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Sample records for astylus variegatus coleoptera

  1. Cytogenetic analysis of Astylus antis (Perty, 1830) (Coleoptera, Melyridae): Karyotype, heterochromatin and location of ribosomal genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of Astylus antis using mitotic and meiotic cells was performed to characterize the haploid and diploid numbers, sex determination system, chromosome morphology, constitutive heterochromatin distribution pattern and chromosomes carrying nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). Analysis of spermatogonial metaphase cells revealed the diploid number 2n = 18, with mostly metacentric chromosomes. Metaphase I cells exhibited 2n = 8II+Xyp and a parachute configuration of the sex chromosomes. Spermatogonial metaphase cells submitted to C-banding showed the presence of small dots of constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of nearly all the autosomes and on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp), as well as an additional band on one of the arms of pair 1. Mitotic cells submitted to double staining with base-specific fluorochromes (DAPI-CMA3 ) revealed no regions rich in A+T or G+C sequences. Analysis of spermatogonial mitotic cells after sequential Giemsa/AgNO 3 staining did not reveal any specific mark on the chromosomes. Meiotic metaphase I cells stained with silver nitrate revealed a strong impregnation associated to the sex chromosomes, and in situ hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe showed ribosomal cistrons in an autosomal bivalent. PMID:21637476

  2. Triungulin larvae of Meloë variegatus donov (Coleoptera: Meloidae); morphology, biology and an incident of apiary infestation.

    PubMed

    Topolska, G; Hartwig, A; Krzyzańska, K

    2001-01-01

    The beetle Meloë variegatus is a pest of sugar beet, cabbage and winter rye. Its larvae are parasites and pests of solitary bees, but sometimes they get into the nests of the honey bee. PMID:16888961

  3. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of feeding

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  4. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  5. Bioaccumulation of Triclocarban in Lumbriculus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Christopher P.; J.Paesani, Zachary; Abbot Chalew, Talia E.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) has been detected in streams and municipal biosolids throughout the United States. In addition, TCC and potential TCC transformation products have been detected at high levels (ppm range) in sediments near major United States cities. Previous work has suggested that TCC is relatively stable in these environments, thereby raising concerns about the potential for bioaccumulation in sediment-dwelling organisms. Bioaccumulation of TCC from sediments was assessed using the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus. Worms were exposed to TCC in sediment spiked to 22.4 ppm to simulate the upper bound of environmental concentrations. Uptake from laboratory-spiked sediment was examined over 56 days for TCC and 4,4′dichlorocarbanilide (DCC), a chemical impurity in and potential transformation product of TCC. The clearance of TCC from worms placed in clean sediment was also examined over 21 d after an initial 35-d exposure to TCC in laboratory-spiked sediment. Concentrations of TCC and DCC were monitored in the worms, sediment, and the overlying water using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Experimental data were fitted using a standard biodynamic model to generate uptake and elimination rate constants for TCC in L. variegatus. These rate constants were used to estimate steady-state lipid and organic-carbon normalized biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for TCC and DCC of 2.2 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.1 goc/glip, respectively. Alternatively, directly-measured BSAFs for TCC and DCC after 56 days of exposure were 1.6 ± 0.6 and 0.5 ± 0.2 goc/glip, respectively. Loss of TCC from pre-exposed worms followed first-order kinetics, and the fitted elimination rate-constant was identical to that determined from the uptake portion of the present study. Overall, study observations indicate that TCC bioaccumulates from sediments in a manner that is consistent with the traditional hydrophobic organic contaminant paradigm. PMID

  6. Multixenobiotic resistance efflux activity in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2015-04-01

    Multixenobiotic resistance is a phenomenon in which ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family proteins transfer harmful compounds out of cells. Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus are model species in aquatic ecotoxicology, but the presence and activity of ABC proteins have not been well described in these species. The aim of this work was to study the presence, activity, and inhibition of ABC transport proteins in D. magna and L. variegatus. The presence of abcb1 and abcc transcripts in 8-9-day-old D. magna was investigated by qRT-PCR. The activity of MXR in D. magna and L. variegatus was explored by influx of the fluorescent ABC protein substrates rhodamine B and calcein-AM, with and without the model inhibitors verapamil (unspecific ABC inhibitor), reversin 205 (ABCB1 inhibitor) and MK571 (ABCC inhibitor). Juvenile D. magna possessed all examined abcb and abcc transcripts, but only reversin 205 inhibited MXR activity. The MXR activity in L. variegatus was inhibited by MK571, and to a lesser extent by verapamil, whereas reversin 205 seemed to stimulate the transport activity. Whereas calcein-AM worked better as an MXR substrate in D. magna, rhodamine B was a better substrate for L. variegatus MXR activity measurements. This is the first report on MXR activity in the order Lumbriculida, subclass Oligochaeta, and class Clitellata.

  7. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: effects of feeding.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Hawthorne, Steven; Miller, David J; Grabanski, Carol B

    2015-05-01

    Standard sediment-bioaccumulation test methods specify that Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure. This lack of feeding can lead to decreases in L. variegatus weight and lipid content during the 28-day exposure period. Differences in intrinsic nutritional content of sediments could lead to additional variability in organism performance and/or contaminant uptake. To evaluate the potential benefits of feeding, sediment-bioaccumulation tests were performed comparing treatments with and without supplemental feeding with tropical fish food and also comparing performance food introduced as blended slurry versus fine flakes. The ration of food provided had to be limited to 6 mg/300-mL beaker with 250 mg of L. variegatus (ww) receiving three feedings per week to maintain acceptable dissolved oxygen (DO) in the test chambers. Relative weight change during exposure varied across sediments in the absence of food from very little change to as much as a 40 % decrease from starting weight. Feeding slurry and flake foods increased the total weight of recovered organisms by 32 and 48 %, respectively, but they did not decrease variability in weight changes across sediments. Lipid contents of the organisms decreased similarly across all feeding treatments during the test. At test termination, lipid contents of L. variegatus across unfed, slurry-fed, and flake-fed treatments were not significantly different per Tukey's honest significant difference test with 95 % family-wise confidence. Feeding resulted in polychlorinated biphenyl residues in L. variegatus being generally slightly less (median 78 %) and slightly greater (median 135 %) than the unfed treatments with slurry and flake formulated foods, respectively. PMID:25796613

  8. Assessment of Alternative Substrates for Culturing Lumbriculus variegatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, is tank-cultured to provide organisms for aquatic-habitat assessments, regeneration research and as a clean source of live food for aquarium fishes. Shredded paper is the typical substrate in cultures used to rear L. variegatus for these purposes. However, the effort needed to separate large numbers from decomposing paper can be prohibitive. Burlap and nylon mesh material were compared to paper as potential alternatives that could reduce this effort. Oligochaete production and the amount of time needed to separate animals from substrate were compared for eight weeks among experimental cultures containing burlap, nylon mesh and paper. Cultures with paper substrate increased in number and weight two to three times faster than those with burlap or nylon mesh substrates. The time needed to separate animals from substrate was initially two to three times longer with paper substrate than with burlap or nylon mesh substrates, but this difference increased to between 10 and 40 times longer after six weeks as the paper substrate decomposed. Feeding rates varied by treatment and were based on average wet weight at the time of water replacement. Elevated ammonia and nitrite concentrations resulting from excess food may have reduced production in nylon mesh treatments and was lethal in paper treatments during the final phases of the study. The type of substrate recommended may depend on the desired production rate of oligochaetes, space available for cultures and the amount of effort available for substrate renewal and separating the animals from the cultures.

  9. Evaluation of PCB bioaccumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in field-collected sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) contaminated sediment samples from the Hudson, Grasse, and Fox Rivers Superfund sites with concurrent measurement of PCB concentrations in sediment interstitial water. Th...

  10. Comparison of Cultured and Wild Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) Health Condition Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four standard health condition metrics (hepatosomatic index, HSI; gonadosomatic index, GSI; fecundity, condition factor) were compared between cultured and wild caught sheepshead minnow (Cyrprinodon variegatus) to determine if laboratory cultured were representative of wild popul...

  11. Effects of Feeding Rate and Loading Density on Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment tests with aquatic organisms can provide valuable information about potential toxicity and the bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the organisms. The USEPA 28-day Lumbriculus variegatus bioaccumulation test for sediments when successfully perfor...

  12. Alternative substrates for culturing the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus is tank cultured to provide organisms for aquatic habitat assessments and regeneration research and to produce a clean source of live food for aquarium fishes. Shredded paper is the typical substrate in small-scale culture of L variegants, however, the effort needed to separate large numbers of individuals from decomposing paper can be prohibitive. Burlap and nylon mesh materials were compared with paper as potential alternatives for reducing this effort. Production and the time needed to separate L. variegatus from substrate were compared for 8 weeks among cultures with burlap, mesh, and paper substrates. Cultures with paper increased in number and weight faster than those with burlap or mesh, but cultures using the alternative substrates also expanded their populations quickly. The time required to separate oligochaetes from substrate was initially longer with paper and became significantly longer at 6 weeks as the paper decomposed. Burlap frayed, but mesh exhibited no degradation. Elevated ammonia and nitrite concentrations may have suppressed production in mesh treatments throughout the study, and ammonia was lethal in paper treatments during the final 2 weeks. Slow initial production in burlap treatments may have been due 10 chemical applications to the fabric, which may limit the utility of burlap as a substrate. Culture systems that maintain adequate water quality could increase production from burlap and mesh substrates to levels observed with paper substrate. Mesh is recommended because it is nontoxic and nonbiodegradable and can significantly reduce the effort required to obtain oligochaetes and to maintain and monitor the cultures.

  13. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    At contaminated sediment sites, the bioavailability of contaminants in sediments is assessed using sediment-bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegates (Lv). The testing protocols recommend that ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) should be no less than 50:1. Occasionally, this recommendation is not followed, especially with sediments having low TOC, e.g., <1 %. This study evaluated the impacts and resulting biases in the testing results when the recommendation of "no less than 50:1" is not followed. In the study, seven sediments were tested with a series of TOC/Lv ratios that spanned the recommendation. With increasing loading of organisms, growth of the organisms decreased in six of the seven sediments tested. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the L. variegatus were measured in six of the seven sediments tested, and differences in PCB residues among loading ratios across all sediments were small, i.e., ±50 %, from those measured at the minimum recommended ratio of 50:1 TOC/Lv. In all sediment, PCB residues increased with increasing loading of the organisms for the mono-, di-, and tri-chloro-PCBs. For tetra-chloro and heavier PCBs, residues increased with increasing loading of organisms for only two of the six sediments. PCB residues were not significantly different between TOC/Lv loadings of 50:1 and mid-20:1 ratios indicating that equivalent results can be obtained with TOC/Lv ratios into the mid-20:1 ratios. Overall, the testing results suggest that when testing recommendation of 50:1 TOC/Lv is not followed, potential biases in the biota-sediment accumulations factors from the sediment-bioaccumulation test will be small. PMID:27165691

  14. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    At contaminated sediment sites, the bioavailability of contaminants in sediments is assessed using sediment-bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegates (Lv). The testing protocols recommend that ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) should be no less than 50:1. Occasionally, this recommendation is not followed, especially with sediments having low TOC, e.g., <1 %. This study evaluated the impacts and resulting biases in the testing results when the recommendation of "no less than 50:1" is not followed. In the study, seven sediments were tested with a series of TOC/Lv ratios that spanned the recommendation. With increasing loading of organisms, growth of the organisms decreased in six of the seven sediments tested. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the L. variegatus were measured in six of the seven sediments tested, and differences in PCB residues among loading ratios across all sediments were small, i.e., ±50 %, from those measured at the minimum recommended ratio of 50:1 TOC/Lv. In all sediment, PCB residues increased with increasing loading of the organisms for the mono-, di-, and tri-chloro-PCBs. For tetra-chloro and heavier PCBs, residues increased with increasing loading of organisms for only two of the six sediments. PCB residues were not significantly different between TOC/Lv loadings of 50:1 and mid-20:1 ratios indicating that equivalent results can be obtained with TOC/Lv ratios into the mid-20:1 ratios. Overall, the testing results suggest that when testing recommendation of 50:1 TOC/Lv is not followed, potential biases in the biota-sediment accumulations factors from the sediment-bioaccumulation test will be small.

  15. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing. PMID:23369451

  16. Sludge reduction by lumbriculus variegatus in Ahvas wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Basim, Yalda; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jaafarzadeh, Nematollah; Hendrickx, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensive health hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm). The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1) and up to 6 mg/L (run 2) were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. The average sludge reductions were obtained as 32% (run 1) and 33% (run 2) in worm reactor and 16% (run 1) and 12% (run 2) in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blank conditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing. PMID:23369451

  17. NUCLEAR MEMBRANE FUSION IN FERTILIZED LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS EGGS

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Fusion of apposed nuclear envelopes is frequently seen at telophase during postmitotic reorganization of the nucleus, but only rarely at other times in the cell cycle. We attempted to define an experimental system for studying changes in the nuclear envelope related to the cell cycle by varying the time of pronuclear apposition in fertilized Lytechinus variegatus eggs. This approach was based on the assumption that the period from fertilization to metaphase of the first cleavage division corresponds to the period from telophase to metaphase in the generalized cell cycle. The experimental approach used was to block the movement of the pronuclei with Colcemid and then to release this block at varying times after insemination by photochemically inactivating the Colcemid. The results show that apposed pronuclear envelopes can fuse from soon after insemination until the anticipated time of prometaphase. Fusion occurred in about 3 min as scored by light microscopy and this time did not vary significantly with the time after insemination. The potential for nuclear fusion is not restricted to pronuclei alone since diploid nuclei in binucleate cells could be fused using centrifugation in solutions of Colcemid to bring the nuclei into apposition. It is suggested that the potential for nuclear fusion is not necessarily related to the cell cycle and that modification of the nuclear envelope, possibly by association with chromatin or other fibrous material restricts nuclear fusion in most multinucleated cells. PMID:4125367

  18. Effect of the exposure to metal lead on the regenerative ability of Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Sardo, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Lourdes; Gerhardt, Almut; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2011-01-01

    Lumbriculus variegatus is a recommended species for use in sediment toxicity tests and is known to have a remarkable power of segmental regeneration. Here, we tested the effects of a chemical stressor on the regenerative ability of L. variegatus and investigated the potential of regenerative ability as an additional new parameter in standard toxicity tests. The worms were cut into two equal segments, and exposed to various concentrations of lead. Two assays were performed: one with sediment spiked with lead and the other with water spiked with lead. The endpoints were segmental regeneration, survival and behaviour. Regenerative ability was clearly affected by exposure to lead-contaminated sediment and lead-contaminated water. Organisms exposed to lead grew more slowly than those not exposed; worms exposed to contaminated water showed higher mortalities than those exposed to contaminated sediment. Results showed that L. variegatus' regenerative ability, as a developmental test parameter, is more sensitive than mortality. PMID:21787687

  19. Use of whole-body and subcellular Cu residues of Lumbriculus variegatus to predict waterborne Cu toxicity to both L. variegatus and Chironomus riparius in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tania Y T; Pais, Nish M; Dhaliwal, Tarunpreet; Wood, Chris M

    2012-06-01

    We tested the use of whole-body and subcellular Cu residues (biologically-active (BAM) and inactive compartments (BIM)), of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus to predict Cu toxicity in fresh water. The critical whole-body residue associated with 50% mortality (CBR(50)) was constant (38.2-55.6 μg g(-1) fresh wt.) across water hardness (38-117 mg L(-1) as CaCO(3)) and exposure times during the chronic exposure. The critical subcellular residue (CSR(50)) in metal-rich granules (part of BIM) associated with 50% mortality was approximately 5 μg g(-1) fresh wt., indicating that Cu bioavailability is correlated with toxicity:subcellular residue is a better predictor of Cu toxicity than whole-body residue. There was a strong correlation between the whole-body residue of L. variegatus (biomonitor) and survival of Chironomus riparius (relatively sensitive species) in a hard water Cu co-exposure. The CBR(50) in L. variegatus for predicting mortality of C. riparius was 29.1-45.7 μg g(-1) fresh wt., which was consistent within the experimental period; therefore use of Cu residue in an accumulator species to predict bioavailability of Cu to a sensitive species is a promising approach.

  20. INFLUENCE OF SPAWNING GROUP SIZE AND SPACE ON REPRODUCTION BY SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cripe, G.M., R.L. Hemmer and L.R. Goodman. In press. Influence of Spawning Group Size and Space on Reproduction Variability of Sheepshead Minnows, Cyprinodon variegatus (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB...

  1. Effects of Feeding and Organism Loading Rate on the Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the aquatic world, most environmental contaminants like PCBs eventually accumulate in the sediments.Thus sediment-associated contamination can introduce significant level of contaminants into the food chain. The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, was approved as one o...

  2. Genetic variation in the popular lab worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida: Clitellata: Lumbriculidae) reveals cryptic speciation.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Daniel R; Price, David A; Erséus, Christer

    2009-05-01

    Genetic variation in the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus from Europe, North America and Japan was studied by sequencing and analysing the mitochondrial 16S and COI genes, and the nuclear ITS region. What hitherto has been regarded as L. variegatus was found to consist of at least two distinct clades (I and II), both of which occur in Europe as well as North America (clade I also in Japan). Specimens from a single locality in Sierra Nevada, California, also morphologically identified as L. variegatus, represent a third clade, which appears to be more closely related to clade II than to clade I, based on 16S data only. Average COI genetic distances were 17.7% between clades I and II, 0.6% within clade I, and 1.3% within clade II. Further, for these two clades, the mitochondrial (16S and COI) gene trees, which consider only the maternal lineages, are congruent with the ITS gene tree, which is the result of recombinations of paternal as well as maternal genomes. Finally, chromosome counts revealed clade I specimens to be highly polyploid, and clade II specimens to be diploid. We therefore conclude that clades I-II are separately evolving lineages, and that they should be regarded as separate species. This will have to be taken into account in the continued use of L. variegatus as a model organism in biological sciences.

  3. UPTAKE AND DEPURATION OF NON-IONIC ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM SEDIMENT BY THE OLIGOCHAETE, LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake of sediment-associated contaminants by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, was evaluated after 1,3,7,14,28, and 56 d of exposure to a field-collected sediment contaminated with DDT and its metabolites DDD and DDE or to a field-collected sediment contaminated with PAHs...

  4. LIFE-CYCLE TOXICITY OF BIS(TRIBUTYLTIN) OXIDE TO THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of tributyltin (TBT) to the life cycle of the estuarine fish C yprinodon variegatus were examined in a 180-day flow-through exposure. The study was initiated with embryos less than 24 h postfertilization and monitored through hatch, maturation, growth, and reproductio...

  5. Toxicokinetics and toxicity of sediment-associated pyrene to Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta)

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkonen, J. . Dept. of Biology); Landrum, P.F. )

    1994-09-01

    The oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus has been proposed for whole-sediment bioassays to assess sediment contamination. The work examines Lumbriculus variegatus exposure to pyrene-dosed Lake Michigan sediment at 0.4 ng g[sup [minus]1] and 64, 132, 206, and 269 [mu]g g[sup [minus]1]. Both bioaccumulation and survival were followed to enhance Lumbriculus variegatus development as a bioassay organism. Lumbriculus variegatus accumulated sediment-associated pyrene rapidly and achieved apparent steady state within 48 to 168 h. The pyrene uptake clearances ranged from 0.039 to 0.132 and decreased with increasing pyrene concentration. At high pyrene concentrations, the worms avoided the sediment, which reduced accumulation and likely minimized the mortality response. In addition, the effect of organism loading on bioaccumulation was determined at different animal densities, 1:10, 1:50, and 1:100 g dry weight Lumbriculus variegatus:g sediment organic carbon, and a sediment pyrene concentration of 0.4 mg g[sup [minus]1]. Surprisingly, the bioaccumulation declined as organism density decreased. Pyrene elimination was rapid in clean sediment but was much slower in water. Bioavailability apparently declined for exposures in sediment stored 1.5 months, based on the estimate of k[sub e] from nonlinear regression compared to direct measures of elimination. The apparent decline was attributed to both a decline in lipid content during the experiment and changes in pyrene bioavailability. Finally, for bioaccumulation studies, gut purging at a set time may result in an underestimate of contaminant concentration in organisms. An elimination study with extrapolation to the initial body burden can ensure that biases due to incomplete elimination of gut contents and body burden losses during the purging process are minimized.

  6. EFFECTS OF P-NONYLPHENOL, METHOXYCHLOR AND ENDOSULFAN ON VITELLOGENIN INDUCTION AND EXPRESSION IN THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal and dose-response relationships of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA induction and subsequent plasma VTG accumulation were established for sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) treated with p-nonylphenol, an alkylphenol, and the organochlorine pesticides methoxychlor and endo...

  7. Bioaccumulation of fullerene (C60) and corresponding catalase elevation in Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiafan; Wages, Mike; Yu, Shuangying; Maul, Jonathan D; Mayer, Greg; Hope-Weeks, Louisa; Cobb, George P

    2014-05-01

    Fullerene (C(60)), with its unique physical properties and nanometer size, has been mass-produced for many applications in recent decades. The increased likelihood of direct release into the environment has raised interest in understanding both the environmental fate and corresponding biological effects of fullerenes to living organisms. Because few studies have emphasized fullerene uptake and resulting biochemical responses by living organisms, a toxicity screening test and a 28-d bioaccumulation test for Lumbriculus variegatus were performed. No mortality was observed in the range of 0.05 mg C(60) /kg dry sediment to 11.33 mg C(60) /kg dry sediment. A biota-sediment accumulation factor of micron-sized fullerene agglomerates (µ-C(60)) was 0.032 ± 0.008 at day 28, which is relatively low compared with pyrene (1.62 ± 0.22). Catalase (CAT) activity, an oxidative stress indicator, was elevated significantly on day 14 for L. variegatus exposed to µ-C(60) (p = 0.034). This peak CAT activity corresponded to the highest body residues observed in the present study, 199 ± 80 µg C(60) /kg dry weight sediment. Additionally, smaller C(60) agglomerate size increased bioaccumulation potential in L. variegatus. The relationship between C(60) body residue and the increased CAT activity followed a linear regression. All results suggest that C(60) has a lower bioaccumulation potential than pyrene but a higher potential to induce oxidative stress in L. variegatus.

  8. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; Hernández Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sandí, Janet; Nuñez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths.

  9. Cadmium biodynamics in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and its implications for trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lingtian; Lambert, Daniel; Martin, Caitrin; Cain, Daniel J; Luoma, Samuel N; Buchwalter, David

    2008-01-31

    It has become increasingly apparent that diet can be a major source of trace metal bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. In this study, we examined cadmium uptake, efflux, and subcellular compartmentalization dynamics in the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. L. variegatus is an important component of freshwater food webs in Europe and North America and is potentially useful as a standard food source for laboratory-based trophic transfer studies. Cadmium accumulation and depuration were each followed for 10 days. Rate constants of uptake (k(u)) and efflux (k(e)) were estimated and subcellular Cd compartmentalization was followed over the course of uptake and efflux. The partitioning of Cd into operationally-defined subcellular compartments was relatively consistent throughout the 20-day experiment, with the majority of Cd accumulating in the cytosol. No major changes in Cd compartmentalization were observed over uptake or depuration, but there appeared to be some exchange between heat-stable and heat-labile cytosolic protein fractions. Cadmium accumulation from solution was strongly affected by ambient calcium concentrations, suggesting competition between Cd and Ca for uptake sites. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to manipulate the whole body calcium content of L. variegatus as a potential tool for examining calcium influences on dietary Cd dynamics. The potential for this species to be an important conduit of Cd to higher trophic levels is discussed, along with its potential as a standardized food source in metal trophic transfer studies. PMID:18082277

  10. Cadmium biodynamics in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and its implications for trophic transfer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xie, Lingtian; Lambert, D.; Martin, C.; Cain, D.J.; Luoma, S.N.; Buchwalter, D.

    2008-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that diet can be a major source of trace metal bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. In this study, we examined cadmium uptake, efflux, and subcellular compartmentalization dynamics in the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. L. variegatus is an important component of freshwater food webs in Europe and North America and is potentially useful as a standard food source for laboratory-based trophic transfer studies. Cadmium accumulation and depuration were each followed for 10 days. Rate constants of uptake (ku) and efflux (ke) were estimated and subcellular Cd compartmentalization was followed over the course of uptake and efflux. The partitioning of Cd into operationally-defined subcellular compartments was relatively consistent throughout the 20-day experiment, with the majority of Cd accumulating in the cytosol. No major changes in Cd compartmentalization were observed over uptake or depuration, but there appeared to be some exchange between heat-stable and heat-labile cytosolic protein fractions. Cadmium accumulation from solution was strongly affected by ambient calcium concentrations, suggesting competition between Cd and Ca for uptake sites. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to manipulate the whole body calcium content of L. variegatus as a potential tool for examining calcium influences on dietary Cd dynamics. The potential for this species to be an important conduit of Cd to higher trophic levels is discussed, along with its potential as a standardized food source in metal trophic transfer studies. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Field Evaluation of a Novel Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Attracticide for the Management of Zonocerus variegatus on Cabbage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timbilla, J. A.; Lawson, B. W.; Yeboah-Gyan, K.

    Cabbage, Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an important vegetable grown and consumed in Ghana. Apart from infestations of the lepidopterous Plutella xylostella and Hellula undalis resulting from continuous cultivation, a new pest Zonocerus variegatus has been reported to causing damage to the crop. The efficacy of a novel pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) based novel PA-attracticide developed from treating the roots of the neophyte, Chromolaena odorata which contains PAs with Carbofuran 3G for the management of Z. variegatus was tested using cabbage as a test crop in field caged plots. Field caged plots of cabbage artificially infested with Z. variegatus were treated with and without PA-attracticide in addition to a control treatment of caged cabbage plot with no insect and PA-attracticide. The experimental design was a RCB replicated three times in two ecological zones. The results showed that the establishment, leaf and head damage of cabbage was statistically the same in the PA-treated plots and the control treatment. These treatments, however, performed significantly better than the treatment without PA-attracticide. The results obtained holds promise for mitigating the menace of the grasshopper on cabbage using PA based attracticides.

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sibaja-Morales, Karen D; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Jiménez Rocha, Ana E; Hernández Gamboa, Jorge; Prendas Gamboa, Jorge; Arroyo Murillo, Francisco; Sandí, Janet; Nuñez, Yessenia; Baldi, Mario

    2009-03-01

    Sloths may serve as host to a wide range of parasites. However, there is little information available on the types of parasites that affect Costa Rica's sloth population. During a 1-yr period, 65 specimens of Costa Rican sloth species (Choloepus hoffmanni; n = 56) and Bradypus variegates; n = 9) from a local zoo were sampled. Fecal samples were evaluated using two different diagnostic techniques, Sheather's flotation and sedimentation. Concurrently, these sloths were examined for ectoparasites. Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 14 sloths (21.5%), from which 13 animals were C. hoffmanni and one was B. variegatus. Gastrointestinal parasites were recognized as Coccidia 71.4% (10/14), Cestoda 21.4% (3/14), and Spiruroidea 7.1% (1/14). Coccidia and cestodes were seen in C. hoffmanni, and spirurids were identified in B. variegatus. Among 27 sloths examined, only six had dermal problems (five C. hoffmanni and two B. variegatus). Ectoparasites recovered were Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari, Sarcoptidae) mites and Amblyomma varium (Acari, Ixodidae) ticks. This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths. PMID:19368244

  13. Use of the aquatic oligochaete lumbriculus variegatus for assessing the toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.L.; Ankley, G.T.; Benoit, D.A.; Mattson, V.R. )

    1993-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe test methods utilizing the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus to assess the acute and chronic toxicity and the presence of bioaccumulatable compounds in contaminated sediments. Lumbriculus variegatus was chosen as a test species because (a) it represents an ecologically relevant component of freshwater ecosystems; (b) it is suitable for long-term testing and evaluation of chronic toxicity end points (e.g., growth, reproduction); (c) it is exposed via all important routes of concern, including ingesting of contaminated particles; and (d) it has sufficient biomass to assess bioaccumulation of contaminants. Also, Lumbriculus variegatus is easily cultured and handled. Described herein are culturing procedures and test protocols for Lumbriculus variegatus, as well as two examples of the types of experimental data generated when using the oligochaete in test with contaminated sediments. Two case studies are presented in which L. variegatus was used to assess the bioaccumulation of metals (cadmium, nickel) from contaminated sediments and assess the toxicity of sediment samples collected from the copper-contaminated Keweenaw Waterway system in Michigan.

  14. Inhibition of pyrene biotransformation by piperonyl butoxide and identification of two pyrene derivatives in Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Carrasco Navarro, Víctor; Brozinski, Jenny-Maria; Leppänen, Matti T; Honkanen, Jani O; Kronberg, Leif; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2011-05-01

    Using the freshwater annelid Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta), the presence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes was investigated by analyzing metabolites of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in treatments with and without the CYP inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO). The results show a low biotransformation capability of L. variegatus (7% of total pyrene body burden as metabolites at 168 h). Addition of PBO resulted in a significant reduction of metabolites, suggesting the presence of a CYP in L. variegatus. Besides 1-hydroxypyrene, three peaks representing unknown metabolites were detected in LC-FLD (liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection) chromatograms of L. variegatus. Deconjugations showed that sulfonation and glucosidation are involved in the formation of these unknowns. Further studies with the time of flight mass analyzer provided the identification of the glucose-sulfate conjugate of 1-hydroxypyrene. The same metabolites were detected in the solvent-nonextractable fraction by incubation of the tissue residues with proteinase K, suggesting that part of these metabolites are bound to proteins. Overall, the slow biotransformation of pyrene by L. variegatus (involving CYP) supports the use of this species in standard bioaccumulation tests; however, the tissue-bound metabolite fraction described in the current study deserves further investigation for its toxicity and availability to upper trophic levels through diet. PMID:21312247

  15. Injuries from Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Southcott, R V

    The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed.

  16. Injuries from Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Southcott, R V

    The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed. PMID:2593912

  17. Identifying management units in non-endangered species: the example of the sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825.

    PubMed

    Moraes-Barros, N; Miyaki, C Y; Morgante, J S

    2007-12-01

    In this study we propose the analysis of genetic diversity of the common three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus, in an attempt to understand population structure, identify divergent intraspecific units, and contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity in the neotropical forests. We analyzed a 387 bp segment of the mitochondrial DNA control region in 28 individuals distributed in different localities of both Atlantic and Amazon forests. Our results demonstrated that the genetic diversity of B. variegatus is distributed in six management units, MUs. The observed MUs encompass six phylogenetic lineages and represent respectively north and south regions of Atlantic forest, three regions within the Amazon forest, and a transition region between these two biomes. Considering the fact that these MUs are concordant with phylogroups and endemism areas already described for other vertebrate species, we can say that the study of B. variegatus, a widely distributed and not endangered species, can help to identify areas for conservation biology purposes in neotropical rain forests.

  18. Effect of food plants on the volume of repellent secretion obtained in adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).

    PubMed

    Idowu, A B; Idowu, O A

    2001-06-01

    The volume of secretion obtained from adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) was influenced by the type of food plants. Insects fed on leaves of cassava Manihot esculenta, bitter leaves Vernonia amygdalina, and a mixture of M. esculenta and Acalypha wilkesiana gave a good volume of secretion while Chromolaena odorata, Elaeis guinensis, Aspilia africana and Citrus sinensis did not favour secretion production. No significant difference was recorded in the volume of secretion obtained from Z. variegatus from the two seasons irrespective of the food plant. Similarly, food plants gave no significant difference on the volume of secretion between the two seasons.

  19. Quantification of the Bioturbation Activity of Lumbriculus Variegatus Worms Using Fluorescent Particulate Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. M.; Roche, K. R.; Xie, M.; Packman, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Important biological, physical and chemical processes, such as fluxes of oxygen, nutrients and contaminants, occur across sediment-water interfaces. These processes are influenced by bioturbation activities of benthic animals. Bioturbation is thought to be significant in releasing metals to the water column from contaminated sediments, but metals contamination also affects organism activity. Consequently, the aim of this study was to consider the interactions of biological activity, sediment chemistry, pore water transport, and chemical reactions in sediment mixing and the flux and toxicity of metals in sediments. Prior studies have modeled bioturbation as a diffusive process. However, diffusion models often do not describe accurately sediment mixing due to bioturbation. To this end, we used the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model to assess sediment mixing caused by bioturbation activity of Lumbriculus variegatus worms. We performed experiments using fine-grained sediments with different levels of zinc contamination from Lake DePue, which is a Superfund Site in Illinois. The tests were conducted in an aerated fresh water chamber. Fluorescent particulate tracers were added to the sediment surface to quantify mixing processes and the influence of metals contaminants on L. variegatus bioturbation activity. We observed sediment mixing and organism activity by time-lapse photography over 14 days. Then, we analyzed the images to characterize the fluorescent particle concentration as a function of sediment depth and time. Results reveal that sediment mixing caused by L. variegatus is subdiffusive in time and superdiffusive in space. These results suggest that anomalous sediment mixing is probably a ubiquitous process, as this behavior has only been observed previously in marine sediments. Also, the experiments indicate that bioturbation and sediment mixing decreased in the presence of higher metals concentrations in sediments. This process is expected to decrease

  20. The attraction of Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) to different types of lure.

    PubMed

    Idowu, A B; Akinsete, A

    2001-06-01

    Zonocerus variegatus is a common grasshopper in parts of west and equtorial Africa. The distribution in Nigeria extends from the lowland rainforest zone to the savannah in the north. The influence of lure on the behaviour of grasshopper inside cages (120 insect per cage) was investigated. Nymphs and adults of Zonocerus variegatus responded positively to intact leaves, crushed leaves and inflorescence of the common compositae weed Chromolaena odorata inside muslin bags, and intact plants. There were significant differences in the attraction recorded for starved nymphs, fed nymphs and starved adults. Attraction was more to intact leaves and is by olfaction. The increase in the attraction of starved nymphs is time dependent. Attraction to plant parts ceased after the plants were dried for 24 and 48 hours at room temperature and when plants were placed in transparent polythene bags. Gut motility and gut activity were higher during the day than at night. Nymphs, adults and egg pods placed separately inside muslin bags were not attractive to adults or nymphs.

  1. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Lethal body burdens of chlorophenols and mixtures of chlorophenols in an oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkonen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The lethal body burdens (LBB) of a few chlorophenol congeners were measured in the oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus. LBB is defined as the concentration of the compound in the organism on molar basis to cause a death. Groups of 40 organisms were exposed to different chlorophenol concentrations in artificial soft freshwater to achieve differential mortality. Exposure times were either 24 hours or 48 hours. Besides exposures with individual congener, mixtures of chlorophenols were also tested. After each exposure, the surviving organisms were collected and the body burden of chlorophenols were measured by GC with electron capture detection. Only the surviving organisms were analyzed, because dead worms started to decay rather quickly. The analyzed tissue concentrations were actually lower than in surviving organisms. The trichlorophenols and pentachlorophenol have a LBB of 0.4--0.7 {micro}mol/g wet weight. The 2,6-dichlorophenol has a slightly higher LBB of 1.0--1.6 {micro}mol/g wet weight. The LBB of chlorophenol mixtures (two congeners at a time) were of the same, on molar basis, as individual congeners demonstrating fully additive toxicity. The lethal body burdens of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in Lumbriculus variegatus were the same for these water-only exposures as previously reported for these compounds in two different sediments. The use of lethal body burden approach in sediment toxicology is further discussed.

  3. Phototoxic response of Lumbriculus variegatus to sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, P.D.; Ankley, G.T.; Kosian, P.A.

    1995-05-01

    The toxicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic organisms can be greatly increased upon exposure of the organisms to ultraviolet (UV) radiation present in sunlight. The phenomenon of photoactivation of PAHs had received some attention in the laboratory; however, evaluation of the photoinduced toxicity of PAHs in field settings has been limited. In these studies, in situ chambers made from Pyrex{reg_sign} glass tubes were used to evaluate the phototoxic response of laboratory-cultured oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) in sediments contaminated with PAHs. These experiments were conducted using both sunlight-exposed and shaded test chambers. In addition to the PAH-contaminated site, a reference site lacking PAHs was tested as a control. Survival of L. variegatus at the PAH-contaminated site was significantly less in chambers exposed to sunlight than in chambers held in the dark, or chambers from the reference site. Concurrent laboratory studies with sediment collected from the two sites and an artificial source of UV light corroborated observations made in the field. Although a number of PAHs were present at elevated concentrations in the test sample, further work is required to determine exactly which were responsible for the observed phototoxicity.

  4. Fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolite levels in the three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Mühlbauer, M; Duarte, D P F; Gilmore, D P; Costa, C P da

    2006-02-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of measuring fecal steroid hormone metabolites as a noninvasive technique for monitoring reproductive function in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus. Levels of the estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) metabolites were measured by radioimmunoassay in fecal samples collected over 12 weeks from 4 captive female B. variegatus sloths. The validation of the radioimmunoassay for evaluation of fecal steroid metabolites was carried out by collecting 10 blood samples on the same day as defecation. There was a significant direct correlation between the plasma and fecal E2 and P4 levels (P < 0.05, Pearson's test), thereby validating this noninvasive technique for the study of the estrous cycle in these animals. Ovulation was detected in two sloths (SL03 and SL04) whose E2 levels reached 2237.43 and 6713.26 pg/g wet feces weight, respectively, for over four weeks, followed by an increase in P4 metabolites reaching 33.54 and 3242.68 ng/g wet feces weight, respectively. Interestingly, SL04, which presented higher levels of E2 and P4 metabolites, later gave birth to a healthy baby sloth. The results obtained indicate that this is a reliable technique for recording gonadal steroid secretion and thereby reproduction in sloths.

  5. Uptake and depuration of nonionic organic contaminants from sediment by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Wang, F.N.; Dwyer, J.; Ankley, G.T.; Mount, D.R.; Huckins, J.; Petty, J.; Landrum, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of sediment-associated contaminants by the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was evaluated after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of exposure to a field-collected sediment contaminated with DDT and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or to a field-collected sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Depuration of contaminants by oligochaetes in a control sediment or in water was also evaluated over a 7-d period after 28 d of exposure to the field-collected sediments. Accumulation of PAHs with a log octanol-water partitioning coefficient (log Kow) 5.6 or DDD and DDE typically exhibited a steady increase from day 1 to about day 14 or 28, followed by a plateau. Therefore, exposures conducted for a minimum of 14 to 28 d better reflected steady-state concentrations for DDT and its metabolites and for PAHs. Depuration rates for DDT and its metabolites and high-Kow PAHs were much higher in organisms held in clean sediment relative to both water-only depuration and model predictions. This suggests that depuration in clean sediment may artificially accelerate depuration of hydrophobic compounds. Comparisons between laboratory-exposed L. variegatus and oligochaetes collected in the field from these sediments indicate that results of laboratory tests can be extrapolated to the field with a reasonable degree of certainty.

  6. [Abundance of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) in the island of Cubagua, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gómez Gaspar, A

    2000-12-01

    The sea urchin roe is among the highest valued seafood items in the world. Increasing demand has extended this fishery worldwide and cases of overfishing have been detected in some countries. On the eastern coast of Venezuela some species of sea urchin, such as Lytechinus variegatus, are consumed as food but studies to determine the abundance and size do no exist. Between February 1998 and April 1999 six sampling stations (depth under 5 m) in Cubagua island (perimeter 25 km) were visited in 11 occasions to study the population density of L. variegatus, with a 0.25 m2 quadrat thrown eight times over seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) beds. Temperature was determined on site, and water samples for salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration were collected. Each specimen was measured and returned to the sea. Diameter range was 8.6 to 74.2 mm (n=3 404) and mean size 26.56-55.34 mm. On the northern coast density varied from 2 to 23 urchins/m2; on the eastern coast from 15 to 82/m2 and from 21 to 58/m2 on the southern coast. On the north coast the seagrass beds are scarce. PMID:15266800

  7. [Abundance of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) in the island of Cubagua, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gómez Gaspar, A

    2000-12-01

    The sea urchin roe is among the highest valued seafood items in the world. Increasing demand has extended this fishery worldwide and cases of overfishing have been detected in some countries. On the eastern coast of Venezuela some species of sea urchin, such as Lytechinus variegatus, are consumed as food but studies to determine the abundance and size do no exist. Between February 1998 and April 1999 six sampling stations (depth under 5 m) in Cubagua island (perimeter 25 km) were visited in 11 occasions to study the population density of L. variegatus, with a 0.25 m2 quadrat thrown eight times over seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) beds. Temperature was determined on site, and water samples for salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration were collected. Each specimen was measured and returned to the sea. Diameter range was 8.6 to 74.2 mm (n=3 404) and mean size 26.56-55.34 mm. On the northern coast density varied from 2 to 23 urchins/m2; on the eastern coast from 15 to 82/m2 and from 21 to 58/m2 on the southern coast. On the north coast the seagrass beds are scarce.

  8. Levels of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol, and androstenedione metabolism in the gonads of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata:echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Wasson, K M; Gower, B A; Hines, G A; Watts, S A

    2000-06-01

    Levels of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) indicated significant variation among individual echinoids during the annual cycle, reflecting generally the variation in gamete development that can be observed among individuals. Testosterone and E2 levels in both the ovaries and testes were higher during the period of gonadal growth. Levels of all steroids were greatly reduced compared to those levels reported for asteroids. Differences in the levels of P4, T, and estrogens between asteroids and Lytechinus variegatus may be related to differences in gonad morphology and nutrient storage capacity between asteroids and echinoids. It was hypothesized that the low levels of steroids detected in L. variegatus reflect paracrine-like mechanisms in cell signaling as compared to endocrine-like mechanisms proposed to be involved in regulating gonad function in asteroids. Both the ovaries and testes of L. variegatus had the capacity to synthesize T and a variety of 5alpha-reduced androgens including 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (5alpha-adiols) from androstenedione (AD) in 8 h. Estrogen synthesis was not detected. The sex-specific pattern of accumulation of 5alpha-adiols in the ovaries and testes suggests that the 5alpha-adiols may affect processes related to reproduction in L. variegatus. PMID:11050687

  9. Proscar (Finasteride) inhibits 5 alpha-reductase activity in the ovaries and testes of Lytechinus variegatus Lamarck (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Wasson, K M; Watts, S A

    1998-10-01

    Recent investigations into the steroid metabolic pathway in the echinoid Lytechinus variegatus demonstrated the capacity of the gonads to convert androstenedione, the classical mammalian precursor to bioactive androgens, into testosterone and a variety of 5 alpha-reduced androgens including 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol and 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol. The synthesis of these steroids, which requires 5 alpha-reductase activity, varies with sex and reproductive state in L. variegatus, suggesting that these steroids may be involved in reproductive processes. The classical method of castration followed by steroid replacement therapy to determine the biological role of steroids in the gonads of higher vertebrates is not possible in echinoids. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the efficacy of finasteride, a selective 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor in the mammalian prostate gland, on 5 alpha-reductase activity in the gonads of L. variegatus. Finasteride inhibits echinoid 5 alpha-reductase in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 approximately 2.7 microM for both ovaries and testes. These echinoid IC50s are significantly higher than those reported for humans and rats. In addition, oral administration of finasteride to the echinoids appeared to inhibit 5 alpha-reductase with no apparent stress (no spine loss) to the animals. These data suggest that finasteride may be used to selectively and chemically ablate 5 alpha-reduced androgen synthesis in the gonads of L. variegatus. PMID:9827060

  10. Trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites and nonextractable fraction from Oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) to juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Carrasco Navarro, V; Leppänen, M T; Honkanen, J O; Kukkonen, J V K

    2012-06-01

    The trophic transfer of pyrene metabolites was evaluated by a 2-month exposure of the freshwater annelid Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) to pyrene, followed by feeding to juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). The results obtained by scintillation counting (SC) proved that the pyrene metabolites produced by L. variegatus were transferred to juvenile S. trutta through diet. More detailed analyses by LC-FLD (liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection) showed that an unknown pyrene metabolite originating from L. variegatus was present in fish liver. This metabolite, although yet not properly identified, may be the glucose conjugate of 1-hydroxy-pyrene. This metabolite was not present in chromatograms of fish that were fed pyrene-spiked food pellets. In addition, the strongly bound tissue residue of L. variegatus, which was nonextractable neither by organic solvents nor by the proteolytic enzyme Proteinase K, was most likely not available for the fish through diet. Altogether, the present study shows that the metabolites of pyrene produced at low levels of the food chain may be potentially available for upper levels through diet, raising a concern about their potential toxicity to predators and supporting their inclusion in the risk assessment of PAHs. PMID:22475154

  11. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  12. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus (EPA test method 100.3) effects of feeding and organism loading rate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methodology of USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specifies that the Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry weight of no less than 50:1. It ...

  13. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  14. USE OF THE OLIGOCHAETE, LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS, AS A PREY ORGANISM FOR THE TOXICANT EXPOSURE OF FISH THROUGH THE DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish, but its sufficiency as a stand alone diet has not been evaluated. We conducted 21-d and 30-d experiments with young fa...

  15. Species of the genus Arthrobrachus Solier, 1849 (Coleoptera: Melyridae)
    distributed to the East of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    The species of the genus Arthrobrachus Solier, 1849 distributed in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay have been revised. The morphological study of specimens and the review of the type material have resulted in a new combination: Arthrobrachus flavomarginatus (Blanchard, 1843) n. comb. (from Astylus Laporte, 1836), and four new synonymies: Arthrobrachus rufitarsis Philippi & Philippi, 1864 = A. obscuripes Pic, 1927 n. syn.; Arthrobrachus flavomarginatus (Blanchard, 1843) = A. xanthurus (Blanchard, 1843) n. syn. = A. boucardi Pic, 1919 n. syn. = A. lajoyei Pic, 1919 n. syn. Three species described by Steinheil (1874), Arthrobrachus depressus, Arthrobrachus testaceolimbatus and Arthrobrachus testaceus are considered as incertae sedis and Arthrobrachus quadrilineatus Steinheil, 1874 is transferred to Astylus Laporte, 1836 as A. steinheili nomen novum. Four new species of Arthrobrachus have been described: A. antonioi n. sp., A. eloisae n. sp., A. solervicensi n. sp. and A. armandoi n. sp. Distributional data and a key to the species are provided. PMID:27394460

  16. Phylogeography and genetic identification of the newly-discovered populations of torrent salamanders (Rhyacotriton cascade and R. variegatus) in the central Cascades (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, R.S.; Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Newly discovered populations of Rhyacotritonidae were investigated for taxonomic identity, hybridization, and sympatry. Species in the genus Rhyacotriton have been historically difficult to identify using morphological characters. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) 16S ribosomal RNA sequences (491 bp) and allozymes (6 loci) were used to identify the distribution of populations occurring intermediate between the previously described ranges of R. variegatus and R. cascadae in the central Cascade Mountain region of Oregon. Allozyme and mitochondrial sequence data both indicated the presence of two distinct evolutionary lineages, with each lineage corresponding to the allopatric distribution of R. cascadae and R. variegatus. Results suggest the Willamette River acts as a phylogeographic barrier limiting the distribution of both species, although we cannot exclude the possibility that reproductive isolation also exists that reinforces species' distributions. This study extends the previously described geographical ranges of both R. cascadae and R. variegatus and defines an eastern range limit for R. variegatus conservation efforts.

  17. Bioavailability of sediment-associated PAHs by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment cores

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A. |; VanHoof, P.L.; Landrum, P.F.

    1994-12-31

    Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed four weeks to sediment core sections. Sediment was taken from Lake George in northern Michigan and known to be historically contaminated with PAHs. Bioaccumulation was maximal at the 12--16 cm depth where sediment PAH concentrations were greatest. Accumulation was minimal in surficial and 44--48 cm sections. Accumulation peaked at about 96 h, then declined over the remainder of the study for some of the lower molecular weight PAHs. For most higher molecular weight compounds, accumulation peaked at 2 weeks, then slightly declined at 4 weeks. Uptake rate coefficients stayed relatively constant for specific PAH congeners over the range of sediment depths, suggesting constant bioavailability with sediment aging. Accumulation factors (AFs) of selected congeners were also consistent among sediment depths and were comparable to those calculated for other species reported in previous studies.

  18. Assessment of microplastic toxicity to embryonic development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Nobre, C R; Santana, M F M; Maluf, A; Cortez, F S; Cesar, A; Pereira, C D S; Turra, A

    2015-03-15

    Apart from the physiological impacts on marine organisms caused by ingesting microplastics, the toxicity caused by substances leaching from these particles into the environment requires investigation. To understand this potential risk, we evaluated the toxicity of virgin (raw) and beach-stranded plastic pellets to the development of embryos of Lytechinus variegatus, simulating transfers of chemical compounds to interstitial water and water column by assays of pellet-water interface and elutriate, respectively. Both assays showed that virgin pellets had toxic effects, increasing anomalous embryonic development by 58.1% and 66.5%, respectively. The toxicity of stranded pellets was lower than virgin pellets, and was observed only for pellet-water interface assay. These results show that (i) plastic pellets act as a vector of pollutants, especially for plastic additives found on virgin particles; and that (ii) the toxicity of leached chemicals from pellets depends on the exposure pathway and on the environmental compartment in which pellets accumulate. PMID:25662316

  19. Assessment of microplastic toxicity to embryonic development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Nobre, C R; Santana, M F M; Maluf, A; Cortez, F S; Cesar, A; Pereira, C D S; Turra, A

    2015-03-15

    Apart from the physiological impacts on marine organisms caused by ingesting microplastics, the toxicity caused by substances leaching from these particles into the environment requires investigation. To understand this potential risk, we evaluated the toxicity of virgin (raw) and beach-stranded plastic pellets to the development of embryos of Lytechinus variegatus, simulating transfers of chemical compounds to interstitial water and water column by assays of pellet-water interface and elutriate, respectively. Both assays showed that virgin pellets had toxic effects, increasing anomalous embryonic development by 58.1% and 66.5%, respectively. The toxicity of stranded pellets was lower than virgin pellets, and was observed only for pellet-water interface assay. These results show that (i) plastic pellets act as a vector of pollutants, especially for plastic additives found on virgin particles; and that (ii) the toxicity of leached chemicals from pellets depends on the exposure pathway and on the environmental compartment in which pellets accumulate.

  20. Evaluation of vulnerability of Suillus variegatus and Suillus granulatus mushrooms to sequester mercury in fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Saba, Martyna; Falandysz, Jerzy; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2016-08-01

    This work determined the mercury (Hg) contents and bioconcentration potential of two Suillus mushrooms, and the probable dietary intake of this element from a mushroom meal. The determination of total Hg content of fungal and soil samples was performed using cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy by a direct sample thermal decomposition coupled with gold wool trap of Hg and its further desorption and quantitative measurement at a wavelength of 253.7 nm. The median values of Hg contents (mg kg(-1) dry biomass) in 213 specimens of S. variegatus from 12 background areas varied widely from 0.087 to 0.51 for caps and from 0.041 to 0.24 for stipes. In 52 specimens of S. granulatus, the Hg contents ranged from 0.30 to 0.41 for caps and from 0.058 to 0.14 for stipes. Both species could be classified as moderate accumulators of Hg and the median bioconcentration factor values ranged from 7.0 to 14 (caps) and 2.1 to 13 (stipes) for S. variegatus and 9.5 (caps) and 1.3 (stipes) for S. granulatus. The estimated intake rates of Hg with the consumption of 300-g caps were from 0.0026 to 0.015 per capita or from 0.000037 to 0.00022 mg kg(-1) body mass and this do not indicate any cause for concern associated with eating a meal once or more in a week during the mushrooming season. PMID:27166831

  1. Sediment toxicity and lethal body burdens of chlorophenols in an oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkonen, J.; Halme, A.; Nikkilae, A.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicokinetics, acute toxicity and lethal body burden of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Lumbriculus variegatus were measured in two different clean sediments. The sediments had an organic carbon content of 0.5% and 6.5%. The uptake rate coefficients (k{sub s}) of TCP at low TCP concentration (0.25 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}) were 0.67 and 0.13 g dry sed. g{sup {minus}1} org. h{sup {minus}1} in low and high organic carbon content sediments, respectively. Organic carbon normalized uptake rate coefficient (k{sub oc}) was 0.0034 gOC g{sup {minus}1} org. h{sup {minus}1} for the low organic content sediment and 0.0085 gOC g{sup {minus}1} org. h{sup {minus}1} for the high organic content sediment showing that the organic carbon content does not explain all of the difference between the sediments. Similar to that, LC{sub 50} (24h) for the TCP was 37.4 and 121.5 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} dw in low and high organic carbon content sediments, respectively. If organic carbon normalization is done the figures are 7,880 and 1,869 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1} OC. However, the lethal body burden of TCP in Lumbriculus variegatus is between 0.5--0.9 {micro}mol g{sup {minus}1} in both sediments. Similar type of results will be shown for PCP and the use of lethal body burden approach in sediment toxicology will be discussed.

  2. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Artola-Garicano, Elsa; Sinnige, Theo L; van Holsteijn, Ineke; Vaes, Wouter H J; Hermens, Joop L M

    2003-05-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benthic organisms. Polycyclic musks are frequently used fragrances, and they have been detected in different compartments of the environment. The aim of this study was to fill some empirical data gaps for AHTN and HHCB for benthic organisms. Results show that differences exist between both organisms. Chironomus riparius exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for AHTN and HHCB substantially lower than predicted for nontransformed organics. The BCFs for both chemicals increased after coexposure of the organism to the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide. Thus, the low BCF values were the result of rapid biotransformation of AHTN and HHCB in the midge larvae. Bioconcentration kinetics indicated that both chemicals induced their own cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. Acute toxicity of AHTN to midge larvae was reduced compared to predicted baseline toxicity and was similar for HHCB. Bioconcentration of AHTN and HHCB in the worm (Lumbriculus variegatus) is in agreement with predictions based on the octanol-water partition coefficients of these chemicals. Acute toxicity was found to be similar to predicted values for baseline toxicity. Summarizing, for AHTN and HHCB, acute toxicity and bioconcentration behavior in L. variegatus was in accordance with predicted data for nontransformed organics. In C. riparius, bioconcentration as well as toxicity were reduced.

  3. Influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Monson, P.D.; West, C.W.; Ankley, G.T.

    1995-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria establish permissible levels of ammonia in the nation`s fresh waters. These criteria are based on accumulated research suggesting that, for most aquatic species (primarily fishes), the toxicity of un-ionized ammonia predominates over that of the ammonium ion. The development of a sediment-quality criterion for ammonia requires evaluation of the relative toxicity of the two ammonia forms to benthic and epibenthic macroinvertebrates to determine whether the water-quality toxicity model can be applied to sediments. Flow-through ammonia toxicity tests were conducted over 10 d with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and the larval midge Chironomus tentans at four pH values (6.3, 7.2, 7.8, and 8.6) using a unique pH control system. Total ammonia was more toxic at elevated than at low pH to both species, suggesting that un-ionized ammonia (more prevalent at high pH) is important in determining the toxicity of ammonia to these two species. Hardness or alkalinity differences in the range of 30 to 200 mg/kg (as CaCO{sub 3}) did not appear to affect the toxicity of ammonia to the two species in separate 4-d tests. Based on results of the 10-d tests, the joint toxicity/pH model that establishes the water-quality criterion value for ammonia appears to be sufficiently protective of L. variegatus and C. tentans, by factors of at least 3 and 10, respectively. However, this study did not address potential differences in exposure of benthic organisms to ammonia in sediments vs. that in the water column; nor were the chronic effects of ammonia on these species measured in this study.

  4. Accumulation of dietary methylmercury and effects on growth and survival in two estuarine forage fish: Cyprinodon variegatus and Menidia beryllina.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Emily S; Heyes, Andrew; Rowe, Christopher L

    2013-04-01

    Dietary methylmercury (MeHg) uptake by fish in relation to life stage, species, and level of exposure is poorly understood in lower trophic levels, particularly in estuarine species. The authors compared accumulation of dietary MeHg as well as sensitivity (survival and growth) to dietary MeHg exposure in two species of estuarine forage fish, Cyprinodon variegatus and Menidia beryllina. Fish were fed one of five dietary MeHg concentrations (ranging from 0.04 to 14 µg/g dry wt) over a period of 70 d. Growth rate and the level of dietary exposure influenced MeHg tissue concentrations in both species. Mercury in the diet exhibited a strong linear relationship with fish Hg tissue concentrations. Additionally, the authors found that M. beryllina was more sensitive to dietary MeHg exposure than C. variegatus. Both species showed some decreases in growth related to MeHg exposure, although these patterns were not consistent among treatments. Overall, C. variegatus and M. beryllina were found to have a high tolerance for dietary MeHg exposure. If fish occupying low trophic levels are capable of surviving with high Hg body burdens, this tolerance has important implications for Hg exposure of organisms occupying higher trophic levels.

  5. Accumulation dynamics and acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus: implications for metal modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan R; Paul, Kai B; Dybowska, Agnieszka D; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R; Stone, Vicki; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2015-04-01

    Frameworks commonly used in trace metal ecotoxicology (e.g., biotic ligand model (BLM) and tissue residue approach (TRA)) are based on the established link between uptake, accumulation and toxicity, but similar relationships remain unverified for metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs). The present study aimed to (i) characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of PVP-, PEG-, and citrate-AgNPs, in comparison to dissolved Ag, in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus; and (ii) investigate whether parameters of bioavailability and accumulation predict acute toxicity. In both species, uptake rate constants for AgNPs were ∼ 2-10 times less than for dissolved Ag and showed significant rank order concordance with acute toxicity. Ag elimination by L. variegatus fitted a 1-compartment loss model, whereas elimination in D. magna was biphasic. The latter showed consistency with studies that reported daphnids ingesting NPs, whereas L. variegatus biodynamic parameters indicated that uptake and efflux were primarily determined by the bioavailability of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs. Thus, principles of BLM and TRA frameworks are confounded by the feeding behavior of D. magna where the ingestion of AgNPs perturbs the relationship between tissue concentrations and acute toxicity, but such approaches are applicable when accumulation and acute toxicity are linked to dissolved concentrations. The uptake rate constant, as a parameter of bioavailability inclusive of all available pathways, could be a successful predictor of acute toxicity.

  6. The effects of organic and inorganic phosphates on fertilization and early development in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Böttger, S A; McClintock, J B

    2001-08-01

    The embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus are capable of surviving chronic exposure to inorganic sodium phosphate and organic triethyl phosphate concentrations as high as 6 and 1000 mg l(-1) seawater, respectively. However, chronic exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these phosphates may cause arrested or abnormal embryonic development. We measured fertilization success and percentages of normal, arrested and abnormal embryos exposed to low, medium and high sub-lethal concentrations of inorganic and organic phosphate. Fertilization success was significantly reduced in all phosphate treatments. After attaining the 4-cell stage, embryos exposed to the highest phosphate concentrations displayed arrested development. Percentages of abnormally developing embryos showed a strong concentration dose-response with a significant increase in abnormal embryonic development with increasing phosphate concentration. Overall, these results indicate that the gametes and embryos of L. variegatus may provide a rapid and sensitive model bioassay for the evaluation of phosphate pollutants in marine systems. Our findings also indicate that shallow-water populations of L. variegatus spawning in areas subjected to inorganic and organic phosphate pollutants may suffer detrimental effects on fertilization and embryonic development. PMID:11489428

  7. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbricuilus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet.

    PubMed

    Mount, David R; Highland, Terry L; Mattson, Vincent R; Dawson, Timothy D; Lott, Kevin G; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2006-10-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet. PMID:17022418

  8. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mount, D.R.; Highland, T.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Dawson, T.D.; Lott, K.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  10. Sediment bioaccumulation test with upper Mississippi River sediments using the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, E.L.; Canfield, T.J.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.

    1995-12-31

    The test is part of the U.S.G.S. investigation Flood Effects on Surficial Bed Sediments Stored in the Navigational Pools of the Upper Mississippi River. In the laboratory Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed 28 days to sediments collected from 13 upper Mississippi River stations. The laboratory exposure was conducted using guidelines published in USEPA Methods for Measuring the Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Sediment associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates. For comparison to laboratory results, native oligochaetes were isolated in the field from subsamples of each of the 13 sediments. Both laboratory exposed and field collected oligochaetes were allowed to clear their gut contents for 24 hours after sampling. After elimination, the oligochaete samples were stored frozen until analyzed. Organic contaminants were measured in the both sets of oligochaetes and the concentrations were compared. In general the concentrations of contaminants in both laboratory an field-collected oligochaetes were low. For many of the compounds measured, there was good agreement between laboratory exposed and field collected oligochaetes.

  11. Comparative toxicology for risk assessment of marine fishes and crustaceans. [Cyprinodon variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E. )

    1988-05-01

    The goal of this study was to collect data on the effects of chemicals on marine fishes and crustaceans and to evaluate the predictive power of the data for assessing risks to marine resources. The data sets consisted of acute median lethal concentrations (LC{sub 50s}) and chronic maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs). They were analyzed with regression models and simple comparisons. The conclusions include the following: (1) the variability found in the marine data was comparable to that found in freshwater data; (2) the standard marine test fish Cyprinodon variegatus appears to be representative of marine fishes; (3) the responses of marine crustaceans are so highly diverse that the concept of a representative crustacean is questionable; (4) mysid and penaeid shrimp appear to be particularly sensitive to toxic chemicals. These conclusions are subject to the constraints of the existing limited data base and should be confirmed by a systematic study of the relative sensitivity of marine organisms to chemicals with diverse modes of action.

  12. Blood pressure regulation in the three-toed sloth, Bradypus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Duarte, D P F; da Costa, C P; Cabral, A M S; Silva, E M; Gilmore, D P

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the baroreflex in blood pressure control in sloths, Bradypus variegatus, since these animals show labile levels in this parameter. Unanesthetized cannulated sloths were positioned in an experimental chair and the arterial catheter was coupled to a strain gauge pressure transducer. Blood pressure was monitored before, during and after the administration of phenylephrine (0.0625 to 4 microg/kg) and sodium nitroprusside (0.0625 to 2 microg/kg), bringing about changes in mean blood pressure from +/-30 mmHg in relation to control values. The relation between heart rate changes due to blood pressure variation was estimated by linear regression analysis. The slope was considered the reflex baroreceptor gain. The results (means+/-SD) showed that the reflex baroreceptor gain was -0.3+/-0.1 bpm/mmHg (r=0.88) to phenylephrine and -0.5+/-0.1 bpm/mmHg (r=0.92) to sodium nitroprusside, denoting a reduced reflex baroreceptor gain when compared with other mammals, suggesting that in sloths the baroreceptors are minimally involved in the buffering reflex response to these drugs. These findings suggest that the labile blood pressure could be influenced or be a result of this lowering in the reflex baroreceptor gain.

  13. Comprehensive sediment toxicity assessment of Hessian surface waters using Lumbriculus variegatus and Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Galluba, Simone; Oetken, Matthias; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was a sediment assessment of predominantly small rivers in the German federal state of Hesse. For this purpose, sediment samples were taken at 50 study sites with different contamination levels. The benthic invertebrates Chironomus riparius (Diptera) and Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) were used as test species and exposed to whole sediments in chronic laboratory experiments. The bioassays were carried out on the basis of OECD guidelines 218 and 225 for the testing of chemicals. For about 50 % of the study sites chemical analytical data for pollutants from environmentally important substance classes like metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organotin compounds were available. These data were used to analyze correlations between effects in the bioassays and measured chemical contaminations at sampling sites. For 22 % of the sediments ecologically relevant adverse effects were observed. In the majority of these cases effects occurred in only one of the biotests, and only one sediment sample exerted a negative effect on both test organisms. There was no significant correlation between biological responses and chemical data considering substance classes. However, there was a weak positive correlation between arsenic concentration and both worm number and worm biomass as well as a weak positive correlation between single PAHs and worm biomass. In some sediment tests elevated ammonia concentrations occurred in the overlying water so that an influence of these partially toxic concentrations on the test results cannot be ruled out. PMID:22375534

  14. Induction of ambicoloration by exogenous cortisol during metamorphosis of spotted halibut Verasper variegatus.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Donai, Hayato; Okauchi, Masanori; Tagawa, Masatomo; Araki, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid in fish, increases during flatfish metamorphosis and peaks before the surge of thyroxine. A large body of evidence indicates the essential role of thyroxine in flatfish metamorphosis, whereas information on cortisol is limited. We administered cortisol to spotted halibut Verasper variegatus larvae in order to examine the effect on pigmentation during metamorphosis. Administration of 10 μg cortisol per mL of water from before the onset of metamorphosis (stage E) to metamorphic climax (stage G) induced the development of adult type pigment cells on the blind side of the metamorphosed juveniles and increased the occurrence of ambicolored juveniles. When 10 μg/mL cortisol was administered during stage D, stages E-F, stage G or stage H, only the administration during stages E-F induced the development of adult type pigment cells on the blind side. In addition, the expression of the gene dopachrome tautomerase (dct), a marker of melanoblasts, was enhanced at Stage E by cortisol administration. These results clearly indicated, for the first time, the enhancement of pigmentation by exogenous high-dose cortisol. Since endogenous cortisol is secreted in response to various kinds of stress in rearing conditions, these results indicate a possible influence of stress conditions in the occurrence of ambicoloration in flatfish.

  15. [Reproductive cycle of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) in the south of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Montealegre Quijano, Santiago; Gómez Gaspar, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is of some commercial importance on the Southern coast of Margarita Island (Venezuela), where artisan women fishers process and sell the roe. The reproduction cycle of this species had not been fully studied. We collected these sea urchins in two stations from November 1997 through October 1998. The samples were transported fresh to the laboratory to determine weight, diameter and height. The sexual stage was established with a macroscopic scale and the gonadosomatic index (GI). Maturity is achieved when the animals reaches a diameter of 22 mm, although 50% of the population reaches sexual development at diameters of 43 mm (males) and 45 mm (females) at Station 1, and 35 mm for both sexes at Station 2. Mature individuals, in a sexual proportion of 1:1 were collected every month. According to the monthly GI variation and frequency (%) of the development stages, on the southern beaches the main reproductive period begins in April and continues through October, and it is most intensive from May to July, when gonads reach the greatest growth. PMID:17469260

  16. Seminal fluid from sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) contains complex sulfated polysaccharides linked to protein.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Leonardo P; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-09-01

    The eggs of sea urchins are covered by a jelly coat, which contains high concentrations of sulfated polysaccharides. These carbohydrates show species-specificity in inducing the sperm acrosome reaction. Several studies about the egg jelly of sea urchins have been published, but there is no information about the composition of the seminal fluid of these echinoderms. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of complex sulfated polysaccharides in the seminal fluid of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. These polysaccharides occur as three fractions that differ mostly in their carbohydrate/protein ratios. The native molecular masses of the polymers are very high (> or = 200 kDa) but, after digestion with papain the size decreases to approximately 8 kDa. All fractions have a similar carbohydrate composition, containing mostly galactose, glucosamine and mannose. The heterogeneous sulfated polysaccharides differ from vertebrate glycosaminoglycans and also from all previously described polysaccharides from invertebrates. The physiological role of the sulfated carbohydrates from seminal fluid is not yet determined. However, by analogy with the effects proposed for some glycoproteins found in vertebrate seminal fluid, it may be possible that the sulfated polysaccharides from invertebrate are also involved in fertilization process.

  17. Overgrazing of a large seagrass bed by the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus in Outer Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, C.D.; Sharp, W.C.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Hunt, J.H.; Lyons, W.G.; Prager, E.J.; Valentine, J.F.; Hall, M.O.; Whitfield, P.E.; Fourqurean, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Unusually dense aggregations of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus overgrazed at least 0.81 km2 of seagrass habitat in Outer Florida Bay (USA) between August 1997 and May 1998. Initially, sea-urchin densities were as high as 364 sea urchins m-2, but they steadily declined to within a range of 20 to 50 sea urchins m-2 by December 1998. Prior to this event, sea-urchin densities were 95% of the short-shoot apical meristems were removed by sea-urchin grazing in our study area. Such extensive loss may severely limit recovery of this seagrass community by vegetative reproduction. Effects of the removal of seagrass biomass have already resulted in the depletion of epifaunal-infaunal mollusk assemblages and resuspension of fine-grained (<64 ??m) surface sediments - which have caused significant changes in community structure and in the physical properties of the sediments. These changes, coupled with the loss of essential fishery habitat, reductions in primary and secondary production, and degradation of water quality, may lead to additional, longer-term, indirect effects that may extend beyond the boundaries of the grazed areas and into adjacent coastal ecosystems.

  18. Asymmetric thermal acclimation responses allow sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus to cope with rapidly changing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fangue, Nann A; Wunderly, Martin A; Dabruzzi, Theresa F; Bennett, Wayne A

    2014-01-01

    Thermal acclimation responses in sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus were quantified by transfer and reciprocal transfer of fish between 11.1° and 18.2°C, between 18.2° and 25.7°C, or between 25.7° and 32.8°C. Changes in thermal acclimation status were assessed by posttransfer time series determinations of thermal tolerance (i.e., critical thermal minima and maxima). In general, heat tolerance gain and loss were complete in 20 and 25 d, respectively. Cold tolerance gain was achieved ca. 24 d posttransfer, but attrition was complete after only 12-13 d. Heat tolerance was gained asymmetrically, with fish acquiring approximately one-half of their accruable tolerance at the lowest transfer temperature. Likewise, the majority of cold tolerance accruement occurred during the warmest temperature transfer. Relatively uniform losses of heat and cold tolerance were seen in reciprocal transfers. Acclimation patterns were related to initial acclimation temperature, final acclimation temperature, and acclimation time and could be accurately modeled by multiple linear regression. The results suggest that sheepshead minnow accrue a majority of their high- or low-temperature tolerance early in the acclimation process well before potential damaging temperatures are likely to occur. This novel pattern of asymmetric heat and cold tolerance acquisition in sheepshead minnow may be a key adaptation for surviving rapid and unpredictable water temperature changes commonly encountered in their natural environment. PMID:25461645

  19. Response of Lumbriculus variegatus transcriptome and metabolites to model chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Agbo, Stanley O; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Akkanen, Jarkko; Leppänen, Matti T; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Hailin; Price, David A; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of the underlying molecular events leading to xenobiotic toxicity is challenging especially when techniques are applied in isolation. We examined transcriptional and metabolic changes in Lumbriculus variegatus exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), cadmium (Cd) or pentachlorophenol (PCP) by DNA microarrays (7422 ESTs) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. In addition, the DNA damage response of worms exposed to B(a)P was assessed by a capillary electrophoresis laser induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) immunoassay. We found elevated expression of oxidative stress responsive genes, which correlated positively with the changes in antioxidant vitamin precursors including alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol. Other genes with strong differential expressions were mostly involved in actin related processes and proteolysis, despite an apparent delayed Cd response. Phosphates, sugars and fatty acids were effectively reduced and suggested that chemical treatments may have interfered with energy metabolism. The increased amount of B(a)P diol-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts in exposed worms appeared to correlate with the variability in uridine, inosine and xanthine, which are key components of nucleoside metabolism. This suggests that DNA damage was imminent or peaked within 6h. The results conformed to transcriptional changes in B(a)P exposed worms and compliment other approaches to elucidate underlying molecular changes. PMID:23178640

  20. X-ray microCT study of pyramids of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Nagaraja, S; Barss, J; Dahl, T; Veis, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports results of a novel approach, X-ray microCT, for quantifying stereom structures applied to ossicles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. MicroCT, a high resolution variant of medical CT (computed tomography), allows noninvasive mapping of microstructure in 3-D with spatial resolution approaching that of optical microscopy. An intact pyramid (two demipyramids, tooth epiphyses, and one tooth) was reconstructed with 17 microm isotropic voxels (volume elements); two individual demipyramids and a pair of epiphyses were studied with 9-13 microm isotropic voxels. The cross-sectional maps of a linear attenuation coefficient produced by the reconstruction algorithm showed that the structure of the ossicles was quite heterogeneous on the scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers. Variations in magnesium content and in minor elemental constitutents could not account for the observed heterogeneities. Spatial resolution was insufficient to resolve the individual elements of the stereom, but the observed values of the linear attenuation coefficient (for the 26 keV effective X-ray energy, a maximum of 7.4 cm(-1) and a minimum of approximately 2 cm(-1) away from obvious voids) could be interpreted in terms of fractions of voxels occupied by mineral (high magnesium calcite). The average volume fraction of mineral determined for a transverse slice of the demipyramid near where it joins an epiphysis was 0.46; for a slice 3.3 mm adoral it was 0.70. Local volume fractions of mineral approached 1, and, away from resolvable voids, considerable portions of the demipyramids had volume fractions of calcite at or below approximately 0.33. MicroCT imaging of a demipyramid before and after infiltration with a high absorptivity fluid (sodium polytungstate) confirmed the determination of the volume fractions of minerals. PMID:12576016

  1. Circadian rhythms in blood pressure in free-ranging three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Duarte, D P F; Silva, V L; Jaguaribe, A M; Gilmore, D P; Da Costa, C P

    2003-02-01

    Blood pressure (BP) profiles were monitored in nine free-ranging sloths (Bradypus variegatus) by coupling one common carotid artery to a BP telemetry transmitter. Animals moved freely in an isolated and temperature-controlled room (24 degrees C) with 12/12-h artificial light-dark cycles and behaviors were observed during resting, eating and moving. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were sampled for 1 min every 15 min for 24 h. BP rhythm over 24 h was analyzed by the cosinor method and the mesor, amplitude, acrophase and percent rhythm were calculated. A total of 764 measurements were made in the light cycle and 721 in the dark cycle. Twenty-four-hour values (mean +/- SD) were obtained for SBP (121 +/- 22 mmHg), DBP (86 +/- 17 mmHg), mean BP (MBP, 98 +/- 18 mmHg) and heart rate (73 +/- 16 bpm). The SBP, DBP and MBP were significantly higher (unpaired Student t-test) during the light period (125 +/- 21, 88 +/- 15 and 100 +/- 17 mmHg, respectively) than during the dark period (120 +/- 21, 85 +/- 17 and 97 +/- 17 mmHg, respectively) and the acrophase occurred between 16:00 and 17:45 h. This circadian variation is similar to that observed in cats, dogs and marmosets. The BP decreased during "behavioral sleep" (MBP down from 110 +/- 19 to 90 +/- 19 mmHg at 21:00 to 8:00 h). Both feeding and moving induced an increase in MBP (96 +/- 17 to 119 +/- 17 mmHg at 17:00 h and 97 +/- 19 to 105 +/- 12 mmHg at 15:00 h, respectively). The results show that conscious sloths present biphasic circadian fluctuations in BP levels, which are higher during the light period and are mainly synchronized with feeding.

  2. Growth rates are related to production efficiencies in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Heflin, L.E.; Gibbs, V.K.; Jones, W.T.; Makowsky, R.; Lawrence, A.L.; Watts, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Growth rates of newly-metamorphosed urchins from a single spawning event (three males and three females) were highly variable, despite being held en masse under identical environmental and nutritional conditions. As individuals reached ~5 mm diameter (0.07–0.10 g wet weight), they were placed in growth trials (23 dietary treatments containing various nutrient profiles). Elapsed time from the first individual entering the growth trials to the last individual entering was 121 days (N = 170 individuals). During the five-week growth trials, urchins were held individually and proffered a limiting ration to evaluate growth rate and production efficiency. Growth rates among individuals within each dietary treatment remained highly variable. Across all dietary treatments, individuals with an initially high growth rate (entering the study first) continued to grow at a faster rate than those with an initially low growth rate (entering the study at a later date), regardless of feed intake. Wet weight gain (ranging from 0.13 −3.19 g, P < 0.0001, R2 = 0.5801) and dry matter production efficiency (ranging from 25.2–180.5%, P = 0.0003, R2 = 0.6162) were negatively correlated with stocking date, regardless of dietary treatment. Although canalization of growth rate during en masse early post-metamorphic growth is possible, we hypothesize that intrinsic differences in growth rates are, in part, the result of differences (possibly genetic) in production efficiencies of individual Lytechinus variegatus. That is, some sea urchins are more efficient in converting feed to biomass. We further hypothesize that this variation may have evolved as an adaptive response to selective pressure related to food availability. PMID:25435593

  3. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.

  4. Coleoptera Associated with Decaying Wood in a Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P

    2016-08-01

    Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera. PMID:26911160

  5. Acetyl cholinesterase activity and muscle contraction in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) following chronic phosphate exposure.

    PubMed

    Boettger, S Anne; McClintock, James B

    2012-03-01

    The common shallow-water sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is capable of surviving inorganic phosphate exposures as high as 3.2 mg L(-1) and organic phosphate exposures of 1000 mg L(-1) . Nonetheless, chronic exposure to low, medium, and high-sublethal concentrations of organic phosphate inhibits the muscle enzyme acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), responsible for the break down of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, as well as inhibiting contractions in the muscles associated with the Aristotle's lantern. AChE activity, measured in both a static enzyme assay and by vesicular staining, displayed concentration-dependent declines of activity in individuals maintained in organic phosphate for 4 weeks. The activity of AChE was not adversely affected by exposure to inorganic phosphate or seawater controls over the same time period. Maximum force of muscle contraction and rates of muscle contraction and relaxation also decreased with chronic exposure to increasing concentrations of organic phosphate. Chronic exposure to inorganic phosphates elicited no response except at the highest concentration, where the maximum force of muscular contraction increased compared to controls. These findings indicate that shallow-water populations of Lytechinus variegatus subjected to organic phosphate pollutants may display impaired muscular activity that is potentially related to the inhibition of the muscle relaxant enzyme AChE, and subsequently muscular overstimulation, and fatigue.

  6. VITELLOGENIN MRNA REGULATION AND PLASMA CLEARANCE IN MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS, CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS AFTER CESSATION OF EXPOSURE TO 17B-ESTRADIOL AND P-NONYLPHENOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to determine the kinetics of hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA regulation and plasma VTG accumulation and clearance in male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) during and after cessation of exposure to either 17b-estradiol (E2) or para-nonylphenol (NP)...

  7. Multigenerational Exposure of the Estuarine Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) to 17β-estradiol. I. Organism-Level Effects Over Three GenerationsLife Cycles

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study reports the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on reproductive processes through two complete generations of the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus, and determined the need for multiple generation exposure testing for assessing the risks of endocrine disrupting chemic...

  8. Exposure of Three Generations of the Estuarine Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) to the Androgen 17β-trenbolone: Effects on Survival, Development, and Reproduction.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimating long-term effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on a species is important to assessing the overall risk to the populations. This study reports the results of a 42-week exposure of estuarine sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) to the androgen, 17B-tre...

  9. EFFECT OF THE OIL DISPERSANT OMNI-CLEAN(R) ON THE TOXICITY OF FUEL OIL NO. 2 IN TWO BIOASSAYS WITH THE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioassays (7-day early life stage and 96h acute bioassays) were conducted with the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus, to determine the toxicity of the dispersant Omni-Clean< by itself and in combination with fuel oil no. 2. Performance characteristics of both bioassay type...

  10. Revision of Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alpine flea beetle genus Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) is revised. Twenty new species, namely B. chilalla, B. dochula, B. ha, B. nobding, B. thumsila and B. yatongla from Bhutan, B. belousovi, B. cangshanicus, B. kabaki, B. kurbatovi, B. nigrinus, B. sichuanensis a...

  11. The effects of dietary silver on larval growth in the echinoderm Lytechinus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Gillette, Phillip; Pourmand, Ali; Capo, Tom R; Grosell, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa is extremely sensitive to dietborne silver (Ag) exposure, with a 20 % inhibition (EC(20)) of survival occurring when copepods are fed algae with 1.6 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) Ag, corresponding to a waterborne Ag concentration of 0.46 μg l(-1) Ag. In contrast, 43 μg l(-1) Ag is required to elicit similar effects in copepods exposed to Ag by way of water. In the current study, we investigated whether another planktonic marine organism might also be sensitive to dietary Ag. Specifically, we tested larvae of the echinoderm, Lytechinus variegatus in an 18-day study in which larvae were continuously exposed to Ag-laden algae (Isochrysis galbana). After 7 days of exposure, no significant effects were observed on larval growth up to the highest concentration tested (10.68 μg g(-1) dw Ag in algae after exposure to 3.88 μg l(-1) waterborne Ag). After 18 days, significant effects were observed in all Ag treatments resulting in a lowest-observable effect concentration of 0.68 μg g(-1) dw Ag in algae and corresponding waterborne Ag concentration of 0.05-0.07 μg l(-1) Ag (depending on background Ag [see Results]). However, the dose-response relationship was quite flat with a similar level of growth inhibition (approximately 15 %) in all Ag treatments, resulting in an EC(20) of >10.68 μg g(-1) dw Ag in algae (>3.88 μg l(-1) Ag in water). This flat dose-response relationship is characteristic of dietary metal (silver, copper, cadmium, nickel, and zinc) toxicity to copepods as well, although the effect is slightly more robust (approximately 20-30 % inhibition of survival or reproduction). We conclude that echinoderm larvae may be similar to copepods in their sensitivity to dietary Ag, although a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the apparent flat dose-response relationships is clearly needed. PMID:22434452

  12. [Embrionary and larval development of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) in laboratory conditions at Isla de Margarita-Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Olga; Gómez, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is a promissory species for aquaculture activities in tropical countries. In Venezuela, this species has some economical importance but their embryonic and larval development had not been studied. We collected specimens from seagrass beds in Margarita Island (Venezuela) and kept them in the laboratory, where they spawned naturally. With filtered sea water (temperature 28 degrees C, salinity 37 psu) and moderate aeration, the eggs and sperm were mixed (relation 1:100) and reached a 90% fertilization rate. The fertilization envelope was observed after two minutes, the first cellular division after 45 minutes and the prism larval stage after 13 hours. The echinopluteus larval stage was reached after 17 hours and metamorphosis after 18 days of planktonic life, when the larvae start their benthic phase. PMID:17469261

  13. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H J H; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  14. [Structure analysis of mtDNA control region of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and its related species].

    PubMed

    He, Chong-Bo; Cao, Jie; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Zun-Chun; Ge, Long-Li; Gao, Xiang-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2007-07-01

    Spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) is the only species of Genus Verasper in China. The fish was naturally distributed in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in northern China and Kyushu in Japan and in Korean sea area. Using PCR product direct sequencing, mitochondrial control region sequences of 24 individuals of spotted halibut was confirmed and analyzed. 4 control region haplotypes, resulting from length heteroplamy of the tandem repeat region, was obtained from these 24 fish. Sequence analysis demonstrated that there were four similar structures in the control region, i.e., extended terminal associated sequences (ETAS), central conserved sequence block (CSB), conserved sequence block (CSB), and repeat region, in V. moseri, Limanda ferruginea, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Heppoglossoides platessoides, Paralichthys olivaceous, Solea solea, S. senegalensis, and S. lascari. By comparing with other vertebrates, we found that there were similar repeated sequences immediately after the CSB-3 in all of the anuran species. PMID:17646149

  15. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H. J. H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates. PMID:26937632

  16. Juvenile growth of the tropical sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus exposed to near-future ocean acidification scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Rebecca; Bland, Charnelle; Gillette, Phillip; Serafy, Joseph E.; Langdon, Chris; Capo, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of elevated pCO2 exposure on the juvenile growth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we reared individuals for three months in one of three target pCO2 levels: ambient seawater (380 µatm) and two scenarios that are projected to occur by the middle (560 µatm) and end (800 µatm) of this century. At the end of 89 days, urchins reared at ambient pCO2 weighed 12% more than those reared at 560 µatm and 28% more than those reared at 800 µatm. Skeletons were analyzed using scanning electron miscroscopy, revealing degradation of spines in urchins reared at elevated pCO2 (800 µatm). Our results indicate that elevated pCO2 levels projected to occur this century may adversely affect the development of juvenile sea urchins. Acidification-induced changes to juvenile urchin development would likely impair performance and functioning of juvenile stages with implications for adult populations. PMID:22833691

  17. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H J H; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates. PMID:26937632

  18. The bioaccumulation and effects of selenium in the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus via dissolved and dietary exposure routes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lingtian; Wu, Xing; Chen, Hongxing; Luo, Yongju; Guo, Zhongbao; Mu, Jingli; Blankson, Emmanuel R; Dong, Wu; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic organisms take up selenium from solution and from their diets. Many questions remain regarding the relative importance of selenium accumulation from these sources and resulting effects in benthic invertebrates. The present study addressed the toxicity and accumulation of Se via dissolved and dietary exposures to three different Se species, in the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Worms were exposed to 20μg/g dry weight of selenite (Se(IV)), selenate (Se(VI)), or seleno-l-methionine (Se-Met) in their diet (sediment) or to 15μg/L dissolved Se in water-only exposures. While the dissolved and sediment Se levels differed greatly, such levels may co-occur at a Se-contaminated site. Se accumulation, worm population growth, lipid peroxidation (as TBARS), and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were quantified at the end of the 2-week exposure. The sediment Se-Met exposure caused 100% mortality, while worm densities were reduced by the other exposures except the Se(VI) one. Se bioaccumulation was generally higher for the sediment-Se exposure than the dissolved-Se ones, and was higher for Se(IV) than Se(VI) in the dissolved-Se exposure but not the sediment-Se one. The Se accumulation was highest for Se-Met. The oligochaetes that accumulated Se had higher levels of lipid peroxidation and reduced Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. The present study's findings of differences in Se accumulation and toxicity for the three Se species, with effects generally but not exclusively a function of Se body burdens, underscore the need for research on these issues in invertebrates. Moreover, the results imply that the dietary uptake route is the predominant one for Se accumulation in L. variegatus. PMID:27450235

  19. Effects of inorganic and organic phosphate exposure on aspects of reproduction in the common sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Böttger, S Anne; McClintock, James B

    2002-06-01

    The common nearshore sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is capable of surviving exposure to inorganic phosphate concentrations as high as 3.2 mg/l(-1) and organic phosphate concentrations of 1,000 mg/l(-1). However, chronic exposure to low, medium, or high sublethal concentrations of these phosphates inhibits gonadal tissue indices and spawning activity while altering biochemical composition of gonads, reducing size frequencies of oocyte diameters, and changing gonadal volume fractions. Gonad indices declined significantly in individuals maintained in all phosphate concentrations after both one- and two-month exposures, while percentages of ripe individuals (oozing gametes upon dissection) were reduced after a two-month exposure in individuals maintained in medium and high organic phosphate concentrations. Levels of carbohydrates and lipids were lower in gonads of individuals maintained in all concentrations of both phosphates. Size frequency distributions of oocyte diameters revealed a dramatic decrease in oocyte size with increasing concentrations of both phosphates. Gonadal volume fractions of developing male and female gametes decreased with exposure to increasing phosphate levels. Volume fractions of nutritive phagocytes declined in testes of individuals held in the highest concentration of organic phosphate but displayed no significant change in ovaries. Volume fractions of mature gametes also decreased in gonads of individuals exposed to increasing concentrations of inorganic phosphate, but they remained constant in individuals exposed to all concentrations of organic phosphate. These findings indicate that shallow-water populations of L. variegatus subjected to inorganic and organic phosphate pollutants will exhibit stress that may impair reproductive output, gametogenesis, and spawning in the natural environment. PMID:12115931

  20. [Population of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) and structural characteristics of seagrass of Thalassia testudinum in Mochima Bay, Venezuela)].

    PubMed

    Noriega, Nicida; Cróquer, Aldo; Pauls, Sheila M

    2002-03-01

    To compare the general features of Thalassia testudinum seagrass at Mochima Bay with sea urchin (Lxtechinus variegatus) abundance and distribution, three T. testudinum seagrass beds were selected, from the mouth (strong wave exposure) to the inner bay (calm waters). Each site was surveyed by using 5 line transects (20 m long) parallel to the coast and 1 m2 quadrats. In situ measurements of T. testudinum cover, shoot and leaf density were taken. Estimation of dry biomass for each seagrass fraction (leaves, rhizomes and roots) and leaf length were obtained from 25 vegetation samples extracted per site using cores (15 cm diameter). A multivariate analysis of variance (Manova) and a less significative difference test (LSD) were performed to examine differences between sites and within sites at different depths. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was done, dependent variable was sea urchin density; independent variables: vegetation values at each site. The only seagrass species found in the three sites was T. testudinum, and cover was 56-100%, leaf density 100-1000 leaf/m2, lengths 6-18.8 cm and shoot density 20-475 shoots/m2. The highest sea urchin densities were found at Isla Redonda and Ensenada Toporo (1-3.6 ind/m2), the lowest at Playa Colorada (0.6-0.8 ind/m2). Significant differences in seagrass features between sites were obtained (Manova p < 0.001), but not between depths (Manova p < 0.320). The regression coefficient between sea urchin density and seagrass parameters was statistically significant (r2 = 0.154, p < 0.007), however, total biomass was the only variable with a significant effect on sea urchin distribution (beta = 0.308, p < 0.032). The other variables did not explain satisfactorily L. variegatus abundance and distribution. PMID:12298266

  1. An abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria revealed in the gut microbiome of the laboratory cultured sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Joseph A.; Koo, Hyunmin; Dennis, Lacey N.; Kumar, Ranjit; Ptacek, Travis; Morrow, Casey D.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Powell, Mickie L.; Bej, Asim K.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the bacterial community composition of the laboratory cultured sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut microbiome and its culture environment using NextGen amplicon sequencing of the V4 segment of the 16S rRNA gene, and downstream bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut and tank water was dominated by Proteobacteria, whereas the feed consisted of a co-occurrence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at a high abundance. The gut tissue represented Epsilonproteobacteria as dominant, with order Campylobacterales at the highest relative abundance (>95%). However, the pharynx tissue was dominated by class Alphaproteobacteria. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets had a high abundance of class Gammaproteobacteria, from which Vibrio was found to be the primary genus, and Epsilonproteobacteria, with genus Arcobacter occurring at a moderate level. At the class level, the tank water was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the feed by Alphaproteobacteria. Multi-Dimensional Scaling analysis showed that the microbial community of the gut tissue clustered together, as did the pharynx tissue to the feed. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets showed a similarity relationship to the tank water. Further analysis of Campylobacterales at a lower taxonomic level using the oligotyping method revealed 37 unique types across the 10 samples, where Oligotype 1 was primarily represented in the gut tissue. BLAST analysis identified Oligotype 1 to be Arcobacter sp., Sulfuricurvum sp., and Arcobacter bivalviorum at an identity level >90%. This study showed that although distinct microbial communities are evident across multiple components of the sea urchin gut ecosystem, there is a noticeable correlation between the overall microbial communities of the gut with the sea urchin L. variegatus culture environment. PMID:26528245

  2. [Abundance of sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) on North, East and West coasts of Margarita Island (Venezuela) ].

    PubMed

    Gómez Gaspar, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The sea urchin roe reach a very high price in the international fish product market favoring the increase in the catches of this resource and overfishing in some countries. In the Island of Margarita (Venezuela) some species, Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) among others, are consumed as food but studies to determine abundance of the resource are unknown. Nine sample stations (depth less than 2 m) on the North, East and West coast of Margarita Island were visited in six different occasions between February/1998 and February/1999 to study the population density (urchins/m2) of L. variegatus. Using a quadrat (0.25 m2) thrown 8 times over seagrasses (Thalassia testudinum) beds and over submerged rocks and the urchins removed by dive. The diameter of each specimen was measured and returned to the sea. The water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen of each site was measured. Were collected a total of 2,073 urchins with a diameter ranging from 11.0 to 84.5 mm and population density between 1 to 52 urchins/m2. The mean size of specimens collected in the stations was between 30.44 and 55.09 mm and average density fluctuated between 3.2 to 43.2 urchins/m2. The station where sea urchins were found to be most abundant was the North coast (Manzanillo fishing villae) where they live on rocks with a density (38 a 52/m2) far over the values previously cited for the Caribbean sea and Florida.

  3. The impact of rising sea temperature on innate immune parameters in the tropical subtidal sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus and the intertidal sea urchin Echinometra lucunter.

    PubMed

    Branco, Paola Cristina; Borges, João Carlos Shimada; Santos, Marinilce Fagundes; Jensch Junior, Bernard Ernesto; da Silva, José Roberto Machado Cunha

    2013-12-01

    Ocean temperatures are rising throughout the world, making it necessary to evaluate the impact of these temperature changes on sea urchins, which are well-known bioindicators. This study evaluated the effect of an increase in temperature on the immune response of the subtidal Lytechinus variegatus and the intertidal Echinometra lucunter sea urchins. Both species were exposed to 20 (control), 25 and 30 °C temperatures for 24 h, 2, 7 and 14 days. Counting of coelomocytes and assays on the phagocytic response, adhesion and spreading of coelomocytes were performed. Red and colorless sphere cells were considered biomarkers for heat stress. Moreover, a significant decrease in the phagocytic indices and a decrease in both cell adhesion and cell spreading were observed at 25 and 30 °C for L. variegatus. For E. lucunter, the only alteration observed was for the cell proportions. This report shows how different species of sea urchins respond immunologically to rising temperatures.

  4. Genomes of Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Lytechinus variegatus: are there any genomic explanations for the two order of magnitude difference in the lifespan of sea urchins?

    PubMed Central

    Sergiev, Petr V.; Artemov, Artem A.; Prokhortchouk, Egor B.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Berezkin, Grigory V.

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchins are marine invertebrates of extreme diversity of life span. Red sea urchin S. franciscanus is among the longest living creatures of the Ocean. Its lifetime is estimated to exceed a century, while the green sea urchin L. variegatus hardly survives more than four years. We sequenced and compared the genomes of these animals aiming at determination of the genetic basis of their longevity difference. List of genes related to the longevity of other animal species was created and used for homology search among the genomic data obtained in this study. Aminoacid sequences of longevity related proteins of S. franciscanus and L. variegatus as well as from a set of model species, were aligned and grouped on the basis of the species lifespan. Aminoacid residues specific for a longevity group were identified. Proteins containing aminoacids whose identity correlated with the lifespan were clustered on the basis of their function. PMID:26851889

  5. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in long-term tests with the freshwater benthic invertebrates Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.W.; Ankley, G.T.; Nichols, J.W.; Elonen, G.E.; Nessa, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    Two species of freshwater benthic invertebrates, Chronomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus, were exposed to three dietary concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and toxicity and bioaccumulation were determined. No toxic effects were observed in full life cycle tests with either species at tissue residue concentrations up to 9,533 ng TCDD/g lipid. The observed lack of sensitivity of the two species to TCDD was consistent with a presumed absence of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in aquatic invertebrates. Predictions of lipid-normalized tissue concentrations were made based on lipid-normalized TCDD concentrations in the food and were within 15% of targeted concentrations in both species. Depuration studies indicated that TCDD elimination followed first-order kinetics, with elimination rate constants of 0.0014 to 0.0022 h{sup {minus}1} for L. variegatus and 0.0070 to 0.0099 h{sup {minus}1} for C. tentans. Half-lives ranged from 315 to 495 h in L. variegatus and from 70 to 99 h in C. tentans. The ability of invertebrates to accumulate relatively high concentrations of TCDD in the absence of toxic effects may be relevant to the transfer of contaminants through aquatic food webs to potentially sensitive vertebrate species.

  6. The gut microbiome of the sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus, from its natural habitat demonstrates selective attributes of microbial taxa and predictive metabolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Joseph A; Koo, Hyunmin; Kumar, Ranjit; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Morrow, Casey D; Powell, Mickie L; Watts, Stephen A; Bej, Asim K

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the microbial composition and their predictive metabolic profile in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut ecosystem along with samples from its habitat by using NextGen amplicon sequencing and downstream bioinformatics analyses. The microbial communities of the gut tissue revealed a near-exclusive abundance of Campylobacteraceae, whereas the pharynx tissue consisted of Tenericutes, followed by Gamma-, Alpha- and Epsilonproteobacteria at approximately equal capacities. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets exhibited a microbial profile comprised of Gammaproteobacteria, mainly Vibrio, and Bacteroidetes. Both the seagrass and surrounding sea water revealed Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Bray-Curtis distances of microbial communities indicated a clustering profile with low intrasample variation. Predictive metagenomics performed on the microbial communities revealed that the gut tissue had high relative abundances of metabolisms assigned to the KEGG-Level-2 designation of energy metabolisms compared to the gut digesta, which had higher carbohydrate, amino acid and lipid metabolisms. Overall, the results of this study elaborate the spatial distribution of microbial communities in the gut ecosystem of L. variegatus, and specifically a selective attribute for Campylobacteraceae in the gut tissue. Also, the predictive functional significance of bacterial communities in uniquely compartmentalized gut ecosystems of L. variegatus has been described. PMID:27368709

  7. Bioaccumulation of perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and polychlorinated biphenyls in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from field-collected sediments.

    PubMed

    Prosser, R S; Mahon, K; Sibley, P K; Poirier, D; Watson-Leung, T

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates (PFASs) are persistent pollutants in sediment that can potentially bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The current study investigates variation in the accumulation of PCBs and PFASs in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from contaminated field-collected sediment using 28-day tests. BSAF(lipid) (lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for total concentration of PCBs were greater in Hexagenia spp. relative to L. variegatus and P. promelas. The distribution of congeners contributing to the total concentration of PCBs in tissue varied among the three species. Trichlorobiphenyl congeners composed the greatest proportion of the total concentration of PCBs in L. variegatus while tetra- and pentabiphenyl congeners dominated in Hexagenia spp. and P. promelas. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was present in all three species at concentrations greater than all other PFASs analyzed. Hexagenia spp. also produced the greatest BSAF(lipid) and BSAF(ww) (non-lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for PFOS relative to the other two species. However, this was not the case for all PFASs. The trend of BSAF values and number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorinated carboxylates varied among the three species but was similar for perfluorinated sulfonates. Differences in the dominant pathways of exposure (e.g., water, sediment ingestion) likely explain a large proportion of the variation in accumulation observed across the three species. PMID:26615489

  8. Methiini and Oemini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Methiini (Tessaropa hispaniolae Lingafelter, Methia dolichoptera) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Hispaniola are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. The Dominican Republic represents a New Country Record for Malacopterus tenellus (Fabricius) (Oemini), and all hispaniolan local...

  9. New synonymy in Cuban Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....

  10. Tumidusternus, a new genus of Aspidimerini from China (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Lizhi; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Xiaosheng; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tumidusternus gen. n., along with Tumidusternus fujianensis sp. n. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Aspidimerini) from China is described and illustrated. A key to the tribe Aspidimerini is given. PMID:26257552

  11. The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus lives close to the upper thermal limit for early development in a tropical lagoon.

    PubMed

    Collin, Rachel; Chan, Kit Yu Karen

    2016-08-01

    Thermal tolerance shapes organisms' physiological performance and limits their biogeographic ranges. Tropical terrestrial organisms are thought to live very near their upper thermal tolerance limits, and such small thermal safety factors put them at risk from global warming. However, little is known about the thermal tolerances of tropical marine invertebrates, how they vary across different life stages, and how these limits relate to environmental conditions. We tested the tolerance to acute heat stress of five life stages of the tropical sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus collected in the Bahía Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama. We also investigated the impact of chronic heat stress on larval development. Fertilization, cleavage, morula development, and 4-armed larvae tolerated 2-h exposures to elevated temperatures between 28-32°C. Average critical temperatures (LT 50) were lower for initiation of cleavage (33.5°C) and development to morula (32.5°C) than they were for fertilization (34.4°C) or for 4-armed larvae (34.1°C). LT 50 was even higher (34.8°C) for adults exposed to similar acute thermal stress, suggesting that thermal limits measured for adults may not be directly applied to the whole life history. During chronic exposure, larvae had significantly lower survival and reduced growth when reared at temperatures above 30.5°C and did not survive chronic exposures at or above 32.3°C. Environmental monitoring at and near our collection site shows that L. variegatus may already experience temperatures at which larval growth and survival are reduced during the warmest months of the year. A published local climate model further suggests that such damaging warm temperatures will be reached throughout the Bahía Almirante by 2084. Our results highlight that tropical marine invertebrates likely have small thermal safety factors during some stages in their life cycles, and that shallow-water populations are at particular risk of near future warming.

  12. The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus lives close to the upper thermal limit for early development in a tropical lagoon.

    PubMed

    Collin, Rachel; Chan, Kit Yu Karen

    2016-08-01

    Thermal tolerance shapes organisms' physiological performance and limits their biogeographic ranges. Tropical terrestrial organisms are thought to live very near their upper thermal tolerance limits, and such small thermal safety factors put them at risk from global warming. However, little is known about the thermal tolerances of tropical marine invertebrates, how they vary across different life stages, and how these limits relate to environmental conditions. We tested the tolerance to acute heat stress of five life stages of the tropical sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus collected in the Bahía Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama. We also investigated the impact of chronic heat stress on larval development. Fertilization, cleavage, morula development, and 4-armed larvae tolerated 2-h exposures to elevated temperatures between 28-32°C. Average critical temperatures (LT 50) were lower for initiation of cleavage (33.5°C) and development to morula (32.5°C) than they were for fertilization (34.4°C) or for 4-armed larvae (34.1°C). LT 50 was even higher (34.8°C) for adults exposed to similar acute thermal stress, suggesting that thermal limits measured for adults may not be directly applied to the whole life history. During chronic exposure, larvae had significantly lower survival and reduced growth when reared at temperatures above 30.5°C and did not survive chronic exposures at or above 32.3°C. Environmental monitoring at and near our collection site shows that L. variegatus may already experience temperatures at which larval growth and survival are reduced during the warmest months of the year. A published local climate model further suggests that such damaging warm temperatures will be reached throughout the Bahía Almirante by 2084. Our results highlight that tropical marine invertebrates likely have small thermal safety factors during some stages in their life cycles, and that shallow-water populations are at particular risk of near future warming. PMID

  13. Perfluorinated chemicals in surface waters and sediments from northwest Georgia, USA, and their bioaccumulation in Lumbriculus variegatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, Peter J.; Washington, John W.; Hassan, Sayed M.; Jenkins, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were measured in surface waters and sediments from the Coosa River watershed in northwest Georgia, USA, to examine their distribution downstream of a suspected source. Samples from eight sites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sediments were also used in 28-d exposures with the aquatic oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, to assess PFC bioaccumulation. Concentrations of PFCs in surface waters and sediments increased significantly below a land-application site (LAS) of municipal/industrial wastewater and were further elevated by unknown sources downstream. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with eight or fewer carbons were the most prominent in surface waters. Those with 10 or more carbons predominated sediment and tissue samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the major homolog in contaminated sediments and tissues. This pattern among sediment PFC concentrations was consistent among sites and reflected homolog concentrations emanating from the LAS. Concentrations of PFCs in oligochaete tissues revealed patterns similar to those observed in the respective sediments. The tendency to bioaccumulate increased with PFCA chain length and the presence of the sulfonate moiety. Biota-sediment accumulation factors indicated that short-chain PFCAs with fewer than seven carbons may be environmentally benign alternatives in aquatic ecosystems; however, sulfonates with four to seven carbons may be as likely to bioaccumulate as PFOS.

  14. Take-off and landing kinetics of a free-ranging gliding mammal, the Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus)

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Greg; Lim, Norman T.-L; Spence, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Arboreal animals negotiate a highly three-dimensional world that is discontinuous on many spatial scales. As the scale of substrate discontinuity increases, many arboreal animals rely on leaping or gliding locomotion between distant supports. In order to successfully move through their habitat, gliding animals must actively modulate both propulsive and aerodynamic forces. Here we examined the take-off and landing kinetics of a free-ranging gliding mammal, the Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) using a custom-designed three-dimensional accelerometry system. We found that colugos increase the propulsive impulse to affect longer glides. However, we also found that landing forces are negatively associated with glide distance. Landing forces decrease rapidly as glide distance increases from the shortest glides, then level off, suggesting that the ability to reorient the aerodynamic forces prior to landing is an important mechanism to reduce velocity and thus landing forces. This ability to substantially alter the aerodynamic forces acting on the patagial wing in order to reorient the body is a key to the transition between leaping and gliding and allows gliding mammals to travel long distances between trees with reduced risk of injury. Longer glides may increase the access to distributed resources and reduce the exposure to predators in the canopy or on the forest floor. PMID:18252673

  15. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.W.; Ankley, G.T.; Elonen, G.E.; Phipps, G.W.; Fernandez, J.D.; Libal, J.J.; Nessa, D.

    1994-12-31

    Invertebrate exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD is important, not necessarily because of their sensitivity (which appears to be less than that of fish) , but as a vector from chemical reservoirs in sediments, through the food chain, to sensitive species. Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus are not only vectors for TCDD to fish species, but C. tentans may also be a direct vector to avian species which feed upon emergent insects. For this reason determination of the kinetics of TCDD uptake by invertebrates is important, especially for those with short life spans such as midges, or those that reproduce as rapidly as oligochaetes. In these experiments, these two species were fed contaminated food at three different TCDD levels spanning three orders of magnitude. Tissue residue levels were measured over a time period which included several different life stages and points in the reproductive cycle of the two species and uptake and deputation rates determined. As expected, no significant impacts of TCDD on growth, reproduction or biomass of the invertebrates were observed. From this information predictions can be made on bioaccumulation of TCDD from differing levels of contamination, and potential food chain transfer of the compound to more sensitive species.

  16. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Cliffe, Rebecca N; Haupt, Ryan J; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A; Wilson, Rory P

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg(-1)day(-1) (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths.

  17. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus)

    PubMed Central

    Haupt, Ryan J.; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A.; Wilson, Rory P.

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg−1day−1 (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths. PMID:25861559

  18. Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Ultra in Lumbriculus variegatus and its effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Klingelmann, Eva; Wiegand, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L(-1) pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using (14)C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from logP(ow). Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself.

  19. Structure of first- and second-stage mineralized elements in teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Robach, J. S.; Stock, S. R.; Veis, A.

    2009-01-01

    Microstructure of the teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus was investigated using optical microscopy, SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). The study focused on the internal structure of the first-stage mineral structures of high Mg calcite (primary, secondary and carinar process plates; prisms) and on morphology of the columns of second-stage mineral (very high Mg calcite) that cement the first-stage material together. Optical micrographs under polarized light revealed contrast in the centers (midlines) of carinar process plates and in prisms in polished sections; staining of primary and carinar process plates revealed significant dye uptake at the plate centers. Demineralization with and without fixation revealed that the midlines of primary and carinar process plates (but not secondary plates) and the centers of prisms differed from the rest of the plate or prism, and SIMS showed proteins concentrated in these plate centers. SEM was used to study the morphology of columns, the fracture surfaces of mature teeth and the 3D morphology of prisms. These observations of internal structures in plates and prisms offer new insight into the mineralization process and suggest an important role for protein inclusions within the first-stage mineral. Some of the 3D structures not reported previously, such as twisted prisms and stacks of carinar process plates with nested wrinkles, may represent structural strengthening strategies. PMID:19616101

  20. [Larvae and postlarvae production of the green-white sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in culture conditions].

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Esperanza; Lodeiros Seijo, César

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the biological feasibility of massive larvae and postlarvae production of the Caribbean green-white urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Experiments were designed to choose the initial larval density and microalgae diets under culture, to study metamorphosis, postlarval and juvenile growth. Massive production of competent larvae 650 microm long at 12-13 days is possible using larval densities of 0.25 to 1 larva/ml. The microalgae Rhodomonas sp. was suitable for the optimization of larval growth and survival. Metamorphosis of 100% of the larvae can be induced with films of bentic diatoms (Navicula sp. and Amphora sp.), after 96 h; however, diatoms are not adequate for postlarval development and a food supply of Ulva lactuta is necessary for proper growth. For juveniles, a diet of macroalgae (U. lactuta) and/or commercial marine shrimp culture pellet food is enough for growth, but the best results were obtained with shrimp or U. lactuta used alone (85-86%, against 46% with the mixed diet). We recommend future experiments on nutritional requirements to optimize growth of these and subsequent stages. PMID:17469262

  1. Sloths like it hot: ambient temperature modulates food intake in the brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Cliffe, Rebecca N; Haupt, Ryan J; Avey-Arroyo, Judy A; Wilson, Rory P

    2015-01-01

    Sloths are considered to have one of the lowest mass-specific metabolic rates of any mammal and, in tandem with a slow digestive rate, have been theorized to have correspondingly low rates of ingestion. Here, we show in a study conducted over five months, that three captive Bradypus variegatus (Brown-throated sloths) had a remarkably low mean food intake of 17 g kg(-1)day(-1) (SD 4.2). Food consumption was significantly affected by ambient temperature, with increased intake at higher temperatures. We suggest that the known fluctuation of sloth core body temperature with ambient temperature affects the rate at which gut fauna process digesta, allowing for increased rates of fermentation at higher temperatures. Since Bradypus sloths maintain a constantly full stomach, faster rates of fermentation should enhance digestive throughput, increasing the capacity for higher levels of food intake, thereby allowing increased energy acquisition at higher ambient temperatures. This contrasts with other mammals, which tend to show increased levels of food intake in colder conditions, and points to the importance of temperature in regulating all aspects of energy use in sloths. PMID:25861559

  2. Optimizing dietary levels of menhaden and soybean oils and soybean lecithin for pre-gonadal somatic growth in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Victoria K.; Heflin, Laura E.; Jones, Warren T.; Powell, Mickie L.; Lawrence, Addison L.; Makowsky, Robert; Watts, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary lipids serve as important sources of energy and essential fatty acids for aquatic animals. Sources of animal and plant oils are increasingly limited as well as expensive, and dietary requirements associated with the inclusion of these oils must be carefully evaluated to facilitate sustainable and affordable formulations. In this study, we investigated quantities of menhaden oil (MO) with and without soybean lecithin or soybean oil (SO) to determine appropriate levels for optimal somatic growth for pre-gonadal juvenile Lytechinus variegatus. We prepared semi-purified diets that varied in neutral lipid content (0, 2, 4, or 8% dry matter) and soy lecithin (0 or 2%) and exchanged lipids reciprocally with purified starch while holding constant all other nutrients. We maintained laboratory-reared juvenile L. variegatus (average initial wet weight 82 ± 0.7 mg, mean ± SE , n = 9 treatment−1) in recirculating seawater systems and fed each daily a sub-satiation ration for five weeks. We assessed wet weights and test diameters every two weeks and at the end of the experiment (5 wk). Level of MO with or without soybean lecithin did not significantly affect wet weight gain; however, increasing levels of SO in the diet reduced wet weight gain and dry matter production efficiency and increased feed conversion ratio. Dry gut weight was positively correlated with level of MO. Lipid level in the gut increased with increasing dietary lipid level, regardless of source. These data suggest the composition of the SO is inhibitory for either nutrient absorption or metabolic processes associated with growth at this life stage. Diets containing total lipid levels of approximately 5 to 6% that include sources of n-3 fatty acids may support optimal growth for pre-gonadal juvenile L. variegatus. PMID:26146422

  3. Otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  4. Otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:19471963

  5. Assessment of radium-226 bioavailability and bioaccumulation downstream of decommissioned uranium operations, using the caged oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Orr, Patricia L; Russel, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the integrated effects of several geochemical processes that control radium-226 ((226) Ra) mobility in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulation in in situ caged benthic invertebrates. Radium-226 bioaccumulation from sediment and water was evaluated using caged oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) deployed for 10 d in 6 areas downstream of decommissioned uranium operations in Ontario and Saskatchewan, Canada. Measured (226) Ra radioactivity levels in the retrieved oligochaetes did not relate directly to water and sediment exposure levels. Other environmental factors that may influence (226) Ra bioavailability in sediment and water were investigated. The strongest mitigating influence on (226) Ra bioaccumulation factors was sediment barium concentration, with elevated barium (Ba) levels being related to use of barium chloride in effluent treatment for removing (226) Ra through barite formation. Observations from the present study also indicated that (226) Ra bioavailability was influenced by dissolved organic carbon in water, and by gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides in sediment, suggestive of sorption processes. Environmental factors that appeared to increase (226) Ra bioaccumulation were the presence of other group (II) ions in water (likely competing for binding sites on organic carbon molecules), and the presence of K-feldspars in sediment, which likely act as a dynamic repository for (226) Ra where weak ion exchange can occur. In addition to influencing bioavailability to sediment biota, secondary minerals such as gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides likely help mitigate (226) Ra release into overlying water after the dissolution of sedimentary barite. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:507-517. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings.

  7. Synthesis of testosterone and 5alpha-androstanediols during nutritionally stimulated gonadal growth in Lytechinus variegatus lamarck (Echinodermata:Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Wasson, K M; Hines, G A; Watts, S A

    1998-08-01

    Although sex steroids and steroid converting enzymes have been found in echinoids, the relationship between steroids and reproduction has not been demonstrated. On days 0, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 of feeding, the gonads of previously starved Lytechinus variegatus were excised and incubated with [3H]androstenedione for 0.5 h to determine if changes in steroidogenic capacity are correlated with gonadal growth. Total rates of androstenedione conversion in the testes and ovaries increased significantly during feeding. In addition, the types and relative quantities of metabolites synthesized varied, suggesting that androstenedione metabolism is influenced by nutritional status. Both testes and ovaries synthesized testosterone, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol, and 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (5alpha-adiols), 5alpha-androstanedione, epiandrosterone, and androsterone on all days of feeding. In the testes, the relative quantities of testosterone and 5alpha-adiols increased greatly on day 4 of feeding. In contrast, in the ovaries testosterone synthesis was not detectable on day 4, although the relative quantities of 5alpha-adiols increased threefold. The sex-specific changes in the synthesis of these metabolites reflect a shift in the metabolic pathway indicated by changes in the relative enzyme activity indices for 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-R) (necessary for the synthesis of 5alpha-reduced androgens) and 3alpha/beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha/beta-HSDs, necessary for the synthesis of 3alpha- or 3beta-hydroxylated androgens). In both testes and ovaries the relative activities of 5alpha-R and 3alpha/beta-HSD increased on day 4 of feeding. The physiological significance of changes in androstenedione metabolism may be associated with the initiation of biosynthetic processes associated with gametogenesis. PMID:9679091

  8. Assessment of radium-226 bioavailability and bioaccumulation downstream of decommissioned uranium operations, using the caged oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Orr, Patricia L; Russel, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the integrated effects of several geochemical processes that control radium-226 ((226) Ra) mobility in the aquatic environment and bioaccumulation in in situ caged benthic invertebrates. Radium-226 bioaccumulation from sediment and water was evaluated using caged oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) deployed for 10 d in 6 areas downstream of decommissioned uranium operations in Ontario and Saskatchewan, Canada. Measured (226) Ra radioactivity levels in the retrieved oligochaetes did not relate directly to water and sediment exposure levels. Other environmental factors that may influence (226) Ra bioavailability in sediment and water were investigated. The strongest mitigating influence on (226) Ra bioaccumulation factors was sediment barium concentration, with elevated barium (Ba) levels being related to use of barium chloride in effluent treatment for removing (226) Ra through barite formation. Observations from the present study also indicated that (226) Ra bioavailability was influenced by dissolved organic carbon in water, and by gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides in sediment, suggestive of sorption processes. Environmental factors that appeared to increase (226) Ra bioaccumulation were the presence of other group (II) ions in water (likely competing for binding sites on organic carbon molecules), and the presence of K-feldspars in sediment, which likely act as a dynamic repository for (226) Ra where weak ion exchange can occur. In addition to influencing bioavailability to sediment biota, secondary minerals such as gypsum, carbonate minerals, and iron oxyhydroxides likely help mitigate (226) Ra release into overlying water after the dissolution of sedimentary barite. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:507-517. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25641375

  9. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings. PMID:24579518

  10. The Ochodaeidae of Argentina (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781

  11. Synchrotron X-ray Studies of the Keel of the Short-Spined Sea Urchin Lytechinus variegatus: Absorption Microtomography (microCT) and Small Beam Diffraction Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, S. R.; Barss, J.; Dahl, T.; Veis, A.; Almer, J. D.; De Carlo, F.

    2003-05-01

    In sea urchin teeth, the keel plays an important structural role, and this paper reports results of microstructural characterization of the keel of Lytechinus variegatus using two noninvasive synchrotron x-ray techniques: x-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and x-ray diffraction mapping. MicroCT with 14 keV x-rays mapped the spatial distribution of mineral at the 1.3 microm level in a millimeter-sized fragment of a mature portion of the keel. Two rows of low absorption channels (i.e., primary channels) slightly less than 10 microm in diameter were found running linearly from the flange to the base of the keel and parallel to its sides. The primary channels paralleled the oral edge of the keel, and the microCT slices revealed a planar secondary channel leading from each primary channel to the side of the keel. The primary and secondary channels were more or less coplanar and may correspond to the soft tissue between plates of the carinar process. Transmission x-ray diffraction with 80.8 keV x-rays and a 0.1 mm beam mapped the distribution of calcite crystal orientations and the composition Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3) of the calcite. Unlike the variable Mg concentration and highly curved prisms found in the keel of Paracentrotus lividus, a constant Mg content (x = 0.13) and relatively little prism curvature was found in the keel of Lytechinus variegatus.

  12. pH-dependent toxicity of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Schubauer-Berigan, M.K.; Dierkes, J.R.; Monson, P.D. ); Ankley, G.T. . Environmental Protection Agency)

    1993-07-01

    The speciation and bioavailability of metals are known to be affected by pH. Although many studies have focused on effects on metals of pH changes resulting from lake acidification, metal toxicity changes at higher pH values are of great interest to those performing effluent and sediment toxicity testing and toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs). In addition, most previous studies have addressed metal toxicity changes with pH to water-column organisms rather than to benthic or epibenthic species. The authors tested the acute toxicity of five metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, Hyalella azteca, and Lubriculus variegatus at three pH values in very hard reconstituted water. Toxicity of Cd, Ni, and zn was greatest at pH 8.3 and least at pH 6.3 to most of these species. Conversely, the toxicity of Cu and Pb was greatest at pH 6.3 and least at pH 8.3 to most of the species. The acute toxicity of most of the metals to Lumbriculus variegatus was very low and occasionally was above the aqueous solubility of the metal salts in the reconstituted water.

  13. The effects of chronic inorganic and organic phosphate exposure on bactericidal activity of the coelomic fluid of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Böttger, S Anne; McClintock, James B

    2009-07-01

    The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus can survive chronic exposure to sodium phosphate (inorganic phosphate) concentrations as high as 3.2 mg L-1, and triethyl phosphate (organic phosphate) concentrations of 1000 mg L-1. However, chronic exposure to low (0.8 mg L-1 inorganic and 10 mg L-1 organic phosphate), medium (1.6 mg L-1 inorganic and 100 mg L-1 organic phosphate) or high (3.2 mg L-1 inorganic and 1000 mg L-1 organic phosphate) sublethal concentrations of these phosphates inhibit bactericidal clearance of the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Bacteria were exposed to coelomic fluid collected from individuals maintained in either artificial seawater, or three concentrations of either inorganic phosphate or organic phosphate. Sterile marine broth, natural seawater and cell free coelomic fluid (cfCF) were employed as controls. Bacterial survival indices were measured at 0, 24 and 48 h periods once a week for four weeks. Bacteria were readily eliminated from the whole coelomic fluid (wCF) of individuals maintained in artificial seawater. Individuals maintained in inorganic phosphates were able to clear bacteria following a two week exposure period, while individuals maintained at even low concentrations of organic phosphates failed to clear all bacteria from their coelomic fluid. Exposure to phosphates represses antimicrobial defenses and may ultimately compromise survival of L. variegatus in the nearshore environment. PMID:19444992

  14. The effects of chronic inorganic and organic phosphate exposure on bactericidal activity of the coelomic fluid of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Böttger, S Anne; McClintock, James B

    2009-07-01

    The sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus can survive chronic exposure to sodium phosphate (inorganic phosphate) concentrations as high as 3.2 mg L-1, and triethyl phosphate (organic phosphate) concentrations of 1000 mg L-1. However, chronic exposure to low (0.8 mg L-1 inorganic and 10 mg L-1 organic phosphate), medium (1.6 mg L-1 inorganic and 100 mg L-1 organic phosphate) or high (3.2 mg L-1 inorganic and 1000 mg L-1 organic phosphate) sublethal concentrations of these phosphates inhibit bactericidal clearance of the marine bacterium Vibrio sp. Bacteria were exposed to coelomic fluid collected from individuals maintained in either artificial seawater, or three concentrations of either inorganic phosphate or organic phosphate. Sterile marine broth, natural seawater and cell free coelomic fluid (cfCF) were employed as controls. Bacterial survival indices were measured at 0, 24 and 48 h periods once a week for four weeks. Bacteria were readily eliminated from the whole coelomic fluid (wCF) of individuals maintained in artificial seawater. Individuals maintained in inorganic phosphates were able to clear bacteria following a two week exposure period, while individuals maintained at even low concentrations of organic phosphates failed to clear all bacteria from their coelomic fluid. Exposure to phosphates represses antimicrobial defenses and may ultimately compromise survival of L. variegatus in the nearshore environment.

  15. Physiologic and serum biochemistry values in free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed (Choloepus hoffmanni) and brown-throated three-toed (Bradypus variegatus) sloths immobilized using dexmedetomidine and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Matthew E; Cole, Gretchen A; Vaughan, Christopher; Sladky, Kurt K

    2013-09-01

    Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist and dextrorotary enantiomer of medetomidine, was combined with ketamine and used to immobilize 14 free-ranging Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloths) and 11 Bradypus variegatus (brown-throated three-toed sloths) in Upala, Costa Rica. Following intramuscular injection of ketamine (2.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (11 microg/kg), heart rate, respiratory rate, and indirect systolic blood pressure were measured every 5 min for a total of 25 min. An iStat (CG8+) was used to evaluate serum biochemical and hematologic values during anesthesia. After 30 min of anesthesia, atipamezole (0.13 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, which resulted in rapid and smooth recoveries. Mean heart rate and respiratory rate remained unchanged in both C. hoffmanni and B. variegatus over time. Progressive decreases in mean indirect systolic blood pressure were documented in both species. Results of this study suggest a combination of dexmedetomidne and ketamine is a safe and effective anesthetic protocol for use in free-ranging C. hoffmanni and B. variegatus. Similar to other alpha-2 adrenergic agonist-based immobilization protocols, close monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters are recommended. This study also provides serum biochemical and hematologic data in free-ranging C. hoffmanni and B. variegatus.

  16. Physiologic and serum biochemistry values in free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed (Choloepus hoffmanni) and brown-throated three-toed (Bradypus variegatus) sloths immobilized using dexmedetomidine and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Matthew E; Cole, Gretchen A; Vaughan, Christopher; Sladky, Kurt K

    2013-09-01

    Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist and dextrorotary enantiomer of medetomidine, was combined with ketamine and used to immobilize 14 free-ranging Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's two-toed sloths) and 11 Bradypus variegatus (brown-throated three-toed sloths) in Upala, Costa Rica. Following intramuscular injection of ketamine (2.1 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (11 microg/kg), heart rate, respiratory rate, and indirect systolic blood pressure were measured every 5 min for a total of 25 min. An iStat (CG8+) was used to evaluate serum biochemical and hematologic values during anesthesia. After 30 min of anesthesia, atipamezole (0.13 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, which resulted in rapid and smooth recoveries. Mean heart rate and respiratory rate remained unchanged in both C. hoffmanni and B. variegatus over time. Progressive decreases in mean indirect systolic blood pressure were documented in both species. Results of this study suggest a combination of dexmedetomidne and ketamine is a safe and effective anesthetic protocol for use in free-ranging C. hoffmanni and B. variegatus. Similar to other alpha-2 adrenergic agonist-based immobilization protocols, close monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters are recommended. This study also provides serum biochemical and hematologic data in free-ranging C. hoffmanni and B. variegatus. PMID:24063084

  17. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  18. New species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) from Colombia and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.

  19. An annotated checklist of Malachiidae (Coleoptera: Cleroidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country. PMID:27615977

  20. Coleoptera of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: an annotated checklist

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, M.P.; Barr, W.F.; Johnson, J.B.

    1986-04-30

    An insect survey was conducted on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the summers of 1981-1983. This site is on the Snake River Plains in southeastern Idaho. Presented here is an annotated checklist of the Coleoptera collected. Successful collecting methods, dates of adult occurrence, and relative abundance are given for each species. Relevant biological information is also presented for some species.

  1. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  2. Temperature-dependent development of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a nonnative pest that vectors the pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt in trees of the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt is present in the commercial growing areas of avocado (Perse...

  3. Checklist of the Coleoptera of New Brunswick, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All 3,062 species of Coleoptera from 92 families known to occur in New Brunswick, Canada, are recorded, along with their author(s) and year of publication using the most recent classification framework. Adventive and Holarctic species are indicated. There are 366 adventive species in the province, 12.0% of the total fauna. PMID:27110174

  4. Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M J

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are described: Glaresis smithi Paulsen, new species from Argentina, and Glaresis mondacai Paulsen, new species from Chile and Peru. The species are compared to their closest congener, Glaresis fritzi Martínez et al., and a key is provided for the known South American species of the genus Glaresis Erichson. PMID:27615864

  5. Morphometric analysis of instar variation in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...

  6. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  7. [Diameter-weight relationship and chromatic proportion of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) in the islands of Margarita and Cubagua, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gaspar, Alfredo

    2003-06-01

    In Margarita and Cabagua Islands, Venezuela, the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is consumed as food but few studies concern its biology. Between January 1999 and September 2000, 25 localities of Margarita and Cubagua islands we visited to determinate the relationship between diameter and weight of living urchins according to their coloration green or white. A total of 5 066 urchins (3 421 captured in Margarita and 1 645 in Cubagua) were measured. There is no significant difference in the weight-diameter relations of green or white sea urchins of both islands. The weight-diameter equation is P = 0.00246 D252. Utilizing a quadrant (0.5 x 0.5 m) monthly samples of urchins living in a 2 m2 of surface were taken to estimate the abundance of the specimens according their color (N = 6 948 urchins). The green urchins were more abundant than the white urchins, in a 3:2 proportion. PMID:15264557

  8. Simultaneous exposure to chronic hypoxia and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons results in reduced egg production and larval survival in the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus).

    PubMed

    Hedgpeth, Bryan M; Griffitt, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Estuarine fish in the northern Gulf of Mexico are exposed annually to hypoxic conditions. In addition to hypoxia, fish located throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico were potentially exposed to oil released during the Deepwater Horizon incident. Therefore, the interaction between oil exposure and hypoxia is worth investigating. To examine this interaction, the authors exposed adult and larval sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) to crude or dispersed oil under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The authors examined total egg production, egg hatching success, and larval survival post hatch. The authors' results indicate that co-exposure to crude or dispersed oil and hypoxia resulted in a significant decrease in egg production, as well as a significant decrease in both egg hatch success and larval survival post hatch. The significant impact on reproductive success following crude or dispersed oil and hypoxia exposure indicates the importance of including environmental parameters such as hypoxia when evaluating the impact of an oil spill.

  9. Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2008-07-01

    Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

  10. Effects of sediment-bound polydimethylsiloxane on the bioavailability and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in lake sediment to Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kukkonen, J. |; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-03-01

    Oligochaetes, Lumbriculus variegatus, were exposed to Lake Michigan sediment spiked in the laboratory with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at two different concentrations. Additionally, these sediment samples and one without PDMS were spiked with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The accumulation of PDMS and BaP, survival, wet weight, and defecation of the animals were monitored. Lumbriculus variegatus accumulated sediment-associated BaP rapidly and achieved steady state within 96 to 168 h. The BaP uptake clearances were 0.069, 0.060, and 0.056 for BaP only, BaP with low-dose PDMS, and BaP with high-dose PDMS exposures, respectively. The BaP bioaccumulation factor was reduced by PDMS in the sediment. Only very low concentrations of PDMS were found associated with the worms, which suggests some surface sorption or association with material in the gut. Elimination of BaP in clean sediment was rapid, but elimination in water was much slower. Elimination rate constants for BaP, k{sub c}, were 0.0229 {+-} 0.0011 h{sup {minus}1} for sediment and 0.0004 {+-} 0.0004 h{sup {minus}1} water-only depuration. The PDMS was excreted within 10 h both in sediment and water-only depuration exposures, indicating that most of the measured body burden was due to the sediment-associated material inside the organisms` gut. Animals were not purged before analyses, and several approaches were investigated for estimating the contribution of the intestinal contents. Based on both measurements and calculations, sediment-associated BaP in the gut contributes less than 10% of total body burden. Thus, a 10-h water-only purge was found to be the most appropriate method for eliminating the gut-content influence on the body burden.

  11. Expression of two different sulfated fucans by females of Lytechinus variegatus may regulate the seasonal variation in the fertilization of the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Leonardo P; Castro, Michelle O; Santos, Livia L; Garcia, Clarice R; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2007-08-01

    The egg jellies of sea urchins contain sulfated polysaccharides with unusual structures, composed of linear chains of l-fucose or l-galactose with well-defined repetitive units. The specific pattern of sulfation and the position of the glycosidic bond vary among sulfated polysaccharides from different species. These polysaccharides show species specificity in inducing the acrosome reaction, which is a critical event for fertilization. Females of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus spawn eggs containing a sulfated fucan with the repetitive sequence [3-alpha-L-Fucp-2(OSO(3))-1 --> 3-alpha-L-Fucp-4(OSO(3))-1 --> 3-alpha-L-Fucp-2,4(OSO(3))-1 --> 3-alpha-L-Fucp-2(OSO(3))-1](n). We now observe that, close to winter, a period of decreased fertility for the sea urchin, the females synthesize a distinct sulfated fucan with a simple structure, composed of 4-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-fucose residues. This sulfated fucan is inactive when tested in vitro for the acrosome reaction using homologous sperm. The amount of egg jellies spawned by females (and their constituent sulfated polysaccharides) varied greatly throughout the year. Apparently, there is a correlation between the temperature of the sea water and the expression of the 4-sulfated, 3-linked sulfated fucan. Overall, we described the occurrence of two isotypes of sulfated fucan in the egg jelly of the sea urchin L. variegatus, which differ in their biological activity and may be involved in the periodicity of the reproductive cycle of the invertebrate.

  12. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment

  13. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment

  14. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  15. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-11-26

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.

  16. The genus Trichocnemis LeConte, 1851 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae)

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Ian; Santos-Silva, Antonio; Nearns, Eugenio H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The history of the genus Trichocnemis LeConte, 1851 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae) is discussed. Its taxonomic status in relation to the genera Ergates Audinet-Serville, 1832 and Callergates Lameere, 1904 is clarified. The synonymy of Macrotoma californica White, 1853, Macrotoma spiculigera White, 1853, and Trichocnemis spiculatus LeConte, 1851 is confirmed. A key to all three genera and their species is provided. PMID:21594014

  17. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured. PMID:25543941

  18. Assessing the bioaccumulation of contaminants from sediments of the Upper Mississippi River using field-collected oligochaetes and laboratory- exposed Lumbriculus variegatus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunson, E.L.; Canfield, T.J.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Concern with the redistribution of contaminants associated with sediment in the upper Mississippi River (UMR) arose after the flood of 1993. This project is designed to evaluate the status of sediments in the UMR and is one article in a series designed to assess the extent of sediment contamination in navigational pools of the river. Companion articles evaluate sediment toxicity and benthic community composition in navigation pools of the river. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) to assess the bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants in the UMR using laboratory exposures with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, and (2) to compare bioaccumulation in laboratory-exposed oligochaetes to field-collected oligochaetes. Sediment samples and native oligochaetes were collected from 23 navigational pools on the Upper Mississippi River and the Saint Croix River. Contaminant concentrations measured in the L. variegatus after 28-day exposures to sediment in the laboratory were compared to contaminant concentrations in field-collected oligochaetes from the 13 pools where these sediments were collected. Contaminant concentrations were relatively low in sediments and tissues from the pools evaluated. Only polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were frequently measured above detection limits. The majority of the biota- sediment-accumulation factors (BSAFs) for PAHs were within a range of about 1.0 to 2.6, suggesting that the theoretical BSAF value of 1.7 could be used to predict these mean BSAFs with a reasonable degree of certainty. A positive correlation was observed between lipid-normalized concentrations of PAHs detected in laboratory-exposed and field-collected oligochaetes across all sampling locations. Rank correlations for concentrations of individual compounds between laboratory-exposed and field-collected oligochaetes were strongest for benzo(e)pyrene, perylene, benzo(b,k)fluoranthene, and pyrene

  19. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  20. Toxicokinetics of sediment-sorbed benzo[a]pyrene and hexachlorobiphenyl using the freshwater invertebrates Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Lance J; Wheeler, Matthew; Bailer, A John; Lydy, Michael J

    2003-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of long-term sediment aging on the toxicokinetics of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) using three freshwater benthic invertebrates. Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Lumbriculus variegatus were exposed to BaP- and HCBP-spiked sediments that were aged for 7 d or 1.5 years. The toxicokinetics of the two compounds were determined for each test organism using a two-compartment model. The modeling of BaP was more complex because biotransformation was included within the model. The results of this study showed that the HCBP uptake clearance rates (k(s)) for each species were generally an order of magnitude greater than those determined for BaP and this difference was most likely due to preferential and rapid binding of BaP to sediment particles. Overall, the bioavailability of HCBP in spiked sediments tended to decrease with duration of aging, based on k(s) values and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). However, the decreases in bioavailability appear to be species specific. Benzo[a]pyrene did not decline in bioavailability for the species tested because it may resist movement into the micropores of the sediment due to its large size. In addition to the bioassays, this article outlines a method for toxicokinetic modeling of biotransformed compounds and methods for statistical comparisons of kinetic parameters (i.e., k(s), k(d)...) and BAF values.

  1. Predicting the toxicity of major ions in seawater to mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnow (Menidia beryllina)

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Caudle, D.D.; Tietge, J.E.; Evans, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Although marine organisms are naturally adapted to salinities well above those of freshwater, elevated concentrations of specific ions have been shown to cause adverse effects on some saltwater species. Because some ions are also physiologically essential, a deficiency of these ions can also cause significant effects. To provide a predictive tool to assess toxicity associated with major ions, mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside minnows (Menidia beryllina) were exposed to saline solutions containing calcium, magnesium, potassium, strontium, bicarbonate, borate, bromide, and sulfate at concentrations above and below what would be found in seawater. Solution salinity was maintained at approximately 31% by increasing or decreasing sodium and chloride concentrations. Logistic regression models were developed with both the ion molar concentrations and ion activity. Toxicity to all three species was observed when either a deficiency or an excess of potassium and calcium occurred. Significant mortality occurred in all species when exposed to excess concentrations of magnesium, bicarbonate, and borate. The response to the remaining ions varied with species. Sheepshead minnows were the most tolerant of both deficient and elevated levels of the different ions. Mysid shrimp and inland silverside minnows demonstrated similar sensitivities to several ions, but silverside minnow response was more variable. As a result, the logistic models that predict inland silverside minnow survival generally were less robust than for the other two species.

  2. Hypoxia Enhances the Toxicity of Corexit EC9500A and Chemically Dispersed Southern Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (MC-242) to Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subham; Huang, Irvin J; McElroy, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Oil exploration and production activities are common in the northern Gulf of Mexico as well as many other coastal and near coastal areas worldwide. Seasonal hypoxia is also a common feature in the Northern Gulf, and many other coastal areas, which is likely to increase in severity and extent with continuing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Hypoxia has well established physiological effects on many organisms, and it has been shown to enhance the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (persistent components of petroleum) in fish. The goal of this study was to examine the combined effects of hypoxia and exposure to contaminants associated with oil spills. We evaluated the effects of short term (48 hr) exposures to Corexit EC9500A, water accommodated fractions (WAF), and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAF) prepared from Southern Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (MC 242) on survival of sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) larvae held under normoxic (ambient air) or hypoxic (2 mg/L O2) conditions. Results demonstrated that hypoxia significantly enhances mortality observed in response to Corexit or CEWAF solutions. In the latter case, significant interactions between the two stressors were also observed. Our data supports the need to further evaluate the combined stresses imparted by hypoxia and exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons and dispersants. PMID:26110918

  3. Hypoxia depresses CYP1A induction and enhances DNA damage, but has minimal effects on antioxidant responses in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) larvae exposed to dispersed crude oil.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subham; DiGiulio, Richard T; Drollette, Brian D; L Plata, Desire; Brownawell, Bruce J; McElroy, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The growing incidence of hypoxic regions in coastal areas receiving high volumes of anthropogenic discharges requires more focused risk assessment of multiple stressors. One area needing further study is the combined effect of hypoxia and oil exposure. This study examined the short-term sublethal effects of co-exposure to hypoxia and water accommodated fractions (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAFs (CEWAFs) of Southern Louisiana Crude oil on detoxification, antioxidant defenses and genotoxicity in early life stage sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). CYP1A induction (evaluated by measuring EROD activity), activity of a number of key antioxidant enzymes (GST, GR, GPx, SOD, CAT, and GCL), levels of antioxidants (tGSH, GSH, and GSSG), evidence of lipid peroxidation (evaluated using the TBARS assay), and DNA damage (evaluated using the comet assay) provided a broad assessment of responses. Contaminant detoxification pathways induced by oil exposure were inhibited by co-exposure to hypoxia, indicating a maladaptive response. The interactive effects of oil and hypoxia on antioxidant defenses were mixed, but generally indicated less pronounced alterations, with significant increases in lipid peroxidation not observed. Hypoxia significantly enhanced DNA damage induced by oil exposure indicating the potential for significant deleterious effects post exposure. This study demonstrates the importance of considering hypoxia as an enhanced risk factor in assessing the effects of contaminants in areas where seasonal hypoxia may be prevalent. PMID:27315012

  4. Hypoxia Enhances the Toxicity of Corexit EC9500A and Chemically Dispersed Southern Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (MC-242) to Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    Oil exploration and production activities are common in the northern Gulf of Mexico as well as many other coastal and near coastal areas worldwide. Seasonal hypoxia is also a common feature in the Northern Gulf, and many other coastal areas, which is likely to increase in severity and extent with continuing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Hypoxia has well established physiological effects on many organisms, and it has been shown to enhance the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (persistent components of petroleum) in fish. The goal of this study was to examine the combined effects of hypoxia and exposure to contaminants associated with oil spills. We evaluated the effects of short term (48 hr) exposures to Corexit EC9500A, water accommodated fractions (WAF), and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAF) prepared from Southern Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (MC 242) on survival of sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) larvae held under normoxic (ambient air) or hypoxic (2 mg/L O2) conditions. Results demonstrated that hypoxia significantly enhances mortality observed in response to Corexit or CEWAF solutions. In the latter case, significant interactions between the two stressors were also observed. Our data supports the need to further evaluate the combined stresses imparted by hypoxia and exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons and dispersants. PMID:26110918

  5. Hypoxia Enhances the Toxicity of Corexit EC9500A and Chemically Dispersed Southern Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (MC-242) to Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subham; Huang, Irvin J; McElroy, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Oil exploration and production activities are common in the northern Gulf of Mexico as well as many other coastal and near coastal areas worldwide. Seasonal hypoxia is also a common feature in the Northern Gulf, and many other coastal areas, which is likely to increase in severity and extent with continuing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Hypoxia has well established physiological effects on many organisms, and it has been shown to enhance the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (persistent components of petroleum) in fish. The goal of this study was to examine the combined effects of hypoxia and exposure to contaminants associated with oil spills. We evaluated the effects of short term (48 hr) exposures to Corexit EC9500A, water accommodated fractions (WAF), and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAF) prepared from Southern Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (MC 242) on survival of sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) larvae held under normoxic (ambient air) or hypoxic (2 mg/L O2) conditions. Results demonstrated that hypoxia significantly enhances mortality observed in response to Corexit or CEWAF solutions. In the latter case, significant interactions between the two stressors were also observed. Our data supports the need to further evaluate the combined stresses imparted by hypoxia and exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons and dispersants.

  6. Apostasimerini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Baridinae). Rectification of authorship, year of publication, rank, and taxa included

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The following nomenclatural changes are proposed in the Coleoptera, Curculionidae: the author of Apostasimerini is Schoenherr (1844), not Lacordaire (1866); Madopterini Lacordaire, 1866 is demoted to subtribe of Apostasimerini; Erirhinus mourei Bondar, 1943 is a new synonym of Apostasimerus serriros...

  7. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated. PMID:27563272

  8. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  9. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  10. Timing of onset of evening activity of adult chinese rose beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...

  11. Primary types of Chinese longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of Chinese (mainland China, Taiwan, and Tibet) longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution are catalogued and figured, current through 2012. Data on the original combination, current name, current tribal classification, and ...

  12. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  13. A new species of Phymatodes Mulsant (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species Phymatodes (Poecilium) latefasciatus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiini) from China is described and illustrated. Features distinguishing the new species from its congeners are presented. PMID:24478575

  14. A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated.

  15. Primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...

  16. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  17. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category

  18. Checklist of beetles (Coleoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Second edition

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice; Davies, Anthony E.; Sikes, Derek S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s) and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive. PMID:24363590

  19. New taxa, notes and new synonymy in Neoibidionini (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2014-04-11

    New taxa, notes, and new synonymy in Neoibidionini (Cerambycidae, Coleoptera) are given. New taxa are described from Ecuador: Compsibidion inflatum sp. nov., Bezarkia gen. nov. and B. suturalis sp. nov., Corimbion antennatum sp. nov. and Neocompsa muira sp. nov.; from México: Neocompsa chiapensis sp. nov., and from French Guyana: Kunaibidion giesberti sp. nov. Pygmodeon maculatum Martins & Galileo, 2012 is considered a new synonym of Heterachthes xyleus Martins, 1974 which is transferred to the genus Pygmodeon as a new combination. Notes on variability and new records of Asynapteron equatorianum (Martins, 1960) are presented.

  20. Endemism patterns in the Italian leaf beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584

  1. Capture of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in floor traps: the effect of previous captures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in laboratory conditions. The effect...

  2. Two new species of Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. New information Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolus sororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species. PMID:26177296

  3. Possible origin of B chromosome in Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia

    2016-08-01

    B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair.

  4. Acute toxicity of 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, terbufos and trichlorfon to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp. ) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as affected by salinity and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Brecken-Folse, J.A. . Environmental Protection Agency) Mayer, F.L. . Environmental Protection Agency); Pedigo, L.E. ); Marking, L.L. . National Fisheries Research Center)

    1994-01-01

    The toxicities of two industrial chemicals (4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and two organophosphate insecticides (terbufos and trichlorfon) to juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were determined by static, 96-h toxicity tests in a factorial design with 12 combinations of salinity and temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 ppt [times] 17, 22, 27 C). Concentrations of the toxicants, including bioconcentration, were determined as appropriate by gas or liquid chromatography and the use of [sup 14]C-labeled compounds. The 96-h LC50s for 4-nitrophenol ranged from 12 to 31 mg/L and for 2,4-dinitrophenol from 13 to 50 mg/L. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 4-nitrophenol and both test organisms. Toxicity decreased as salinity increased for 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows, but toxicity to grass shrimp increased as salinity increased. Toxicity decreased with increased temperature for grass shrimp exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol and sheepshead minnows exposed to 4-nitrophenol, increased with temperature for sheepshead minnows exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol, and no change was observed for grass shrimp exposed to 4-nitrophenol. Bioconcentration of phenols in both test organisms increased as concentration increased. The 96-h LC50s for terbufos ranged from 3.4 to 6.6 [mu]g/L and for trichlorfon from 6.3 to 19,300 [mu]g/L. Terbufos and trichlorfon toxicity to grass shrimp and sheepshead minnows increased with increased temperature. BCFs for terbufos were greater in sheepshead minnows than grass shrimp, but were reversed for trichlorfon.

  5. EFFECT OF DIET QUALITY ON NUTRIENT ALLOCATION TO THE TEST AND ARISTOTLE'S LANTERN IN THE SEA URCHIN LYTECHINUS VARIEGATUS (LAMARCK, 1816).

    PubMed

    Heflin, Laura Elizabeth; Gibbs, Victoria K; Powell, Mickie L; Makowsky, Robert; Lawrence, Addison L; Lawrence, John M

    2012-08-01

    Small adult (19.50 ± 2.01g wet weight) Lytechinus variegatus were fed eight formulated diets with different protein (12 to 36% dry weight as fed) and carbohydrate (21 to 39 % dry weight) levels. Each sea urchin (n = 8 per treatment) was fed a daily ration of 1.5% of the average body weight of all individuals for 9 weeks. Akaike information criterion scores were used to compare six different dietary composition hypotheses for eight growth measurements. For each physical growth response, different mathematical models representing a priori hypotheses were compared using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) score. The AIC is one of many information-theoretic approaches that allows for direct comparison of non-nested models with varying number of parameters. Dietary protein level and protein: energy ratio were the best models for prediction of test diameter increase. Dietary protein level was the best model of test with spines wet weight gain and test with spines dry matter production. When the Aristotle's lantern was corrected for size of the test, there was an inverse relationship with dietary protein level. Log transformed lantern to test with spines index was also best associated with the dietary protein model. Dietary carbohydrate level was a poor predictor for growth parameters. However, the protein × carbohydrate interaction model was the best model of organic content (% dry weight) of the test without spines. These data suggest that there is a differential allocation of resources when dietary protein is limiting and the test with spines, but not the Aristotle's lantern, is affected by availability of dietary nutrients.

  6. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  7. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity. PMID:24472199

  8. Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....

  9. Discovery of Aspidytidae, a new family of aquatic Coleoptera.

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, I; Beutel, R G; Balke, M; Vogler, A P

    2002-01-01

    The six extant aquatic families of Hydradephaga (Coleoptera) known so far represent a diverse group of beetles morphologically highly modified for life in the water. We report the discovery of a new genus with two species from South Africa and China, which differ greatly from all extant families, but resemble the Jurassic-Cretaceous dagger Liadytidae (the dagger symbol indicates that the taxa are known only as fossils). Based on a combined phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data we erect a new family, Aspidytidae, which is the sister group of Dytiscidae plus Hygrobiidae. We propose a new scenario for the evolution of swimming behaviour in adephagan beetles, in which the transition into the aquatic environment is followed by complex and repeated changes in lifestyles, including the secondary complete loss of swimming ability in Aspidytidae. PMID:12495503

  10. A study on the Neotropical Anthaxiini (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bílý, Svatopluk

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Revision of the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Anthaxiina Gory & Laporte, 1839 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae, Anthaxiini). Five new genera are described: Anthaxita gen. n., Charlesina gen. n., Cobosina gen. n., Marikia gen. n. and Sanchezia gen. n. Genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 is divided into two subgenera: Agrilaxia and Costiptera subgen. n. and the genus Bilyaxia Hołyński, 1989 is divided into three subgenera: Bilyaxia, Paraguayetta subgen. n. and Tomasia subgen. n. One new species is described: Anthaxita peruviana sp. n., and two informal species-groups are suggested within Agrilaxia (Costiptera subgen. n.): Agrilaxia (Costiptera) modesta (Kerremans, 1897) species-group and Agrilaxia (Costiptera) occidentalis (Kerremans, 1900) species-group. Lectotype is designated for Agrilaxia mrazi Obenberger, 1932. A key of all genera/subgenera is provided and all treated taxa are illustrated. PMID:23794907

  11. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  12. Biology and Management of Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Turfgrass

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Madeleine M.; Ramirez, Ricardo A.

    2016-01-01

    Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Sphenophorus spp.) are a complex of weevil pests affecting turfgrass throughout the United States. Billbug larvae cause damage by feeding in stems, on roots, and on the crowns of turf, causing severe discoloration and eventual plant death. Monitoring efforts have focused on nondestructive pitfall sampling of ground-active billbug adults and on destructive sampling using soil cores for larval stages in the soil. Given the cryptic nature of the susceptible larval stages, billbugs are typically managed by preventive applications of long-residual, systemic insecticides, including neonicotinoids and anthranilic diamides. Despite knowledge of effective management practices including pest-resistant turf varieties, irrigation management, and microbial controls that contribute to an IPM approach, billbug management continues to rely heavily on prophylactic synthetic insecticides. This review will summarize the identification and biology of billbugs and strategies for their management. PMID:27065080

  13. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate. PMID:26602356

  14. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  15. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    PubMed

    Pires, E M; Nogueira, R M; Pina, D S; Manica, C L M; Faroni, L R A; Moreira, P S A

    2016-04-19

    Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces.

  16. Positive selection of digestive Cys proteases in herbivorous Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Juan; Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Cloutier, Conrad; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Positive selection is thought to contribute to the functional diversification of insect-inducible protease inhibitors in plants in response to selective pressures exerted by the digestive proteases of their herbivorous enemies. Here we assessed whether a reciprocal evolutionary process takes place on the insect side, and whether ingestion of a positively selected plant inhibitor may translate into a measurable rebalancing of midgut proteases in vivo. Midgut Cys proteases of herbivorous Coleoptera, including the major pest Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), were first compared using a codon-based evolutionary model to look for the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites among the tested sequences. Hypervariable sites were found, distributed within -or close to- amino acid regions interacting with Cys-type inhibitors of the plant cystatin protein family. A close examination of L. decemlineata sequences indicated a link between their assignment to protease functional families and amino acid identity at positively selected sites. A function-diversifying role for positive selection was further suggested empirically by in vitro protease assays and a shotgun proteomic analysis of L. decemlineata Cys proteases showing a differential rebalancing of protease functional family complements in larvae fed single variants of a model cystatin mutated at positively selected amino acid sites. These data confirm overall the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites in herbivorous Coleoptera digestive Cys proteases. They also support the idea of an adaptive role for positive selection, useful to generate functionally diverse proteases in insect herbivores ingesting functionally diverse, rapidly evolving dietary cystatins. PMID:26264818

  17. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.

  18. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    PubMed

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. PMID:23550535

  19. Multigenerational exposure of the estuarine sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) to 17 β-estradiol. I. organism-level effects over three generations.

    PubMed

    Cripe, Geraldine M; Hemmer, Becky L; Goodman, Larry R; Fournie, John W; Raimondo, Sandy; Vennari, Joann C; Danner, Rodney L; Smith, Kent; Manfredonia, Blaze R; Kulaw, Dannielle H; Hemmer, Michael J

    2009-11-01

    A 280-d study examined the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on reproduction and development of the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) exposed from the parental (F0) through three subsequent (F1, F2, and F3) generations and evaluated the need for multigenerational assessments of the risks of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. This first three-generation study exposed adult F0 and F1 fish to measured concentrations of 0.01, 0.04, 0.08, 0.2, and 0.3 μg E2/L; the F2 and F3 generations were exposed to 0.2 μg E2/L or less. The cumulative 21-d production of normal embryos was significantly reduced in the F0 generation at 0.3 μg E2/L and in the F1 and F2 generations at 0.08 μg E2/L or more. The daily reproductive rate was significantly reduced in all three generations at 0.08 μg E2/L or more during spawning days 8 to 14 and 15 to 21. The proportion of infertile eggs from F1 fish was significantly increased above that of the solvent controls at 0.04 and 0.2 μg E2/L and from F2 fish at 0.04 μg E2/L or more. Changes in liver, kidney, and gonadal tissues were seen in the F0 and F1 generations exposed to 0.2 μg E2/L or more. The female gonadosomatic index was significantly decreased at 0.3 μg E2/L in the F0 and F1 generations. Estradiol affected the hepatosomatic index only in female F1 fish, but not in a dose-dependent manner. All F1 fish in 0.3 μg E2/L appeared to be phenotypically female. Our results indicate that life-cycle exposure to E2 significantly decreased embryo production by F1 and F2 fish at concentrations lower than those affecting the F0 generation, and they emphasize the importance of evaluating the impact of an estrogenic chemical on reproduction through a minimum of two (F0 and F1) generations.

  20. Accumulation and depuration of sediment-sorbed C{sub 12}- and C{sub 16}-polychlorinated alkanes by oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, A.T.; Wiens, S.C.; Webster, G.R.B.; Bergman, A.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1998-10-01

    Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed to sediment spiked with four {sup 14}C-polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) (C{sub 12}H{sub 20}Cl{sub 6} [56% Cl by weight], C{sub 12}H{sub 16}Cl{sub 10} [69% Cl], C{sub 16}H{sub 31}Cl{sub 3} [35% Cl], and C{sub 16}H{sub 21}Cl{sub 13} [69% Cl]) to measure bioaccumulation parameters and biotransformation. Chlorinated paraffins are industrial products that consist of thousands of different PCAs. Chlorinated paraffins are hydrophobic and are reported to have relatively high concentrations in sediment compared with other persistent organochlorines; however, no data exist on their bioavailability from sediment. The PCAs C{sub 12}H{sub 20}Cl{sub 6}, C{sub 12}H{sub 16}Cl{sub 10}, and C{sub 16}H{sub 31}Cl{sub 3} were readily available to sediment-ingesting oligochaetes, whereas C{sub 16}H{sub 21}Cl{sub 13} had lower bioavailability. Uptake rates of the C{sub 12}-PCAs were greater than the C{sub 16}-PCAs, but half-lives (t{sub {1/2}}s) were greater for the C{sub 16}-PCAs (t{sub {1/2}} = 30-33 d) than for the C{sub 12}-PCAs (t{sub {1/2}} = 12-14 d). Biota-sediment accumulation factors were >1 for C{sub 12}H{sub 20}Cl{sub 6}, C{sub 12}H{sub 16} Cl{sub 10}, and C{sub 16}H{sub 31}Cl{sub 3}, but <1 for C{sub 16}H{sub 21}Cl{sub 13}. Comparison of toluene-extractable and -nonextractable {sup 14}C suggest that PCAs were biotransformed in aerobic sediments and by oligochaetes, and that the susceptibility to degradation in sediments decreases with increasing chlorine content. The relative abundance of individual PCAs may differ between sediment and benthic invertebrates because of differences in the bioaccumulation and degradation of PCAs of varying carbon chain length and chlorine content.

  1. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  2. Revision of the genus Ateralphus Restello, Iannuzzi & Marinoni, 2001 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Diego De S; Monné, Marcela L

    2013-01-01

    A revision of the genus Ateralphus Restello, Iannuzzi & Marinoni, 2001, based on the detailed study of the morphology of the type-species and on the external morphology and terminalia of the others species is presented. The genus and species are redescribed and three new species are described. The genus is composed of nine species: A. dejeani (Lane, 1973), A. javariensis (Lane, 1965), A. lacteus Galileo & Martins, 2006, A. senilis (Bates, 1862), A. subsellatus (White, 1855), A. variegatus (Mendes, 1938), A. auritarsus new species, A. lucianeae new species and A. tumidus new species. A key for identification of the species and maps of their geographical distribution are provided.

  3. Non-constant thermal regimes enhance overwintering success and accelerate diapause development for Smicronyx fulvus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, field and laboratory research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, have been limited....

  4. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet and potato crops. Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Eschscholtz) are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particula...

  6. Detection of reproducing populations of Coccinella novemnotata within coccinellid assemblages (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in western South Dakota and western Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...

  7. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...

  8. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda; Winder, Linton; Lingafelter, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification. PMID:26692805

  9. Diversity abundance and seasonality of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionida) in Southern Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...

  10. High-level phylogeny of the Coleoptera inferred with mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu

    2016-11-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models.

  11. Diversity of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attracted to avocado, lychee, and essential oil lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and native Persea species (redbay, swampbay). As part...

  12. High-level phylogeny of the Coleoptera inferred with mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu

    2016-11-01

    The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models. PMID:27497607

  13. Improved visualization of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) - Part II: Alimentary canal components and measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a pest of stored food products and problematic to every type of poultry production facility. Larvae and adults can ingest and harbor foodborne and poultry pathogens. Determining the efficiency of this insect’s capacity to transmit dise...

  14. Bioacoustics of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) on common beans Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...

  15. Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...

  16. Impact of Adult Weight, Density, and Age on Reproduction of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of adult weight, age, and density on reproduction of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was studied. The impact of adult weight on reproduction was determined in two ways: 1) counting the daily progeny of individual adult pairs of known weight and analyzing the data with line...

  17. The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae: Neorthopleurinae), with description of a new species from Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-23

    The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

  18. Coexistence and competition between Tomicus Yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in yunnan pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...

  19. Review of the genus Ceresium Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Fiji

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....

  20. Seasonal and spatial dispersal patterns of ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: curculionidae) from forest habitats into production nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...

  1. Effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rearing conditions, particularly the crowding of larvae, may have a significant impact on production efficiency of some insects produced commercially, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, n...

  2. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  3. Biology, ecology, and management of Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ornamental tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...

  4. Progress in the classical biological control of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovered in North America in 2002, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a phloem-feeding beetle from Asia that attacks and kills ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) populations surveyed for natural enemies in North America reveal low prevalence of native larva...

  5. Factors affecting pheromone production by the pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and collection efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...

  6. Morphology and DNA barcoding reveal a new species of Eudicella from East Africa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Seidel, Matthias

    2016-07-13

    A new species of Eudicella White, 1839 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), is described from Uganda and Kenya: E. nana new species. Morphological and genetic analyses of the new taxon and phenotypically allied species are given. Eudicella nana is compared with its hypothesized sister species, E. darwiniana Kraatz, 1880, and diagnostic characters that distinguish it from other species occurring in the same region are provided.

  7. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  8. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  9. Species Relationships in the Genus Bryodaemon (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Wacławik, Beniamin; Skalski, Tomasz; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Establishing reliable taxonomy and phylogeny of similar, evolutionarily young species is among the greatest challenges in biology. Clearly the best approach is to use a combination of informative traits, including molecular markers and morphometric measurements. The objective of this study was to verify the taxonomy and phylogeny of four morphologically similar Carpathian species of Bryodaemon Podlussany, 1998 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Species relationships were studied using three molecular markers: two nuclear (ITS-2 and EF1-α) and one mitochondrial (COI, barcoding marker). We also took morphometric measurements of 35 taxonomically derived characteristics of body parts and genital apparatus. The potential presence of apomorphic features also was determined. We then compared our results with data concerning the ecology and geography of previously studied species. Our analyses confirmed the monophyly ofthis group and established a phylogeny for the genus. We propose that B. hanakii is the earliest derived species, based on morphometric measurements, apomorphies and the EF-lα phylogeny. The pattern ofnucleotide variation in this marker also indicates that B. rozneri and B. boroveci are the youngest species. This hypothesis is consistent with geographical ranges and ecological preferences of Carpathian Bryodaemon species. We also considered an alternative hypothesis based on the COI gene tree which indicated that B. rozneri was the oldest species. However, this arrangement is inconsistent with our morphological data.

  10. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  11. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  12. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%.

  13. The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Osvaldo Di; Turienzo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina is represented by three species of the genus Taphropiestes Reitter, 1875: T. fusca Reitter, 1875 [Chubut], T. magna Ślipiński & Tomaszewska, 2010 [Río Negro; Chubut], and T. plaumanni Ślipiński & Tomaszewska 2010 [Buenos Aires]. A total of 2565 larvae (multiple instars), 83 pupae, 2028 live adults, and 16 dead adults of T. plaumanni were found in Argentina between 2005 and 2013 in the nests of birds representing the families Columbidae, Emberizidae, Falconidae, Furnariidae, Hirundinidae, Mimidae, Passeridae, Psittacidae, Troglodytidae and Tyrannidae. The adults were most abundant in closed mud nests of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) [Furnariidae] and its inquiline birds, but the larvae were most abundant in wood nest boxes. When T. plaumanni was scarcely represented in bird nests from some localities, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797), an exotic darkling beetle [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae], and one native species, Phobelius crenatus Blanchard, 1842 [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae], were most abundant in stick nests of Furnariidae. In contrast, when A. diaperinus and P. crenatus were absent in one locality from the province of Buenos Aires, T. plaumanni was the most abundant beetle. A complete account of data is provided for these collections of T. plaumanni in Argentina. Known distributional data for all Argentinian species of Taphropiestes are plotted on maps with biogeographical provinces indicated. PMID:27394368

  14. Species Relationships in the Genus Bryodaemon (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Wacławik, Beniamin; Skalski, Tomasz; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Establishing reliable taxonomy and phylogeny of similar, evolutionarily young species is among the greatest challenges in biology. Clearly the best approach is to use a combination of informative traits, including molecular markers and morphometric measurements. The objective of this study was to verify the taxonomy and phylogeny of four morphologically similar Carpathian species of Bryodaemon Podlussany, 1998 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Species relationships were studied using three molecular markers: two nuclear (ITS-2 and EF1-α) and one mitochondrial (COI, barcoding marker). We also took morphometric measurements of 35 taxonomically derived characteristics of body parts and genital apparatus. The potential presence of apomorphic features also was determined. We then compared our results with data concerning the ecology and geography of previously studied species. Our analyses confirmed the monophyly ofthis group and established a phylogeny for the genus. We propose that B. hanakii is the earliest derived species, based on morphometric measurements, apomorphies and the EF-lα phylogeny. The pattern ofnucleotide variation in this marker also indicates that B. rozneri and B. boroveci are the youngest species. This hypothesis is consistent with geographical ranges and ecological preferences of Carpathian Bryodaemon species. We also considered an alternative hypothesis based on the COI gene tree which indicated that B. rozneri was the oldest species. However, this arrangement is inconsistent with our morphological data. PMID:26103688

  15. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    PubMed

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given. PMID:27615867

  16. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    PubMed

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  17. Optimization of trap color for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

    2010-08-01

    Field assays were performed to determine the optimal color for Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) traps. Previous studies have found that more A. planipennis are caught on purple or green traps than traps of other colors. In three studies, we evaluated various shades of purple, wavelengths of green (500-570 nm), and greens of different reflectance (from 9 to 66%). In all tests, traps of corrugated plastic in standard, commercially available purple (currently used to survey A. planipennis) and a customized green color were used as bases for comparison. Among purple traps, a paint color previously shown to be generally attractive to buprestids caught significantly more A. planipennis adults than traps coated with paints containing more blue or red, or traps constructed of the standard purple plastic. Among traps with maximum reflectance at varying green wavelengths, those ranging in wavelength from 525 to 540 nm caught significantly more adult A. planipennis than traps of other wavelengths. In the 530-540 nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum, there was no significant difference among traps in the 23-66% reflectance range, but traps painted with a peak reflectance of 49% caught more beetles than purple or the custom green plastic traps. Male to female ratio was highest on green traps.

  18. Cytogenetics, cytotaxonomy and chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae revisited (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) *

    PubMed Central

    Petitpierre, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nearly 260 taxa and chromosomal races of subfamily Chrysomelinae have been chromosomally analyzed showing a wide range of diploid numbers from 2n = 12 to 2n = 50, and four types of male sex-chromosome systems. with the parachute-like ones Xyp and XYp clearly prevailing (79.0%), but with the XO well represented too (19.75%). The modal haploid number for chrysomelines is n = 12 (34.2%) although it is not probably the presumed most plesiomorph for the whole subfamily, because in tribe Timarchini the modal number is n = 10 (53.6%) and in subtribe Chrysomelina n = 17 (65.7%). Some well sampled genera, such as Timarcha, Chrysolina and Cyrtonus, are variable in diploid numbers, whereas others, like Chrysomela, Paropsisterna, Oreina and Leptinotarsa, are conservative and these differences are discussed. The main shifts in the chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae seems to be centric fissions and pericentric inversions but other changes as centric fusions are also clearly demonstrated. The biarmed chromosome shape is the prevalent condition, as found in most Coleoptera, although a fair number of species hold a few uniarmed chromosomes at least. A significant negative correlation between the haploid numbers and the asymmetry in size of karyotypes (r = -0.74) has been found from a large sample of 63 checked species of ten different genera. Therefore, the increases in haploid number are generally associated with a higher karyotype symmetry. PMID:22303104

  19. Attractants for the green June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, D T; Lewis, B A; Bryant, R J; Liyanage, R; Lay, J O; Pszczolkowski, M A

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate lures for adult green June beetles, Cotinis nitida (L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), for future use in a mass trapping program. Volatile organic compounds collected from headspace of green June beetles feeding on fermenting ripe apple (Malus spp.), the natural lure that elicits feeding aggregations, were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Yellow funnel traps baited with 91% isopropanol or the five component blend were equally effective in eliciting aggregation behavior and often more attractive to green June beetles than the natural lure. In 2008, three trap lines adjacent and parallel to the perimeter of two vineyards, each with 12 Xpando yellow funnel traps baited with either 91% isopropanol or the five component blend, differed in catch of green June beetles across sample dates, and sample date by bait interaction but there were no differences among these two baits. A season total of 324,007 green June beetle were captured by these 36 baited traps. A brief review is included of fermentation volatiles attractive to insects. We conclude with the potential cost to use mass trapping against adult green June beetles.

  20. Laccomimus xikrin sp. nov. and new records of other species of Laccomimus Toledo & Michat, 2015 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Laccophilinae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rafael Benzi; Ferreira-Jr, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The genus Laccomimus Toledo & Michat, 2015 was recently erected for small drop-shape Dytiscidae beetles commonly found in Tropical South America associated with lentic waters. In the present paper a new species, Laccomimus xikrin sp. nov., is described and illustrated. New records from Brazil are presented for Laccomimus alvarengi Toledo & Michat, 2015 from Amazonas state, L. bordoni Toledo & Michat, 2015 from São Paulo state and L. variegatus Toledo & Michat, 2015 from Pará state. PMID:27615828

  1. Dispersal of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in different habitats.

    PubMed

    Mahroof, Rizana M; Edde, Peter A; Robertson, Barrett; Puckette, J Andrew; Phillips, Thomas W

    2010-06-01

    The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), a serious pest of stored cereal grains, is widely distributed and has been collected in different habitats in North America, such as those from agricultural and nonagricultural settings. Our objective was to study the dispersal distances and direction of dispersal by R. dominica after external marking using fluorescent powder, releasing marked beetles, and recapturing adults using pheromone traps in distinctively different ecological habitats, wooded sites and open grasslands, for 2 consecutive yr. The recapture rate of marked beetles ranged from 6 to 26% in both sites and was generally higher in the wooded site than the open field site for both years. There was a significant difference in dispersal distances between wooded and open sites. Mean dispersal distances in the wooded site ranged from 337 to 375 m, whereas in the open site, they varied from 261 to 333 m. Trap captures for both marked and feral beetles were related to the ambient temperature such that increase in trap captures occurred with increasing temperature. Significant differences were observed for directional movement of R. dominica in both sites and indicated that most beetles dispersed in the northwest direction. Correlation analyses showed that the relationship between numbers of marked-released-recaptured beetles significantly decreased with increasing trap distances. Understanding dispersal distances and directions provide insight to flight behavior of R. dominica and to the relationship between ecologically diverse breeding habitats. Knowledge of R. dominica habitat ecology outside of grain storage facilities may be useful in designing suitable management tactics to minimize the onset of infestations in grain storages.

  2. A molecular phylogeny of Alpine subterranean Trechini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown. Results We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism. Conclusions The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to

  3. Testing the 'island rule' for a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-05-01

    Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.

  4. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  5. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  6. A Family of Chemoreceptors in Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-latief, Mohatmed

    2007-01-01

    Chemoperception in invertebrates is mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). To date nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of chemoperception in coleopteran species. Recently the genome of Tribolium castaneum was sequenced for use as a model species for the Coleoptera. Using blast searches analyses of the T. castaneum genome with previously predicted amino acid sequences of insect chemoreceptor genes, a putative chemoreceptor family consisting of 62 gustatory receptors (Grs) and 26 olfactory receptors (Ors) was identified. The receptors have seven transmembrane domains (7TMs) and all belong to the GPCR receptor family. The expression of the T. castaneum chemoreceptor genes was investigated using quantification real- time RT-PCR and in situ whole mount RT-PCR analysis in the antennae, mouth parts, and prolegs of the adults and larvae. All of the predicted TcasGrs were expressed in the labium, maxillae, and prolegs of the adults but TcasGr13, 19, 28, 47, 62, 98, and 61 were not expressed in the prolegs. The TcasOrs were localized only in the antennae and not in any of the beetles gustatory organs with one exception; the TcasOr16 (like DmelOr83b), which was localized in the antennae, labium, and prolegs of the beetles. A group of six TcasGrs that presents a lineage with the sugar receptors subfamily in Drosophila melanogaster were localized in the lacinia of the Tribolium larvae. TcasGr1, 3, and 39, presented an ortholog to CO2 receptors in D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae was recorded. Low expression of almost all of the predicted chemoreceptor genes was observed in the head tissues that contain the brains and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). These findings demonstrate the identification of a chemoreceptor family in Tribolium, which is evolutionarily related to other insect species. PMID:18091992

  7. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Seago, Ainsley E.; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as ‘living jewels’, in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles. PMID:18957361

  8. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Seago, Ainsley E; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D

    2009-04-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as 'living jewels', in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles.

  9. Endogenous cellulolytic enzyme systems in the longhorn beetle Mesosa myops (Insecta: Coleoptera) studied by transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Song, Keqing; Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wenzhu; Xue, Huaijun; Yang, Xingke

    2015-09-01

    The Cerambycidae (longhorn beetle) is a large family of Coleoptera with xylophagous feeding habits. Cellulose digestion plays an important role in these wood-feeding insects. In this study, transcriptomic technology was used to obtain one glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) cellulase and seven GH5 cellulases from Mesosa myops, a typical longhorn beetle. Analyses of expression dynamics and evolutionary relationships provided a complete description of the cellulolytic system. The expression dynamics related to individual development indicated that endogenous GH45 and GH5 cellulases dominate cellulose digestion in M. myops. Evolutionary analyses suggested that GH45 cellulase gene is a general gene in the Coleoptera Suborder Polyphaga. Evolutionary analyses also indicated that the GH5 cellulase group in Lamiinae longhorn beetles is closely associated with wood feeding. This study demonstrated that there is a complex endogenous cellulolytic system in M. myops that is dominated by cellulases belonging to two glycoside hydrolase families.

  10. Revision of the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae) from Taiwan Island.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Bin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Hayashi, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ptomaphagus (s. str.) chenggongi sp. n. and Ptomaphagus (s. str.) tingtingae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) are described from Taiwan Island. In addition, a new subjective synonym is proposed, Ptomaphagus (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 = Ptomaphagus (s. str.) smetanai Perreau, 1996, syn. n. Relevant morphological characters of the examined Ptomaphagus species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. PMID:27563271

  11. Revision of the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae) from Taiwan Island

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Bin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Hayashi, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ptomaphagus (s. str.) chenggongi sp. n. and Ptomaphagus (s. str.) tingtingae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) are described from Taiwan Island. In addition, a new subjective synonym is proposed, Ptomaphagus (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 = Ptomaphagus (s. str.) smetanai Perreau, 1996, syn. n. Relevant morphological characters of the examined Ptomaphagus species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. PMID:27563271

  12. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology. PMID:26249885

  13. New species and records of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Macrodactylini) from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arce-Pérez, Roberto; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-28

    Two new species of Macrodactylus Dejean (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Bolivia are described and illustrated: M. megaphyllus new species (from Comarapa, Santa Cruz and Sehuenca, Cochabamba) and M. yunganus new species (from Mairana and Comarapa, Santa Cruz). In addition, the species Macrodactylus bolivianus Moser, M. gracilis Moser, and M. nobilis Frey are redescribed and illustrated to help facilitate identification of these species. A key to the 10 species of Macrodactylus presently known from Bolivia is provided. 

  14. Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanshu; Chandra, Kailash; Hillert, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Odontotrypes Fairmaire, 1887 (Coleoptera: Geotrupidae) belonging to the subgenus Odontotrupes Boucomont, 1905 is described from the Tawang district, State of Arunachal Pradesh (northeast India): Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) tawangensis new species. Relevant diagnostic characters (pronotum, head, elytra, profemur, scutellar shield, and external male genitalia) are illustrated and compared with closely related species of this subgenus, in particular Odontotrypes (Odontotrupes) orichalceus (Fairmaire, 1895). The distribution of the new species is mapped. PMID:27615859

  15. Wireworms’ Management: An Overview of the Existing Methods, with Particular Regards to Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Barsics, Fanny; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.

    2013-01-01

    Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. PMID:26466799

  16. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-06-19

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology.

  17. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-07-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  18. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-01-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  19. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects.

  20. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced.

  1. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae)

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  2. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced. PMID:26743218

  3. Comparative Growth and Survival of Hylurgus ligniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Reared on Artificial or Natural Diet at 15 or 25°C.

    PubMed

    Romo, C M; Bader, M K-F; Pawson, S M

    2016-02-01

    Two saproxylic forest insects, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and Arhopalus ferus (Mulsant)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were reared on artificial or natural diet at 15 or 25°C to compare larval growth rates and survival. A significant diet by temperature interaction was observed in the growth of H. ligniperda larvae,which developed faster when reared on natural diet at 15°C, but grew faster and pupated significantly earlier when reared on artificial diet at 25°C. However, H. ligniperda survival by the end of the experiment was low on both diets when reared at 25°C (10.1%, 95% CI: 5.2–15.1%), which suggests that rearing at lower temperatures may be required. A. ferus larvae gained significantly larger body size when reared on artificial diet than on natural diet at both temperatures. Survival of A. ferus reared on artificial diet was significantly lower than larvae reared on natural diet at 25°C. The significant differences between A. ferus larval development rates when reared on artificial and natural diets preclude the use of artificial diet to collect meaningful data to construct temperature development models for ecological comparisons. Artificial diet provided a suitable medium for mass production of individuals for research purposes, e.g., test mortality in response to treatments. However, additional rearing studies are needed to determine whether the larger artificially reared larvae result in adults that are healthier, more productive, and live longer.

  4. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  5. New myrmecomorphous longhorned beetles from Haiti and the Dominican Republic with a key to Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini of Hispaniola (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha, new genus) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria, new species) a...

  6. Influence of host age on critical fitness parameters of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a recently discovered gregarious idiobiont larval ectoparasitoid currently being evaluated for biological control against the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in the United St...

  7. Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) nematodes in a morphologically aberrant adult specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as Red Palm Weevil, the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the ...

  8. Laboratory and field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi for the management of the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera: Brentidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is one of the most important pests of sweet potatoes in the world. With free trade between the United States and the U. S.-controlled Marianas Islands, C. formicarius has spread along with this commodity. Because of the cryptic ...

  9. Agrilus rubensteini, a new species from the Philippines related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...

  10. A new species of Tomarus Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini), with a key to the species in Colombia.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2014-10-03

    A new Tomarus Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini) species is described from western Colombia. The new species is compared with Tomarus laevicollis (Bates, 1888) from Central America. An identification key is also provided to the species occurring in the country. 

  11. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite markers in the root-gall-forming weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...

  12. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in diet mixtures comprised of four dif...

  13. Monitoring attack and flight activity of Xylosandrus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae); the influence of temperature on activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-boring ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), including Xylosandrus spp., are key pests in ornamental nurseries. Knowledge of their activity in spring is important for nursery growers to effectively time their protective sprays. We evaluated the reliability of ethanol-baite...

  14. Acute toxicity of plant essential oils to scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and their analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. In order to develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instar larvae of the Japanese beetle P...

  15. Catalog of the coleoptera of America North of Mexico. Family: Curculionidae. Subfamily: Polydrosinae. Tribe: Tanymecini. Agriculture handbook (Research)

    SciTech Connect

    Howden, A.T.

    1993-09-01

    The Coleoptera, or beetles, are represented in the world by about 220,000 described species, of which about 24,000 occur in the United States and Canada. A comprehensive taxonomic catalog of beetles for this area has not been available except the series of world-based 'Coleopterorum Catalogus' volumes (1909-present, Junk, Berlin).

  16. Release and distribution of Lilioceris cheni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of air potato (Dioscorea bulbilfera: Dioscoreaceae), in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...

  17. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  18. Notes on the genus Taridius Chaudoir, 1875 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), with descriptions of six new species from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Dmitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Six new species of the genus Taridius Chaudoir, 1875 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are described from Vietnam: Taridius ornatus sp. n., Taridius piceus sp. n., Taridius fasciatus sp. n., Taridius abdominalis sp. n., Taridius coriaceus sp. n., and Taridius disjunctus sp. n.. The generic characters are redescribed, based on fresh material, with a key provided to all congeners. PMID:23275745

  19. Fungal symbionts in three exotic ambrosia beetles, Xylosandrus amputatus, Xyleborinus andrewesi, and Dryoxylon onoharaense (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract In nearly every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying trees. Some non-native ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody pla...

  20. Book review: Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...

  1. Review of the Oriental genus Platysodes Westwood (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Cremastocheilini) with a redescription of Platysodes madoni Bourgoin.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-Yue; Xu, Hao; Chen, Li

    2015-09-29

    The genus Platysodes Westwood, 1873 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Cremastocheilini) is reviewed, with an identification key, images, and distributional map for all species. Platysodes madoni Bourgoin, 1923 is newly recorded from southern China, and a lectotype is designated for this species. The year of publication of Platysodes is corrected to 1873.

  2. Sorghum halepense (L.) Persoon (Poaceae), a new larval host for the South American corn rootworm Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabrotica speciosa is a South American corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) the adult of which is a pest on many crop and ornamental plants. The list of known larval hosts, however, is limited to maize, wheat, potatoes and peanuts. In March, 2005, larvae of D. speciosa were found ...

  3. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  4. A NOVEL CADHERIN-LIKE GENE FROM WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM, DIABROTICA VIRGIFERA VIRGIFERA (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE), LARVAL MIDGUT TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...

  5. Seasonal flight activity and distribution of metallic woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) collected in North Carolina and Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...

  6. Acoustic detection of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) and Nasutitermes luzonicus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in palm trees of urban Guam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...

  7. Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...

  8. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requested that as part of the remedial investigation for the Anniston, Alabama Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site (Anniston PCB Site), that Pharmacia Corporation and Solutia Inc. (P/S) perform long-term reproduction toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and the midge, Chironomus dilutus, and bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, using sediment samples collected from reference locations and from Operable Unit 4 of the Anniston PCB Site. The sediment toxicity testing and sediment bioaccumulation results will be used by ARCADIS U.S., Inc. (ARCADIS) as part of a weight-of-evidence assessment to evaluate risks and establish sediment remediation goals for contaminants to sediment-dwelling organisms inhabiting the Anniston PCB Site. The goal of this study was to characterize relations between sediment chemistry and sediment toxicity and relations between sediment chemistry and sediment bioaccumulation in samples of sediments collected from the Anniston PCB Site. A total of 32 samples were evaluated from six test sites and one reference site to provide a wide range in concentrations of chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) including PCBs in samples of whole sediment. The goal of this study was not to determine the extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Hence, the test sites or samples collected from within a test site were not selected to represent the spatial extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Sediment chemistry, pore-water chemistry, and sediment toxicity data were generated for 26 sediment samples from the Anniston PCB Site. All of the samples were evaluated to determine if they qualified as reference sediment samples. Those samples that met the chemical selection criteria and biological selection criteria were identified as reference samples and used to develop the reference envelope for each toxicity test endpoint. Physical

  9. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B.; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H.; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde

  10. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea).

    PubMed

    Audisio, Paolo; Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde. PMID

  11. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea).

    PubMed

    Audisio, Paolo; Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde.

  12. Coleoptera of forensic interest: a study of seasonal community composition and succession in Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Prado e Castro, Catarina; García, María Dolores; Martins da Silva, Pedro; Faria e Silva, Israel; Serrano, Artur

    2013-10-10

    Some Coleoptera are recognised as being forensically important as post-mortem interval (PMI) indicators, especially in the later stages of cadaver decomposition. Because insect species and their timings of appearance in cadavers vary according to geographic location, it is important to know their succession patterns, as well as seasonality at a regional level. In this study, we aimed to contribute to broaden this knowledge by surveying beetle communities from the Lisbon area during the four seasons of the year, using piglet carcasses as animal models. Five stages were recognised during the decomposition process and they could be separated taking into account the occurrence and abundance of the specific groups of Coleoptera collected. Decay stages in general recorded higher abundance and richness of beetle species. A total of 82 species were identified, belonging to 28 families, in a total of 1968 adult Coleoptera collected. Autumn yielded the highest values of species abundance and richness, while the lowest values were recorded during winter. Staphylinidae was the most abundant family in all seasons, although in spring and summer Dermestidae was also quite dominant. In general, most species were related to the decay stages, particularly Margarinotus brunneus (Histeridae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae), and also Saprinus detersus (Histeridae) and Thanatophilus sinuatus (Silphidae), while only few were related to the dry stage, namely Oligota pusillima (Staphylinidae) and Dermestidae spp. larvae. On the other hand, Anotylus complanatus and Atheta pertyi (Staphylinidae) were apparently more associated with the fresh and bloated stages, respectively. The presence of some species was markedly seasonal, allowing a season characterisation based on the occurrence of certain taxa, which can be useful for forensic purposes.

  13. Involvement of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) on human cadavers: a review of 81 forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Colard, Thomas; Vincent, Benoit; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valery

    2014-11-01

    From 1994 to 2013, French forensic entomology laboratories investigated 1,093 cases. Larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were observed in 81 (7.5%) of these cases. To describe and analyze these 81 cases, eight parameters were used: city, location (indoor or outdoor), decay stage (fresh, decay, or dry), dermestid species and instar (adults and/or larvae), presence of living calliphorid larvae, presence of calliphorid pupae or adults, and presence of other necrophagous species. Eight Dermestidae species were observed: Dermestes frischii (42% of cases), Dermestes undulatus (35.8%), Dermestes peruvianus (12.3%), Dermestes lardarius (9.9%), Dermestes haemorrhoidalis (8.6%), Dermestes maculatus (7.4%), Dermestes bicolor (3.7%), and Dermestes ater (1.2%). Larder beetles primarily developed on human cadavers in outdoor locations in areas with a dry climate and were never reported in oceanic areas (which are characterized by frequent rainfall and high ambient humidity). The number of dermestid species on a single corpse never exceeded three. Typically, one species was found per corpse. Species differed between indoor and outdoor cases, with D. frischii and D. undulatus dominant in outdoor cases, while D. peruvianus dominant in indoor cases. Calliphoridae was found in 88% of the cases, while Hydrotaea and Piophilidae were observed 40% of the time. Regarding Coleoptera, Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was observed in 46% of the cases. Lastly, we observed a typical decomposition pattern, with preferential feeding areas on the face, hands, and feet (i.e., the extremities). Pupation chambers on or inside the bones were not observed.

  14. Inconspicuous structural coloration in the elytra of beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.

  15. Australian marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 2. Pachycyphon, a new genus of presumably terrestrial Australian Scirtidae.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The genus Pachycyphon is erected for marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. The following species are included: P. corpulentus sp. n., P. crassus sp. n., P. elegans sp. n., P. funicularis sp. n., P. gravis sp. n., P. monteithi sp. n., P. obesus sp. n., P. pinguis sp. n., P. serratus sp. n., P. turgidus sp. n. (the type species). Females are wingless and have fossorial ovipositors, a terrestrial larval life is therefore hypothesized. Pachycyphon is compared with other genera, especially probable relatives from temperate rainforests in southeastern Australia.

  16. Development of an attractant-baited trap for Oxythyrea funesta Poda (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae).

    PubMed

    Vuts, József; Imrei, Zoltán; Töth, Miklós

    2008-01-01

    In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.

  17. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  18. [Research progress on biology and ecology of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Zhang, Run-Zhi; Zhang, Fan

    2007-09-01

    Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with its native in Asia is one of the most important predatory ladybird beetles, and used worldwide as a biological control agent. This paper summarized the recent decades research progress at home and abroad on its life history, reproductive strategies, and predatory and cannibalism behaviors, and analysed the prospects of its utilization. Based on the review of its artificial reproduction, insecticide interaction, and impact as an invasive species, some useful measures were suggested to prevent the beetle from its potential risk to ecological banlance. PMID:18062323

  19. Kuznetsovia, a new generic replacement name for Aenigma Kuznetsova, 1957 (Ostracoda) non Newman, 1836 (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2016-01-01

    The generic name Aenigma was proposed by Kuznetsova (1957: 68; type species A. jucunda Kuznetsova, by original designation) for a new fossil ostracod genus from the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) of Tegchaj, North-Eastern Azerbaijan, former USSR (Transcaucasia). However, this name is already preoccupied by a marine gastropod molluscan generic name Aenigma Newman (1836: 499), which is in active current use in zoology (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Besides this earliest generic name, a few homonyms were also known: Aenigma Amsel (1956: 288) [Lepidoptera], Aenigma Koch (in Martin & Chemnitz 1846: 1, unpaginated) [Mollusca], Aenigma Karsch (1878: 825) [Arachnida], Aenigma Strecker (1876: 122) [Lepidoptera]. PMID:27395148

  20. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dryopidae, Elmidae, Psephenidae, and Ptilodactylidae.

    PubMed

    Webster, Reginald P; Demerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    We report five new species records for New Brunswick, Canada from the Coleoptera families Dryopidae, Elimidae, Psephenidae, and Ptilodactylidae. Dryops viennensis (Heer) (Dryopidae) and Promoresia elegans (LeConte) (Elmidae) are added to the faunal list for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Psephenidae species, Ectopria nervosa (Melsheimer) and Ectopria thoracica (Ziegler) are reported for the first time for New Brunswick, and the latter species is also new for the Maritime provinces. Anchytarsus bicolor (Melsheimer) and the family Ptilodactylidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all of these species.

  1. Efficacies of spinosad and a combination of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin against phosphine-resistant Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, N S; Opit, George P; Talley, J; Jones, C L

    2013-10-01

    Highly phosphine-resistant populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have recently been found in Oklahoma grain storage facilities. These findings necessitate development of a phosphine resistance management strategy to ensure continued effective use of phosphine. Therefore, we investigated the efficacies of two grain insecticides, namely, spinosad applied at label rate of 1 ppm and a mixture of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin applied at label rates of 3 and 0.5 ppm, respectively, against highly phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum. Adult mortality and progeny production suppression of spinosad- or chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture-treated wheat that had been stored for 2, 84, 168, 252, and 336 d posttreatment were assessed. We found that both spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin were effective against phosphine-resistant R. dominica and caused 83-100% mortality and also caused total progeny production suppression for all storage periods. Spinosad was not effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum; the highest mortality observed was only 3% for all the storage periods. Chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum only in treated wheat stored for 2 and 84 d, where it caused 93-99% mortality. However, chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective and achieved total suppression of progeny production in T. castaneum for all the storage periods. Spinosad was not as effective as chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture at suppressing progeny production of phosphine-resistant T. castaneum. These two insecticides can be used in a phosphine resistance management strategy for R. dominica and T. castaneum in the United States.

  2. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  3. Phylogenetically informative rearrangements in mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, and monophyly of aquatic elateriform beetles (Dryopoidea).

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Vogler, Alfried P

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial gene order in Coleoptera has been thought to be conservative but a survey of 60 complete or nearly complete genomes revealed a total of seven different gene rearrangements (deletions, gene order reversals), mainly affecting tRNA genes. All of these were found to be limited to a single taxon or a subclade of Coleoptera. The phylogenetic distribution of a translocation of tRNA(Pro) in three species of elateriform beetles was investigated further by sequencing three nearly complete mitochondrial genomes (Dascillidae, Byrrhidae, Limnichidae) and ten additional individuals for a ∼1370 bp diagnostic fragment spanning the relevant region. Phylogenetic analysis consistently recovered the monophyly of families previously grouped in the contentious superfamily Dryopoidea, a group of approximately 10 beetle families with mainly aquatic lifestyles. The Byrrhidae (moss beetles) were not part of this lineage, although they may be its sister group, to recover the widely accepted Byrrhoidea. The tRNA(Pro) translocation was present in all members of Dryopoidea, but not in any other Elateriformia, providing independent support for this lineage and for a single origin of aquatic habits.

  4. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607

  5. Abundance, diversity and community characterization of aquatic Coleoptera in a rice field of Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gómez Lutz, María Constanza; Kehr, Arturo I; Fernández, Liliana A

    2015-09-01

    Rice fields occupy large areas in Northeastern Argentina, and in Corrientes this widespead activity has become a feature in the landscape, as it is one of the main producing provinces. The aquatic Coleoptera is part of the fauna inhabiting these artificial environments but little is known about this group in irrigated rice fields. The aims of this study were to determine the diversity and species richness of coleopterans in a typical rice field, and to characterize the community of water beetles through different abundance models. For this, samples were collected from an active rice field located in "El Sombrero" town, in Corrientes Province, between November 2011 and April 2012. An entomological net of 30 cm diameter was used, and species richness, diversity and equitability were calculated monthly; besides, the community composition was characterized by means of rank-abundance models. A total of 74 species of aquatic coleopterans were identified. January and February resulted the months with the highest diversity. The aquatic Coleoptera species found in most of the sampled months were adjusted to the logarithmic rank-abundance model. The data suggests that, if it is properly managed, rice cropping in Northeastern Argentina can support a diverse aquatic coleopteran fauna. PMID:26666120

  6. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  7. Adaptation of the egg of the desert beetle, Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to arid environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis, while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis. The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor, and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor. The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage. PMID:25525108

  8. Wing folding and the functional morphology of the wing base in Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Haas, F; Beutel, R G

    2001-01-01

    The wing unfolding of Pachnoda marginata was examined using digital video (50 half-fps) and high speed video sequences (1000 fps), and the skeleto-muscular apparatus of the metathorax was described. Left and right hind wing are able to promote independently of each other. The hind wings do not unfold instantly when the elytra are lifted and may also reach the flight position (and beat) while still folded. Wing promotion is exhaustible and the time needed for unfolding varies considerably. These observations strongly suggest a muscular control. Wing unfolding is probably triggered by contraction of M. pleura alaris and a resulting proximad movement of the 3rd axillary sclerite, pulling the Media posterior backwards, while the Radius anterior is held by the basalar muscle as the antagonist. Our findings are in clear contrast to the earlier assumption that the hind wings of Coleoptera either unfold or fold due to intrinsic elasticity. The specific wing folding and unfolding mechanisms are autapomorphic character states of Coleoptera. They were maintained during evolution even though considerable variations of skeletal thoracic structures, musculature and venation occurred. (Additional material is available from the Zoology web page: http://www.urbanfischer.de/journals/zoology).

  9. The diversity and biogeography of the Coleoptera of Churchill: insights from DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coleoptera is the most diverse order of insects (>300,000 described species), but its richness diminishes at increasing latitudes (e.g., ca. 7400 species recorded in Canada), particularly of phytophagous and detritivorous species. However, incomplete sampling of northern habitats and a lack of taxonomic study of some families limits our understanding of biodiversity patterns in the Coleoptera. We conducted an intensive biodiversity survey from 2006–2010 at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in order to quantify beetle species diversity in this model region, and to prepare a barcode library of beetles for sub-arctic biodiversity and ecological research. We employed DNA barcoding to provide estimates of provisional species diversity, including for families currently lacking taxonomic expertise, and to examine the guild structure, habitat distribution, and biogeography of beetles in the Churchill region. Results We obtained DNA barcodes from 3203 specimens representing 302 species or provisional species (the latter quantitatively defined on the basis of Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units, MOTUs) in 31 families of Coleoptera. Of the 184 taxa identified to the level of a Linnaean species name, 170 (92.4%) corresponded to a single MOTU, four (2.2%) represented closely related sibling species pairs within a single MOTU, and ten (5.4%) were divided into two or more MOTUs suggestive of cryptic species. The most diverse families were the Dytiscidae (63 spp.), Staphylinidae (54 spp.), and Carabidae (52 spp.), although the accumulation curve for Staphylinidae suggests that considerable additional diversity remains to be sampled in this family. Most of the species present are predatory, with phytophagous, mycophagous, and saprophagous guilds being represented by fewer species. Most named species of Carabidae and Dytiscidae showed a significant bias toward open habitats (wet or dry). Forest habitats, particularly dry boreal forest, although limited in extent in the

  10. Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A

    2013-08-01

    Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of

  11. Immediate and delayed mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults exposed to spinosad-treated commodities.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Anna Iversen; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2008-06-01

    A series of tests was conducted to characterize differences in the mortality of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), exposed to three commodities treated with a liquid and dry spinosad formulation. In laboratory bioassays, adults of the two insect species were exposed to untreated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., corn, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., and to commodities treated with 1 mg (AI)/kg of liquid and dry spinosad formulations. Mortality was assessed from independent samples examined at specific time intervals to determine immediate mortality and after 24 h of recovery on untreated grain at 28 degrees C and 65% RH to determine delayed mortality. Comparison of the time required for 50% (LT50) and 95% (LT95) mortality indicated that R. dominica adults were consistently and significantly more susceptible (died quickly) than S. oryzae adults when exposed to spinosad-treated commodities. In general, the toxicity of liquid and dry spinosad formulations was similar against R. dominica or S. oryzae. The toxicity of spinosad to each species varied slightly among the three commodities, and there were no consistent trends to suggest that spinosad was more effective on one commodity versus another. LT50 values based on immediate mortality for R. dominica on all commodities ranged from 0.45 to 0.74 d; corresponding values based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.04 to 0.23 d, suggesting delayed toxic action of spinosad in R. dominica. LT50 values based on immediate and delayed mortality for S. oryzae on all three commodities treated with the two spinosad formulations were essentially similar and ranged from 2.75 to 4.56 d. LT95 values for R. dominica based on immediate mortality on spinosad-treated commodities ranged from 1.75 to 3.36 d, and those based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.49 to 1.88 d. There were no significant differences in

  12. A new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 from Amazonian Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lycidae) with an updated key to the species.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vinicius S

    2016-01-01

    While searching for Calochromini (Coleoptera: Lycidae) specimens in entomological collections and identifying other Lycidae, a new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 was found in the collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). This genus is one of the smallest in the tribe Calopterini with 13 known species, two of which were recently described by Bocákova et al. (2012) in their revision of the genus, and can be found in Central and South America. PMID:27394794

  13. Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Quixadá, Ceará State, Brazil: new records and new species.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Bravo, Freddy; Monnè, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Quixadá County, Ceará State, Brazil is presented. Fifty-six specimens were examined and 32 species were identified, distributed in 29 genera, 19 tribes and two subfamilies. Fifteen species are new distributional records for Ceará State. Nealcidion latipenne (Bates, 1863) is recorded by the first time in Caatinga Biome. Lathroeus immaculatus sp. nov. (Acanthocinini, Lamiinae) is described and figured.

  14. A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) associated with carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D

    2014-04-29

    A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.

  15. Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Quixadá, Ceará State, Brazil: new records and new species.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Bravo, Freddy; Monnè, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Quixadá County, Ceará State, Brazil is presented. Fifty-six specimens were examined and 32 species were identified, distributed in 29 genera, 19 tribes and two subfamilies. Fifteen species are new distributional records for Ceará State. Nealcidion latipenne (Bates, 1863) is recorded by the first time in Caatinga Biome. Lathroeus immaculatus sp. nov. (Acanthocinini, Lamiinae) is described and figured. PMID:27615939

  16. A review of Elocomosta Hansen with a description of a new species with reduced eyes from China (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232

  17. Description of immatures of Mesomphalia gibbosa (Fabricius, 1781) and Mesomphalia turrita (Illiger, 1801) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Mesomphaliini).

    PubMed

    Simões, Marianna V P; Monné, Marcela L

    2014-09-17

    Immatures of Mesomphalia gibbosa (Fabricius, 1781) and Mesomphalia turrita (Illiger, 1801) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Mesomphaliini) are described based on specimen collections from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The last-instar larva and pupal exuviae of M. gibbosa (Fabricius, 1781) and the eggs, first-instar larva, and pupa of M. turrita (Illiger, 1801) are described, photographed and illustrated, with emphasis on chaetotaxy. Additional notes on their biology are presented.

  18. The lectotype of Goliathus drurii Westwood, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) in the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The lectotype of Goliathus drurii Westwood (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) has been located to the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Australia. Collected in 1775, this specimen represents the second species of Goliathus to be illustrated in European literature, however eluding a proper species description until 1837. This important specimen, overlooked by previous curators, represents another portion of the Dru Drury collections purchased by Alexander McLeay now held in the Macleay Museum. PMID:27615919

  19. A new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 from Amazonian Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lycidae) with an updated key to the species.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vinicius S

    2016-04-25

    While searching for Calochromini (Coleoptera: Lycidae) specimens in entomological collections and identifying other Lycidae, a new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 was found in the collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). This genus is one of the smallest in the tribe Calopterini with 13 known species, two of which were recently described by Bocákova et al. (2012) in their revision of the genus, and can be found in Central and South America.

  20. Molecular analysis reveals two new dimorphic species of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) parasitic on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex; Rossi, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Four morphotypes of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) were found on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) from Costa Rica and Ecuador. Partial SSU and ITS rDNA sequence analysis revealed that these belong to two phylogenetic species, each with a pair of morphotypes displaying position specificity. Confirmation of dimorphism in Laboulbeniales highlights the need for a thorough systematic revision of species concepts within the order. The theory of 'position specificity' also needs to be revisited. PMID:24295919

  1. Molecular analysis reveals two new dimorphic species of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) parasitic on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex; Rossi, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Four morphotypes of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) were found on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) from Costa Rica and Ecuador. Partial SSU and ITS rDNA sequence analysis revealed that these belong to two phylogenetic species, each with a pair of morphotypes displaying position specificity. Confirmation of dimorphism in Laboulbeniales highlights the need for a thorough systematic revision of species concepts within the order. The theory of 'position specificity' also needs to be revisited.

  2. Flight activity and dispersal of the cabbage seedpod weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are related to atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Tansey, James A; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Keddie, Andrew; Olfert, Owen

    2010-08-01

    The cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an invasive pest of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) in western Canada. Under current climatic conditions, C. obstrictus is spreading from established populations in southwestern Alberta at ≈ 55 km/yr. We studied the influence of climatic conditions on C. obstrictus flight behavior in 2007 and 2008 and eastward dispersal from the western border of Saskatchewan from 2002 to 2007. Positive linear relationships between increases in mean temperature and flight height and between greater mean maximum temperature and expanded dispersal distances were significant. Increases in relative humidity were associated with reduced flight heights and dispersal distances. We developed models that predict the relationships of temperature and relative humidity with flight height and with dispersal distance. We also discuss implications for C. obstrictus dispersal under current climatic conditions and in the context of predicted climate change.

  3. Interlocking-based attachment during locomotion in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bußhardt, Philipp; Kunze, Daniel; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The attachment function of tibial spurs and pretarsal claws in the beetle Pachnoda marginata (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) during locomotion was examined in this study. First, we measured the angle, at which the beetles detached from substrates with different roughness. At a surface roughness of 12 μm and higher, intact animals were able to cling to a completely tilted platform (180°). Second, we estimated the forces the beetles could exert in walking on smooth and rough cylinders of different diameters, on a plane and also between two plates. To elucidate the role of the individual structures, we ablated them consecutively. We found tibial spurs not to be in use in walking on flat substrates. On some of the curved substrates, ablation of tibial spurs caused an effect. A clear effect of tibial spurs was revealed in walking between two plates. Thus, these structures are probably used for generating propulsion in narrowed spaces. PMID:25385502

  4. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian; Turgeon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report ten new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada from the families Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae. Anthrenus fuscus Olivier and Anthrenus museorum (Linnaeus) of the family Dermestidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Endecatomus rugosus (Randall) and the family Endecatomidae are recorded for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Bostrichidae, the adventive Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius) and the native Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull), are newly recorded for the province. Five species of Ptinidae, the adventive Anobium punctatum (DeGeer) and Microbregma emarginatum emarginatum (Duftschmid), and the native Hadrobregmus notatus (Say), Ptilinus lobatus Casey, and Ptilinus ruficornis Say are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539890

  5. Taxonomic review of Cratocerus Dejean, 1829 (Coleoptera, Carabidae) with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Grzymala, Traci L.; Will, Kipling W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A diagnosis of the South and Central American genus Cratocerus Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and a key to all species is provided. Eight species are recognized including six species that are newly described: Cratocerus sinesetosus sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; Cratocerus multisetosus sp. n. from Costa Rica and Panama; Cratocerus tanyae sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Mexico; Cratocerus indupalmensis sp. n. a species widely distributed throughout Central and South America; Cratocerus kavanaughi sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; and Cratocerus culpepperi sp. n. from Peru. A lectotype for Cratocerus sulcatus Chaudoir is designated. Habitus images are provided along with illustrations and images of male genitalia, female genitalia, and diagnostic morphological characters. PMID:25061348

  6. New synonyms, combinations and faunistic records in the genus Denierella Kaszab (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Batelka, Jan; Hájek, Jiří

    2015-08-13

    Taxonomy of the genus Denierella Kaszab, 1952 (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Epicautini) is evaluated. The following new synonyms and combinations (all from the genus Epicauta Dejean, 1834) are established: Denierella thailandica (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. = D. striolata Yang & Ren, 2007 syn. nov.; Denierella emmerichi (Pic, 1934) comb. nov. = D. serrata Kaszab, 1952 syn. nov.; Denierella promerotricha (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. A lectotype is designated for Epicauta emmerichi. Epicauta emmerichi yunnanensis Kaszab, 1960 is provisionally raised to E. yunnanensis stat. nov., until its status can be confirmed by the study of the holotype specimen. Five new country records, one new Chinese province record and two new Indian state records of six Denierella species are provided, and the distribution of all species included in this study is outlined. A checklist of the genus Denierella is provided and general problems in the taxonomy of Asiatic Epicautini are discussed.

  7. Prevalence of Endosymbionts in Polish Populations of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB-endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject. PMID:26206894

  8. Cleridae (Insecta: Coleoptera) type collection at National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC), Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India).

    PubMed

    Faisal, Mohammad; Singh, Sudhir; Yousuf, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Clerids are small predacious beetles (Coleoptera) that belong to the family Cleridae. In the National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC) Cleridae is represented by 31 authentically identified specimens including types of 27 species. The type material of Cleridae, deposited in the NFIC, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India), is listed and illustrated with digital automontage photographs. A list of 27 type species of Cleridae, 13 holotypes and 14 paratypes with information on species names, reference of the original publication, all available information on labels of types (country, locality, date of collection, collector name, etc) along with colored photographs of types and the labels that are attached to them, taken with Auto-montage 3-D imaging system, is provided. 

  9. Discovery of mycangia and the associated xylose-fermenting yeasts in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi

    2010-03-01

    Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.

  10. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Angola: a descriptive catalogue and designation of neotypes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A

    2013-11-01

    An annotated catalogue of the species and subspecies of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) hitherto known from Angola is given. A total of 89 forms (74 species and 15 subspecies) is recorded from this southwestern country of Africa. Within this assemblage there are 31 endemic forms (33.3%). Some species are represented by only the holotype specimen (some without locality) or the type series. Others were recorded based on a single specimen. Records for six species previously unknow from Angola are given: Foveodromica sp. n. 1, Foveodromica sp. n. 2, Ophryodera rufomarginata bradshawi Péringuey, 1888, Elliptica muata parallelestriata (W. Horn, 1923), Lophyra differens (W. Horn, 1892) and Myriochila jucunda (Péringuey, 1892). A historical review, as well as some considerations on the distribution and conservation status of these beetles in Angola are also presented.

  11. Beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J

    2014-08-01

    The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.

  12. A new species Megabruchidius sophorae (Coleoptera, Bruchidae), feeding on seeds of Styphnolobium (Fabaceae) new to Bruchidae.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Midori; Morimoto, Katsura

    2004-01-01

    A new species Megabruchidiussophorae (Insecta, Coleoptera) is described from Japan (Honshu). The larval host of this bruchid is the seeds of the tree legume 'enju', or chinese scholar tree, Styphnolobium japonicum (a senior synonym of Sophora japonica), which is a new host genus to Bruchidae. Styphnolobium is positioned basally in molecular phylogeny of the leguminous subfamily Papilionoideae. Other members of Megabruchidius are known to feed on Gleditsia, the tree legumes that belong to the most ancestral subfamily Caesalpinioideae. Therefore, Megabruchidius utilizes ancestral groups of legumes as its host plants. Megabruchidius has been inferred to be ancestral, based on its behavior. The character state of the host for this third Megabruchidius species supports that the genus is ancestral, at least in the subfamily Bruchinae. We also reviewed the genera closely related to Megabruchidius, i.e., Bruchidius and Sulcobruchus in Bruchidini, and wrote a key to the species in the genus Megabruchidius. PMID:14745110

  13. Prevalence of Endosymbionts in Polish Populations of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB–endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject. PMID:26206894

  14. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-11-27

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.

  15. The investigation of heavy element accumulation in some Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera) species.

    PubMed

    Aydoğan, Zeynep; Gürol, Ali; İncekara, Ümit

    2016-04-01

    First of all, this study aimed to find out the measures of some heavy elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Pb) as heavy element pollution in Erzurum Province, and secondly to observe whether some hydrophilidae (Coleoptera) species can be used as a biomonitor. Insect samples were collected from five different localities of Erzurum in June, July, and August 2014. Heavy element levels in sediment, water, and insect samples were analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer device. According to the results of analysis derived through EDXRF spectrometry, heavy element concentrations display differences between stations and also species. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated by the sediment and water; therefore, some hydrophilidae species accumulate higher concentration of elements than their environment. Results for levels in water were compared to national water quality guidelines. The values of some heavy elements found at higher concentration than acceptable limits. PMID:26935735

  16. Sequence and organization of complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly, Aquatica leii (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hengwu; Ding, Minghui; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-01-01

    The firefly Aquatica leii (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) is widely distributed in China. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the first complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly from the subfamily Luciolinae. The circular genome of 16,856 bp in length contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Overall base composition of the genome is 42.28% A, 34.80% T, 13.91% C and 9.01% G, with an AT bias of 77.08%. All protein-coding genes start with an ATN codon, and terminate with the typical stop codon TAA, TAG or a single T. The non-coding AT-rich region is unusually long (2239 bp), containing six 113 bp tandem repeats and a microsatellite-like (TA)7 element. The genome sequence is useful for studying the evolution of sexual signaling and many ecological specializations in fireflies.

  17. Development of a Nondestructive Method for Sexing Live Adult Sternoplax souvorowiana (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang

    2015-01-01

    The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8–10 beetles per minute. PMID:25934924

  18. A new brachypterous scarab species, Orphnus longicornis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), from the East African Rift.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Lilia

    2015-11-05

    The Afrotropical Region is the center of the diversity of the scarab beetle genus Orphnus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), with 94 species occurring from Sahel in the north to Little Karoo in the south (Paulian, 1948; Petrovitz, 1971; Frolov, 2008). The East African Rift is one of the richest regions of the Afrotropics housing more than 20 species of Orphnus (Paulian, 1948; Frolov, 2013), most of which are endemic to this region. Yet the scarab beetle fauna of the East African Rift, and especially the Eastern Arc Mountains, is still inadequately studied. Examination of the material housed in the Museum of Natural History of Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (ZMHUB), revealed a series of brachypterous Orphnus beetles belonging to an undescribed species. The new species is described and illustrated below.

  19. Prevalence of Endosymbionts in Polish Populations of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB-endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject.

  20. Influence of trap placement and design on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Francese, Joseph A; Oliver, Jason B; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Youssef, Nadeer; Sawyer, Alan J; Mastro, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    The key to an effective pest management program for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera Buprestidae), is a survey program equipped with tools for detecting and delimiting populations. We studied the effects of trap design, color, and placement on the efficacy of sticky traps for capturing the emerald ash borer. There were significant differences in trap catch along a transect gradient from wooded to open field conditions, with most beetles being caught along the edge, or in open fields, 15-25 m outside an ash (Fraxinus spp. L.) (Oleaceae) woodlot. Greater emerald ash borer catch occurred on purple traps than on red or white traps. Traps placed in the mid-canopy of ash trees (13 m) caught significantly more beetles than those placed at ground level. We also describe a new trap design, a three-sided prism trap, which is relatively easy to assemble and deploy.

  1. C-value estimates for 31 species of ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Ryan Gregory, T; Nedved, Oldrich; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2003-01-01

    This study provides C-value (haploid nuclear DNA content) estimates for 31 species of ladybird beetles (representing 6 subfamilies and 8 tribes), the first such data for the family Coccinellidae. Despite their unparalleled diversity, the Coleoptera have been very poorly studied in terms of genome size variation, such that even this relatively modest sample of species makes the Coccinellidae the third best studied family of beetles, behind the Tenebrionidae and Chrysomelidae. The present study provides a comparison of patterns of genome size variation with these two relatively well-studied families. No correlation was found between genome size and body size in the ladybirds, in contrast to some other invertebrate groups but in keeping with findings for other beetle families. However, there is some indication that developmental time and/or feeding ecology is related to genome size in this group. Some phylogenetic patterns and possible associations with subgenomic features are also discussed.

  2. Effects of pitfall trap preservative on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.

  3. New synonyms, combinations and faunistic records in the genus Denierella Kaszab (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Batelka, Jan; Hájek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomy of the genus Denierella Kaszab, 1952 (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Epicautini) is evaluated. The following new synonyms and combinations (all from the genus Epicauta Dejean, 1834) are established: Denierella thailandica (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. = D. striolata Yang & Ren, 2007 syn. nov.; Denierella emmerichi (Pic, 1934) comb. nov. = D. serrata Kaszab, 1952 syn. nov.; Denierella promerotricha (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. A lectotype is designated for Epicauta emmerichi. Epicauta emmerichi yunnanensis Kaszab, 1960 is provisionally raised to E. yunnanensis stat. nov., until its status can be confirmed by the study of the holotype specimen. Five new country records, one new Chinese province record and two new Indian state records of six Denierella species are provided, and the distribution of all species included in this study is outlined. A checklist of the genus Denierella is provided and general problems in the taxonomy of Asiatic Epicautini are discussed. PMID:26623605

  4. A new type of infrared organ in the Australian "fire-beetle" Merimna atrata (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, A.; Bleckmann, Horst

    The Australian buprestid beetle Merimna atrata (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) approaches forest fires because its larvae develop in freshly burnt wood. So far nothing is known about possible sensory systems enabling the beetles to detect fires and to cope with the thermal environment close to the flames. We found that M. atrata has two pairs of infrared (IR) organs on the ventrolateral sides of the abdomen. Each IR organ consists of a specialized IR-absorbing area which is innervated by one thermosensitive multipolar neuron. The primary dendritic branches ramify into more than 800 closely packed terminal endings which contain a large number of mitochondria. We called the special morphology of the dendritic region a terminal dendritic mass. The type of IR receptor found in M. atrata is unique in insects and can best be compared with the IR organs of boid snakes.

  5. Family-Level Sampling of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera: Compositional Heterogeneity and Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML ("nonhomogeneous") algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679

  6. Family-Level Sampling of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera: Compositional Heterogeneity and Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Martijn J. T. N.; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G.; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML (“nonhomogeneous”) algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679

  7. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requested that as part of the remedial investigation for the Anniston, Alabama Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site (Anniston PCB Site), that Pharmacia Corporation and Solutia Inc. (P/S) perform long-term reproduction toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and the midge, Chironomus dilutus, and bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, using sediment samples collected from reference locations and from Operable Unit 4 of the Anniston PCB Site. The sediment toxicity testing and sediment bioaccumulation results will be used by ARCADIS U.S., Inc. (ARCADIS) as part of a weight-of-evidence assessment to evaluate risks and establish sediment remediation goals for contaminants to sediment-dwelling organisms inhabiting the Anniston PCB Site. The goal of this study was to characterize relations between sediment chemistry and sediment toxicity and relations between sediment chemistry and sediment bioaccumulation in samples of sediments collected from the Anniston PCB Site. A total of 32 samples were evaluated from six test sites and one reference site to provide a wide range in concentrations of chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) including PCBs in samples of whole sediment. The goal of this study was not to determine the extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Hence, the test sites or samples collected from within a test site were not selected to represent the spatial extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Sediment chemistry, pore-water chemistry, and sediment toxicity data were generated for 26 sediment samples from the Anniston PCB Site. All of the samples were evaluated to determine if they qualified as reference sediment samples. Those samples that met the chemical selection criteria and biological selection criteria were identified as reference samples and used to develop the reference envelope for each toxicity test endpoint. Physical

  8. Establishing abiotic and biotic factors necessary for reliable male pheromone production and attraction to pheromones by female plum curculios Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of stone and pome fruit. Though grandisoic acid was identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone for this species, other components likely exist, as have been identified various curculionids. To determ...

  9. Entomopathogenic fungi as a biological control agents for the vector of the laurel wilt disease, the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...

  10. Checklist of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types of the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a brief history of the collection.

    PubMed

    Monné, Miguel A; Monné, Marcela L

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types deposited in the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is given. There are 1,044 primary types. Lectotype designation for Megacyllene castroi (Prosen, 1947) is proposed. A brief history of the collection of Cerambycidae of the Museu Nacional is presented.

  11. Post entry interception of the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle,Psacothea hilaris (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Italy Genbank Accession Number GU244486

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psacothea hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) known as the yellow-spotted longhorned beetle is native from eastern Asia (China, Japan including Ryukyu, Shikoku and Honshu archipelago and Taïwan) where it attacks plants belonging to Moraceae family, in particular to Morus and Ficus genera. In...

  12. The identity of Aphodius nodifrons Randall, 1838 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) from Maine, United States of America, with designation of the lectotype and handwriting examples.

    PubMed

    Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Angus, Robert

    2014-07-03

    John Witt Randall's Coleoptera types have been assumed to be lost. In London and Harvard, we found two syntypes of Aphodius nodifrons Randall, 1838, coming from the collection of Thaddeus William Harris. We designated the lectotype and synonymised Randall's species with A. pedellus (De Geer, 1774).

  13. Checklist of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types of the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a brief history of the collection.

    PubMed

    Monné, Miguel A; Monné, Marcela L

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) primary types deposited in the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is given. There are 1,044 primary types. Lectotype designation for Megacyllene castroi (Prosen, 1947) is proposed. A brief history of the collection of Cerambycidae of the Museu Nacional is presented. PMID:27394892

  14. Trapping sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with high doses of sex pheromone: Catch enhancement and weathering rate in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...

  15. Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...

  16. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...

  17. Biology of two members of the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), recently invasive in the U.S.A., reared on an ambrosia beetle artificial diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...

  18. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  19. Effects of combined thiamethoxam and diatomaceous earth on mortality and progeny production of four Pakistani populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on wheat, rice and maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of combining thiamethoxam at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg with the diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation, SilicoSec, at the rate of 100 mg/kg against four diverse populations of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) th...

  20. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  1. A new species of oobius trjapitzin (hymenoptera:encyrtidae) from the russian far east that parasitizes eggs of emerald ash borer (coleoptera:buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...

  2. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive biology and diapause of oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an egg parasitoid of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...

  3. Coleoptera and microbe biomass in Antarctic Dry Valley paleosols adjacent to the Inland Ice: Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, William C.; Hart, Kris M.; O'Reilly, Shane S.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Dohm, James M.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Kelleher, Brian P.; Milner, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk paleosol samples collected from a Middle to Early Miocene moraine in the New Mountain area of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, yielded Coleoptera exoskeletons and occasional endoskeletons showing considerable diagenetic effects along with several species of bacteria, all lodged in a dry-frozen but salt-rich horizon at shallow depth to the land surface. The till is at the older end of a chronologic sequence of glacial deposits, thought to have been deposited before the transition from wet-based to cold-based ice (∼15 Ma), and hence, entirely weathered in contact with the subaerial atmosphere. It is possible, though not absolutely verifiable, that the skeletons date from this early stage of emplacement having undergone modifications whenever light snowmelt occurred or salt concentrations lowered the freezing temperature to maintain water as liquid. Correlation of the Coleoptera species with cultured bacteria in the sample and the likelihood of co-habitation with Beauveria bassiani found in two adjacent, although younger paleosols, leads to new questions about the antiquity of the Coleoptera and the source of N and glucose from chitinase derived from the insects. The skeletons in the 831 section may date close to the oldest preserved chitin (Oligocene) yet found on Earth. While harsh Martian conditions make it seemingly intolerable for complex, multicellular organisms such as insects to exist in the near-surface and subaerially, life within similar cold, dry paleosol microenvironments (Cryosols) of Antarctica point to life potential for the Red Planet, especially when considering the relatively diverse microbe (bacteria and fungi) population.

  4. A new species of Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae) from southern Argentina, with a key to the species of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910

  5. Sucinolivolia torpida--a new genus and species of flea-beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Bukejs, Andris; Biondi, Maurizio; Alekseev, Vitalii I

    2015-12-15

    Sucinolivolia torpida gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber. The new monotypic genus is compared with fossil and extant flea-beetle genera. Sucinolivolia gen. nov. is similar to the extant Livolia Jacoby and Orthaltica Crotch, but difference include the absence of an antebasal pronotal sulcus, not crenulate lateral pronotal margins, possessing very short genae, more robust legs, and the shape of tibiae. Including this new record, six described species of Alticini are known from Baltic amber.

  6. Redefinition of the genus Silphitrombium (Trombidiformes: Neothrombiidae) with description of two new species parasitizing beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae, Tenebrionidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Tashakor, Samaneh; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Saboori, Alireza

    2013-11-15

    Two new species of Silphitrombium Fain, 1992 (Acari: Prostigmata: Neothrombiidae), ectoparasites of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera), are described from Sistan and Baluchestan Province, eastern Iran: S. elateridum sp. nov. on Heteroderes heideni Reitter, 1891 (Col.: Elateridae) and S. iranicum sp. nov. on Opatroides punctulatus Brullé, 1832 (Col.: Tenebrionidae) and the genus Silphitrombium is redefined. It is the first record of the relationship between beetles of the families Elateridae and Tenebrionidae, and mites of the genus Silphitrombium. A key to the species of the genus is presented.

  7. Review of the genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini) with description of four new species

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kelly B.; Montano, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American. PMID:25147458

  8. Review of the genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini) with description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly B; Montano, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American.

  9. Radiobiology of Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Prospects for Management Using Sterile Insect Releases.

    PubMed

    Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread.

  10. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    PubMed

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  11. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors' experience.

  12. A multilayer micromechanical model of the cuticle of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M

    2016-08-01

    Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures. PMID:27189867

  13. Differences in Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) responses to neonicotinoid seed treatments.

    PubMed

    Tansey, J A; Dosdall, L M; Keddie, B A; Sarfraz, R M

    2008-02-01

    Insecticidal seed treatments are used commonly throughout the Northern Great Plains of North America to systemically protect seedlings of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) from attack by the flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) and Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Here, we investigated differential responses by the two flea beetle species to the neonicotinoid seed treatments thiamethoxam (Helix and Helix XTra) and clothianidin (Prosper 400) in greenhouse experiments. P. cruciferae experienced higher mortality and fed less when exposed to these compounds than did P. striolata. Beetles of the overwintered and the summer generations responded differently when feeding on seedlings that developed with insecticidal seed treatments, with mortality higher for P. cruciferae in May than in August. When the two flea beetle species were held together at equal densities and allowed to feed on seedlings affected by the seed treatments, mortality of P. cruciferae significantly exceeded that of P. striolata. Differences in efficacies of these compounds for these beetles have ramifications for management strategies in regions where these insects occur sympatrically. Competitive release of P. striolata was previously reported to occur when P. cruciferae was excluded from brassicaceous crops; consequently, the consistent use of these seed treatments over millions of hectares of canola cropland may be a factor that contributes to a shift in prevalence of flea beetle pest species from P. cruciferae toward P. striolata.

  14. Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  15. Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and phylogenetic analysis among Coleopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-03-10

    The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia.

  17. Baseline toxicity and field efficacy of metaflumizone on Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Erin M; Kuhar, Thomas P; Dively, Galen P; Youngman, Roger R; Philips, Christopher R; Anderson, Troy D

    2012-02-01

    Baseline toxicity levels to a novel semicarbazone insecticide, metaflumizone were established for 25 field populations of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),from North America. Excluding the susceptible laboratory strain, 50% lethal concentrations of metaflumizone ranged from 0.57 to 1.31 ppm, while response slopes ranged from 1.92 to 4.24 (average = 2.93), and were unrelated to the 50% lethal concentration (r = 0.06; P = 0.76). Beetle populations with known resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid also exhibited the highest LC50 levels to metaflumizone suggesting at least the possibility of cross-resistance. Additional experiments using a potato leaf-dip bioassay as well as field efficacy evaluations confirmed the high level of toxicity of metaflumizone to L. decemlineata and demonstrated a potential benefit of tank mixing a low rate of the pyrethroid esfenvalerate with metaflumizone at one-tenth the recommended field rate. These research findings confirm that metaflumizone is highly active against L. decemlineata larvae and adults and could provide an effective alternative insecticide for potato pest management. PMID:22420273

  18. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) diversity, activity density, and community structure in a diversified agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hummel, J D; Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T

    2012-02-01

    Diversity and abundance of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) can be enhanced in vegetable and field intercropping systems, but the complexity of polycultures precludes the application of generalized assumptions of effects for novel intercropping combinations. In a field experiment conducted at Lacombe and Ellerslie, Alberta, Canada, in 2005 and 2006, we investigated the effects of intercropping canola (Brassica napus L.) with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the diversity and community structure of carabid beetles, and on the activity density responses of individual carabid species. Shannon-Wiener diversity index scores and species evenness increased significantly as the proportion of wheat comprising total crop plant populations increased in one site-year of the study, indicating a positive response to enhanced crop plant species evenness in the intercrops, and in that same site-year, ground beetle communities in intercrops shifted to more closely approximate those in wheat monocultures as the percentage of wheat in the intercrops increased. Individual carabid species activity densities showed differing responses to intercropping, although activity densities of some potential root maggot (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) predators were greater in intercrops with high proportions of wheat than in canola monocultures. The activity density of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger), the most abundant species collected, tended to be greater in canola monocultures than high-wheat intercrops or wheat monocultures. We conclude that intercrops of canola and wheat have the potential to enhance populations of some carabid species, therefore possibly exerting increased pressure on some canola insect pests.

  19. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  20. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.

  1. Taxonomic revision of genus Ablattaria Reitter (Coleoptera, Silphidae) using geometric morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Qubaiová, Jarin; Růžička, Jan; Šípková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ablattaria Reitter, 1884 (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae) is revised. Four taxa are recognized as valid species: Ablattaria arenaria (Kraatz, 1876), Ablattaria cribrata (Ménétries, 1832), Ablattaria laevigata (Fabricius, 1775) and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. Ablattaria laevigata var. meridionalis Ganglbauer, 1899 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of Ablattaria laevigata. Lectotypes are designated for Phosphuga arenaria Kraatz, 1876, Ablattaria arenaria var. punctigera Reitter, 1884, Ablattaria arenaria var. alleoni Portevin, 1926, Silpha cribrata Ménétries, 1832, Silpha laevigata Fabricius, 1775, Silpha gibba Brullé, 1832, Ablattaria gibba var. costulata Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. distinguenda Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. punctata Portevin, 1926 and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. The distribution of all taxa is mapped, based on material examined. Geometric morphometric methods were used to evaluate shape variability in Ablattaria. Results indicated sexual dimorphism in all species. Shape inconsistency was found between the sexes of all taxa when tested independently. The first two relative warp axes indicated 65.17% shape variation in males and 65.72% in females. Canonical variate analysis separated the taxa studied. There was minimal overlap between some groups in both sexes. Differences in body shape between populations of Ablattaria laevigata from Central Europe, Italy and Greece + Turkey were also examined. Relative warps implied 58.01% shape variability on both axes in males and 64.78% in females. CVA revealed noticeable overlaps between the groups, although the Italian population demonstrated a higher separation in both sexes. PMID:25685005

  2. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  3. Endemic epigean Tenebrionids (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from the Andean Region: exploring the patagonian-diversification hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Rodolfo; Flores, Gustavo E

    2015-01-01

    Tenebrionidae is a diverse insect family of Coleoptera that shows high levels of endemicity in epigean species. For the Andean region, which is divided into three subregions: Central Chilean, Subantarctic and Patagonian, it has been hypothesized that epigean tenebrionids have diversified in the Patagonian subregion and subsequently, they dispersed to Subantarctic and Central Chilean subregions. In this work, based on information obtained from museum collections and scientific studies, we presented the first list of endemic epigean tenebrionids from the Andean region with their taxonomic arrangement and geographic distribution. Moreover, we used these data to explore the veracity of the Patagonian-diversification hypothesis. A total of 416 species grouped into six subfamilies, 17 tribes and 41 genera were identified as endemic to the Andean region. Considering the spatial distribution it was observed that subfamilies, tribes, genera and species were unequally distributed across subregions. Results did not support the Patagonian-diversification hypothesis; to the contrary, they were more concordant with processes of isolation among subregions that have promoted speciation by interrupting gene flow among populations, resulting in endemism because species can not expand their range sizes. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings to be considered in biodiversity conservation, because endemic species, by their high extinction risk, are primary targets in conservation strategies.

  4. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.

  5. Oil pipeline corridor through an intact forest alters ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in southeastern Ohio.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Bareena; Horn, David J; Purrington, Foster F; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2008-06-01

    Litter-dwelling ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages were monitored 1 yr after the construction of a corridor for installation of an oil pipeline along a xeric ridge-top forest in southeastern Ohio. After the creation of the corridor, three distinct habitats were evident in these sites: open corridor, ecotone areas around the corridor, and undisturbed forest interior. Carabidae were collected using directional pitfall traps that were placed parallel and perpendicular to the corridor in each of the three habitats. Results indicate that more carabids were present in the ecotone than in the other two habitats. Carabid diversity as estimated by rarefaction was highest in the corridor followed by ecotone and forest interior. Generalist and forest specialists such as Synuchus impunctatus (Say), Carabus goryi Dejean, and Pterostichus trinarius (Casey) were present in greater numbers in the forest interior and ecotone assemblages. In contrast, open-habitat specialists such as Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) and Selenophorus opalinus (LeConte) were present in greater numbers in the corridor assemblages. Carabid assemblages of the corridor were distinct from those of the ecotone and forest interior, whereas the latter two habitats had very similar assemblages. The successional pathway of the corridor carabid assemblage will therefore be likely different from that of the forest interior and ecotone. Overall, results indicate that construction of the oil pipeline corridor had significant short-term effects on the carabid numbers, diversity, and species composition because of ensuing habitat changes and fragmentation of the forest.

  6. Karyotype differentiation patterns in species of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Sárah Gomes; Ramos, Ituza Celeste; de Moura, Rita de Cássia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the karyotype of species belonging to the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) and to compile the conventional cytogenetic data available in the literature for this group. The karyotypes of ten species belonging to the tribes Canthonini, Coprini, Onthophagini and Phanaeini were analyzed by conventional staining. Eight of these species were described for the first time (Canthon aff carbonarius, Canthon chalybaeus, Coprophanaeus dardanus, Deltochilum aff amazonicum, Dichotomius geminatus, Oxysternon silenus, Phanaeus chalcomelas and Malagoniella aff astyanax) and two were redescribed (Diabroctis mimas and Digitonthophagus gazella) since their karyotypes differed from those previously published in the literature. Four species studied showed a diploid number of 2n=20 and a parachute type sex determining system and the karyotype was 2n=20,Xy in two species and 2n=18,Xy(p), 2n=19,X0, 2n=12,XY and 2n=14,neoXY in one each. The chromosome morphology of the different species varied, with the observation of metacentric, submetacentric, subacrocentric and acrocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome was predominantly meta or submetacentric in the species analyzed, whereas the y chromosome presented two arms or was punctiform. In conclusion, the subfamily Scarabaeinae comprises 120 species analyzed cytogenetically, and are observed the occurrence of five chromosome rearrangements (autosome-autosome and X-autosome fusions, pericentric inversions, fissions and loss of the y chromosome) that are related to the chromosome variability and evolution in the group. PMID:18495484

  7. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus Derivatives: Extraction Methods and Bioactivity Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L P; Ansante, T F; Niculau, E S; Pavarini, R; Silva, M F G F; Seffrin, R C; Vendramim, J D

    2015-12-01

    Plant-based insecticides can play an important role in integrated insect pest management (IPM), especially in protecting stored grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of derivatives (powder, ethanolic extract, and essential oil (EO)) from the leaves of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae), a Brazilian native species, against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the main insect pest of stored corn. The powder and essential oil prepared from leaves showed a repellent effect. Moreover, the EO exhibited promising insecticidal activity through residual contact (LC50 = 1522 mg kg(-1)) and significantly decreased the F 1 progeny and the percentage of damaged grains. However, the essential oil obtained from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves did not result in significant mortality of S. zeamais adults after 72 h of exposure by fumigation in concentrations up to 400 μL L(-1) of air. Based on GC-MS analysis, 20 compounds were identified in the essential oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves, being chavibetol (38.14%), methyl eugenol (11.35%), and terpinolene (9.17%) as the major constituents. Essential oil from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves is an interesting source of compounds with grain-protectant properties and should be analyzed in future studies aiming to develop new bioinsecticides to use in the IPM of stored grains.

  8. Volatiles released from Vaccinium corymbosum were attractive to Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in an olfactometric bioassay.

    PubMed

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.

  9. Males of Hylamorpha elegans burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are attracted to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón

    2007-04-01

    The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.

  10. Curative activity of insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in tart cherries.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2009-10-01

    Tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency, fruit were infested with plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and treated with insecticides to target late instars, neonates, and eggs. The organophosphates azinphos-methyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam reduced larval emergence rates by >90% for all life stage targets; after >30 d, few surviving larvae were found inside fruit. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid also had curative activity and yielded >75% reductions in emergence and few surviving larvae in the fruit after >30 d. The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen reduced larval emergence, but 66% of fruit that was treated to target late-instars still had live larvae inside of them after >30 d. Novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and esfenvalerate had no curative activity. Indoxacarb had limited curative activity, and all targeted life stages had larval emergence. Internal and external residues were analyzed and are discussed in relation to their penetration and curative potential. The curative activity of azinphos-methyl has played an important role in meeting federal standards for infestation-free tart cherries at processing. Regulatory changes are eliminating the use of this compound, and new integrated pest management programs for plum curculio will need to address the loss of azinphos-methyl's curative activity. PMID:19886451

  11. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  12. Development and evaluation of a trapping system for Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nehme, M E; Trotter, R T; Keena, M A; McFarland, C; Coop, J; Hull-Sanders, H M; Meng, P; De Moraes, C M; Mescher, M C; Hoover, K

    2014-08-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), commonly known as the Asian longhorned beetle, is an invasive wood-boring pest that infests a number of hardwood species and causes considerable economic losses in North America, several countries in Europe, and in its native range in Asia. The success of eradication efforts may depend on early detection of introduced populations; however, detection has been limited to identification of tree damage (oviposition pits and exit holes), and the serendipitous collection of adults, often by members of the public. Here we describe the development, deployment, and evaluation of semiochemical-baited traps in the greater Worcester area in Massachusetts. Over 4 yr of trap evaluation (2009-2012), 1013 intercept panel traps were deployed, 876 of which were baited with three different families of lures. The families included lures exhibiting different rates of release of the male-produced A. glabripennis pheromone, lures with various combinations of plant volatiles, and lures with both the pheromone and plant volatiles combined. Overall, 45 individual beetles were captured in 40 different traps. Beetles were found only in traps with lures. In several cases, trap catches led to the more rapid discovery and management of previously unknown areas of infestation in the Worcester county regulated area. Analysis of the spatial distribution of traps and the known infested trees within the regulated area provides an estimate of the relationship between trap catch and beetle pressure exerted on the traps. Studies continue to optimize lure composition and trap placement. PMID:24960252

  13. Annotated catalogue of the carabid beetles of the Republic of Macedonia (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Hristovski, Slavčo; Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2015-08-20

    The catalogue of the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Republic of Macedonia is the result of our permanent investigation during 15 years. It is based on the critical review of the data in 255 scientific publications and the revision of the collections deposited in the museums in Macedonia (Skopje and Struga), other European countries (Berlin, Budapest, Vienna, Sofia) and the first author's private collection. For all of the species and subspecies we have presented the known literature references, precise data for the studied material and overall distribution in the Republic of Macedonia. The study of the material resulted in new country records of 10 genera, 101 species and 25 subspecies. First detailed records are provided for another 47 species and subspecies, and additional material was studied of 482 species and subspecies. Type material of 18 species and subspecies was also examined. Thirteen species and one subspecies were rejected from the list of Macedonian ground beetles. Six more species are treated as questionable and were not included in the present list. As a result, the presence of 571 species and 234 subspecies (626 taxa in total) in Macedonia is confirmed. These taxa are arranged in 104 genera, 31 subtribes, 35 tribes and 13 subfamilies. The most numerous in term of the species are the genera Bembidion (60), Harpalus (48) and Amara (46), as well as Pterostichus (26), Ophonus (19), Carabus (16), Trechus (16), Brachinus (16) and Dyschirius (15).

  14. Treatment outcome of Paederus dermatitis due to rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) on guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2011-08-01

    Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin.

  15. Pathogenicity of Isolates of Serratia Marcescens towards Larvae of the Scarab Phyllophaga Blanchardi (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Pineda-Castellanos, Mónica L; Rodríguez-Segura, Zitlhally; Villalobos, Francisco J; Hernández, Luciano; Lina, Laura; Nuñez-Valdez, M Eugenia

    2015-05-13

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative bacterium (Enterobacteriaceae) often associated with infection of insects. In order to find pathogenic bacteria with the potential to control scarab larvae, several bacterial strains were isolated from the hemocoel of diseased Phyllophaga spp (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larvae collected from cornfields in Mexico. Five isolates were identified as Serratia marcescens by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. Oral and injection bioassays using healthy Phyllophaga blanchardi larvae fed with the S. marcescens isolates showed different degrees of antifeeding effect and mortality. No insecticidal activity was observed for Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by oral inoculation. S. marcescens (Sm81) cell-free culture supernatant caused significant antifeeding effect and mortality to P. blanchardi larvae by oral bioassay and also mortality by injection bioassay. Heat treated culture broths lost the ability to cause disease symptoms, suggesting the involvement of proteins in the toxic activity. A protein of 50.2 kDa was purified from the cell-free broth and showed insecticidal activity by injection bioassay towards P. blanchardi. Analysis of the insecticidal protein by tandem- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed similarity to a Serralysin-like protein from S. marcescens spp. This insecticidal protein could have applications in agricultural biotechnology.

  16. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817

  17. Alkanes in flower surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis influence attraction to Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2013-08-01

    Extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed 15 alkanes representing 97.14% of the total alkanes in the surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng flowers. Nonacosane was the prevailing alkane followed by hexatriacontane, nonadecane, heptacosane, and hentriacontane, accounting for 39.08%, 24.24%, 13.52%, 6.32%, and 5.12%, respectively. The alkanes from flower surface waxes followed by a synthetic mixture of alkanes mimicking alkanes of flower surface waxes elicited attraction of the female insect, Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) between 2 and 10-μg/mL concentrations in a Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassay under laboratory conditions. Synthetic nonadecane from 178.28-891.37 ng, heptacosane from 118.14-590.72 ng, and nonacosane at 784.73 ng showed attraction of the insect. A synthetic mixture of 534.82 ng nonadecane, 354.43 ng heptacosane, and 2,354.18 ng nonacosane elicited highest attraction of A. foveicollis. PMID:23949856

  18. Susceptibility of Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tourtois, Joseph; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) are two soil-dwelling biological control agents used to manage western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and fungus gnats Bradysis spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) in glasshouses. Growers often use multiple natural enemies to achieve economic control, but knowledge of interactions among natural enemies is lacking. We conducted a laboratory bioassay to test the pathogenicity of four commercially available nematode species—Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhbditidae), Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), S. feltiae (Filipjev), and S. riobrave Cabanillas et al.—to third instar and adult D. coriaria. Third instars were three times more susceptible than the adults to the entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora was lower than the mortality for D. coriaria adults and third instars treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave. Neither infective juvenile foraging behavior nor size correlates with D. coriaria mortality. Dalotia coriaria appears to be most likely compatible with applications of S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. PMID:26463077

  19. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791

  20. Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Mesostigmata: Gamasina, Microgyniina, Uropodina), associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene. PMID:23546538

  1. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females.

  2. Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

    2012-03-01

    Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 μl/cm² essential oil and 3.144 μl/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC₅₀ = 0.118 μl/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC₅₀ = 0.044 μl/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD₅₀ = 0.137 μl/g) than the essential oil alone (LD₅₀ = 0.193 μl/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F₁ insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans.

  3. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples.

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  5. Differences in Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) responses to neonicotinoid seed treatments.

    PubMed

    Tansey, J A; Dosdall, L M; Keddie, B A; Sarfraz, R M

    2008-02-01

    Insecticidal seed treatments are used commonly throughout the Northern Great Plains of North America to systemically protect seedlings of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) from attack by the flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) and Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Here, we investigated differential responses by the two flea beetle species to the neonicotinoid seed treatments thiamethoxam (Helix and Helix XTra) and clothianidin (Prosper 400) in greenhouse experiments. P. cruciferae experienced higher mortality and fed less when exposed to these compounds than did P. striolata. Beetles of the overwintered and the summer generations responded differently when feeding on seedlings that developed with insecticidal seed treatments, with mortality higher for P. cruciferae in May than in August. When the two flea beetle species were held together at equal densities and allowed to feed on seedlings affected by the seed treatments, mortality of P. cruciferae significantly exceeded that of P. striolata. Differences in efficacies of these compounds for these beetles have ramifications for management strategies in regions where these insects occur sympatrically. Competitive release of P. striolata was previously reported to occur when P. cruciferae was excluded from brassicaceous crops; consequently, the consistent use of these seed treatments over millions of hectares of canola cropland may be a factor that contributes to a shift in prevalence of flea beetle pest species from P. cruciferae toward P. striolata. PMID:18330131

  6. Species limits in polymorphic mimetic Eniclases net-winged beetles from New Guinean mountains (Coleoptera, Lycidae).

    PubMed

    Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages.

  7. Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.

  8. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed. PMID:19253644

  9. Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest’s life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594

  10. A Biological and Procedural Review of Forensically Significant Dermestes Species (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Voss, Sasha C; Testi, Roberto; Borrini, Matteo; Dadour, Ian R

    2015-09-01

    The analyses of the insect species found on decomposing remains may provide useful information for the estimation of the minimum time elapsed since death and other parameters, such as causes and circumstances of death. The majority of research has focused on the early colonizing species, typically blowflies, while research concerning late colonizing insects is currently sparse. Dermestid beetles of the genus Dermestes L. (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) are one of the predominant insect species associated with decomposing remains during dry decay and skeletal stages of decomposition. In some dry environments, Dermestes species are likely to be the only necrophagous insects feeding on the decomposing remains. Furthermore, Dermestes species (immature and adults), their remains (cast skins and fecal material), and their artifacts (pupal chambers) are frequently found associated with ancient remains (e.g., mummies, fossils). Dermestes species have a worldwide distribution and are considered important in decomposition processes, forensic investigations, and economically as a known pest of stored products. Despite their recognized forensic importance, there is limited data documenting the ecology, biology, and the growth rates of the forensically relevant species. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive synopsis on the available literature concerning Dermestes species associated with forensic cases. In particular, aspects of colonization behavior, growth rates for forensic taxa and potential best practice guidelines for forensic casework encompassing late colonizing Dermestes species are discussed. PMID:26336246

  11. Intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), between adjacent cotton and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Bastola, Anup; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, R Patrick; Shrestha, Ram B; Chen, Fa-Jun; Carroll, Stanley C

    2016-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to characterize the intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) between adjacent cotton and alfalfa. A dual protein-marking method was used to assess the intercrop movement of the lady beetles in each crop. In turns field collected lady beetles in each crop were assayed by protein specific ELISA to quantify the movement of beetles between the crops. Results indicated that a high percentage of convergent lady beetles caught in cotton (46% in 2008; 56% in 2009) and alfalfa (46% in 2008; 71% in 2009) contained a protein mark, thus indicating that convergent lady beetle movement was largely bidirectional between the adjacent crops. Although at a much lower proportion, lady beetles also showed unidirectional movement from cotton to alfalfa (5% in 2008 and 6% in 2009) and from alfalfa to cotton (9% in 2008 and 14% in 2009). The season-long bidirectional movement exhibited by the beetles was significantly higher in alfalfa than cotton during both years of the study. The total influx of lady beetles (bidirectional and unidirectional combined) was significantly higher in alfalfa compared with that in cotton for both years. While convergent lady beetles moved between adjacent cotton and alfalfa, they were more attracted to alfalfa when cotton was not flowering and/or when alfalfa offered more opportunities for prey. This study offers much needed information on intercrop movement of the convergent lady beetle that should facilitate integrated pest management decisions in cotton utilizing conservation biological control.

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts.

  13. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  14. Climatic, Edaphic Factors and Cropping History Help Predict Click Beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) (Agriotes spp.) Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kozina, A.; Lemic, D.; Bazok, R.; Mikac, K. M.; Mclean, C. M.; Ivezić, M.; Igrc Barčić, J.

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that the abundance of Agriotes wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) is affected by agro-ecological factors such as climatic and edaphic factors and the crop/previous crop grown at the sites investigated. The aim of this study, conducted in three different geographic counties in Croatia from 2007 to 2009, was to determine the factors that influence the abundance of adult click beetle of the species Agriotes brevis Cand., Agriotes lineatus (L.), Agriotes obscurus (L.), Agriotes sputator (L.), and Agriotes ustulatus Schall. The mean annual air temperature, total rainfall, percentage of coarse and fine sand, coarse and fine silt and clay, the soil pH, and humus were investigated as potential factors that may influence abundance. Adult click beetle emergence was monitored using sex pheromone traps (YATLORf and VARb3). Exploratory data analysis was preformed via regression tree models and regional differences in Agriotes species’ abundance were predicted based on the agro-ecological factors measured. It was found that the best overall predictor of A. brevis abundance was the previous crop grown. Conversely, the best predictor of A. lineatus abundance was the current crop being grown and the percentage of humus. The best predictor of A. obscurus abundance was soil pH in KCl. The best predictor of A. sputator abundance was rainfall. Finally, the best predictors of A. ustulatus abundance were soil pH in KCl and humus. These results may be useful in regional pest control programs or for predicting future outbreaks of these species. PMID:26175463

  15. Pitfall Traps and Mini-Winkler Extractor as Complementary Methods to Sample Soil Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A C; Batistella, D A; Battirola, L D; Marques, M I

    2016-02-01

    We compared abundance, species richness, and capture efficiency with pitfall traps and mini-Winkler extractors to examine their use as complementary methods for sampling soil Coleoptera during dry (2010) and high water seasons (2011) in three areas, including inundated and non-inundated regions, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We paired treatments with two 10 × 10 m plots in inundated and non-inundated locations that were repeated three times in each location for a total of 18 plots. In each plot, we used nine pitfall traps and collected 2 m(2) of leaf litter and surface soil samples with mini-Winkler extractors. We collected a total of 4260 adult beetles comprising 36 families, 113 genera, and 505 species. Most were caught in pitfalls (69%) and the remainder in the mini-Winkler extractors (31%). Each method provided distinct information about the beetle community: 252 species were captured only in pitfall traps, 147 using only the mini-Winkler extractors, and these methods shared another 106 species. Pitfall and mini-Winkler contribute in different ways for the sampling of the soil beetle community, and so they should be considered complementary for a more thorough assessment of community diversity. PMID:26493175

  16. Cold hardiness of Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae in different populations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuqian; Xu, Lili; Tian, Bing; Tao, Jing; Wang, Jinlin; Zong, Shixiang

    2014-10-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is distributed widely in China, where it causes severe damage to forests, and is a quarantine pest in Europe, the United States, and Canada. A. glabripennis overwinters as dormant larvae to avoid adverse environmental conditions. To elucidate the cold hardiness of A. glabripennis larvae, the supercooling point (SCP), freezing point (FP), and cold hardiness-related compounds were examined in overwintering larva from five populations in China (Yili, Yanchi, Wulateqianqi, Beijing, and Dezhou). The results showed that the SCP and FP differed significantly among populations, where the SCP of larvae in the Wulateqianqi population was the lowest and highest in the Beijing population. The water, fat, and glycogen contents also differed significantly among the five populations. The SCPs of larvae from all five populations were proportional to glycogen contents, but had no association with water contents and fat contents. The total contents of seven low-molecular weight compounds (glycerol, galactose, glucose, mannose, sorbitol, inositol, and trehalose) differed significantly among populations. Thus, A. glabripennis larvae from different geographical populations contained different sugars or sugar alcohols (especially glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, and trehalose), which helped them to resist cold temperatures. This study provides basic information about that may facilitate the prediction of distribution range expansions and ensure proper implementation of the integrated management of A. glabripennis populations. PMID:25202887

  17. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  18. Influence of Constant Temperature on Reproductive Parameters of Holotrichia oblita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoliang; Lin, Lulu; Xie, Minghui; Zhang, Guangling; Su, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Holotrichia oblita Faldermann (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major pest both in field crops and forests because the larvae could eat the roots of most crops in the field, and the adults damage the leaves of trees and field crops. In this study, we focused on the effects of temperature on H. oblita reproductive parameters. The results indicated H. oblita female adults at 25°C could lay more eggs (84.0 eggs per female) and have the shortest preoviposition period (19.1 d), the greatest oviposition rate (2.8 eggs per female per 3 d), and largest percentage of life span spent in oviposition (59.5%). The longevity and the time to 50% egg laying decreased with increasing temperature, and female longevity was always longer than male longevity. The preoviposition and postoviposition period decreased with increasing temperature from 15 to 25°C and then increased when the temperature increased from 25 to 30°C. These results show that 25°C is the optimal temperature for reproduction of H. oblita. PMID:26160804

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  20. Species limits in polymorphic mimetic Eniclases net-winged beetles from New Guinean mountains (Coleoptera, Lycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages. PMID:27408550

  1. Seasonal and nocturnal activities of the rhinoceros borer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the north Saharan oases ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females. PMID:25527574

  2. Identification, distribution, and adult phenology of the carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Texas.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Patricia L; Riley, Edward G; Oswald, John D

    2013-01-01

    The carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of Texas are surveyed. Thirteen of the 14 species, and five of the six genera, of this ecologically and forensically important group of scavengers that have previously been reported from Texas are confirmed here based on a study of 3,732 adult specimens. The one reported, but unconfirmed, species, Oxelytrum discicolle, was probably based on erroneous label data and is excluded from the Texas fauna. Two additional species, Nicrophorus sayi and N. investigator are discussed as possible, but unconfirmed, components of the fauna. Taxonomic diagnoses, Texas distribution range maps, seasonality profiles, and biological notes are presented for each confirmed species. The confirmed Texas silphid fauna of 13 species comprises 43% of the 30 species of this family that are known from America north of Mexico. The highest richness (11 species) is found in the combined Austroriparian and Texan biotic provinces of eastern Texas. Phenologically, three species (Necrophila americana, O. rugulosum and Nicrophorus tomentosus) exhibit bimodal adult temporal occurrence patterns with peaks in the spring and late summer or fall; four species (Oiceoptoma noveboracense, Necrodes surinamensis, Nicrophorus carolinus, and N. orbicollis) exhibit unimodal occurrence patterns with a single peak in late spring or early summer; one species (Oiceoptonia inaequale) exhibits a unimodal occurrence pattern with a single peak in early spring; and five species (Thanatophilus truncatus, Nicrophorus americanus, N. marginatus, N. mexicanus and N. pustulatus) display unimodal occurrence patterns with peaks in late summer or early fall.

  3. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Mycetophagidae, Tetratomidae, and Melandryidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report 21 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, seven of which are new records for the Maritime provinces. Four species of Mycetophagidae (Litargus didesmus Say, Litargus tetrapilotus LeConte, Mycetophagus punctatus Say, and Mycetophagus quadriguttatus Müller) are newly reported for the province of New Brunswick. Litargus didesmus is newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Seven species of Tetratomidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick: Eustrophus tomentosus Say, Penthe obliquata (Fabricius), and Tetratoma tessellata Melsheimer are new to New Brunswick: Hallomenus serricornis LeConte, Pisenus humeralis Kirby, Synstrophus repandus (Horn), and Tetratoma variegata Casey, which are newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Ten additional species of Melandryidae are reported from New Brunswick, of which Orchesia cultriformis Laliberté, Orchesia ovata Laliberté, Phloeotrya fusca (LeConte), Scotochroides antennatus Mank, Spilotus quadripustulatus (Melsheimer), Symphora flavicollis (Haldeman), Symphora rugosa (Haldeman), and Zilora hispida LeConte are new for the province, and Microscapha clavicornis LeConte and Zilora nuda Provancher are newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. In addition, we report numerous additional records for three species of Mycetophagidae and one species of Melandryidae previously recorded from New Brunswick that suggest these species are more widely distributed than previously known. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539895

  4. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly, Luciola substriata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Mu, Feng-Juan; Ao, Liang; Zhao, Hua-Bin; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    The firefly, Luciola substriata (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), is an aquatic firefly species, whose larvae inhabit ponds or lakes. Here we present the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the firefly (GenBank accession number KP313820) and provide its annotation. This circular genome is 16,248 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region. Similar to other firefly species, the base composition of this mitochondrial genome is also biased toward A and T (44.09% A, 34.00% T, 12.89% C, and 9.01% G). All 13 protein-coding genes start with a typical mitochondrial start codon, and terminate with a usual stop codon TAA, or TAG or a single T. The non-coding AT-rich region (1636 bp in length) include one (A)20, and two (T)15 tandem repeats, and one (AAT)5 element. This mitochondrial genome sequence will promote a better understanding for firefly evolution in the future.

  5. Biological responses of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae).

    PubMed

    Manachini, Barbara; Schillaci, Domenico; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is becoming a serious problem in Mediterranean areas where it is well-adapted, and now is present even in the United States (California). The infestations are primarily in urban areas where chemical control is not advisable and million of Euros are spent to control it. The effects of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) on mortality, growth, as well as the immune activity of R. ferrugineus larvae, were investigated. R. ferrugineus mortality exhibited a positive trend with the dosage and duration of exposure to S. carpocapsae. The median lethal dose and median lethal time, important to optimize the treatments, were calculated. S. carpocapsae also had a detrimental effect on R. ferrugineus weight. In vivo and in vitro effects of S. carpocapsae on the phagocytic responses of R. ferrugineus hemocytes also were recorded. S. carpocapsae was not encapsulated by R.ferrugineus hemocytes. After 24 h, the number of hemocytes recorded in treated larvae was reduced. To investigate the defensive abilities of R. ferrugineus humoral and cellular immune systems, specifically against the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteraceae), the minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits bacterial growth was measured. This is the first time that this technique is applied to entomopathogenic bacteria.

  6. Pathogenicity of Isolates of Serratia Marcescens towards Larvae of the Scarab Phyllophaga Blanchardi (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Pineda-Castellanos, Mónica L.; Rodríguez-Segura, Zitlhally; Villalobos, Francisco J.; Hernández, Luciano; Lina, Laura; Nuñez-Valdez, M. Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative bacterium (Enterobacteriaceae) often associated with infection of insects. In order to find pathogenic bacteria with the potential to control scarab larvae, several bacterial strains were isolated from the hemocoel of diseased Phyllophaga spp (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larvae collected from cornfields in Mexico. Five isolates were identified as Serratia marcescens by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. Oral and injection bioassays using healthy Phyllophaga blanchardi larvae fed with the S. marcescens isolates showed different degrees of antifeeding effect and mortality. No insecticidal activity was observed for Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by oral inoculation. S. marcescens (Sm81) cell-free culture supernatant caused significant antifeeding effect and mortality to P. blanchardi larvae by oral bioassay and also mortality by injection bioassay. Heat treated culture broths lost the ability to cause disease symptoms, suggesting the involvement of proteins in the toxic activity. A protein of 50.2 kDa was purified from the cell-free broth and showed insecticidal activity by injection bioassay towards P. blanchardi. Analysis of the insecticidal protein by tandem- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed similarity to a Serralysin-like protein from S. marcescens spp. This insecticidal protein could have applications in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:25984910

  7. Advances in the use of trapping systems for Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): traps and attractants.

    PubMed

    Vacas, S; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-08-01

    Given the social importance related to the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), efforts are being made to develop new control methods, such as the deployment of trapping systems. In this work, the efficacy of a new black pyramidal trap design (Picusan) has been verified in comparison with white and black buckets. In addition, the attractant and synergistic effect of ethyl acetate (EtAc) at different release levels has been evaluated under field conditions. The results show that Picusan traps captured 45% more weevils than bucket-type traps, offering significantly better trapping efficacy. The addition of water to traps baited with palm tissues was found to be essential, with catches increasing more than threefold compared with dry traps. EtAc alone does not offer attractant power under field conditions, and the release levels from 57 mg/d to 1 g/d have no synergistic effect with ferrugineol. Furthermore, significantly fewer females were captured when EtAc was released at 2 g/d. The implications of using EtAc dispensers in trapping systems are discussed.

  8. Alkanes in flower surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis influence attraction to Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2013-08-01

    Extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed 15 alkanes representing 97.14% of the total alkanes in the surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng flowers. Nonacosane was the prevailing alkane followed by hexatriacontane, nonadecane, heptacosane, and hentriacontane, accounting for 39.08%, 24.24%, 13.52%, 6.32%, and 5.12%, respectively. The alkanes from flower surface waxes followed by a synthetic mixture of alkanes mimicking alkanes of flower surface waxes elicited attraction of the female insect, Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) between 2 and 10-μg/mL concentrations in a Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassay under laboratory conditions. Synthetic nonadecane from 178.28-891.37 ng, heptacosane from 118.14-590.72 ng, and nonacosane at 784.73 ng showed attraction of the insect. A synthetic mixture of 534.82 ng nonadecane, 354.43 ng heptacosane, and 2,354.18 ng nonacosane elicited highest attraction of A. foveicollis.

  9. Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest's life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594

  10. Characterizing DNA preservation in degraded specimens of Amara alpina (Carabidae: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Heintzman, Peter D; Elias, Scott A; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Barnes, Ian

    2014-05-01

    DNA preserved in degraded beetle (Coleoptera) specimens, including those derived from dry-stored museum and ancient permafrost-preserved environments, could provide a valuable resource for researchers interested in species and population histories over timescales from decades to millenia. However, the potential of these samples as genetic resources is currently unassessed. Here, using Sanger and Illumina shotgun sequence data, we explored DNA preservation in specimens of the ground beetle Amara alpina, from both museum and ancient environments. Nearly all museum specimens had amplifiable DNA, with the maximum amplifiable fragment length decreasing with age. Amplification of DNA was only possible in 45% of ancient specimens. Preserved mitochondrial DNA fragments were significantly longer than those of nuclear DNA in both museum and ancient specimens. Metagenomic characterization of extracted DNA demonstrated that parasite-derived sequences, including Wolbachia and Spiroplasma, are recoverable from museum beetle specimens. Ancient DNA extracts contained beetle DNA in amounts comparable to museum specimens. Overall, our data demonstrate that there is great potential for both museum and ancient specimens of beetles in future genetic studies, and we see no reason why this would not be the case for other orders of insect.

  11. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies.

  12. First transcriptional survey of the Malpighian tubules of giant mealworm, Zophobas morio (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, J R; Prado, R A; Amaral, D T; Viviani, V R

    2015-01-23

    The Malpighian tubules play a key role in insect osmoregulation. Although a transcriptional analysis has been done for the Malpighian tubules in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), no functional genomics analysis has yet been carried out for any Coleoptera species. Recently, we constructed a cDNA library from Malpighian tubules of larval Zophobas morio, a close relative of Tribolium castaneum, and cloned the cDNA for an AMP/CoA-ligase with luciferase-like enzyme properties. Using this cDNA library, we randomly isolated, partially sequenced and analyzed ca. 540 clones, obtaining the first transcriptional profile of the most representative expressed genes, and associated them with their possible biological functions. A high percentage of mitochondrial genes was found, which is consistent with the high metabolic activity required by this organ during the formation of primary urine. Common transcripts included those for enzymes involved in osmoregulation, such as solute transporters and ATPases, and in detoxification and excretion, such as cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, alcohol dehydrogenase. The presence of AMP/CoA-ligases, which activate exogenous carboxylic acids such as firefly D-luciferin suggests their participation in important new xenobiotic excretion/detoxification roles in Malpighian tubule physiology.

  13. Host plant choice experiments of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Erin M; Kuhar, Thomas P; Dickens, Joseph C; Youngman, Roger R; Schultz, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Douglas G

    2008-06-01

    Field and laboratory-choice experiments were conducted to understand aspects of host plant orientation by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory bioassays, L. decemlineata oriented to volatiles emitted by potato, Solanum tuberosum L., foliage over both tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L., and eggplant, Solanum melongena L., foliage, and eggplant over tomato foliage, all of which had been mechanically damaged. Field choice tests revealed more L. decemlineata adults, larvae, and egg masses on eggplant than on tomato. In other experiments, counts of live L. decemlineata on untreated paired plants and counts of dead beetles on imidacloprid-treated plants did not differ between potato and eggplant. L. decemlineata was significantly attracted to eggplant over both tomato and pepper. To determine whether feeding adults affected orientation to host plants, an imidacloprid-treated eggplant or potato plant was paired with an untreated eggplant or potato plant covered in a mesh bag containing two adult male beetles. Significantly more adults were attracted to eggplant with feeding male beetles paired with another eggplant than any other treatment combination. These results indicate that the presence of male L. decemlineata on plants affects host plant orientation and suggests that the male-produced aggregation pheromone may be involved.

  14. Pymetrozine causes a nontarget pest, the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to leave potato plants.

    PubMed

    Chang, G C; Snyder, W E

    2008-02-01

    Pymetrozine is a selective insecticide that targets aphids. Published assessments of the effects of pymetrozine on nontarget organisms focus mainly on predatory insects, and they rarely indicate toxicity. In a laboratory bioassay, survival of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), larvae was not affected by pymetrozine exposure. We subsequently used pymetrozine to implement low-aphid-density treatments in a field experiment that involved separate manipulations of Colorado potato beetle density. Unexpectedly, the addition of Colorado potato beetle adults and eggs did not increase the densities of Colorado potato beetle larvae in plots that were sprayed with pymetrozine (applied with water and an adjuvant). In control plots sprayed with water and adjuvant (without pymetrozine), addition of Colorado potato beetles increased densities of their larvae. Data collected on a smaller scale suggest that a behavioral mechanism underlies the population-level pattern: Colorado potato beetle larvae become more active and are less likely to remain on a host plant after exposure to pymetrozine. Thus, potato, Solanum tuberosum L., growers who use pymetrozine against aphids also might benefit in terms of Colorado potato beetle control.

  15. Insecticide resistance status of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults in northern Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Tian; Xiong, Man-Hui; Lu, Wei-Ping; Liu, Ping; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2010-08-01

    Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has become the economically most important insect defoliator of potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L., in northern Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China. Currently, control of Colorado potato beetle relies mainly on chemical insecticides. And this may result in insecticide resistance. In this study, LD50 values were measured by a topical bioassay for 14 conventional insecticides in seven local populations from Urumqi, Changji, Tacheng, Nilka, Gongliu, Qapqal, and Tekes counties (cities). The Tekes field population was the most susceptible population and was selected as a reference strain. Compared with the Tekes strain, the Changji, Qapqal, Nilka, Tacheng, and Gongliu populations exhibited moderate to very high levels of resistance to cyhalothrin. The Qapqal and Changji populations showed a moderate and a very high resistance to deltamethrin, respectively. And the Changji population developed a high resistance against alpha-cypermethrin. Moreover, the Qapqal population had a moderate resistance to carbofuran, and the Urumqi population reached high level of resistance to endosulfan. Possible resistance mechanisms of the Changji and Qapqal populations were determined using three enzyme inhibitors. Triphenyl phosphate (TPP), diethylmeleate, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) had little synergism to cyhalothrin in the two populations. In contrast, PBO and TPP exhibited some synergistic effects to carbofuran in the Qapqal population, indicating the involvement of monooxygenases and esterases in conferring carbofuran resistance. It seems that additional mechanisms, such as target site insensitivity, should play an important role in Colorado potato beetle resistances to cyhalothrin and carbofuran in northern Xinjiang local populations.

  16. Baseline toxicity and field efficacy of metaflumizone on Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Hitchner, Erin M; Kuhar, Thomas P; Dively, Galen P; Youngman, Roger R; Philips, Christopher R; Anderson, Troy D

    2012-02-01

    Baseline toxicity levels to a novel semicarbazone insecticide, metaflumizone were established for 25 field populations of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),from North America. Excluding the susceptible laboratory strain, 50% lethal concentrations of metaflumizone ranged from 0.57 to 1.31 ppm, while response slopes ranged from 1.92 to 4.24 (average = 2.93), and were unrelated to the 50% lethal concentration (r = 0.06; P = 0.76). Beetle populations with known resistance to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid also exhibited the highest LC50 levels to metaflumizone suggesting at least the possibility of cross-resistance. Additional experiments using a potato leaf-dip bioassay as well as field efficacy evaluations confirmed the high level of toxicity of metaflumizone to L. decemlineata and demonstrated a potential benefit of tank mixing a low rate of the pyrethroid esfenvalerate with metaflumizone at one-tenth the recommended field rate. These research findings confirm that metaflumizone is highly active against L. decemlineata larvae and adults and could provide an effective alternative insecticide for potato pest management.

  17. Artificial substrates for oviposition and larval development of the pepper weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J

    2009-02-01

    The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.

  18. A novel method for controlling multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Glemser, Erik J; Dowling, Lisa; Inglis, Debra; Pickering, Gary J; McFadden-Smith, Wendy; Sears, Mark K; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2012-10-01

    The introduced biological control agent Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) has attained pest status in North America as its presence in vineyards during harvest may compromise the quality of the resulting wine. Control of H. axyridis in vineyards is difficult as their populations may fluctuate daily, and there are few products registered to control this pest. Sulfur dioxide, in the form of potassium metabisulfite (KMS), is commonly used in wine as both an antimicrobial and an antioxidant. In this study, the effectiveness of KMS as a repellent against H. axyridis was measured. In a Y-tube olfactometer, H. axyridis spent significantly less time in the treatment arm (KMS 2.5, 5, and 10 g/liter) than in the control arm during a 10-min period. When sprayed in a vineyard, KMS significantly reduced the number of H. axyridis on grape vines. KMS is an effective repellent against H. axyridis and may be suitable for use in vineyards to control this pest. KMS (5 g/liter) applied to Riesling grapes at 2 wk, 1 wk, 3 d, or 1 d before harvest did not affect free sulfur dioxide in either freshly processed or settled juice. This study lays the foundation for the development of a pest management strategy incorporating repellents for H. axyridis in vineyards.

  19. Insecticidal activity of selected monoterpenoids and rosemary oil to Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

    PubMed

    Waliwitiya, Ranil; Isman, Murray B; Vernon, Robert S; Riseman, Andrew

    2005-10-01

    Acute toxicities of three naturally occurring monoterpenoid essential oil constituents and the essential oil of rosemary were tested against late instars of Agriotes obscurus (L.) (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Both contact and volatile toxicities of thymol, citronellal, eugenol, and rosemary oil were determined. Also, phytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated on corn germination and seedling development. Thymol had the greatest contact toxicity (LD50 = 196.0 microg/larva), whereas citronellal and eugenol were less toxic (LD50 = 404.9 and 516.5 microg/larva, respectively). Rosemary oil did not show any significant contact toxicity, even at 1,600 microg/larva. In terms of volatile toxicity, citronellal was the most toxic to wireworm larvae (LC50 = 6.3 microg/cm3) followed by rosemary oil (LC50 = 15.9 microg/cm3), thymol (LC50 = 17.1 microg/cm3), and eugenol (LC50 = 20.9 microg/cm3). Thymol, eugenol, and citronellal significantly inhibited corn seed germination and development, whereas rosemary oil had only minimal phytotoxic effects.

  20. Host specificity of Argopistes tsekooni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent of Chinese privet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Hanula, James L; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2008-08-01

    Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., is a perennial semi-evergreen shrub that is a serious invasive weed in the United States. Classical biological control offers the best hope for controlling it in an economic, effective, and persistent way. Host specificity of one of the most promising biological control agents of Chinese privet, a flea beetle, Argopistes tsekooni Chen (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was evaluated in China by using laboratory no-choice and choice tests on 13 species of Oleaceae and eight species in other families that have important economic value. In adult no-choice survival and oviposition tests, the flea beetle fed and survived for 30 d on Syringa oblata Lindl., Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl., and three species in the genus Ligustrum. Females also oviposited on these species, but only larvae from eggs laid on S. oblata and Ligustrum spp. developed successfully. In addition, the beetles did not feed or oviposit on the species of economic importance. In choice tests, adults preferred L. sinense for feeding and oviposition. These results show that A. tsekooni is relatively host specific and warrants further testing as a biocontrol agent of Chinese privet in the United States. PMID:18767722

  1. Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), an Associate of Dorcus Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-03-01

    A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371

  2. The Hydraulic Mechanism of the Unfolding of Hind Wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Order: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding. PMID:24722572

  3. The hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding of hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (order: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding. PMID:24722572

  4. Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-03-01

    We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) analyses were used for functional classification of these unigenes. We identified 19 putative odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes, 12 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes, 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 6 ionotropic receptor (IR) genes and 2 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP) genes. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these chemosensory genes were most identical to their respective orthologs from Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that the T. molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor. PMID:25665775

  5. Glycolytic Activities in the Larval Digestive Tract of Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Noriko; Sunairi, Michio; Anzai, Hirosi; Iwata, Ryûtarô; Yamane, Akiomi; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu

    2014-01-01

    The larvae of the Japanese horned beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae), are an example of a saprophage insect. Generally, Scarabaeid larvae, such as T. dichotomus, eat dead plant matter that has been broken down by fungi, such as Basidiomycota. It is thought that β-1,3-glucan, a constituent polysaccharide in microbes, is abundant in decayed plant matter. Studies of the degradation mechanism of β-1,3-glucan under these circumstances are lacking. In the current study, we sought to clarify the relationship between the capacity to degrade polysaccharides and the food habits of the larvae. The total activities and optimum pH levels of several polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from the larvae were investigated. The foregut, midgut and hindgut of final instar larvae were used. Enzymatic activities were detected against five polysaccharides (soluble starch, β-1,4-xylan, β-1,3-glucan, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose) and four glycosides (p-nitrophenyl (PNP)-β-N-acetylglucosaminide, PNP-β-mannoside, PNP-β-glucoside and PNP-β-xyloside). Our results indicate that the digestive tract of the larvae is equipped with a full enzymatic system for degrading β-1,3-glucan and β-1,4-xylan to monomers. This finding elucidates the role of the polysaccharide-digesting enzymes in the larvae, and it is suggested that the larvae use these enzymes to enact their decomposition ability in the forest environment. PMID:26462688

  6. A Biological and Procedural Review of Forensically Significant Dermestes Species (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Voss, Sasha C; Testi, Roberto; Borrini, Matteo; Dadour, Ian R

    2015-09-01

    The analyses of the insect species found on decomposing remains may provide useful information for the estimation of the minimum time elapsed since death and other parameters, such as causes and circumstances of death. The majority of research has focused on the early colonizing species, typically blowflies, while research concerning late colonizing insects is currently sparse. Dermestid beetles of the genus Dermestes L. (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) are one of the predominant insect species associated with decomposing remains during dry decay and skeletal stages of decomposition. In some dry environments, Dermestes species are likely to be the only necrophagous insects feeding on the decomposing remains. Furthermore, Dermestes species (immature and adults), their remains (cast skins and fecal material), and their artifacts (pupal chambers) are frequently found associated with ancient remains (e.g., mummies, fossils). Dermestes species have a worldwide distribution and are considered important in decomposition processes, forensic investigations, and economically as a known pest of stored products. Despite their recognized forensic importance, there is limited data documenting the ecology, biology, and the growth rates of the forensically relevant species. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive synopsis on the available literature concerning Dermestes species associated with forensic cases. In particular, aspects of colonization behavior, growth rates for forensic taxa and potential best practice guidelines for forensic casework encompassing late colonizing Dermestes species are discussed.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis (Coleoptera: Meloidae) and phylogenetic analysis among Coleopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong

    2016-03-10

    The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia. PMID:26707213

  8. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in conventional and diversified crop rotation systems.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Megan E; Liebman, Matt; Rice, Marlin E

    2008-02-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are important in agro-ecosystems as generalist predators of invertebrate pests and weed seeds and as prey for larger animals. However, it is not well understood how cropping systems affect ground beetles. Over a 2-yr period, carabids were monitored two times per month using pitfall traps in a conventional chemical input, 2-yr, corn/soybean rotation system and a low input, 4-yr, corn/soybean/triticale-alfalfa/alfalfa rotation system. Carabid assemblages were largely dominated by a few species across all cropping treatments with Poecilus chalcites Say comprising >70% of pitfall catches in both years of study. Overall carabid activity density and species richness were higher in the low input, 4-yr rotation compared with the conventionally managed, 2-yr rotation. There were greater differences in the temporal activity density and species richness of carabids among crops than within corn and soybean treatments managed with different agrichemical inputs and soil disturbance regimes. Detrended correspondence analysis showed strong yearly variation in carabid assemblages in all cropping treatments. The increase in carabid activity density and species richness observed in the 4-yr crop rotation highlights the potential benefits of diverse crop habitats for carabids and the possibility for managing natural enemies by manipulating crop rotations.

  9. New Coleoptera records for New Brunswick, Canada: Kateretidae, Nitidulidae, Cerylonidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, and Latridiidae.

    PubMed

    Webster, Reginald P; Sweeney, Jon D; Demerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    We report 20 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna in New Brunswick, Canada, five of which are new records for the Maritime provinces, including one species that is new for Canada. One species of Kateretidae, Kateretes pusillus (Thunberg) is newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Stelidota octomaculata (Say), Phenolia grossa (Fabricius), andCryptarcha strigatula Parsons of the family Nitidulidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick; the latter species is new to the Maritime provinces. Two species of Cerylonidae, Philothermus glabriculus LeConte and Cerylon unicolor (Ziegler), are reported for the first time for New Brunswick. Philothermus glabriculus is new for the Maritime provinces. Two species of Endomychidae, Hadromychus chandleri Bousquet and Leschen and Danae testacea (Ziegler) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Three species of Coccinelidae, Stethorus punctum punctum (LeConte), Naemia seriata seriata Melsheimer, and Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) are added to the provincial list. Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) is a species new to the Maritime provinces. Nine species of Latridiidae, Cartodere nodifer (Westwood), Dienerella ruficollis (Marsham), Enicmus aterrimus Motschulsky, Enicmus fictus Fall, Encimus histrio Jay and Tomlin, Lathridius minutus (Linnaeus), Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer, Corticaria elongata (Gyllenhal), and Corticarina longipennis (LeConte) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Stephostehus productus is newly recorded from Canada. Collection and habitat data are presented for all these species.

  10. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Collection Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948

  11. Ribosomal protein genes of holometabolan insects reject the Halteria, instead revealing a close affinity of Strepsiptera with Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Longhorn, Stuart J; Pohl, Hans W; Vogler, Alfried P

    2010-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among holometabolan insect orders remain poorly known, despite a wealth of previous studies. In particular, past attempts to clarify the sister-group of the enigmatic order Strepsiptera with rRNA genes have led to intense debate about long-branch attraction (the 'Strepsiptera problem'), without resolving the taxonomic question at hand. Here, we appealed to alternative nuclear sequences of 27 ribosomal proteins (RPs) to generate a data matrix of 10,731 nucleotides for 22 holometabolan taxa, including two strepsipteran species. Phylogenetic relationships among holometabolan insects were analyzed under several nucleotide-coding schemes to explore differences in signal and systematic biases. Saturation and compositional bias particularly affected third positions, which greatly differed in AT content (18-72%). Such confounding factors were best reduced by R-Y coding and removal of third codon positions, resulting in more strongly supported topologies, whereas amino acid coding gave poor resolution. The placement of Strepsiptera with Coleoptera (the Coleopterida) was recovered under most coding schemes and analytical methods, if often with modest support and ambiguity. In contrast, an alternative sister-group with Diptera (the Halteria) was only found in one analysis using parsimony, and weakly supported. The topologies here generally support a Coleoptera+Strepsiptera as sister-group to Mecopterida (Siphonaptera+Mecoptera+Diptera+Lepidoptera+Trichoptera), while Hymenoptera were always recovered as sister-group to the remaining Holometabola. PMID:20348001

  12. Capture of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in Floor Traps: The Effect of Previous Captures.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Campbell, James F

    2016-02-01

    The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), in laboratory conditions. The effect of trap seeding, adding adults of the same or different species, was evaluated in order to determine possible effects of prior captures in the trap on each species' behavioral responses. The presence of seeded beetles of the same species resulted in an increase in beetle captures for both T. castaneum and T. confusum, but when traps were seeded with the opposite species, there was no increase in beetle captures for either species, and for T. castaneum overall captures in both seeded and unseeded traps was reduced. Overall, T. castaneum tended to have greater captures than T. confusum regardless of the treatment. When the two species were released together, this negated the increased response to seeded traps observed in the single-species treatments. These findings suggest the potential that the presence of beetles in a trap may be influencing the response of beetles in a nearby trap and that T. castaneum and T. confusum when they occur together may influence each other's response to traps.

  13. Further contributions to the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110171

  14. Effect of height and color on the efficiency of pole traps for Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    PubMed

    De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M; Rinderer, Thomas E; Arbogast, Richard T

    2011-02-01

    Olfactory cues released by adult bees, brood, pollen, and honey from a honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colony are the primary stimuli that guide the beetle Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) to host colonies. To investigate the response of adult A. tumida to visual stimuli, we tested the influence of color and height on trap efficiency. Two pole trap colors (black and white) were evaluated at three heights (46 cm, 1 m, and 3m) from October 2008 to December 2009. A. tumida were trapped in the greatest numbers between 17 April and 15 May 2009. The lowest numbers were captured during the winter and fall. The trapping results showed that both color and trap height significantly influenced capture. The average catch in the white traps (mean +/- SE, 2.47 +/- 0.30) was significantly higher than that of the black traps (1.53 +/- 0.29) probably because white is more reflective than black. Among the heights evaluated, there were more beetles caught when traps were positioned at 46 cm (the same height as the entrance of the hives) with 3.07 +/- 0.51 beetles compared with beetles captured at 1 m (1.88 +/- 0.30) or 3 m (1.06 +/- 0.18) high. Male and female beetles exhibited similar responses to trap color and height. The relationship between the numbers of beetles in colonies and capture rates in traps was very poor and did not provide a basis to evaluate trap efficiency. In addition, because capture rates seemed generally low in relationship to the number of beetles in the apiary, substantial improvements to the trap may be necessary.

  15. Field evaluation of essential oils for reducing attraction by the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Nadeer N; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Moyseenko, James J; Klein, Michael G; Pappas, Robert S

    2009-08-01

    Forty-one plant essential oils were tested under field conditions for the ability to reduce the attraction of adult Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), to attractant-baited or nonbaited traps. Treatments applied to a yellow and green Japanese beetle trap included a nonbaited trap, essential oil alone, a Japanese beetle commercial attractant (phenethyl proprionate:eugenol:geraniol, 3:7:3 by volume) (PEG), and an essential oil plus PEG attractant. Eight of the 41 oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant to the Japanese beetle. When tested singly, wintergreen and peppermint oils were the two most effective essential oils at reducing attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.2x and 3.5x, respectively. Anise, bergamont mint, cedarleaf, dalmation sage, tarragon, and wormwood oils also reduced attraction of the Japanese beetle to the PEG attractant. The combination of wintergreen oil with ginger, peppermint, or ginger and citronella oils reduced attractiveness of the PEG attractant by 4.7x to 3.1x. Seventeen of the 41 essential oils also reduced attraction to the nonbaited yellow and green traps, resulting in 2.0x to 11.0x reductions in trap counts relative to nonbaited traps. Camphor, coffee, geranium, grapefruit, elemi, and citronella oils increased attractiveness of nonbaited traps by 2.1x to 7.9x when tested singly, but none were more attractive than the PEG attractant. Results from this study identified several plant essential oils that act as semiochemical disruptants against the Japanese beetle.

  16. Factors influencing flight capacity of the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Whitehouse, C M; Sykes, J

    2014-02-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most damaging pest of mature pine (Pinaceae) in western North America. Although mountain pine beetles have an obligate dispersal phase during which adults must locate a new host for brood production, dispersal is a poorly understood aspect of its ecology. This flight mill study was designed to test the effects of beetle size, sex, and age on flight capacity. Energy use during flight was assessed through measurements of weight before and after flight and fat content of flown versus control beetles. The mean flight distance achieved by mountain pine beetles varied between 2.12 and 5.95 km over the 23-h bioassay, but the longest total flight of an individual beetle was >24 km. Beetle preflight weight influenced flight initiation, flight distance, and duration. Bigger beetles are more likely to fly and once in flight fly longer and farther than smaller beetles. There was no direct effect of beetle sex on flight capacity. Flight capacity of beetles declined with age postemergence. Although individual flight capacity was variable, flight velocity was relatively constant between 1.55 and 1.93 km/h. Lipids are used to power flight in mountain pine beetles, as lipid content was lower in beetles flown on the flight mills compared with beetles that did not fly. Flight distance was negatively correlated with beetle postflight lipid content. The baseline flight capacity data revealed in this study have implications for understanding the population dynamics of this eruptive forest pest.

  17. Reproductive biology of Fidiobia dominica (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), an egg parasitoid of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Duncan, Rita E; Ulmer, Bryan J; Peña, Jorge E; Lapointe, Stephen L

    2007-04-01

    The reproductive biology of Fidiobia dominica Evans (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) was studied in the laboratory (25.6 +/- 1 degrees C) using host eggs of Diaprepes abbreviatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). F. dominica readily parasitized D. abbreviatus eggs on both host plant and wax paper substrates. The number of egg masses parasitized and the number of offspring produced were higher when females were offered more than one host egg mass but did not differ when either two or three egg masses were offered. Female parasitoids that were provided with host eggs and a honey food source lived significantly longer than those that were not provided a food source; however, they did not parasitize more D. abbreviatus eggs. Oviposition occurred in host eggs from 0 to 7 d old, and host mortality was relatively consistent for eggs 0-5 d old and lower for eggs 6-7 d old. Successful parasitoid emergence seldom occurred after host eggs were 4 d old, and by 7 d, no adults successfully emerged. Developmental time from egg to adult was 19.3 +/- 0.2 d for males, significantly more rapid than the females (20.4 +/- 0.1 d). The mean longevity of adult females was 8.0 +/- 0.4 d, with a mean oviposition period of 2.7 +/- 0.3 d; males survived 8.1 +/- 0.4 d. The demographic parameters including intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)), generation time (T), and net reproduction (R(o)) were 0.142/d, 22 d, and 22.4 female eggs/d, respectively.

  18. Modeling evolution of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to transgenic corn with two insecticidal traits.

    PubMed

    Onstad, David W; Meinke, Lance J

    2010-06-01

    A simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was created to evaluate the use of refuges in the management of resistance to transgenic insecticidal corn, Zea mays L., expressing one or two toxin traits. Hypothetical scenarios and a case study of a corn hybrid pyramided with existing toxins are simulated. In the hypothetical situations, results demonstrated that evolution is generally delayed by pyramids compared with deployment of a single-toxin corn hybrid. However, soil insecticide use in the refuge reduced this delay and quickened the evolution of resistance. Results were sensitive to the degree of male beetle dispersal before mating and to the effectiveness of both toxins in the pyramid. Resistance evolved faster as fecundity increased for survivors of insecticidal corn. Thus, effects on fecundity must be measured to predict which resistance management plans will work well. Evolution of resistance also occurred faster if the survival rate due to exposure to the two toxins was not calculated by multiplication of two independent survival rates (one for each insect gene) but was equivalent to the minimum of the two. Furthermore, when single-trait and pyramided corn hybrids were planted within rootworm-dispersal distance of each other, the toxin traits lost efficacy more quickly than they did in scenarios without single-trait corn. For the case study involving transgenic corn expressing Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, the pyramid delayed evolution longer than a single trait corn hybrid and longer than a sequence of toxins based on at least one resistance-allele frequency remaining below 50%. Results are discussed within the context of a changing transgenic corn marketplace and the landscape dynamics of resistance management.

  19. Mortality of a wireworm, Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), after topical application of various insecticides.

    PubMed

    Van Herk, W G; Vernon, R S; Tolman, J H; Saavedra, H Ortiz

    2008-04-01

    Ten insecticides representing seven chemical groups were applied at various concentrations topically by using a Potter Spray Tower to evaluate their relative toxicities on the European wireworm Agriotes obscurus L. (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Wireworms were stored at 15 degrees C after exposure to organophosphate (OP) (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), pyrethroid (tefluthrin), thianicotinoid (thiamethoxam, clothianidin), chloronicotinoid (imidacloprid, acetamiprid), phenyl pyrazole (fipronil), organochlorine (lindane), and spinosyn (spinosad) insecticides, and their postapplication health was evaluated weekly for up to 301 d. LC50, LC90, LT50, and LT90 values were calculated for each chemical except acetamiprid, and compared with those of lindane, clothianidin, and chlorpyrifos. Wireworms exposed to OPs died or recovered more quickly (LT50 < 20 d, LT90 < 50 d), than those exposed to all other insecticides tested except tefluthrin (LT50 = 25.5 d, LT90 = 66.5 d). Wireworms exposed to sublethal concentrations of all neonicotinoids quickly became moribund after application but made a full recovery. Wireworms exposed to fipronil at concentrations near the LC90 value showed no intoxication symptoms for up to 35 d, and they did not recover after symptoms developed. For each chemical, increasing the concentration increased the time required for wireworms to recover but decreased the time required to kill wireworms. Fipronil was highly toxic to wireworms (LC50 = 0.0001%), but acetamiprid (LC50 = 1.82%), imidacloprid (LC50 = 0.83%), tefluthrin (LC50 = 0.23%), diazinon (LC50 = 0.54%), and spinosad (LC50 = 0.51%) were not. The toxicity of both clothianidin (LC50 = 0.07%) and thiamethoxam (LC50 = 0.17%) were similar to those oflindane (LC50 = 0.06%) and chlorpyrifos (LC50 = 0.10%).

  20. Geometric analysis of nutrient balancing in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2014-12-01

    Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology.

  1. Experimental studies and dynamics modeling analysis of the swimming and diving of whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonghua; Lenaghan, Scott C; Reese, Benjamin E; Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots. PMID:23209398

  2. Sperm bundle and reproductive organs of carabid beetles tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2007-05-01

    The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.

  3. Experimental Studies and Dynamics Modeling Analysis of the Swimming and Diving of Whirligig Beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots. PMID:23209398

  4. Nonconstant Thermal Regimes Enhance Overwintering Success and Accelerate Diapause Development for Smicronyx fulvus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Prasifka, Jarrad R; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, George D

    2015-08-01

    Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, has been limited. To determine whether cold storage of diapausing larvae could be improved, nonconstant temperature treatments (fluctuating thermal regime [FTR] and thermoperiod [TP]) were tested versus a constant 6°C for storage up to 365 d. Both alternate temperature treatments produced more adult weevils than constant 6°C for short (42, 91 d) storage, while all temperature treatments were good (≥60% adult emergence) at moderate term (182 d) cold storage, and FTR was best for long (365 d) periods. Excluding the 14-d storage period, which produced too few weevils for comparison, each doubling of cold storage time (e.g., from 42 to 91 d, 91 to 182 d), usually decreased the number of days to 50% relative emergence by ∼10 d. After 365 d of larval storage, emerged S. fulvus adults successfully infested sunflowers in a plant growth chamber, with damage per female similar to that observed in field trials. Compared with previous efforts to store weevil larvae, the method of collection and FTR storage is either more effective (greater adult emergence and reduced parasitism) or more time-efficient, and should permit year-round research using S. fulvus adults. Because successful emergence under FTR was >75% after 365 d, additional research would be required to determine the maximum effective duration of cold storage for S. fulvus. PMID:26470322

  5. Side-effects of glyphosate on the life parameters of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mirande, L; Haramboure, M; Smagghe, G; Piñeda, S; Schneider, M I

    2010-01-01

    In Argentina, transgenic soybean crop (Roundup Ready, RR) has undergone a major expansion over the last 15 years, with the consequent increase of glyphosate applications, a broad-spectrum and post emergence herbicide. Soybean crops are inhabited by several arthropods. Eriopis connexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is a predator associated to soybean soft-bodies pest and have a Neotropical distribution. Nowadays, it is being considered a potentially biological control agent in South America. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate on larvae (third instar) and adults of this predator. Commercial compound and the maximum registered concentrations for field use were employed: GlifoGlex 48 (48% glyphosate, 192 mg a.i./litre, Gleba Argentina S.A.). The exposure was by ingestion through the treated prey (Rophalosiphum padi) or by drinking treated water during 48 h for treatment of the adult. The herbicide solutions were prepared using distilled water as solvent. The bioassays were carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions: 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, 75 +/- 5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) of photoperiod. Development time, weight of pupae, adult emergence, pre-oviposition period, fecundity and fertility were evaluated as endpoints. Larvae from glyphosate treatment molted earlier than controls. In addition, the weight of pupae, longevity, fecundity and fertility were drastically reduced in treated organisms. The reductions were more drastic when the treatments were performed at the third larval stage than as adult. The reproduction capacity of the predator was the most affected parameter and could be related to a hormonal disruption by glyphosate in the treated organisms. This work can confirm the deleterious effects of this herbicide on beneficial organisms. Also, it agrees with prior studies carried out on other predators associated to soybean pest, such as Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Alpaida veniliae (Araneae

  6. Influence of tillage on adult and immature pea leaf weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) densities in pea.

    PubMed

    Hanavan, Ryan P; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Schotzko, Dennis J; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2010-06-01

    The pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been a major pest of pea, Pisum sativum L., in eastern Washington and northern Idaho since its introduction to the region in the early 1970s. Eggs are deposited in the spring on the soil surface and first instars hatch and move to pea root nodules, where larvae feed before they pupate and adults emerge in mid- to late summer. No-tillage practices are known to reduce pea leaf weevil colonization in pea, but the effects of tillage on larval densities and subsequent adult emergence have not been examined. During 2005, 2006, and 2007, we compared densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevils on pea plots grown using conventional tillage and no-tillage. In 2005 and 2006, emergence of adult pea leaf weevil was monitored in the same plots. Densities of colonizing adult and immature pea leaf weevil were significantly higher in conventional tillage plots. Larvae in conventional tillage were further along in development than larvae in no-tillage plots during June and July. Densities of emerging adult pea leaf weevil were significantly greater from conventional tillage than no-tillage plots. Based on densities of colonizing and subsequent emerging adults, survival of weevils from egg through adult was greater in conventional tillage plots. Soils under no-tillage are cooler, resulting in later emergence of the pea crop and delayed root nodule development, possibly affecting the ability of first-instar pea leaf weevil to locate host plant roots. Our results indicate no-tillage fields are less suitable for pea leaf weevil colonization and survival than conventional tillage fields.

  7. Geometric analysis of nutrient balancing in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2014-12-01

    Geometric analysis of the nutritional regulatory responses was performed on an omnivorous mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to test whether this beetle had the capacity to balance the intake of protein and carbohydrate. We also identified the pattern of ingestive trade-off employed when the insect was forced to balance the costs of over- and under-ingesting macronutrients. When allowed to mix their diet from two nutritionally imbalanced but complementary foods (protein-biased food: p35:c7 or p28:c5.6; carbohydrate-biased food: p7:c35 or p5.6:c28), beetles of both sexes actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a ratio of 1:1. When confined to one of seven nutritionally imbalanced foods (p0:c42, p7:c35, p14:c28, p21:c21, p28:c14, p35:c7 or p42:c0), beetles over-ingested the excessive nutrient from these foods to such an extent that all the points of protein-carbohydrate intake aligned linearly in the nutrient space, a pattern that is characteristic of generalist feeders and omnivores. Under the restricted feeding conditions, males ate more nutrients but were less efficient at retaining their body lipids than females. Body lipid content was higher on carbohydrate-rich foods and was positively correlated with starvation resistance. Our results are consistent with the prediction based on the nutritional heterogeneity hypothesis, which links the nutritional regulatory responses of insects to their diet breadth and feeding ecology. PMID:25308181

  8. Toxicity of botanical formulations to nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2009-02-01

    The toxicity of eight botanically based biopesticides was evaluated against third instars of the scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Soil dip bioassays were used to obtain concentration-mortality data 7 d after treatment of larvae, leading to the calculation of LC50 and LC90 values. A wide range in LC50 and LC90 values were exhibited among the formulations. The product Armorex was one of the most active formulations against P. japonica (LC50 = 0.42 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.48 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 0.39 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 0.49 ml/liter). Armorex is composed of extracts from diverse botanical sources, including 84.5% sesame oil, 2.0% garlic oil, 2.0% clove oil, 1.0% rosemary oil, and 0.5% white pepper extracts. The product Azatin, composed of 3% azadirachtin, also exhibited high toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 1.13 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 0.81 ml/liter), and A. orientalis (LC50 = 1.87 ml/liter). Veggie Pharm is composed of extracts from diverse sources, but this product showed the lowest toxicity to P. japonica (LC50 = 35.19 ml/liter), R. majalis (LC50 = 62.10 ml/liter), A. orientalis (LC50 = 43.76 ml/liter), and C. borealis (LC50 = 50.24 ml/liter). These results document the potential for botanical formulations to control white grubs, but blending extracts from diverse botanical sources does not ensure enhanced biological activity. PMID:19253649

  9. Tropical Plant Extracts as Sources of Grain-Protectant Compounds Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L P; Vendramim, J D; Andrade, M S; Bicalho, K U; Silva, M F G F; Vieira, P C; Fernandes, J B

    2014-10-01

    The toxicity of organic plant extracts to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was assessed for three tropical plant species: branches, leaves, and seeds of Annona montana (Annonaceae), branches of Aristolochia paulistana (Aristolochiaceae), and leaves and branches of Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae). The screening assay resulted that the extracts of A. montana seeds obtained with hexane (LC50 = 534.75 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 6.10 days) and with dichloromethane (LC50 = 424.67 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 5.03 days) were the most promising treatments, followed by the extract prepared from A. montana leaves with hexane (LC50 = 837.70 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 4.90 days). Moreover, extracts (at 1,500 mg kg(-1)) prepared from C. sylvestris branches with dichloromethane and A. paulistana with hexane caused significant mortality (37% and 41.5%, respectively) beyond sublethal effects on S. zeamais. Therefore, based on the biological assays, extraction yield, and evaluation of the chromatographic profile of the crude extracts by TLC, the hexane extract of A. montana seeds was selected and fractioned using liquid-liquid partitioning. The hydroalcoholic fraction caused mortality of 55.5%, significantly superior to dichloromethane fraction, which caused 35.5% of mortality. Chemical analyses ((1)H NMR, HPLC, and TLC) were performed, and the results showed the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in both active fractions, which have been associated with bioactivity. Therefore, extracts prepared from A. montana seeds (especially) is an interesting source of new compounds with promising grain-protectant properties. PMID:27193958

  10. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings. PMID:18330118

  11. Population densities of corn flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and incidence of Stewart's wilt in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Cook, K A; Weinzierl, R A; Pataky, J K; Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2005-06-01

    To quantify populations of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and refine estimates of a threshold for its control to prevent Stewart's wilt caused by Erwinia stewartii, sequential plantings of 'Jubilee' sweet corn were made at 2-wk intervals from April or May through August or September 2001 and 2002 at four locations from southern to northern Illinois: Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota. Densities of C. pulicaria and incidence of Stewart's wilt were monitored weekly. At Mendota, where C. pulicaria populations were decimated by cold temperatures during winter 2000-2001, densities reached 33.3 beetles per 15-cm yellow sticky trap per day by September 2002, after a mild 2001-2002 winter. Maximum incidence of Stewart's wilt in single plots at Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota was 22, 36, 39, and 2%, respectively, in 2001, and 33, 47, 99, and 87%, respectively, in 2002. In 24 plots where beetle densities were < or =2 per trap per day, Stewart's wilt incidence was <5% in 20 plots. We propose that two corn flea beetles per trap per day be used as a threshold for insecticide application to seedlings to control C. pulicaria and minimize subsequent incidence of Stewart's wilt in processing sweet corn. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that E. stewartii incidence in C. pulicaria peaked at 67, 62, and 54%, respectively, at Simpson, Brownstown, and Champaign, in 2001, and at 71, 76, and 60%, respectively, in 2002. Further studies might allow the use of areawide or field-specific estimates of E. stewartii incidence in corn flea beetles for adjusting management decisions. PMID:16022292

  12. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Graham, Elizabeth E; Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid species by testing some known cerambycid attractants and a pheromone in different trap designs placed across a range of habitats. We compared numbers and species richness of cerambycid beetles captured with cross-vane panel traps and 12-unit Lindgren multiple-funnel traps, placed either at ground level (1.5 m high) or canopy level (approximately 3-10 m high), at eight sites classified as either residential, industrial, deciduous forest, or conifer forest. We captured 3,723 beetles representing 72 cerambycid species from 10 June to 15 July 2010. Species richness was highest for the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae, which accounted for 33 and 46% of all species captured, respectively. Overall, the cross-vane panel traps captured approximately 1.5 times more beetles than funnel traps. Twenty-one species were captured exclusively in traps at one height, either in the canopy or at ground level. More species were captured in hardwood sites (59 species) where a greater diversity of host material was available than in conifer (34 species), residential (41 species), or industrial (49) sites. Low numbers of beetles (n < 5) were recorded for 28 of the beetle species. The number of species captured per week ranged from 49 species on 21 June to 37 species on 12 July. Cross-vane panel traps installed across a vertical gradient should maximize the number of cerambycid species captured.

  13. Interactions between imidacloprid and Metarhizium brunneum on adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Russell, Calum W; Ugine, Todd A; Hajek, Ann E

    2010-11-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle species native to Asia, has been introduced into several North American and European cities. Currently eradication and preventive measures are limited to identifying and destroying infested trees and protecting uninfested trees with trunk or soil-injections of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid. Because entomopathogenic fungi like Metarhizium brunneum Petch have been identified as virulent against these beetles we conducted several tests to determine the compatibility of the two agents in combination. Radial hyphal growth and the sporulation capacity of M. brunneum on Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast were not significantly affected by the presence of imidacloprid. In a 2×3 factorial experiment investigating interactions between exposure to imidacloprid and M. brunneum we observed no effect of imidacloprid alone on beetle survival when beetles were given a single dose of 10 or 100 ppm compared to control insects. We observed a significant effect of exposure to M. brunneum, and a significant interaction between imidacloprid and M. brunneum representing a synergistic effect of dual treatment. Beetles exposed to the fungus alone lived significantly longer compared to insects treated with a single dose of 100 ppm imidacloprid (9.5 vs. 6.5d). Consumption of striped maple twigs by beetles exposed to imidacloprid, across concentrations, was reduced 48% compared to control insects, where as consumption by M. brunneum-exposed beetles was reduced by 16% over the first 6-days of the test period. Beetles fed 100 ppm imidacloprid consumed 32% less over the first 3d compared to beetles not exposed to imidacloprid and thereafter consumed as much as beetles not fed 100 ppm imidacloprid. M. brunneum-exposed beetles consumed significantly less food than control insects throughout the test period, and beetles treated with imidacloprid produced significantly fewer conidia compared to beetles

  14. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  15. Attack Pattern and Reproductive Ecology of Tomicus brevipilosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Pinus yunnanensis in Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Lu, Jun; Haack, Robert A.; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Tomicus brevipilosus (Eggers) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) was recently discovered as a new pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franchet) in Yunnan Province in southwestern China. However, little was known on its reproductive biology and pattern of trunk attack on Yunnan pine. The objectives of this study were to better understand the reproductive biology of T. brevipilosus by investigating the seasonality of trunk attacks by parent adults for the purpose of reproduction (i.e., breeding attacks) and the within-tree pattern of these attacks. Our results showed that T. brevipilosus breeding attacks in P. yunnanensis generally started in early March and ended in early June in Anning County, Yunnan. T. brevipilosus exhibited two general patterns of infestation. From early March to mid-April, T. brevipilosus bred preferentially in the trunks of Yunnan pine trees that were already infested by Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli and Tomicus minor (Hartig), colonizing spaces along the trunk (mostly in the mid- and lower trunk) that were not already occupied by the other two Tomicus species. Later, from about mid-April to early June, when there were no Yunnan pine trees newly infested by T. yunnanensis and T. minor, T. brevipilosus attacked Yunnan pine by itself, infesting the lower parts of the trunk first and then infesting progressively upward along the trunk into the crown. Infestation by T. brevipilosus extends the total period that P. yunnanensis trees are under attack by Tomicus beetles in southwestern China, which helps explain why Yunnan pine has suffered high levels of tree mortality in recent decades. PMID:25881631

  16. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process. PMID:27385755

  17. Predicting Developmental Timing for Immature Canada Thistle Stem-Mining Weevils, Hadroplontus litura (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Gramig, Greta G; Burns, Erin E; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A

    2015-08-01

    Predictions of phenological development for insect biological control agents may facilitate post-release monitoring efforts by allowing land managers to optimize the timing of monitoring activities. A logistic thermal time model was tested to predict phenology of immature stem-mining weevils, Hadroplontus litura F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent for Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense L. (Asterales: Asteraceae). Weevil eggs and larvae were collected weekly from Canada thistle stems in eastern North Dakota from May through July during 2010 and 2011. Head capsule widths of sampled larvae were measured at the widest point and plotted on a frequency histogram to establish ranges of head capsule widths associated with each instar. We found head capsule width ranges for first-, second-, and third-instar H. litura larvae were 165-324 µm, 346-490 µm, and 506-736 µm, respectively. Logistic regression models were developed to estimate the proportions of H. litura eggs, first-, and second-instar larvae in the weevil population as a function of thermal time. Model estimates of median development time for eggs, first instars, and second instars ranged from 219 ± 23 degree-days (DD) to 255 ± 27 DD, 556 ± 77 DD to 595 ± 81 DD, and 595 ± 109 DD to 653 ± 108 DD, respectively. Based on model validation statistics, model estimates for development timing were the most accurate for eggs and first instars and somewhat less accurate for second instars. These model predictions will help biological control practitioners obtain more accurate estimates of weevil population densities during post-release monitoring. PMID:26314053

  18. Bacteriome-Localized Intracellular Symbionts in Pollen-Feeding Beetles of the Genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae)

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Benjamin; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Several insect taxa are associated with intracellular symbionts that provision limiting nutrients to their hosts. Such tightly integrated symbioses are especially common in insects feeding on nutritionally challenging diets like phloem sap or vertebrate blood, but also occur in seed-eating and omnivorous taxa. Here, we characterize an intracellular symbiosis in pollen-feeding beetles of the genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae). High-throughput tag-encoded 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of adult D. plumbeus and D. virens revealed a single gamma-proteobacterial symbiont (‘Candidatus Dasytiphilus stammeri’) that amounts to 52.4–98.7% of the adult beetles’ entire microbial community. Almost complete 16S rRNA sequences phylogenetically placed the symbiont into a clade comprising Buchnera and other insect endosymbionts, but sequence similarities to these closest relatives were surprisingly low (83.4–87.4%). Using histological examination, three-dimensional reconstructions, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized the symbionts in three mulberry-shaped bacteriomes that are associated with the mid- to hind-gut transition in adult male and female beetles. Given the specialized pollen-feeding habits of the adults that contrasts with the larvae’s carnivorous lifestyle, the symbionts may provision limiting essential amino acids or vitamins as in other intracellular symbioses, or they might produce digestive enzymes that break up the fastidious pollen walls and thereby contribute to the host’s nutrition. In either case, the presence of gamma-proteobacterial symbionts in pollen-feeding beetles indicates that intracellular mutualists are more widely distributed across insects with diverse feeding habits than previously recognized. PMID:27713733

  19. The presence of a mycangium in European Sinodendron cylindricum (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) and the associated yeast symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, Masahiko; Hawes, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    Part of the exoskeleton of some wood-inhabiting insects is modified to form a mycangium, which is a specialized organ used to convey fungal spores or yeasts to their offspring. Although most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are known to have female-specific mycangia and associated yeast symbionts, the evolutionary origin of the mycangium in this group remains unresolved. Here, we report the presence of a mycangium and associated yeast symbionts in the European horned stag beetle Sinodendron cylindricum (L.), which belongs to an ancestral clade of the Lucanidae. The mycangium of S. cylindricum is shown to be female-specific and have the same developmental origin as that of other stag beetles. A total of five yeast strains were isolated from adult mycangia and larval gut of S. cylindricum. Of these, we suggest that SICYAM1 is an undescribed yeast with taxonomic novelty, and have identified SICYLG3 as the xylose-fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces insectosa using nuclear ribosomal RNA and ITS sequences. The remaining three yeast strains, SICYAM2, SICYLG1, and SICYLG2, were assigned to the genus Sugiyamaella. Yeast density in the adult mycangium was lower than that of the more evolutionarily advanced stag beetles, the European Lucanus cervus (L.) and Dorcus parallelipipedus (L.), which were also examined in this study. No living yeasts were isolated from the adult guts. However, a third instar larva of S. cylindricum harbored 104–106 living yeasts in each gut region, which suggests that gut yeasts play an important role in these wood-feeding larvae. PMID:27432353

  20. Applying imidacloprid via a precision banding system to control striped cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R

    2009-12-01

    The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.

  1. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Fossen, Erlend I; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular evidence

  2. Experimental studies and dynamics modeling analysis of the swimming and diving of whirligig beetles (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonghua; Lenaghan, Scott C; Reese, Benjamin E; Jia, Xinghua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    Whirligig beetles (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae) can fly through the air, swiftly swim on the surface of water, and quickly dive across the air-water interface. The propulsive efficiency of the species is believed to be one of the highest measured for a thrust generating apparatus within the animal kingdom. The goals of this research were to understand the distinctive biological mechanisms that allow the beetles to swim and dive, while searching for potential bio-inspired robotics applications. Through static and dynamic measurements obtained using a combination of microscopy and high-speed imaging, parameters associated with the morphology and beating kinematics of the whirligig beetle's legs in swimming and diving were obtained. Using data obtained from these experiments, dynamics models of both swimming and diving were developed. Through analysis of simulations conducted using these models it was possible to determine several key principles associated with the swimming and diving processes. First, we determined that curved swimming trajectories were more energy efficient than linear trajectories, which explains why they are more often observed in nature. Second, we concluded that the hind legs were able to propel the beetle farther than the middle legs, and also that the hind legs were able to generate a larger angular velocity than the middle legs. However, analysis of circular swimming trajectories showed that the middle legs were important in maintaining stable trajectories, and thus were necessary for steering. Finally, we discovered that in order for the beetle to transition from swimming to diving, the legs must change the plane in which they beat, which provides the force required to alter the tilt angle of the body necessary to break the surface tension of water. We have further examined how the principles learned from this study may be applied to the design of bio-inspired swimming/diving robots.

  3. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) life stages to flameless catalytic infrared radiation.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Moses; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Flinn, Paul W; Dogan, Hulya; Gwirtz, Jeffrey A

    2011-02-01

    The susceptibility of various life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), a pest of stored wheat, Triticum aestivum L., to flameless catalytic infrared radiation in the 3-7-microm range was evaluated in the laboratory. Immature stages were collected from flour infested with T. castaneum adults only for 1 d. Stages collected after 1 d represented eggs (collected on day 0); those collected after 7, 14, and 21 d from day 0 represented larvae in different developmental stages, whereas those collected after 24 d represented pupae. Adults (2 wk old) were collected after 42 d. Each of these stages was exposed for 45 or 60 s in 113.5 or 227.0 g of wheat at a distance of 8.0 or 12.7 cm from a bench top infrared emitter. The mean temperatures attained during exposures were measured continuously using a noncontact infrared thermometer connected to a computer. The mean grain temperatures attained increased with an increase in exposure time and were inversely related to distance from the emitter. Grain quantity least influenced mean temperatures attained. Pupae were the least susceptible stage and larvae collected after 7 d were the most susceptible stage. Variation in probability of death of various life stages decreased with an increase in mean grain temperatures attained. All life stages were killed after a 60-s exposure at a distance of 8.0 cm from the emitter in 113.5 g of wheat, where the mean +/- SE temperatures attained ranged from 107.6 +/- 1.2 to 111.4 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Our laboratory results using small grain quantities and short exposure times showed that flameless catalytic infrared radiation can be a valuable tool for managing insects in stored organic and nonorganic wheat.

  4. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    PubMed

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process.

  5. Exploring the Leaf Beetle Fauna (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of an Ecuadorian Mountain Forest Using DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Thormann, Birthe; Ahrens, Dirk; Marín Armijos, Diego; Peters, Marcell K.; Wagner, Thomas; Wägele, Johann W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic) species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) (n = 284–289). Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2) and 469–481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m) had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation. Conclusions/Significance Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons), the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities

  6. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium.

  7. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) Reproduction in Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    PubMed

    Meikle, William G; Holst, Niels; Cook, Steven C; Patt, Joseph M

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine how several key factors affect population growth of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae). Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine effects of food quantity and temperature on reproduction of cohorts of young A. tumida adults (1:1 sex ratio) housed in experimental arenas. Daily numbers and total mass of larvae exiting arenas were highly variable within treatment. Either one or two cohorts of larvae were observed exiting the arenas. Food quantity, either 10 g or 20 g, did not significantly affect the number of larvae exiting arenas at 32°C, but did at 28°C; arenas provided 20 g food produced significantly more larvae than arenas provided 10 g. Temperature did not affect the total mass of larvae provided 10 g food, but did affect larval mass provided 20 g; beetles kept at 28°C produced more larval mass than at 32°C. Field experiments were conducted to examine A. tumida reproductive success in full strength bee colonies. Beetles were introduced into hives as egg-infested frames and as adults, and some bee colonies were artificially weakened through removal of sealed brood. Efforts were unsuccessful; no larvae were observed exiting from, or during the inspection of, any hives. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. The variability observed in A. tumida reproduction even in controlled laboratory conditions and the difficulty in causing beetle infestations in field experiments involving full colonies suggest that accurately forecasting the A. tumida severity in such colonies will be difficult.

  8. Efficacy of natural products against Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Homan; Kafle, Lekhnath; Gc, Yubak Dhoj; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of local natural products against the beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), in stored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. (Fabaceae) in Chitwan, Nepal. Five natural products and one synthetic pesticide (Malathion) and two storage regimes (aluminum sheet bin vs. jute bags with plastic lining) were tested for their effect on stored pulse with respect to damage by C. chinensis. The five natural products included Xanthoylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) fruit powder, Acorus calamus L. (Araceae) rhizome powder, Cinnamom camphora L. (Lauraceae) balls, oil of Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), and leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Treatments of stored pulses with natural products or with Malathion all caused significantly higher mortality of C. chinensis at 15 d after treatment (DAT) than stored pulses receiving no treatments. The balls of C. camphora, rhizome powder of A. calamus and sesame oil outperformed all other treatments, including the Malathion at 45 and 75 DAT and resulted in significantly reduced damage or deterioration of stored pulses compared with other treatments. Storage regimes performed similarly, although the jute bags did protect seed integrity for some treatments. Our results indicate that incorporating these natural products into stored pulses can protect the seeds from C. chinensis for up to two generations, something that Malathion cannot do. These products are readily available to most farmers in the region and their use will lead to 1) reduction of losses to significant stored product pests, and 2) a reduction of contamination of foodstuffs and the environment by synthetic pesticides like Malathion. PMID:22812152

  9. Flight behaviour and dispersal of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) adults using mark-release-recapture method.

    PubMed

    Ávalos, J A; Balasch, S; Soto, A

    2016-10-01

    The flight ability and patterns of an insect influence its spread, and the study of its behaviour can be used to improve the strategies to control the pest. Regarding Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), one of the worst threats to palm trees worldwide, laboratory experiments have been conducted to analyze their flight potential. However, these data must be complemented with tests that allow us to know its flight behaviour and dispersal patterns under field conditions. Two mark-release-recapture experiments were conducted in areas with R. ferrugineus infestations. In the first, the effects of weevil sex, temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity, on the take-off and flight mobility of adults were analyzed. The second experiment aimed to determine the maximum flight distance covered by adults in field. The take-off rate for R. ferrugineus males was significantly greater than for females, and was positively influenced by temperature (optimum take-off around 25°C) and solar radiation, both factors being highly correlated. Female weevil recaptures were significantly higher, especially as temperatures increased (optimum recapture around 21°C). Dispersal distances of weevil adults increased when temperatures rose, and while this insect tended to fly short distances (<500 m), it was able to cover up to 7 km. The dispersal of R. ferrugineus adults mainly occurred during the first 7 days after their release, and when relative humidity increased, their dispersal time was reduced. The results obtained will permit a more effective implementation of certain measures used to control R. ferrugineus, such as olfactory trapping or intensive surveillance around pest outbreaks. PMID:27215794

  10. Cryptic gametic interactions confer both conspecific and heterospecific advantages in the Chrysochus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Merrill A; Larson, Erica L; Brassil, Margaret; Buckingham, Kati J; Juárez, Danielle; Deas, Joseph; Mangloña, Donna; White, Michael A; Maslan, Jonathan; Schweitzer, Andrew; Monsen, Kirsten J

    2011-05-01

    Most species pairs are isolated through the collective action of a suite of barriers. Recent work has shown that cryptic barriers such as conspecific sperm precedence can be quite strong, suggesting that they evolve quickly. However, because the strength of multiple barriers has been formally quantified in very few systems, the relative speed with which conspecific sperm precedence evolves remains unclear. Here, we measure the strength of both conspecific sperm precedence and cryptic non-competitive isolation between the hybridizing sister species, Chrysochus auratus and C. cobaltinus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and compare the strength of those barriers to the strength of other known reproductive barriers in this system. Overall, cryptic barriers in this system are weaker than other barriers, indicating that they have not evolved rapidly. Furthermore, their evolution has been asymmetric. Non-competitive barriers substantially reduce the production of hybrid offspring by C. auratus females but not by C. cobaltinus females. In multiply-mated C. cobaltinus females, heterospecific sperm outcompete conspecific sperm, as evidenced by the fact that heterospecific males sired disproportionately more offspring than predicted from the results for singly-mated females. In C. auratus females, neither sperm type has a competitive advantage. Such asymmetries explain why nearly all F1 hybrids in the field are from crosses between C. cobaltinus females and C. auratus males. We discuss these findings in terms of understanding the cost of mating 'mistakes' in the Chrysochus hybrid zone. In addition, our discovery that 95% confidence intervals for commonly-used isolation statistics can be very wide has important implications for speciation research. Specifically, to avoid biases in the interpretation of such isolation metrics, we suggest that studies should routinely include error estimates in their analyses of reproductive isolation.

  11. Endophyte isolate and host grass effects on Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feeding.

    PubMed

    Ball, Olivier J P; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Pless, Charles D; Popay, Alison J

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Neotyphodium, confer resistance to infected host grasses against insect pests. The effect of host species, and endophtye species and strain, on feeding and survival of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was investigated. The grass-endophyte associations included natural and artificially derived associations producing varying arrays of common endophyte-related alkaloids or alkaloid groups, peramine, lolitrem B, ergovaline, and the lolines. Preference and nonpreference tests showed that C. pulicaria feeding and survival were reduced by infection of tall fescue with the wild-type strain of N. coenophialum, the likely mechanism being antixenosis rather than antibiosis. In the preference tests, endophyte and host species effects were observed. Of the 10 different Neotyphodium strains tested in artificially derived tall fescue associations, eight strongly deterred feeding by C. pulicaria, whereas the remaining two strains had little or no effect on feeding. Infection of tall fescue with another fungal symbiont, p-endophyte, had no effect. Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., infected with six strains of endophyte, was moderately resistant to C. pulicaria compared with endophyte-free grass, but four additional strains were relatively inactive. Six Neotyphodium-meadow fescue, Festuca pratensis Huds., associations, including the wild-type N. uncinatum-meadow fescue combination, were resistant, whereas three associations were not effective. Loline alkaloids seemed to play a role in antixenosis to C. pulicaria. Effects not attributable to the lolines or any other of the alkaloids examined also were observed. This phenomenon also has been reported in tests with other insects, and indicates the presence of additional insect-active factors.

  12. Flight behaviour and dispersal of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) adults using mark-release-recapture method.

    PubMed

    Ávalos, J A; Balasch, S; Soto, A

    2016-10-01

    The flight ability and patterns of an insect influence its spread, and the study of its behaviour can be used to improve the strategies to control the pest. Regarding Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), one of the worst threats to palm trees worldwide, laboratory experiments have been conducted to analyze their flight potential. However, these data must be complemented with tests that allow us to know its flight behaviour and dispersal patterns under field conditions. Two mark-release-recapture experiments were conducted in areas with R. ferrugineus infestations. In the first, the effects of weevil sex, temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity, on the take-off and flight mobility of adults were analyzed. The second experiment aimed to determine the maximum flight distance covered by adults in field. The take-off rate for R. ferrugineus males was significantly greater than for females, and was positively influenced by temperature (optimum take-off around 25°C) and solar radiation, both factors being highly correlated. Female weevil recaptures were significantly higher, especially as temperatures increased (optimum recapture around 21°C). Dispersal distances of weevil adults increased when temperatures rose, and while this insect tended to fly short distances (<500 m), it was able to cover up to 7 km. The dispersal of R. ferrugineus adults mainly occurred during the first 7 days after their release, and when relative humidity increased, their dispersal time was reduced. The results obtained will permit a more effective implementation of certain measures used to control R. ferrugineus, such as olfactory trapping or intensive surveillance around pest outbreaks.

  13. Global Transcriptome Profiling of the Pine Shoot Beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Zhao, Ning; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Background The pine shoot beetle Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) is an economically important pest of Pinus yunnanensis in southwestern China. Developed resistance to insecticides due to chemical pesticides being used for a long time is a factor involved in its serious damage, which poses a challenge for management. In addition, highly efficient adaptation to divergent environmental ecologies results in this pest posing great potential threat to pine forests. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown as only limited nucleotide sequence data for this species is available. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we applied next generation sequencing (Illumina sequencing) to sequence the adult transcriptome of T. yunnanensis. A total of 51,822,230 reads were obtained. They were assembled into 140,702 scaffolds, and 60,031 unigenes. The unigenes were further functionally annotated with gene descriptions, Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG). In total, 80,932 unigenes were classified into GO, 13,599 unigenes were assigned to COG, and 33,875 unigenes were found in KO categories. A biochemical pathway database containing 219 predicted pathways was also created based on the annotations. In depth analysis of the data revealed a large number of genes related to insecticides resistance and heat shock protein genes associated with environmental stress. Conclusions/Significance The results facilitate the investigations of molecular resistance mechanisms to insecticides and environmental stress. This study lays the foundation for future functional genomics studies of important biological questions of this pest. PMID:22384206

  14. Bioactivity of Six Plant Extracts on Adults of Demotispa neivai (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Luis C.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José E.

    2015-01-01

    Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations. PMID:25843587

  15. Emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) attraction to stressed or baited ash trees.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Cappaert, David

    2009-12-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus sp.) trees in North America since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. Efficient methods to detect low-density A. planipennis populations remain a critical priority for regulatory and resource management agencies. We compared the density of adult A. planipennis captured on sticky bands and larval density among ash trees that were girdled for 1 or 2 yr, wounded, exposed to the stress-elicitor methyl jasmonate, baited with Manuka oil lures, or left untreated. Studies were conducted at four sites in 2006 and 2007, where A. planipennis densities on untreated trees ranged from very low to moderate. In 2006, 1-yr girdled trees captured significantly more adult A. planipennis and had higher larval densities than untreated control trees or trees treated with methyl jasmonate or Manuka oil. Open-grown trees captured significantly more A. planipennis beetles than partially or fully shaded trees. In 2007, A. planipennis population levels and captures of adult A. planipennis were substantially higher than in 2006. The density of adults captured on sticky bands did not differ significantly among canopy exposure classes or treatments in 2007. Larval density was significantly higher in untreated, wounded, and 1-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2007) than in 2-yr girdled trees (girdled in 2006), where most phloem was consumed by A. planipennis larvae the previous year. A total of 36 trees (32 in 2006, 4 in 2007) caught no beetles, but 16 of those trees (13 in 2006, 3 in 2007) had A. planipennis larvae. In 2006, there was a positive linear relationship between the density of adults captured on sticky bands and larval density in trees. Our results show that freshly girdled and open grown trees were most attractive to A. planipennis, especially at low-density sites. If girdled trees are used for A. planipennis detection or survey, debarking trees to locate larval galleries is

  16. Sulfuryl fluoride as a quarantine treatment for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    PubMed

    Barak, Alan V; Messenger, Matthew; Neese, Paul; Thoms, Ellen; Fraser, Ivich

    2010-06-01

    Fraxinus spp. logs infested with Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were fumigated with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) in 432-liter chambers at 15.6 and 21.1 degrees C for 24 and 48 h. Concentration x time (CxT) exposures (g-h/m3) of SF obtained were 3,382 (24-h exposure) and 5,466 (48-h exposure) at 15.6 degrees C and 3,329 (24 h) and 4,385 (48-h exposure) at 21.1 degrees C after doses of 144, 128, 128, and 104 g/m3, respectively. After aeration, logs were placed in modified fiber drums for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 933 adults emerged from control logs. Eggs were fumigated at CxT exposures similar to log fumigations (3,240 and 4,262 g-h/m3, respectively) and again at doses 16 g/m3 lower, at 21.1 degrees C for 24 and 48 h. No hatch was observed at CxT dosages > 4,262 g-h/m3. No larvae continued development on artificial diet after hatching from eggs fumigated at all tested dosages, whereas 10 control larvae developed to instar I or II. Chamber fumigations with 31 and 46% load factors provided additional sorption and concentration data. A. planipennis-infested logs in tarped, 149.1-m3 cargo containers were fumigated at dosages used in successful trials. Logs were monitored for 8 wk for adult emergence. There was no adult emergence, but 621 adults emerged from a similar quantity of control logs. CxT dosages of SF for 100% control of A. planipennis at 15.6 and 21.1 degrees C for 24- and 48-h exposure can be obtained under commercial fumigation conditions. A quarantine treatment schedule for SF is proposed.

  17. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    PubMed

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-02-01

    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations.

  18. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  19. Influence of trap color and host volatiles on capture of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2012-04-01

    Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 2009, six bark oil distillate lure treatments were tested against manuka oil lures (used in 2008 by USDA APHIS PPQ emerald ash borer cooperative program). Purple traps baited with 80/20 (manuka/phoebe oil) significantly increased beetle catch compared with traps baited with manuka oil alone. In 2010 we monitored emerald ash borer attraction to dark green traps baited with six lure combinations of 80/20 (manuka/phoebe), manuka oil, and (3Z)-hexenol. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol caught significantly more male and total count insects than traps baited with manuka oil alone. Traps baited with manuka oil and (3Z)-hexenol did not catch more beetles when compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. When compared with unbaited green traps our results show that (3Z)-hexenol improved male catch significantly in only one of three field experiments using dark green traps. Dark green traps caught a high number of A. planipennis when unbaited while (3Z)-hexenol was seen to have a minimal (nonsignificant) trap catch effect at several different release rates. We hypothesize that the previously reported kairomonal attractancy of (3Z)-hexenol (for males) on light green traps is not as obvious here because of improved male attractancy to the darker green trap.

  20. Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

    2007-10-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest.