing, remote observing, and queue scheduling; and 7) Provision of capability for rapid switching between instruments to take advantage of changing weather conditions. The telescopes are to be as similar as possible, consistent with the science requirements. They are to have provision for future upgrades or modifications, so that they will remain frontline facilities over a lifetime expected to exceed fifty years. The project is to include an initial suite of instruments for each telescope, which will be procured from institutions within the partner countries on a competitive basis. The telescopes will also include provision for adaptive optics; the current plan is to begin with a system for low-order correction.

  9. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0-0.4+0.8AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9A - EARTH SKY - ONBOARD

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-03

    S66-38082 (3 June 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9A spaceflight, is photographed inside the spacecraft by the command pilot, astronaut Thomas P. Stafford during the flight. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Florida, Bahama Islands, Cuba as seen from Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63418 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Florida (south half), Bahamas Islands (Andros-Grand Bahamas-Bimini), and Cuba, looking south as seen from Gemini-12 spacecraft on its 15th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Gemini enclosure and support facility design philosophy and design description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybould, Keith; Ford, Robert M.; Gillett, Paul E.; Hardash, Steven G.; Pentland, Gordon

    1994-06-01

    The Gemini project is an international collaboration between the USA, United Kingdom, Canada, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil, to design, fabricate and assemble two 8 M telescopes, one on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the other on Cerro Pachon in Chile. The telescopes will be national facilities designed to meet the Gemini Science Requirements, a document developed by the Gemini Science Committee. This paper describes the design considerations that influence the scientific performance of the enclosure and support facility, and the features that have been incorporated to meet the demanding science requirements, particularly the 0.026 arc sec allowance for `enclosure seeing'. A description of the Gemini enclosure, support facilities and site plans for Mauna Kea is given here together with a brief description of the analysis and testing that has been performed to establish the performance of the facility.

  13. Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight including dehydrated beef pot roast, bacon and egg bites, toasted bread cubes, orange juice and a wet wipe. Water is being inserted into the pouch of dehydrated food.

  14. Earth-Sky - Gemini-Titan (GT)-6 - Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63130 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Ras Hafum, coast of Somali Republic, northeast Africa, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 13th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  15. China, India, and Nepal as seen from Gemini 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54839 (14 Sept. 1966) --- China, India, and Nepal, looking east, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 37th revolution of Earth. The Great Himalaya Mountain Range is clearly visible. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight including dehydrated beef pot roast, bacon and egg bites, toasted bread cubes, orange juice and a wet wipe. Water is being inserted into the pouch of dehydrated food.

  17. Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight. Packages include beef and gravy, peaches, strawberry cereal cubes and beef sandwiches. Water gun is used to reconstitute dehydrated food. Scissors are used to open the packages.

  18. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY - CANARY ISLANDS - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63150 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Eddies in stratocumulus clouds over the Canary Islands as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 14th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  19. Diagram of Weightlessness effects at cell level aboard Gemini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Diagram of experimemt on weightlessness effects at cell level aboard Gemini spacecraft. The round canister (top) shows the experiment package. The bottom portion of the diagram shows the breakdown of the experiment package, and how the experiment will proceed.

  20. View of Gemini 11 experiment S-13 Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    View of Gemini 11 experiment S-13 Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera before flight. Its object was to obtain data on ultraviolet radiation of hot stars and to develop and evaluate basic techniques for photography of celestial objects from manned spacecraft.

  1. Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight. Packages include beef and gravy, peaches, strawberry cereal cubes and beef sandwiches. Water gun is used to reconstitute dehydrated food. Scissors are used to open the packages.

  2. MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-7 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-07

    S65-60039 (7 Dec. 1965) --- Christopher C. Kraft Jr. (left), assistant director for Flight Operations, monitors his console in the Mission Control Center during the Gemini-7 spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  3. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - EARTH - SKY VIEW - AFRICA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-18750 (23 March 1965) --- Astronaut John W. Young took this picture over eastern Africa during the Gemini-Titan 3 three-orbit mission on March 23, 1965. The altitude of the Gemini spacecraft "Molly Brown" was 90 miles. Young used a hand-held modified 70mm Hasselblad camera with color film. The lens setting was 250th of a second at f/11.

  4. Astronaut Gene Cernan poses in front of Gemini Mission Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-09

    S66-32698 (17 June 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan discusses his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity before a gathering of news media representatives in the MSC auditorium. In the background is an Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) mock-up mounted in a mock-up of a Gemini spacecraft adapter equipment section. Astronauts Cernan and Thomas P. Stafford completed their three-day mission in space on June 6, 1966. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Agena Target Docking vehicle seen from Gemini 8 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-16

    S66-25778 (16 March 1966) --? The Agena Target Docking Vehicle seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s Gemini-8 spacecraft during rendezvous in space. The Agena is approximately 260 feet away from the nose of the spacecraft (lower left). Crewmen for the Gemini-8 mission are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants. Membrane perturbation and skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, João A S; Faneca, Henrique; Carvalho, Rui A; Marques, Eduardo F; Pais, Alberto A C C

    2011-01-01

    Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line), frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of ³¹P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by ³¹P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism.

  7. Dicationic Alkylammonium Bromide Gemini Surfactants. Membrane Perturbation and Skin Irritation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, João A. S.; Faneca, Henrique; Carvalho, Rui A.; Marques, Eduardo F.; Pais, Alberto A. C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line), frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of 31P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by 31P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism. PMID:22102870

  8. Press Conference - Gemini-Titan (GT)-12 - Postflight - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-23

    S66-65190 (23 Nov. 1966) --- Two key NASA officials and the Gemini-12 crew explain the Gemini-12 space mission to news media representatives at a postflight press conference in the MSC auditorium. Left to right, are Dr. Robert C. Seamans Jr., NASA Deputy Administrator; astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., command pilot; astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director. Photo credit: NASA

  9. GEMINI: Integrative Exploration of Genetic Variation and Genome Annotations

    PubMed Central

    Paila, Umadevi; Chapman, Brad A.; Kirchner, Rory; Quinlan, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    Modern DNA sequencing technologies enable geneticists to rapidly identify genetic variation among many human genomes. However, isolating the minority of variants underlying disease remains an important, yet formidable challenge for medical genetics. We have developed GEMINI (GEnome MINIng), a flexible software package for exploring all forms of human genetic variation. Unlike existing tools, GEMINI integrates genetic variation with a diverse and adaptable set of genome annotations (e.g., dbSNP, ENCODE, UCSC, ClinVar, KEGG) into a unified database to facilitate interpretation and data exploration. Whereas other methods provide an inflexible set of variant filters or prioritization methods, GEMINI allows researchers to compose complex queries based on sample genotypes, inheritance patterns, and both pre-installed and custom genome annotations. GEMINI also provides methods for ad hoc queries and data exploration, a simple programming interface for custom analyses that leverage the underlying database, and both command line and graphical tools for common analyses. We demonstrate GEMINI's utility for exploring variation in personal genomes and family based genetic studies, and illustrate its ability to scale to studies involving thousands of human samples. GEMINI is designed for reproducibility and flexibility and our goal is to provide researchers with a standard framework for medical genomics. PMID:23874191

  10. New serine-derived gemini surfactants as gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-01-01

    Gemini surfactants have been extensively used for in vitro gene delivery. Amino acid-derived gemini surfactants combine the special aggregation properties characteristic of the gemini surfactants with high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, novel serine-derived gemini surfactants, differing in alkyl chain lengths and in the linker group bridging the spacer to the headgroups (amine, amide and ester), were evaluated for their ability to mediate gene delivery either per se or in combination with helper lipids. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were characterized in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, stability in aqueous buffer and ability to protect DNA. Efficient formulations, able to transfect up to 50% of the cells without causing toxicity, were found at very low surfactant/DNA charge ratios (1/1-2/1). The most efficient complexes presented sizes suitable for intravenous administration and negative surface charge, a feature known to preclude potentially adverse interactions with serum components. This work brings forward a new family of gemini surfactants with great potential as gene delivery systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. GEMINI: integrative exploration of genetic variation and genome annotations.

    PubMed

    Paila, Umadevi; Chapman, Brad A; Kirchner, Rory; Quinlan, Aaron R

    2013-01-01

    Modern DNA sequencing technologies enable geneticists to rapidly identify genetic variation among many human genomes. However, isolating the minority of variants underlying disease remains an important, yet formidable challenge for medical genetics. We have developed GEMINI (GEnome MINIng), a flexible software package for exploring all forms of human genetic variation. Unlike existing tools, GEMINI integrates genetic variation with a diverse and adaptable set of genome annotations (e.g., dbSNP, ENCODE, UCSC, ClinVar, KEGG) into a unified database to facilitate interpretation and data exploration. Whereas other methods provide an inflexible set of variant filters or prioritization methods, GEMINI allows researchers to compose complex queries based on sample genotypes, inheritance patterns, and both pre-installed and custom genome annotations. GEMINI also provides methods for ad hoc queries and data exploration, a simple programming interface for custom analyses that leverage the underlying database, and both command line and graphical tools for common analyses. We demonstrate GEMINI's utility for exploring variation in personal genomes and family based genetic studies, and illustrate its ability to scale to studies involving thousands of human samples. GEMINI is designed for reproducibility and flexibility and our goal is to provide researchers with a standard framework for medical genomics.

  12. The Gemini Deep Planet Survey - GDPS

    SciTech Connect

    Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R; Marois, C; Nadeau, D; Oppenheimer, B R; Roche, P F; Rigaut, F; Graham, J R; Jayawardhana, R; Johnstone, D; Kalas, P G; Macintosh, B; Racine, R

    2007-06-01

    We present the results of the Gemini Deep Planet Survey, a near-infrared adaptive optics search for giant planets and brown dwarfs around nearby young stars. The observations were obtained with the Altair adaptive optics system at the Gemini North telescope and angular differential imaging was used to suppress the speckle noise of the central star. Detection limits for the 85 stars observed are presented, along with a list of all faint point sources detected around them. Typically, the observations are sensitive to angular separations beyond 0.5-inch with 5{sigma} contrast sensitivities in magnitude difference at 1.6 {micro}m of 9.6 at 0.5-inch, 12.9 at 1-inch, 15 at 2-inch, and 16.6 at 5-inch. For the typical target of the survey, a 100 Myr old K0 star located 22 pc from the Sun, the observations are sensitive enough to detect planets more massive than 2 M{sub Jup} with a projected separation in the range 40-200 AU. Depending on the age, spectral type, and distance of the target stars, the minimum mass that could be detected with our observations can be {approx}1 M{sub Jup}. Second epoch observations of 48 stars with candidates (out of 54) have confirmed that all candidates are unrelated background stars. A detailed statistical analysis of the survey results, which provide upper limits on the fractions of stars with giant planet or low mass brown dwarf companions, is presented. Assuming a planet mass distribution dn/dm {proportional_to} m{sup -1.2} and a semi-major axis distribution dn/da {proportional_to} a{sup -1}, the upper limits on the fraction of stars with at least one planet of mass 0.5-13 M{sub Jup} are 0.29 for the range 10-25 AU, 0.13 for 25-50 AU, and 0.09 for 50-250 AU, with a 95% confidence level; this result is weakly dependent on the semi-major axis distribution power-law index. Without making any assumption on the mass and semi-major axis distributions, the fraction of stars with at least one brown dwarf companion having a semi-major axis in the

  13. GEO-ENGINEERING MODELING THROUGH INTERNET INFORMATICS (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    W. Lynn Watney; John H. Doveton

    2004-05-13

    GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) is a public-domain web application focused on analysis and modeling of petroleum reservoirs and plays (http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Gemini/index.html). GEMINI creates a virtual project by ''on-the-fly'' assembly and analysis of on-line data either from the Kansas Geological Survey or uploaded from the user. GEMINI's suite of geological and engineering web applications for reservoir analysis include: (1) petrofacies-based core and log modeling using an interactive relational rock catalog and log analysis modules; (2) a well profile module; (3) interactive cross sections to display ''marked'' wireline logs; (4) deterministic gridding and mapping of petrophysical data; (5) calculation and mapping of layer volumetrics; (6) material balance calculations; (7) PVT calculator; (8) DST analyst, (9) automated hydrocarbon association navigator (KHAN) for database mining, and (10) tutorial and help functions. The Kansas Hydrocarbon Association Navigator (KHAN) utilizes petrophysical databases to estimate hydrocarbon pay or other constituent at a play- or field-scale. Databases analyzed and displayed include digital logs, core analysis and photos, DST, and production data. GEMINI accommodates distant collaborations using secure password protection and authorized access. Assembled data, analyses, charts, and maps can readily be moved to other applications. GEMINI's target audience includes small independents and consultants seeking to find, quantitatively characterize, and develop subtle and bypassed pays by leveraging the growing base of digital data resources. Participating companies involved in the testing and evaluation of GEMINI included Anadarko, BP, Conoco-Phillips, Lario, Mull, Murfin, and Pioneer Resources.

  14. Experience with a new approach for instrument software at Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Arturo; Walker, Shane; Goodsell, Stephen; Dunn, Jennifer; Gillies, Kim

    2010-07-01

    Gemini Observatory is using a new approach with instrument software that takes advantage of the strengths of our instrument builders and at the same time better supports our own operational needs. A lightweight software library in conjunction with modern agile software development methodologies is being used to ameliorate the problems encountered with the development of the first and second-generation Gemini instruments. Over the last two years, Gemini and the team constructing the software for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) have been using an agile development process to implement the Gemini Instrument Application Interface (GIAPI) and the highlevel control software for the GPI instrument. The GPI is being tested and exercised with the GIAPI, and this has allowed us to perform early end-to-end testing of the instrument software. Early in 2009 for the first time in our development history, we were able to move instrument mechanisms with Gemini software during early instrument construction. As a result of this approach, we discovered and fixed software interface issues between Gemini and GPI. Resolving these problems at this stage is simpler and less expensive than when the full instrument is completed. GPI is currently approaching its integration and testing phase, which will occur in 2010. We expect that utilizing this new approach will yield a more robust software implementation resulting in smoother instrument integration, testing, and commissioning phases. In this paper we describe the key points of our approach and results of applying the new instrument API approach together with agile development methodologies. The paper concludes with lessons learned and suggestions for adapting agile approaches in other astronomy development projects.

  15. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Barman, Travis S.; Doyon, Rene; Fabrycky, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Marois, Christian; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Song, Inseok; GPIES Team

    2017-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) is one of the largest most sensitive direct imaging searches for exoplanets conducted to date, and having observed more than 300 stars the survey is halfway complete. We present highlights from the first half of the survey, including the discovery and characterization of the young exoplanet 51 Eri b and the brown dwarf HR 2562 B, new imaging of multiple disks, and resolving the young stellar binary V343 Nor for the first time. GPI has also provided new spectra and orbits of previous known planets and brown dwarfs and polarization measurements of a wide range of disks. Finally, we discuss the constraints placed by the first half of the GPIES campaign on the population of giant planets at orbital separations beyond that of Jupiter. Supported by NSF grants AST-0909188 and AST-1313718, AST-1411868, AST 141378, NNX11AF74G, and DGE-1232825, and by NASA grants NNX15AD95G/NEXSS and NNX11AD21G.

  16. Gemini-IFU spectroscopy of HH 111

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Feitosa, J.; Plana, H.; Raga, A. C.

    2015-03-01

    We present new optical observations of the Herbig–Haro (HH) 111 jet using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph in its Integral Field Unit mode. Eight fields of 5{sup ′′}×3.{sup ′′}5 have been positioned along and across the HH 111 jet, covering the spatial region from knot E to L in HH 111 (namely, knots E, F, G, H, J, K, and L). We present images and velocity channel maps for the [O i] 6300+6360, Hα, [N ii] 6548+6583, and [S ii] 6716+6730 lines, as well as for the [S ii] 6716/6730 line ratio. We find that the HH 111 jet has an inner region with lower excitation and higher radial velocity, surrounded by a broader region of higher excitation and lower radial velocity. Also, we find higher electron densities at lower radial velocities. These results imply that the HH 111 jet has a fast, axial region with lower velocity shocks surrounded by a lower velocity sheath with higher velocity shocks.

  17. Testing of the Gemini secondary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Wolfgang

    1999-09-01

    The first 1-m secondary mirror for the Gemini 8-m telescopes project was delivered by Zeiss in 1998, and 2nd mirror will be delivered in the summer of 1999. For first use during commissioning we produced an extreme lightweight Zerodur solution prefabricated at Schott. To reach the 85 percent weight reduction a novel etching technique was used. INterferometric testing was done performing full aperture measurements using a concave matrix. In progress with the fabrication process of the matrix we applied 3D-mechanical measurements, IR-interferometry, and VIS-interferometry using null lenses to reach the final intrinsic quality of 6 nm rms. For interferometric testing of the secondaries phase shifting interferometry with a tunable laser diode was applied. The optical test results of the secondaries show, that the mirrors are well within specification. The finally achieved intrinsic surface quality is 17 nm rms for Unit 1 and 13 nm rms for Unit 2, dominated by cutting effects which were introduced by removing the oversize at the inner and outer edge of the mirror after the final polishing step.

  18. Sky Background Variability Measured on Maunakea at Gemini North Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Adam B.; Roth, Katherine; Stephens, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Gemini North has recently implemented a Quality Assessment Pipeline (QAP) that automatically reduces images in realtime to determine sky condition quantities, including background sky brightness from the optical to near-infrared. Processing archived images through the QAP and mining the results allows us to look for trends and systematic issues with the instruments and optics during the first decade of Gemini.Here we present the results of using the QAP calculated values to quantify how airglow affects the background sky brightness of images taken with Gemini's imaging instruments, GMOS and NIRI, as well as searching for other factors that may cause changes in the sky brightness. By investigating the dependence of measured sky brightness as a function of a variety of variables, including time after twilight, airmass, season, distance from the moon, air temperature, etc., we quantify the effect of sky brightness and its impact on the sensitivity of Gemini optical and near-infrared imaging data. These measurements will be used to determine new sky background relationships for Maunakea, and to improve the Gemini Integration Time Calculators (ITCs).

  19. Novel gemini cationic lipids with carbamate groups for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Qureshi, Farooq; Zhang, Shu-Biao; Cui, Shao-Hui; Wang, Bing; Chen, Hui-Ying; Lv, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Fen; Huang, Leaf

    2014-05-21

    To obtain efficient non-viral vectors, a series of Gemini cationic lipids with carbamate linkers between headgroups and hydrophobic tails were synthesized. They have the hydrocarbon chains of 12, 14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms as tails, designated as G12, G14, G16 and G18, respectively. These Gemini cationic lipids were prepared into cationic liposomes for the study of the physicochemical properties and gene delivery. The DNA-bonding ability of these Gemini cationic liposomes was much better than their mono-head counterparts (designated as M12, M14, M16 and M18, respectively). In the same series of liposomes, bonding ability declined with an increase in tail length. They were tested for their gene-transferring capabilities in Hep-2 and A549 cells. They showed higher transfection efficiency than their mono-head counterparts and were comparable or superior in transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity to the commercial liposomes, DOTAP and Lipofectamine 2000. Our results convincingly demonstrate that the gene-transferring capabilities of these cationic lipids depended on hydrocarbon chain length. Gene transfection efficiency was maximal at a chain length of 14, as G14 can silence about 80 % of luciferase in A549 cells. Cell uptake results indicate that Gemini lipid delivery systems could be internalised by cells very efficiently. Thus, the Gemini cationic lipids could be used as synthetic non-viral gene delivery carriers for further study.

  20. Gemini, a Bifunctional Enzymatic and Fluorescent Reporter of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Endy, Drew

    2009-01-01

    Background The development of collections of quantitatively characterized standard biological parts should facilitate the engineering of increasingly complex and novel biological systems. The existing enzymatic and fluorescent reporters that are used to characterize biological part functions exhibit strengths and limitations. Combining both enzymatic and fluorescence activities within a single reporter protein would provide a useful tool for biological part characterization. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe the construction and quantitative characterization of Gemini, a fusion between the β-galactosidase (β-gal) α-fragment and the N-terminus of full-length green fluorescent protein (GFP). We show that Gemini exhibits functional β-gal activity, which we assay with plates and fluorometry, and functional GFP activity, which we assay with fluorometry and microscopy. We show that the protein fusion increases the sensitivity of β-gal activity and decreases the sensitivity of GFP. Conclusions/Significance Gemini is therefore a bifunctional reporter with a wider dynamic range than the β-gal α-fragment or GFP alone. Gemini enables the characterization of gene expression, screening assays via enzymatic activity, and quantitative single-cell microscopy or FACS via fluorescence activity. The analytical flexibility afforded by Gemini will likely increase the efficiency of research, particularly for screening and characterization of libraries of standard biological parts. PMID:19888458

  1. Novel gemini cationic lipids with carbamate groups for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Qureshi, Farooq; Zhang, Shu-Biao; Cui, Shao-Hui; Wang, Bing; Chen, Hui-Ying; Lv, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Fen; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    To obtain efficient non-viral vectors, a series of Gemini cationic lipids with carbamate linkers between headgroups and hydrophobic tails were synthesized. They have the hydrocarbon chains of 12, 14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms as tails, designated as G12, G14, G16 and G18, respectively. These Gemini cationic lipids were prepared into cationic liposomes for the study of the physicochemical properties and gene delivery. The DNA-bonding ability of these Gemini cationic liposomes was much better than their mono-head counterparts (designated as M12, M14, M16 and M18, respectively). In the same series of liposomes, bonding ability declined with an increase in tail length. They were tested for their gene-transferring capabilities in Hep-2 and A549 cells. They showed higher transfection efficiency than their mono-head counterparts and were comparable or superior in transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity to the commercial liposomes, DOTAP and Lipofectamine 2000. Our results convincingly demonstrate that the gene-transferring capabilities of these cationic lipids depended on hydrocarbon chain length. Gene transfection efficiency was maximal at a chain length of 14, as G14 can silence about 80 % of luciferase in A549 cells. Cell uptake results indicate that Gemini lipid delivery systems could be internalised by cells very efficiently. Thus, the Gemini cationic lipids could be used as synthetic non-viral gene delivery carriers for further study. PMID:25045521

  2. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-8 - TRAINING - WATER EGRESS - COMMAND PILOT - GULF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-15

    S66-17153 (15 Jan. 1966) --- Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong. Gemini-8 command pilot, climbs into a boilerplate model of the Gemini spacecraft during water egress training on the Gulf of Mexico. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Gemini imidazolium surfactants: synthesis and their biophysiochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Raman; Singh, Sukhprit; Bhadani, Avinash; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-08-21

    New gemini imidazolium surfactants 9-13 have been synthesized by a regioselective epoxy ring-opening reaction under solvent-free conditions. The surface properties of these new gemini surfactants were evaluated by surface tension and conductivity measurements. These surfactants have been found to have low critical micelle concentration (cmc) values as compared to other categories of gemini cationic surfactants and also showed the tendency to form premicellar aggregates in solution at sufficiently low concentration below their cmc values. The thermal degradation of these surfactants was determined by thermograviometry analysis (TGA). These new cationic surfactants have a good DNA binding capability as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. They have also been found to have low cytotoxicity by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the C6 glioma cell line.

  4. Polyladderane Constructed from a Gemini Monomer through Photoreaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihan; Miller, Benjamin; Butz, Jonathan; Randazzo, Katelyn; Wang, Zijun D; Chu, Qianli R

    2017-09-25

    Polyladderane, the first polymer to contain the ladderane functional group, was synthesized from a gemini monomer through photoreaction in the solid state. The modular design of the gemini monomers used to create polyladderane allowed specific structural modification, resulting in the formation of two distinct polymer products. Monomers were synthesized by connecting two photoreactive units, either sorbic acids (monomer I) or 2-furanacrylic acids (monomer II), with a 1,4-butanediol linker. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the monomers confirmed that they packed in the desired head-to-tail orientation and within a viable distance for photoreaction by electronically complementary interaction. Pre-organized gemini monomers were irradiated with UV light and monitored by FT-IR. Two polyladderanes with cis,anti,cis-[3]-ladderane as a characteristic functional group were constructed stereospecifically in 24-36 hours. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 78 FR 70097 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GEMINI; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GEMINI... of the vessel GEMINI is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``S/V Gemini to be used as an Uninspected...

  6. U.S.S. Intrepid alongside Gemini 3 spacecraft after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The U.S.S. Intrepid pulls up alongside the Gemini 3 spacecraft during recovery operations following the successful Gemini-Titan 3 flight. Navy swimmers stand on the spacecraft's flotation collar waiting to hook a hoist line to the Gemini 3.

  7. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 (BREAKFAST) - ASTRONAUT YOUNG, JOHN W. - MISC. - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-42748 (18 July 1966) --- The Gemini-10 prime crew, astronauts John W. Young (left), command pilot, and Michael Collins, pilot, enjoy a breakfast of steak and eggs on the day of the Gemini-10 launch. The Gemini-10 liftoff was at 5:20 p.m. (EST), July 18, 1966. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Gemini 4 astronauts relax aboard Navy helicopter after recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 astronauts, James A. McDivitt (right), command pilot, and Edward H. White II, (left), pilot, relax aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter on their way to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after recovery from the Gemini 4 spacecraft. They had been picked up out of the Atlantic Ocean following a successful splashdown (33532); White (left) and McDivitt listen to the voice of President Lyndon B. Johnson as he congratulated them by telephone on the successful mission. They are shown aboard the carrier U.S.S. Wasp just after their recovery (33533).

  9. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  10. Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Palmer, David W; Macintosh, Bruce; Savransky, Dmitry; Sadakuni, Naru; Thomas, Sandrine; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Follette, Katherine B; Greenbaum, Alexandra Z; Ammons, S Mark; Bailey, Vanessa P; Bauman, Brian; Cardwell, Andrew; Dillon, Daren; Gavel, Donald; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Perrin, Marshall D; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Wang, Jason J

    2016-01-10

    The Gemini Planet Imager's adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. A definitive description of the system's algorithms and technologies as built is given. 564 AO telemetry measurements from the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey campaign are analyzed. The modal gain optimizer tracks changes in atmospheric conditions. Science observations show that image quality can be improved with the use of both the spatially filtered wavefront sensor and linear-quadratic-Gaussian control of vibration. The error budget indicates that for all targets and atmospheric conditions AO bandwidth error is the largest term.

  11. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  12. The Gemini Planet Imager: From Science to Design to Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B; Graham, J R; Palmer, D; Doyon, R; Dunn, J; Gavel, D; Larkin, J; Oppenheimer, B; Saddlemyer, L; Sivaramakrishnan, A; Wallace, J K; Bauman, B; Erickson, D; Marois, C; Poyneer, L; Soummer, R

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a facility instrument under construction for the 8-m Gemini South telescope. It combines a 1500 subaperture AO system using a MEMS deformable mirror, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a high-accuracy IR interferometer calibration system, and a near-infrared integral field spectrograph to allow detection and characterization of self-luminous extrasolar planets at planet/star contrast ratios of 10{sup -7}. I will discuss the evolution from science requirements through modeling to the final detailed design, provide an overview of the subsystems and show models of the instrument's predicted performance.

  13. Gemini 4 astronauts relax aboard Navy helicopter after recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 astronauts, James A. McDivitt (right), command pilot, and Edward H. White II, (left), pilot, relax aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter on their way to the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after recovery from the Gemini 4 spacecraft. They had been picked up out of the Atlantic Ocean following a successful splashdown (33532); White (left) and McDivitt listen to the voice of President Lyndon B. Johnson as he congratulated them by telephone on the successful mission. They are shown aboard the carrier U.S.S. Wasp just after their recovery (33533).

  14. Distributed user support and the Gemini Observatory help desk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Simon; Puxley, Phil J.

    2000-07-01

    The Gemini Observatory HelpDesk was activated early in 2000 to aid in the rapid and accurate resolution of queries concerning the Gemini telescopes and their capabilities. This system co- ordinates user support amongst staff within the Observatory and at National Offices in each partner country. The HelpDesk is based on a commercial product from Remedy Corporation that logs, tracks, forwards and escalates queries and self- generates a knowledgebase of previously asked questions. Timestamping of these events in the life cycle of a request and analysis of associated information provides valuable feedback on the static web content and performance of user support.

  15. Gemini Observatory base facility operations: systems engineering process and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, Andrew; Cordova, Martin; Arriagada, Gustavo; Adamson, Andy; Close, Madeline; Coulson, Dolores; Nitta, Atsuko; Nunez, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Gemini North Observatory successfully began nighttime remote operations from the Hilo Base Facility control room in November 2015. The implementation of the Gemini North Base Facility Operations (BFO) products was a great learning experience for many of our employees, including the author of this paper, the BFO Systems Engineer. In this paper we focus on the tailored Systems Engineering processes used for the project, the various software tools used in project support, and finally discuss the lessons learned from the Gemini North implementation. This experience and the lessons learned will be used both to aid our implementation of the Gemini South BFO in 2016, and in future technical projects at Gemini Observatory.

  16. Antibacterial activity and characteristics of modified ferrite powder coated with a gemini pyridinium salt molecule.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Akihiro; Maeda, Takuya; Ohkita, Motoaki; Nagamune, Hideaki; Kourai, Hiroki

    2007-09-01

    This report describes the synthesis of an antibacterial material consisting of a gemini quaternary ammonium salt (gemini-QUAT) immobilized on ferrite powder, and its antibacterial activity. A gemini-QUAT containing two pyridinium residues per molecule, 4,4'-[1,3-(2,2-dihydroxylmethyl-1,3-dithiapropane)]bis (1-octylpyridinium bromide), was immobilized on ferrite powder by a reaction between the hydroxyl group of the QUAT and trimethoxysilane. Immobilization of the gemini-QUAT on ferrite (F-gemini-QUAT) was confirmed when the dye, bromophenol blue, was released from F-gemini-QUAT-dye after contact between ferrite and the dye. Elemental analysis of the QUAT-ferrite determined the molar amount of QUAT on the ferrite. The antibacterial effect of the ferrite was investigated using a batch treatment system, and this effect was compared with that of another QUAT-ferrite (F-mono-QUAT) binding a mono-QUAT, which possesses one pyridinium residue, prepared by the same immobilization method as F-gemini-QUAT. Results indicated the F-gemini QUAT possessed a higher bactericidal potency and broader antibacterial spectrum compared to F-mono-QUAT. In addition, this study suggested that gemini-QUATs possessed high bactericidal potency without being influenced by immobilization to materials, and the antibacterial activity and characteristics of F-gemini-QUAT could be attributed to the unique structure of the immobilized gemini-QUAT.

  17. A novel type of highly effective nonionic gemini alkyl O-glucoside surfactants: a versatile strategy of design.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songbai; Sang, Ruocheng; Hong, Shan; Cai, Yujing; Wang, Hua

    2013-07-09

    A novel type of highly effective gemini alkyl glucosides has been rationally designed and synthesized. The gemini surfactants have been readily prepared by glycosylation of the gemini alkyl chains that are synthesized with regioselective ring-opening of ethylene glycol epoxides by the alkyl alcohols. The new gemini alkyl glucosides exhibit significantly better surface activity than the known results. Then rheological, DLS, and TEM studies have revealed the intriguing self-assembly behavior of the novel gemini surfactants. This study has proved the effectiveness of the design of gemini alkyl glucosides which is modular, extendable, and synthetically simple. The new gemini surfactants have great potential as nano carriers in drug and gene delivery.

  18. Classification of 3 DES supernovae by Gemini-North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2015-11-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of 3 supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (380-820nm) were obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) and superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 119), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  19. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  20. Gemini-Titan (GT)-6 - Breakfast - Prime Crew - Cape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-10-25

    S65-56159 (15 Dec. 1965) --- Astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr. (left), command pilot, and Thomas P. Stafford, pilot, look at a cartoon presented to them by the other astronauts on the morning of the scheduled Gemini-6 launch. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  1. Astronaut David Scott practicing for Gemini 8 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut David R. Scott practicing for Gemini 8 extravehicular acitivity (EVA) in bldg 4 of the Manned Spacecraft Center on the air bearing floor. He is wearing the the Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit which he will use during the EVA.

  2. GEMINI-7 - EARTH-SKY VIEW - LIMB - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-07

    S65-65257 (4-18 Dec. 1965) --- Sunrise and Earth's limb, as photographed by astronauts Frank Borman and James A. Lovell Jr. during their Earth-orbital 14-day mission in the Gemini-7 (GT-7) spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA

  3. View of food packets for the Gemini 7 space flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-10

    S65-61653 (1 Dec. 1965) --- Complete food supply for the two-man crew of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spaceflight as it appears prior to stowage in the spacecraft. The food packages are tied in sequence for 28-manned days or a complete supply for two men for a 14-day mission. Photo credit: NASA

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - EARTH - SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-01

    S66-45951 (18-21 July 1966) --- China, Fukien and Kwangtung provinces, Formosa Strait, Pescadores Island, Quemoy Island, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Taken with a J.A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Gemini 8 crew stands on deck of recovery vessel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-17

    S66-18609 (17 March 1966) --- Astronauts David R. Scott (left), Gemini-8 pilot, and Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot, stand on the deck of the destroyer USS Leonard F. Mason upon its arrival at Nahs, Okinawa. Photo credit: NASA

  6. View of the Gemini-Titan 4 spacecraft launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-29639 (3 June 1965) --- The Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) spaceflight launches from Cape Kennedy's Pad 19 at 10:16 a.m. (EST) on June 3, 1965. The GT-4 spacecraft carried astronauts James A. McDivitt, command pilot, and Edward H. White II, pilot, on a four-day, 62-revolution mission.

  7. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - EARTH - SKY - MOROCCO, SPAIN, PORTUGAL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46044 (18-21 July 1966) --- Straits of Gibraltar and Spain ? Portugal (left), Morocco (right), Atlantic Ocean (foreground), and unique vortex, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Taken with J.A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  8. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54643 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Western half of Australia, including the coastline from Perth to Port Darwin, looking west, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft at a record-high apogee of 740 nautical miles during its 26th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA

  9. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY - ETHIOPIA - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63162 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Central area of Ethiopia, south of Addis Ababa, showing Lakes Zwai, Langana, and Shala, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 14th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  10. Gemini 10 prime crew participate in Simultaneous Launch Demonstration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-12

    S66-42702 (12 July 1966) --- Gemini-10 prime crew, astronauts John W. Young (left), command pilot, and Michael Collins (right), pilot, check equipment in the White Room atop Pad 19 where they participated in a Simultaneous Launch Demonstration. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Agena Target Docking vehicle seen from Gemini 8 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-16

    S66-25774 (16 March 1966) --- The Agena Target Docking vehicle seen from the Gemini-8 spacecraft during rendezvous in space. The Agena is approximately 1,000 feet away from the nose of the spacecraft (lower left). Photo credit: NASA

  12. Gemini Series Experiment Data Reduction and Storage Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Berglin

    2011-11-01

    The presentation covers data formats expected from Gemini experiments; data quick look vs. in-depth analysis; iPDV object-oriented data storage; iPDV's traceability of analysis results; optimizing object memory usage in iPDV; and long-term archival of data objects by iPDV.

  13. Designing Scalable PGAS Communication Subsystems on Cray Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2012-12-26

    The Cray Gemini Interconnect has been recently introduced as a next generation network architecture for building multi-petaflop supercomputers. Cray XE6 systems including LANL Cielo, NERSC Hopper, ORNL Titan and proposed NCSA BlueWaters leverage the Gemini Interconnect as their primary Interconnection network. At the same time, programming models such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) models such as Unified Parallel C (UPC) and Co-Array Fortran (CAF) have become available on these systems. Global Arrays is a popular PGAS model used in a variety of application domains including hydrodynamics, chemistry and visualization. Global Arrays uses Aggregate Re- mote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) as the communication runtime system for Remote Memory Access communication. This paper presents a design, implementation and performance evaluation of scalable and high performance communication subsystems on Cray Gemini Interconnect using ARMCI. The design space is explored and time-space complexities of commu- nication protocols for one-sided communication primitives such as contiguous and uniformly non-contiguous datatypes, atomic memory operations (AMOs) and memory synchronization is presented. An implementation of the proposed design (referred as ARMCI-Gemini) demonstrates the efficacy on communication primitives, application kernels such as LU decomposition and full applications such as Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) application.

  14. Illustration of relative sizes of Mercury, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Artist concept illustrating the relative sizes of the one-man Mercury spacecraft, the two-man Gemini spacecraft, and the three-man Apollo spacecraft. Also shows line drawing of launch vehichles to show their relative size in relation to each other.

  15. Gemini photographs of the world: A complete index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    The most authoritative catalogs of photographs of all Gemini missions are assembled. Included for all photographs are JSC (Johnson Space Center) identification number, percent cloud cover, geographical area in sight, and miscellaneous information. In addition, details are given on cameras, filters, films, and other technical details.

  16. Indonesian Islands as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54692 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Indonesian Islands (partial cloud cover): Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, and Sumbawa, as photographed from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of Earth, at an altitude of 570 nautical miles. Photo credit: NASA

  17. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EARTH-SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-34776 (3-7 June 1965) --- This photograph shows the Nile Delta, Egypt, the Suez Canal, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq as seen from the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) spacecraft during its 12th revolution of Earth.

  18. Gemini high-resolution optical spectrograph conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kei; McConnachie, Alan; Anthony, André; Bohlender, David; Crampton, David; Desaulniers, Pierre; Dunn, Jennifer; Hardy, Tim; Hill, Alexis; Monin, Dmitry; Pazder, John; Schwab, Christian; Spano, Paola; Starkenburg, Else; Thibault, Simon; Walker, Gordon; Venn, Kim; Zhang, Hu

    2012-09-01

    A multiplexed moderate resolution (R = 34,000) and a single object high resolution (R = 90,000) spectroscopic facility for the entire 340 - 950nm wavelength region has been designed for Gemini. The result is a high throughput, versatile instrument that will enable precision spectroscopy for decades to come. The extended wavelength coverage for these relatively high spectral resolutions is achieved by use of an Echelle grating with VPH cross-dispersers and for the R = 90,000 mode utilization of an image slicer. The design incorporates a fast, efficient, reliable system for acquiring targets over the7 arcmin field of Gemini. This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study instrument group of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics has been commissioned by the Gemini Observatory as one of the three competing organizations to conduct a conceptual design study for a new Gemini High-Resolution Optical Spectrograph (GHOS). This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study.

  19. Remote Operations of Laser Guide Star Systems: Gemini Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, Richard J.; Fesquet, Vincent; Wyman, Robert; D'Orgeville, Celine

    2011-03-01

    The Gemini North telescope, equipped with a 14W laser, has been providing Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) regular science queue observations for worldwide astronomers since February 2007. The new 55W laser system for MCAO was installed on the Gemini South telescope in May 2010. In this paper, we comment on how Gemini Observatory developed regular remote operation of the Laser Guide Star Facility and high-power solid-state laser as routine normal operations. Fully remote operation of the LGSF from the Hilo base facility HBF was initially trialed and then optimized and became the standard operating procedure (SOP) for LGS operation in December 2008. From an engineering perspective remote operation demands stable, well characterized and base-lined equipment sets. In the effort to produce consistent, stable and controlled laser parameters (power, wavelength and beam quality) we completed a failure mode effect analysis of the laser system and sub systems that initiated a campaign of hardware upgrades and procedural improvements to the routine maintenance operations. Finally, we provide an overview of normal operation procedures during LGS runs and present a snapshot of data accumulated over several years that describes the overall LGS AO observing efficiency at the Gemini North telescope.

  20. Overhead view of the Gemini spacecraft during final inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    McDonnell Aircraft Corp, technicians can be seen making final adjustments and inspection prior to leaving the white room atop the Titan launch vehicle at Pad 19, Cape Kennedy. The Gemini-Titan 3 spacecraft is being prepared for launch.

  1. TRAINING - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - WATER EGRESS - GULF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-13

    S66-44511 (13 July 1966) --- The Gemini-11 prime crew, astronauts Richard F. Gordon Jr. (left), pilot, and Charles Conrad Jr., command pilot, relax on deck of the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever after suiting up for water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Gemini 12 crew arrives aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  3. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EARTH-SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-01

    S65-34670 (3-7 June 1965) --- Richat crater in northwest Africa taken from the Gemini-4 spacecraft. Photograph was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman color film, ASA 64, at a lens setting of 250th of a second at f/11.

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - TRAINING - GULF OF MEXICO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-20

    S65-22656 (14 April 1965) --- The Gemini-Titan 4 prime crew, astronauts Edward H. White II (left), pilot, and James A. McDivitt, command pilot, pictured aboard the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Characterizing the vibration environments of the Gemini telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, T. L.; Rippa, M.; Bonnet, H.; Cavedoni, C.; Galvez, R.; Gausachs, G.; Cho, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report the results of a multi-year program to measure the vibration characteristics of the two Gemini telescopes. Measurements with fast-guiding wavefront sensors and networks of accelerometers show a correlation between image motion and optical vibrations induced mostly by instrument cryocoolers. We have mitigated the strongest vibrations by fast-guiding compensation and active cancellation of vibration sources.

  6. Gemini-Titan (GT)-4 Foods - Documentary Use

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-07

    S65-10971 (March 1965 ) --- Food packets for use on the Gemini-3 flight including dehydrated beef pot roast, bacon and egg bites, toasted bread cubes, orange juice and a wet wipe. Water is being inserted into the pouch of dehydrated food.

  7. Illustration of relative sizes of Mercury, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Artist concept illustrating the relative sizes of the one-man Mercury spacecraft, the two-man Gemini spacecraft, and the three-man Apollo spacecraft. Also shows line drawing of launch vehichles to show their relative size in relation to each other.

  8. MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) ACTIVITY - GEMINI-12 SPLASHDOWN - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-15

    S66-64884 (15 Nov. 1966) --- Watching console activity in the Mission Control Center in Houston during the Gemini-12 splashdown (left to right), are Dr. Charles A. Berry, Director of Medical Research and Operations; astronaut John H. Glenn Jr.; James C. Elms, Director, NASA Electronics Research Center; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC) Director. Photo credit: NASA

  9. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - RECOVERY (HELICOPTER) - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-19229 (23 March 1965) --- The Gemini-Titan 3 spacecraft is shown in the water after the March 23rd four-hour and 53-minute flight. Two helicopters from the recovery ship, the USS Intrepid, hover over the scene for the pickup of the astronauts.

  10. Astronaut David Scott practicing for Gemini 8 EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-02-01

    S66-19284 (1 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut David R. Scott practicing for Gemini-8 extravehicular activity (EVA) in building 4 of the Manned Spacecraft Center on the air bearing floor. He is wearing the Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit which he will use during the EVA. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Novel fluorinated gemini surfactants with γ-butyrolactone segments.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Okada, Kazuyuki; Oida, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, novel γ-butyrolactone-type monomeric and dimeric (gemini) surfactants with a semifluoroalkyl group [Rf- (CH2)3-; Rf = C4F9, C6F13, C8F17] as the hydrophobic group were successfully synthesized. Dimethyl malonate was dimerized or connected using Br(CH2)sBr (s = 0, 1, 2, 3) to give tetraesters, and they were bis-allylated. Radical addition of fluoroalkyl using Rf-I and an initiator, i.e., 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile for C4F9 or di-t-butyl peroxide for C6F13 and C8F17, was perform at high temperature, with prolonged heating, to obtain bis(semifluoroalkyl)-dilactone diesters. These dilactone diesters were hydrolyzed using KOH/EtOH followed by decarboxylation in AcOH to afford γ-butyrolactonetype gemini surfactants. Common 1 + 1 semifluoroalkyl lactone surfactants were synthesized using the same method. Their surfactant properties [critical micelle concentration (CMC), γCMC, pC20, ΓCMC, and AG] were investigated by measuring the surface tension of the γ-hydroxybutyrate form prepared in aqueous tetrabutylammonium hydroxide solution. As expected, the CMC values of the gemini surfactants were more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of the corresponding 1 + 1 surfactants. Other properties also showed the excellent ability of the gemini structure to reduce the surface tension. These surfactants were easily and quantitatively recovered by acidification. The monomeric surfactant was recovered in the γ-hydroxybutyric acid form, and the gemini surfactant as a mixture of γ-butyrolactone and γ-hydroxybutyric acid forms.

  12. Gemini Planet Imager: Preliminary Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, B

    2007-05-10

    For the first time in history, direct and indirect detection techniques have enabled the exploration of the environments of nearby stars on scales comparable to the size of our solar system. Precision Doppler measurements have led to the discovery of the first extrasolar planets, while high-contrast imaging has revealed new classes of objects including dusty circumstellar debris disks and brown dwarfs. The ability to recover spectrophotometry for a handful of transiting exoplanets through secondary-eclipse measurements has allowed us to begin to study exoplanets as individual entities rather than points on a mass/semi-major-axis diagram and led to new models of planetary atmospheres and interiors, even though such measurements are only available at low SNR and for a handful of planets that are automatically those most modified by their parent star. These discoveries have galvanized public interest in science and technology and have led to profound new insights into the formation and evolution of planetary systems, and they have set the stage for the next steps--direct detection and characterization of extrasolar Jovian planets with instruments such as the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). As discussed in Volume 1, the ability to directly detect Jovian planets opens up new regions of extrasolar planet phase space that in turn will inform our understanding of the processes through which these systems form, while near-IR spectra will advance our understanding of planetary physics. Studies of circumstellar debris disks using GPI's polarimetric mode will trace the presence of otherwise-invisible low-mass planets and measure the build-up and destruction of planetesimals. To accomplish the science mission of GPI will require a dedicated instrument capable of achieving contrast of 10{sup -7} or more. This is vastly better than that delivered by existing astronomical AO systems. Currently achievable contrast, about 10{sup -5} at separations of 1 arc second or larger, is

  13. Astrometric Calibration of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Thomas L.; Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Hartung, Markus; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2014-12-01

    We describe the astrometric calibration of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. The Campaign requires a relative astrometric accuracy of $\\approx$ 20 mas across multi-year timescales in order to distinguish true companions from background stars by verifying common proper motion and parallax with their parent stars. The calibration consists of a correction for instrumental optical image distortion, plus on-sky imaging of astrometric fields to determine the pixel scale and image orientation. We achieve an accuracy of $\\lesssim 7$ mas between the center and edge of the 18$''$ NICI field, meeting the 20 mas requirement. Most of the Campaign data in the Gemini Science Archive are accurate to this level but we identify a number of anomalies and present methods to correct the errors.

  14. Measurements of airglow on Maunakea at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Katherine C.; Smith, Adam; Stephens, Andrew; Smirnova, Olesja

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory on Maunakea has been collecting optical and infrared science data for almost 15 years. We have begun a program to analyze imaging data from two of the original facility instruments, GMOS and NIRI, in order to measure sky brightness levels in multiple infrared and optical broad-band filters. The present work includes data from mid-2016 back through late-2008. We present measured background levels as a function of several operational quantities (e.g. moon phase, hours from twilight, season). We find that airglow is a significant contributor to background levels in several filters. Gemini is primarily a queue scheduled telescope, with observations being optimally executed in order to provide the most efficient use of telescope time. We find that while most parameters are well-understood, the atmospheric airglow remains challenging to predict. This makes it difficult to schedule observations which require dark skies in these filters, and we suggest improvements to ensure data quality.

  15. Aqueous Gemini Surfactant Self-Assembly into Complex Lyotropic Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanthappa, Mahesh; Sorenson, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    In spite of the potentially wide-ranging applications of aqueous bicontinuous lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs), the discovery of amphiphiles that reliably form these non-constant mean curvature morphologies over large phase windows remains largely serendipitous. Recent work has established that cationic gemini surfactants exhibit a pronounced tendency to form bicontinuous cubic (e.g. gyroid) phases as compared to their parent single-tail amphiphiles. The universality of this phenomenon in other surfactant systems remains untested. In this paper, we will report the aqueous LLC phase behavior of a new class of anionic gemini surfactants derived from long chain carboxylic acids. Our studies show that these new surfactants favor the formation of non-constant mean curvature gyroid and primitive (``Plumber's Nightmare'') structures over amphiphile concentration windows up to 20 wt% wide. Based on these observations, we will discuss insights gained into the delicate force balance governing the self-assembly of these surfactants into aqueous bicontinuous LLCs.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Alanine-Derived Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Compounds.

    PubMed

    Piecuch, Agata; Obłąk, Ewa; Guz-Regner, Katarzyna

    The antibacterial activity of alanine-derived gemini quaternary ammonium salts (chlorides and bromides) with various spacer and alkyl chain lengths was investigated. The studied compounds exhibited a strong bactericidal effect, especially bromides with 10 and 12 carbon alkyl chains and 3 carbon spacer groups (TMPAL-10 Br and TMPAL-12 Br), with a short contact time. Both salts dislodged biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and were lethal to adherent cells of S. epidermidis. Bromide with 2 carbon spacer groups and 12 carbon alkyl chains (TMEAL-12 Br) effectively reduced microbial adhesion by coating polystyrene and silicone surfaces. The results obtained suggest that, after further studies, gemini QAS might be considered as antimicrobial agents in medicine or industry.

  17. Observations of Beta Pictoris b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, J.; Graham, J.; Barman, T.; Fitzgerald, M.; Larkin, J.; Macintosh, B.; Bauman, B.; Burrows, A.; Cardwell, A.; De Rosa, R.; Dillon, D.; Doyon, R.; Dunn, J.; Erikson, D.; Gavel, D.; Goodsell, S.; Hartung, M.; Hibon, P.; Ingraham, P.; Kalas, P.; Konopacky, Q.; Maire, J.; Marchis, F.; Marley, M.; Mcbride, J.; Millar-Blanchaer, M.; Morzinski, K.; Norton, A.; Oppenheimer, B.; Palmer, D.; Patience, J.; Pueyo, L.; Rantakyro, F.; Sadakuni, N.; Saddlemyer, L.; Savransky, D.; Serio, A.; Soummer, R.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Song, I.; Thomas, S.; Wallace, K.; Wiktorowicz, S.; Wolff, S.

    2014-09-01

    Using the recently installed Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), we present measurements of the planetary companion to the nearby young star beta Pic. GPI is a facility class instrument located at Gemini South designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. We present the current imaged spectrum and atmospheric models of the planet based upon GPI's R ˜50 integral field spectrograph. Further, we present a joint analysis of the GPI and NACO astrometry, and the Snellen et al. (2014) radial velocity measurement of beta Pic b that provides the first constraint on the argument of periastron, providing a causal link to the infalling, evaporating bodies.

  18. The Gemini Planet Imager Coronagraph Testbed Preliminary Performance Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new science instrument being developed and slated for first light early 2011 on the twin 8m Gemini telescopes. Operating in the near infrared, this ground-based, extreme Adaptive Optics (ExAO) coronographic instrument will provide the ability to detect, characterize and analyze young (< 2GYr), self-luminous, extrasolar planets with brightness contrast ratios ≤ 10-7 when compared to their parent star. The coronagraph subsystem includes a pupil apodization, a hard-edged focal plane mask as well as a Lyot stop. Preliminary results indicate that the testbed is performing at very high contrast, having achieved broadband contrasts (H-band) below 10-6 at separations > 5λ/D. Fraunhoffer and Fresnel propagation modeling were used to analyze the testbed results.

  19. Gemini's instrumentation program: latest results and long-range plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccas, Maxime; Kleinman, S. J.; Goodsell, Stephen; Tollestrup, Eric; Adamson, Andrew; Arriagada, Gustavo; Christou, Julian; Gonzalez, Patricio; Hanna, Kevin; Hartung, Markus; Lazo, Manuel; Mason, Rachel; Neichel, Benoît; Perez, Gabriel; Simons, Doug; Walls, Brian; White, John

    2012-09-01

    The Gemini Observatory is going through an extraordinary time with astronomical instrumentation. New powerful capabilities are delivered and are soon entering scientific operations. In parallel, new instruments are being planned and designed to align the strategy with community needs and enhance the competitiveness of the Observatory for the next decade. We will give a broad overview of the instrumentation program, focusing on achievements, challenges and strategies within a scientific, technical and management perspective. In particular we will discuss the following instruments and projects (some will have dedicated detailed papers in this conference): GMOS-CCD refurbishment, FLAMINGOS-2, GeMS (MCAO system and imager GSAOI), GPI, new generation of A&G, GRACES (fiber feed to CFHT ESPaDOnS) and GHOS (Gemini High-resolution Optical Spectrograph), and provide some updates about detector controllers, mid-IR instruments, Altair, GNIRS, GLAO and future workhorse instruments.

  20. Characterizing Dusty Debris Disks with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Christine; Arriaga, Pauline; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Choquet, Elodie; Debes, John H.; Donaldson, Jessica; Draper, Zachary; Duchene, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Hinkley, Sasha; Hughes, A. Meredith; Kalas, Paul; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Lawler, Samantha; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mazoyer, Johan; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nesvold, Erika; Padgett, Deborah; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Rodigas, Timothy; Schneider, Glenn; Soummer, Remi; Song, Inseok; Stark, Chris; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Wilner, David J.

    2017-01-01

    We have been awarded 87 hours of Gemini Observatory time to obtain multi-wavelength observations of HST resolved debris disks using the Gemini Planet Imager. We have executed ~51 hours of telescope time during the 2015B-2016B semesters observing 12 nearby, young debris disks. We have been using the GPI Spec and Pol modes to better constrain the properties of the circumstellar dust, specifically, measuring the near-infrared total intensity and polarization fraction colors, and searching for solid-state spectral features of nearby beta Pic-like disks. We expect that our observations will allow us to break the degeneracy among the particle properties such as composition, size, porosity, and shape. We present some early results from our observations.

  1. Gemini surfactants mediate efficient mitochondrial gene delivery and expression.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Cardoso, Ana L; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-03-02

    Gene delivery targeting mitochondria has the potential to transform the therapeutic landscape of mitochondrial genetic diseases. Taking advantage of the nonuniversal genetic code used by mitochondria, a plasmid DNA construct able to be specifically expressed in these organelles was designed by including a codon, which codes for an amino acid only if read by the mitochondrial ribosomes. In the present work, gemini surfactants were shown to successfully deliver plasmid DNA to mitochondria. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were taken up by cells through a variety of routes, including endocytic pathways, and showed propensity for inducing membrane destabilization under acidic conditions, thus facilitating cytoplasmic release of DNA. Furthermore, the complexes interacted extensively with lipid membrane models mimicking the composition of the mitochondrial membrane, which predicts a favored interaction of the complexes with mitochondria in the intracellular environment. This work unravels new possibilities for gene therapy toward mitochondrial diseases.

  2. Astronaut Ed White - Gemini-4 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30432 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  3. Astronaut Edward White - Gemini IV Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30429 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  4. Kinetics of aqueous lubrication in the hydrophilic hydrogel Gemini interface.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alison C; Pitenis, Angela A; Urueña, Juan M; Schulze, Kyle D; Angelini, Thomas E; Sawyer, W Gregory

    2015-12-01

    The exquisite sliding interfaces in the human body share the common feature of hydrated dilute polymer mesh networks. These networks, especially when they constitute a sliding interface such as the pre-corneal tear film on the ocular interface, are described by the molecular weight of the polymer chains and a characteristic size of a minimum structural unit, the mesh size, ξ. In a Gemini interface where hydrophilic hydrogels are slid against each other, the aqueous lubrication behavior has been shown to be a function of sliding velocity, introducing a sliding timescale competing against the time scales of polymer fluctuation and relaxation at the surface. In this work, we examine two recent studies and postulate that when the Gemini interface slips faster than the single-chain relaxation time, chains must relax, suppressing the amplitude of the polymer chain thermal fluctuations.

  5. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  6. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54706 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Western half of Australia, including the coastline from Perth to Port Darwin, looking west, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of Earth. Photograph was made while the spacecraft was at a record-high apogee of 740 nautical miles. Taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Space Food Package - Gemini-Titan (GT)-4 Flight - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-01

    Food packages of beef and gravy fully reconstituted and ready to eat. An astronaut would squeeze food through opening at right side of package. Water gun is used to reconstitute dehydrated food. Scissors are used to open packages. This is the type of space food which will be used on the Gemini-Titan 4 spaceflight. MSC, Houston, TX *S65-24895 thru S65-24899

  8. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY VIEW - AUSTRALIA - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63136 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Shark Bay area on the western coast of Western Australia as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 16th revolution of Earth. City of Carnarven, where NASA has a tracking station, is located near the bottom of picture in lower left corner, near mouth of stream. Indian Ocean is body of water at upper right. South is toward top of picture. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  9. Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium: Gemini Missions III and IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    This is a compilation of papers on in-flight experiments presented at the first symposium of a series, Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The results of experiments conducted during the Gemini Missions III and IV are covered. These symposiums are to be conducted for the scientific community at regular intervals on the results of experiments carried out in conjunction with manned space flights.

  10. Gemini 8 crew stands on deck of recovery vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 8 crew stands on the deck of the recovery vessel, the U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason, with three U.S. Air Force pararescue men. Left to right (standing) are Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot; A/2C Glenn M. Moore; Astronaut David R. Scott, pilot; kneeling, left to right are A/1C Eldridge M. Neal; and S/Sgt Larry D. Huyett.

  11. Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity (IEVA) Russian and Gemini Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intra-vehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  12. Northwestern Mexico as seen from the Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Area of northwestern Mexico as seen from the Gemini 12 spacecraft during its 16th revolution of the earth. View is looking northwest. Body of water in foreground is Gulf of California. Pacific Ocean is in background. Peninsula in center of picture is Baja California. States of Sonora (upper right) and Sinaloa (lower center) of Mexican mainland is in right foreground. City of Guaymas, Sonora, is near center of picture.

  13. Early Results from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, K. C.; Jorgensen, I.; Hook, I. M.; Takamiya, M. Y.

    2001-12-01

    We present examples of early science results achieved with the newly commissioned Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on the Gemini North 8-m Telescope. GMOS provides long- and multi-slit spectroscopy and imaging over a 5.5 arcmin field of view, and these three modes were successfully commissioned during the second half of 2001. GMOS was built by a collaboration between the UK (Astronomical Technology Centre at ROE and University of Durham) and Canada (HIA). As part of System Verification (SV) we have executed several imaging, long-slit, and multi-object spectroscopic programs designed to test and demonstrate the scientific capabilities of GMOS. Two of these programs, for which we present the imaging and preliminary MOS results, target the fields around RXJ0142.0+2131 and UM224. The first program is aimed at investigating galaxy evolution through observations of a rich cluster at intermediate redshift (z=0.28) and measuring stellar populations and dynamics of the member galaxies. The goal of the second program is to measure redshifts of galaxies in the field of a high redshift QSO (z=2.08) with intervening metal-line absorption in order to identify which galaxies may be responsible for the absorption and investigate their group/clustering properties. All data obtained as part of SV will become public within a few months. We are currently in the final stages of SV observations including full commissioning of the IFU, and have begun obtaining data for the community as of November 2001. The Gemini Observatory is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: NSF (United States), PPARC (United Kingdom), NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), ARC (Australia), CNPq (Brazil) and CONICET (Argentina).

  14. Gemini surfactants affect the structure, stability, and activity of ribonuclease Sa.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Razieh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; Laurents, Douglas V

    2014-09-11

    Gemini surfactants have important advantages, e.g., low micromolar CMCs and slow millisecond monomer ↔ micelle kinetics, for membrane mimetics and for delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy or RNA silencing. However, as a prerequisite, it is important to characterize interactions occurring between Gemini surfactants and proteins. Here NMR and CD spectroscopies are employed to investigate the interactions of cationic Gemini surfactants with RNase Sa, a negatively charged ribonuclease. We find that RNase Sa binds Gemini surfactant monomers and micelles at pH values above 4 to form aggregates. Below pH 4, where the protein is positively charged, these aggregates dissolve and interactions are undetectable. Thermal denaturation experiments show that surfactant lowers RNase Sa's conformational stability, suggesting that surfactant binds the protein's denatured state preferentially. Finally, Gemini surfactants were found to bind RNA, leading to the formation of large complexes. Interestingly, Gemini surfactant binding did not prevent RNase Sa from cleaving RNA.

  15. Aggregation behavior of gemini surfactants and their interaction with macromolecules in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuchun; Wang, Yilin

    2011-02-14

    Gemini surfactants are constructed by two hydrophobic chains and two polar/ionic head groups covalently connected by a spacer group at the level of the head groups. Gemini surfactants possess unique structural variations and display special aggregate transitions. Their aggregation ability and aggregate structures can be more effectively adjusted through changing their molecular structures compared with the corresponding monomeric surfactants. Moreover, gemini surfactants exhibit special and useful properties while interacting with polymers and biomacromolecules. Their strong self-aggregation ability can be applied to effectively influence the aggregation behavior of both polymers and biomacromolecules. This short review is focused on the performances of gemini surfactants in aqueous solutions investigated in the last few years, and summarizes the effects of molecular structures on aggregation behavior of gemini surfactants in aqueous solution as well as the interaction of gemini surfactants with polymers and biomacromolecules respectively.

  16. Visible Spectroscopic Observation Of Asteroid 162173 (1999ju3) With The Gemini-s Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Seiji; Kuroda, D.; Kameda, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Kamata, S.; Abe, M.; Ishiguro, M.; Takato, N.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2012-10-01

    Asteroid 162173 (1999JU3; hereafter JU3) is the target of the Hayabusa-2 mission. Its visible reflectance spectra have been observed a few times [1,2], and obtained spectra exhibit a wide variety of spectral patterns ranging from a spectra with absorption in the UV region (May 1999) to a flat spectrum with a faint broad absorption centered around 0.6 microns (September 2007) and that with UV absorption and strong broad absorption centered around 0.7 micron (July 2007). The apparent large spectral variation may be due to variegation on the asteroid surface. Such variegation would make a large influence on remote sensing strategy for Hayabusa-2 before its sampling operations. In order to better constraint the spectral properties of JU3, we conducted visible spectroscopic observations at the GEMINI-South observatory 8.1-m telescope with the GMOS instrument. We could obtain three different sets of data in June and July 2012. Although the JU3 rotation phases of two of the observation are close to each other, the other is about 120 degrees away from the two. Our preliminary analyses indicate that these three spectra are slightly reddish but generally flat across the observed wavelength range (0.47 - 0.89 microns). The observed flat spectra are most similar to the spectrum obtained in September 2007, which probably has the highest signal-to-noise ratio among the previous three spectra. This result suggests that material with a flat spectrum probably covers a dominant proportion of the JU3 surface and that the other two types of previously obtained spectra may not cover a very large fraction of the JU3 surface. [1] Binzel, R. P. et al. (2001) Icarus, 151, 139-149; [2] Vilas, F. (2008) AJ, 135, 1101-1105.

  17. Easier Phase IIs: Recent Improvements to the Gemini User Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bryan; Nuñez, A.

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 and 2012 Gemini Observatory undertook a significant project to improve the software tools used by investigators to propose for and prepare observations. The main goal was to make the definition of observation details (the Phase II process) easier and faster. The main initiatives included rewriting the observing proposal tool (Phase I Tool) and making several major improvements to the Observing Tool, including automatic settings for arc and flat exposures, automatic guide star selection for all instruments and wavefront sensors, and more complete initial template observations with capabilities for simultaneous editing of many observations. This poster explains these major changes as well as outlines future development plans. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  18. Photometric Calibrations of Gemini Images of NGC 6253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Sean; Jeffery, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis of the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6253 using imaging data from GMOS on the Gemini-South Observatory. These data are part of a larger project to observe the effects of high metallicity on white dwarf cooling processes, especially the white dwarf cooling age, which have important implications on the processes of stellar evolution. To standardize the Gemini photometry, we have also secured imaging data of both the cluster and standard star fields using the 0.6-m SARA Observatory at CTIO. By analyzing and comparing the standard star fields of both the SARA data and the published Gemini zero-points of the standard star fields, we will calibrate the data obtained for the cluster. These calibrations are an important part of the project to obtain a standardized deep color-magnitude diagram to analyze the cluster. We present the process of verifying our standardization process. With a standardized CMD, we also present an analysis of the cluster's main sequence turn off age.

  19. Target positioning and alignment on the Astra-Gemini facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, N.; Ettlinger, O.; Neely, D.; Pattathil, R.; Sellers, A.; Symes, D.

    2013-09-01

    The drive to ever higher intensities and the move to shorter focal length reflective optics for focussing in solid target interactions are increasingly important for studies into high intensity secondary source generation, QED and high field studies. To ensure reproducible optimum interaction conditions, presents a significant problem for accurate target positioning. Commercial optical systems exist to aid the imaging and positioning of targets. However, these are often expensive and difficult to situate within the limited space usually available inside the interaction chamber. At the Astra-Gemini system of the Central Laser Facility, the push for intensities above I = 1021 Wcm-2 with f/2 and f/1 focussing optics means positioning targets within the Rayleigh range of < few microns. Here, we present details of two systems to be implemented on the Astra-Gemini system to cheaply and accurately position targets with ≈ micron accuracy. These involve:- (i) a multi-wavelength interferometer to enable sub-micron accuracy in the positioning of the front surface at the interaction point within the Rayleigh range and (ii) a small, low cost near field/far field microscope with illumination at 800nm (the same as the Gemini IR beam) for imaging the rear of the target and the focal plane with high resolution. The combination of these two systems significantly improves our accuracy in target positioning and also results in a decrease in the time required to align targets between shots.

  20. Slab laser development at MSNW - The Gemini and Centurion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, J. M.; Albrecht, G. F.

    Two, zig-zag-optical-path, slab-geometry, solid-state lasers, referred to as Gemini and Centurion, are described. The Nd:glass laser (Gemini) uses a pump geometry in which the flash lamps are located between two slabs in the same laser head. The dimensions and functions of the glass slabs are studied and the single-sided pumping of the Nd:glass laser is examined. The system is verified using the Nd:YAG laser system (Centurion). The Centurion system uses four flash lamps to pump a single 6 mm x 2 cm x 15.5 cm Nd:YAG slab; the reflector structure of the system is analyzed. The thermal-optical model for the Nd:glass laser and the Trace 3D, a three-dimensional flashlamp-slab coupling code, are evaluated. The oscillation performance and defocusing of a single-pass beam are measured; it is observed that the single-sided pump output is 30 percent more efficient than the standard configuration and no major defocusing effect is detected. The use of the Trace 3D code to design a reflector system for Gemini is discussed.

  1. On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    Gemini was the intermediate manned space flight program between America's first steps into space with Mercury and the manned lunar expeditions of Apollo. Because of its position between these two other efforts, Gemini is probably less remembered. Still, it more than had its place in man's progress into this new frontier. Gemini accomplishments were manyfold. They included many firsts: first astronaut-controlled maneuvering in space; first rendezvous in space of one spacecraft with another; first docking of one spacecraft with a propulsive stage and use of that stage to transfer man to high altitude; first traverse of man into the earth's radiation belts; first extended manned flights of a week or more in duration; first extended stays of man outside his spacecraft; first controlled reentry and precision landing; and many more. These achievements were significant in ways one cannot truly evaluate even today, but two things stand out: (1) it was the time when America caught up and surpassed the Soviet Union in manned space flight, and (2) these demonstrations of capability were an absolute prerequisite to the phenomenal Apollo accomplishments then yet to come.

  2. A Virtual Field Trip to the Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. Scott; Michaud, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Live from Gemini (LfG) is a virtual field trip using video conferencing technology to connect primary, secondary and post-secondary students with scientists and educators at the Gemini Observatory. As a pilot project, LfG is rapidly becoming one of the observatory's most often-requested educational programs for learners of all ages. The program aligns exceptionally well with national science (and technology) standards, as well as existing school curricula. This combination makes it easy for teachers to justify participation in the program, especially as the necessary video conferencing technology becomes ever more ubiquitous in classrooms and technology learning centers around the world. In developing and testing this pilot project, a programmatic approach and philosophy evolved that includes post-field-trip educational materials, multi-disciplinary subject matter (astronomy, geology, mathematics, meteorology, engineering and even language - the program is offered in Spanish from Gemini South in Chile), and the establishment of a personal connection and rapport with students. The presenters work to create a comfortable interaction despite the perceived technological barriers. The authors’ experiences with the LfG pilot project convince us that this model is viable for almost any astronomical observatory and should be considered by any dynamic, technology- and education-oriented facility.

  3. Gemini 9-A spacecraft touches down in the Atlantic at end of mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gemini 9-A space flight is concluded as the Gemini 9 spacecraft touches down in the Atlantic. In this view its parachute is still deployed as the spacecraft hits the water (34117); Astronauts Thomas Stafford (right) and Eugene Cernan wave to the crowd aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp as they emerge from their Gemini 9 capsule. John C. Stonesifer (far right), with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, was on board to greet the astronauts (34118).

  4. Gemini 9-A spacecraft touches down in the Atlantic at end of mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gemini 9-A space flight is concluded as the Gemini 9 spacecraft touches down in the Atlantic. In this view its parachute is still deployed as the spacecraft hits the water (34117); Astronauts Thomas Stafford (right) and Eugene Cernan wave to the crowd aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp as they emerge from their Gemini 9 capsule. John C. Stonesifer (far right), with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, was on board to greet the astronauts (34118).

  5. Gemini 7 prime crew during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, talks with NASA space suit technician Clyde Teague during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16, Kennedy Space Center. Lovell wears the new lightweight space suit planned for use during the Gemini 7 mission (61756); Astronaut Frank Borman, comand pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, undergoes suiting up operations in Launch Complex 16 during prelaunch countdown. Medical biosensors are attached to his scalp (61757).

  6. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - EARTH-SKY - AUGMENTED TARGET DOCKING ADAPTER (ATDA) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-37923 (3 June 1966) --- The Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) as seen from the Gemini-9 spacecraft during one of their three rendezvous in space. The ATDA and Gemini-9 spacecraft are 66.5 feet apart. Failure of the docking adapter protective cover to fully separate on the ATDA prevented the docking of the two spacecraft. The ATDA was described by the Gemini-9 crew as an "angry alligator." Photo credit: NASA

  7. Novel Synthesis of Anionic Gemini Surfactants from 1, 4-Diol as a Key Block Material.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Nakagawa, Mami; Higuchi, Yuuya; Oida, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a series of all-hydrocarbon anionic gemini surfactants containing COOH (adipic acid-type and suberic acid-type), SO3Na, OSO3Na, and OP=O(OH)2 functional groups was developed from 1,4-diol and 1,4-diketone as a key block material. The effect of the surfactant head groups on the surface properties was investigated by surface tension and surface pressure-area (π-A) measurements. We found that the critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the studied geminis were smaller by one order of magnitude than those of the corresponding 1+l-type surfactants. From π-A measurements, the limiting areas of COOH-type geminis were less than twofold of the area of the corresponding 1+1-type, which indicates that the gemini structure enabled tighter packing than is possible in surfactants of the 1+l-type. In contrast, the limiting area of the OP=O(OH)2-type gemini was larger than those of the COOH-type geminis. Furthermore, the suberic acid-type gemini showed a smaller limiting area than that of adipic acid-type gemini. Therefore, we can conclude that the flexibility of the gemini at the connecting position has a significant effect on formation of the monolayer at the air/water interface.

  8. Impact of phospholipids on plasmid packaging and toxicity of gemini nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chilbert; Badea, Ildiko; Poorghorban, Masoomeh; Verrall, Ronald; Foldvari, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship of structural modifications on the assembly and disassembly of synthetic or non-viral gene delivery is crucial with regard to their rational development. This study describes the use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), as a new tool, to investigate the effect of systematic chemical modifications to dicationic N,N-bis(dimethylalkyl)-α,ω-alkanediammonium surfactants (gemini surfactants) on the self-assembly and physical properties of a series of gemini nanoparticles (gemini NPs). A systematic screening of 27 gemini-plasmid (GP) complexes and gemini NPs showed that their final morphology is governed by the pre-compaction of plasmid by the gemini surfactants. The assembly process of gemini-plasmid intermediate complex (GP) and the final gemini NP (or gemini-plasmid-lipid complex, GPL) was monitored by the tracking of the Cy5-labeled plasmid. Based on diffusion properties, GP complexes were larger than gemini NPs (300–500 nm for GP and 200–300 nm for GPLs). Stoichiometric analysis of the raw intensity histograms showed that both GPs and GPLs particles were composed of multiple plasmids. The final GPLs contain fewer plasmids (2–20 per particle) compared to the intermediate GP (5–35 per particle). The addition of phospholipids dispersed and stabilized GPs to form GPL, but the type of phospholipid (DOPE or DD 1:3) had little effect on the final size of the particles. The FCS data were both validated and complemented by the results of studies of dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray scattering and dye-exclusion assays. A model for gemini NP assembly involving supramolecular aggregate intermediates is proposed. PMID:26693021

  9. Impact of phospholipids on plasmid packaging and toxicity of gemini nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chilbert; Badea, Ildiko; Poorghorban, Masoomeh; Verrall, Ronald; Foldvari, Marianna

    2015-12-07

    Understanding the relationship of structural modifications on the assembly and disassembly of synthetic or non-viral gene delivery is crucial with regard to their rational development. This study describes the use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), as a new tool, to investigate the effect of systematic chemical modifications to dicationic N,N-bis(dimethylalkyl)-α,ω-alkanediammonium surfactants (gemini surfactants) on the self-assembly and physical properties of a series of gemini nanoparticles (gemini NPs). A systematic screening of 27 gemini-plasmid (GP) complexes and gemini NPs showed that their final morphology is governed by the pre-compaction of plasmid by the gemini surfactants. The assembly process of gemini-plasmid intermediate complex (GP) and the final gemini NP (or gemini-plasmid-lipid complex, GPL) was monitored by the tracking of the Cy5-labeled plasmid. Based on diffusion properties, GP complexes were larger than gemini NPs (300-500 nm for GP and 200-300 nm for GPLs). Stoichiometric analysis of the raw intensity histograms showed that both GPs and GPLs particles were composed of multiple plasmids. The final GPLs contain fewer plasmids (2-20 per particle) compared to the intermediate GP (5-35 per particle). The addition of phospholipids dispersed and stabilized GPs to form GPL, but the type of phospholipid (DOPE or DD 1:3) had little effect on the final size of the particles. The FCS data were both validated and complemented by the results of studies of dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray scattering and dye-exclusion assays. A model for gemini NP assembly involving supramolecular aggregate intermediates is proposed.

  10. Synergistic adsorption of mixtures of cationic gemini and nonionic sugar-based surfactant on silica.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiong; Somasundaran, P

    2009-03-15

    Adsorption behavior of cationic C(12)-C(4)-C(12) gemini surfactant on silica has been investigated, along with that of nonionic surfactant n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DM). While DM alone shows meager adsorption on silica, because of the lack of any electrostatic adsorption, cationic gemini adsorbs significantly on the oppositely charged silica surface. Due to the electrostatic nature of cationic gemini adsorption on silica, solution pH affects adsorption of C(12)-C(4)-C(12) gemini dramatically. Meanwhile, C(12)-C(4)-C(12) gemini hemimicelle size at silica/water interface does not seem to change with solution pH. For the mixtures of DM and cationic C(12)-C(4)-C(12) gemini, there is a sharp increase of DM adsorption at silica/water interface, up to 100 times more than DM alone. After mixing with DM, saturation adsorption of cationic C(12)-C(4)-C(12) gemini decreases, due to competition for adsorption sites from DM. At the same time, in its mixture with DM, there is an increased adsorption of C(12)-C(4)-C(12) gemini in the rising part of the adsorption isotherm. Hydrophobic chain-chain interactions, especially with two hydrophobic chains in one C(12)-C(4)-C(12) gemini molecule, and adsorbed C(12)-C(4)-C(12) gemini molecule acting as an anchor or nucleation sites for forming mixed aggregates with DM on silica surface, are attributed to the marked adsorption synergy between DM and cationic C(12)-C(4)-C(12) gemini. The adsorption of surfactants and their mixtures has a marked effect on silica surface charge and silica's wettability.

  11. Gemini Model in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-09-21

    A researcher at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center examines a small-scale model of the Gemini capsule in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel test section. Gemini was added to NASA’s manned space program after its predecessor, Mercury, and its antecedent, Apollo, were already established. Gemini was a transitional mission designed provide the astronauts with practice docking with other spacecraft and withstanding durations in space up to two weeks. The program was officially announced on December 7, 1961, but planning began in mid-1959. It was named Gemini after the zodiac twins because of the spacecraft’s two passenger capacity. The Gemini Program was the first program to start at the new Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, now the Johnson Space Center. Unlike Mercury and Apollo, Lewis had very little involvement with the Gemini Program. This model was tested in the 10- by 10 tunnel for several weeks in September 1962. Lewis began managing the Agena second-stage rocket program shortly after this photograph was taken. Agenas were used to launch a variety of spacecraft and satellites in the 1960s. They were also used on several Gemini missions to provide targets for the astronauts to practice their rendezvous maneuvers. Gemini had two unmanned and ten manned flights in 1965 and 1966. These yielded the first spacewalks, long-duration space missions, first onboard computer, docking with a second spacecraft, and rendezvous maneuvers.

  12. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-19

    S66-27376 (19 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, practices with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit during tests in Chamber B, Environmental Test Laboratory, Building 32. The AMU consists of a chest pack and a backpack. It is scheduled for use during Gemini-9 extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  13. Gemini 8 spacecraft hoisted aboard the U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 8 spacecraft, with Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and David R. Scott still aboard, is hoisted aboard the destroyer U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason. Trouble with the Gemini 8 Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) forced an early termination of the mission.

  14. Overall view of Mission Control Center, Houston, Tx during Gemini 5

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-21

    S65-45280 (21-29 Aug. 1965) --- Overall view of the Mission Control Center (MCC), Houston, Texas, during the Gemini-5 flight. Note the screen at the front of the MCC which is used to track the progress of the Gemini spacecraft.

  15. Gemini amphiphiles regulated photopolymerization of diacetylene acid in organized molecular films.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ling; Jiao, Tifeng; Liu, Minghua

    2009-07-02

    In this paper, we have investigated the photopolymerization of an amphiphilic diacetylene, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA), in organized molecular films in the presence of a series of gemini amphiphiles with different spacer lengths. It has been found that, when gemini amphiphiles were mixed with the diacetylene, the film-forming properties were greatly improved and the photopolymerization could be regulated by the gemini amphiphiles. Miscibility and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) investigations revealed that the polymerization of PCDA in a mixed film was regulated by the mixing ratio and spacer length of the gemini amphiphiles. Although a slight amount of gemini amphiphile did not make the PCDA polymerize into blue films, the increment of the gemini amphiphile with the short spacer length in the mixed film caused the formation of a red film, and the intensity of red phase to blue phase can be modulated by changing the mixing ratios. When gemini amphiphiles with longer spacer lengths were mixed, blue films were predominantly obtained in all mixing ratios. A mechanism including the interaction between the headgroup of the gemini amphiphiles and the diacetylene and the regulation of the spacer was proposed.

  16. Adsorptive removal of naphthalene induced by structurally different Gemini surfactants in a soil-water system.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jia; Li, Jun; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiujie; Chen, Guanghui; Zhao, Baihang

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of surfactant, Gemini surfactants, have been synthesized and have attracted the attention of various industrial and academic research groups. This study focused on the use of symmetric and dissymmetric quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactants to immobilize naphthalene onto soil particles, and is used as an example of an innovative application to remove HOC in situ using the surfactant-enhanced sorption zone. The sorption capacity of modified soils by Gemini surfactant and natural soils was compared and the naphthalene sorption efficiency, in the absence and presence of Gemini surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths, was investigated in the soil-water system. The results have shown that the increased added Gemini surfactant formed admicelles at the interface of soil/water having superior capability to retard contaminant. Symmetric and dissymmetric Gemini surfactants have opposite effect on the aspect of removing of PAH attributing to their solubilization and sorption behavior in soil-water system. Compared with the natural soil, sorption of naphthalene by Gemini-modified soil is noticeably enhanced following the order of C12-2-16 < C12-2-12 < C12-2-8. However, the symmetric Gemini surfactant C12-2-12 is the optimized one for in situ barrier remediation, which is not only has relative high retention ability but also low dosage.

  17. Gemini 8 spacecraft hoisted aboard the U.S.S. Leonard F. Mason

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-16

    S66-26037 (16 March 1966) --- The Gemini-8 spacecraft, with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and David R. Scott still aboard, is hoisted aboard the destroyer USS Leonard F. Mason. Trouble with the Gemini-8 Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) forced an early termination of the mission. Photo credit: NASA

  18. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-8 - RECOVERY - SPACECRAFT (S/C) HOISTED ABOARD - PACIFIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-16

    S66-18613 (16 March 1966) --- The Gemini-8 spacecraft, with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and David R. Scott still aboard, is hoisted aboard the destroyer USS Leonard F. Mason. Trouble with the Gemini-8 Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) forced an early termination of the mission. Photo credit: NASA

  19. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EARTH SKY - NORTHERN SONORA, MEXICO - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-62794 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Northern portion of Sonora, Mexico; southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its 30th revolution of Earth. Includes the Tucson, Phoenix, Mogollon Rim, and Painted Desert areas. A 100-foot tether line connects the Agena Target Docking Vehicle with the Gemini-12 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA.

  20. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EDWARD A. CERNAN - MISCELLANEOUS - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-03

    S66-34069 (3 June 1966) --- Gemini-9A prime crew enjoy a breakfast of steak and eggs on the morning of the Gemini-9A launch. Left to right, are astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot; Donald K. Slayton, MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; Charles Buckley, KSC Security; and astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, command pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Organizational transformation to improve operational efficiency at Gemini South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoeven, M.; Maltes, Diego; Rogers, Rolando

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we will describe how the Gemini South Engineering team has been reorganized from different functional units into a cross-disciplinary team while executing a transition plan that imposes several staff reductions, driven by budget reductions. Several factors are of critical importance to the success of any change in organization. Budgetary processes, staff diversity, leadership style, skill sets and planning are all important factors to take into account to achieve a successful outcome. We will analyze the organizational alignment by using some proven management models and concepts.

  2. Gemini-Titan (GT)-3 - Prelaunch Activities - Cape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-21093 (23 March 1965) --- Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom (facing camera at right), command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 flight, is shown during a steak breakfast which he was served about two hours prior to the 9:24 a.m. (EST) GT-3 launch on March 23, 1965. Pictured in the foreground are Donald K. Slayton (right), assistant director for Flight Crew Operations; and Walter Burke, general manager of McDonnell Aircraft Corporation Spacecraft and Missiles. Pictured in the background are astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. (left) and Walter C. Williams, former deputy director of the Manned Spacecraft Center, now with a private aerospace firm.

  3. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH - SKY - DOCKING - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46144 (18 July 1966) --- The Gemini-10 spacecraft is successfully docked with the Agena Target Docking Vehicle 5005. The Agena display panel is clearly visible. After docking with the Agena, astronauts John W. Young, command pilot, and Michael Collins, pilot, fired the 16,000-pound thrust engine of Agena-10's primary propulsion system to boost the combined vehicles into an orbit with an apogee of 413 nautical miles to set a new altitude record for manned spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Post-Coronagraph Wavefront Sensor for Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; Shelton, Chris; Bartos, Randall; Fregoso, Felipe; Nemati, Bijan; Best, Paul; Angione, John

    2009-01-01

    The calibration wavefront system for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) will measure the complex wavefront at the apodized pupil and provide slow phase errors to the AO system to mitigate against image plane speckles that would cause a loss in contrast. This talk describes both the low-order and high-order sensors in the calibration wavefront sensor and how the information is combined to form the wavefront estimate before the coronagraph. We will show laboratory results from our calibration testbed that demonstrate the subsystem performance at levels commensurate with those required on the final instrument.

  5. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - EARTH-SKY VIEWS - CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-18741 (23 March 1965) --- Astronaut John W. Young took this picture during the Gemini-Titan 3 three-orbit mission as the spacecraft "Molly Brown" passed over Northern Mexico. The large light-brown area is the Sonoran Desert. The Colorado River runs from upper right to lower left. The lower portion of the picture is Mexico, the upper left is California, and the upper right is Arizona. The altitude of the spacecraft was 90 miles. Young used a hand-held modified 70mm Hasselblad camera with color film. The lens setting was 250th of a second at f/11.

  6. Agena Target Docking Vehicle photographed from Gemini 10 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46124 (18 July 1966) --- Agena Target Docking Vehicle 5005 is photographed from the Gemini-10 spacecraft during rendezvous in space. The two spacecraft are about 41 feet apart. After docking with the Agena, astronauts John W. Young, command pilot, and Michael Collins, pilot, fired the 16,000-pound thrust engine of Agena-10's primary propulsion system to boost the combined vehicles into an orbit with an apogee of 413 nautical miles to set a new altitude record for manned spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Gemini all-sky camera for laser guide star operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec, Matthieu; Rigaut, Francois J.; Trancho, Gelys; Boccas, Maxime; Collao, Fabian; Daruich, Felipe; d'Orgeville, Céline; Lazo, Manuel; Maltes, Diego; Perez, Gabriel; Vergara, Vicente; Vucina, Tomislav; Sheehan, Michael P.

    2008-07-01

    As part of its Safe Aircraft Localization and Satellite Acquisition System (SALSA), Gemini is building an All Sky Camera (ASCAM) system to detect aircrafts in order to prevent propagation of the laser that could be a safety hazard for pilots and passengers. ASCAM detections, including trajectory parameters, are made available to neighbor observatories so they may compute impact parameters given their location. We present in this paper an overview of the system architecture, a description of the software solution and detection algorithm, some performance and on-sky result.

  8. Post-Coronagraph Wavefront Sensor for Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; Shelton, Chris; Bartos, Randall; Fregoso, Felipe; Nemati, Bijan; Best, Paul; Angione, John

    2009-01-01

    The calibration wavefront system for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) will measure the complex wavefront at the apodized pupil and provide slow phase errors to the AO system to mitigate against image plane speckles that would cause a loss in contrast. This talk describes both the low-order and high-order sensors in the calibration wavefront sensor and how the information is combined to form the wavefront estimate before the coronagraph. We will show laboratory results from our calibration testbed that demonstrate the subsystem performance at levels commensurate with those required on the final instrument.

  9. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - EARTH SKY - RENDEZVOUS - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46122 (18 July 1966) --- Agena Target Docking Vehicle 5005 is photographed from the Gemini-Titan 10 (GT-10) spacecraft during rendezvous in space. The two spacecraft are about 38 feet apart. After docking with the Agena, astronauts John W. Young, command pilot, and Michael Collins, pilot, fired the 16,000 pound thrust engine of Agena X's primary propulsion system to boost the combined vehicles into an orbit with an apogee of 413 nautical miles to set a new altitude record for manned spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EARTH-SKY VIEW

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-01

    S65-34661 (3-7 June 1965) --- Among the photographs of Earth's terrain taken from the Gemini-4 spacecraft during its orbital mission was this view of the southeastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula with the Gulf of Oman at upper right. Seif dunes (sand) at lower left. This picture was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman color film, ASA 64 at a setting of 250th of a second at f/11. Dr. Paul Lowman Jr., NASA geologist, was in charge of the Synoptic Terrain Photography.

  11. GEMINI-9 - EARTH SKY - NORTHWESTERN MEXICO, BAJA CALIFORNIA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38070 (5 June 1966) --- Northwestern Mexico as seen from the Gemini-9A spacecraft during its 32nd revolution of Earth. The large penisula is Baja California. The body of water at lower right is the Pacific Ocean. The land mass at upper left is the State of Sonora. The Gulf of California separates Sonora from the peninsula. The nose of the spacecraft is at left; and at right is the open hatch of the spacecraft. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, took this picture with his modified 70mm Hasselblad EVA camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  12. PRESS CONFERENCE - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - FL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-25

    S65-20864 (25 March 1965) --- News conference held at the Carriage House press site the day after the successful Gemini-Titan 3 three-orbit mission. Being interviewed at the press table by news media are (left to right) Dr. Kurt H. Debus, director of Kennedy Space Center; Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC assistant director for Flight Operations; astronaut John W. Young, pilot of the GT-3 flight; astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot of the GT-3 mission; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC director; Dr. Robert C. Seamans, NASA associate administrator; and Julian Scheer, assistant administrator, Office Of Public Affairs, NASA.

  13. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - HIGH APOGEE - EARTH SKY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54530 --- Libyan Desert area of Sudan, foreground, and the United Arab Republic (Egypt), at lower left, as seen from the orbiting Gemini-11 spacecraft at an altitude of 300 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of Earth. In view is the Nile River from Biba in Egypt to Khartoum in the Sudan. The Red Sea is in the background. At upper left is the Arabian Peninsula. At top right is Ethiopia. Note L-band antenna of the Agena Target Vehicle. Taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT-11) - EARTH SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54677 (14 Sept. 1966) --- India and Ceylon as seen from the orbiting Gemini-11 spacecraft at an altitude of 410 nautical miles during its 26th revolution of Earth. The Indian Ocean is at bottom of picture; at left center is Arabian Sea; and at upper right is Bay of Bengal. The Maldives Islands are near nose of spacecraft. Taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS. (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Participación argentina en el Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.; Faifer, F. R.; Smith-Castelli, A. V.; Ferreiro, D.; Ferrero, G.

    Since the beginning of the present century; Argentina has access to two twin telescopes each 8.1m in diameter. The Observatory covers both celestial hemispheres; and is equipped with modern instrumentation spanning from the optical to the mid-infrared. This paper gives a brief description of present instruments as well as those available in the near future; pointing to their possible impact on different research lines. The present situation of the Argentine participation in Gemini is illustrated with a few relevant statistical data; focusing the attention on the new agreement that should be signed by all the partners in 2015. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. Sharing the skies: the Gemini Observatory international time allocation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheim, Steven J.

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory serves a diverse community of four partner countries (United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina), two hosts (Chile and University of Hawaii), and limited-term partnerships (currently Australia and the Republic of Korea). Observing time is available via multiple opportunities including Large and Long Pro- grams, Fast-turnaround programs, and regular semester queue programs. The slate of programs for observation each semester must be created by merging programs from these multiple, conflicting sources. This paper de- scribes the time allocation process used to schedule the overall science program for the semester, with emphasis on the International Time Allocation Committee and the software applications used.

  17. 75 FR 14644 - Gemini Investors IV, L.P., Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Gemini Investors IV, L.P., Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Gemini Investors IV, L.P., 20 William... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). Gemini Investors IV, L.P...

  18. Vedolizumab for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: results and implications of GEMINI studies.

    PubMed

    Lam, Mindy Cw; Bressler, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Vedolizumab (VDZ) is a selective antibody against α4β7-integrin, which targets leukocyte trafficking in the gastrointestinal tract. The GEMINI studies are Phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials to assess the efficacy of VDZ in induction and maintenance of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (GEMINI 1) and Crohn's disease (GEMINI 2). Included in these studies are patients who have failed TNF-α antagonist therapy. GEMINI 1 showed that VDZ is an effective agent in induction and maintenance of ulcerative colitis. GEMINI 2 met one of two primary end points in the induction phase showing that VDZ is more likely to induce clinical remission compared with placebo. VDZ is an effective agent in the maintenance of Crohn's disease. These studies pave the way to a new class of medications for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  19. Science with OCTOCAM: a new workhorse instrument proposed for Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thöne, Christina C.; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; van der Horst, Alexander; Roming, Pete

    2016-08-01

    OCTOCAM is an 8-channel VIS-IR (g to K-band) simultaneous imager and medium-resolution spectrograph proposed as new workhorse instrument for the 8m Gemini telescopes. It also offers additional observing modes of high time resolution, integral-field spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry, making it a very versatile instrument for many science cases in the 2020ies. A special focus of OCTOCAM will be the detection and follow-up of transient sources such as gamma-ray bursts, supernovae, magnetars, active galactic nuclei and yet to be discovered new objects, delivered by large-scale surveys like LSST available in the 2020ies. The diverse nature of transients will require the full range of OCTOCAM capabilities allowing more information in very short time about the source than with any other current instrument and adaptable almost in real time. Another main science topic will be to probe the high redshift Universe and the first stars for which OCTOCAM will be highly suited due to its wide wavelength coverage and high sensitivity. However, OCTOCAM is also suited for a large range of other science cases including transneptunian objects, exoplanets, stellar evolution and supermassive black holes. Our science team comprises more than 50 researchers reflecting the large interest of the Gemini community in the capabilities of OCTOCAM. We will highlight a few important science cases demonstrating the different capabilities of OCTOCAM and their need for the scientific community.

  20. Optical contamination evidence from Skylab and Gemini flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.; Westcott, P.

    1975-01-01

    Final results from a part of the T027 experiment performed on the first Skylab mission are presented. The sample array system containing 248 optical surfaces and exposed outside the orbital workshop did not collect any significant contaminants. Unfortunate performance compromises and the relative cleanliness of the assembly on the antisolar side placed the amount of available surface contaminants at or below the limiting sensitivity of the ground measuring instruments. Significant contamination was seen near the extravehicular hatch quadrant on the solar side of the orbiting assembly, and some results from returned samples are presented. Optical windows and mirrors exposed on the Gemini 12 mission showed degradation up to 35% in the UV wavelength region and solar absorptance increases up to 1.8 times the clean values. An expression for the attenuation coefficient vs wavelength is presented. The contaminant, a silicone base material, varied in thickness from 22 nm to 88 nm. The postflight scattered luminance of a contaminated Gemini 12 left-hand spacecraft hatch window was used to obtain threshold stellar visibility curves as a function of scattered and incident sunlight angles.

  1. Optical contamination evidence from Skylab and Gemini flights.

    PubMed

    Muscari, J A; Westcott, P

    1975-12-01

    Final results from a part of the T027 experiment that was performed on the first Skylab mission are presented. The sample array system containing 248 optical surfaces and exposed outside the orbital workshop did not collect any significant contaminants. Unfortunate performance compromises and the relative cleanliness of the assembly on the antisolar side placed the amount of available surface contaminants at or below the limiting sensitivity of the ground measuring instruments. However, significant contamination was seen near the extravehicular hatch quadrant on the solar side of the orbiting assembly, and some results from returned samples are presented. Optical windows and mirrors exposed on the Gemini 12 mission showed degradation up to 35% in the uv wavelength region and solar absorptance increases up to 1.8 times the clean values. An expression for the attenuation coefficient vs wavelength is presented. The contaminant, a silicone base material, varied in thickness from 22 nm to 88 nm. The postflight sca ttered luminance of a contaminated Gemini 12 left-hand spacecraft hatch window was used to obtain threshold stellar visibility curves as a function of scattered and incident sunlight angles.

  2. Gemini North Laser Guide Star System: operations and maintenance review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, Richard J.; Fesquet, Vincent; Wyman, Robert; d'Orgeville, Celine

    2010-07-01

    The Gemini North telescope has been providing Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) regular science queue observations for worldwide astronomers since February 2007. In this paper we comment on the reliability of the Laser Guide Star Facility high-power solid-state laser during normal operations, and discuss progress made on various issues that will enable a "turn-key" operation mode for the laser system. In this effort to produce consistent, stable and controlled laser parameters (power, wavelength and beam quality) we completed a failure mode effect analysis of the laser system and sub systems that initiated a campaign of hardware upgrades and procedural improvements to the routine maintenance operations. These upgrades are discussed, including pump laser diode replacements, as well as sum frequency generation (SFG) crystal degradation along with our detailed plans to improve overall laser reliability, and availability. Finally, we provide an overview of normal operation procedures during LGS runs and present a snapshot of data accumulated over several years that describes the overall LGS AO observing efficiency at the Gemini North telescope.

  3. Optical contamination evidence from Skylab and Gemini flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscari, J. A.; Westcott, P.

    1975-01-01

    Final results from a part of the T027 experiment performed on the first Skylab mission are presented. The sample array system containing 248 optical surfaces and exposed outside the orbital workshop did not collect any significant contaminants. Unfortunate performance compromises and the relative cleanliness of the assembly on the antisolar side placed the amount of available surface contaminants at or below the limiting sensitivity of the ground measuring instruments. Significant contamination was seen near the extravehicular hatch quadrant on the solar side of the orbiting assembly, and some results from returned samples are presented. Optical windows and mirrors exposed on the Gemini 12 mission showed degradation up to 35% in the UV wavelength region and solar absorptance increases up to 1.8 times the clean values. An expression for the attenuation coefficient vs wavelength is presented. The contaminant, a silicone base material, varied in thickness from 22 nm to 88 nm. The postflight scattered luminance of a contaminated Gemini 12 left-hand spacecraft hatch window was used to obtain threshold stellar visibility curves as a function of scattered and incident sunlight angles.

  4. Searching for “First Light” with the Gemini telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Joseph B.

    2006-03-01

    Astronomers from across the Gemini partnership have embarked on an ambitious mission to discover the first stars and forming galaxies during the epoch of reionization (6 < z < 15). Observers are using new techniques and technologies to make this dream a reality. In this article I provide an overview of a few of these programs, focusing primarily on experiments searching for objects with redshifts z > 7, which must be observed and studied at near-IR wavelengths (1-2.5 μm). Programs currently in progress include searches for high-redshift galaxies lensed by foreground galaxy clusters, the use of narrow-band filters to improve the signal-to-noise ratio by reducing the background, and near-IR spectroscopic follow-up of optical drop-out high-redshift candidates. Other programs seek to identify and observe high-redshift gamma-ray bursts. Finally, I describe Gemini's plans for the future, and ways that objects with z > 7 may be identified in the next few years.

  5. Gemini IV Mission Image - EVA over Texas coast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    View of Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 space flight, as he floats in zero gravity of space. The extravehicular activity was performed during the third revolution of the Gemini 4 spacecraft. White is attached to the spacecraft by a 25-ft. umbilical line and a 23-ft. tether line,both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand White carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU). The visor of his helmet is gold plated to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun. Photo was taken on June 3,1965. G.E.T. time was 4:45 / GMT time was 20:00. Original magazine number was GEM04-16-34642, taken with a Hasselblad camera and a 70mm lens. Film type was Kodak Ektachrome MS (S.O. -217). The original photo was a color negative. It's image number is S65-34642.

  6. Misión de operaciones en ambientes extremos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    ¿En qué lugar del planeta se puede entrenar un astronauta en un entorno similar al espacio? ¿Qué les parece bajo el agua? NEEMO es un proyecto que envía a grupos de astronautas, ingenieros, médicos...

  7. Advances in the synthesis, molecular architectures and potential applications of gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Renu; Kamal, Ajar; Abdinejad, Maryam; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    Gemini surfactants have been the subject of intensive scrutiny by virtue of their unique combination of physical and chemical properties and being used in ordinary household objects to multifarious industrial processes. In this review, we summarize the recent developments of gemini surfactants, highlighting the classification of gemini surfactants based on the variation in headgroup polarity, flexibility/rigidity of spacer, hydrophobic alkyl chain and counterion along with potential applications of gemini surfactants, depicting the truly remarkable journey of gemini surfactants that has just come of age. We have focused on those objectives which will act as suitable candidates to take the field forward. The preceding information will permit us to estimate the effect of structural variation on the aggregation behavior of gemini surfactants for nanoscience and biological applications like antimicrobial, anti-fungal agent, better gene and drug delivery agent with low cytotoxicity and biodegradability, which makes them more advantageous for a number of technological processes and hence reduces the impact of these gemini surfactants on the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the Potential of Cray Gemini Interconnect for PGAS Communication Runtime Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnu, Abhinav; ten Bruggencate, Monika; Olson, Ryan M.

    2011-08-24

    The Cray Gemini Interconnect has been recently introduced as the next generation network for building scalable multi-petascale supercomputers. The Cray XE6 systems, which use the Gemini Interconnect are becoming available with Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) Models such as as Global Arrays, Unified Parallel C, Co-Array Fortran and Cascade High Performance Language. These PGAS models use one-sided communication runtime systems such as MPI-Remote Memory Access, Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface and proprietary communication runtime systems. The primary objective of our work is to study the potential of Cray Gemini Interconnect by designing application specific micro-benchmarks using the DMAPP userspace library provided by the Gemini Interconnect. To meet this objective, we design micro-benchmarks to study the performance of simple communication primitives and application specific micro-benchmarks to understand the behavior of Gemini Interconnect at scale. In our experiments, the Gemini Interconnect can achieve a peak bandwidth of 6911 MB/s and a latency of 1us for get communication primitive. Scalability tests for atomic memory operations and shift communication operation up to 65536 processes shows the efficacy of the Gemini Interconnect.

  9. Enhanced gene expression in epithelial cells transfected with amino acid-substituted gemini nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Singh, Jagbir; Wettig, Shawn; Foldvari, Marianna; Verrall, Ronald E; Badea, Ildiko

    2010-08-01

    Gemini surfactants are versatile gene delivery agents because of their ability to bind and compact DNA and their low cellular toxicity. Through modification of the alkyl tail length and the chemical nature of the spacer, new compounds can be generated with the potential to improve the efficiency of gene delivery. Amino acid (glycine and lysine) and dipeptide (glycyl-lysine and lysyl-lysine) substituted spacers of gemini surfactants were synthesized, and their efficiency of gene delivery was assessed in epithelial cells for topical cutaneous and mucosal applications. Three different epithelial cell lines, COS-7, PAM212 and Sf 1Ep cells, were transfected with plasmid DNA encoding for interferon gamma and green fluorescent protein complexed with the amino acid-substituted gemini compounds in the presence of 1,2 dioleyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine as a helper lipid. Gene expression was quantified by ELISA. Size, zeta potential and circular dichroism measurements were used to characterize the plasmid-gemini (PG) and plasmid-gemini surfactant-helper lipid (PGL) complexes. Gene expression was found to increase up to 72h and then declined by the 7th day. In general, the glycine-substituted surfactant showed consistently high gene expression in all three cell lines. Results of physicochemical and spectroscopic studies of the complexes indicate that substitution of the gemini spacer does not interfere with compaction of the DNA. The superior performance of these spacer-substituted gemini surfactants might be attributed to their better biocompatibility compared to the surfactants possessing unsubstituted spacers.

  10. The Gemini Science User Support Department: A community-centered approach to user support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chené, André-Nicolas; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The Gemini Science User Support Department (SUSD) was formed a little more than a year ago to create a collaborative community of users and staff and to consolidate existing post-observing support throughout the observatory for more efficient use of resources as well as better visibility amongst our user community. This poster is an opportunity to exchange ideas about how Gemini can improve your experience while working with the Observatory and present details about new avenues of post-observing support coming soon. We encourage your feedback at any time.Shortly after its creation, the SUSD conducted a complete revision of the communication cycle between Gemini and its community of researchers. The cycle was then revisited from the perspective of an astronomer interested in using Gemini for their research. This exercise led to a series of proposed changes that are currently under development, and the implementation of a sub-selection is expected in 2016, including the following. (1) Email notifications: Gemini users will receive new forms of email communications that are more instructive and tailored to their program. The objective is to direct the users more efficiently toward the useful links and documentation all along the lifecycle of the program, from phaseII to after the data are completely reduced. (2) HelpDesk system: The HelpDesk will become more user-friendly and transparent. (3) Webpages: The organization of the Gemini webpages will be redesigned to optimize navigation; especially for anything regarding more critical periods likes phaseIs and phaseIIs. (4) Data Reduction User Forum: Following recommendations from Gemini users, new capabilities were added to the forum, like email notifications, and a voting system, in order to make it more practical. This forum's objective is to bring the Gemini community together to exchange their ideas, thoughts, questions and solutions about data reduction, a sort of Reddit, StackOverflow or Slashdot for Gemini data.

  11. Cationic Gemini surfactant at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Qibin, Chen; Xiaodong, Liang; Shaolei, Wang; Shouhong, Xu; Honglai, Liu; Ying, Hu

    2007-10-15

    The surface properties and structures of a cationic Gemini surfactant with a rigid spacer, p-xylyl-bis(dimethyloctadecylammonium bromide) ([C(18)H(37)(CH(3))(2)N(+)CH(2)C(6)H(4)CH(2)N(+)(CH(3))(2)C(18)H(37)],2Br(-), abbreviated as 18-Ar-18,2Br(-1)), at the air/water interface were investigated. It is found that the surface pressure-molecular area isotherms observed at different temperatures do not exhibit a plateau region but display an unusual "kink" before collapse. The range of the corresponding minimum compressibility and maximum compressibility modulus indicates that the monolayer is in the liquid-expanded state. The monolayers were transferred onto mica and quartz plates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The structures of monolayers at various surface pressures were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. AFM measurements show that at lower surface pressures, unlike the structures of complex or hybrid films formed by Gemini amphiphiles with DNA, dye, or inorganic materials or the Langmuir film formed by the nonionic Gemini surfactant, in this case network-like labyrinthine interconnected ridges are formed. The formation of the structures can be interpreted in terms of the spinodal decomposition mechanism. With the increase of the surface pressure up to 35 mN/m, surface micelles dispersed in the network-like ridges gradually appear which might be caused by both the spinodal decomposition and dewetting. The UV-vis adsorption shows that over the whole range of surface pressures, the molecules form a J-aggregate in LB films, which implies that the spacers construct a pi-pi aromatic stacking. This pi-pi interaction between spacers and the van der Waals interaction between hydrophobic chains lead to the formation of both networks and micelles. The labyrinthine interconnected ridges are formed first because of the rapid evaporation of solvent during the spreading processes; with increasing surface pressure, some of the

  12. Near-infrared Integral-Field Spectrograph (NIFS): An Instrument Proposed for Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Peter J.; Conroy, Peter; Bloxham, Gabe; van Harmelen, Jan

    1999-12-01

    In late 1998 the International Gemini Project Office identified a need for a low cost, near-infrared spectrograph to be commissioned on the Gemini South telescope on the shortest possible timescale. In response, the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Australian National University proposed to design, construct, and commission a near-infrared, integral-field spectrograph on Gemini. The science drivers and novel design of the Near-infrared Integral-Field Spectrograph (NIFS) are described in this paper. NIFS will achieve significant economies in cost and schedule in several ways:

  13. Modelling of the Critical Micelle Concentration of Cationic Gemini Surfactants Using Molecular Connectivity Indices.

    PubMed

    Mozrzymas, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Modelling of the critical micelle concentrations (cmc) using the molecular connectivity indices was performed for a set of 21 cationic gemini surfactants with medium-length spacers. The obtained model contains only the second-order Kier and Hall molecular connectivity index. It is suggested that the index (2)χ includes some information about flexibility. The obtained model was used to predict log10 cmc of other cationic gemini surfactants. The agreement between calculated and experimental values of log10 cmc for the gemini surfactants that were not used in the correlation is very good.

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - TRAINING - WEIGHTLESSNESS - ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT (AMU) - ZERO-GRAVITY - FL

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-03

    S66-31665 (3 May 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, participates in extravehicular training under zero-gravity conditions aboard a KC-135 aircraft. Here, he is donning the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) backpack after egressing a Gemini mock-up. The AMU backpack is mounted in the adapter equipment section of the mock-up. Cernan wears an extravehicular activity (EVA) life support system chest pack. Cernan will use the AMU during his scheduled EVA on the Gemini-9 mission. The KC-135 flew a parabolic curve to create the weightlessness condition for training purposes. Photo credit: NASA

  15. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-XI - MISC. EXPERIMENTS - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-22

    S66-05515 (2 June 1966) --- Gemini-11 Experiment S-9 Nuclear Emulsion. This experiment will be used to study the cosmic radiation incident on Earth's atmosphere, to obtain detailed chemical composition of the heavy primary nuclei and to search for rare particles. Equipment is a rectangular package eight and a half by six by three inches weighing 15 pounds and including the nuclear emulsion film stack, motor to advance the emulsion and a timer to regulate the motor. The package is mounted atop the spacecraft retro adapter section prior to launch, is activated at insertion, and is retrieved by the EVA pilot. The experiment is conducted with the spacecraft in plus or minus 15 degrees of Earth's average magnetic field vector. Sponsors are NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratories. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Experiment T001: Entry communication on the Gemini 3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, L. C.; Sims, T. E.; Cuddihy, W. F.

    1971-01-01

    Water addition to the Gemini 3 exhaust plasma was studied to determine its effectiveness in the establishment of communication links during the entry portion of the flight. Attenuation levels were measured with and without water injection at uhf frequencies of 230.4 and 296.8 megahertz and at the C-band frequency of 5690 megahertz. Ultrahigh frequency signals that had been blacked out were restored to significant levels, during early portions of the water-injection sequence, by the high flow rate injection. The C-band signal was enhanced by medium and high flow rate injections during the latter portion of the injection period. The uhf signal recovered during water injection resulted in an antenna pattern that was beamed in the radial direction of injection from the spacecraft. Postflight analysis showed that the uhf recovery data were consistent with injection-penetration theory.

  17. Gemini 8.2-m primary mirror no. 1 polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayrel, Marc; Beraud, P.; Paseri, Jacques; Dromas, E.

    1998-08-01

    The 8-m class primary mirrors of the GEMINI Telescopes are thin ULE menisci actively supported. The two mirror blanks are produced by CORNING, the optical figuring, manufacturing and assembling of interfaces are done by REOSC. REOSC is as well in charge of the transportation of the mirror blanks from CORNING to REOSC, and of the shipment of the finished optics to Hawaii and to Chile. The mirror assembly requirements are summarized, the manufacturing and testing methods are addressed. REOSC had to design and manufacture a dedicated active supporting system, representative of the one used at the telescope level. Its design and performance are presented. The manufacturing steps undertaken at REOSC and the results achieved are then detailed: mirror blank surface generating and grinding, polishing, testing. The current status of the mirrors is finally presented.

  18. The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.

  19. Gemini: Extending Information Management for Real Time Tactical Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    access to multiple other aircraft and the  Global  Information Grid (GIG). On these  UAS, Gemini may be installed in the form of a small payload or onto an...There are several technologies specifically designed for compressing XML data (for example XGrind,  XML‐ Xpress , and XMill). A general purpose...Future Force Warrior (US Army)  GIG  Global  Information Grid  GNOME  GNU Object Model Environment  GNU  GNU’s Not Unix  IDL  Interface Definition

  20. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - MISC. EXPERIMENTS - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-22

    S66-02611 (22 March 1966) --- Gemini-11 Experiment S-13 Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera. It will be used to test the techniques of ultraviolet photography under vacuum conditions and obtain ultraviolet radiation observations of stars in wave length region of 2,000 to 4,000 Angstroms by spectral means. Equipment is the Maurer 70mm camera with UV lens (f3.3) and magazine, objective grating and objective prism, extended shuttle actuator, and mounting bracket. For the experiment, the camera is mounted on the centerline torque box to point through the opened right-hand hatch. Propellant expenditure is estimated at 4.5 pounds per night pass. Two night passes will be used to photograph probably six star fields. Sponsors are NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications and Northwestern University. Photo credit: NASA

  1. The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.

  2. Experiment T001: Entry communication on the Gemini 3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, L. C.; Sims, T. E.; Cuddihy, W. F.

    1971-01-01

    Water addition to the Gemini 3 exhaust plasma was studied to determine its effectiveness in the establishment of communication links during the entry portion of the flight. Attenuation levels were measured with and without water injection at uhf frequencies of 230.4 and 296.8 megahertz and at the C-band frequency of 5690 megahertz. Ultrahigh frequency signals that had been blacked out were restored to significant levels, during early portions of the water-injection sequence, by the high flow rate injection. The C-band signal was enhanced by medium and high flow rate injections during the latter portion of the injection period. The uhf signal recovered during water injection resulted in an antenna pattern that was beamed in the radial direction of injection from the spacecraft. Postflight analysis showed that the uhf recovery data were consistent with injection-penetration theory.

  3. Fan-In Communications On A Cray Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R; Settlemyer, Bradley W

    2014-01-01

    Using the Cray Gemini interconnect as our platform, we present a study of an important class of communication operations the fan-in communication pattern. By its nature, fan-in communications form hot spots that present significant challenges for any interconnect fabric and communication software stack. Yet despite the inherent challenges, these communication patterns are common in both applications (which often perform reductions and other collective operations that include fan-in communication such as barriers) and system software (where they assume an important role within parallel file systems and other components requiring high-bandwidth or low-latency I/O). Our study determines the effectiveness of differing clientserver fan-in strategies. We describe fan-in performance in terms of aggregate bandwidth in the presence of varying degrees of congestion, as well as several other key attributes. Comparison numbers are presented for the Cray Aries interconnect. Finally, we provide recommended communication strategies based on our findings.

  4. The Gemini MCAO infrastructure: laser service enclosure and support structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavedoni, Charles P.; Bombino, S.; Sheehan, M.; Karewicz, S.; Hardash, S.; Perez, G.; Collins, P.; d'Orgeville, C.; Boccas, M.; Maltes, D.; Gausachs, G.; Rogers, R.

    2008-07-01

    The Laser Service Enclosure (LSE) is an environmentally controlled ISO 7 clean room designed to house, protect and provide environmental control for the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics laser system. The LSE is 8.0 meters long, 2.5 meters wide and 2.5 meters high with a mass of approximately 5,100 kg. The LSE shall reside on a new telescope Nasmyth platform named the Support Structure (SS). The SS is a three-dimensional beam and frame structure designed to support the LSE and laser system under all loading conditions. This paper will review the system requirements and describe the system hardware including optical, environmental, structural and operational issues as well as the anticipated impact the system will have on the current telescope performance.

  5. Final A&T stages of the Gemini Planet Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Markus; Macintosh, Bruce; Poyneer, Lisa; Savransky, Dimitri; Gavel, Donald; Palmer, Dave; Thomas, Sandrine; Dillon, Daren; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Ingraham, Patrick; Sadakuni, Naru; Wallace, Kent; Perrin, Marshall; Marois, Christian; Maire, Jerome; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Hibon, Pascale; Saddlemyer, Les; Goodsell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Finder (GPI) is currently in its final Acceptance & Testing stages at the University of Santa Cruz, California. GPI is an XAO system based on a tweeter & woofer architecture (43 & 9 actuators across the pupil), with the tweeter being a Boston Michromachines 64^2 MEMS device. The XAO AO system is tightly integrated with a Lyot apodizing coronagraph. Acceptance has started in February 2013. After the conclusive acceptance review shipment is scheduled mid 2013 to ensure readiness for commissioning at the Gemini South telescope on Cerro Pachon, Chile, end of 2013, matching the summer window of the southern hemisphere. According to current estimates the 3 year (~800 allocated hours) planet finding campaign might discover, image, and spectroscopically analyze 20 to 40 new exo-planets.Final acceptance testing of the integrated instrument can always emerge a number of unforeseen challenges as we are eventually using cold chamber and flexure rig installations. The latest developments will be reported. Also, we will give an overview of GPI's lab performance, the interplay between subsystems such as the calibration unit (CAL) with the AO bench. (The CAL principal purpose is to maintain a clean and centered XAO PSF on the coronagraph.) We report on-going optimizations on the AO controler loop to filter vibrations and last but not least achieved contrast performance applying speckle nulling. Furthermore, we will give an outlook of possible but challenging future upgrades as the implementation of a predictive controler or exchanging the conventional 48x48 SH WFS with a pyramid. With the ELT area arising, GPI will proof as a versatile and path-finding testbed for AO technologies on the next generation of ground-based telescopes.

  6. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  7. Management aspects of Gemini's base facility operations project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriagada, Gustavo; Nitta, Atsuko; Adamson, A. J.; Nunez, Arturo; Serio, Andrew; Cordova, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Gemini's Base Facilities Operations (BFO) Project provided the capabilities to perform routine nighttime operations without anyone on the summit. The expected benefits were to achieve money savings and to become an enabler of the future development of remote operations. The project was executed using a tailored version of Prince2 project management methodology. It was schedule driven and managing it demanded flexibility and creativity to produce what was needed, taking into consideration all the constraints present at the time: Time available to implement BFO at Gemini North (GN), two years. The project had to be done in a matrix resources environment. There were only three resources assigned exclusively to BFO. The implementation of new capabilities had to be done without disrupting operations. And we needed to succeed, introducing the new operational model that implied Telescope and instrumentation Operators (Science Operations Specialists - SOS) relying on technology to assess summit conditions. To meet schedule we created a large number of concurrent smaller projects called Work Packages (WP). To be reassured that we would successfully implement BFO, we initially spent a good portion of time and effort, collecting and learning about user's needs. This was done through close interaction with SOSs, Observers, Engineers and Technicians. Once we had a clear understanding of the requirements, we took the approach of implementing the "bare minimum" necessary technology that would meet them and that would be maintainable in the long term. Another key element was the introduction of the "gradual descent" concept. In this, we increasingly provided tools to the SOSs and Observers to prevent them from going outside the control room during nighttime operations, giving them the opportunity of familiarizing themselves with the new tools over a time span of several months. Also, by using these tools at an early stage, Engineers and Technicians had more time for debugging

  8. CHAMBER - IONIZATION - EXPERIMENT - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-6 EQUIPMENT - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-10

    S65-61788 (For release: 11 Dec. 1965) --- Close-up view of equipment which will be used in the D-8 (Radiation in Spacecraft) experiment on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-6 spaceflight. This experiment is designed to make highly accurate measurements of the absorbed dose rate of radiation which penetrates the Gemini spacecraft, and determine the spatial distribution of dose levels inside the spacecraft particularly in the crew area. This is experimentation of the U.S. Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, N.M. LOWER LEFT: The second ionization chamber, this one is unshielded. This chamber can be removed from its bracket by the astronaut who will periodically take measurements at various locations in the spacecraft. Nearby is Passive Dosimeter Unit which is one of five small packets each containing a standard pocket ionization chamber, gamma electron sensitive film, glass needles and thermo luminescent dosimeters which are mounted at various locations in the cabin. UPPER LEFT: Photo illustrates how ionization chamber can be removed from bracket for measurements. LOWER RIGHT: Shield of bulb-shaped chamber will be removed (shown in photo) as the spacecraft passes through the South Atlantic anomaly, the area where the radiation belt dips closest to Earth's surface. UPPER RIGHT: Dome-shaped object is shield covering one of two Tissue Equivalent Ionization Chambers (sensors) which will read out continuously the instantaneous rate at which dose is delivered during the flight. This chamber is mounted permanently. The information will be recorded aboard the spacecraft, and will also be received directly by ground stations. This chamber is shielded to simulate the amount of radiation the crew members are receiving beneath their skin. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  9. Gemini 12 crew receive Official welcome aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, receive Official welcome as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after their splashdown at the end of the Gemini 12 mission.

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-5 - TRAINING - SUITING-UP (ADJUSTS HELMET) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-07-22

    S65-41886 (22 July 1965) --- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr. makes adjustments to his helmet during suiting up exercise at Pad 16, Cape Kennedy, Florida. He is preparing for the Gemini-5 spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Interactions between DNA and Gemini surfactant: impact on gene therapy: part I.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Taksim; Kamel, Amany O; Wettig, Shawn D

    2016-02-01

    Nonviral gene therapy using gemini surfactants is a unique approach to medicine that can be adapted toward the treatment of various diseases. Recently, gemini surfactants have been utilized as candidates for the formation of nonviral vectors. The chemical structure of the surfactant (variations in the alkyl tail length and spacer/head group) and the resulting physicochemical properties of the lipoplexes are critical parameters for efficient gene transfection. Moreover, studying the interaction of the surfactant with DNA can help in designing an efficient vector and understanding how transfection complexes overcome various cellular barriers. Part I of this review provides an overview of various types of gemini surfactants designed for gene therapy and their transfection efficiency; and Part II will focus on different novel methods utilized to understand the interactions between the gemini and DNA in a lipoplex.

  12. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-6 - AGENA TESTS - DOCKING EXERCISE - BORESIGHT RANGE - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-25

    S65-52015 (1965) --- The Gemini-6 spacecraft (right) and the Agena Target Vehicle (left) on the Boresite Range Tower for the Plan-X docking exercise. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  13. Structure-activity investigation on the gene transfection properties of cardiolipin mimicking gemini lipid analogues.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Avinash; Paul, Bishwajit; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2008-06-01

    A structure-activity relationship has been explored on the gene transfection efficiencies of cardiolipin mimicking gemini lipid analogues upon variation of length and hydrophilicity of the spacer between the cationic ammonium headgroups and lipid hydrocarbon chain lengths. All the gemini lipids were found to be highly superior in gene transfer abilities as compared to their monomeric lipid and a related commercially available formulation. Pseudoglyceryl gemini lipids bearing an oxyethylene (-CH2-(CH2-O-CH2)m-CH2-) spacer were found to be superior gene transfecting agents as compared to those bearing polymethylene (-CH2)m-) spacers. The major characteristic feature of the present set of gemini lipids is their serum compatibility, which is most often the major hurdle in liposome-mediated gene delivery.

  14. The Near Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) At Gemini North Observatory (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Tracy L.; McGregor, P.

    2006-06-01

    During the 2005-2006 Fall/Winter observing term, The Near Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) was commissioned at the Gemini North Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. NIFS is a high spatial resolution, moderate spectral resolution near infrared integral field spectrograph designed to be used with Gemini's AO system, Altair. In this talk, we will discuss the NIFS instrument design and performance, and present some of the exciting results derived from the commissioning and System Verification observations.(1) - Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini Partnership: United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Chile, Australia, Brazil and Argentina.

  15. Astronaut John Young waits for pickup by helicopter after Gemini 3 landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 flight, sits in a life raft waiting to be picked up by helicopter during recovery operations following the landing. Navy swimmers can be seen assisting in the recovery operations.

  16. Gemini 12 crew receive Official welcome aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, receive Official welcome as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp after their splashdown at the end of the Gemini 12 mission.

  17. PRESS CONFERENCE - PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICE (PAO) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-5 - POSTFLIGHT - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-09-09

    S65-45041 (9 Sept. 1965) --- Close-up of Gemini-5 astronauts during press conference. Pictured left to right are Dr. Robert R. Gilruth; along with astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. and Charles Conrad Jr.

  18. Egypt, Nile Valley, Gulf of Suez, Sinai as seen from Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63477 (13 Nov. 1966) --- United Arab Republic (Egypt), the Nile Valley from Luxor to Cairo, El Payium, Gulf of Suez, Sinai as seen from Gemini-12 spacecraft on its 25th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA

  19. RECOVERY (PRIME CREW STEP OUT) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-5 - FROGMEN - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-26

    S65-51653 (29 Aug. 1965) --- Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. and Charles Conrad Jr. exit their spacecraft after splashdown of the Gemini-5 spacecraft. They are photographed boarding a life raft with the help of Navy divers.

  20. U.S. Air Force Radiation in Space experiment for Gemini 6 flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-10

    S65-58941 (27 Aug. 1965) --- U.S. Air Force Weapons Laboratory D-8 (Radiation in Space) experiment for Gemini-6 spaceflight. Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 104-KSC-65C-5533. Photo credit: NASA

  1. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-19

    S66-27375 (19 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, has his suit adjusted by NASA suit technician Al Rochford during preparations for tests with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). The tests were conducted in Chamber B, Environmental Test Laboratory, Building 32. The AMU, which consists of a chest pack and backpack, will be used for extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9 mission. Photo credit: NASA

  2. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. CERNAN - TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-19

    S66-27377 (19 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini-9 spaceflight, is suited up in preparation for tests with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). The tests are conducted in Chamber B, Environmental Test Laboratory, Building 32. The AMU, which consists of a chest pack and a backpack, will be used for extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Gemini-9 mission. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Target of Opportunity Observing in Queue Mode at the Gemini North Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Katherine; Price, P.; Gillies, K.; Walker, S.; Miller, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Gemini Observatories primarily operate a multi-instrument queue, with observers selecting observations that are best suited to weather and seeing conditions. Queue operations give higher ranked programs a greater chance for completion than lower ranked programs requesting the same conditions and instrument configuration. Queue observing naturally lends itself to Target of Opportunity (ToO) support since the time required to switch between programs and instruments is very short, and the staff observer is trained to operate all the available instruments and modes. Gemini Observatory has supported pre-approved ToO programs since beginning queue operations, and has implemented a rapid (less than 15 minutes response time) ToO mode since 2005. The rapid response ToO mode has thus far been exclusively utilized by the Gemini community for optical and near-IR follow-up of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), primarily discovered by the Swift satellite. We discuss the ToO implementation at Gemini Observatory including the ToO user interface and the procedures followed by observatory staff astronomers once a ToO trigger is received. We present the statistics of 4 years of rapid ToOs at Gemini North Observatory, and the advances in our understanding of GRBs, their host galaxies and the intergalactic medium that this important mode has enabled. Finally we discuss recent changes in both software and policy to improve standard and rapid ToO support at the Gemini Observatories. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciìncia e Tecnologia (Brazil), and SECYT (Argentina)

  4. ASTRONAUT JAMES A. LOVELL, JR. - MEDICAL - PREFLIGHT (GEMINI-TITAN [GT]-7) - EYES EXAMINED - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-02

    S65-66703 (18 Dec. 1965) --- Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spaceflight, undergoes an eye examination during a postflight medical checkup aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. Gemini-7 splashed down in the western Atlantic recovery area at 9:05 a.m. (EST) Dec. 16, 1965, after a 14-day mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  5. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9A - RECOVERY - SPACECRAFT (S/C) HOISTED ABOARD - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-34101 (6 June 1966) --- The Gemini-9 spacecraft, with astronauts Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan still inside, is hoisted aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. Gemini-9 splashed down only 3.5 miles from the big recovery ship at 9 a.m. (EST), June 6, 1966, 345 miles east of Cape Kennedy, to conclude a 72-hour, 21-minute mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  6. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EARTH SKY - AGENA ON TETHER - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63517 (13 Nov. 1966) --- The Gulf of California area as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its 30th revolution of Earth. Baja California Sur is the peninsula on the left. At lower left is the mainland of Mexico. A 100-foot tether line connects the Agena Target Docking Vehicle with the Gemini-12 spacecraft. View is looking south. Photo credit: NASA

  7. The Near-Earth Encounter of 2005 YU55: Thermal Infrared Observations from Gemini North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Granvik, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    As part of a multi-observatory campaign to observe 2005 YU55 during its November 2011 encounter with the Earth, thermal infrared photometry and spectroscopy (7.9- 14 and 18-22 micron) were conducted using the Michelle instrument at Gemini North. Reduction of the 8.8 flm photometry and the spectroscopy from UT Nov-IO as well as of all the Gemini data from UT Nov-9 is in progress. Results will be discussed.

  8. Molecular connectivity indices for modeling the critical micelle concentration of cationic (chloride) Gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Mozrzymas, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The molecular connectivity indices were used to derive the simple model relating the critical micelle concentration of cationic (chloride) gemini surfactants to their structure. One index was selected as the best to describe the effect of the structure of investigated compounds on critical micelle concentration consistent with the experimental results. This index encodes the information about molecular size, the branches, and also the information about heteroatoms. The selected model can be helpful in designing novel chloride gemini surfactants.

  9. Role of spacer lengths of gemini surfactants in the synthesis of silver nanorods in micellar media.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Santanu; Biswas, Joydeep

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we have prepared Ag-nanorods using biscationic gemini surfactant micelles as the media by a seed-mediated wet synthesis method. Towards this end, we first synthesized Ag-nanoseeds of diameter ~7 nm stabilized by trisodium citrate (as the capping agent). Then these Ag-nanoseeds were used to synthesize Ag-nanorods of different aspect ratios. With decreasing Ag-nanoseed concentration, the aspect ratios of the Ag-nanorods stabilized by these gemini surfactants increased gradually. Various Ag-nanoseeds and Ag-nanospecies were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy (to know the surface plasmon bands), transmission electron microscopy (to find out their particle sizes and distribution), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. When we used micelles derived from gemini surfactants of shorter spacer -(CH(2))(n)- (n = 2 or 4) to stabilize the Ag-nanorods, the λ(max) of the longitudinal band shifted more towards the blue region compared to that of the gemini surfactant micelles with a longer spacer -(CH(2))(n)- (n = 5, 12) at a given amount of the Ag-nanoseed solution. So, the growth of Ag-nanorods in the gemini micellar solutions depends on the spacer-chain length of gemini surfactants employed.

  10. Hierarchical Structure from the Self-Assembly of Giant Gemini Surfactants in Condensed State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hao; Wang, Zhao; Li, Yiwen; Cheng, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    In the past a few years, a new class of amphiphiles with both asymmetrical shapes and interactions named ``shape amphiphiles'' has been significantly intensified. Recently, a new kind of shape amphiphiles called ``Giant Gemini Surfactants'' consisting of two hydrophilic carboxylic acid-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (APOSS) heads and two hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) tails covalently linked via rigid spacers (p-phenylene versus biphenylene) has been successful behavior of giant gemini surfactants. We currently continue to investigate the spacer effects on the self-assembly behaviors of giant gemini surfactants in condensed state by utilizing DCS, SAXS and TEM. Preliminary results showed that giant gemini surfactants with different spacers have diverse phase behaviors. As we use the same 3.2k PS chains, the giant gemini surfactant with p-phenylene spacer showed double gyroid morphology, while the one with biphenylene spacer revealed cylindrical morphology. This study expands the scope of giant gemini surfactants and contributes a lot to the basic physical principles in self-assembly behavior.

  11. Mixed micellization of gemini and conventional surfactant in aqueous solution: a lattice Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Hussein; Khodadadi, Zahra; Mousavi-Khoshdel, S Morteza; Hashemianzadeh, S Majid; Javadian, Soheila

    2014-09-01

    In the current study, we have investigated the micellization of pure gemini surfactants and a mixture of gemini and conventional surfactants using a 3D lattice Monte Carlo simulation method. For the pure gemini surfactant system, the effects of tail length on CMC and aggregation number were studied, and the simulation results were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. For a mixture of gemini and conventional surfactants, variations in the mixed CMC, interaction parameter β, and excess Gibbs free energy G(E) with composition revealed synergism in micelle formation. Simulation results were compared to estimations made using regular solution theory to determine the applicability of this theory for non-ideal mixed surfactant systems. A large discrepancy was observed between the behavior of parameters such as the activity coefficients fi and the excess Gibbs free energy G(E) and the expected behavior of these parameters as predicted by regular solution theory. Therefore, we have used the modified version of regular solution theory. This three parameter model contains two parameters in addition to the interaction parameters: the size parameter, ρ, which reflects differences in the size of components, and the packing parameter, P*, which reflects nonrandom mixing in mixed micelles. The proposed model provides a good description of the behavior of gemini and conventional surfactant mixtures. The results indicated that as the chain length of gemini surfactants in mixture is increased, the size parameter remains constant while the interaction and packing parameters increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mixed aggregate formation in gemini surfactant/1,2-dialkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine systems.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Javed; Tavakoli, Naser; Marangoni, D Gerrard; Wettig, Shawn D

    2012-07-01

    An evaluation of the physical interactions between gemini surfactants, DNA, and 1,2-dialkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine helper lipid is presented in this work. Complexation between gemini surfactants and DNA was first investigated using surface tensiometry where the surface tension profiles obtained were found to be consistent with those typically observed for mixed surfactant-polymer systems; that is, there is a synergistic lowering of the surface tension, followed by a first (CAC) and second (CMC) break point in the plot. The surfactant alkyl tail length was observed to exhibit a significant effect on the CAC, thus demonstrating the importance of hydrophobic interactions during complexation between gemini surfactants and DNA. The second study presented is an investigation of the mixing interactions between gemini surfactants and DOPE using Clint's, Rubingh's, and Motomura's theories for mixed micellar formation. The mixing interactions between the 16-3-16/16-7-16/16-12-16/16-7NH-16 gemini surfactants and DOPE were observed to be antagonistic, where the strength of antagonism was found to be dependent upon the gemini surfactant spacer group and the solution composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and aggregation properties of dissymmetric phytanyl-gemini surfactants for use as improved DNA transfection vectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitang; Wettig, Shawn D

    2011-01-14

    Improvements in transfection efficiency are required in order to make the goal of cellular gene delivery by non-viral vectors realizable. Novel derivatives of gemini surfactants having dissymmetric tail groups have been designed specifically as a means to improve DNA transfection; the micelle and interfacial properties are reported herein. The effect of these substitutions on the aggregation properties of the gemini surfactants is discussed in the context of results for the m-3-m gemini series, previously reported in the literature. Phytanyl substitution results in lower cmc and higher micelle ionization. In addition, the phytanyl substituted gemini surfactants form vesicles at room temperature. Preliminary in vitro transfection assays showed the phytanyl substituted gemini surfactants to be more efficient transfection vectors as compared to symmetric gemini surfactants.

  14. ASTRONAUT JAMES A. LOVELL, JR. - MEDICAL - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-7 PRELAUNCH CHECKUP - TEMPERATURE CHECK - PILOT - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-04

    S65-59934 (4 Dec. 1965) --- Gemini-7 pilot James A. Lovell Jr. has a temperature check with an oral temperature probe attached to his spacesuit during a final preflight preparations for the Gemini-7 space mission. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has planned a 14-day mission for the Gemini-7. The temperature probe allows doctors to monitor astronauts' body temperature at any time during the mission. Photo credit: NASA

  15. On the Spacer Group Effect on Critical Micelle Concentration of Cationic Gemini Surfactants Using Molecular Connectivity Indices.

    PubMed

    Mozrzymas, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The important factor which differentiates gemini surfactants from conventional monomeric surfactants is the spacer group. The molecular connectivity method was used to study the effect of the spacer group on critical micelle concentration of cationic gemini surfactants. Two models were derived employing only Kier and Hall molecular connectivity indices. The relationships were developed for a set of 17 gemini surfactants with various spacer groups only. These models can be used to design the structure of the spacer group and in consequence novel cationic gemini surfactants more active in micelle formation.

  16. Interactions of gemini surfactants with two model proteins: NMR, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Razieh; Bordbar, Abdol-Khalegh; García-Mayoral, Ma Flor; Khosropour, Ahmad Reza; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Menéndez, Margarita; Laurents, Douglas V

    2012-03-01

    Gemini surfactants have two polar head groups and two hydrocarbon tails. Compared with conventional surfactants, geminis have much lower (μM vs. mM) critical micelle concentrations and possess slower (ms vs. μs) monomer <-- / --> micelle kinetics. The structure of the gemini surfactants studied is [HOCH(2)CH(2)-, CH(3)-, CH(3)(CH(2))(15)-N(+)-(CH(2))(s)-N(+)-(CH(2))(15)CH(3),-CH(3),-CH(2)CH(2)OH]·2Br(-) where s=4, 5, or 6. Our objective is to reveal the effect of these cationic gemini surfactants on the structure and stability of two model proteins: Ribonuclease A (RNase A) and Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL). 2D (1)H NMR and Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopies show that the conformation of RNase A and HEWL is unaffected at low to neutral pH where these proteins are positively charged, although hydrogen exchange shows that RNase A's conformational stability is slightly lowered. At alkaline pH, where these proteins lose their net positive charge, fluorescence and CD spectroscopies and ITC experiments show that they do interact with gemini surfactants, and multiple protein•gemini complexes are observed. Based on the results, we conclude that these cationic gemini surfactants neither interact strongly with nor severely destabilize these well folded proteins in physiological conditions, and we advance that they can serve as useful membrane mimetics for studying the interactions between membrane components and positively charged proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gemini/GRACES spectroscopy of stars in Tri II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, K. A.; Starkenburg, E.; Malo, L.; Martin, N.; Laevens, B. P. M.

    2017-04-01

    The chemical abundance ratios and radial velocities for two stars in the recently discovered Triangulum II faint dwarf galaxy have been determined from high-resolution, medium signal-to-noise ratio spectra from the Gemini Remote Access to CFHT ESPaDonS Spectrograph facility. These stars have stellar parameters and metallicities similar to those derived from their photometry and medium-resolution Ca II triplet spectra, and supports that Triangulum II has a metallicity spread consistent with chemical evolution in a dwarf galaxy. The elemental abundances show that both stars have typical calcium abundances and barium upper limits for their metallicities, but low magnesium and sodium. This chemical composition resembles some stars in dwarf galaxies, attributed to inhomogeneous mixing in a low star formation environment, and/or yields from only a few supernova events. One of our targets (Star40) has an enhancement in potassium, and resembles some stars in the unusual outer halo star cluster, NGC 2419. Our other target (Star46) appears to be a binary based on a change in its radial velocity (Δvrad = 24.5 ±2.1 km s-1). This is consistent with variations found in binary stars in other dwarf galaxies. While this serves as a reminder of the high binary fraction in these ultrafaint dwarf galaxies, this particular object has had little impact on the previous determination of the velocity dispersion in Triangulum II.

  18. Gemini planet imager observational calibrations V: astrometry and distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopacky, Quinn M.; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Dillon, Daren; Sadakuni, Naru; Maire, Jérôme; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hinkley, Sasha; Kalas, Paul; Esposito, Thomas; Marois, Christian; Ingraham, Patrick J.; Marchis, Franck; Perrin, Marshall D.; Graham, James R.; Wang, Jason J.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Morzinski, Katie; Pueyo, Laurent; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Larkin, James E.; Fabrycky, Daniel; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Patience, Jenny; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of both laboratory and on sky astrometric characterization of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). This characterization includes measurement of the pixel scale* of the integral field spectrograph (IFS), the position of the detector with respect to north, and optical distortion. Two of these three quantities (pixel scale and distortion) were measured in the laboratory using two transparent grids of spots, one with a square pattern and the other with a random pattern. The pixel scale in the laboratory was also estimate using small movements of the artificial star unit (ASU) in the GPI adaptive optics system. On sky, the pixel scale and the north angle are determined using a number of known binary or multiple systems and Solar System objects, a subsample of which had concurrent measurements at Keck Observatory. Our current estimate of the GPI pixel scale is 14.14 +/- 0.01 millarcseconds/pixel, and the north angle is -1.00 +/- 0.03°. Distortion is shown to be small, with an average positional residual of 0.26 pixels over the field of view, and is corrected using a 5th order polynomial. We also present results from Monte Carlo simulations of the GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) assuming GPI achieves ~1 milliarcsecond relative astrometric precision. We find that with this precision, we will be able to constrain the eccentricities of all detected planets, and possibly determine the underlying eccentricity distribution of widely separated Jovians.

  19. Properties of Ellipticity Correlation with Atmospheric Structure from Gemini South

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, S J; Treadway, T; de Vries, W H; Rosenberg, L J; Burke, D; Claver, C; Saha, A; Puxley, P

    2006-12-21

    Cosmic shear holds great promise for a precision independent measurement of {Omega}{sub m}, the mass density of the universe relative to the critical density. The signal is expected to be weak, so a thorough understanding of systematic effects is crucial. An important systematic effect is the atmosphere: shear power introduced by the atmosphere is larger than the expected signal. Algorithms exist to extract the cosmic shear from the atmospheric component, though a measure of their success applied to a range of seeing conditions is lacking. To gain insight into atmospheric shear, Gemini South imaging in conjunction with ground condition and satellite wind data were obtained. We find that under good seeing conditions Point-Spread-Function (PSF) correlations persist well beyond the separation typical of high-latitude stars. Under these conditions, ellipticity residuals based on a simple PSF interpolation can be reduced to within a factor of a few of the shot-noise induced ellipticity floor. We also find that the ellipticity residuals are highly correlated with wind direction. Finally, we correct stellar shapes using a more sophisticated procedure and generate shear statistics from stars. Under all seeing conditions in our data set the residual correlations lie everywhere below the target signal level. For good seeing we find that the systematic error attributable to atmospheric turbulence is comparable in magnitude to the statistical error (shape noise) over angular scales relevant to present lensing surveys.

  20. Properties of Ellipticity Correlation with Atmospheric Structure From Gemini South

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.; de Vries, W.H.; Rosenberg, L.J; Treadway, T.; Burke, D.; Claver, C.; Saha, A.; Puxley, P.; /Gemini Observ., La Serena

    2007-01-17

    Cosmic shear holds great promise for a precision independent measurement of {Omega}{sub m}, the mass density of the universe relative to the critical density. The signal is expected to be weak, so a thorough understanding of systematic effects is crucial. An important systematic effect is the atmosphere: shear power introduced by the atmosphere is larger than the expected signal. Algorithms exist to extract the cosmic shear from the atmospheric component, though a measure of their success applied to a range of seeing conditions is lacking. To gain insight into atmospheric shear, Gemini South imaging in conjunction with ground condition and satellite wind data were obtained. We find that under good seeing conditions Point-Spread-Function (PSF) correlations persist well beyond the separation typical of high-latitude stars. Under these conditions, ellipticity residuals based on a simple PSF interpolation can be reduced to within a factor of a few of the shot-noise induced ellipticity floor. We also find that the ellipticity residuals are highly correlated with wind direction. Finally, we correct stellar shapes using a more sophisticated procedure and generate shear statistics from stars. Under all seeing conditions in our data set the residual correlations lie everywhere below the target signal level. For good seeing we find that the systematic error attributable to atmospheric turbulence is comparable in magnitude to the statistical error (shape noise) over angular scales relevant to present lensing surveys.

  1. Anionic Gemini Surfactants:. Synthesis and Surface Active Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Dipti; Tyagi, V. K.

    New compounds bearing two phosphate groups and two long chain (dodecyl) were prepared by two-step reaction: (i) phosphorylation of dodecanol with pyrophosphoric acid, (ii) reaction of dodecyl phosphate with N(CH3)4OH and 1,6-dibromo hexane. The effect of reaction variables like time and molar ratio of reactants on yield has also been reported. The 1:2:0.5 molar ratio of reactants (dodecyl phosphate, N(CH3)4OH, and Br(CH2)6 Br, respectively) and 3 h duration resulted to give maximum yield of anionic gemini surfactants. The structure of synthesized surfactant was investigated by modern analytical techniques, viz. FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR. Amphipathic disodium phosphates were obtained by neutralization of free acids with sodium hydroxide and their surface active properties in aqueous solution were measured. These disodium phosphates possessed 77.3% anionic content and showed good water solubility. Foaming properties and wetting ability were also evaluated.

  2. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) Campaign Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patience, Jennifer; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Barman, Travis; De Rosa, Robert; Konopacky, Quinn; Marley, Mark; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric Ludwig; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rameau, Julien; Saumon, Didier; Wang, Jason

    2015-12-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraphic integral field unit with the sensitivity and resolution to detect planetary companions with separations of 0”.2 to 1”.0 around a large set of stars. An 890-hour GPI survey of 600 young, nearby stars commenced in late-2014, and approximately 100 stars have been observed thus far. The central aims of the program are: (1) the discovery of a population of giant planets with orbital radii of 5-50 AU comparable to Solar System gas giant orbits, (2) the characterization of the atmospheric properties of young planetary companions, and (3) the exploration of planet-disk interactions. Initial results from GPI exoplanet observations include the discovery of a new planetary companion to a young F-star; the planet spectrum shows a strong signature of methane absorption, indicating a cooler temperature than previously imaged young planets. An overview of the survey scope, current detection limits, and initial results will be presented.

  3. Results from the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Chun, Mark R.; Close, Laird M.; Ftaclas, Christ; Males, Jared R.; Hartung, Markus; Reid, I. N.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Skemer, Andrew J.; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan A.; Clarke, Fraser; Toomey, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    From 2008 December to 2012 September, the NICI (Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager at the Gemini-South 8.1-m) Planet-Finding Campaign (Liu et al. 2010) obtained deep, high-contrast AO imaging of a carefully selected sample of over 200 young, nearby stars. In the course of the campaign, we discovered four co-moving brown dwarf companions: PZ Tel B (36+/-6 MJup, 16.4+/-1.0 AU), CD-35 2722B (31+/-8 MJup, 67+/-4 AU), HD 1160B (33+12 -9 MJup, 81+/- AU), and HIP 79797Bb (55+20-19MJup, 3 AU from the previously known brown dwarf companion HIP 79797Ba), as well as numerous stellar binaries. Three survey papers have been published to date, covering: 1) high mass stars (Nielsen et al. 2013), 2) debris disk stars (Wahhaj et al. 2013), and 3) stars which are members of nearby young moving groups (Biller et al. 2013). In addition, the Campaign has yielded new orbital constraints for the ~8-10 MJup planet Pic β (Nielsen et al. 2014) and a high precision measurement of the star-disk offset for the well-known disk around HR 4796A (Wahhaj et al. 2014). Here we discuss constraints placed on the distribution of wide giant exoplanets from the NICI Campaign, new substellar companion discoveries, and characterization both of exoplanets and circumstellar disks.

  4. EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-29766 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) spaceflight, floats in the zero-gravity of space during the third revolution of the GT-4 spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit. His face is shaded by a gold-plated visor to protect him from unfiltered rays of the sun. In his right hand he carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) that gives him control over his movements in space. White also wears an emergency oxygen chest pack; and he carries a camera mounted on the HHSMU for taking pictures of the sky, Earth and the GT-4 spacecraft. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line. Both lines are wrapped together in gold tape to form one cord. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot, remained inside the spacecraft during the extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  5. Oleic acid-based gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Matsuda, Wataru; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Anionic gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups have been synthesized from oleic acid. The hydrocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via an ester bond, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via disuccinyl units. The surfactants exhibit pH-dependent protonation-deprotonation behavior in aqueous solutions. In alkaline solutions (pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm(-3) NaCl as the background electrolyte), the surfactants can lower the surface tension as well as form molecular assemblies, even in the region of low surfactant concentrations. Under acidic (pH 3) or neutral (pH 6-7) conditions, the surfactants are intrinsically insoluble in aqueous media and form a monolayer at the air/water interface. In this study, we have investigated physicochemical properties such as the function of the hydrocarbon chain length by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, surface pressure-area isotherms, and infrared external reflection measurements.

  6. Synthesis and Monolayer Behaviors of Succinic Acid-Type Gemini Surfactants Containing Semifluoroalkyl Groups.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Nagase, Youhei; Oida, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, novel succinic acid-type gemini surfactants containing semifluoroalkyl groups, dl- and meso-2,3-bis[Rf-(CH2)n]-succinic acids (Rf = C4F9, C6F13, C8F17; n = 2, 9), were successfully synthesized, and the effects of Rf, methylene chain length (n), and stereochemistry on their monolayer behaviors were studied. Critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of dl- and meso-2,3-bis[C4F9(CH2)9]-succinic acids were one order of magnitude smaller than that of the corresponding 1+1 type surfactant, C4F9(CH2)9COOH. From surface pressure-area (π-A) measurements, the lift-off areas of the geminis were found to decrease in the order C4F9 ≥ C6F13 > C8F17, regardless of methylene chain length and stereochemistry. The zero-pressure molecular areas of the geminis were twice those of the corresponding 1+1 type surfactants. Based on Gibbs compression modulus analysis, it was clarified that 2,3-bis[C8F17(CH2)n]-succinic gemini with short methylene chains (n = 2) would form more rigid monolayers than those having long methylene chains (n = 9). Unlike for 2,3-bis(alkyl)-succinic acids, the effects of stereochemistry on the monolayer behavior of semifluoroalkylated geminis were small.

  7. Antibacterial Activity, in Vitro Cytotoxicity, and Cell Cycle Arrest of Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Ding, Shiping; Yu, Jing; Chen, Xuerui; Lei, Qunfang; Fang, Wenjun

    2015-11-10

    Twelve gemini quaternary ammonium surfactants have been employed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity. The antibacterial effects of the gemini surfactants are performed on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 2.8 to 167.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis results show that these surfactants interact with the bacterial cell membrane, disrupt the integrity of the membrane, and consequently kill the bacteria. The data recorded on C6 glioma and HEK293 human kidney cell lines using an MTT assay exhibit low half inhibitory concentrations (IC50). The influences of the gemini surfactants on the cell morphology, the cell migration ability, and the cell cycle are observed through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, cell wound healing assay, and flow cytometric analyses, respectively. Both the values of MIC and IC50 decrease against the growth of the alkyl chain length of the gemini surfactants with the same spacer group. In the case of surfactants 12-s-12, the MICs and IC50s are found to decrease slightly with the spacer chain length changing from 2 to 8 and again to increase at higher spacer length (s = 10-12). All of the gemini surfactants show great antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity, and they might exhibit potential applications in medical fields.

  8. Self-assembly, DNA binding and cytotoxicity trends of ether functionalized gemini pyridinium amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vinay; Singh, Sukhprit; Kamboj, Raman; Mishra, Rachana; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2014-03-01

    Six new ether functionalized gemini pyridinium amphiphiles have been synthesized having dodecyl, tetradecyl alkyl chain lengths and three different spacers (i.e. -(CH2)n-, where n is 4, 5 and 6) and investigated for their self-assembling behavior by state of the art techniques such as tensiometry, conductivity and spectrofluorometry. These new pyridinium gemini surfactants exhibit lower cmc values as compared to other gemini surfactants reported in literature. These amphiphiles form stable complexes with DNA as established by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was carried out in vitro on C6 glioma cell line for cytotoxicity assessment of new pyridinium geminis. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to measure the micellar size of gemini surfactants. Further, thermal stability of these amphiphiles has been evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The dependence of self-assembly behavior and other properties on spacer as well as alkyl chain length has been established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aggregate transitions in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecylsulfate with a "gemini-type" organic salt.

    PubMed

    Yu, Defeng; Tian, Maozhang; Fan, Yaxun; Ji, Gang; Wang, Yilin

    2012-06-07

    Effects of a "gemini-type" organic salt 1,2-bis(2-benzylammoniumethoxy) ethane dichloride (BEO) on the aggregation behavior of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) have been investigated by turbidity, surface tension, isothermal titration microcalorimetry, dynamic light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning microcalorimetry. The aggregation behavior of the SDS/BEO mixed aqueous solution shows strong concentration and ratio dependence. For the SDS/BEO solution with a molar ratio of 5:1, large loose irregular aggregates, vesicles, and long thread-like micelles are formed in succession with the increase of the total SDS and BEO concentration. Because BEO has two positive charges, the SDS/BEO solution may consist of the (SDS)(2)-BEO gemini-type complex, the SDS-BEO complex and extra SDS. The aggregation ability and surface activity of the SDS/BEO mixture exhibit the characteristics of gemini-type surfactants. Along with the results of DSC and (1)H NMR, the (SDS)(2)-BEO gemini-type structure is confirmed to exist in the system. This work provides an approach to construct the surfactant systems with the characteristics of gemini surfactants through intermolecular interaction between a two-charged organic salt and oppositely charged single-chain surfactants.

  10. GEMINI: a computationally-efficient search engine for large gene expression datasets.

    PubMed

    DeFreitas, Timothy; Saddiki, Hachem; Flaherty, Patrick

    2016-02-24

    Low-cost DNA sequencing allows organizations to accumulate massive amounts of genomic data and use that data to answer a diverse range of research questions. Presently, users must search for relevant genomic data using a keyword, accession number of meta-data tag. However, in this search paradigm the form of the query - a text-based string - is mismatched with the form of the target - a genomic profile. To improve access to massive genomic data resources, we have developed a fast search engine, GEMINI, that uses a genomic profile as a query to search for similar genomic profiles. GEMINI implements a nearest-neighbor search algorithm using a vantage-point tree to store a database of n profiles and in certain circumstances achieves an [Formula: see text] expected query time in the limit. We tested GEMINI on breast and ovarian cancer gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project and show that it achieves a query time that scales as the logarithm of the number of records in practice on genomic data. In a database with 10(5) samples, GEMINI identifies the nearest neighbor in 0.05 sec compared to a brute force search time of 0.6 sec. GEMINI is a fast search engine that uses a query genomic profile to search for similar profiles in a very large genomic database. It enables users to identify similar profiles independent of sample label, data origin or other meta-data information.

  11. Requirements management for Gemini Observatory: a small organization with big development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Madeline; Serio, Andrew; Cordova, Martin; Hardie, Kayla

    2016-08-01

    Gemini Observatory is an astronomical observatory operating two premier 8m-class telescopes, one in each hemisphere. As an operational facility, a majority of Gemini's resources are spent on operations however the observatory undertakes major development projects as well. Current projects include new facility science instruments, an operational paradigm shift to full remote operations, and new operations tools for planning, configuration and change control. Three years ago, Gemini determined that a specialized requirements management tool was needed. Over the next year, the Gemini Systems Engineering Group investigated several tools, selected one for a trial period and configured it for use. Configuration activities including definition of systems engineering processes, development of a requirements framework, and assignment of project roles to tool roles. Test projects were implemented in the tool. At the conclusion of the trial, the group determined that the Gemini could meet its requirements management needs without use of a specialized requirements management tool, and the group identified a number of lessons learned which are described in the last major section of this paper. These lessons learned include how to conduct an organizational needs analysis prior to pursuing a tool; caveats concerning tool criteria and the selection process; the prerequisites and sequence of activities necessary to achieve an optimum configuration of the tool; the need for adequate staff resources and staff training; and a special note regarding organizations in transition and archiving of requirements.

  12. The integral field spectrograph for the Gemini planet imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, James E.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Aliado, Theodore; Bauman, Brian J.; Brims, George; Canfield, John M.; Cardwell, Andrew; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Johnson, Christopher A.; Kress, Evan; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Magnone, Kenneth G.; Maire, Jerome; McLean, Ian S.; Palmer, David; Perrin, Marshall D.; Quiroz, Carlos; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Serio, Andrew; Thibault, Simon; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Vallee, Philippe; Weiss, Jason L.

    2014-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a complex optical system designed to directly detect the self-emission of young planets within two arcseconds of their host stars. After suppressing the starlight with an advanced AO system and apodized coronagraph, the dominant residual contamination in the focal plane are speckles from the atmosphere and optical surfaces. Since speckles are diffractive in nature their positions in the field are strongly wavelength dependent, while an actual companion planet will remain at fixed separation. By comparing multiple images at different wavelengths taken simultaneously, we can freeze the speckle pattern and extract the planet light adding an order of magnitude of contrast. To achieve a bandpass of 20%, sufficient to perform speckle suppression, and to observe the entire two arcsecond field of view at diffraction limited sampling, we designed and built an integral field spectrograph with extremely low wavefront error and almost no chromatic aberration. The spectrograph is fully cryogenic and operates in the wavelength range 1 to 2.4 microns with five selectable filters. A prism is used to produce a spectral resolution of 45 in the primary detection band and maintain high throughput. Based on the OSIRIS spectrograph at Keck, we selected to use a lenslet-based spectrograph to achieve an rms wavefront error of approximately 25 nm. Over 36,000 spectra are taken simultaneously and reassembled into image cubes that have roughly 192x192 spatial elements and contain between 11 and 20 spectral channels. The primary dispersion prism can be replaced with a Wollaston prism for dual polarization measurements. The spectrograph also has a pupil-viewing mode for alignment and calibration.

  13. Solution Properties of Dissymmetric Sulfonate-type Anionic Gemini Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Akiba, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Dissymmetric and symmetric anionic gemini surfactants, N-alkyl-N'-alkyl-N,N'dipropanesulfonylethylenediamine (CmCnSul, where m and n represent alkyl chain lengths of m-n = 4-16, 6-14, 8-12, 10-10, and 12-12), were synthesized by two- or three-step reactions. Their physicochemical properties were characterized by equilibrium surface tension measurements, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy of pyrene, and dynamic light scattering. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the dissymmetric surfactants C4C16Sul, C6C14Sul, and C8C12Sul was slightly lower than that of the symmetric surfactant C10C10Sul. The occupied area per molecule (A) of C8C12Sul was smaller than that of C10C10Sul, indicating that C8C12Sul has a high surface activity. However, the increase in the degree of dissymmetry from C8C12Sul to C6C14Sul and then to C4C16Sul resulted in high surface tension and large A. Based on the surface tension, the standard free energies of micellization (∆G°mic) and adsorption (∆G°ads), the efficiency of surface adsorption (pC20), and the effectiveness of surface adsorption (CMC/C20) were obtained. These parameters suggested that C8C12Sul formed micelles more readily than the other surfactants. The properties determined from the surface tension indicated that C8C12Sul's ability is intermediate between those of C10C10Sul and C12C12Sul. The pyrene fluorescence and dynamic light scattering results revealed that the micelle size depends on the longer of the two alkyl chains in dissymmetric surfactants.

  14. Differential speckle and wide-field imaging for the Gemini-North and WIYN telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Nicholas J.; Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott P.

    2016-07-01

    Two new instruments are currently being built for the Gemini-North and WIYN telescopes. They are based on the existing DSSI (Differential Speckle Survey Instrument), but the new dual-channel instruments will have both speckle and "wide-field" imaging capabilities. Nearly identical copies of the instrument will be installed as a public access permanent loan at the Gemini-N and WIYN telescopes. Many exoplanet targets will come from the NASA K2 and TESS missions. The faint limiting magnitude, for speckle observations, will remain around 16 to 17th magnitude depending on observing conditions, while wide-field, high speed imaging should be able to go to 21+. For Gemini, the instrument will be remotely operable from either the mid-level facility at Hale Pohaku or the remote operations base in Hilo.

  15. Ionic Nature of a Gemini Surfactant at the Air/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chi M; Nguyen, Cuong V; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Nguyen, Thanh V

    2016-12-06

    The ionic state of an adsorbed gemini surfactant at the air/water interface was investigated using a combination of surface potential and surface tension data. The combined model was developed and successfully described the experimental data. The results verified the existence of three ionic states of the gemini surfactant in the interfacial zone. Furthermore, the model can quantify the adsorbed concentrations of these species. At low concentrations, the fully dissociated state dominates the adsorption. At high concentrations, the fully associated state dominates, accounting for up to 80% of the total adsorption. In the middle range, the adsorption is dominated by the partially associated state, which has a maximum percentage of 80% at a critical micelle concentration of 0.5. The variation in the ionic state is a unique characteristic of gemini surfactants, which can be the underlying mechanism for their advantages over conventional surfactants.

  16. A comparison of Gemini and ERTS imagery obtained over southern Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Anderson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    A mosaic constructed from three ERTS MSS band 5 images enlarged to 1:500,000 compares favorably with a similar scale geologic map of southern Morocco, and a near-similar scale Gemini 5 photo pair. A comparative plot of lineations and generalized geology on the three formats show that a significantly greater number of probable fractures are visible on the ERTS imagery than on the Gemini photography, and that both orbital formats show several times more lineaments than were previously mapped. A plot of mineral occurrences on the structural overlays indicates that definite structure-mineralization relationships exist; this finding is used to define underdeveloped areas which are prospective for mineralization. More detailed mapping is possible using MSS imagery than on Gemini 5 photographs, and in addition, the ERTS format is not restricted to limited coverage.

  17. Structural and transfection properties of amine-substituted gemini surfactant-based nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wettig,S.; Badea, I.; Donkuru, M.; Verrall, R.; Foldvari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in DNA transfection efficiencies for non-viral vectors can be achieved through rational design of novel cationic building blocks. Based on previous results examining DNA condensation by polyamines, novel gemini surfactants have been designed that incorporate aza or imino substituents within the spacer group in order to increase interactions with DNA and potentially improve their DNA transfection ability. Transfection efficiencies and cell toxicity of gemini nanoparticles constructed from plasmid DNA, gemini surfactant, and a neutral lipid were measured in COS7 cells using a luciferase assay. Structural properties of nanoparticles were examined by using circular dichroism, particle size, zeta potential, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. The incorporation of aza and imino substituents within the spacer group was observed to enhance the transfection ability of gemini surfactants. Incorporation of an imino group in the structure of the 1,9-bis(dodecyl)-1,1,9,9-tetramethyl-5-imino-1,9-nonanediammonium dibromide surfactant (12-7NH-12) resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.01) 9-fold increase in transfection compared to an unsubstituted gemini surfactant and a 3-fold increase compared to the corresponding aza-substituted compound. A pH-dependent transition in size and zeta potential was observed to occur at pH 5.5 for complexes formed from the 12-7NH-12 compound. SAXS results show weakly ordered structures and the presence of multiple phases. The incorporation of a pH-active imino group within the spacer of the gemini surfactant results in a significant increase in transfection efficiency that can be related to both pH-induced changes in nanoparticle structure and the formation of multiple phases that more readily allow for membrane fusion that may facilitate DNA release.

  18. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)n- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex) formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE) showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50%) greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. Conclusions/Significance -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies. PMID:23861884

  19. Meeting the challenges of bringing a new base facility operation model to Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Atsuko; Arriagada, Gustavo; Adamson, A. J.; Cordova, Martin; Nunez, Arturo; Serio, Andrew; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the Gemini Observatory's Base Facilities Project is to provide the capabilities to perform routine night time operations with both telescopes and their instruments from their respective base facilities without anyone present at the summit. Tightening budget constraints prompted this project as both a means to save money and an opportunity to move toward increasing remote operations in the future. We successfully moved Gemini North nighttime operation to our base facility in Hawaii in Nov., 2015. This is the first 8mclass telescope to completely move night time operations to base facility. We are currently working on implementing BFO to Gemini South. Key challenges for this project include: (1) This is a schedule driven project. We have to implement the new capabilities by the end of 2015 for Gemini North and end of 2016 for Gemini South. (2) The resources are limited and shared with operations which has the higher priority than our project. (3) Managing parallel work within the project. (4) Testing, commissioning and introducing new tools to operational systems without adding significant disruptions to nightly operations. (5) Staff buying to the new operational model. (6) The staff involved in the project are spread on two locations separated by 10,000km, seven time zones away from each other. To overcome these challenges, we applied two principles: "Bare Minimum" and "Gradual Descent". As a result, we successfully completed the project ahead of schedule at Gemini North Telescope. I will discuss how we managed the cultural and human aspects of the project through these concepts. The other management aspects will be presented by Gustavo Arriagada [2], the Project Manager of this project. For technical details, please see presentations from Andrew Serio [3] and Martin Cordova [4].

  20. GEMMA and GEMINI, two dedicated mixed-signal ASICs for Triple-GEM detectors readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotta, A.; Croci, G.; Costantini, A.; De Matteis, M.; Tagnani, D.; Corradi, G.; Murtas, F.; Gorini, G.; Baschirotto, A.

    2016-03-01

    GEMMA and GEMINI, two integrated-circuit front-ends for the Triple-GEM detector are presented. These two ASICs aim to improve detector readout performance in terms of count rate, adaptability, portability and power consumption. GEMMA target is to embed counting, timing and spectroscopic measurements in a single 8-channel device, managing a detector capacitance up to 15 pF. On the other hand, GEMINI is dedicated to counting measurements, embedding 16 channels with a detector capacitance up to 40 pF. Both prototypes, fabricated in 130 nm and 180 nm CMOS respectively, feature an automatic on-chip calibration circuit, compensating for process/temperature variations.

  1. Target of Opportunity and Time Critical Queue Observations at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Kathy; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Miller, Bryan; Stephens, Andrew; Adamson, Andy; Jorgensen, Inger; Rodgers, Bernadette

    2011-03-01

    Gemini Observatory has been primarily supporting multi-instrument queue observing for more than 5 years, with target of opportunity and time critical programs fully integrated into queue operations. We review the different categories of ToOs supported (including rapid response) and discuss the criteria used to determine their priority and nightly scheduling in the Gemini queue. These rules lend themselves naturally to automatic algorithms that can be used to interrupt on-going observations and dynamically adapt the observing queue at a remotely / robotically operated queue based observatory.

  2. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  3. Influence of statistical sequential decay on isoscaling and symmetry energy coefficient in a gemini simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P.; Tian, W. D.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Fang, D. Q.; Wang, H. W.

    2011-09-15

    Extensive calculations on isoscaling behavior with the sequential-decay model gemini are performed for the medium-to-heavy nuclei in the mass range A=60-120 at excitation energies up to 3 MeV/nucleon. The comparison between the products after the first-step decay and the ones after the entire-steps decay demonstrates that there exists a strong sequential decay effect on the final isoscaling parameters and the apparent temperature. Results show that the apparent symmetry energy coefficient {gamma}{sub app} does not reflect the initial symmetry energy coefficient C{sub sym} embedded in the mass calculation in the present gemini model.

  4. An ultra short pulse reconstruction software applied to the GEMINI high power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galletti, Mario; Galimberti, Marco; Hooker, Chris; Chekhlov, Oleg; Tang, Yunxin; Bisesto, Fabrizio Giuseppe; Curcio, Alessandro; Anania, Maria Pia; Giulietti, Danilo

    2016-09-01

    The GRENOUILLE traces of Gemini pulses (15 J, 30 fs, PW, shot per 20 s) were acquired in the Gemini Target Area PetaWatt at the Central Laser Facility (CLF), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). A comparison between the characterizations of the laser pulse parameters made using two different types of algorithms: Video Frog and GRenouille/FrOG (GROG), was made. The temporal and spectral parameters came out to be in great agreement for the two kinds of algorithms. In this experimental campaign it has been showed how GROG, the developed algorithm, works as well as VideoFrog algorithm with the PetaWatt pulse class.

  5. Influence of statistical sequential decay on isoscaling and symmetry energy coefficient in a gemini simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, P.; Tian, W. D.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Fang, D. Q.; Wang, H. W.

    2011-09-01

    Extensive calculations on isoscaling behavior with the sequential-decay model gemini are performed for the medium-to-heavy nuclei in the mass range A=60-120 at excitation energies up to 3 MeV/nucleon. The comparison between the products after the first-step decay and the ones after the entire-steps decay demonstrates that there exists a strong sequential decay effect on the final isoscaling parameters and the apparent temperature. Results show that the apparent symmetry energy coefficient γapp does not reflect the initial symmetry energy coefficient Csym embedded in the mass calculation in the present gemini model.

  6. Observando con Gemini desde el óptico al infrarrojo medio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E. R.

    The Gemini Observatory consists of twin 8.1 meter telescopes capable to observe the entire sky in the optical and infrared. Located in one the best observing sites in the planet: Mauna Kea in Hawaii and Cerro Pachón in Chile, both telescopes are equipped with a number of very complex instru- ments designed to obtain high quality science data for the Gemini commu- nity. In this contribution I present a summary of the observing capabilities of the telescopes, their instrumentation and future development. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  7. Astronaut Edward White during first EVA performed during Gemini 4 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 space flight, floats in zero gravity of space. The extravehicular activity was performed during the third revolution of the Gemini 4 spacecraft. White is attached to the spacecraft by a 25-ft. umbilical line and a 23-ft. tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand White carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU). The visor of his helmet is gold plated to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun.

  8. ASTRONAUT WALTER M. SCHIRRA, JR. - MISC. - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-6 (PRIME CREW AT BREAKFAST) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-15

    S65-61880 (15 Dec. 1965) --- Astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr. (left), command pilot; and Thomas P. Stafford (center), pilot, enjoy a breakfast of steak and eggs in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building, Merritt Island, during the Gemini-6 prelaunch countdown. Seated at right is astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., chief, Astronaut Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. Gemini-6 was successfully launched from Pad 19 at 8:37 a.m. (EST), Dec. 15, 1965. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  9. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - SUIT - EXTRAVEHICULAR LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM - ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT (AMU) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-33167 (May 1966) --- Test subject Fred Spross, Crew Systems Division, wears an Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). The Gemini spacesuit, AMU backpack, and the Extravehicular Life Support System chest pack comprises the AMU, a system which is essentially a miniature manned spacecraft. The spacesuit legs are covered with Chromel R, which is a cloth woven from stainless steel fibers, used to protect the suit and astronaut from the hot exhaust thrust of the AMU backpack. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan will wear the AMU during his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - EXTRAVEHICULAR LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM (ELSS) - ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT (AMU) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-33162 (May 1966) --- Test subject Fred Spross, Crew Systems Division, wears configured extravehicular spacesuit assembly and Extravehicular Life Support System chest pack. The spacesuit legs are covered with Chromel R, which is a cloth woven from stainless steel fibers, used to protect the suit and astronaut from the hot exhaust thrust of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit backpack. The Gemini spacesuit, backpack and chest pack comprise the AMU, a system which is essentially a miniature manned spacecraft. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan will wear the AMU during his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  11. Gemini near-infrared observations of Europa's Hydrated Surface Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Grundy, W. M.; Dalton, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Europa is a highly dynamic icy moon of Jupiter. It is thought the moon harbors a subsurface ocean, with the potential to sustain life, with Europa being a key target of ESA's forthcoming Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JUICE) mission. However, much is not known concerning the chemistry of the subsurface ocean. The surface is dominated by water ice, with a hydrated non-ice material component providing the distinctive albedo contrasts seen at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. These non-ice materials are concentrated at disrupted surface regions, providing a diagnostic probe for the chemistry and characteristics of the liquid ocean beneath. Leading but potentially competing theories on the composition of these hydrated non-ice materials suggest either sulfuric acid-water mixtures (Carlson et al., 1999) or hydrated magnesium/sodium salts (McCord et al., 1999). Recent reanalysis of Galileo-NIMS observations suggest a mixture of both - hydrated salts are present at all longitudes but the sulfuric acid hydrates are localized on the trailing side. We present preliminary analysis of new ground-based Gemini disk-resolved spectroscopy of Europa using the Near-Infrared Integrated Field Spectrometer (NIFS), taken in late 2011, at H (1.49 - 1.80 μm) and K bands (1.99 - 2.40 μm) with spectral resolving powers of ~ 5300. At these NIR wavelengths, with spectral resolution much better than Galileo-NIMS, the spectral absorption and continuum characteristics of these ice and non-ice materials can be separated out. In addition, the spatial resolution potentially allows identification of localized materials whose signature would be diluted in disk-integrated spectra. These observations of the trailing hemisphere use Altair adaptive optics to achieve spatial resolutions of 0.1" (~310 km per pixel) or better, potentially leading to better identification of the non-ice materials and their spatial distributions. References Carlson, R.W., R.E. Johnson, and M.S. Anderson 1999. Sulfuric acid

  12. Cationic gemini surfactants with cleavable spacer: chemical hydrolysis, biodegradation, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tehrani-Bagha, A R; Holmberg, K; van Ginkel, C G; Kean, M

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes synthesis and characterization of a new type of cationic gemini surfactant, which has dodecyl tails and a spacer that contains an ester bond. The nomenclature used to describe the structure is 12Q2OCO1Q12, with Q being a quaternary ammonium group and the numbers indicating the number of methylene or methyl groups. Due to the close proximity to the two quaternary ammonium groups, the ester bond is very stable on the acid side and very labile already at slightly alkaline conditions. The hydrolysis products are two single chain surfactants (i.e. 12Q2OH and 12Q1COOH) which are less surface active than the intact gemini surfactant. 12Q2OCO1Q12 was found to be readily biodegradable, i.e. it gave more than 60% biodegradation after 28 days. This is interesting because similar gemini surfactants but with ester bonds in the tails instead of the spacer, have previously been found not to be readily biodegradable. The gemini surfactant was found to be toxic to aquatic organisms (ErC50 value of 0.27 mg/l), although less toxic than the two hydrolysis products.

  13. Gemini 11 Commander Conrad and Pilot Gordon at post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gemini 11 Commander Charles Conrad, Jr (left) and Pilot Richard F. Gordon, Jr describe mission activities during their post flight press conference at JSC. Gordon at the microphone talks about the extravehicular activity (EVA) photo projected behind the two crewmembers. During the EVA Gordon attached a tether to the Agena and retrieved a nuclear emulsion experiment package.

  14. ASTRONAUT CERNAN, EUGENE A. - MISC. (WALK AWAY FROM PAD - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 POSTPONED) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-17

    S66-34559 (17 May 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, walk away from Pad 19 after the Gemini-9 mission was postponed. Failure of the Agena Target Vehicle to achieve orbit caused the postponement of the mission. Photo credit: NASA

  15. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EDWARD A. CERNAN - PRELAUNCH - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-03

    S66-34075 (3 June 1966) --- Prime crew for the Gemini-9A spaceflight, astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (front), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, leave the suiting trailer at Launch Complex 16 in full spacesuits during prelaunch countdown. Photo credit: NASA

  16. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EDWARD A. CERNAN - MISC. - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-03

    S66-34057 (3 June 1966) --- Fisheye view of astronauts Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan in the Gemini-9 spacecraft while hatches are sealed. They are in the White Room atop Pad 19 at the Kennedy Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  17. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. WHITE -- PERSONAL - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-06-03

    S66-34051 (3 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan arrive in the White Room atop Pad 19 at the Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the launch of the Gemini-9 spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  18. U.S. Gulf Coast as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    U.S. Gulf coast area from Aransas Bay, Texas to Mobile Bay, Alabama, as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft during its 29th revolution of the earth. The Galveston Bay and Houston area is in center of photograph. Further eastward along the coast can be seen the Mississippi River delta and New Orleans area.

  19. Gulf Coast area from Texas to Louisiana seen from the Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gulf Coast area from Matagorda Bay, Texas to Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, looking east, as seen from the Gemini 12 spacecraft during its 44th revolution of the earth. Galveston Bay is in center of picture. Houston and its environs are clearly visible. Note network of freeways and superhighways. Large lake near left center of picture is the Sam Rayburn Reservoir.

  20. Gemini-Titan (GT)-6 - Recovery - Spirit of '76 Sign - Atlantic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-59990 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Crewmen of the aircraft carrier USS Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini-6 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say "Seasons Greetings from WASP" and "Spirit of 76". Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  1. ASTRONAUT JAMES A. LOVELL, JR. - RECOVERY - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - ON BOARD CARRIER - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-15

    S66-59997 (15 Nov. 1966) --- A happy Gemini-12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, USS Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 7 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  3. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 6 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 6 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  4. Gemini 9-A astronauts welcomed aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan (right) receive a warm welcome as they arrive aboard the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. John C. Stonesifer, with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, stands next to microphone at left. The Gemini 9 spacecraft can be seen in the right background of the view.

  5. Gemini 12 crew cut cake aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew slice a cake made aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  6. Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager’s adaptive optics system

    DOE PAGES

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Palmer, David W.; Macintosh, Bruce; ...

    2016-01-07

    The Gemini Planet Imager’s adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. We give a definitive description of the system’s algorithms and technologies as built. Ultimately, the error budget indicates that for all targets and atmospheric conditions AO bandwidth error is the largest term.

  7. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba is photographed by Astronaut Frank Borman and James A. Lovell during the 14th revolution of the Gemini 7 mission. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of picture on southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo.

  8. Close-up view of Hand Held Maneuvering Unit for Gemini 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Close-up view of the Hand Held Maneuvering Unit which will be used by Astronaut David R. Scott during the extravehicular activity on the Gemini 8 space flight. High pressure cold gas released through the unit's nozzles produces the required controlled thrust to maneuver in a zero-gravity environment.

  9. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EARTH SKY - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-12

    S66-62926 (12 Nov. 1966) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot of the Gemini-12 spaceflight, is photographed with pilot's hatch of the spacecraft open. Note: J.A. Maurer camera which was used to photograph some of his extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. was the command pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EARTH SKY - AGENA RENDEZVOUS - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-11

    S66-62755 (11 Nov. 1966) --- Excellent stereo and side view of the Agena Target Docking Vehicle as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during rendezvous and docking mission in space. The two spacecraft are 50 feet apart. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Interactions between DNA and gemini surfactant: impact on gene therapy: part II.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Taksim; Kamel, Amany O; Wettig, Shawn D

    2016-02-01

    Nonviral gene delivery, provides distinct treatment modalities for the inherited and acquired diseases, relies upon the encapsulation of a gene of interest, which is then ideally delivered to the target cells. Variations in the chemical structure of gemini surfactants and subsequent physicochemical characteristics of the gemini-based lipoplexes and their impact on efficient gene transfection were assessed in part I, which was published in first March 2016 issue of Nanomedicine (1103). In order to design an efficient vector using gemini surfactants, the interaction of the surfactant with DNA and other components of the delivery system must be characterized, and more critically, well understood. Such studies will help to understand how nonviral transfection complexes, in general, overcome various cellular barriers. The Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer studies, atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, small-angle x-ray scattering, are extensively used to evaluate the interaction behavior of gemini surfactants with DNA and other vector components. Part II of this review focuses on the use of these unique techniques to understand their interaction with DNA.

  12. Structural analysis and biological activities of BXL0124, a gemini analog of vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Belorusova, Anna Y; Suh, Nanjoo; Lee, Hong Jin; So, Jae Young; Maehr, Hubert; Rochel, Natacha

    2017-10-01

    Gemini analogs of calcitriol, characterized by the extension of the C21-methyl group of calcitriol with a second chain, act as agonists of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). This second side chain of gemini is accommodated in a new cavity inside the VDR created by the structural rearrangement of the protein core. The resulting conformational change preserves the active state of the receptor and bestows gemini compounds with biological activities that exceed those of calcitriol. Of particular interest are gemini's anti-cancer properties, and in this study we demonstrate anti-proliferative and tumor-reducing abilities of BXL0124 and BXL0097, differing only by the presence or absence, respectively, of the methylene group on the A ring. BXL0124 acts as a more potent VDR agonist than its 19-nor counterpart by activating VDR-mediated transcription at lower concentrations. In a similar manner, BXL0124 is more active than BXL0097 in growth inhibition of breast cancer cells and reduction of tumor volume. Structural comparisons of BXL0097 and BXL0124, as their VDR complexes, explain the elevated activity of the latter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some results of biomedical studies carried out in the Gemini and Apollo programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopanev, V. I.; Yuganov, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    Biomedical changes in Gemini and Apollo astronauts indicate physiological shifts in the majority of organs and systems of the body during space flight. Weightlessness conditions affected body weight, blood circulation, hematological indices, metabolisms, etc. Prophylactic measures to minimize the various physiological and psychological effects constitute activity and rest cycles, supplementary potassium addition to space food, artificial gravity, etc.

  14. Coacervation with surfactants: From single-chain surfactants to gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Wang, Yilin

    2017-01-01

    Coacervation is a spontaneous process during which a colloidal dispersion separates into two immiscible liquid phases: a colloid-rich liquid phase in equilibrium with a diluted phase. Coacervation is usually divided into simple coacervation and complex coacervation according to the number of components. Surfactant-based coacervation normally contains traditional single-chain surfactants. With the development of surfactants, gemini surfactants with two amphiphilic moieties have been applied to form coacervation. This review summarizes the development of simple coacervation and complex coacervation in the systems of single-chain surfactants and gemini surfactants. Simple coacervation in surfactant solutions with additives or at elevated temperature and complex coacervation in surfactant/polymer mixtures by changing charge densities, molecular weight, ionic strength, pH, or temperature are reviewed. The comparison between gemini surfactants and corresponding monomeric single-chain surfactants reveals that the unique structures of gemini surfactants endow them with higher propensity to generate coacervation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and crystal structures of gold nanowires with Gemini surfactants as directing agents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Hou, Hao; Gao, Zhinong

    2014-12-15

    The preparation of crystalline gold nanowires (NWs) by using gemini surfactants as directing agents through a three-step seed-mediated method is reported. Unlike the nanorods with relatively low aspect ratios (typically below 20) obtained by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a directing agent, the NWs obtained in this investigation can reach up to 4.4 μm, and the largest aspect ratio is calculated to be 210. For this, each of seven different gemini surfactants are utilized as directing agents, and the length and/or aspect ratio of the NWs can be tuned by varying the hydrocarbon chain lengths of the gemini surfactants. Both single and twinned crystalline structures are elucidated by selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies. The use of gemini surfactants not only advances the synthesis of gold nanostructures, but improves the understanding of the growth mechanism for seed-mediated growth. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Gemini Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of Type IIP SN2017eaw in NGC6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Jeonghee; Geballe, Thomas R.; Banerjee, Dipankar P. K.; Joshi, Vishal; Evans, Aneurin; Dessart, Luc

    2017-09-01

    We report 0.84-2.52 spectra of the Type IIP supernova SN 2017eaw in NGC6946 using GNIRS on the 8.1 meter Gemini-North telescope. Spectra have been obtained on days 22, 33, 43, 53, 107, and 124 days after the discovery of the supernova by Patrick Wiggins on 2017-05-14 (see ATel #10372).

  17. Nose of Gemini 11 spacecraft and Agena Target Vehicle as seen during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-13

    S66-54656 (13 Sept. 1966) --- Nose of Gemini-11 spacecraft and Agena Target Vehicle while docked as photographed by astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot, during his stand-up extravehicular activity (EVA). Taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Gemini 4 prime crew with Official medical nurse for Astronaut crew members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 prime crew, Astronauts Edward H. White II, (left), and James A. McDivitt (right) are shown with Lt. Dolores (Dee) O'Hare, US Air Force, Center Medical Office, Flight Medicine Branch, Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC). Lieutenant O'Hare has served during several space flights as Official medical nurse for the astronaut crew members on the missions.

  19. Some results of biomedical studies carried out in the Gemini and Apollo programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopanev, V. I.; Yuganov, Y. M.

    1975-01-01

    Biomedical changes in Gemini and Apollo astronauts indicate physiological shifts in the majority of organs and systems of the body during space flight. Weightlessness conditions affected body weight, blood circulation, hematological indices, metabolisms, etc. Prophylactic measures to minimize the various physiological and psychological effects constitute activity and rest cycles, supplementary potassium addition to space food, artificial gravity, etc.

  20. GeMini Plus: A Versatile Gamma-Ray Spectrometer for Planetary Composition Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, M. T.; Heffern, L. E.; Lawrence, D. J.; Goldsten, J. O.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2016-10-01

    GeMini Plus is a high-resolution, low-resource, gamma-ray spectrometer for planetary composition measurements. The core of the instrument has a mass of 3 kg and requires 10 watts power, making it well suited for both landed and orbital missions.

  1. MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-6 - SCRUBBED - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-10-25

    S65-44401 (1965) --- A group of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) officials and personnel watch a Cape Kennedy press conference being telecast in the Mission Control Center (MCC) after the Gemini-6 mission was scrubbed due to the apparent failure of the Agena Target Vehicle to attain orbit.

  2. GORDON, RICHARD F., ASTRONAUT - TRAINING - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - WATER EGRESS - GULF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-23

    S66-44497 (23 July 1966) --- Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and Richard F. Gordon Jr. (right), prime crew for the Gemini-11 spaceflight, practice water egress procedures in the Gulf of Mexico. Static Article 5 was used in the training exercise. A MSC swimmer is in the water assisting in the training. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Gemini 9-A astronauts talk to reporters at Ellington field at end of mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A prime crew, Astronauts Thomas Stafford (left), command pilot, and Eugene Cernan (right), pilot, express their feelings about being home to their families, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Officials, newsmen and well-wishers gathered at Ellington Air Force Base to welcome the astronauts home. At right is George M. Low, MSC Deputy Director.

  4. Astronaut Gordon Cooper receives preflight medical exam for Gemini 5 flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-17

    S65-28710 (17 Aug. 1965) --- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., command pilot for the Gemini-5 spaceflight, has his blood pressure checked by Dr. Charles A. Berry, chief, Center Medical Programs, Manned Spacecraft Center, during a preflight physical examination.

  5. Gemini 11 prime crew during water egress training in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and Richard F. Gordon Jr. (right), prime crew for Gemini 11 space flight, practice water egress procedures in the Gulf of Mexico. Static Article 5 was used in the training exercise. A Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC) swimmer is in the water assisting in the training.

  6. Gemini 12 crew cut cake aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew slice a cake made aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  7. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 6 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 6 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  8. Crewmen of the U.S.S. Wasp watching recovery of Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Crewmen of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp gather on deck to watch the recovery of the Gemini 7 spacecraft and astronauts. Note the signs hanging from the railings which say 'Seasons Greetings from WASP' and 'Spirit of 76'.

  9. Gemini 9-A astronauts welcomed aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan (right) receive a warm welcome as they arrive aboard the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp. John C. Stonesifer, with the Manned Spacecraft Center's Landing and Recovery Division, stands next to microphone at left. The Gemini 9 spacecraft can be seen in the right background of the view.

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-5 - EARTH-SKY - (70mm HASSELBLAD)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-21

    S65-45748 (21-29 Aug. 1965) --- Looking northeast, the Imperial Valley and Salton Sea in southern California is photographed from the Earth-orbiting Gemini-5 spacecraft. This picture was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using MS Ektachrome thin base film, ASA 64.

  11. Central portion of Florida, Gulf of Mexico seen from Gemini 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54565 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Central portion of Florida, Gulf of Mexico to Atlantic Ocean, Cape Kennedy is at left center of photo, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 29th revolution of Earth. Photo lacks detail due to low sun angle. Sunglint on lakes is visible. Photo credit: NASA

  12. GEMINI-TITAN (GT-10) - EARTH SKY - SAHARA - MAURITANIA - ALGERIA - MOROCCO - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46062 (18-21 July 1966) --- Area of the Spanish Sahara--Mauritania--Algeria--Morocco, looking north into Hamada Du Dra, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Taken with a J.A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  13. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EXPERIMENT D-10 - ION-SENSING ATTITUDE CONTROL - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-10-01

    S66-09377 (1 Oct. 1966) --- One of two Ion Sensors which will be used to investigate determination of Gemini-12 spacecraft attitude in yaw and pitch from measurement of ion flow variations. Each sensor is attached to an extendible boom in the retrograde adapter section. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit to be used during EVA on Gemini 4

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-02

    Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit to be used during extravehicular activity (EVA) on Gemini 4 flight. It is an integral unit that contains its own high pressure metering valves and nozzles required to produce controlled thrust. A camera is mounted on the front of the unit.

  15. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-8 (MANEUVERING UNIT)(HAND-HELD) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-01

    S66-19184 (1966) --- Close-up view of the Hand Held Maneuvering Unit which will be used by astronaut David R. Scott during the extravehicular activity on the Gemini-8 spaceflight. High pressure cold gas released through the unit's nozzles produces the required controlled thrust to maneuver in a zero-gravity environment. Photo credit: NASA

  16. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9A - LIFTOFF - ATLAS/AUGMENTED TARGET DOCKING ADAPTER (ATDA) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-01

    S66-32139 (1 June 1966) --- An Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) atop an Atlas launch vehicle is launched from Kennedy Space Center's Pad 14 at 10 a.m., June 1, 1966. The ATDA is a rendezvous and docking vehicle for the Gemini-9A space mission. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Gulf Coast from Corpus Christi to mouth of Mississippi river from Gemini 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54559 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Gulf Coast from Corpus Christi, Texas, to mouth of Mississippi River, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 29th revolution of Earth. This photo was taken near sunrise. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Gulf Coast from from Atchafalaya Bay to Apalachicola seen from Gemini 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54563 (14 Sept. 1966) --- View of the Gulf Coast area from Atchafalaya Bay to Apalachicola, including the mouth of the Mississippi River, Mobile Bay, New Orleans, Louisiana, and Pensacola, Florida, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 29th revolution of Earth. This photo was taken near sunrise. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants: Effect of the spacer on their ecological properties.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Teresa; Kaczerewska, Olga; Ribosa, Isabel; Brycki, Bogumił; Materna, Paulina; Drgas, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of five types of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants have been examined. The effect of the spacer structure and the head group polarity on the ecological properties of a series of dimeric dodecyl ammonium surfactants has been investigated. Standard tests for ready biodegradability assessment (OECD 310) were conducted for C12 alkyl chain gemini surfactants containing oxygen, nitrogen or a benzene ring in the spacer linkage and/or a hydroxyethyl group attached to the nitrogen atom of the head groups. According to the results obtained, the gemini surfactants examined cannot be considered as readily biodegradable compounds. The negligible biotransformation of the gemini surfactants under the standard biodegradation test conditions was found to be due to their toxic effects on the microbial population responsible for aerobic biodegradation. Aquatic toxicity of gemini surfactants was evaluated against Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity values to Daphnia magna, IC50 at 48 h exposure, ranged from 0.6 to 1 mg/L. On the basis of these values, the gemini surfactants tested should be classified as toxic or very toxic to the aquatic environment. However, the dimeric quaternary ammonium-based surfactants examined result to be less toxic than their corresponding monomeric analogs. Nevertheless the aquatic toxicity of these gemini surfactants can be reduced by increasing the molecule hydrophilicity by adding a heteroatom to the spacer or a hydroxyethyl group to the polar head groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical model to investigate the alkyl chain and anion dependent interactions of gemini surfactant with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Vishvakarma, Vijay K; Kumari, Kamlesh; Patel, Rajan; Dixit, V S; Singh, Prashant; Mehrotra, Gopal K; Chandra, Ramesh; Chakrawarty, Anand Kumar

    2015-05-15

    Surfactants are used to prevent the irreversible aggregation of partially refolded proteins and they also assist in protein refolding. We have reported the design and screening of gemini surfactant to stabilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the help of computational tool (iGEMDOCK). A series of gemini surfactant has been designed based on bis-N-alkyl nicotinate dianion via varying the alkyl group and anion. On changing the alkyl group and anion of the surfactant, the value of Log P changes means polarity of surfactant can be tuned. Further, the virtual screening of the gemini surfactant has been carried out based on generic evolutionary method. Herein, thermodynamic data was studied to determine the potential of gemini surfactant as BSA stabilizer. Computational tools help to find out the efficient gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA rather than to use the surfactant randomly and directionless for the stabilization. It can be confirmed through the experimental techniques. Previously, researcher synthesized one of the designed and used gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA and their interactions were confirmed through various techniques and computational docking. But herein, the authors find the most competent gemini surfactant to stabilize BSA using computational tools on the basis of energy score. Different from the single chain surfactant, the gemini surfactants exhibit much stronger electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the protein and are thus effective at much lower concentrations. Based on the present study, it is expected that gemini surfactants may prove useful in the protein stabilization operations and may thus be effectively employed to circumvent the problem of misfolding and aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Theoretical model to investigate the alkyl chain and anion dependent interactions of gemini surfactant with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishvakarma, Vijay K.; Kumari, Kamlesh; Patel, Rajan; Dixit, V. S.; Singh, Prashant; Mehrotra, Gopal K.; Chandra, Ramesh; Chakrawarty, Anand Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Surfactants are used to prevent the irreversible aggregation of partially refolded proteins and they also assist in protein refolding. We have reported the design and screening of gemini surfactant to stabilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the help of computational tool (iGEMDOCK). A series of gemini surfactant has been designed based on bis-N-alkyl nicotinate dianion via varying the alkyl group and anion. On changing the alkyl group and anion of the surfactant, the value of Log P changes means polarity of surfactant can be tuned. Further, the virtual screening of the gemini surfactant has been carried out based on generic evolutionary method. Herein, thermodynamic data was studied to determine the potential of gemini surfactant as BSA stabilizer. Computational tools help to find out the efficient gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA rather than to use the surfactant randomly and directionless for the stabilization. It can be confirmed through the experimental techniques. Previously, researcher synthesized one of the designed and used gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA and their interactions were confirmed through various techniques and computational docking. But herein, the authors find the most competent gemini surfactant to stabilize BSA using computational tools on the basis of energy score. Different from the single chain surfactant, the gemini surfactants exhibit much stronger electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the protein and are thus effective at much lower concentrations. Based on the present study, it is expected that gemini surfactants may prove useful in the protein stabilization operations and may thus be effectively employed to circumvent the problem of misfolding and aggregation.

  2. Observations Of The LCROSS Impact With NIFS On The Gemini North Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Katherine; Stephens, A. W.; Trujillo, C. A.; McDermid, R. M.; Woodward, C. E.; Walls, B. D.; Coulson, D. M.; Matulonis, A. C.; Ball, J. G.; Wooden, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted a permanently shadowed crater near the south pole of the Moon at 11:31 UTC 2009 October 09. Gemini, one of several telescopes in a coordinated network observing the impact, conducted observations using NIFS to obtain 3D K-band imaging spectroscopy to detect water ice in the ejected plume of material. The spectral slope of the NIFS data can constrain the grain size and height distribution as the plume evolves, measuring the total mass and the water ice concentration in the plume. These observations provided an engineering challenge for Gemini, including the need to track non-sidereal with constantly changing track rates and guide on small bright moon craters, in order to keep the impact site within the NIFS field-of-view. High quality images taken by GMOS-N, NIRI and the acquisition camera during engineering periods at specific lunar libration and illumination were also used by the LCROSS ground based observing team to supplement slit positioning and offset plans for other ground based observatories. LCROSS mission support and engineering has resulted in improved telescope functionality for non-sidereal targets, including the ability to upload and import target ephemerides directly into the TCS, starting in semester 2010B. In this poster we present the engineering results and observing improvements which will facilitate enhanced user capabilities of the Gemini telescopes arising from the intensive LCROSS support challenge. Gemini Observatory is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the STFC (United Kingdom), the NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the ARC (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). In part this research was supported by NASA through contracts to SWRI and NSF grant AST-0706980 to the U

  3. Solution properties and emulsification properties of amino acid-based gemini surfactants derived from cysteine.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Sakato, Ayako; Esumi, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid-based anionic gemini surfactants (2C(n)diCys, where n represents an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 12, or 14 carbons and "di" and "Cys" indicate adipoyl and cysteine, respectively) were synthesized using the amino acid cysteine. Biodegradability, equilibrium surface tension, and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize the properties of gemini surfactants. Additionally, the effects of alkyl chain length, number of chains, and structure on these properties were evaluated by comparing previously reported gemini surfactants derived from cystine (2C(n)Cys) and monomeric surfactants (C(n)Cys). 2C(n)diCys shows relatively higher biodegradability than does C(n)Cys and previously reported sugar-based gemini surfactants. Both critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension decrease when alkyl chain length is increased from 10 to 12, while a further increase in chain length to 14 results in increased CMC and surface tension. This indicates that long-chain gemini surfactants have a decreased aggregation tendency due to the steric hindrance of the bulky spacer as well as premicelle formation at concentrations below the CMC and are poorly packed at the air/water interface. Formation of micelles (measuring 2 to 5 nm in solution) from 2C(n)diCys shows no dependence on alkyl chain length. Further, shaking the mixtures of aqueous 2C(n)diCys surfactant solutions and squalane results in the formation of oil-in-water type emulsions. The highly stable emulsions are formed using 2C₁₂diCys or 2C₁₄diCys solution and squalane in a 1:1 or 2:1 volume ratio.

  4. Refolding of urea denatured cytochrome c: Role of hydrophobic tail of the cationic gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajan; Mir, Muzaffar Ul Hassan; Singh, Upendra Kumar; Beg, Ilyas; Islam, Asimul; Khan, Abbul Bashar

    2016-12-15

    The refolding of urea denatured horse heart cytochrome c (h-cyt-c) under the influence of ester based cationic gemini surfactants [ethane-1, 2-diyl bis(N, N-dimethyl-N-alkylammoniumacetoxy) dichlorides] 16-E2-16, 14-E2-14 and 12-E2-12 (n-E2-n) was performed by using UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques. We found that n-E2-n geminis promote the formation of molten globule (MG) like state upon addition into the urea denatured h-cyt-c. The comparative study of refolding of denatured h-cyt-c with n-E2-n, cationic gemini surfactant show stabilization of MG-like state influenced by hydrophobic interactions. The formation of MG-like state from the unfolded protein confirms the presence of some regular structures induced by n-E2-n gemini surfactants. Thermodynamic parameters for refolding of h-cyt-c by n-E2-n were also measured and the m-values of all the refolded states of h-cyt-c by n-E2-n show marked difference. The higher m-values correspond to the larger hydrophobic chain length indicates that refolding ability of the n-E2-n depends on the alkyl chain length. The result is related to the stronger hydrophobic forces due to the presence of two head groups and two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. This study showed that these cationic gemini surfactants were efficiently utilized in the protein refolding studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-assembly of Gemini Surfactant Molecules and the Properties of Nano-confined Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantha, Sriteja

    Gemini surfactants are dimeric surfactants, formed by connecting two single tail surfactants with a linker at or near their headgroups. These surfactants in water have tendency to self-assemble into lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) morphologies with percolating water channels, which have potential applications as membranes for selective ion transport, controlled release formulations, media for chemical separation and catalysis. Using molecular dynamics simulations, this thesis investigates self-assembly behavior of gemini surfactants and properties of water confined in their LLCs. Length of the linker is known to significantly effect the self-assembly behavior of gemini surfactants in water. Dicarboxylate gemini surfactants with odd number of carbon atoms in the linker are shown to favor bicontinuous cubic (Gyroid) LLC morphologies over hexagonally(H) packed cylinders. On the other hand, surfactants with even number of carbon atoms favor H morphologies at same water content. This thesis suggests that, differences in LLC phase behavior of odd and even gemini surfactants is due to differences in the headgroup/headgroup repulsion caused by inherent conformational preferences of the surfactants. In the LLCs formed by dicarboxylate gemini surfactants, water molecules are under charged confinement. Structure and dynamic properties of water in these confinements depend on width of the water channel and nature of the counterion. Simulation results reported in this thesis suggest that water dynamics is at least an order of magnitude slower than that in bulk water, and decrease in the size of water channel results in further decrease in the dynamic properties. Counterion effect investigated in this thesis suggests that excluded volume effects play a significant role in the dynamics of confined water. Water molecules in surfactant systems with TMA+ as counterion have access to less volume for mobility than the systems with Na+ and K+ as counterion. At high water content

  6. Tests of Dynamic Scale Model of Gemini Capsule in the Langley 20-Foot Free-Spinning Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Tests of Dynamic Scale Model of Gemini Capsule in the Langley 20-Foot Free-Spinning Tunnel. The film shows three spin tunnel tests of a 1/20 scale model of the Gemini capsule. In the first test, the capsule spins freely. In tests 2 and 3, a drogue parachute is attached to the capsule. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030989. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  7. Modulation of pyridinium cationic lipid-DNA complex properties by pyridinium gemini surfactants and its impact on lipoplex transfection properties

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Lees, Julia; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Brailoiu, Eugen; Madesh, Muniswamy; Wunder, Stephanie L.; Ilies, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents the effects of blending a cationic gemini surfactant into cationic lipid bilayers and its impact towards plasmid DNA compaction and delivery process. Using nanoDSC, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility measurements, together with transfection (2D- and 3D-) and viability assays, we identified the main physicochemical parameters of the lipid bilayers, liposomes and lipoplexes that are affected by the gemini surfactant addition. We also correlated the cationic bilayer composition with the dynamics of the DNA compaction process, and with transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity and internalization mechanism of the resultant nucleic acid complexes. We found that blending of gemini surfactant into the cationic bilayers fluidized the supramolecular assemblies, reduced the amount of positive charge required to fully compact the plasmid DNA and, in certain cases, changed the internalization mechanism of the lipoplexes. Transfection efficiency of select ternary lipoplexes derived from cationic gemini surfactants and lipids was several times superior to transfection efficiency of corresponding binary lipoplexes, also surpassing standard transfection systems. The overall impact of gemini surfactants into the formation and dynamic of cationic bilayers was found to depend heavily on the presence of co-lipids, their nature and amount present into lipoplexes. The study confirmed the possibility of combining the specific properties of pyridinium gemini surfactants and cationic lipids synergistically for obtaining efficient synthetic transfection systems with negligible cytotoxicity useful for therapeutic gene delivery. PMID:24377350

  8. Modulation of pyridinium cationic lipid-DNA complex properties by pyridinium gemini surfactants and its impact on lipoplex transfection properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Lees, Julia; Hoffman, Nicholas E; Brailoiu, Eugen; Madesh, Muniswamy; Wunder, Stephanie L; Ilies, Marc A

    2014-02-03

    The study presents the effects of blending a cationic gemini surfactant into cationic lipid bilayers and its impact on the plasmid DNA compaction and delivery process. Using nanoDSC, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and electrophoretic mobility measurements, together with transfection (2D- and 3D-) and viability assays, we identified the main physicochemical parameters of the lipid bilayers, liposomes, and lipoplexes that are affected by the gemini surfactant addition. We also correlated the cationic bilayer composition with the dynamics of the DNA compaction process and with transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity, and the internalization mechanism of the resultant nucleic acid complexes. We found that the blending of gemini surfactant into the cationic bilayers fluidized the supramolecular assemblies, reduced the amount of positive charge required to fully compact the plasmid DNA and, in certain cases, changed the internalization mechanism of the lipoplexes. The transfection efficiency of select ternary lipoplexes derived from cationic gemini surfactants and lipids was several times superior to the transfection efficiency of corresponding binary lipoplexes, also surpassing standard transfection systems. The overall impact of gemini surfactants into the formation and dynamic of cationic bilayers was found to depend heavily on the presence of colipids, their nature, and amount present in lipoplexes. The study confirmed the possibility of combining the specific properties of pyridinium gemini surfactants and cationic lipids synergistically to obtain efficient synthetic transfection systems with negligible cytotoxicity useful for therapeutic gene delivery.

  9. Structure and Rheology of Wormlike Micelles Formed by Fluorocarbon-Hydrocarbon-Type Hybrid Gemini Surfactant in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Ken; Sugawara, Seiya; Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-20

    The structure and rheological properties of wormlike micelles formed by a fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon-type hybrid gemini surfactant in an aqueous solution were investigated by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and viscoelastic measurements. The cross-sectional structure (the radius of the hydrophobic core and the thickness of the hydrophilic shell) and the aggregation number per unit axial length of wormlike micelles were evaluated by a model fitting analysis of SAXS profiles. Both parameters for the hybrid gemini surfactant were smaller than those of a corresponding hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon-type gemini surfactant. On the other hand, the viscosity of the hybrid gemini surfactant was higher than that of the hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon-type gemini surfactant. From the viscoelastic parameters, the steady state compliance, Je, and the terminal relaxation time, τw, which were independently obtained by dynamic viscoelastic measurement, we revealed that a larger number of entanglements and a longer contour length of the hybrid gemini surfactant led to the higher viscosity. These results obtained by the rheological measurements were consistent with those obtained by SAXS analysis.

  10. Membranes of cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol with hydroxyl headgroups and their interactions with DNA and phospholipid.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Joydeep; Bajaj, Avinash; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2011-01-27

    Two series of cholesterol-based cationic gemini lipids with and without hydroxyl functions at the headgroups possessing different lengths of polymethylene [-(CH(2))(n)-] (n = 3, 4, 5, 6, 12) spacer have been synthesized. Each gemini lipid formed stable suspension in water. The suspensions of these gemini lipids in water were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction to characterize the nature of the individual aggregates formed therein. The aggregation properties of these gemini lipids in water were found to strongly depend upon the length of the spacer and the presence of hydroxyl group at the headgroup region. Lipoplex formation (DNA binding) and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes were performed to understand the nature of interactions that prevail between these cationic cholesterol aggregates and duplex DNA. The interactions between such gemini lipids and DNA depend both on the presence of OH on the headgroups and the spacer length between the headgroups. Finally, we studied the effect of incorporation of each cationic gemini lipid into dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles using differential scanning calorimetry. The properties of the resulting mixed membranes were found again to depend upon the nature of the headgroup and the spacer chain length.

  11. ASTRONAUT JAMES A. MCDIVITT - MISC. - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 WELCOME - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-07

    S65-19530 (7 June 1965) --- The red carpet treatment is given to the Gemini-Titan 4 astronauts Edward H. White II and James A. McDivitt as they arrive on the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Wasp after their record breaking 62-revolution, 97-hour and 56-minute flight which ended in the Atlantic Ocean about 400 miles east of Cape Kennedy at 12:12 p.m. (EST) on June 7, 1965. Here they are shown being welcomed by members of the crew and NASA people. White and McDivitt (center) walk on the red carpet flanked by Capt. J.W. Conger (left), commander of the ship; and Rear Adm. W.M. McCormick, commander, Carrier Division 14, Atlantic Fleet. NASA's Gemini-4 flight landed about 48 miles short of the aircraft carrier.

  12. HH137 and 138: Discovering New Knots and a Molecular Outflow with Gemini and APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, L. V.; Cappa, C. E.; Gomez, M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a multi-frequency study of HH 137 and HH 138 using Gemini images and APEX molecular line data, as well as Spitzer images. Several 2.12 micron knots linked to HH137 are identified in the Gemini image. 12^CO(3-2), 13^CO(3-2), and C18^O(3-2) line data reveal the molecular counterpart of HH 137. Spitzer combined images suggest the location of the exciting source of HH 137, almost coincident with a high-density molecular clump detected in C18^O. We derive the main physical parameters of the molecular clump and the molecular outflow, and propose a simple scenario for the whole complex.

  13. Integrating the Galileoscope into Successfully Established as Well as New Outreach Programs at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Michaud, P.; Slater, T.; Slater, S.; Goldstein, J.

    2011-09-01

    The annual Journey through the Universe program is a flagship Gemini public education/outreach event that engages the public, teachers, astronomers, engineers, and thousands of local students and staff from all of the Mauna Kea Observatories. Now going into its seventh year in Hawaii, the 2010 program has integrated the Galileoscope as an integral part of the ten-day program with teacher workshops, classroom telescope kits, and a new teacher resource package developed for the program. Through the generous donation of Galileoscopes from the Ric and Jean Edelman Foundation and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, each Project/Family Astro site received Galileoscopes. Each family participating in Gemini's Family Astro event and training program will receive a Galileoscope to take home. Workshops will be offered to the Girl and Boy scouts, the Boys and Girls Club of Hawaii, the County of Hawaii's Department of Parks and Recreation's summer programs, and other community organizations.

  14. Large collaboration in observational astronomy: the Gemini Planet Imager exoplanet survey case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Franck; Kalas, Paul G.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Savransky, Dmitry; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian; Graham, James R.

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation high-contrast imager built for the Gemini Observatory. The GPI exoplanet survey (GPIES) consortium is made up of 102 researchers from 28 institutions in North and South America and Europe. In November 2014, we launched a search for young Jovian planets and debris disks. In this paper, we discuss how we have coordinated the work done by this large team to improve the technical and scientific productivity of the campaign, and describe lessons we have learned that could be useful for future instrumentation-based astronomical surveys. The success of GPIES lies mostly on its decentralized structure, clear definition of policies that are signed by each member, and the heavy use of modern tools for communicating, exchanging information, and processing data.

  15. Effects of head type on the stability of gemini surfactant foam by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gang; Yuan, Congtai; Ji, Xianjing; Wang, Hongbing; Sun, Shuangqing; Hu, Songqing

    2017-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the stability of gemini surfactant foam with different head groups. The results showed that the interaction strength between the polar head groups of the surfactants and water molecules increased from 12-3S-12 (sulfate) system, 12-3Sn-12 (sulfonate) system to 12-3L-12 (carboxylate) system, and the coordination number of water molecules around head increased. From the perspective of energy, the interface formation energy of 12-3L-12 system was smallest, which means that the foam stability was the best. These results indicated that the different head type had a significant effect on the stability of gemini surfactant foam.

  16. A new MOS mask cutter facility at Gemini/Cerro Tololo observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Robert T.; Trancho, Gelys; Tighe, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    The installation and commissioning of a new laser cutter facility in La Serena, Chile is a cooperative effort between Gemini Observatory and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. This system enables the cutting of aluminum and carbon fiber slit masks for three multi-object spectrographs operating in Chile: GMOS-S, Flamingos-2, and Goodman spectrograph. Selection of the new laser cutter tool was based on slit mask specifications developed for two materials. Prior to the commissioning all slit mask production was performed at Gemini's Northern base facility with a similar laser cutter system. The new facility supports two observatories and enhances the capabilities for both. This paper will discuss the observatory arrangement with respect to mask data tracking and handling. The laser system and facility will be discussed along with mask cutting performance, process development and manufacturing methods.

  17. Efficient improvement of surface activity of tea saponin through Gemini-like modification by straightforward esterification.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jin; Chen, Ying; Liu, Xin; Liu, Songbai

    2015-03-15

    Novel strategy of Gemini-like modification has been applied in development of new nonionic surfactants, tea saponin esters, with enhanced surface activity by simple esterification. Tea saponin was treated with acyl chlorides of different chain length and different ratio of tea saponin and acyl chloride under alkaline condition. The structures of tea saponin esters were analysed and confirmed by FT-IR, NMR and ESI-MS. Surface activity investigation revealed that esterification with the chain length of C12 and C14 and the ratio of 1:4 to 1:6 produced superior surface activity compared with tea saponin. The exceptional surface activity of the new surfactants suggested their great potential application in food industry as green surfactants due to their environmental benign nature as well as simple and inexpensive preparation. The strategy of Gemini-like modification will facilitate development of green surfactants based on natural resources.

  18. ASTRONAUT WHITE, EDWARD - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30433 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  19. The Gemini High-Resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) bench spectrograph optical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazder, John; Burley, Greg; Ireland, Michael J.; Robertson, Gordon; Sheinis, Andrew; Zhelem, Ross

    2016-08-01

    Gemini High-Resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) is a fiber-fed spectrograph being developed for the Gemini telescope. GHOST is a white pupil échelle spectrograph with high efficiency and a broad continuous wavelength coverage (363-1000nm) with R>50,000 in two-object mode and >75,000 in single-object mode. The design incorporates a novel zero-Petzval sum white pupil relay to eliminate grating aberrations at the cross-dispersers. Cameras are based on non-achromatic designs with tilted detectors to eliminate the need for exotic glasses. This paper outlines the optical design of the bench-mounted spectrograph and the predicted spectrograph resolution and efficiency for the spectrograph.

  20. Topical Non-Invasive Gene Delivery using Gemini Nanoparticles in Interferon-gamma-deficient Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Badea,I.; Wettig, S.; Verrall, R.; Foldvari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous gene therapy, although a promising approach for many dermatologic diseases, has not progressed to the stage of clinical trials, mainly due to the lack of an effective gene delivery system. The main objective of this study was to construct and evaluate gemini nanoparticles as a topical formulation for the interferon gamma (IFN-{gamma}) gene in an IFN-{gamma}-deficient mouse model. Nanoparticles based on the gemini surfactant 16-3-16 (NP16-DNA) and another cationic lipid cholesteryl 3{beta}-(-N-[dimethylamino-ethyl] carbamate) [Dc-chol] (NPDc-DNA) were prepared and characterized. Zetasizer measurement indicated a bimodal distribution of 146 and 468 nm average particle sizes for the NP16-DNA ({zeta}-potential +51 mV) nanoparticles and monomodal distribution of 625 nm ({zeta}-potential +44 mV) for the NPDc-DNA. Circular dichroism studies showed that the gemini surfactant compacted the plasmid more efficiently compared to the Dc-chol. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements revealed structural polymorphism in the NP16-DNA nanoparticles, with lamellar and Fd3m cubic phases present, while for the NPDc-DNA two lamellar phases could be distinguished. In vivo, both topically applied nanoparticles induced higher gene expression compared to untreated control and naked DNA (means of 0.480 and 0.398 ng/cm{sup 2} vs 0.067 and 0.167 ng/cm{sup 2}). However, treatment with NPDc-DNA caused skin irritation, and skin damage, whereas NP16-DNA showed no skin toxicity. In this study, we demonstrated that topical cutaneous gene delivery using gemini surfactant-based nanoparticles in IFN-{gamma}-deficient mice was safe and may provide increased gene expression in the skin due to structural complexity of NP16 nanoparticles (lamellar-cubic phases).

  1. Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford - Training - Parasail - Gemini-Titan (GT)-5 Pilot - Galveston Bay, TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-23

    S65-51948 (23 Aug. 1965) --- Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, Gemini-6 prime crew pilot, stands ready to take part in parasail training in Galveston Bay, Texas. Wearing spacesuit, helmet and carrying water survival gear, he will be lifted into the air by a deployed parachute and guided over the Bay where he will drop into the water to test airdrop and water survival techniques. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  2. Gemini-Titan (GT)-12 Crew - Official Welcome - USS Wasp - Atlantic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-15

    S66-59981 (15 Nov. 1966) --- Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, receive official welcome as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. Gemini-12 splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean recovery area at 2:21 p.m. (EST), Nov. 15, 1966, to conclude a four-day mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  3. ASTRONAUT CERNAN, EUGENE A. - RECOVERY (GEMINI-TITAN [GT]-9A) - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-34111 (6 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left) and Eugene A. Cernan talk to President Lyndon B. Johnson via ship-to-shore telephone from aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. Gemini-9A splashed down only 3.5 miles from the recovery ship at 9 a.m. (EST), June 6, 1966, 345 miles east of Cape Kennedy, to conclude a 72-hour, 21-minute mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-7 - PREFLIGHT PHYSICAL - ASTRONAUT FRANK BORMAN - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-02

    S65-60603 (2 Dec. 1965) --- Astronaut Frank Borman, Gemini-7 command pilot, sits attentively as two scalp electrodes are attached to his head. The electrodes will allow doctors to record electrical activity of the astronaut's cerebral cortex during periods of weightlessness. The objectives of this in-flight experiment are to assess state of alertness, levels of consciousness, and depth of sleep. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Gemini-Titan (GT)-5 - Mission Control Center (MCC) Activity - Cape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-21

    S65-28742 (21 Aug. 1965) --- View of Mission Control Center at Cape Kennedy, Florida, moments after the Gemini-5 spacecraft was launched from Pad 19 on Aug. 21, 1965. Standing at right is astronaut Donald K. Slayton, assistant director for Flight Crew Operations, Manned Spacecraft Center. Seated (wearing dark shirt) is astronaut Russell L. Schweickart. Other NASA and McDonnell Aircraft Col. personnel also monitor the progress of the flight.

  6. Serine-based gemini surfactants with different spacer linkages: from self-assembly to DNA compaction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sandra G; Oliveira, Isabel S; do Vale, M Luísa C; Marques, Eduardo F

    2014-12-14

    Cationic gemini surfactants have strong potential as compaction agents of nucleic acids for efficient non-viral gene delivery. In this work, we present the aggregation behavior of three novel cationic serine-based gemini surfactants as well as their ability to compact DNA per se and mixed with a helper lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). All the surfactants have a 12-12-12 configuration, i.e. two main 12-carbon alkyl chains linked to the nitrogen atom of the amino acid residue and a 12 methylene spacer, but they differ in the nature of the spacer linkage: for (12Ser)2N12, an amine bond; for (12Ser)2CON12, an amide bond; and for (12Ser)2COO12, an ester bond. Interestingly, while the amine-based gemini aggregates into micelles, the amide and ester ones spontaneously form vesicles, which denotes a strong influence of the type of linkage on the surfactant packing parameter. The size, ζ-potential and stability of the vesicles have been characterized by light microscopy, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The interaction of the gemini aggregates with DNA at different charge ratios and in the absence and presence of DOPE has been studied by DLS, fluorescence spectroscopy and cryo-SEM. All the compounds are found to efficiently compact DNA (complexation > 90%), but relevant differences are obtained in terms of the size, ζ-potential and stability of the lipoplexes formed. Results are rationalized in terms of headgroup differences and the type of aggregates present prior to DNA condensation.

  7. Structural, biocomplexation and gene delivery properties of hydroxyethylated gemini surfactants with varied spacer length.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Gabdrakhmanov, Dinar R; Ibragimova, Alsu R; Vasilieva, Elmira A; Nizameev, Irek R; Kadirov, Marsil K; Ermakova, Elena A; Gogoleva, Natalia E; Faizullin, Dzhigangir A; Pokrovsky, Andrey G; Korobeynikov, Vladislav A; Cheresiz, Sergey V; Zuev, Yuriy F

    2016-04-01

    Gemini surfactants with hexadecyl tails and hydroxyethylated head groups bridged with tetramethylene (G4), hexamethylene (G6) and dodecamethylene (G12) spacers were shown to self-assemble at the lower critical micelle concentration compared to their conventional m-s-m analogs. The lipoplex formation and the plasmid DNA transfer into different kinds of host cells were studied. In the case of eukaryotic cells, high transfection efficacy has been demonstrated for DNA-gemini complexes, which increased as follows: G6G4>G12 has been obtained in the case of transformation of bacterial cells with plasmid DNA-gemini complexes, mediated by electroporation technique. Solely G6 shows transformation efficacy exceeding the control result (uncomplexed DNA), while the inhibitory effect occurs for G4 and G12. Analysis of physico-chemical features of single surfactants and lipoplexes shows that compaction and condensation effects change as follows: G6gemini in the case of transformation of bacterial cells. They are (i) an unfavorable influence of cationic surfactants on the electroporation procedure due to depressing the electrophoretic effect; and (ii) antibacterial activity of cationic surfactants that may cause the disruption of integrity of cell membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Questions and Answers for Ken Thomas' "Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini Spacesuits" Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian & Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intravehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  9. Gemini-Titan (GT)-10 - Weightlessness Training - Wright-Patterson AFB, OH

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-04-01

    S66-28782 (1 April 1966) --- Astronaut Michael Collins, prime crew pilot of the Gemini-10 spaceflight, experiences a condition of weightlessness during zero-gravity egress training. A KC-135 Air Force plane, flying a parabolic curve, creates a weightless environment as a training exercise in preparation for spaceflight. The Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit in his right hand produces controlled thrust for moving about. Photo credit: NASA

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - MOCKUP - ADAPTER EQUIPMENT SECTION - FUEL CELL - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-01

    S66-22686 (March 1966) --- Mock-up of the adapter equipment section to be used on the Gemini-9 spaceflight. This section provides volume and attach points for several system modules, including Orbit Attitude Maneuver System, Environmental Control System primary oxygen supply, batteries, coolant, and electrical and electric components. This section will also hold the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) backpack (center). Photo credit: NASA

  11. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - MISC. - EXPERIMENT D-16 - KNEE TETHER - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-28

    S66-00933 (28 Jan. 1966) --- Gemini-11 Experiment D-16 Knee Tether, sponsored by the Department of Defense and the United States Air Force. The astronaut tightens and loosens bolts in a prescribed pattern during his extravehicular activity, once with his body held to the spacecraft by a nine-inch tether looped around his knee and through the handrail, and once without the tether. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Physicochemical properties of oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Aburai, Kenichi; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Endo, Takeshi; Kitiyanan, Boonyarach; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    We have developed oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups. The fluorocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via a -CH(2)CH(2)OCO- unit, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via -OCOCH(2)CH(2)- units. The aqueous solution properties of these surfactants were studied at pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm–3 NaCl by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering measurements. The resulting surface tension data demonstrate that the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants exhibit excellent surface activity in their dilute aqueous solutions. In addition, the surfactants are suggested to form micellar aggregates 2–4 nm in diameter. We also studied the aqueous temperature-concentration phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants (disodium salts) on the basis of visual observations (through a crossed polarizer), polarized optical microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. Several phase states including micellar solution phase, hexagonal phase, bicontinuous cubic phase, and lamellar phase were observed along with the coexistence of these phases in certain regions. Assemblies with lesser positive curvature tend to be formed with increasing surfactant concentration, increasing temperature, and increasing fluorocarbon chain length. A comparison of the phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactant systems suggests that close molecular packing is inhibited within the assemblies of the partially fluorinated surfactants because of the limited miscibility between the fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon units. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic report focusing on the temperature-concentration phase diagrams of (partially) fluorinated gemini surfactants over a wide range of compositions and temperatures.

  13. Synthesis of surfactants based on pentaerythritol. I. Cationic and zwitterionic gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Nusrat; Paul, Nawal; Petropolis, Christian J; Marangoni, D Gerrard; Grindley, T Bruce

    2009-10-16

    Simple strategies for the synthesis of five series of cationic gemini surfactants and one series of zwitterionic gemini surfactants from pentaerythritol have been developed. Two lipophilic groups were introduced onto pentaerythritol by alkylation of the known compound, O-benzylidenepentaerythritol, with 1-bromooctane, 1-bromodecane, 1-bromododecane, and 1-bromotetradecane. Hydrogenolysis of the benzylidene acetals gave diols which were converted into three different series of trimethylammonium derivatives. The diiodides derived from the diols could be displaced by dimethylamine, even though they are adjacent to a quaternary carbon atom. Alkylation with methyl iodide gave the first series. The iodides were easily displaced by cyanide ion and the resulting dinitriles were hydrolyzed, converted to N,N-dimethylamides, and reduced to give a second series. Oxidation of the diols to dialdehydes under Swern conditions followed by Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions with diethyl N,N-dimethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate followed by two-stage reduction gave a third series. The dialkoxides derived from the four di-O-alkylpentaerthritol diols were reacted with 2-dimethylaminoethyl chloride and 3-dimethylaminopropyl chloride in neighboring-group assisted double Williamson ether syntheses to give precursors to two more series. As expected because the neighboring group participation occurs through a four-membered-ring intermediate, considerably more vigorous conditions were required for the reactions with 3-dimethylaminopropyl chloride. 2-Diethylaminoethyl bromide was found to be less reactive than 2-dimethylaminoethyl chloride. The products were alkylated with methyl iodide and, in some cases, other alkyl halides to give cationic gemini surfactants. Alkylation of one series with ethyl bromoacetate followed by anion exchange resin catalyzed ester hydrolysis gave zwitterionic gemini surfactants. The members of all series have superior surfactant properties.

  14. Arabian Peninsula and northeast Africa as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Arabian Peninsula (on left) and northeast Africa (on right) as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft at an altitude of 340 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of the earth, looking southeast. Saudia Arabia, South Arabia, Yemen and Aden Protectorate are at left. At bottom right is Ethiopia. French Somaliland is in center on right shore. Somali is at upper right. Body of water at bottom is Red Sea. Gulf of Aden is in center; and at top left is Indian Ocean.

  15. Arabian Peninsula and northeast Africa as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Arabian Peninsula (on left) and northeast Africa (on right) as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft at an altitude of 340 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of the earth, looking southeast. Saudia Arabia, South Arabia, Yemen and Aden Protectorate are at left. At bottom right is Ethiopia. French Somaliland is in center on right shore. Somali is at upper right. Body of water at bottom is Red Sea. Gulf of Aden is in center; and at top left is Indian Ocean.

  16. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - INSERTION - WHITE ROOM - ATOP PAD 19 - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-03

    S66-34065 (3 June 1966) --- Technicians prepare to close the hatches on the Gemini-9A spacecraft in the White Room atop Pad 19 after insertion of astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left) and Eugene A. Cernan. Liftoff was at 8:39 a.m., June 3, 1966. A humorous sign from backup crew, James A. Lovell Jr. and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., was taped to the spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA

  17. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - ASTRONAUT TRAINING - UNDERWATER - FOOT PLATES - MD

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-10-29

    S66-54939 (29 Oct. 1966) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot for the Gemini-12 spaceflight, practices work tasks during underwater zero-gravity training. He is placing his feet into a special foot plate in an adapter section of the spacecraft. The foot plate will help secure him to the spacecraft during extravehicular activity (EVA). The underwater environment closely simulates the zero-gravity condition found in space. Photo credit: NASA

  18. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - EARTH-SKY VIEW - PERU - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38290 (5 June 1966) --- The north coastal area of Peru looking southeast across the Andes Mountains as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-9A spacecraft. The body of water is the Pacific Ocean. The image was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  19. The opto-mechanical design for GMOX: a next-generation instrument concept for Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert; Robberto, Massimo; Ninkov, Zoran; Gennaro, Mario; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the opto-mechanical design of GMOX, the Gemini Multi-Object eXtra-wide-band spectrograph, a potential next-generation (Gen-4 #3) facility-class instrument for Gemini. GMOX is a wide-band, multi-object, spectrograph with spectral coverage spanning 350 nm to 2.4 um with a nominal resolving power of R 5000. Through the use of Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) technology, GMOX will be able to acquire spectra from hundreds of sources simultaneously, offering unparalleled flexibility in target selection. Utilizing this technology, GMOX can rapidly adapt individual slits to either seeing-limited or diffraction-limited conditions. The optical design splits the bandpass into three arms, blue, red, and near infrared, with the near-infrared arm being split into three channels covering the Y+J band, H band, and K band. A slit viewing camera in each arm provides imaging capability for target acquisition and fast-feedback for adaptive optics control with either ALTAIR (Gemini North) or GeMS (Gemini South). Mounted at the Cassegrain focus, GMOX is a large (1.3 m x 2.8 m x 2.0 m) complex instrument, with six dichroics, three DMDs (one per arm), five science cameras, and three acquisition cameras. Roughly half of these optics, including one DMD, operate at cryogenic temperature. To maximize stiffness and simplify assembly and alignment, the opto-mechanics are divided into three main sub-assemblies, including a near-infrared cryostat, each having sub-benches to facilitate ease of alignment and testing of the optics. In this paper we present the conceptual opto-mechanical design of GMOX, with an emphasis on the mounting strategy for the optics and the thermal design details related to the near-infrared cryostat.

  20. Island of Hispaniola, Dominican Republic as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63926 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Island of Hispaniola, Dominican Republic end, as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft during its 179th revolution of Earth. North is toward the left of the picture. This photograph was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  1. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Companion Detection Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-12-01

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  2. Study on cloud points of Triton X-100-cationic gemini surfactants mixtures: a spectroscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Akbaş, Halide; Boz, Mesut; Batigöç, Ciğdem

    2010-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of various cationic surfactants on the cloud point (CP) of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) in aqueous solutions. Instead of visual observation, a spectrophotometer was used for measurement of the cloud point temperatures. The values of CPs for Triton X-100 can be measured directly because TX-100 has an average number of oxyethylene units per molecule of p approximately 9.5 and a CP=66.0 degrees C. Quaternary ammonium dimeric surfactants (m-s-m, m=10, 12, and 16, and s=2, 6, and 10) were synthesized and used. The melting temperature T(M) and the Krafft temperature T(K) were measured for 1 wt% aqueous solutions of these synthesized surfactants. The melting temperature of the solid gemini surfactants increased with the carbon number of the alkyl chain. The results showed that additions of the gemini surfactants (which are infinitely miscible with water) to Triton X-100 increased the cloud point of the TX-100 solutions. All salts tested in these studies had a large effect on the CPs of nonionic surfactants due to their effect on water structure and their hydrophilicity. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the gemini surfactant on the CP of Triton X-100 is therefore more important than the spacer chain length. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and Commissioning of the Integral Field Spectrograph for the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Larkin, J. E.; Planet Imager instrument, Gemini; science Teams

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is one of a new generation of instruments being built to directly image extrasolar planets in the outer solar systems of young main sequence stars. By combining a 1700-actuactor adaptive optics system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision interferometric infrared wavefront sensor, and an integral field spectrograph (IFS), GPI’s goal is more than an order of magnitude improvement in contrast compared to existing high contrast systems. This presentation focuses on the performance and characterization of the GPI IFS which is based on concepts from the OSIRIS instrument employed at Keck. Like OSIRIS, the IFS utilizes an infrared transmissive lenslet array to sample an approximate 2.7 x 2.7 arcsecond field of view at the diffraction limit of the Gemini Telescopes. The IFS provides over 36,000 simultaneous low-resolution (R ~ 45) spectra across five bands between 1 and 2.5μm. Alternatively, the dispersing element can be replaced with a Wollaston prism to provide broadband polarimetry of the same five filter bands. The IFS construction was based at the University of California, Los Angeles in collaboration with the Université de Montreal, Immervision and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The IFS was integrated with the other components of GPI in the fall of 2011. GPI has recently finished Integration & Testing at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and has been shipped to Gemini South where it is undergoing post delivery acceptance testing.

  4. A vitamin D receptor selectively activated by gemini analogs reveals ligand dependent and independent effects.

    PubMed

    Huet, Tiphaine; Laverny, Gilles; Ciesielski, Fabrice; Molnár, Ferdinand; Ramamoorthy, Thanuja Gali; Belorusova, Anna Y; Antony, Pierre; Potier, Noelle; Metzger, Daniel; Moras, Dino; Rochel, Natacha

    2015-02-03

    The bioactive form of vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3] regulates mineral and bone homeostasis and exerts potent anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The 3D structures of the VDR ligand-binding domain with 1,25(OH)2D3 or gemini analogs unveiled the molecular mechanism underlying ligand recognition. On the basis of structure-function correlations, we generated a point-mutated VDR (VDR(gem)) that is unresponsive to 1,25(OH)2D3, but the activity of which is efficiently induced by the gemini ligands. Moreover, we show that many VDR target genes are repressed by unliganded VDR(gem) and that mineral ion and bone homeostasis are more impaired in VDR(gem) mice than in VDR null mice, demonstrating that mutations abolishing VDR ligand binding result in more severe skeletal defects than VDR null mutations. As gemini ligands induce VDR(gem) transcriptional activity in mice and normalize their serum calcium levels, VDR(gem) is a powerful tool to further unravel both liganded and unliganded VDR signaling.

  5. Unexpected role of linker position on ammonium gemini surfactant lyotropic gyroid phase stability.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Gregory P; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K

    2016-02-28

    Arising from the water-driven self-assembly of amphiphiles over generally narrow temperature and composition phase windows, aqueous lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) network phases are useful in applications as therapeutic delivery vehicles and templates for mesoporous material syntheses. While a clear set of amphiphile design rules that enables access to these intricate three-dimensional structures has yet to emerge, recent work indicates that bis(ammonium), bis(phosphonium), and dicarboxylate gemini ("twin tail") surfactants enable enhanced access to LLC network phases such as the double gyroid (G). In order to better understand the scope of this amphiphile design strategy, we investigated the synthesis and aqueous LLC self-assembly behaviors of a homologous series of quaternary gemini bis(ammonium) dichloride surfactants, in which we varied the position of the hydrophobic linker that connects the constituent single tail surfactants. These experiments demonstrate that the position of the linker directly impacts the maximum counterion-headgroup hydration capacity and the extent of counterion-headgroup association, all of which contribute to the aqueous lyotropic double gyroid network phase stability. Thus, judicious selection of the linker position in ionic gemini surfactants provides a new molecular design tool for manipulating LLC network phase stability.

  6. Effect of amide bonds on the self-assembly of gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Jiaul; Gonuguntla, Spandhana; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Aswal, Vinod K; Haldar, Jayanta

    2014-06-21

    This study provides an insight into the micellar aggregation properties in aqueous solutions of various gemini surfactants bearing one or more amide groups at the side chains and/or in the spacer by conductivity and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies. The amide functionality was found to enhance the surfactant aggregation properties as compared to the surfactants having no amide bond. Furthermore, the aggregation properties of the gemini surfactants bearing amide groups were found to strongly depend on the position and number of amide bonds. With the increase in the number of amide bonds, the aggregation number (N) and the size of the micelles increased. Additionally, the size and shape of the micelles were also found to depend both on the hydrocarbon chain length and the spacer chain length. It was also found that the aggregation number and the size of the micelles increased with an increase in concentration and decreased with an increase in temperature. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) values of the gemini surfactants obtained by a conductometric method were found to vary greatly with variation in the hydrocarbon chain.

  7. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Gemini 20S-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Analogs

    PubMed Central

    LIN, ZONGTAO; MAREPALLY, SRINIVASA R.; KIM, TAE-KANG; JANJETOVIC, ZORICA; OAK, ALLEN SW.; POSTLETHWAITE, ARNOLD E.; MYERS, LINDA K.; TUCKEY, ROBERT C.; SLOMINSKI, ANDRZEJ T.; MILLER, DUANE D.; LI, WEI

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D3 (D3) can be metabolized by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) into 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20D3) as a major metabolite. This bioactive metabolite has shown strong antiproliferative, antifibrotic, pro-differentiation and anti-inflammatory effects while being non-toxic (non-calcemic) at high concentrations. Since D3 analogs with two symmetric side chains (Gemini analogs) result in potent activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), we hypothesized that the chain length and composition of these types of analogs also containing a 20-hydroxyl group would affect their biological activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of Gemini 20D3 analogs. Biological tests showed that some of these analogs are partial VDR activators and can significantly stimulate the expression of mRNA for VDR and VDR-regulated genes including CYP24A1 and transient receptor potential cation channel V6 (TRPV6). These analogs inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells with potency comparable to that of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Moreover, these analogs reduced the level of interferon γ and up-regulated the expression of leukocyte associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 in splenocytes, indicating that they have potent anti-inflammatory activities. There are no clear correlations between the Gemini chain length and their VDR activation or biological activities, consistent with the high flexibility of the ligand-binding pocket of the VDR. PMID:26976974

  8. Mixing Behavior in Binary Anionic Gemini Surfactant-Perfluorinated Fatty Acid Langmuir Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Jeveria; Sowah-Kuma, David; Stevens, Amy L; Bu, Wei; Paige, Matthew F

    2017-10-03

    The miscibility and film structure of mixed Langmuir monolayer films composed of an anionic gemini N,N,N',N'-dialkyl-N,N'-diacetate ethylenediamine surfactant (Ace(12)-2-Ace(12)) with perfluorotetradecanoic acid (C13F27COOH; PF) have been investigated using a variety of thermodynamic and structural characterization methods. The two film components were found to be miscible in monolayers at the air-water interface over a range of compositions and at all but the lowest surface pressures, with attractive interactions occurring between the two components. While pure PF monolayers formed crystalline lattices with hexagonal symmetry and with the surfactant tails oriented normal to the underlying water subphase, the pure gemini surfactant formed amorphous films with little tendency to orient at the subphase. In mixed films with mole ratios of PF:Ace(12)-2-Ace(12) < 2.5, the miscibility of the two components resulted in a nearly complete loss of crystallinity of the PF, though films at higher mole fractions of PF showed some residual crystallinity, albeit with lattice structures that were significantly different from that of pure PF. Miscibility and film structure in this mixed system are discussed in comparison with other mixed gemini surfactant systems in the literature as well as binary mixtures of phospholipids or monomeric fatty acids with PF.

  9. Interaction of two imidazolium gemini surfactants with two model proteins BSA and HEWL.

    PubMed

    Gospodarczyk, W; Kozak, M

    Gemini surfactants and their interactions with proteins have gained considerable scientific interest, especially when amyloidogenic proteins are taken into account. In this work, the influence of two selected dicationic (gemini) surfactants (3,3'-[1,8-(2,7-dioxaoctane)]bis(1-dodecylimidazolium) chloride and 3,3'-[1,12-(2,11-dioxadodecane)]bis(1-dodecylimidazolium) chloride) on two model proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), have been investigated. A pronounced and sophisticated influence on BSA structure has been revealed, including a considerable change of protein radius of gyration as well as substantial alteration of its secondary structure. Radius of gyration has been found to rise significantly with addition of surfactants and to fall down for high surfactants concentration. Similarly, a remarkable fall of secondary structure (α-helix content) has been observed, followed by its partial retrieval for high surfactants concentration. A strong aggregation of BSA has been observed for a confined range of surfactants concentrations as well. In case of HEWL-gemini system, on the other hand, the protein-surfactant interaction was found to be weak. Molecular mechanisms explaining such behaviour of protein-surfactant systems have been proposed. The differences of properties of both studied surfactants have also been discussed.

  10. The survival of terrestrial microorganisms in space at orbital altitudes during Gemini satellite experiments.

    PubMed

    Hotchin, J; Lorenz, P; Hemenway, C L

    1968-01-01

    In a previous series of rocket- and satellite-borne experiments, microorganisms were exposed to space between altitudes of 60 to 460 km for periods between 3 minutes and 4 months. The results showed that some of the unprotected microorganisms survived the direct exposure for up to 17 hours. Complete survival was found when the microorganisms were shielded from nonpenetrating radiation. These results made it desirable to systematically study the lethal influence of the space environment on a wider spectrum of unprotected microorganisms over various exposure periods. This communication presents the results of exposure experiments on board the Gemini XII satellite. The microorganisms were dried on plastic coated aluminum plates using techniques which will be described elsewhere. During the flight of the Gemini XII space capsule, the microorganisms were directly exposed to space for approximately 6 1/2 hours. After the successful completion of the Gemini XII mission the payload was returned to the laboratory for elution and titration of the microorganisms using techniques described elsewhere. The results showed that again survival of some microorganisms had occurred. An attempt is made to integrate these results with data obtained in previously published experiments.

  11. Astronaut Edward White during first EVA performed during Gemini 4 flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-34635 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot on the Gemini-Titan 4 spaceflight, is shown during his egress from the spacecraft. His face is covered by a shaded visor to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun. White became the first American astronaut to walk in space. He remained outside the spacecraft for 21 minutes during the third revolution of the Gemini-4 mission. He wears a specially designed spacesuit for the extravehicular activity (EVA). In his right hand, he carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controlled his movements while in space. He was attached to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped together with gold tape to form one cord. He wears an emergency oxygen supply chest pack. Astronaut James A. McDivitt is command pilot for the Gemini-4 mission. EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  12. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-IV - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - ASTRONAUT WHITE - CREW TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-01

    S65-30428 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot on the Gemini-Titan 4 spaceflight, is shown during his egress from the spacecraft. His face is covered by a shaded visor to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun. White became the first American astronaut to walk in space. He remained outside the spacecraft for 21 minutes during the third revolution of the Gemini-4 mission. He wears a specially designed spacesuit for the extravehicular activity (EVA). In his right hand, he carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controlled his movements while in space. He was attached to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped together with gold tape to form one cord. He wears an emergency oxygen supply chest pack. Astronaut James A. McDivitt is command pilot for the Gemini-4 mission. EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  13. ASTRONAUT WHITE, EDWARD H. II - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-IV - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - CREW TRAINING

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30430 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot on the Gemini-Titan 4 spaceflight, is shown during his egress from the spacecraft. His face is covered by a shaded visor to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun. White became the first American astronaut to walk in space. He remained outside the spacecraft for 21 minutes during the third revolution of the Gemini-4 mission. He wears a specially designed spacesuit for the extravehicular activity (EVA). In his right hand, he carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controlled his movements while in space. He was attached to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped together with gold tape to form one cord. He wears an emergency oxygen supply chest pack. Astronaut James A. McDivitt is command pilot for the Gemini-4 mission. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  14. Implementing an Education and Outreach Program for the Gemini Observatory in Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. A.

    2006-08-01

    Beginning in 2001, the Gemini Observatory began the development of an innovative and aggressive education and outreach program at its Southern Hemisphere site in northern Chile. A principal focus of this effort is centered on local education and outreach to communities surrounding the observatory and its base facility in La Serena Chile. Programs are now established with local schools using two portable StarLab planetaria, an internet-based teacher exchange called StarTeachers and multiple partnerships with local educational institutions. Other elements include a CD-ROM-based virtual tour that allows students, teachers and the public to experience the observatory's sites in Chile and Hawaii. This virtual environment allows interaction using a variety of immersive scenarios such as a simulated observation using real data from Gemini. Pilot projects like "Live from Gemini" are currently being developed which use internet videoconferencing technologies to bring the observatory's facilities into classrooms at universities and remote institutions. Lessons learned from the implementation of these and other programs will be introduced and the challenges of developing educational programming in a developing country will be shared.

  15. Gemini pyridinium amphiphiles for the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Alea-Reyes, María E; González, Asensio; Calpena, Ana C; Ramos-López, David; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Pérez-García, Lluïsa

    2017-09-15

    Gemini pyridinium-based amphiphiles can play a triple role as: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis facilitator, particle stabilizer and anion recognition centre. The so formed nanoparticles should be able to bind and release anionic drugs. We describe (a) Synthesis, by a phase transfer method, of both new organic media and water soluble AuNPs using gemini-type surfactants based on bis-pyridinium salts as ligands, acting as transfer agents into organic media and also as nanoparticle stabilizers, (b) Examination of their stability in solution, (c) Chemical and physical characterization of the nanoparticles, (d) Toxicity data concerning both the bis-pyridinium ligands and the bis-pyridinium coated nanoparticles, and (e) Study of their ability for delivering anionic pharmaceuticals such as ibuprofen and piroxicam. Pyridinium gemini-type surfactants show the ability to play multiple roles such as transfer agent and stabilizer, as well as ionophores: They are responsible for the preparation, stability, and delivery properties of these AuNPs, which gold core is stabilized by the anions present in the bis-pyridinium salts. The tetrahydropyridine resulting from the reduction of the bis-pyridinium salt is capable of reduce gold, due to its spontaneous oxidation to the corresponding pyridinium salt, leading to the formation of stable AuNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - WEIGHTLESSNESS EXPERIMENT - AMES RESEARCH CENTER (ARC), CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-01

    S65-18762 (March 1965) --- Effects of the weightless environment on cell division, the basic growth process for living tissue, will be studied during the Gemini-Titan 3 flight scheduled for March 23, 1965. A spiny black sea urchin (upper left) is stimulated by mild electric shock or potassium chloride. As a result it sheds many thousands of eggs. When fertilized, these eggs become actively dividing cells very similar in basic processes to cells of other animals, including humans. These pictures show stages of cell division. At upper right is a single cell; at lower right cell divisions have produced many cells. Cell photos are magnified about 700 times, and all cells shown are too small to be seen by the naked eye. (Photos at upper right and lower left are of sea urchin eggs. Group of cells at lower right are from a sand dollar, which like the sea urchin, is an Echinoderm. Its eggs are virtually identical and are used interchangeably with those of the sea urchin in NASA Ames Center weightlessness experiments.) The Gemini experiment will involve cell division like that shown here. This will take place during several hours of weightlessness aboard the Gemini spacecraft. The experiment will be flown back to laboratories at Cape Kennedy after spacecraft recovery. It has been designed so that any abnormal cell division found by postflight analysis should suggest that the weightless environment has effects on individual cells. This might mean hazards for prolonged periods of manned spaceflight.

  17. Syntheses, transfection efficacy and cell toxicity properties of novel cholesterol-based gemini lipids having hydroxyethyl head group.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Joydeep; Mishra, Santosh K; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2011-06-21

    We have synthesized five new cholesterol based gemini cationic lipids possessing hydroxyethyl (-CH(2)CH(2)OH) function on each head group, which differ in the length of the polymethylene spacer chain. These gemini lipids are important for gene delivery processes as they possess pre-optimized molecular features, e.g., cholesterol backbone, ether linkage and a variable spacer chain between both the headgroups of the gemini lipids. Cationic liposomes were prepared from each of these lipids individually and as a mixture of individual cationic gemini lipid and 1,2-dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Each gemini lipid based formulation induced better transfection activity than that of their monomeric counterpart. One such gemini lipid with a -(CH(2))(12)- spacer, HG-12, showed dramatic increase in the mean fluorescence intensity due to the expression of green-fluorescence protein (GFP) in the presence of 10% FBS compared to the conditions where there was no serum. Other gemini lipids retained their gene transfection efficiency without any marked decrease in the presence of serum. The only exception was seen with the gemini with a -(CH(2))(3)- spacer, HG-3, which on gene transfection in the presence of 10% FBS lost ~70% of its transfection efficiency. Overall the gemini lipid with a -(CH(2))(5)- spacer, HG-5, showed the highest transfection activity at N/P (lipid/DNA) ratio of 0.5 and lipid : DOPE molar ratio of 2. Upon comparison of the relevant parameters, e.g., %-transfected cells, the amount of DNA transfected to each cell and %-cell viability all together against Lipofectamine 2000, one of the best commercial transfecting agents, the optimized lipid formulation based on DOPE/HG-5 was found to be comparable. In terms of its ability to induce gene-transfer in the presence of serum and shelf-life DOPE/HG-5 liposome was found to be superior to its commercial counterpart. Confocal imaging analysis confirmed that in the presence of 10% serum using a Lipid : DOPE of 1

  18. Design and Evaluation of RGD-Modified Gemini Surfactant-Based Lipoplexes for Targeted Gene Therapy in Melanoma Model.

    PubMed

    Mohammed-Saeid, Waleed; Chitanda, Jackson; Al-Dulaymi, Mays; Verrall, Ronald; Badea, Ildiko

    2017-09-01

    We have developed and evaluated novel peptide-targeted gemini surfactant-based lipoplexes designed for melanoma gene therapy. Integrin receptor targeting peptide, cyclic-arginylglycylaspartic acid (cRGD), was either chemically coupled to a gemini surfactant backbone or physically co-formulated with lipoplexes. Several formulations and transfection techniques were developed. Transfection efficiency and cellular toxicity of the lipoplexes were evaluated in an in vitro human melanoma model. Physicochemical properties were examined using dynamic light scattering, zeta-potential, and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. RGD-modified gemini surfactant based lipoplexes showed significant enhancement in gene transfection activity in A375 cell lines compared to the standard non-targeted formulation, especially when RGD was chemically conjugated to the gemini surfactant (RGD-G). The RGD had no effect on the cell toxicity profile of the lipoplex systems. Targeting specificity was confirmed by using an excess of free RGD and negative control peptide (RAD) and was demonstrated by using normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Physicochemical characterization showed that all nanoparticles were in the optimal size range for cellular uptake and there were no significant differences between RGD-modified and standard lipoplexes. These findings indicate the potential of RGD-modified gemini surfactant-based lipoplexes for use in melanoma gene therapy as an alternative to conventional chemotherapy.

  19. D-glucose derived novel gemini surfactants: synthesis and study of their surface properties, interaction with DNA, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash; Chatterjee, Amrita; Kumar, Nupur; Ganguly, Anasuya; Chakraborty, Indranil; Banerjee, Mainak

    2014-10-09

    Four new D-glucose derived m-s-m type gemini surfactants with variable spacer and tail length have been synthesized by a simple and efficient synthetic methodology utilizing the free C-3 hydroxy group of diisopropylidene glucose. The synthetic route to these gemini surfactants with a quaternary ammonium group as polar head group involves a sequence of simple reactions including alkylation, imine formation, quaternization of amine etc. The surface properties of the new geminis were evaluated by surface tension and conductivity measurements. These gemini surfactants showed low cytotoxicity by MTT assay on HeLa cell line. The DNA binding capabilities of these surfactants were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis, fluorescence titration, and DLS experiments. The preliminary studies by agarose gel electrophoresis indicated chain length dependent DNA binding abilities, further supported by ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. Two of the D-glucose derived gemini surfactants showed effective binding with pET-28a plasmid DNA (pDNA) at relatively low N/P ratio (i.e., cationic nitrogen/DNA phosphate molar ratio). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reverse micellar extraction of bovine serum albumin - a comparison between the effects of gemini surfactant and its corresponding monomeric surfactant.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Cai, Juan; Guo, Xia

    2013-01-15

    Gemini surfactant displayed distinct advantages over monomeric surfactant in the liquid-liquid reverse micellar extraction process. First, less amount of gemini surfactant than monomeric surfactant was needed for transferring almost complete bovine serum albumin (BSA) into organic phase from aqueous phase. Second, the loading capacity of gemini surfactant reverse micelle phase was much higher than that of the corresponding monomeric surfactant reverse micelle. Third, efficient backward extraction (75-92%) of BSA could be effected in a wide pH range from 4 to 9 with gemini surfactant reverse micelle while a pH of ca. 4.3 is prerequisite to the recovery of BSA from monomeric surfactant reverse micelle. So far, the reports about the effect of surfactant structure on protein extraction have been limited. This study indicates the important role of the spacer of gemini surfactant in protein extraction process and may provide more knowledge on how to optimise surfactant structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.