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Sample records for astrophytum myriostigma lemaire

  1. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Frati-Munari, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R

    1988-01-01

    To assess the hypoglycemic effect of the nopal Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire (O. streptacantha Lem.), three groups of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. Group one (16 patients) ingested 500 g of broiled nopal stems. Group 2 (10 patients) received only 400 ml of water as a control test. Three tests were performed on group 3 (6 patients): one with nopal, a second with water, and a third with ingestion of 500 g broiled squash. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. After the intake of O. streptacantha Lem., serum glucose and serum insulin levels decreased significantly in groups 1 and 3, whereas no similar changes were noticed in group 2. The mean reduction of glucose reached 17.6 +/- 2.2% of basal values at 180 min in group 1 and 16.2 +/- 1.8% in group 3; the reduction of serum insulin at 180 min reached 50.2 +/- 8.0% in group 1 and 40.3 +/- 12.4% in group 3. This study shows that the stems of O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested. PMID:3276479

  2. Bioactivity evaluation of ingredients identified from the fruits of Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemaire, a Chinese spice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Tian; Lu, Chuan-Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a phytochemical investigation was conducted on Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemaire, a traditional Chinese spice. Based on spectroscopic methods including MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, DEPT135 and HMQC spectroscopy, eight main chemical compositions, sitosterol, daucosterol, meso-hannokinol, quercetin, epicatechin, quercetin-7-O-β-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside, and catechol, were isolated and identified from A. tsaoko, among which quercetin, quercetin-7-O-β-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside were first found in A. tsaoko. Their bioactivities were evaluated by the inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, the protective effect on H2O2-induced apoptosis of PC-12 cells and the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Epicatechin exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory properties; its inhibition rate was up to 63.65% at a concentration of 100 μg mL(-1). In addition, quercetin showed the strongest neuroprotective effect of PC-12 cells induced by H2O2, and the cell viability was up to 78.9% at a concentration of 50 μg mL(-1). Quercetin also exhibited excellent DPPH radical-scavenging activity at a concentration of 100 μg mL(-1) (DPPH radical inhibition rate > 80%), which was very close to Vc at the same concentration. It is concluded that, in A. tsaoko, different ingredients have their own health functions.

  3. Hydrolysis of Agave fourcroydes Lemaire (henequen) leaf juice and fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbon sources for biofuel production are wide-ranging and their availability depends on the climate and soil conditions of the land where the production chain is located. Henequen (Agave fourcroydes Lem.) is cultivated in Yucatán, Mexico to produce natural fibers from the leaves, and a juice containing fructans is produced during this process. Fructans can be hydrolyzed to fructose and glucose and metabolized into ethanol by appropriate yeasts. In Mexico, different Agave species provide the carbon source for (distilled and non-distilled) alcoholic beverage production using the stem of the plant, whilst the leaves are discarded. In this work, we investigated the effect of thermal acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of the juice on the amount of reducing sugars released. Growth curves were generated with the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus and fermentations were then carried out with Kluyveromyces marxianus to determine alcohol yields. Results With thermal acid hydrolysis, the greatest increase in reducing sugars (82.6%) was obtained using 5% H2SO4 at 100°C with a 30 min reaction time. Statistically similar results can be obtained using the same acid concentration at a lower temperature and with a shorter reaction time (60°C, 15 min), or by using 1% H2SO4 at 100°C with a 30 min reaction time. In the case of enzymatic hydrolysis, the use of 5.75, 11.47 and 22.82 U of enzyme did not produce significant differences in the increase in reducing sugars. Although both hydrolysis processes obtained similar results, the difference was observed after fermentation. Ethanol yields were 50.3 ± 4 and 80.04 ± 5.29% of the theoretical yield respectively. Conclusions Final reducing sugars concentrations obtained with both thermal acid and enzymatic hydrolysis were similar. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a good ethanol producer, did not grow in the hydrolysates. Only Kluyveromyces marxianus was able to grow in them, giving a higher ethanol yield with the enzymatic hydrolysate. The leaves account for a non-negligible weight of the total agave plant biomass, so this work complements the knowledge already developed on agave fermentations by making it possible to produce ethanol from almost the entire plant (stem and leaves). PMID:24529165

  4. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Frati-Munari, A C; Del Valle-Martínez, L M; Ariza-Andraca, C R; Islas-Andrade, S; Chávez-Negrete, A

    1989-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the doses of O. streptacantha Lem. and its acute hypoglycemic action in diabetics, eight patients with type II diabetes mellitus were studied. Four test were performed to each patient with the intake of: (a) 400 ml of water, (b) 100 g (c) 300 g and (d) 500 g of broiled stems of O. streptacantha Lem. Serum glucose was measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Maximal decrease of serum glucose was noticed at 180 minutes, with a mean of 2.3, 10, 30.1 and 46.7 mg/dl less than basal value with 0, 100, 300 and 500 g respectively (P = NS, less than 0.05, less than 0.001 and less than 0.001 respectively). A significant direct correlation (r = 0.690, P less than 0.001) was noticed between the doses and the hypoglycemic effect. PMID:2557805

  5. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  6. Efficiency and Adaptiveness of Multiple School-Taught Strategies in the Domain of Simple Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the fluency with which first-graders with strong, moderate, or weak mathematical abilities apply the decomposition-to-10 and tie strategy on almost-tie sums with bridge over 10. It also assessed children's memorized knowledge of additions up to 20. Children's strategies were analysed in terms of Lemaire and Siegler's model…

  7. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  8. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Camacho, R; Roman-Ramos, R

    1979-01-01

    Nopal (Opuntia sp.) has been traditionally used by the Mexican population for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this work is to describe effects produced by directly liquified nopal and extracts from this plant in healthy and pancreatectomized rabbits. Preliminary results allow us to conclude that Opuntia streptacantha, Lemaire, has hypoglycemic properties when orally administered, in animals with experimentally induced diabetes as well as in healthy ones with physiologic hyperglycemia. PMID:539865

  9. A review of the geology of the Argentinian Fuegian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivero, Eduardo B.; Martinioni, Daniel R.

    2001-06-01

    Seven stratigraphic units reflect the tectonic evolution of the Argentinian Fuegian Andes: Basement (Paleozoic-Jurassic); Lemaire Formation (Upper Jurassic); Yahgan-Beauvoir formations (Lower Cretaceous); Cerro Matrero Formation (Upper Cretaceous); Rı´o Claro Formation (Paleocene); La Despedida Group (Eocene); and Cabo Peña Formation (uppermost Eocene-Lower Oligocene). Basement rocks (garnet, quartz-sericite, and chlorite schists; and amphibolites) are unconformably covered by the Lemaire Formation (rhyolites; basalts; slates; and acidic volcaniclastic breccias, tuffs, conglomerates, and turbidites), formed during extensional tectonism. The post-rift Yahgan Formation (deep-marine black mudstones, andesitic volcaniclastic turbidites and tuffs) interfingers northward with the Beauvoir Formation (slope and platform black mudstones), and covers the Lemaire Formation unconformably. The Yahgan Formation represents an andesitic, volcaniclastic apron, coeval with a Pacific volcanic-arc, filling a marginal basin floored with oceanic crust. The Late Cretaceous compressional orogeny resulted in tectonic inversion, closure of the marginal basin, peak metamorphism and folding, and initial uplifting of the Fuegian Andes. By the latest Cretaceous-earliest Paleogene, the Andes were exposed to subaerial erosion, and the lowest Danian Rı´o Claro Formation bears clear evidence of an Andean clastic provenance. The Rı´o Claro Formation represents the first molasse deposits of the foreland stage of evolution of the Fuegian Andes. Earliest Paleogene north-verging thrust propagation deformed the Rı´o Claro Formation and older units, producing northward depocenter migration. La Despedida Group rests unconformably on the Rı´o Claro Formation and is involved in the thrust and fold belt. Important Eocene compression resulted in thrusting of central Andean basement schists and the Lemaire Formation over Lower Cretaceous and continental Paleogene rocks, respectively. In the

  10. The effect of firearm deaths on life expectancy and insurance premiums in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Despite recent gains, the U.S. remains behind most other affluent countries in life expectancy. Even within the U.S., the gap between the life expectancies of Caucasians and African-Americans remains significant. At the same time, firearm deaths in the U.S. far exceed peer nations, and disproportionately affect African-American males. In this Issue Brief, Dr. Lemaire explores whether deaths from firearms explain some of these international and racial disparities in life expectancy. He uses actuarial techniques to calculate the "cost" of firearm deaths in the U.S., both in terms of reduced life expectancy and increased life insurance premiums.

  11. "Nonempty" Gap Between Radiation Belts: The First Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2013-12-01

    The first space experiments carried out in 1958 by the scientific groups of James Van Allen (United States) on board the first Explorer satellites and Sergey Vernov (Soviet Union) on board the satellite Sputnik 3 led to the discovery of the Earth's radiation belts—the particles (mainly protons and electrons) captured by the magnetic field of the Earth. Two scientific groups independently came to the conclusion that the electrons in the geomagnetic trapping region fill two areas, inner and outer radiation belts, unlike the protons, which fill the whole trapping region [see, e.g., Lemaire, 2000].

  12. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  13. Potential assessed in Argentina's association contract areas

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, J.C. , Buenos Aires )

    1994-06-20

    The majority of the Austral basin fields discovered are mainly associated with structural and combination traps. Except for El Condor, La Sara, and San Sebastian fields, most of the oil reserves of limited size. This is due to several factors: small areal extent (5--50 sq km), variability of the Springhill thickness which frequently wedges out over the top of structures, facies changes and related complex reservoir distributions, and lack of hydrocarbons. Until 1985, all the commercial discoveries have been made in the area of the platform mostly in the Springhill reservoir and to a lesser extent on top of the volcanic Bahia Laura group (equivalent Lemaire or Tobifera formations). However, the Tertiary discoveries in Campo Boleadoras and Puesto Peter fields opened a zone, named Intermediate'' by YPF's geologists, located to the west of the known producing areas. In this zone, the lower member of the Magallanes group has yielded production. Reservoir characteristics are discussed.

  14. Isolations of West Nile and Bagaza viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Senegal (Ferlo).

    PubMed

    Traore-Lamizana, M; Zeller, H G; Mondo, M; Hervy, J P; Adam, F; Digoutte, J P

    1994-11-01

    During October-November 1990, 31,497 mosquitoes consisting of 25 different species were collected in Barkedji, Ferlo area (Senegal), and tested for virus infection. Viruse were isolated from 55 of 407 pools. Eighteen pools were found positive for both Bagaza virus (BGA) and West Nile virus (WN). One alphavirus (Babanki [BBK] and 72 flaviviruses (19 BGA, 53 WN) were isolated from Culex poicilipes Theobald (29 WN, 8 BGA), C. neavei Theobald (3 WN, 1 BGA), Mimomyia hispida Theobald (8 WN, 6 BGA, and 1 BBK), M. lacustris Edwards (4 WN, 1 BGA), M. splendens Theobald (6 WN, 2 BGA), Mimomyia. spp. (2 WN), and Aedeomyia africana Neveu-Lemaire (1 WN). These were the first isolations of arboviruses from A. africana and Mimomyia species. C. poicilipes and possibly Mimomyia spp. may be involved in an avian-mosquito cycle of West Nile virus transmission in Senegal.

  15. The odd-even effect in multiplication: parity rule or familiarity with even numbers?

    PubMed

    Lochy, A; Seron, X; Delazer, M; Butterworth, B

    2000-04-01

    This study questions the evidence that a parity rule is used during the verification of multiplication. Previous studies reported that products are rejected faster when they violate the expected parity, which was attributed to the use of a rule (Krueger, 1986; Lemaire & Fayol, 1995). This experiment tested an alternative explanation of this effect: the familiarity hypothesis. Fifty subjects participated in a verification task with contrasting types of problems (even x even, odd x odd, mixed). Some aspects of our results constitute evidence against the use of the parity rule: False even answers were rejected slowly, even when the two operands were odd. We suggest that the odd-even effect in verification of multiplication could not be due to the use of the parity rule, but rather to a familiarity with even numbers (three quarters of products are indeed even). PMID:10881553

  16. New Observation of the Polar Wind in the Topside Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The theoretical prediction of the "classical" polar wind dates back to the works of Banks et al., Lemaire et al., Marubashi, Nishida, and other authors in the late sixties and early seventies. Since then, direct in-situ observations of the polar wind have been made on a number of satellites above the topside ionosphere, notably ISIS-2, Akebono, and DE-1, at altitudes of 1400-50,000 km. In this paper, we present the first in-situ observation of the polar wind inside the topside ionosphere on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) down to 600 km, and we compare our low-altitude observation with earlier observations at higher altitudes as well as theoretical predictions.

  17. Mammillarinin: a new malonylated betacyanin from fruits of Mammillaria.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Nowak-Wydra, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    A new betacyanin endogenously occurring in fruits of nine Mammillaria species, i.e., M. roseo-alba (Boedecker), M. donatii (Berge), M. coronata (Scheidweiler), M. karwinskiana (Martius), M. gummifera (Engelmann), M. infernillensis (Craig), M. centricirrha (Lemaire), M. krameri (Muehlenpfordt), and M. magnimamma (Haworth), was studied by means of spectroscopic techniques. The betacyanin was identified as betanidin 5-O-(6'-O-malonyl)-beta-sophoroside for which the trivial name mammillarinin is proposed. In some Mammillaria species this compound was reported as a dominating pig-ment. Except for its epimer, two other isomers of mammillarinin were tentatively identified as betanidin/isobetanidin 5-O-(4'-O-malonyl)-beta-sophoroside present in the fruits as acyl migration products.

  18. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis.

  19. Coleopterans Associated with Plants that form Phytotelmata in Subtropical and Temperate Argentina, South America

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Raúl E.; Fernández, Liliana A.

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  20. Connecting World Heritage Nominations and Monitoring with the Support of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vileikis, O.; Dumont, B.; Serruys, E.; Van Balen, K.; Tigny, V.; De Maeyer, P.

    2013-07-01

    Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are challenging the way cultural heritage has been managed and evaluated in the past. Serial transnational World Heritage nominations are unique in that they consist of multiple sites listed as one property, distributed in different countries, involving a large diversity of stakeholders in the process. As a result, there is a need for precise baseline information for monitoring, reporting and decision making. This type of nomination requires different methodologies and tools to improve the monitoring cycle from the beginning of the nomination towards the periodic reporting. The case study of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS) illustrates the use of a Geographical Content Management System (Geo-CMS) supporting the serial transnational World Heritage nomination and the monitoring of the Silk Roads in the five Central Asian countries. The Silk Roads CHRIS is an initiative supported by UNESCO World Heritage Centre (WHC) and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO), and developed by a consortium headed by the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC) at the KULeuven. The Silk Roads CHRIS has been successfully assisting in the preparation of the nomination dossiers of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and will be used as a tool for monitoring tool in the Central Asian countries.

  1. Coleopterans associated with plants that form phytotelmata in subtropical and temperate Argentina, South America.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raúl E; Fernández, Liliana A

    2011-01-01

    A list of the most common plants that form phytotelmata and their associated coleopterans (aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial) from the northeastern subtropical and temperate area of Argentina, South America with biological and behavioral observations is presented in this study. Species of Poaceae (n = 3), Bromeliaceae (5), Apiaceae (6), Araceae (2), Urticaceae (1), Marantaceae (1), Arecaceae (1), Dipsacaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1) were identified as phytotelmata. Aquatic species of Scirtidae (2), Dytiscidae (2), and Hydrophilidae (4), semi-aquatic Chelonariidae (2), and terrestrial species of Carabidae (3), Staphylinidae (5), Histeridae (1), Elateridae (1), Cantharidae (1), Cleridae (1), Tenebrionidae (1), Meloidae (1), Anthicidae (1), Chrysomelidae (3), Curculionidae (7) and Apionidae (1) were identified from six species of Eryngium L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), two species of Guadua Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), Aechmea distichantha Lemaire (Poales: Bromeliaceae), and from fallen leaves of Euterpe edulis Martius (Arecales: Arecaceae) from the temperate and subtropical area. The highest species richness was recorded in Eryngium phytotelmata. Fifteen species of beetles inhabit Eryngium cabrerae Pontiroli, 11 in E. horridum Malme, 7 in E. stenophyllum Urban, 4 in E. aff. serra Chamisso and Schlechtendal., 3 in E. elegans Chamisso and Schlechtendal, 2 in E. eburneum Decne and E. pandanifolium Chamisso and Schlechtendal. From bamboo, 6 species of coleopterans were collected from Guadua trinii (Nees) Nees ex Ruprecht and 4 from G. chacoensis (Rojas) Londoño and Peterson. Three species of aquatic coleopterans were recorded from A. distichantha and only one from E. edulis. PMID:22236084

  2. Identification of seven Zingiberaceous species based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics of seeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The fruits and seeds of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt. & Smith, Amomum kravanh Pierre ex Gagnep., Amomum subulatum Roxb., Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire, and Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton from Alpinia, Amomum, and Elettaria genera in the Zingiberaceae family are difficult to distinguish between each other. This study aims to identify the seeds of these seven species from Zingiberaceae family based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics. Methods We compared the morphological structures of seed coats by observing the microscopic characteristics of seeds in transverse sections. We described the macroscopic characteristics of seeds in detail. Results The seeds of these three genera could not be identified to the species level based on their macroscopic features. However, based on the anatomical features of the seed coat observed in transverse sections, a dichotomous key for these seven species was feasible. Conclusion Seven species in the Zingiberaceae family could be identified based on comparative anatomy of microscopic characteristics of transverse section of seed. PMID:24607026

  3. Strong Quantum Coupling Between O-H+-O Stretch and Flanking Group Motions in (CH_3OH)_2H^+ Part i: Unmasking the 800-1200 wn Peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jake Acedera; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2016-06-01

    Assigning the vibrational signatures between 800-1200 wn is not a trivial task for (CH_3OH)_2H^+. Such complication in the assignment arises due to the intermode coupling between O-H+-O stretch and flanking group motions. In this talk, we will examine the interactions between O-H+-O stretch and four flanking group motions: 1) out-of-phase C-O stretch, 2) in-plane CH_3 rock, 3) out-of-plane CH_3, and 4) O-O stretch. Vibrational interactions were investigated by solving a reduced-dimensional Schrödinger equation by means of Discrete Variable Representation (DVR) with harmonic oscillators as basis. Potential and dipole moment surfaces were constructed by scanning along normal mode coordinates using MP2 and CCSD(T) level. It was found out that the O-H+-O stretch strongly couples with the four above mentioned flanking motions, leading to intensity redistribution on peaks between 800-1200 wn. J.R. Roscioli, L.R. McCunn and M.A. Johnson. Science 2007, 316, 249 T.D. Fridgen, L. Macaleese, T.B McMahon, J. Lemaire and P. Maitre. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2006, 8, 955-966 J.A. Tan and J.-L. Kuo. J. Phys. Chem. A. 2015, 119, 11320-11328

  4. Strong Quantum Coupling Between O-H+-O Stretch and Flanking Group Motions in (CH_3OH)_2H^+ Part II: Tuning the Coupling via Isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jake Acedera; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2016-06-01

    The vibrational coupling between O-H+-O/O-D+-O stretch and flanking group motions were explored in the following isotopologues: (CH_3OH)_2H^+, (CD_3OH)_2H^+, (CH_3OD)_2D^+, and (CD_3OD)_2D^+. At present only measurements for (CH_3OH)_2H^+ are available in the literature. Reduced-dimensional calculations were performed by solving several vibrational Schrödinger equations using the method of Discrete Variable Representation (DVR) with harmonic oscillator as basis. Both potential and dipole moment surfaces were constructed at MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ by scanning along normal modes corresponding to: 1) O-H+-O/O-D+-O stretch, 2) out-of-phase C-O stretch, 3) in-plane CH_3/CD_3 rock, 4) out-of-plane CH_3/CD_3 rock, and 5) O-O stretch. It was found that vibrational states for isotopologues corresponding to O-H+-O are more mixed than that of the O-D+-O. Lastly, we proposed tentative assignments for the simulated spectrum and hope that experimental measurements will be available in the near future. J.R. Roscioli, L.R. McCunn and M.A. Johnson. Science 2007, 316, 249 T.D. Fridgen, L. Macaleese, T.B McMahon, J. Lemaire and P. Maitre. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2006, 8, 955-966

  5. Adiabatic Betatron deceleration of ionospheric charged particles: a new explanation for (i) the rapid outflow of ionospheric O ions, and for (ii) the increase of plasma mass density observed in magnetospheric flux tubes during main phases of geomagnetic s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Joseph; Pierrard, Viviane; Darrouzet, Fabien

    2013-04-01

    Using European arrays of magnetometers and the cross-phase analysis to determine magnetic field line resonance frequencies, it has been found by Kale et al. (2009) that the plasma mass density within plasmaspheric flux tubes increased rapidly after the SSC of the Hallowe'en 2003 geomagnetic storms. These observations tend to confirm other independent experimental results, suggesting that heavy ion up-flow from the ionosphere is responsible for the observed plasma density increases during main phases of geomagnetic storms. The aim of our contribution is to point out that, during main phases, reversible Betatron effect induced by the increase of the southward Dst-magnetic field component (|Δ Bz|), diminishes slightly the perpendicular kinetic energy (W?) of charged particles spiraling along field lines. Furthermore, due to the conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (μ = Wm/ Bm) the mirror points of all ionospheric ions and electrons are lifted up to higher altitudes i.e. where the mirror point magnetic field (Bm) is slightly smaller. Note that the change of the mirror point altitude is given by: Δ hm = -1/3 (RE + hm) Δ Bm / Bm. It is independent of the ion species and it does not depend of their kinetic energy. The change of kinetic energy is determined by: Δ Wm = Wm Δ Bm / Bm. Both of these equations have been verified numerically by Lemaire et al. (2005; doi: 10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00099-1) using trajectory calculations in a simple time-dependant B-field model: i.e. the Earth's magnetic dipole, plus an increasing southward B-field component: i.e. the Dst magnetic field whose intensity becomes more and more negative during the main phase of magnetic storms. They showed that a variation of Bz (or Dst) by more than - 50 nT significantly increases the mirror point altitudes by more than 100 km which is about equal to scale height of the plasma density in the topside ionosphere where particles are almost collisionless (see Fig. 2 in Lemaire et al., 2005

  6. Biology and Host Range of Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a Candidate Agent for Biological Control of Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata) in California and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Mehelis, Christopher N; Balciunas, Joe K; Reddy, Angelica M; Van Der Westhuizen, Liame; Neser, Stefan; Moran, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata Lemaire) is an ornamental vine native to South Africa that has escaped into natural areas in coastal California and Oregon, displacing native vegetation. Surveys in South Africa led to the discovery of the leaf- and stem-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike and Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae: Acrolepiinae) as one of several common and damaging native herbivores on Cape-ivy. In greenhouse studies, adult female life span averaged 16 d (46 d maximum). Most (72%) mated females began laying eggs within 72 h of emergence. Females had an average lifetime fecundity of 52 eggs, with >70% laid on leaf laminae, and 89% of eggs were laid by the 15th day postemergence. Lifetime fertility (adult production) averaged three to four offspring per female. At 25 °C, egg hatch required 10 d, pupal formation 26 d, and adult emergence 41 d, while under variable greenhouse and laboratory conditions development to adult required 54-60 d. In four-way choice tests, involving 100 plant species other than Cape-ivy, including 11 genera and 37 species in the Asteraceae, subtribe Senecioninae from both native and invaded ranges, D. delaireae inflicted damage and produced pupae only on Cape-ivy. Leaf mining damage occurred on 30% of leaves of native Senecio hydrophilus in no-choice tests and on 2% of leaves in dual-choice tests, but no pupation occurred. If approved for field release in the continental United States, the moth D. delaireae is expected to produce multiple generations per year on Cape-ivy, and to pose little risk of damage to native plants. PMID:26313180

  7. A Community-Based Study of Factors Associated with Continuing Transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis in Leogane, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Alexis; Won, Kimberly Y.; McClintock, Shannon K.; Donovan, Catherine V.; Laney, Sandra J.; Williams, Steven A.; Pilotte, Nils; Streit, Thomas G.; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V. E.; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) have been administered in Leogane, Haiti, an area hyperendemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Sentinel site surveys showed that the prevalence of microfilaremia was reduced to <1% from levels as high as 15.5%, suggesting that transmission had been reduced. A separate 30-cluster survey of 2- to 4-year-old children was conducted to determine if MDA interrupted transmission. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence were 14.3% and 19.7%, respectively. Follow-up surveys were done in 6 villages, including those selected for the cluster survey, to assess risk factors related to continued LF transmission and to pinpoint hotspots of transmission. One hundred houses were mapped in each village using GPS-enabled PDAs, and then 30 houses and 10 alternates were chosen for testing. All individuals in selected houses were asked to participate in a short survey about participation in MDA, history of residence in Leogane and general knowledge of LF. Survey teams returned to the houses at night to collect blood for antigen testing, microfilaremia and Bm14 antibody testing and collected mosquitoes from these communities in parallel. Antigen prevalence was highly variable among the 6 villages, with the highest being 38.2% (Dampus) and the lowest being 2.9% (Corail Lemaire); overall antigen prevalence was 18.5%. Initial cluster surveys of 2- to 4-year-old children were not related to community antigen prevalence. Nearest neighbor analysis found evidence of clustering of infection suggesting that LF infection was focal in distribution. Antigen prevalence among individuals who were systematically noncompliant with the MDAs, i.e. they had never participated, was significantly higher than among compliant individuals (p<0.05). A logistic regression model found that of the factors examined for association with infection, only noncompliance was significantly associated with infection. Thus, continuing transmission of LF seems to be linked to

  8. The relationships of marsupial-dwelling Viannaiidae and description of Travassostrongylus scheibelorum sp. n. (Trichostrongylina: Heligmosomoidea) from mouse opossums (Didelphidae) from French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, R Philip; Catzeflis, François; Jiméñez, F Agustín

    2014-06-01

    The trichostrongylid nematode Travassostrongylus scheibelorum sp. n. from the Linnaeus' mouse opossum, Marmosa murina (Linnaeus) (type host), and the woolly mouse opossum, Marmosa demerarae (Thomas), from French Guiana is described. The nematodes have a synlophe with ridges frontally oriented from right to left, six dorsal and six ventral, at midbody; seven dorsal and seven ventral posterior to the vulva, and two cuticular thickenings within the lateral spaces; a long dorsal ray and a pointed cuticular flap covering the vulva. This is the 12th species of Travassostrongylus Orloff, 1933, which includes species featuring ridges around the synlophe and a didelphic condition. These traits contrast with those in other genera in the Viannaiidae Neveu-Lemaire, 1934, which feature ventral ridges on the synlophe of adults and a monodelphic condition. Members of the family are chiefly Neotropical and are diagnosed based on the presence of a bursa of the type 2-2-1, 2-1-2 or irregular, and cuticle without ridges on the dorsal side (at least during one stage of their development). Herein, we present a reconstruction of the ancestral states of the didelphic/monodelphic condition and the cuticular ridges that form the synlophe in opossum-dwelling trichostrongyles, namely Travassostrongylus and Viannaia Travassos, 1914. Our investigations suggest they are not reciprocal sister taxa and that the change from didelphy to monodelphy and the loss of dorsal ridges, occurred in the common ancestor of species of Viannaia. These results suggest a synlophe with three ventral ridges is not plesiomorphic in the opossum dwelling trichostrongylids.

  9. Evaluation of ULV applications against Old World sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in equatorial Kenya.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Walker, Todd W; Farooq, Muhammad; Gordon, Scott W; Clark, Jeffrey W; Ngere, Francis; Ngonga, Daniel; Chepchieng, Clifford

    2011-11-01

    Reducing populations of phlebotomine sand flies in areas prevalent for human leishmaniases is of ongoing importance to United States military operations and civilian populations in endemic regions. However, not enough is known regarding the efficacy of Department of Defense-approved pesticides and equipment against sand flies; specifically, the potential for ultra-low volume (ULV) pesticide applications to control Old World sand fly vectors. In this study we examine two sprayers, the Terminator ULV and the Grizzly ULV, with UV-labeled Duet and Fyfanon in four combinations against caged Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) and wild sand fly populations in a natural environment in western Kenya. All equipment and Fyfanon have United States military National Stock Numbers and both pesticides are registered with the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Caged sand flies were reared from local P. duboscqi and the area has long been studied because of high incidences of human cutaneous and visceral Leishmania. Patterns of mortality across grids of caged sand flies showed greater efficacy from the Grizzly ULV regardless of chemical. The Terminator ULV performed well with Duet but with a less uniform and overall lower rate of mortality across the spray grid. Sampling of wild populations before and after treatments suggested local population suppression from ULV treatments, as well as a possible repellent effect in nearby untreated areas. Surprisingly, ULV active ingredient deposition inferred from patterns of UV-labeled droplets captured on cotton ribbons adjacent to sand fly cages in spray plots did not match patterns of mortality. We discuss the implications of this study, the first of its kind, for future military preventive medicine activities, including relative performance costs and benefits of larger or smaller sprayers, and the relative stability of ULV-induced mortality patterns in varied or sub-optimal conditions.

  10. A community-based study of factors associated with continuing transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alexis; Won, Kimberly Y; McClintock, Shannon K; Donovan, Catherine V; Laney, Sandra J; Williams, Steven A; Pilotte, Nils; Streit, Thomas G; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V E; Lammie, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) have been administered in Leogane, Haiti, an area hyperendemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF). Sentinel site surveys showed that the prevalence of microfilaremia was reduced to <1% from levels as high as 15.5%, suggesting that transmission had been reduced. A separate 30-cluster survey of 2- to 4-year-old children was conducted to determine if MDA interrupted transmission. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence were 14.3% and 19.7%, respectively. Follow-up surveys were done in 6 villages, including those selected for the cluster survey, to assess risk factors related to continued LF transmission and to pinpoint hotspots of transmission. One hundred houses were mapped in each village using GPS-enabled PDAs, and then 30 houses and 10 alternates were chosen for testing. All individuals in selected houses were asked to participate in a short survey about participation in MDA, history of residence in Leogane and general knowledge of LF. Survey teams returned to the houses at night to collect blood for antigen testing, microfilaremia and Bm14 antibody testing and collected mosquitoes from these communities in parallel. Antigen prevalence was highly variable among the 6 villages, with the highest being 38.2% (Dampus) and the lowest being 2.9% (Corail Lemaire); overall antigen prevalence was 18.5%. Initial cluster surveys of 2- to 4-year-old children were not related to community antigen prevalence. Nearest neighbor analysis found evidence of clustering of infection suggesting that LF infection was focal in distribution. Antigen prevalence among individuals who were systematically noncompliant with the MDAs, i.e. they had never participated, was significantly higher than among compliant individuals (p<0.05). A logistic regression model found that of the factors examined for association with infection, only noncompliance was significantly associated with infection. Thus, continuing transmission of LF seems to be linked to

  11. Depth Seismic-Migration Modeling Offshore `Tierra Del Fuego', Argentina (54° 25' S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comínguez, A. H.; Flores, J.; Tassone, A.

    2007-05-01

    Within the framework of the TESAC Project (Tectonic Evolution of the South America-Scotia plate boundary during the Cenozoic), about 900 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were acquired off the Atlantic coast of the Tierra del Fuego Island. The profiles cut across the South America-Scotia plate boundary, a transform margin which traverses in an E-W direction the Island. Data processing and interpretation of a seismic reflection profile is presented in this contribution. A robust post-stack technique involved depth-migration of the seismic section, using an interval-velocity model of the upper Crust adjusted by iterative processing. An interpreted seismic- velocity section (which trends roughly NW-SE), shows a complex superposition of different tectonic structures, with presence of extensional, compressional and transtensional features in the area located to the north of Isla de los Estados. The profile, which crosses the offshore part of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt, images the deep structural framework of part of this tectonic province. The identification of acoustic fabrics and seismic discontinuities allowed us to recognize four main units. Overlaying the acoustic basement (Seismic unit 1), there is another unit (Seismic unit 2) which exhibits some reflector packages of high amplitude; this unit must be related to the volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences of Tobífera/Lemaire Fms. The Seismic Unit 3 displays internal reflector configurations of moderate amplitude and continuity and low-to-moderate frequency; the Yaghán/Beauvoir Fms must be the onshore equivalent of this unit. An uppermost seismic layer (Unit 4) may be correlated with the Tertiary sediments of the Magallanes foreland basin which were involved in the fold and thrust belt. A major structure identified in the studied seismic profile is a SE structural high (which involves the units 1, 2 and 3) and a NW down-faulted area. The latter display folds of kilometric size (3-4 km

  12. Review on hydroxylamine, a precursor to amino-acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Jean Louis

    2015-08-01

    Does life on earth come from interstellar space (IS)?It has been recently demonstrated that part of the terrestrial water is of IS origin [Cleeves et al. Science 2014]. This raises the question whether materials like amino-acids or their pre-biotic molecular precursors could have been formed and brought to earth in the same way than water. Another question is whether these molecules were formed in the gas phase or through reactions on the surface/volume of ice-covered grains. This may then have occurred in the vicinity of proto-stellar cores or deep into a pristine dense molecular clouds at very low temperatures.As far as bio-related molecules are concerned, chemistry with nitrogen-bearing molecules (like NH3 and NO) is involved. I review recent experimental work showing that hydroxylamine (NH2OH) could be formed either by surface or by volume reactions in conditions close to those prevailing in dense media. They use either electron-UV irradiation of water-ammonia ices [Zheng & Kaiser JCPA 2010] or successive hydrogenation of solid nitric oxide[Congiu, Fedoseev & al. ApJL.2012] or the simple oxidation of ammonia [He, Vidali, Lemaire & Garrod, ApJ, 2015] or the reaction of ammonia with hydroxyl radicals in a rare gas matrix [Zins & Krim, 2014, 69th ISMS]. A step further, the synthesis of the simplest amino-acids, glycine (NH2CH2COOH) and L- or D-alanine (NH2CH3CHCOOH) has already been obtained via reactions in the gas phase involving NH2OH+ [Blagojevic & al. MNRAS 2003].In addition to several earlier models demonstrating that the formation of all these molecules is possible in the gas phase, a new recent three-phase gas-grain chemical kinetics model of hot cores [Garrod ApJ 2013] shows that the results of ammonia oxidation we obtain are plausible by surface/volume reactions.Although none of the aforementioned molecules (except glycine in a sample of cometary origin) has been yet detected in the IS, they all are considered by many observers and modelers as likely

  13. Restoration of susceptibility of intracellular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams: comparison of strains, cells, and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Olivier, Aurélie; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M; Appelbaum, Peter C; Glupczynski, Youri

    2008-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invades eukaryotic cells. When methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591 is phagocytized by human THP-1 macrophages, complete restoration of susceptibility to cloxacillin and meropenem is shown and the strain becomes indistinguishable from MSSA ATCC 25923 due to the acid pH prevailing in phagolysosomes (S. Lemaire et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:1627-1632, 2007). We examined whether this observation can be extended to (i) strains of current clinical and epidemiological interest (three hospital-acquired MRSA [HA-MRSA] strains, two community-acquired MRSA [CA-MRSA] strains, two HA-MRSA strains with the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, one HA-MRSA strain with the vancomycin-resistant phenotype, and one animal [porcine] MRSA strain), (ii) activated THP-1 cells and nonprofessional phagocytes (keratinocytes, Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells), and (iii) other beta-lactams (imipenem, oxacillin, cefuroxime, cefepime). All strains showed (i) a marked reduction in MICs in broth at pH 5.5 compared with the MIC at pH 7.4 and (ii) sigmoidal dose-response curves with cloxacillin (0.01x to 100x MIC, 24 h of incubation) after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages that were indistinguishable from each other and from the dose-response curve for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 (relative potency [50% effect], 6.09x MIC [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.50 to 8.25]; relative efficacy [change in bacterial counts over the original inoculum for an infinitely large cloxacillin concentration, or maximal effect], -0.69 log CFU [95% CI, -0.79 to -0.58]). Similar dose-response curves for cloxacillin were also observed with MSSA ATCC 25923 and MRSA ATCC 33591 after phagocytosis by activated THP-1 macrophages, keratinocytes, and Calu-3 cells. By contrast, there was a lower level of restoration of susceptibility of MRSA ATCC 33591 to cefuroxime and cefepime after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages, even when the data were normalized for

  14. Restoration of Susceptibility of Intracellular Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-Lactams: Comparison of Strains, Cells, and Antibiotics▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Olivier, Aurélie; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M.; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Glupczynski, Youri

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invades eukaryotic cells. When methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591 is phagocytized by human THP-1 macrophages, complete restoration of susceptibility to cloxacillin and meropenem is shown and the strain becomes indistinguishable from MSSA ATCC 25923 due to the acid pH prevailing in phagolysosomes (S. Lemaire et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:1627-1632, 2007). We examined whether this observation can be extended to (i) strains of current clinical and epidemiological interest (three hospital-acquired MRSA [HA-MRSA] strains, two community-acquired MRSA [CA-MRSA] strains, two HA-MRSA strains with the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, one HA-MRSA strain with the vancomycin-resistant phenotype, and one animal [porcine] MRSA strain), (ii) activated THP-1 cells and nonprofessional phagocytes (keratinocytes, Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells), and (iii) other β-lactams (imipenem, oxacillin, cefuroxime, cefepime). All strains showed (i) a marked reduction in MICs in broth at pH 5.5 compared with the MIC at pH 7.4 and (ii) sigmoidal dose-response curves with cloxacillin (0.01× to 100× MIC, 24 h of incubation) after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages that were indistinguishable from each other and from the dose-response curve for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 (relative potency [50% effect], 6.09× MIC [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.50 to 8.25]; relative efficacy [change in bacterial counts over the original inoculum for an infinitely large cloxacillin concentration, or maximal effect], −0.69 log CFU [95% CI, −0.79 to −0.58]). Similar dose-response curves for cloxacillin were also observed with MSSA ATCC 25923 and MRSA ATCC 33591 after phagocytosis by activated THP-1 macrophages, keratinocytes, and Calu-3 cells. By contrast, there was a lower level of restoration of susceptibility of MRSA ATCC 33591 to cefuroxime and cefepime after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages, even when the data were normalized

  15. Protecting Unesco World Heritage PROPERTIES'S Integrity: the Role of Recording and Documentation in Risk Management for PETRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana Quintero, M.; Cesaro, G.; Ishakat, F.; Vandesande, A.; Vileikis, O.; Vadafari, A.; Paolini, A.; Van Balen, K.; Fakhoury, L.

    2012-07-01

    Risk management - as it has been defined - involves the decision-making process following a risk assessment (Ball, Watt, 2003). It is the process that involves managing to minimize losses and impacts on the significant of historic structures and to reach the balance between gaining and losing opportunities. This contribution explains the "heritage information" platform developed using low-cost recording, documentation and information management tools to serve as container for assessments resulting from the application of a risk methodology at a pilot area of the Petra Archaeological Park, in particular those that permit digitally and cost effective to prepare an adequate baseline record to identify disturbances and threats. Furthermore, this paper will reflect on the issue of mapping the World Heritage property's boundaries by illustrating a methodology developed during the project and further research to overcome the lack of boundaries and buffer zone for the protection of the Petra World Heritage site, as identified in this project. This paper is based on on-going field project from a multidisciplinary team of experts from the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (University of Leuven), UNESCO Amman, Petra Development Tourism and Region Authority (PDTRA), and Jordan's Department of Antiquities (DoA), as well as, experts from Jordan. The recording and documentation approach included in this contribution is part of an on-going effort to develop a methodology for mitigating (active and preventive) risks on the Petra Archaeological Park (Jordan). The risk assessment has been performed using non-intrusive techniques, which involve simple global navigation satellite system (GNSS), photography, and structured visual inspection, as well as, a heritage information framework based on Geographic Information Systems. The approach takes into consideration the comparison of vulnerability to sites with the value assessment to prioritize monuments at risk based

  16. Two cases of atmospheric escape in the Solar System: Titan and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandouras, I.

    2012-01-01

    Escape into space of the constituents of a planetary upper atmosphere can occur either in the form of neutral gas (thermal escape or non-thermal escape), or in the form of plasma. The long-term stability of an atmosphere results from the balance between source and escape rates. Two cases will be examined: Titan and Earth. Titan is the second largest planetary satellite in the Solar System and is the only one that has an atmosphere as substantial as that of the Earth. Titan's nitrogen rich atmosphere is embedded within Saturn's magnetosphere, and is directly bombarded by energetic ions due to Titan's lack of a significant intrinsic magnetic field. In addition to thermal escape, energy input from Saturn's magnetosphere and from Solar UV radiation can drive several non-thermal escape mechanisms in Titan's upper atmosphere: sputtering, dissociation and dissociative ionization of molecular nitrogen producing pick-up ions, photochemical production of fast neutrals etc. Earth also constantly loses matter, mostly in the form of H+ and O+ ions, through various outflow processes from the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. Most of the ions are low-energy (< 1 eV) but can escape from the high-latitude ionosphere and travel along open magnetic field lines into the magnetospheric tail lobes. At lower latitudes the main magnetospheric plasma reservoir is the plasmasphere, which is a toroidal region encircling the Earth and containing cold and dense plasma. Plasma plumes, forming in the outer plasmasphere and released outwards, constitute a well-established mode for plasmaspheric material release to the magnetosphere. They are associated to geomagnetically active periods and the related electric field change. In 1992 Lemaire and Shunk proposed the existence of an additional mode for plasmaspheric material release and escape: a plasmaspheric wind, steadily transporting cold plasmaspheric plasma outwards across the geomagnetic field lines. This has been proposed on a theoretical basis

  17. High hydrostatic pressure influences the in vitro response to xenobiotics in Dicentrarchus labrax liver.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Mignolet, Eric; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Rees, Jean François

    2016-04-01

    Hydrostatic pressure (HP) increases by about 1 atmosphere (0.1MPa) for each ten-meter depth increase in the water column. This thermodynamical parameter could well influence the response to and effects of xenobiotics in the deep-sea biota, but this possibility remains largely overlooked. To grasp the extent of HP adaptation in deep-sea fish, comparative studies with living cells of surface species exposed to chemicals at high HP are required. We initially conducted experiments with precision-cut liver slices of a deep-sea fish (Coryphaenoides rupestris), co-exposed for 15h to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 3-methylcholanthrene at HP levels representative of the surface (0.1MPa) and deep-sea (5-15MPa; i.e., 500-1500m depth) environments. The transcript levels of a suite of stress-responsive genes, such as the AhR battery CYP1A, were subsequently measured (Lemaire et al., 2012; Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 10310-10316). Strikingly, the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA content was pressure-dependently reduced in C. rupestris. Here, the same co-exposure scenario was applied for 6 or 15h to liver slices of a surface fish, Dicentrarchus labrax, a coastal species presumably not adapted to high HP. Precision-cut liver slices of D. labrax were also used in 1h co-exposure studies with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) as to investigate the pressure-dependence of the oxidative stress response (i.e., reactive oxygen production, glutathione and lipid peroxidation status). Liver cells remained viable in all experiments (adenosine triphosphate content). High HP precluded the AhR agonist-mediated increase of CYP1A mRNA expression in D. labrax, as well as that of glutathione peroxidase, and significantly reduced that of heat shock protein 70. High HP (1h) also tended per se to increase the level of oxidative stress in liver cells of the surface fish. Trends to an increased resistance to tBHP were also noted. Whether the latter observation truly

  18. Mineralogical, IR-spectral and geochemical monitoring of hydrothermal alteration in a deformed and metamorphosed Jurassic VMS deposit at Arroyo Rojo, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, C.; Subías, I.; Acevedo, R. D.; Yusta, I.; Velasco, F.

    2012-04-01

    The Arroyo Rojo Zn-Pb-Cu volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit is the main deposit of the Fin del Mundo District in the Fuegian Andes, Argentina. This deposit is hosted by a Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanoclastic sequence forming the Lemaire Formation. The latter consists, from the base up, of the following: rhyolitic and dacitic porphyritic rocks, ignimbrite, tuff, and flow. It is underlain by a pre-Jurassic basement and overlain by the hyaloclastic andesites of the Yahgán Formation. The Arroyo Rojo consists of stacked lenticular lenses that are associated with disseminated mineralization in both the footwall and the hanging wall. The internal structure of the ore lenses is marked by the occurrence of massive, semi-massive and banded facies, along with stringer and brecciated zones and minor ore disseminations. The mineral assemblage comprises mainly pyrite and sphalerite, with minor amounts of galena and chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, tetrahedrite and bournonite. The ores and the volcanic host rocks have metamorphosed to greenschist facies and were overprinted by a penetrative tectonic foliation, which led to the development of mylonitic, and cataclastic textures, recrystallization and remobilization. Primary depositional characteristics and regional and hydrothermal alteration patterns were preserved despite deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, primary banding was preserved between facies boundaries. In addition, some remnants of magmatic origin are recognizable in preserved phenocrysts and volcaniclastic phenoclasts. Most of the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the host sequence show a rhyolitic to rhyo-dacitic composition. Regional seafloor alteration, characterized by the presence of clinozoisite, Fe-chlorite and titanite, along with quartz and albite, is partially obliterated by hydrothermal alteration. The hydrothermal alteration is stratabound with the following assemblages, which developed from the base to top: (1) Quartz

  19. T lymphocytes from Sézary syndrome patients express beta1 integrins whose beta(1-6)-branched N-linked oligosaccharides reflect their adhesive capacity.

    PubMed

    Braut-Boucher, F; Font, J; Pichon, J; Paulin, Y; Boukhélifa, M; Aubery, M; Derappe, C

    1998-10-01

    Sézary syndrome (Sz), characterized by slowly progressing clonal proliferation of CD4+, CD45 RO+ T cells, has several forms that are distinguished according to the epidermotropic properties of the pathological cells. In a recent paper (Derappe C, Haentjens G, Lemaire S, Feugeas JP, Lebbe C, Pasqualetto V, Bussel A, Aubery M, Néel D. Leukemia 1996;10:138), we observed that T lymphocytes from most of the Sézary patients [Szbeta(1-6)+] expressed high levels of beta(1-6)-GlcNAc-branched N-linked oligosaccharides while T lymphocytes from other patients [Szbeta(1-6)-] did not. Because this observation suggests the possibility of two forms of Sz, distinguished according to the expression rate of these glycans, we looked for a possible relationship between this expression rate and T-cell adhesiveness. Using an original protocol (Braut-Boucher F, Pichon J, Rat P, Adolphe M, Aubery M, Font J. J Immunol Methods 1995;178:41), we observed that T lymphocytes obtained from the Szbeta(1-6)+ patients adhered less to normal keratinocyte monolayers than T lymphocytes from Szbeta(1-6)- patients and normal donors. As assessed by FACS analysis, all the integrin-subunits studied were more expressed on Szbeta(1-6)-, especially alpha4, alpha5, beta1 and beta2, than on Szbeta(1-6)+ and normal lymphocytes. Although these results suggest that beta1- and beta2-integrin expression is involved in the adhesive properties of these T-cells, other factors, such as glycosylation, may also contribute. To demonstrate this possibility, we sought the presence of beta(1-6)-GlcNAc-branched N-linked oligosaccharides on beta1 integrins expressed by T lymphocytes from Sz patients. Immunoblot experiments, performed using the specific lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (Leukoagglutinin form), showed that only the beta1 integrin subunit expressed by T lymphocytes from Szbeta(1-6)+ patients carried these glycans, supporting the concept of the involvement of T-cell glycosylation in the evolution of Sz.

  20. What types of H defects control really the storage capacity of water in olivine and how to reconcile observations, experiments and computational results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, J.; Liu, J.; Balan, E.; Kohn, S.; Kovacs, I.

    2011-12-01

    questions our use of a linear function of fH2O for more than 15 years to fit and extrapolate water solubility in olivine. An identification of the origin of OH bands at 3600 and 3555 cm-1 is now essential since the variation to 1 of the n value will depend strongly of the nature of these defects. [1] Lemaire, C. et al. (2004) Phys. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 147, 48-57. [2] Balan, E. et al. (2011) Eur. J. Mineral. 23, 285-292. [3] Bai, Q. and Kohlstedt, D.L. (1992) Nature 357, 672-674. [4] Kohlstedt, D.L. (1996) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 123, 345-357. [5] Mosenfelder et al. (2006) Amer. mineral. 91, 285-294. [6] Withers et al. (2011) Amer. Mineral. 96, 1039-1053.

  1. In-flight calibration/validation of the ENVISAT/MWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, N.; Obligis, E.; Eymard, L.

    2003-04-01

    Retrieval algorithms for wet tropospheric correction, integrated vapor and liquid water contents, atmospheric attenuations of backscattering coefficients in Ku and S band, have been developed using a database of geophysical parameters from global analyses from a meteorological model and corresponding simulated brightness temperatures and backscattering cross-sections by a radiative transfer model. Meteorological data correspond to 12 hours predictions from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. Relationships between satellite measurements and geophysical parameters are determined using a statistical method. The quality of the retrieval algorithms depends therefore on the representativity of the database, the accuracy of the radiative transfer model used for the simulations and finally on the quality of the inversion model. The database has been built using the latest version of the ECMWF forecast model, which has been operationally run since November 2000. The 60 levels in the model allow a complete description of the troposphere/stratosphere profiles and the horizontal resolution is now half of a degree. The radiative transfer model is the emissivity model developed at the Université Catholique de Louvain [Lemaire, 1998], coupled to an atmospheric model [Liebe et al, 1993] for gaseous absorption. For the inversion, we have replaced the classical log-linear regression with a neural networks inversion. For Envisat, the backscattering coefficient in Ku band is used in the different algorithms to take into account the surface roughness as it is done with the 18 GHz channel for the TOPEX algorithms or an additional term in wind speed for ERS2 algorithms. The in-flight calibration/validation of the Envisat radiometer has been performed with the tuning of 3 internal parameters (the transmission coefficient of the reflector, the sky horn feed transmission coefficient and the main antenna transmission coefficient). First an adjustment of the

  2. Seeing Is Believing. Or Is It?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-08-01

    Occasionally I get time to read something other than a scientific journal, book, or manuscript. On one such foray I discovered Kenneth Brower's "Photography in the Age of Falsification", which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in May 1998. Brower described how an editor, who might never have experienced the wildness of nature, could conceive a photograph and assign a photographer to create it. Whether the scene depicted was actually possible often seemed relatively unimportant. The main thing was whether the image would interest viewers. Brower argued that today's vast array of software for manipulating digital versions of photographic images enables what he calls "photofakery" on an unprecedented scale. He described how editors at National Geographic decided to pull an ad that depicted a polar bear in Antarctica (where there are no bears); the ad had been created by digitally superimposing a photograph of a bear in a Cincinnati zoo and a photograph of the Lemaire Channel in Antarctica. According to Brower, "Too few photographers, I think, appreciate how directly the new technology aims at the heart of the credibility that distinguishes this art form from others." Credibility is also one of the hallmarks of science. Science progresses as a result of consensus on what results can be expected from carefully designed and carefully executed experiments and observations. As teachers of chemistry, we have a duty not to fall into the same kinds of traps that have made some photographers uneasy about their profession. And we need to help our students learn to avoid these traps. But it is not that easy, because we also need to capture students' attention and try to make our subject interesting by telling stories or showing phenomena or models that appeal to the imagination. As in the case of photography, defining where imagination begins to usurp reality is difficult. It is therefore a very important issue to wrestle with.

  3. Seeing Is Believing. Or Is It?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-08-01

    Occasionally I get time to read something other than a scientific journal, book, or manuscript. On one such foray I discovered Kenneth Brower's "Photography in the Age of Falsification", which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly in May 1998. Brower described how an editor, who might never have experienced the wildness of nature, could conceive a photograph and assign a photographer to create it. Whether the scene depicted was actually possible often seemed relatively unimportant. The main thing was whether the image would interest viewers. Brower argued that today's vast array of software for manipulating digital versions of photographic images enables what he calls "photofakery" on an unprecedented scale. He described how editors at National Geographic decided to pull an ad that depicted a polar bear in Antarctica (where there are no bears); the ad had been created by digitally superimposing a photograph of a bear in a Cincinnati zoo and a photograph of the Lemaire Channel in Antarctica. According to Brower, "Too few photographers, I think, appreciate how directly the new technology aims at the heart of the credibility that distinguishes this art form from others." Credibility is also one of the hallmarks of science. Science progresses as a result of consensus on what results can be expected from carefully designed and carefully executed experiments and observations. As teachers of chemistry, we have a duty not to fall into the same kinds of traps that have made some photographers uneasy about their profession. And we need to help our students learn to avoid these traps. But it is not that easy, because we also need to capture students' attention and try to make our subject interesting by telling stories or showing phenomena or models that appeal to the imagination. As in the case of photography, defining where imagination begins to usurp reality is difficult. It is therefore a very important issue to wrestle with.

  4. Orbiting observatory SOHO finds source of high-speed "wind" blowing from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    ranging from 30,000 km/h at the surface to over 3 million km/h, the solar wind "grows" much faster than grass". "Looking at the spot where the solar wind actually appears is extremely important", says co-author Dr. Philippe Lemaire of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France. The Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer on SOHO detected the solar wind by observing the ultraviolet spectrum over a large area of the solar north polar region. The SUMER instrument was built under the leadership of Dr. Klaus Wilhelm at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie in Lindau, Germany, with key contributions from the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of California at Berkeley, with financial support from German, French, US and Swiss national agencies. "Identification of the detailed structure of the source region of the fast solar wind is an important step in solving the solar wind acceleration problem. We can now focus our attention on the plasma conditions and the dynamic processes seen in the corners of the magnetic field structures", says Dr. Wilhelm, also co-author of the Science paper. A spectrum results from the separation of light into its component colours, which correspond to different wavelengths. Blue light has a shorter wavelength and is more energetic than red. A spectrum is similar to what is seen when a prism separates white light into a rainbow of distinct colours. By analysing light this way, astronomers learn a great deal about the object emitting the light, such as its temperature, chemical composition, and motion. The ultraviolet light observed by SUMER is actually invisible to the human eye and cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. The hot gas in the solar wind source region emits light at certain ultraviolet wavelengths. When the hot gas flows towards Earth, as it does in the solar wind, the wavelengths of the